SBIR Phase I Solicitation  Abstract Archives

NASA 2017 SBIR Phase I Solicitation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T1.01-9850
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Affordable Nano/Micro Launch Propulsion Stages
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Cost Intermediate Stage for Affordable Nano/Micro Launch

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TGV Rockets, Inc.
2519 Benning Road Northeast
Washington, DC
20002-4805
(240) 462-8848

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University Tennessee- Knoxville
1534 White Avenue
Knoxville, TN
37996-1529
(865) 974-3466

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Earl Renaud
renaud@tgv-rockets.com
2519 Benning Rd NE
washington,  DC 20002-4815
(613) 618-3940

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is extremely interested in developing small space launch capability. Small launchers are more sensitive to dry mass growth, more so then larger vehicles. Three stage launchers tend to be much more insensitive to Dry mass growth. The challenge then becomes how to meet strict cost targets when additional parts count increases. Use of Propane derived fuel helps reduce cost by allowing common bulkhead tanks w/o insulation. TGV proposes a DARPA funded Electrocycle Boost stage, and a NASA funded pressure fed Micro stage. upgrade NASA STTR funded nano-stage with 3,000 class pressure fed second stage ProPoly 50 engine. Goal: Provide flexible architecture to ensure success of TGV's 15,000 lb class first stage and 500 lbs class upper stage. Design and build engine in phase I. No avionics, strictly middle stage. Could be used for suborbital testing of small upper stages. Phase II: Test engine, build stage, fly.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
small sat launch capacity

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Small sat launch capacity.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T1.01-9882
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Affordable Nano/Micro Launch Propulsion Stages
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Cost Launch Propulsion Stage and Deployment Bus for Smallsats

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Systima Technologies, Inc.
10809 120th Avenue Northeast
Kirkland, WA
98033-5024
(425) 487-4020

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Washington
Guggenheim Hall, Box 352400
Seattle, WA
98195-2400
(206) 543-7159

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Fiebig
mark.fiebig@systima.com
10809 120th Avenue Northeast
Kirkland,  WA 98033-5024
(425) 487-4020

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Systima Technologies is teaming with the University of Washington to design, manufacture, and test a first-stage propulsion booster system and a picosatellite orbital deployer capable of mitigating hazards associated with propulsion-capable CubeSats. The total launch system seeks to deliver pico-satellites and/or smallsat 5-50 kg payloads into LEO, including an innovative hazard-mitigation picosatellite orbital deployer (SAF-POD) developed by Systima. This technology has the potential of increasing first-stage thrust, specific impulse, and total impulse during the initial boost phase of ascent. Phase I will include system analyses and trades to scope a feasible SAF-POD design that has the hazard containment necessary to allow for launches of propulsion-capable CubeSats as secondary payloads. As picosatellites develop greater capabilities the need to include propulsion systems grows, but there is currently no approved method for delivering hazardous CubeSats into orbit as secondary payloads per NASA safety requirements. The SAF-POD technology will be developed to operate as a light-weight CubeSat deployer that protects primary payloads from CubeSat hazards.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
With potential to increase the first-stage thrust, specific impulse, and total impulse, the proposed technology for smallsat launches will have broad applicability to many future military and commercial space applications. The military has a strong interest in CubeSat technologies for applications that improve battlefield communications, space weather monitoring to mitigate blackouts, and Position, Navigation, and Timing (PNT). Additionally, the DoD is very interested in quick-turn "Operationally Responsive" space applications, which would benefit from the versatility provided by the improved first-stage propulsion and hazard-mitigation CubeSat SAF-POD deployer proposed for this project. Commercial space launches of smallsats have been on the rise in recent years, with launch services being provided by entities such as Spaceflight Services, ISL, and GAUSS. These companies are in a prime position to benefit from the launch and deployment technologies being developed in this program.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
With potential to increase the first-stage thrust, specific impulse, and total impulse, this technology will have broad applicability to many future NASA applications. NASA is heavily invested in the budding smallsat field, which gives a great number of small businesses, universities, and research organizations affordable access to space. Improved propulsion stages are critical to allow for launch of more smallsats, more often, and for a lower cost. NASA seeks to use the launch of small satellites targeted in this proposal for myriad applications including rendezvous and docking, in-space assembly CubeSats, critical inspections of primary assets (space telescopes, ISS, re-entry spacecraft, etc.), interplanetary missions, and formation flying. Most of these applications require in-space propulsion that is enabled through the proposed hazard mitigation picosatellite deployer SAF-POD. Upon qualification, the SAF-POD can be included on any CubeSat deployment mission, drastically increasing the launch options of CubeSats with propulsion stages or other hazardous features. Presently, most CubeSats are limited to LEO with no capability for orbit maintenance, collision avoidance maneuvers, or de-orbit disposal maneuvers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Deployment
Launch Engine/Booster


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T1.01-9889
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Affordable Nano/Micro Launch Propulsion Stages
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Density Hybrid Motors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Terves Inc.
24112 Rockwell Drive, Suite C
Euclid, OH
44117-1252
(216) 404-0053

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pennsylvania State University
137 Research Building East
University Park, PA
16802-2320
(814) 863-2264

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrew Sherman
ajsherman@powdermetinc.com
24112 Rockwell Drive, Suite C
Euclid,  OH 44117-1252
(216) 404-0053

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Phase I STTR project will develop an ignition system for a high density hybrid rocket motor using non-toxic, storable, ionic liquid oxidizers and high density polymer fuels. The program will also research fuel additives to boost ISP and fuel regression rate of the high density, high regression ate fuel.. This high density propulsion system resolves one of the chief drawbacks of hybrid rockets, the poor volumetric efficiency, by matching the volumetric performance of solid propellants. This STTR program will develop a non pyrotechnic electrocatalytic ignition system for the ionic liquid oxidizers that may also enable multistart operation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful development of a compact, green hybrid motor can reduce costs and logistics challenges for commercial space access, as well as for insensitive/inherently safe propulsion systems for national defense missile systems. A hybrid with the volumetric performance of a solid propellant, and the control and throttleability of a liquid system resolves numerous cost and performance issues in rocket propulsion systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This program is designed for insertion into the nanolaunch1200 luancher program, consistent with program plans for small business and university technology infusion. Hybrid rocket motors with non-toxic, storable oxidizers offer the potential for dramatic cost reduction for launch and upper stage propulsion compared to solid rocket motor and cryogenic or other bipropellant systems. For upper stage precision systems, the throttling capability enables a standard system to be deployed for greatly reduced cost. BThe green propellant system is storable and handleable without bunny suits or special precautions, such that upper stages can be preloaded and shipped using commercial transport, eliminating a significant amount of the propellant handling costs and precautions. The reduced size of the high density hybrid allows hybrid motors to be efficiently packaged, and reduce parasitic mass and cost, increasing propellant mass fraction. This program specifically uses the black brandt X nanosat launcher PSRM-30 and PSRM-120 stages as reference stages.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fluids
Polymers
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T1.01-9985
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Affordable Nano/Micro Launch Propulsion Stages
PROPOSAL TITLE: Bantam Rocket Affordable SLV Stage (BRASS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Exquadrum, Inc.
12130 Rancho Road
Adelanto, CA
92301-2703
(760) 246-0279

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Arizona at Tucson
P.O. Box 210072
Tucson,, AZ
85721-0072
(520) 621-4422

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Marlow Moser
marlow.moser@exquadrum.com
12130 Rancho Road
Adelanto,  CA 92301-2703
(760) 530-7949

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
During the proposed Phase I research and development effort, the project team will integrate previously demonstrated technologies into a stage 4 propulsion system for an existing Small Launch Vehicle (SLV). The resulting fourth stage will meet launch vehicle requirements for Mass Fraction and Specific Impulse. Key stage component will be fabricated and demonstrated. The propulsion system will be evaluated in a hot-fire test series. The proposed project team will develop a plan for a potential follow-on Phase II flight demonstration program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Upper stage propulsion systems for Small/Nano/Micro Launch Vehicles. Satellite propulsion systems. Ballistic missile Post-Boost Propulsion Systems. Tactical missiles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Upper stage propulsion systems for Small/Nano/Micro Launch Vehicles. Satellite propulsion systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T1.02-9877
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detailed Multiphysics Propulsion Modeling & Simulation Through Coordinated Massively Parallel Frameworks
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Massively Parallel Framework for Low-Dissipation, Multiphysics Simulations of Rocket Engines

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CASCADE Technologies, Inc.
2445 Faber Place, Suite 100
Palo Alto, CA
94303-3346
(650) 521-0243

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stanford University
3160 Porter Drive, Suite 100
Stanford, CA
94304-1222
(650) 736-7736

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lee Shunn
shunn@cascadetechnologies.com
2445 Faber Place, Suite 100
Palo Alto,  CA 94303-3346
(650) 521-0243

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this proposal, researchers from Cascade Technologies and Stanford University outline a multi-year research plan to develop large-eddy simulation (LES) tools to predict and understand combustion instabilities in liquid-propellant rocket engines. Rocket instabilities are a notoriously complicated, multiscale problem involving nonlinear interactions between transcritical multiphase flows, turbulent mixing, combustion heat release, and acoustics. Each of these technical areas will be addressed to some extent during the course of the project. Central points of the Phase 1 plan include: adding real-fluid extensions to the open-source chemistry package Cantera, running CFD validation cases at rocket-relevant conditions, assessing the impact of low-dissipation numerical schemes on liquid sprays, and developing a unified multiphase formulation to span subcritical and supercritical conditions. These activities will set the stage for additional model developments and applied rocket simulations in Phase 2. Conclusions from the Phase 1 studies will help prioritize and plan the specific research areas to be addressed during Phase 2.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
- Reduce design costs and speed innovation in commercial rockets - Improve efficiency and emissions in commercial aviation engines - Optimize fuel injection and emissions in diesel and IC engines - Increase fuel efficiency and system stability in supercritical power cycles - Surfactant and bubbly flows in environmental and biological applications

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
- Pre-test prediction of combustion instabilities in rocket engines - Improve numerical methods for multiphase simulations - Improve modeling approaches for trans/supercritical flows - Advance scalability and improve HPC workflows for massively-parallel simulation tools

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Launch Engine/Booster
Simulation & Modeling
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T1.02-9942
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detailed Multiphysics Propulsion Modeling & Simulation Through Coordinated Massively Parallel Frameworks
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Performance Simulation Tool for Multiphysics Propulsion Using Fidelity-Adaptive Combustion Modeling

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Streamline Numerics, Inc.
3221 North West 13th Street, Suite A
Gainesville, FL
32609-2189
(352) 271-8841

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stanford University
3160 Porter Drive, Suite 100
Palo Alto, CA
94304-8445
(650) 725-5966

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Siddharth Thakur
st@snumerics.com
3221 North West 13th Street, Suite A
Gainesville,  FL 32609-2189
(352) 271-8841

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovation proposed here is a fidelity-adaptive combustion model (FAM) implemented into the Loci-STREAM CFD code for use at NASA for simulation of rocket combustion. This work will result in a high-fidelity, high-performance multiphysics simulation capability to enhance NASA's current simulation capability of unsteady turbulent reacting flows involving cryogenic propellants. This novel FAM model utilizes a combustion submodel assignment, combining flamelet-based combustion models (such as inert-mixing models, equilibrium chemistry, diffusion-flame Flamelet/Progress Variable (FPV) or premixed-flame models) for the computationally efficient characterization of quasi one-dimensional, steady, and equilibrated combustion regimes, with combustion models of higher physical fidelity (such as thickened flame models, reduced/lumped chemistry models) for accurate representation of topologically complex combustion regions (associated with flame-anchoring, autoignition, flame-liftoff, thermoacoustic coupling, and non-equilibrium combustion processes) that are not adequately represented by the current flamelet model in Loci-STREAM. In FAM, the selection of a combustion submodel from a set of models available to a CFD-combustion solver is based on user-specific information about quantities of interest and a local error control. With this information, FAM performs an identification procedure for an optimal combustion submodel assignment from the available combustion models that. This simulation capability will have direct impact on NASA's ability to assess combustion instability of rocket engines.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The computational tool resulting from this project will have wide-ranging commercial applications. The Hybrid RANS-LES methodology can be used for a wide variety of engineering applications involving unsteady turbulent flows. The reacting flow capability can be used for simulating combusting flows in various industrial applications, such as gas turbine engines, diesel engines, etc. The real-fluids methodology can be used in a large number of industrial flow situations involving both chemically inert and reacting flows. With additions of multi-phase spray combustion modeling capability, the applicability of this tool can be further broadened.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The outcome of this work will be a powerful CFD-based design and analysis tool for propulsion engines of relevance to NASA. This tool is envisioned to be useful for full rocket engine simulations, injector design, etc. Specific applications at NASA of this capability include: (a) High-fidelity simulations of upper stage propulsion systems, (b) The multi-element injector problem coupled with fuel and oxidizer feedlines and manifolds, (c) Design improvements for J-2X and RS-68 injectors to be used in the SLS, (d) Design improvements for the LOX/LH2, LOX/LCH4 and LOX/RP-1 engines, and (e) full rocket engine simulations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Launch Engine/Booster
Spacecraft Main Engine
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T1.02-9953
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detailed Multiphysics Propulsion Modeling & Simulation Through Coordinated Massively Parallel Frameworks
PROPOSAL TITLE: Transient Acoustic Environment Prediction Tool for Launch Vehicles in Motion during Early Lift-Off

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
701 McMillian Way Northwest, Suite D
Huntsville, AL
35806-2923
(256) 726-4800

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mississippi State University
133 Etheredge Hall, 449 Hardy Road
Mississippi State, MS
39762-9662
(662) 325-7404

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Harris
robert.harris@cfdrc.com
701 McMillian Way, Suite D
Huntsville,  AL 35806-2923
(256) 726-4800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Launch vehicles experience extreme acoustic loads dominated by rocket exhaust plume interactions with ground structures during lift-off, which can produce damaging vibro-acoustic loads on the vehicle and payloads if not properly understood and mitigated against. Existing capabilities for modeling the turbulent plume physics during early lift-off are too dissipative to accurately resolve the propagation of acoustic waves throughout the launch environment. Higher fidelity non-dissipative analysis tools are critically needed to design mitigation measures (such as water deluge) and launch pad geometry for current and future launch vehicles. This project will build upon existing capabilities to develop and deliver breakthrough technologies to drastically improve predictions of transient acoustic loading for launch vehicles in motion during early lift-off. Innovative hybrid CFD/CAA techniques based on RANS/LES modeling for acoustic generation physics and an unstructured discontinuous Galerkin method will be employed to model long distance acoustic wave propagation along with vehicle motion using ideally-suited high-order accurate schemes. This new paradigm enables: (1) Greatly reduced dissipation and dispersion; (2) Improved modeling of acoustic interactions with complex geometry; and (3) Automatic identification of transient acoustic environment including vehicle motion. Merits of this approach will be investigated and demonstrated during Phase I. In Phase II, the methodology will be refined and validated against realistic targeted applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed innovation offers significant advantages over aeroacoustic prediction tools currently available in industry. The hybrid RANS/LES and high-order DG modeling will provide a unique combination of robust multi-physics modeling and high-fidelity acoustic propagation physics. The proposed approach will offer a great technology advantage through its improved accuracy for acoustic propagation and its integration within a single massively parallel unified production framework (Loci). The toolset will be invaluable to current and future commercial launch service providers such as United Launch Alliance, Boeing, Space-X, Orbital ATK, and payload system and sensitive instrument developers, particularly for one-of-a-kind DoD, NRO, and NOAA satellites. At the end of this SBIR, this technology will be readily available for analysis of micro-jet and active/passive control systems, conventional and STOVL aircraft jet acoustics, airframe and landing noise, and rotorcraft acoustic loading.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology developed under this project will contribute to technology areas identified in multiple NASA Space Technology Area Roadmaps, notably, TA01 Launch Propulsion Systems, and TA13 Ground and Launch Systems Processing. This hybrid CFD/CAA tool will uniquely fill the technology gap at NASA centers in defining lift-off environments for on-going and new launch vehicle designs, and for the analysis of noise suppression techniques. The developed tool will provide greater confidence to NASA acoustics engineers offering accurate, quantitative acoustic loading predictions from first principle CFD/CAA simulations for specific launch vehicle configurations. The tool will also be invaluable to payload system and instrument developers, particularly for one-of-a-kind and experimental optics and telescope systems that are susceptible to acoustic effects during liftoff.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Launch Engine/Booster
Simulation & Modeling
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T1.02-9954
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detailed Multiphysics Propulsion Modeling & Simulation Through Coordinated Massively Parallel Frameworks
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multiphase Modeling of Solid Rocket Motor Internal Environment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
701 McMillian Way Northwest, Suite D
Huntsville, AL
35806-2923
(256) 726-4800

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mississippi State University
133 Etheredge Hall, 449 Hardy Road
Mississippi State, MS
39762-9662
(662) 325-7404

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Manuel Gale
manuel.gale@cfdrc.com
701 McMillian Way Northwest, Suite D
Huntsville,  AL 35806-2923
(256) 726-4800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Solid rocket motor (SRM) design requires thorough understanding of the slag accumulation process in order to: predict thrust continuity, optimize propellant conversion efficiency, predict coning effects from sloshing, and assess potential orbital debris (slag) hazard. Current state-of-the-art models for SRM environment do not have the capability to simulate the accumulation and dynamics of slag in SRMs as they rely on a Lagrangian particle approach that is only capable of predicting the location of accumulation. In this STTR effort, CFDRC will team up with Mississippi State University and Tetra Research to develop models for quantifying the effects of slag accumulation and dynamics on SRM performance. To enhance current slag modeling capabilities, an Eulerian-Lagrangian approach to accurately model a slag-phase is proposed, in which Lagrangian particles can be converted to an Eulerian description and vice-versa. The Phase I project aims at developing the basic numerical model for the transport and accumulation of a slag-phase in Loci/CHEM. The multiphase framework, comprising of gas-phase, a dense slag-phase, and Lagrangian particles representing aluminum and alumina, will be developed and demonstrated in the Phase I effort with a TRL starting at 2 and ending at 3. In Phase II, the models will be extended and validated to provide an accurate numerical approach for slag dynamics that incorporates many of the physical phenomena present during SRM operation, including the transfer from Eulerian to Lagrangian description of slag at burnout, increasing the technology readiness level by the end of a Phase II project from 3 to 5.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Companies such as Aerojet-Rocketdyne and Lockheed Martin can benefit from the advanced SRM modeling capabilities in the same way NASA can. The potential of understanding slag accumulation/dynamics in SRM can aid in designing high performance-cost ratio systems. In addition, the proposed slag model will have the capability to account for slag after SRM burnout, time at which slag poses as a potential hazard. This is of particular interest to the Missile Defense Agency (MDA). The transport of slag during operation of the SRM and after burnout are of critical importance to MDA to understand the radiation signature of the plume at burnout. The developed tools will be directly apply to these applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed physics-based multiphase model for the SRM environment will find a multitude of applications at NASA and for DoD and industry customers. The applications include: (1) Accurate modeling of slag accumulation during the operating of an SRM, (2) Quantitative analysis of the effect of slag accumulation on propellant conversion efficiency (3) Analysis of sloshing and the potential effects on SRM conning, (4) Assessment of slag as a potential debris hazard, and (5) Assessment of new concepts for SRM design and trade studies. At the end of Phase II, a well-validated suite of tools will be available to NASA and its government contractors to better understand SRM combustion and dynamics in large-scale solid rocket motors.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fluids
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T1.02-9977
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detailed Multiphysics Propulsion Modeling & Simulation Through Coordinated Massively Parallel Frameworks
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multiphysics Framework for Prediction of Dynamic Instability in Liquid Rocket Engines

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ATA Engineering, Inc.
13290 Evening Creek Drive South, Suite 250
San Diego, CA
92128-4695
(858) 480-2000

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Purdue University
155 South Grant Street
West Lafayette, IN
47907-2114
(765) 494-6204

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zachary LaBry
zach.labry@ata-e.com
1960 East Grand Avenue
Los Angeles,  CA 90245-5093
(424) 277-5673

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Mitigation of dynamic combustion instability is one of the most difficult engineering challenges facing NASA and industry in the development of new continuous-flow combustion systems such as the combustion chambers in liquid-fueled rocket engines (LREs). Combustion instabilities are spontaneous, self-sustaining oscillations that tie the combustor acoustics to the combustion reaction itself. These oscillations can lead to a wide range of problems from off-design performance to catastrophic failure. Efforts to predict instabilities at design-time is hindered by the complex, multi-physics nature of the acoustics and chemistry, typically requiring multiple iterations of time and resource intensive system prototyping. The proposed Phase I STTR project aims to develop a simulation framework that will enable accurate, design-time prediction of instabilities. This framework will leverage the capabilities of Loci/CHEM for massively parallel, multi-physics flow simulations to generate low-order, independent models of combustion and acoustic response to perturbations. By solving for simultaneous solutions of these low-order perturbation models, it will be possible to numerically map the acoustic modes of the system to their stability characteristics, providing a means to predict instability. Phase I will develop critical additions to Loci/CHEM's combustion modeling capabilities, develop the appropriate acoustic models, develop a test plan for experimental validation of the combustion model, and conclude with a proof-of-concept demonstration of the full framework. In Phase II, an experimental campaign will be carried out to validate the combustion modeling tools developed in Phase I and augment the simulation framework with multi-phase modeling appropriate for full-scale LRE combustion chambers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Combustion instability poses significant technological and economic challenges in the gas turbine power generation and aviation propulsion fields. GE, Siemens, and others have invested heavily in combustion instability research over the last few decades as they have sought practical low NOx gas turbine combustors for power generation. Numerous mitigation strategies, both passive and active, have been studied and implemented as instabilities arise during testing, however the ability to predict instabilities and make system changes at design time has remained elusive. In the aviation community, the challenges of combustion instability have largely precluded the use of low emissions combustors in favor of safer, but less efficient systems. The challenges that we seek to address for rocket combustion chambers are analogous and in many respects, more extreme than those facing gas turbines. The tools resulting from this effort will be directly applicable to design-time analysis for power generation and aviation combustors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is spearheading the creation of this next generation of LREs through their Evolvable Mars Campaign and ongoing development of the Space Launch System (SLS) and Commercial Crew/Cargo launch vehicles. A number of engine development programs are currently underway and could benefit from the improved predictive accuracy resulting from this technology; examples include the design of J-2X (or RL-10) as the upper stage engine for SLS, and adaptation of the Space Shuttle main engine (RS-25) for use on the SLS core stage. Similarly, potential future programs for which combustion instability will be a key factor include development of a common upper stage/in-space stage engine and booster options for SLS Block 2, including a Large Oxygen-Rich Staged Combustion (ORSC) cycle engine and a Large Gas Generator (LGC) cycle engine. As prime contractor for many of the liquid propulsion systems used by NASA, the DoD, and international space agencies, Aerojet Rocketdyne is a key potential customer of this technology. In addition, customers of the modeling tools or ATA's accompanying services include engineers at the NASA centers developing the aforementioned missions and at companies developing propulsion systems for other launch vehicles (e.g., Blue Origin's BE-4 staged-combustion rocket engine to power the United Launch Alliance (ULA) next-generation launch system, Vulcan and SpaceX's development of the Raptor engine for their planned Interplanetary Transport System).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Atmospheric Propulsion
Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Propulsion
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster
Spacecraft Main Engine
Simulation & Modeling
Analytical Methods
Space Transportation & Safety
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T1.03-9934
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Real Time Launch Environment Modeling and Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Launch Weather Decision Support System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Radiometrics
4909 Nautilus Court North, #110
Boulder, CO
80301-8030
(303) 817-2063

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Oklahoma
120 David L. Boren Boulevard, Suite 2500
Norman, OK
73072-7309
(405) 325-0453

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Randolph Ware
ware@radiometrics.com
4909 Nautilus CT N #110
Boulder,  CO 80301-8030
(303) 817-2063

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 6
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Launch safety and efficiency requires timely and accurate wind, thermodynamic and pressure information from the surface to 20 km height, and lightning risk identification. A Doppler radar now provides wind measurements that satisfy this requirement at the Eastern Test Range. Thermodynamic soundings are provided by intermittent radiosondes on launch day. Typical intervals of an hour or more between radiosonde launches and drift distances of 100 km or more at 20 km height limit their timeliness and accuracy in characterizing the atmosphere along the launch path. NASA is seeking a thermodynamic remote sensing system with higher timeliness and accuracy, in clear and cloudy conditions. Current Radiometrics (RDX) microwave radiometer profilers provide continuous thermodynamic profiles from the surface to 10 km height, with radiosonde equivalent accuracy up to several km height, with decreasing accuracy at higher levels. The RDX profiler also provides cloud and atmospheric stability information that can be used to identify lightning risk. Improved thermodynamic profiler accuracy, and pressure profiling capability, have been demonstrated using variational retrieval methods that include model gridded analysis. Variational retrievals can also extend accurate thermodynamic and pressure profiling to 20 km height. We propose to implement and automate variational retrieval and lightning risk identification methods in a Launch Weather Decision Support System. The LWDSS will provide timely and accurate thermodynamic, pressure and lightning risk information needed to improve launch and airport safety and efficiency.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Launch Weather Decision Support System (LWDSS) addresses weather-related requirements for non-NASA launch complex and airport operations. It provides continuous temperature, humidity and pressure soundings with radiosonde-equivalent accuracy, and liquid soundings. The system will also identify lightning risk hours in advance of traditional electric field mill methods. These features will improve launch and airport operation safety and efficiency in a cost-effective manner.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Launch Weather Decision Support System (LWDSS) addresses weather-related launch complex operational requirements, providing continuous temperature, humidity and pressure soundings with radiosonde-equivalent accuracy, and liquid soundings. The system will identify lightning risk hours in advance of traditional electric field mill methods. These features will improve launch operation safety and efficiency and will reduce the cost of access to space.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
GPS/Radiometric (see also Sensors)
Electromagnetic
Radiometric
Microwave


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T2.01-9960
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Nuclear Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Superconducting Coils for Small Nuclear Fusion Rocket Engines

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Princeton Satellite Systems
6 Market Street, Suite 926
Plainsboro, NJ
08536-2096
(609) 275-9606

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory
P.O. Box 451
Princeton, NJ
08543-0451
(609) 243-3532

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stephanie Thomas
sjthomas@psatellite.com
6 Market Street, Suite 926
Plainsboro,  NJ 08536-2096
(609) 275-9606

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal focuses on the superconducting coils subsystem, a critical subsystem for the PFRC reactor and Direct Fusion Drive and other fusion and electric propulsion technologies. Our goal will be to design space coils using the latest high temperature superconductors. The coils will be operated at medium temperature, between 20 and 30 K, which eases the cooling requirements and temperature margins compared to 4K low-temperature conductors. This also increases the critical currents providing more margin for neutron radiation damage, possibly reducing shielding. The coils will have highly efficient cooling systems, be low mass and require minimum structural mass. Bath cooling and conduit cooling will be compared. There is likely an optimum operating temperature which minimizes the mass of both the conductors, shielding, and cooling systems. Given the rapid advancement of HTS materials determining the feasibility of such an optimal coil design requires detailed research into the state-of-the-art. Our partner, PPPL, will provide expertise on coil specifications and magnet design. PPPL is the only institution in the world where active research on the physics and technology of small, steady-state fusion devices is being performed. PSS will manage the design process and study closed loop cooling issues. We will design a Phase II experiment to build one or more 2 Tesla coils and potentially integrate them into the existing plasma experiment at PPPL. Our example mission will be a Neptune orbiter which is on the NASA roadmap as a high priority mission and present a challenging on-orbit radiation environment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many military and civil applications of the engine and the coils. Military space applications include high-power Earth satellites with radar, laser, or communications payloads. There are wider applications including generators for wind turbines, high efficiency motors, particle accelerators, energy storage, and terrestrial fusion reactors. This project would contribute greatly to this wider body of work.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A small fusion engine such as Direct Fusion Drive would be useful for almost any deep space mission, as well as inner space missions such as Lagrange points or manned Mars missions. The superconducting coils have applications to scientific payloads as well as other advanced propulsion concepts. For example, the AMS-02 experiment for the ISS had a low-temperature superconducting coil option which was built and tested, but swapped out for a traditional magnet with a longer lifetime when the flight opportunity changed. The VASIMR electric thruster requires superconducting coils. There has been considerable research on using superconducting coils for radiation shielding and they may also be useful for space materials processing and and precision formation flying.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Main Engine
Generation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T2.01-9966
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Nuclear Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Efficiency RF Heating for Small Nuclear Fusion Rocket Engines

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Princeton Satellite Systems
6 Market Street, Suite 926
Plainsboro, NJ
08536-2096
(609) 275-9606

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory
P.O. Box 451
Princeton, NJ
08543-0451
(609) 243-3532

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Paluszek
map@psatellite.com
6 Market Street, Suite 926
Plainsboro,  NJ 08536-2096
(609) 275-9606

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
High power nuclear fusion propulsion systems will require high efficiency radio-frequency heating systems in the MHz range for plasma heating. This proposal is for a novel scalable solid state Class E amplifier using Silicon Carbide switching transistors for plasma heating. This system is potentially 100% efficient compared to 40% for linear amplifiers and can be scaled to any desired size by adding additional segments in parallel. The system includes a novel closed loop feedback control system at the antenna and from the plasma. This eliminates the need for lossy transformers and other non-ideal components. The RF amplifier will be prototyped in Phase I in preparation for a plasma heating experiment in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology is applicable to a wide variety of commercial applications. These include: HF band radars for coastal and over horizon systems (OTH) Medium (MF) and High Frequency (HF) Radio (ITU Bands 5 and 6) Communications channels up to S-band Materials processing Plasma heating for terrestrial fusion reactors RF heating for manufacturing Current RF systems use tubes, such as Traveling Wave Tube Amplifiers (TWTAs) and Solid State Power Amplifiers (SSPAs). These are less efficient than the switching amplifiers in this proposal.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology is applicable to all radio-frequency applications for NASA. This includes microwave-heated thrusters, such as Ad Astra's VASIMR. VASIMR is a revolutionary new in-space propulsion system that heats a plasma with two types of microwave radiation. It can provide high thrust and high specific impulse in the 100 kW+ range. The technology is also applicable to scientific experiments using radio-frequency technology. Current RF applications use tubes or Solid State Power Amplifier (SSPAs). These are typically linear amplifiers and only 40% efficient. Communication systems up to S-band will also be applications of this technology Laboratory research and aerospace manufacturing using radio-frequency radiation done by NASA will also benefit. It will reduce costs of RF equipment and reduce power consumption.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Main Engine
Amplifiers/Repeaters/Translators
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T2.01-9984
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Nuclear Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nuclear Propulsion through Direct Conversion of Fusion Energy

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MSNW, LLC
8551 154th Avenue Northeast
Redmond, WA
98052-3557
(425) 867-8900

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Washington
4333 Brooklyn Avenue Northeast, Box 359472
Seattle, WA
98195-9742
(206) 543-4043

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Slough
sloughj@uw.edu
Plasma Dynamics Lab 8551 154th Avenue Northeast
Redmond,  WA 98052-3557
(425) 867-8900

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Manned space exploration depends critically on a vastly more proficient propulsion architecture for in-space transportation. The key reason for developing a nuclear powered rocket is the vast energy density gain of nuclear fuel when compared to chemical combustion. Current nuclear fusion efforts are wholly inappropriate for space transportation as the application of a reactor-based fusion-electric system creates a colossal mass and heat rejection problem in space. The Fusion Driven Rocket (FDR) represents a revolutionary approach to fusion propulsion where the power source releases its energy directly into the propellant, not requiring conversion to electricity. Several lithium metal shells are magnetically driven by induction to converge radially and axially and form a thick blanket surrounding the target plasmoid and compressing it to fusion conditions. The lithium is rapidly vaporized, ionized and accelerated to high exhaust velocity (> 30 km/s) as virtually all of the radiant, neutron and particle energy from the fusion plasma is absorbed by the encapsulating, metal blanket thereby isolating the spacecraft from the fusion process and eliminating the need for large radiator mass. This energy, in addition to the intense Ohmic heating at peak magnetic field compression, is. T, while having no significant physical interaction with the spacecraft limiting the thermal heat load and thus radiator mass. The FDR can be realized with little extrapolation from existing technology, at high specific power (~ 1 kW/kg), at a reasonable mass scale (<100 mt), and cost. The prime objective of the phase I project is to address the most critical element of the FDR concept, that is the validation of the fusion physics by an experimental demonstration of fusion energy production at a scale that would justify the FDR prototype to be demonstrated in phase II can reach fusion gain conditions (TRL 4) and justify the future investment required to fully develop the FDR concept.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The basic methodology for fusion energy generation employed in the Fusion Driven Rocket has the clear application to electrical power generation producing no atmospheric carbon while avoiding the hazardous waste and nuclear proliferation issues. Near term applications include medical isotope production and materials irradiation, likely providing the first commercial spinoffs from the FDR.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most significant commercial application by far for the proposed Fusion Driven Rocket propulsion system would be the enabling of a wide range of manned and unmanned planetary missions with a rapid Mars mission as the most significant first step.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fuels/Propellants
Spacecraft Main Engine
Conversion
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T3.01-9851
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Energy Harvesting, Transformation and Multifunctional Power Dissemination
PROPOSAL TITLE: Encrypted Self-Targeting Energy Beams for Power Transmission Designed for Satellite and Space Habitat Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied Material Systems Engineering, Inc. (AMSENG)
2309 Pennsbury Court
Schaumburg, IL
60194-3884
(630) 372-9650

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois
1901 South First Street
Champaign, IL
61820-7406
(217) 333-2187

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alfred Hubler
a-hubler@uiuc.edu
University of Illinois
Urbana,  IL 61801-5824
(217) 552-0728

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The NASA has identified the need to increase availability of Power as a Top Technical Challenge. This STTR proposal suggests novel approaches for the wireless energy transmission for use by satellite, spacecraft in orbit, or by space habitats. NASAýs planned earth orbiting spacecraft, planetary spacecraft, Cube Sats, Small Sats, balloons, aircraft, surface assets, and marine craft and UAVs as observation platforms can benefit from such successful wireless energy transmission technology. The advanced power transmission technology and receiving concepts proposed are based on the principles and system design for Aperiodic HF EM waves based power transfer, which are not absorbed by dense matter, including organic matter and water. The success in this STTR would enable and enhance the capabilities of NASA mission hardware and offer operational flexibilities with significant savings in the overall costs along with the weight savings due to reduction in needed harness weight.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
DOD Applications: Many DOD space and avionics systems, including communications and navigation satellites, could benefit from increased availability of power in wireless manner. The unique low mass Aperiodic HF Transmitting system design that can provide reliable power for the mission needs has appeal of weight savings. Commercial Applications: Space, avionics, and terrestrial commercial systems, including satellites, aircrafts, unmanned air vehicles, and surface - marine unmanned vehicles can benefit from the developed energy transmitting systems. Success in this proposed energy transmitting concept with low mass may open various market sectors due to the appeal of the device technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA Applications: Many NASA science missions, avionics and terrestrial systems, including satellites, aircrafts, balloons and unmanned areal vehicles, could benefit from the developed Aperiodic HF energy transmitting systems. Success in this proposed energy transmitting concept with low mass may open up power availability needs of many NASA missions due to the appeal of a lightweight device technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lifetime Testing
Simulation & Modeling
Antennas
Transmitters/Receivers
Distribution/Management
Characterization
Prototyping
Quality/Reliability
Support


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T3.01-9959
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Energy Harvesting, Transformation and Multifunctional Power Dissemination
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electrical Power from Thermal Energy Scavenging in High Temperature Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Sciences, Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA
01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Purdue University
155 South Grant Street
West Lafayette, IN
47907-2114
(765) 494-6204

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Prakash Joshi
joshi@psicorp.com
20 New England Business Center
Andover,  MA 01810-1077
(978) 738-8202

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Physical Sciences Inc. and Purdue University propose to develop a novel approach to scavenging heat from high intensity thermal environments encountered during space missions and converting this thermal power to electrical power at high efficiency. Examples include extremely hot heat shields during vehicle entry into planetary atmospheres (Mars/Venus probes) and during high speed ascent through planetary atmospheres (Sample return from Mars/Venus), hot claddings of radioisotope thermoelectric generators used for powering outer planetary spacecraft and multi-decade planetary bases (Mars/Venus/Lunar), as well as combustors and nozzles of space and launch propulsion systems. In this STTR we will develop an integrated metal hydride system and spectrally-tuned thermophotovoltaic power converter system that can extract heat during periods of high thermal intensity (tens of seconds), and convert it to electricity at greater than 25 percent efficiency. Following the end of this period, the system can continue to generate useful power for additional tens of minutes. In Phase I, for the power converter system, we will demonstrate feasibility of fabricating a critical component in larger areas (5 cm x 5 cm), and for the metal hydride (MH) system, we will experimentally characterize the MH decomposition/recombination reactions that enable continual electrical power generation for a useful duration after the period of high thermal intensity has ended. In Phase II, we will produce an engineering prototype of the integrated heat scavenging electrical power generator system, fully tested in laboratory environment and in simulated operational thermal environment, together with an analytical model of a functional system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed compact power generator devices have several aerospace and commercial applications. For example, power generator can be adapted for long range hypersonic vehicles reentering the earth's atmosphere. The customers for this application are the U.S. Air Force and the Navy. Compact, portable power generators are particularly suited for power generation on a small scale, such as for individual soldiers and campers/backpackers. In these applications, the hot source would be a burner consuming hydrocarbon fuel such as a portable propane cylinder, camping stove, etc. The government customers for this application include the U.S. Army, the U.S. Special Operations Command, and the Marines. Manufacturers of camping equipment would form a very large commercial customer base for this technology. The regenerative hydrides capability of our technology will have wide commercial applications in hydrogen storage systems for a variety of uses in the future hydrogen economy, including automobiles. Customers include various DoD agencies as well as a range of commercial manufacturers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed heat scavenging electrical power converter will find applications in NASA exploration missions to planets with atmospheres, such as Venus, Mars, and likely others. Example missions include small, power-limited probes released from an orbiter to enter the atmosphere, gather data during descent, land on the surface, and continue data gathering operations for some time. The proposed technology would generate electrical power during the hot atmospheric descent as well as surface operations. Another example would be a planetary sample return mission, where a small probe ascends a high speed through the atmosphere, with the converter providing power generated from scavenging heat from the vehicle's heat shield. Planetary missions to Venus and Mars are presently a part of the NASA roadmaps. Other applications of the proposed heat scavenging power converter include generation of electricity from hot cladding of radioisotopes used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators on years-long planetary missions and proposed to be used on decades-long planetary bases.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Active Systems
Heat Exchange
Conversion
Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T3.01-9990
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Energy Harvesting, Transformation and Multifunctional Power Dissemination
PROPOSAL TITLE: Waste Heat Recovery by Thermo-Radiative Cell for Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc.
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster, PA
17601-5688
(717) 295-6061

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Carnegie Mellon University
5000 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA
15213-3890
(412) 268-3393

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jianjian Wang
jianjian.wang@1-act.com
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster,  PA 17601-5688
(717) 205-0685

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In response to the NASA STTR solicitation topic T3.01, "Energy Harvesting, Transformation and Multifunctional Power Dissemination", Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) and Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) propose to develop a thermo-radiative cell to harvest energy from waste heat, for example, from radiators. Currently NASA's Top Technical Challenge is the need to "increase available power". Additionally, NASA has a Grand Challenge as "Affordable and Abundant Power" for NASA mission activities. The thermo-radiative cell technology uses semiconductor p-n junctions, similar to the photovoltaic cell but with smaller band gap semiconductor, to convert heat to electricity. This technology makes use of the extremely cold dark universe (~3K) as the natural heat sink and low-grade waste heat (~50-100&#8451;) as the heat source. The imbalance of the thermal radiation emitted and absorbed by the cell will cause the imbalance of the charge carrier motion in the p-n junction, i.e., generating electrical power. The overall technical objective of Phase I and Phase II projects is to develop a thermo-radiative cell system that can generate practically usable power as supplementary power for the electronics on space vehicles, platforms or habitats. During Phase I, ACT will fabricate a cryogenic system to investigate the performance the thermo-radiative cell made of commercial available InSb, HgCdZnTe, PbSe, or InAs wafers. The cryogenic system will use liquid nitrogen to create a stable low temperature environment. Performance investigation includes the power density and energy efficiency at different heat source temperatures for the non-optimized cell material component and structure in Phase I.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Radiative cooling has recently started to commercialize, with companies providing cooling by radiating to the night sky. Additional night time power could be provided by solar power systems, by adding thermal storage and thermoradiative cells to the back of the solar panels. The solar cell side faces up in the daytime. After sunset, the panels can flip to allow the thermo-radiative cell side facing up. Unlike the traditional photovoltaic panel which can only generate electricity in the daytime, this new integrated system can continuously generate electricity for residential use throughout the day and night.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The immediate NASA application of this technology is to provide additional power from low grade waste heat, whenever a view of deep space is available. This can be important for outer planet missions. NASA is considering solar power for some NASA outer planet missions, due to the shortage of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS). Scavenging waste heat to supplement the limited solar power is necessary. In addition, the thermo-radiative cells can improve the efficiency of radioisotope power systems, powered by either thermoelectric or Stirling convertors. Due to the low efficiency of the thermoelectric systems (~7%), there is still significant thermal energy dissipated as low-grade waste heat via the radiator. The proposed thermo-radiative cell technology could satisfy this energy harvesting need and reduce the mass/volume of overall energy systems. In addition, this technology is well-aligned with the NASA Strategic Roadmap (TA 3: Space Power and Energy Storage) as it may have many in-space applications such as on spacecraft or planetary explorers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T3.02-9778
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Intelligent/Autonomous Electrical Power Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Autonomous Power Controller for Mission Critical Microgrids

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
PC Krause and Associates, Inc.
3000 Kent Avenue, Suite C1-100
West Lafayette, IN
47906-1075
(765) 464-8997

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Case Western Reserve University
10900 Euclid Avenue
Cleveland, OH
44106-7071
(216) 368-5092

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mingguo Hong
mxh543@case.edu
10900 Euclid Avenue
Cleveland,  OH 44106-7071
(216) 368-4364

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
PCKA is partnering with researchers at CWRU to develop an Autonomous Power Controller (APC) for mission-critical microgrids to supply electric power in a highly autonomous and secure manner to accomplish mission objectives. The APC consists of a centralized controller connected to an array of local component controllers. The centralized controller will be capable of optimal generation and load scheduling, abnormal conditions and/or failure detection, and system restoration, while the local controllers monitor system components and pass sensor data to the centralized controller. The core of the APC is a database architecture that facilitates data movement to enable the various control functions. The design of this database was carried out by the PI, Dr. Hong, in a 2016 collaboration with NASA GRC, and it will be leveraged in this STTR effort to support the expansion of the APC. The effort will also utilize a spacecraft system simulator tool developed by PCKA. Therefore, the team is well-placed to successfully develop the APC. Potential applications of the APC will be in deep space explorations, aeronautic flights, and special human habitats, where human supervision of the electric power systems is limited and availability of electric power is critical to mission success.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
While the proposed effort is focused on spacecraft power systems, other types of power systems could take advantage of the control technology. The underlying control architecture can be applied to essentially any type of microgrid power system. Terrestrial microgrids do not suffer the same communication latency as deep-space systems; however, autonomous control of these systems would greatly improve performance through optimal operating point identification and automated reconfiguration in response to faults or disturbances. It should be noted that these systems can be either ac or dc in nature; however, the APC formulation can remain largely the same. Furthermore, the team's approach to development of the control using a simulation-based testbed allows efficient development, testing, and validation of the approach to a wide array of systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most immediate NASA applications for this technology is NASA's Exploration Augmentation Module (EAM) system. PCKA's existing Simulink model of this system will form the testbed used to demonstrate the capabilities of the APC. The International Space Station power system is similar in nature, a dc system based on solar arrays and battery energy storage, so it is also a potential application for the technology. The APC will also have potential applications in aircraft electrical propulsions systems, wherein the electrical system is mission-critical. NASA's CAS and NEAT programs are examples of such systems. PCKA also has existing models of these systems to facilitate future application of the APC.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Distribution/Management
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T3.02-9922
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Intelligent/Autonomous Electrical Power Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Intelligent, Autonomous Electrical Power System Management and Distribution

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
1650 South Amphlett Boulevard, Suite # 300
San Mateo, CA
94402-2516
(650) 931-2700

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Montana State University (MSU) - Bozeman
Office of Sponsored Programs 309 Montana Hall,P.O.Box 172470
Bozeman, MT
59717-2470
(406) 994-2381

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Stottler
stottler@stottlerhenke.com
1650 South Amphlett Blvd., Suite # 300
San Mateo,  CA 94402-2516
(650) 931-2700

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
EPS-MAESTRO (EPS Management through intelligent, AdaptivE, autonomouS, faulT identification and diagnosis, Reconfiguration/replanning/rescheduling Optimization) substantially leverages previous NASA investments to assemble the correct set of technologies to implement all aspects of the intelligent, autonomous EPS manager. We have significant experience in all required technologies and have already integrated them into a general MAESTRO architecture designed to be easily applied to spacecraft subsystems. Montana State University (MSU) has designed, built, launched, and operated several satellites and has specifically studied in-space PV degradation. In addition to providing substantial knowledge, expertise and practical experience, MSU will also provide real satellite telemetry data and set up a laboratory hardware testbed, using spare MSU satellite hardware, for testing our EPS-MAESTRO prototype in Phase I. They also plan to field an actual EPS-MAESTRO prototype onboard one of their future satellites, in-space, during Phase II. The eventual, ultimate goal is the ability of an onboard autonomous intelligent system to manage the spacecraft EPS itself through the development of EPS-MAESTRO, which can be easily adapted to the EPSs of different spacecraft. EPS-MAESTRO must be sufficiently powerful, general, and computationally efficient and be easily adapted by developers. This will be accomplished using open standards, clearly defined open interfaces, use of Open Source software, and leveraging several previous NASA investments. Phase I research goals are to explore the spacecraft EPS management domain for small satellites and large manned spacecraft, elaborate the AI techniques useful for EPS characterization, diagnosis, replanning/rescheduling/adaptive execution/safing, prove the feasibility of these techniques through prototype development (by prototyping two applications), and develop a complete system specification for the Phase II EPS-MAESTRO system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Stottler Henke already sells Aurora to private companies. Commercial product and service sales related to Aurora have already resulted in over $10 million in revenue. EPS-MAESTRO improvements can be readily incorporated into Aurora and sold through existing sales channels, especially to the power generation industry, which we are already pursuing. And beyond NASA there are a large number of real-time diagnosis, replanning/rescheduling, and execution problems that EPS-MAESTRO could be readily adapted to, such as oil refineries, factories of all types, etc. And many of these potential EPS-MAESTRO users are already Aurora customers. Current Aurora customers tend to be aerospace manufacturers, partly due to our early conversion of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner production line to being an Aurora customer. Companies like Learjet and Bombardier quickly followed suit as well as some Boeing suppliers. Other customers tend to have high-value applications both requiring a high-quality solution and justifying the relatively high price. Examples include Massachusetts General Hospital, which is saving a huge amount of manpower scheduling residents, Honda, which is realizing large savings through reduced destruction of prototype vehicles during safety (e.g., crash) testing, and Clipper Windpower, which has greatly shortened their production time for individual, custom wind turbines. A MAESTRO-enhanced version of Aurora would presumably tend to have a similar diverse base of customers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most direct targets for transition of this proposed effort are the large number of various future manned and unmanned, deep-space and near-earth spacecraft that would significantly benefit from autonomous, intelligent EPS management. By showing its ability to autonomously create high-quality responses to EPS events, EPS-MAESTRO will clearly illustrate its advantages over the status quo. Because it will be an open system that other developers could use to create intelligent EPS management systems, a large number of EPS-MAESTRO applications can be quickly developed. Since EPS-MAESTRO is specifically designed to easily interface with Diagnosis, Adaptive Execution, Planning, and Scheduling engines, such developers will have their choice. And additional interfaces can be developed over time to increase the number of such options. There is a potential to automate the majority of EPS management decision-making at NASA, even for low Earth orbit, with a corresponding savings in highly skilled manpower. Additional applications are various types of ground processing at KSC that also have EPS management needs. The planned Phase II demonstration of EPS-MAESTRO in space onboard an MSU satellite, will greatly aid its adoption.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)
Space Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Command & Control
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Sequencing & Scheduling
Distribution/Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T3.02-9967
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Intelligent/Autonomous Electrical Power Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Holomorphic Embedding for Loadflow Integration of Operational Thermal and Electric Reliable Procedural Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
EleQuant Knowledge Innovation Data Science, LLC
Swann Street Northwest, Apartment 302
Washington, DC
20009-5511
(202) 652-0812

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Maryland
3112 Lee Building.
College Park, MD
20740-5141
(301) 405-6269

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ANTONIO TRIAS
tonitrias@hotmail.com
1322 30th St. NW
Washington,  DC 20007-3349
(240) 481-9559

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This sound, low risk proposal aims at developing technology for the fundamental modeling and data processing needs of future autonomous operation. It addresses problems of early anomaly and fault detection in PMAD systems, adopting a larger scope by also including the thermal system. Truly autonomous operation of large power systems (e.g. ISS) cannot be scripted. In the quest to replace expert human operator functions by intelligent applications capable of self-healing and management, two key pillars are prerequisites to achieve a sufficient degree of correct self-aware behavior: a reliable model of internal system behavior, and efficient and reliable ways to deal with external and internal information. On these areas, the innovation will extend the ideas behind the Holomorphic Embedding Loadflow Method (HELM, which solves non-equivocally the steady-state equations of electrical power systems), to encompass a larger heterogeneous system: the joint electrical and thermal system. Rationale: being both critical and inter-dependent, they need a holistic approach. The innovation builds first on their joint operational physical model, seen as algebraic equations. The focus will be on its eventual future use as the computational engine for autonomous operation applications. HELM is a computational engine in intelligent decision-support for operations in transmission grids, and is currently being adapted to spacecraft DC grids.The second innovation context is data processing for self-aware behavior algorithms, proposing convergence of the physical model-based approach (HELM) and emerging unsupervised Big Data/Machine Learning techniques. Having experts from both worlds, these approaches will reinforce each other-not only by means of feeding results to each other, but also in internal work models. RI(UMD) technology transfer on Multi-Task Learning , electric storage and aircraft guarantees success

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Results will advance the capabilities of the HELM toolset to support integration of the thermal and electrical subsystem in AC grids. Results will extend ongoing HELM-based SBIR and STTR projects from hybrid AC-DC electrical systems to also include associated thermal systems. Therefore, HELM can be deployable into small and microgrid larger contexts. Results open up new markets: utility microgrids, military operational bases, and ship and aircraft power systems. As new distributed energy resources (DER), such as distributed solar PV, wind energy, electric vehicles, and battery storage, are deployed, the need for automated operational solutions will increase. If they are to become widespread, they will need autonomous energy management systems with better real-time fault detection capacities, such as those contemplated under this project. Big Data/Machine Learning project-proven methods will be of relevance, as more and more components in these microgrids become Internet-of-Things-enabled, thus providing increasingly more data.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Reliable model integration, simulation, and computation, based on HELM applied to the real-time operation of two interdependent systems (Electrical + Thermal). Big Data / Machine Learning complementary methodologies that will prove relevant to help HELM models assess failures, contributing to better future management. In NASA's words: "An opportunity for true symbiosis of human and machine intelligence working together'. Applications delivered follow recent NASA directives on Data Management, such as data standards and architectures to grow interoperability, leveraging partnerships and collaboration, and investing effectively & efficiently by increasing cross-agency and cross-stakeholder's exchange of data (Thermal and Electrical, Design and Maintenance Engineering, convergence of Fundamental Physics, Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, etc.). If models and case examples advance enough on the joint electrical + thermal system, then the delivered results will inspire future prototypes that could be used in NASA and the aeronautic industry designs through related computations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Active Systems
Analytical Methods
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Distribution/Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T4.01-9845
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Information Technologies for Intelligent and Adaptive Space Robotics
PROPOSAL TITLE: The PHARAOH Procedure Execution Architecture for Remote Operations of Autonomous Robots

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRACLabs, Inc.
100 North East Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio, TX
78216-1234
(281) 461-7886

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Southwest Research Institute
6220 Culebra Road
San Antonio, TX
78238-5166
(210) 684-5111

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stephen Hart
swhart@traclabs.com
16969 N Texas Ave Suite 300
Webster,  TX 77598-4085
(281) 461-7886

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
While historically all of NASA's human missions are carried out by crew members following English language procedure documents, robotic activities are usually performed by issuing much lower-level commands. This disconnect creates undue burden on mission operators as it requires the involvement of expert robot programmers to define each activity. In contrast, we propose that robots in space, just like human crew members, should be guided through vetted, human-readable procedures. Such an approach will allow NASA to seamlessly allocate new robotic capabilities and resources to existing space activities, as well as to facilitate the cooperation of humans and their robot assistants when performing joint activities. We propose to develop the PHARAOH system, which integrates TRACLabs' proprietary procedure authoring and execution software with our robot navigation, manipulation, and visualization tools. TRACLabs' Procedure IDE (PRIDE) and our affordance template (AT) robot planning & control software have been developed over the past few years in conjunction with NASA engineers and researchers on various projects. They represent the state of the art in their domains. Integration of these two research streams will result in the unprecedented simplification and standardization of how robots are used by mission operators (as opposed to robotic experts) to accomplish the tasks NASA requires. We envision non-robotics flight controllers eventually being able to re-task remote robotic assets by using English-language procedures that automatically map directly to robot capabilities on the back-end.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
TRACLabs sees application of this technology in the automotive manufacturing area. TRACLabs has a contract with one of the top international automotive suppliers to install our robot perception, planning, & control software on industrial manipulators in an automotive parts assembly plant. This deliverable includes using the Affordance Templates framework for non-expert programming of pick-and-place tasks. The interaction of standard operating procedures and robotic manipulation is of great interest to our automotive customer. TRACLabs is already selling PRIDE as a commercial product with a major oil field services company as a launch customer. This company is field-testing PRIDE at several sites world-wide before deployment in actual operations in mid-2017. PRIDE is proving automation assistance to drilling operations. We will work with them to make sure that this project meets their requirements. TRACLabs expects additional customers in the oil and gas industry will deploy PRIDE once it has been proven effective by our launch customer. Commercial space companies have also purchased PRIDE licenses for their operating procedures. In all of these cases, we will offer the features developed this proposal as an "add-on" to the existing PRIDE software.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Both the PRIDE electronic procedure management software suite and the Affordance Template framework were developed in collaboration with NASA, albeit in very different project groups. NASA has an ongoing interest in both of these technologies, and TRACLabs would be well-positioned to market this product to them in Phase III. NASA recognizes that as they investigate long-duration missions, advanced robotics will play an important role, and there is a need for technology such as this. Although this research will initially focus on remote rover robots, like Resource Prospector, the Affordance Template framework is applicable to manipulation robots like Astrobee, R5, and SSRMS. NASA's Space Network Ground Segment Sustainment (SGSS) project that is modernizing the space agency's ground infrastructure systems for their Space Network is evaluating PRIDE as a potential technology for Local Operating Procedures (LOPs). NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) is interested in applying PRIDE to the Scalable Convergent Electronic Propulsion Technology Operations Research (SCEPTOR) project. PRIDE is being evaluated for use in ground control operations for the Resource Prospector (RP) robot being developed by NASA JSC and ARC for lunar surface operations. All of these NASA projects could benefit with the extensions to the PRIDE software proposed as part of this research.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Man-Machine Interaction
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Command & Control
Process Monitoring & Control
Sequencing & Scheduling
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Teleoperation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T4.01-9886
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Information Technologies for Intelligent and Adaptive Space Robotics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Unified Representation for Collaborative Visualization and Processing of Terrain Data

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
DigitalFish, Inc.
20 North San Mateo Drive, Suite 3
San Mateo, CA
94401-2883
(415) 699-2734

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Carnegie Mellon University
5000 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA
15213-3815
(412) 268-1206

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Herman
dh@digitalfish.com
20 N San Mateo Dr Ste 3
San Mateo,  CA 94401-2824
(415) 699-2734

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We build upon our prior work applying subdivision surfaces (subdivs) to planetary terrain mapping. Subdivs are an alternative, multi-resolution method with many advantages over conventional digital elevation maps (DEM's) and fixed-resolution meshes. The proposed research is innovative in presenting a new setting for subdivs demanding novel extensions to subdiv algorithms, techniques and theory as well as new methods in merging of terrain data from multiple sources. Our primary objectives are to: (1) develop a prototype mapping system using subdivs as a representation for terrain data with highly varied spatial resolution and 3-D features; (2) extend our novel volumetric merging method, integrating input data at varied confidence levels from varied source formats (DEM, point cloud, range data, etc.) while supporting overhanging and cave-like terrain geometry; (3) demonstrate collaborative use of registered surface detail with terrain-mapped data fields such as terrain color, confidence estimates, and science-data overlays; and (4) show, via high-quality DEM extraction, compatibility with existing systems including applicability for autonomous processing on small, weight- and power-constrained (SWAP) robots. The expected benefits are: (a) higher-fidelity terrain visualization with reduced processing error and lower infrastructure requirements; (b) ability to visualize 3-D features, such as overhangs, missed in DEM's; (c) compact encoding with natural level-of-detail control for interactive viewing on mobile devices; (d) greater algorithmic efficiency for non-visualization scientific computation; and (e) enablement of new software-tool capabilities for dynamic mapping of alternative local-terrain datasets, non-destructive experimentation, collaboration, and data traceability. The innovation also promises capability and reliability benefits to robots by unifying terrain representations and enabling minimal upload of only incremental terrain details from the ground.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
New terrain methods for military or commercial mapping, including for mobile use by soldiers and field workers - New methods for bathymetry representation and visualization for naval and commercial-marine applications - New methods for offline terrain rendering, for example for film production - New methods for real-time terrain rendering, for example for commercial and military flight simulation and for immersive 3-D computer games - New methods for terrain data processing in support of autonomous vehicle and commercial drone navigation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Planetary terrain mapping in support of scientists and mission planners - Lunar terrain mapping with rapid editing for future high-tempo missions - Regolith mapping - Scalable processing for autonomous planning, simulation and payload data triage, e.g., on size-, weight- and power-constrained (SWAP) robots and devices - Representation of rover and tool geometry in a common format with terrain for unified planning, processing and immersive visualization - Representation of structured (man-made) environments for robot operations - Earth terrain mapping in support of field scientists with mobile devices - Earth terrain mapping in support of changing-landscape studies, e.g., involving polar-ice remodeling due to climate change or representing erosion progression in coastal studies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ranging/Tracking
Navigation & Guidance
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Command & Control
Teleoperation
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Fusion
Data Processing
Knowledge Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T4.01-9958
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Information Technologies for Intelligent and Adaptive Space Robotics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Evidence Meshes for Three-Dimensional Modeling, Visualization, and Navigation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mesh Robotics, LLC
142 Crescent Drive
Pittsburgh, PA
15228-1050
(412) 606-3842

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Carnegie Mellon University
5000 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA
15213-3815
(412) 268-2000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Wettergreen
dsw@ri.cmu.edu
5000 Forbes Ave
Pittsburgh,  PA 15213-3815
(412) 268-5421

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As robots are tasked with ever more complex missions, they demand more sophisticated models of the environments in which they must work. Rough-terrain mobility, site surveying, and dexterous manipulation all demand a fully 3D map of the world that simultaneously exhibits large scale and high resolution, a situation we refer to as scale disparity. Most robots discretize the world into a uniform-grid that is used to accumulate evidence from multiple measurements. Unfortunately the memory footprint of such maps grows dramatically with scale disparity. Octrees can lessen memory requirements, but do not fully counteract the exponential growth of the underlying grid representation. In response, we are developing a map representation called an Evidence Mesh that provides the benefits of probabilistic treatment of evidence but performs better under scale disparity. It is based on a triangulated mesh and is compatible with well-known simplification algorithms to represent the shape of objects at adjustable levels of fidelity. Like an evidence grid but unlike other mesh-based mapping methods available today, an Evidence Mesh accumulates evidence about the location of objects through simplification and across multiple sensor measurements, enabling robust noise filtering and avoiding artifacts and aliasing introduced by artificial grid structures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The challenge of scale disparity abounds in industrial and commercial applications, so Evidence Meshes have clear potential outside NASA. For example, driverless cars model the road ahead with grids that can be on the order of 100 meters but must model potentially dangerous objects that are only tens of centimeters in size. Indoor applications that need fully 3D maps, such as robotic manipulation for assembly or for household tasks, suffer even more from the scale-disparity problem. We see the potential for Evidence Meshes to become an underlying technology for disparate products, including: Map-building software for robotic manipulation, especially in factory and logistics applications. Software that aligns LIDAR scans to produce as-built models. Evidence Meshes could improve the quality of alignment even with uncertainties in LIDAR pose. Perception and navigation software for autonomous unmanned vehicles. Infrastructure-free localization technologies such as SLAM.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our work will produce an efficient map-representation that can be used by NASA's terrestrial experiments today and by missions in the future. We plan to release an open-source implementation for use by NASA. Evidence Meshes support Topic TA04 of NASA's RTA Systems Roadmap as follows: An Evidence Mesh is a natural framework for sensor fusion, which has relevance to NASA-relevant tasks such as grasping and manipulating objects. Manipulation tasks like these often face severe challenges from scale disparity. For example, an ISS map for robotic EVA must be large to support path-planning, yet must have sufficient resolution to model the fine geometry of small tools involved in the task. Planetary-surface rovers will also benefit from enhanced terrain mapping capability. Motion planning over very rough terrain (e.g., cliffs, lava tubes) requires large-scale yet high-fidelity terrain maps. Evidence Meshes are well suited for this becaus they address scale disparity and, because they use triangulated meshes, they support a variety of well-known collision detection algorithms. Their probabilistic framework makes Evidence Meshes a natural representation for planning algorithms that deal with uncertainty, such as probabilistic roadmaps. Evidence Meshes will also benefit existing visualization tools for mission planners and science teams by providing an efficient, compressible data format for transmitting maps via low-bandwidth communications channels.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Perception/Vision
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T4.02-9808
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Regolith Resources Robotics - R^3
PROPOSAL TITLE: Regolith to Steel Powder, Oxygen & Water with Small Equipment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rolf Miles Olsen
7025 Alden Drive
West Bloomfield, MI
48324-2017
(619) 238-4140

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michigan State University
428 South Shaw Lane
East Lansing, MI
48824-4403
(517) 884-8997

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rolf Olsen
rmo@twoplanetsteel.com
7025 Alden Drive
West Bloomfield,  MI 48324-2017
(619) 238-4140

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal covers processing of raw Martian regolith to both an enriched iron ore and liberated water, and also iron ore reduction and oxygen production, metal purification and steel powder making. Our proposal uses heat re-cycling to improve the energy efficiency of both regolith-to-ore enrichment and iron ore reduction. This heat re-cycling creates a bonus, the liberation of water (formerly bound to the regolith) as liquid water and a relatively low temperature water vapor. This water can be retrieved with the addition of a small condenser unit and a water storage tank/heat sink. Iron (and other transition metal) oxides are reduced using a reducing gas mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide inside two multi-use vessels (MUVs, in which heat recycling is also done). The reduction makes metals, mostly iron, but also exhausts water and carbon dioxide. This exhaust is re-cycled to a water/carbon dioxide splitter that produces the hydrogen and carbon monoxide reducing gases and also oxygen. The preferred water/carbon dioxide splitter is a solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) from Ceramatec (maker of the SOEC for NASA's MOXIE), and Ceramatec has asked to be included in the proposal with a budget placeholder as a supplier. Metal purification and steel powder making is done using carbonyl metallurgy techniques developed by BASF with a possible variation to replace steel powder making with metal vapor deposition to shaped steel objects (as previously advocated for by William Jenkins). It should be emphasized that the entire manufacturing chain, and an extended chain than includes 3D metal powder printing to finished steel objects, (i) can be operated by robots (that can also carry out ore mining), and (ii) the robots and equipment needed to carry out this mining and manufacturing chain can be made such that their entire combined total mass is small enough to fit in Mars landing craft payloads well under 2500 kg.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposal's Martian iron ore processing could be applied to iron ore processing here on Earth. However, the economics of different methods of iron ore processing on Earth will be different from those on Mars, and it is unknown whether there is economic value for the process here on Earth. However, Martian steel-making uses zero carbon dioxide emissions iron oxide reduction. This realization has already caused an investigation into other methods for doing zero carbon dioxide emissions in iron oxide reduction here on Earth, that use renewable energy inputs, and this has caused the proposal's PI to draft patent applications for a new iron oxide reduction methods.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Martian iron ore mining through to steel-making, oxygen generation and water liberation, and then onto steel equipment fabrication, assembly and operation on Mars can start an expanding spiral of Martian activities for NASA. For example, it can produce more power generation equipment, such as re-orientable support structures for solar photovoltaic panels and steel solar parabolic dishes. Increasing electrical and thermal power generation on Mars is especially useful because almost all activities for human settlement of Mars need electrical and/or thermal power and all of these are limited (or given scope to expand) by the amount of such power that can be delivered. Steel-making and new power generation equipment can each facilitate an expansion of the capacity of the other, to create a coupled spiral of expansion of capacity. Expansions in the capacities of steel-making, steel fabrication and power generation, will also expand oxygen generation and water liberation capacities, but, also, expand capabilities in other areas; for example, panel- and scaffold-making for pressurized habitats, habitat plumbing and fixture manufacture, compressor, engine and spare part manufacture, and on. Steel-making, steel fabrication, power generation and robots can deliver Mars mission robustness by creating spare parts and extra parts that can be put to use to create settlement system reliability, self-repair and settlement growth.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Resource Extraction
Metallics
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Process Monitoring & Control
Conversion
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T4.02-9821
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Regolith Resources Robotics - R^3
PROPOSAL TITLE: Planetary LEGO

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics, Ltd.
63 Flushing Avenue, Unit 150
Brooklyn, NY
11205-1070
(212) 966-0661

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pacific International Space Center for Exploration Systems
99 Aupuni Street Suite 212-213
Hilo, HI
96720-4273
(808) 494-5553

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rodrigo Romo
rfvromo@gmail.com
99 Aupuni St. Suite 212-213
Hilo,  HI 96720-4273
(808) 494-5553

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Prior to human arrival to the Moon or Mars, a certain amount of infrastructure will be required in order to ensure success of the overall goals of the mission. Such infrastructure will include some type of landing pads. In order to reduce the volume/mass of construction materials to be transported from Earth, it will be critical to utilize in-situ resources as the main construction material. Regolith seems to be the most logical choice given its abundance and easy access. The proposed technology would allow for the robotic construction of critical structures in-situ using native resources. In Phase I we therefore propose to: Determine the ideal shapes for the building blocks that will allow mechanical jointing and construction of horizontal (landing pads, roads, etc.) and vertical (habitat, shelter, etc.) structures. Manufacture the molds to fabricate these building blocks. Fine tune the sintering process (thermal profile) to ensure repeatability of the fabrication of the material. Produce prototype building blocks and test their structural properties and strength of the joints. Develop the robotic concept for making the horizontal and vertical structures. Design a horizontal and a vertical structure for fabrication during Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
It is estimated that approximately 5-6% of all CO2 greenhouse gases generated by human activity originate from concrete production . While it is not realistic to consider that basalt derived products could eliminate the use of cement, there are some locations (such as Hawaii) where all cement for construction must be shipped in. While creating cement alternatives for such locations may not have a significant impact on the reduction of greenhouse emissions by decreasing concrete manufacturing (global demand remains high), it would reduce emissions created by shipping this critical material overseas. In addition to environmental benefits, it could create a new industry to diversify the local economies where it would be useful.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications would encompass Lunar and Mars human habitation missions. Development of a suitable construction grade material, or materials, derived directly from Lunar/Mars regolith without utilizing any additives could significantly advance ISRU options for the construction of infrastructure, equipment protection or habitats while reducing the amount of raw materials required to be transported from Earth. A significant advantage of the processes suggested in this proposal relies on the simplicity of the concept. The raw material can go directly from the ground and into the production line without having to go through any separation, refinement or synthesis process. Different grades of sintered basalt can be utilized for a variety of purposes including: tools, structural components, spare parts, VT/VL tiles, roads, indoor pavers, thermal re-entry tiles, radiation protection, thermal wadis, and shelter/habitat construction.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Resource Extraction
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Destructive Testing
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Isolation/Protection/Radiation Shielding (see also Mechanical Systems)
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T4.02-9965
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Regolith Resources Robotics - R^3
PROPOSAL TITLE: Metal Production Away From Earth

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South
College Station, TX
77845-6023
(979) 764-2219

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Texas El Paso
500 West University
El Paso, TX
79968-0001
(915) 757-6465

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Olga Ivanova
olga.ivanova@lynntech.com
2501 Earl Rudder Freeway
College Station,  TX 77845-6023
(979) 764-2200

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Long-term occupation of space requires a supply of metal suitable for fabrication of various components and structures. While astronomical objects are rich in the desired metallic elements, these elements are in the form inappropriate for use in Additive Manufacturing processes. Lynntech, in collaboration with University of Texas El Paso, proposes to develop a process to convert material from its native state (typically an oxide dispersed in a silicate matrix) to one suitable for use in Additive Manufacturing methods to allow the direct fabrication of complex parts in space. Proposed process consists of four steps: grinding of the native material for ease of processing, reduction of oxides to zero valent metal, conversion of the metal to a volatile form for separation and recovery, and direct formation of metal powder in a size and purity suitable for use in Additive Manufacturing. Our unique process requires relatively low temperatures, recycles all the reagents (thus there is no need for consumables), and produces oxygen as a byproduct. Phase I effort will demonstrate the reduction, volatilization, and powder formation steps for nickel and iron using regolith simulant as the feedstock. Recovered metal powders will be thoroughly characterized for use in powder-based Additive Manufacturing processes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The volatilization-based process to be used in the proposed project is already known as an effective method of producing high purity metals. Pure metals produced by this process are generally more expensive compared to those produced by other processes (for instance, iron reduced with coke), which limits their use to high value applications. A direct application of the proposed process is to permit the straight fabrication of metal in a form suitable for Additive Manufacturing processes rather than making bulk material and reducing its particle size. Indirectly, improvements made as part of this project will contribute to reducing the price gap and increasing the number of applications that can cost effectively use high purity iron and nickel.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Producing the materials needed to fabricate structures and vehicles is a critical requirement for the long-term occupation of space. If everything had to be delivered from Earth, the cost would be overwhelming. The process proposed here will allow the production of iron and nickel almost anywhere in the solar system in a form appropriate for use in Additive Manufacturing without consuming any material that must be brought from Earth. Once in the powder form the metals, if desired, can readily be converted to other forms such as rods, ingots, and sheets for use with conventional fabrication methods. Therefore, proposed process allows supplying both additive and conventional fabrication processes with metal.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
In Situ Manufacturing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T4.03-9792
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Coordination and Control of Swarms of Space Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Accurate, Miniature Attitude Determination System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, LLC
16 Great Hollow Road
Hanover, NH
03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Hawaii
2440 Campus Road, Box 368
Honolulu, HI
96822-2234
(808) 956-7800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brynmor Davis
bjd@creare.com
16 Great Hollow Road
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The overall goal of this project is to design, develop, and demonstrate using a flight test, a miniature, high accuracy attitude determination system (ADS) for use on small satellites. Currently available ADS are too large and heavy, or, units for small satellites do not have sensors with sufficient accuracy for important applications such as formation flying or laser-based communication systems. We will overcome these limits by combining two technologies that Creare has previously demonstrated: a 1/2U-sized, high accuracy star tracker; and MEMS inertial measurement unit (IMU). The star tracker relies on unique optics technology that allows the implementation of telescope-quality optics in approximately 1/2U CubeSat and the MEMS IMU has near laser gyro accuracy in a package that is significantly smaller and less expensive than traditional IMUs. During the Phase I feasibility demonstration, we will clearly illustrate the advantages of our approach. Creare and our academic partner, University of Hawaii Spaceflight Laboratory (HSFL), are well qualified to succeed in this effort given our considerable and unique past experience in miniaturizing devices for use in important space missions, our firm's longevity, the space-qualified fabrication facilities that we maintain, and HSFL's unique ground and space testing environments. The proposed program provides an opportunity to accelerate the demonstration of new technology that will greatly enhance the capabilities of small satellites in a spaceflight mission during the Phase II project and within the Phase II budget.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Past technical advances in small satellites have opened up new markets for small satellites beyond their initial technology demonstration platforms. These markets include military science and technology; intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance; remote site communications; polling of unattended sensors; high-resolution Earth observations; and Landsat-class environmental monitoring; and are estimated to potentially result in a $500 million annual market. Our high accuracy attitude determination system will enable higher performance and lower cost for many of these future applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is interested in reducing the mass and cost while maximizing the scientific return for future NASA missions. Small satellites are an excellent alternative for achieving these goals. However, many technologies that have been developed for larger spacecraft are not applicable to small- and nano-satellites. To bridge this gap, NASA plans to support innovations in propulsion, power, guidance, and navigation systems for low-cost small spacecraft. One of the key enabling technologies is an accurate attitude determination system. Our high accuracy attitude determination system promises to meet the needs of small- and nano-satellites for high accuracy attitude control.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Attitude Determination & Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T4.03-9829
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Coordination and Control of Swarms of Space Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: DISCUS: Distributed Intelligent Swarm Control & Utilization System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scientific Systems Company, Inc.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA
01801-6562
(781) 933-5355

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Washington
4333 Brooklyn Avenue Northeast, Box 359472
Seattle, WA
98195-9472
(206) 543-4043

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jovan Boskovic
Jovan.Boskovic@ssci.com
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn,  MA 01801-6562
(781) 933-5355

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SSCI and University of Washington (Prof. Behcet Acikmese) propose to develop, integrate and test an innovative Distributed Intelligent Swarm Control & Utilization System (DISCUS). The DISCUS will be based on advanced distributed state estimation techniques, probabilistic guidance and control under collision avoidance and other relevant mission constraints, real-time contingency management including reactive collision avoidance with un-responsive team members, and low-level fault-tolerant control robust to subsystem and component failures. Decentralized estimation is based on using RSS (Received Signal strength) and TOA (Time of Arrival) sensors, and fusion of information from EO (Electro-Optical) sensors. Guidance and Control (G&C) is based on extensions of an innovative approach to swarm density control using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach with guaranteed satisfaction of the ergodicity, motion, and safety constraints. Reactive collision avoidance will be based on extensions of a suite of SAA algorithms previously developed or under development by SSCI, while fault tolerance will be achieved by combining SSCI's approach to Fault detection, Identification and Accommodation (FDIA) with low-level baseline control. Focus on Phase I will be on the requirements and algorithm development, initial integration of a diverse suite of GNC algorithms, and feasibility demonstration on a simplified swarm simulation. Phase II will involve further maturation and full integration of DISCUS algorithms, and their demonstration under realistic conditions through hardware experiments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Due to lower costs of development and launch, several future commercial applications of Smallsat swarms such as remote sensing, on-orbit servicing, and sparse aperture imaging are viable. Smallsat swarms can be used for rapid communication and imaging tasks to provide situational awareness solutions needed by Department of Defense, National Reconnaissance Office, and Department of Homeland Security. New commercial space applications are viable as a result of having low-cost and rapid access to space with focus on mission flexibility and scalability.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The main role of large swarms of Smallsats is to replace the functionality of current monolithic spacecraft while increasing the system flexibility and robustness. Such swarms, operating in LEO (Low Earth Oribit) and GEO (Geostationary Orbit), have many potential NASA applications. For instance, Smallsat swarms replacing current space implementations of Synthetic Aperture Radars can substantially decrease the launch cost and cost of deployment. Other applications of Smallsat swarms include sparse aperture sensing, stellar interferometry, and global broadband internet via satellite swarms. Swarms of Smallsats could also provide global real-time space weather monitoring in a way that is presently not possible from a single satellite. A swarm of satellites in orbit can provide a survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution, and gain new insights into improving our knowledge of the Earth's interior and climate. This will be a great improvement on the current method of extrapolation based on statistics and ground observations. Other applications of Smallsat swarms could be on-orbit visual inspection of larger spacecraft to provide rapid feedback capability for decision making, and protection of large satellites of critical importance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T4.03-9857
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Coordination and Control of Swarms of Space Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reinforcement Learning For Coordination And Control of Swarming Satellites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ASTER Labs, Inc.
155 East Owasso Lane
Shoreview, MN
55126-3034
(651) 484-2084

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Regents of the University of Minnesota
200 Oak Street Southeast
Minneapolis, MN
55455-2070
(612) 624-5599

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Suneel Sheikh
sheikh@asterlabs.com
155 East Owasso Lane
Shoreview,  MN 55126-3034
(651) 484-2084

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Inspired by frequent observation of repetitive learned swarm behavior exhibited in nature, this novel program will develop and demonstrate new capabilities in decentralized control of large heterogeneous vehicle swarms limited in communication, sensors, and actuators, with direct application to communication-less coordination. These goals are accomplished through the adaptation and use of Reinforcement Learning solutions to the optimal control problem. Reinforcement Learning approaches define a value function, which represents the total reward for possible actions at a given state, deriving a decentralized formulation for each agent in a Multi-Agent System. The proposal implements the policy gradient method for Reinforcement Learning applied to swarming spacecraft control. Three major tasks are proposed for the development of swarming space vehicle coordination and control: Approximate Optimal Control for Large Swarms, Communication-Less Swarm Coordination Implementation, and Human-Swarm Interactions via Supervised Reinforcement Learning. Algorithm development in Phase I will extend to a Centralized Optimal Control Solution, Inverse Reinforcement Learning for the Local Decentralized Problem, Model Free Learning, "Expert Solution" Conversions to the Local Modified Local Interaction, Inverse Learning for Behavior Determination and Classification, Hyman Designed Dynamic Reward Functions, and Keep Out Zone Models. Follow-on efforts will are proposed for full implementation of the Reinforcement Learning swarm technology for real-time integrated system use and mission integration, including laboratory demonstrations of small robotic units, and the development of flight-qualified software and hardware packages for full integrated technology demonstrations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications for the proposed technology include significant increases in the coordination and control of large fleets of unmanned aerial systems. This has direct application to Search and Rescue operations conducted by local or municipal first response or Department of Homeland Security teams. Inter-team coordination of autonomous, robotic land, sea, and aerial vehicles are a further application, enhancing Department of Defense capabilities in reducing communication and relay limitations. Formation control via Reinforcement Learning can also benefit commercial telecommunications satellite providers maintaining growing constellations of vehicles operating as nodes in inter-satellite networks for high data rate transfers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications consist of facilitating precise, autonomous coordination of swarms of space vehicles in Earth orbit and beyond LEO, eventually into deep space. Enhanced capabilities in precise vehicle control in Multi-Agent Systems is included. The Reinforcement Learning based swarming vehicle control algorithms and integrated software for on-board implementation for future planned and upcoming multi agent missions will provide reduction of mission risk, expanded mission planning and analysis capabilities, and significant reduction in inter-agent communications requirements. The system will offer significant value and cost savings by either augmenting or replacing current relative navigation and control technologies, and has potential for reduction in support costs and system station-keeping down-time. The proposed system's algorithmic approach and software capabilities holds key mission enabling and enhancing benefits for swarms of planetary rovers, Earth orbiting swarms, and exploration missions to asteroids and comets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ranging/Tracking
Telemetry (see also Control & Monitoring)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T6.01-9949
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Closed-Loop Living System for Deep-Space ECLSS with Immediate Applications for a Sustainable Planet
PROPOSAL TITLE: Next Generation Water Recovery for a Sustainable Closed Loop Living

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Faraday Technology, Inc.
315 Huls Drive
Englewood, OH
45315-8983
(937) 836-7749

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Carmen Bachier
P.O. Box 21790
San Juan, PR
00931-1790
(787) 764-0000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Santosh Vijapur
santoshvijapur@faradaytechnology.com
315 Huls Drive
Englewood,  OH 45315-8983
(937) 836-7749

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Among the numerous technological advances sought in order to facilitate human space travel, solutions and innovations are needed for techniques that supports the mass- and energy-efficient maintenance of closed air, water, and waste systems in spacecraft habitats that operate within microgravity. As missions are foreseen to be extended with limited earth resupply available there is need to develop durable and sustainable closed loop living systems. Waste water treatment and recovery system that is managed by ECLSS on board the ISS is one such system that has lifetime/durability limitations and would benefit from improvements to increase its lifetime efficiency. Therefore, in order to achieve NASA?s goals of extended manned deep space missions, Faraday Technology Inc. and Dr. Carlos Cabrera of the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) propose to develop a technique to eliminate many of the contaminants that commonly foul the waste water treatment system and produce a more durable closed loop process compatible with existing ECLSS mainframe to treat and recover water. In this program, UPR will develop enzyme based bio-reactor to efficiently convert urea to ammonia, while Faraday will scale and optimize ammonia electrolyzer incorporating custom-fabricated gas diffusion cathode and anode. This integrated system is anticipated to enable significant performance enhancement by reducing osmosis membrane fouling caused by contaminants from the waste stream and thereby increasing the efficiency and durability of the treatment process. This technology has the potential to be compatible with existing ECLSS systems and be an integral part of the closed loop living systems required for long term life support on NASA?s manned space missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The specific application as described by the program solicitation topic is for manned space system, but the proposed development would be valuable in a broad range of other settings as well. Some potential installation/sales targets include waste water treatment facilities, naval warships, and military field hospitals. In 2015 United Nations reported that more than 40% of global population is affected by water scarcity and this number continues to increase. For this reason water recovery from waste water is essential to human race. The proposed innovation thus has the potential to be useful in regions where water is scarce commodity or water recovery would be invaluable.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As manned space missions are foreseen to be extend with limited earth resupply available, the ECLSS will need to become more durable to support closed loop living. At present, waste water recovery and treatment systems within the ECLSS recover ~85% of the water with marked decrease in lifetime and process efficiency due to osmosis membrane durability and fouling issues. The proposed bio-electrochemical system consisting of a bioreactor and ammonia electrolyzer will eliminate many of the contaminants that commonly foul the RO system and produce a more sustainable wastewater treatment and water recovery system. This system offers a practical addition to the existing process stream and could reduce replacement of the osmotic components.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Metallics
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Remediation/Purification
Generation
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T6.02-9840
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Liquid Quantity Sensing Capability
PROPOSAL TITLE: Volume Sensor for Flexible Fluid Reservoirs in Microgravity

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, LLC
16 Great Hollow Road
Hanover, NH
03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dartmouth College
11 Rope Ferry Road, HB 6210
Hanover, NH
03755-1421
(603) 646-3180

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Marc Ramsey
mcr@creare.com
16 Great Hollow Road
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 640-2385

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Advanced Space Suit carries consumable cooling water maintained at ambient pressure within a soft-walled, flexible reservoir. To ensure uninterrupted thermal control it is critical to monitor the volume of water remaining, but no known sensor is suitable for this task. Existing measurement techniques are unacceptably sensitive to the motion and varying geometry of the reservoir in micro-gravity, or to electromagnetic interference within the suit environment. We will develop a simple, compact, low power sensor that accurately measures the volume of fluid in any soft-walled bladder. Our innovative sensing technique will provide an accurate measurement that is insensitive to gravity, the motion, and geometry of the reservoir, the presence of air, and electromagnetic interference.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This sensor technology could meet a clinical need for minimally invasive monitoring of human bladder volume monitoring in patients with incontinence. This sensor technology will also be applicable to volume monitoring in flexible water and fuel storage bladders used in military and recreational applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Feedwater Supply Assembly in the Advanced Space Suit is a soft-walled, flexible reservoir containing cooling water. The water is circulated through the thermal control loop and slowly consumed by evaporation at the Suit Water Membrane Evaporator, rejecting waste heat to control occupant temperature. To ensure uninterrupted thermal control and occupant survival, it is critical to monitor the remaining water volume. The sensor developed under this program will accurately monitor the remaining volume in this reservoir. This sensor will function equally well in any other flexible fluid reservoir on a space platform.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Acoustic/Vibration


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T6.03-9947
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Modeling And Estimation Of Integrated Human-Vehicle Design Influences
PROPOSAL TITLE: Elemental Resource Breakdown Approach to Crew-Vehicle Design

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Space Research Company, LLC
4865 Qualla Drive
Boulder, CO
80303-3803
(650) 302-2692

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Colorado-Boulder
579 UCB
Boulder, CO
80309-0572
(303) 492-7110

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christine Fanchiang
christine@thespaceresearchcompany.com
4865 Qualla Dr
Boulder,  CO 80303-3803
(650) 302-2692

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
TSRCo and CU are developing a framework to quantify and predict crew performance in various spacecraft designs in the context of the design process. The framework utilizes an elemental resource breakdown approach to relate the crew, the spacecraft design, and operations. The elements identified in the breakdown correspond to existing measures currently used in the physiological, cognitive, and psychological fields. This novel integration of currently existing metrics allows for the quantification of specific crew resource elements over the mission timeline and an in-depth analysis of the impacts caused by various spacecraft design choices.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This application is intended for other government agencies that have complex systems with human users and have a need for tracking the quality of human performance. This ranges from military combat situations, to polar expeditions, to operators of complex systems (nuclear power plant, submarines, emergency services etc.). Other potential applications are industries that have an increase of robotic or machine equipment designed to interact with human operators. For example, production line facilities for manufacturing and assembly of consumer goods often have mechanized robotics which interface with an operator. The model developed here can help guide designers of the production line in finding optimized layouts and architecture for ensuring work flow efficiency and safety of their workers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As one of the first comprehensive crew performance models, this technology has far reaching applications in areas where complex system design need to be analyzed for human factor impacts. The merits of this particular framework and model is that it ties together existing data that scientist already understand and use for their research. As the model evolves and becomes more sophisticated, additional layers of analysis can be done to extract user behavior. The data can be fed back to the model design and identify areas for improvement and add efficiencies. This is relevant to NASA, its subcontractors for spacecraft development (Lockheed, Boeing, SpaceX, Orbital), but also relevant to those companies developing their own human-rated space vehicles (Blue Origin, Bigelow, SNC, XCorp etc.)

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T7.02-9876
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Exploration Plant Growth
PROPOSAL TITLE: uG-LilyPond - Floating Plant Pond for Microgravity

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Space Lab Technologies, LLC
P.O. Box 448
Pinecliffe, CO
80471-9902
(303) 747-1009

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Regents of the University of Colorado
3100 Marine Street, 572 UCB
Boulder, CO
80309-0572
(303) 492-6221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christine Escobar
chris@spacelabtech.com
PO Box 448
Pinecliffe,  CO 80471-9902
(720) 309-8475

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed &#956;G-LilyPond is an autonomous environmentally controlled floating plant cultivation system for use in microgravity. The &#956;G-LilyPond concept expands the types of crops that can be grown on a spacecraft in a flexible, efficient, low maintenance package. The &#956;G-LilyPond features several innovations relative to state of the art, including passive water and nutrient delivery to floating plants, volume efficiency, minimal time for maintenance, full life-cycle (seed to seed) support, and crop flexibility. Small floating macrophytes like Duckweed and Azolla are 100% edible (with no inedible biomass), nutritious (high in protein), exceptionally fast growing, and able to thrive in nutrient rich wastewater. The &#956;G-LilyPond concept aims to maximize production of these tiny plants in a very small volume, for use as a crew dietary supplement, atmospheric revitalization component (CO2 reduction to O2), and potentially a metabolic wastewater treatment facility. The goal of this Phase I project is to develop a conceptual design for a reliable, flexible, and efficient floating plant production system for use in microgravity. Phase 1 Objectives are to 1. Determine feasibility of passive water delivery to floating aquatic plants in microgravity; 2. Determine feasibility for continuous autonomous biomass harvest and water (effluent) extraction; 3. Determine feasibility of autonomous floating plant propagation; 4. Define autonomous environmental monitoring and control methods to support candidate crops; 5. Estimate cultivation system efficiency, in terms of production capacity versus equivalent system mass; and 6. Plan for future development of a fully functional flight unit. This collaborative effort between Space Lab Technologies, LLC and the Bioastronautics research group from the University of Colorado (CU) Boulder Aerospace Engineering Sciences Department will combine modeling, analysis, and engineering to demonstrate technology feasibility.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) A commercial Earth-based &#956;G-LilyPondý system could be made available to populations in water and nutrient scarce regions or otherwise harsh environments that would benefit from potable water and nutrient recovery from waste streams, and the integration with indoor aquaponics systems (fish production). A simplified, less costly design would be appropriate for commercial production targeted to in-home use, where operating conditions are less severe than in space. 2) &#956;G-LilyPondý sensor suite and control software would be commercially beneficial to aquaponics facilities by improving yield while reducing economic cost of production. Service to aquaponics companies would include customized design and installation relevant to their specific facility needs and existing infrastructure. Space Lab will initially seek local Colorado aquaponics companies for initial demonstration and then expand to national or even international markets. 3) By recovering nutrients from wastewater and rapidly growing biomass, &#956;G-LilyPondý may be commercially attractive for biofuel production from municipal waste. SpaceLab will approach both private and public Colorado based entities that may be interested in commercial wastewater treatment and biofuel production applications, using an environmentally controlled volume efficient system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The complete &#956;G-LilyPondý system will provide supplemental fresh food, atmosphere revitalization, and potentially wastewater treatment for microgravity spacecraft habitats, at reduced cost for infrastructure, power, consumables, and crew time. The design can be easily adapted to a low gravity environment for planetary surface habitats.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biophysical Utilization
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Biomass Growth
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Crop Production (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T7.02-9906
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Exploration Plant Growth
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reusable Nanocomposite Membranes for the Selective Recovery of Nutrients in Space

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanosonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke, VA
24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Virginia Tech
800 Washington Street, Southwest
Blacksburg, VA
24061-0000
(540) 231-6000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Carleen Bowers
cbowers@nanosonic.com
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke,  VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Through the STTR program, NanoSonic and Virginia Tech will create low-cost, reusable membranes that selectively capture and recycle nutrients (e.g., N, P, K) from urine in space. Urine is a readily available commodity in space that is rich in valuable nutrients for plant growth. Humans produce individually about 500 L of urine per year that contains ~7 g/L of nitrogen (N), ~1 g/L phosphorous (P), and ~2 g/L potassium (K). NanoSonic shall fabricate tailored nanocomposite ultrafiltration membranes that selectively capture key nutrients from urine through tailored binding chemistries, while filtering away undesirable components including sodium. The nutrients will then be eluted from the membrane and available in a useful form for direct application on plant soil. NanoSonic's membranes have excellent chemical and mechanical properties allowing for repeated use over long time periods, thereby limiting the need for replacement. Moreover, their high thermal transition temperature (~190C) permits serviceability in space where the temperature can range from ~-150C to +120C. Our STTR partners, Professors He and Vikesland in Civil and Environmental Engineering at Virginia Tech, are experts in nutrient recovery and the use of nanotechnology for wastewater treatment. During Phase I, together with Virginia Tech, NanoSonic will increase the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) from 3 to 5 of our simple, lightweight, and low-cost filtration membranes through membrane analyses. TRL 7 shall be achieved during Phase II with industry support from our Environmental Engineering partners at 3e for nutrient extraction from urine to be deployed for plant growth in space on board the International Space Station (ISS).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Membranes are widely used materials in water treatment, medical, and laboratory research. The global market for membranes is projected to reach 32 Billion USD by year 2020 (CAGR of 9.47%). The largest sub market is in the treatment of water and wastewater, which contributes half of all sales. This market is growing at a fast pace with opportunities associated with the increasing demand for nutrients. The integration of recovery technologies provides the opportunity for additional revenue by providing the agricultural industry with necessary nutrients. The main challenge for the market, and one that the proposed technology by NanoSonic can overcome, is the problem associated with the lifespan of membranes: the efficacy of the membrane decreases over time due to fouling, requiring replacement and increasing operational and maintenance costs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NanoSonic envisions several applications for the NASA sponsored technology on membranes that will enable food production in space through nutrient recovery. First, NanoSonic intends to manufacture nutrient recovery kits to be used by NASA for food production in space. The ability to grow food in space helps solve a big problem in space travel: the price of transporting food. NASA's International Space Station and Spacecraft Processing Directorate estimates that it costs ~$10,000 per pound to send food to the ISS. NanoSonic's membranes could also be modified to recycle water; that is, take urine, flush water, and even condensate and purify it for drinking water.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Food (Preservation, Packaging, Preparation)
Remediation/Purification
Waste Storage/Treatment
Crop Production (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T7.02-9969
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Exploration Plant Growth
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fast Growing High-Yield Wheat and Canola for Efficient Nutrient Recycling Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AFINGEN, Inc.
6550 Vallejo Street
Emeryville, CA
94608-2001
(510) 290-8845

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
5885 Hollis Street
Emeryville, CA
94608-2404
(510) 486-5971

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ai Oikawa
AOikawa@afingen.org
6550 Vallejo street, STE101J
Emeryville,  CA 94608-2001
(510) 290-8845

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Among a suite of synthetic biology methods, Afingen's APFL technology offers a robust path to produce high-value biochemicals from inedible biomass-derived substrates with minimal cis-genetic manipulation and improved genetic stability compared to conventional bio-engineering. By amplifying and/or reducing target compounds with unprecedented specificity and improved tolerance, engineered food-, feed-, and biofuel crops (e.g. switchgrass, wheat, canola, corn, soybeans, alfalfa, tomato, potato) may offer higher yields of biomass and enhance degradation in the inedible biomass to facilitate nutrient recycling. This STTR Phase I application by Afingen, Inc. and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is aimed at generating significantly improved rotation crops, wheat and canola,with a combination of three beneficial traits: [1] accelerated rooting growth, [2] increased grain yield and vegetative biomass, and [3] enhanced degradability of inedible biomass.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Enabled the combination of three beneficial traits: accelerated rooting growth, increased biomass, and enhanced (bio)-degradability of inedible biomass will contribute to U.S. agricultural production, self-sustainability, economy, food security, and bioenergy.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The engineered crops will be able to provide food and be converted to advanced degradable feedstocks that provide nutrient recycling as next generation organic fertilizers. The proposed biotech platform would also allow variety of different crops to [1] grow better even at limited spaces and resources, [2] accelerate rooting systems compatible to microgravity, and [3] increase their photosynthetic organs (green vegetative tissues: leaves and stems) to convert carbon dioxide to oxygen for more sustainable and efficient cultivation systems on Mars.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomass Growth
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Food (Preservation, Packaging, Preparation)
Remediation/Purification
Waste Storage/Treatment
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Crop Production (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T8.01-9801
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Planetary Compositional Analysis and Mapping
PROPOSAL TITLE: The Development of an Optic Fiber Based Hybrid Spectroscope

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Laser & Plasma Technologies, LLC
1100 Exploration Way
Hampton, VA
23666-1339
(757) 325-6783

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Virginia
351 McCormick Road
Charlottesville, VA
22904-1000
(434) 924-6167

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Shen
paul.shen@lpttech.com
1100 Exploration Way
Hampton,  VA 23666-6264
(757) 325-6783

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Laser & Plasma Technologies (LPT), teamed with the National Science Foundation (NSF) Center for Lasers at the University of Virginia (UVA), proposes an advanced optical fiber coupled hybrid spectroscope for in situ characterization of organic compounds. The proposed approach provides information on organic compounds by analyzing spectra obtained from Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman Spectroscopy (Raman) with a novel approach of using a single pulsed laser. The hybrid spectroscope yields elemental compositions from LIBS and molecular information from Raman strongly complement each other. The use of optical fibers offers advantages of small, light, and flexibility for various NASA planetary missions. An innovative laser beam scanning head provides an ultra-compact solution to achieve 1D or 2D raster scanning from a robotic arm. LPT has extensive expertise in material detection and monitoring by optical sensing technologies. The expertise combined with LPT's core competencies in advanced laser micromachining and optical sensing, provides a solid foundation to achieve the goal of this project. A Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 4 is anticipated by the end of the Phase I project.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The low-cost of the technology will help the technology enter the commercial, military, and industrial markets. The proposed technologies could be directly applied to similar applications operated by other government and commercial enterprises. For example, industries can benefit from chemical monitoring, environmental protection can benefit from chemical detection and contamination monitoring, medical applications can benefit from biomarker tracking, and military can benefit from detection of explosive materials and chemical agents.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology development in this project directly addresses NASA's needs of increasing instrument resolution, precision and sensitivity for planetary missions. The proposed technology is designed for in situ characterization of organic compounds at real time with advantages of compact, light, low power (SWaP) and flexibility. This technology also can be used other NASA space and ground programs for chemical detection and monitoring. Addition to characterization of organic compounds, the technology can be used to detect other element composites. Most importantly, the proposed approach offers a flexible and low cost scheme to ensure the accurate, reliability, and integrity to planetary mission success.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Organics/Biomaterials/Hybrids
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Optical
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Ultraviolet
Visible
Infrared
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T8.01-9875
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Planetary Compositional Analysis and Mapping
PROPOSAL TITLE: Instrumented Bit for In-Situ Spectroscopy (IBISS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics, Ltd.
63 Flushing Avenue, Unit 150
Brooklyn, NY
11205-1070
(212) 966-0661

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SETI Institute
189 Bernardo Avenue, Suite #100
Mountain View, CA
94043-5203
(650) 960-4521

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pablo Sobron
psobron@seti.org
189 Bernardo Ave., Suite #100
Mountain View,  CA 94043-5203
(314) 695-6993

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to build and critically test the Instrumented Bit for In-Situ Spectroscopy (IBISS), a novel system for in-situ, rapid analyses of planetary subsurface materials (Fig 2.1). IBISS will provide a rapid and unambiguous chemical/mineralogical characterization of subsurface materials by integrating an innovative, miniature LIBS (laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy) probe with a drill bit. Specifically, we will: 1)Design and assemble an IBISS breadboard system (Mk 1) and validate the optical circuit: Through model simulation and experimental work, we will investigate the performance of the various optical elements. We will determine the figures of merit of the laser, optical fiber, and lenses. We will use COTS or modified COTS for all optical, mechanical, and electronic systems. 2) Design and assemble an IBISS miniaturized system (Mk 2), integrate it with the drill bit, and bench test it: We will perform component integration and system testing. We will determine scientific performance parameters of IBISS and compare them to those of bench-top LIBS instruments and drilling engineering performance metrics. We will use existing, certified/ independently characterized samples of lunar and martian regolith simulant.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
IBISS responds to critical challenges at the scientific/engineering boundaries of drilling and sensing; in particular, the challenges involved in characterizing subsurface materials in-situ and in real-time. Conventional methods involve drilling and coring, and the analysis of cores in off-site laboratories. Not only is this approach laborious, time consuming, and dangerous for human operators, but the results are not uniformly reliable and typically not available for weeks. In response to this challenge, we will combine concepts and methodologies from two different disciplines in a revolutionary way. While drilling robotics and LIBS spectroscopic sensing are established fields, we will combine them, for the first time, to develop a new tool for subsurface geochemical/mineralogical investigations. IBISS will enable: (i) the development of other new techniques and methodologies based on spectroscopic subsurface investigations (e.g. Raman); (ii) technological spin-offs that will constitute scientific advancements for the Earth, environmental, and planetary sciences, invite industrial applications, e.g. geological prospecting; environmental monitoring/assessment; agricultural soil quality monitoring; oil & gas exploration and development, and bolster homeland security initiatives

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our innovation significantly improves instrument measurement capabilities for planetary science missions such as Discovery, New Frontiers, Mars Exploration, and other planetary programs (see Part 2.2). It has potential to become a critical new instrument in NASA?s exploration toolbox that can replace already-flown in-situ sensing technologies in future mission opportunities. The following missions highlighted by the PSD will specifically benefit from IBISS: a) landed exploration missions to Venus, Moon, Mars, Europa, Titan, comets, and asteroids; b) sample return missions to Moon, Mars, comets and asteroids. In addition, IBISS may be used to identify and map available planetary in-situ resources, and to spur the development of autonomous in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) devices for robotic and human missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Minerals
Actuators & Motors
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Lenses
Mirrors
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Transmitters/Receivers
Waveguides/Optical Fiber (see also Optics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T8.01-9908
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Planetary Compositional Analysis and Mapping
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fusion of THEMIS and TES for Accurate Mars Surface Characterization

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied Research, LLC
9605 Medical Center Drive, Suite 113E
Rockville, MD
20850-3563
(301) 315-2322

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arizona State University
781 East Terrace Mall
Tempe, AZ
85287-1404
(541) 519-1903

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chiman Kwan
chiman.kwan@arllc.net
9605 Medical Center Drive, Suite 113E
Rockville,  MD 20850-3563
(240) 505-2641

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In a recent NASA ROSES solicitation, NASA has expressed strong interest in improving surface characterization of Mars using orbital imagers. Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) and Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) are orbital multispectral imagers of Mars. THEMIS has 10 spectral bands in the 6-13 micrometers region and a spatial resolution of 100 m. TES has 143 spectral bands in the 5-50 micrometers range, but with low spatial resolution of 3x3 km. Although both have been used to map out the surface composition of Mars, there are some limitations. First, THEMIS has low spectral resolution that may not provide accurate surface characterization. Second, TES has low spatial resolution that cannot provide fine spatial details of surface characteristics. Roughly speaking, each TES pixel contains about 900 THEMIS pixels. It is therefore very challenging to fuse the two data sets. We propose a novel and accurate framework that can deal with the above challenge. The framework is based on the latest development in image registration, image fusion, anomaly detection, pixel classification using hyperspectral images, and concentration estimation. First, a two-step image registration algorithm is proposed to align the THEMIS and TES bands. Subpixel accuracy can be achieved. Second, a novel image fusion algorithm is proposed to fuse THEMIS and TES bands to generate an image cube with 143 bands of 100-m resolution images. Our algorithm has been proven to be better than state-of-the-art fusion algorithms. Third, we propose a novel anomaly detection algorithm for detecting interesting regions in the fused image cube. This algorithm is known as cluster kernel Reed Xiaoli (CKRX) and has high performance in anomaly detection. Fourth, a sparsity based approach is proposed to perform accurate rock classification. Finally, a deep learning based algorithm is proposed to estimate the chemical composition of the rocks for better surface characterization.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our proposed surface characterization system can be used for military surveillance and reconnaissance and civilian applications such as border patrol, coastal monitoring, vegetation monitoring, urban development monitoring, etc. The combined market can be over 5 million dollars over the next decade. The market size is based on an estimated of users of 5,000 and a unit price of $1,000 per software.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Accurate Mars surface characterization will be important for Mars exploration. It should be noted that, for Earth observations, there are imagers that are similar to the above instruments for Mars. For example, the Worldview-3 imager collects high resolution visible and short-wave infrared (SWIR) images at sub-meter resolution whereas the NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), NOAA's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), etc. are collecting low resolution (hundreds of meters) multispectral images. For some future hyperspectral imagers like the NASA HyspIRI with hundreds of bands as shown in website: http://hyspiri.jpl.nasa.gov/science, the spatial resolution is only about 30 meters. It will be good to fuse the high resolution Worldview images with MODIS, AVHRR, and HyspIRI images to yield high resolution in both spatial and spectral domains. Consequently, many applications, including urban monitoring, vegetation monitoring, fire and flood damage assessment, etc., will benefit from the high spatial and high spectral resolution images.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Display
Image Analysis
Image Processing
Data Fusion
Data Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T8.01-9980
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Planetary Compositional Analysis and Mapping
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ambient Desorption, Ionization, and Extraction Source for Mars Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Trace Matters Scientific, LLC
2204 Bagby Street #3313
Houston, TX
77002-7700
(571) 438-0970

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rice University
6100 Main Street
Houston, TX
77005-1827
(713) 348-0000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aydin Babakhani
aydin.babakhani@rice.edu
6100 Main St
Houston,  TX 77005-1827
(713) 348-0921

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Trace Matters Scientific LLC proposes to design, develop, and prototype a miniature ambient desorption, ionization, and extraction source (MADIE) as a compact all-in-one instrument for operation under the ambient Martian environment to sequentially desorb, ionize, and extract analytes from Martian samples. The MADIE will enable in situ interrogation of the Martian mineralogical samples with no sample preparation and/or separation when coupled to a mass spectrometer. At the core of the proposed MADIE will be a self-tuning plasma ionization module for sample ionization, consisting of an ambient carbon dioxide plasma source and a tuning circuit; an ion funnel module for efficient ion extraction; and a laser diode module for time-resolved sample desorption. The ambient plasma source will utilize the Martian atmosphere, which is mainly composed of carbon dioxide, to form a reduced-pressure carbon dioxide inductively coupled plasma (ICP) to ionize the plume of sampled analytes. The tuning circuit will compensate any plasma variation and maintain the plasma source at resonance during operation. The ion funnel module, which will be derived by a radio frequency power supply, will efficiently extract the ions and guide them into the mass spectrometer to increase sensitivity. The laser diode module will produce a plume of sample analytes from the sample surface with high spatial resolution at both ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) wavelengths. During phase I, the self-tuning plasma ionization module will be designed and constructed, and the ion funnel will be designed and simulated with SIMION and then prototyped. Commercially-available laser modules at various wavelengths will be selected and experimentally validated. These modules will then be pieced together to develop a breadboard prototype of the MADIE by the conclusion of phase I. Preliminary experiments will be conducted to test the efficiency of the MADIE.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology may be utilized in a wide range of government and industrial applications. 1) Government Applications: Instruments for fast, real-time and accurate sample analysis has widespread applications in many U.S. government programs. For example, Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Department of Transportation, Department of Agriculture (USDA), Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DOD) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) all need field deployable systems for fast and accurate detection of explosives, drug molecules, pesticides, toxics chemicals and atmospheric species. 2) Industrial Applications: The proposed technology may be used in various industrial application as a reduced-pressure sample interrogation platform when combined with a mass spectrometer. For example, pharmaceutical and food industries need instruments for quality/contamination control.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to the primary application for in-situ solid sample analysis, the proposed technology may be used for: 1) Atmospheric Chemical Analysis: The MADIE can be retrofitted to miniature mass spectrometers for atmospheric measurements without the laser module; 2) Biological Sample Analysis in Reduced Pressure: The MADIE can be used to for imaging of biological tissues that are placed in low-pressure chamber with a variety of plasma gases, 3) Air Quality Monitoring During Manned Missions: The proposed technology may be used as an ambient ionization source that can be deployed with on-board mass spectrometers for air quality monitoring; 4) Breath Analysis: The technology may be utilized with miniature mass spectrometers for performing breath analysis; 5) Optical Emission Spectroscopy: The MADIE can be used in combination with optical emission spectroscopy systems to study the emission spectra of various gaseous molecules; and 5) Plasma Treatment: The proposed technology may provide an efficient sterilization method that can be used on a robotic arm to treat small desired surfaces, for example, for sterilization or changing surface chemistry.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biological Signature (i.e., Signs Of Life)
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T8.02-9810
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Photonic Integrated Circuits
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Performance 3D Photonic Integration for Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Freedom Photonics, LLC
41 Aero Camino
Goleta, CA
93117-3104
(805) 967-4900

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of California, Santa Barbara
342 Lagoon Road, Mail Code 2055
Santa Barbara, CA
93106-2055
(805) 893-5197

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Leif Johansson
info@freedomphotonics.com
41 Aero Camino
Goleta,  CA 93117-3104
(805) 967-4900

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this work, Freedom Photonics will team with University of California, Santa Barbara to develop a hybrid integration platform that integrates yielded, best-of-breed active optical components with low-cost, high functionality Silicon Photonics components in a manner that is compatible with foundry fabrication. This will be performed in a highly manufacturable manner, using passively aligned pick-and-place technology to place the semiconductor components on the interposer substrate to form a system in package-type of integration platform for space photonic applications. The approach is based on a novel 3D hybrid integration approach developed at UCSB that is scalable, low cost, reliable, and that demonstrates superior thermal performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1. Optical fiber sensor systems which with significantly lower cost has the potential to become pervasive in structural monitoring of buildings, vehicles and other structures. 2. Optical links such as free-space optical or hybrid fiber-wireless systems where implementation to date have been limited due to the performance and cost of components compared to conventional transmission links and digital technologies. 3. Medical markets, a potentially very large volume market where a range of non-invasive optical sensing and imaging technologies are emerging including optical coherence tomography. 4. Chipscale integrated systems and subsystems for large data centers and supercomputer data transfer interconnects. Low-cost, ruggedized integrated photonics is a requirement for meeting these demands through efficient advanced photonic integrated circuit technology, in particular with regard to the large volume of components needed in a large datacenter or supercomputer.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Chip-scale integrated miniaturized, yet high performance photonic systems can significantly impact a wide range of applications including and in addition to NASA space communication and control needs. These applications include other terrestrial communications applications, including both free-space and fiber optic links, a range of sensing applications and potential optical waveform generating sources. Freedom Photonics will work with NASA and communications equipment manufacturers in the development and commercialization of these chip-scale photonic integration technologies to a variety of NASA applications and markets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Emitters
Lasers (Communication)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T8.02-9822
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Photonic Integrated Circuits
PROPOSAL TITLE: Tunable Opto-electronic Oscillator Based on Photonic Integration of Ultra-High Q Resonators on a SiN Chip

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
OEwaves, Inc.
465 North Halstead Street, Suite. #140
Pasadena, CA
91107-6016
(626) 351-4200

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of California-Davis
1850 Research Park Drive, #300
Davis, CA
95618-6153
(530) 754-7982

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrey Matsko
andrey.matsko@oewaves.com
465 N Halstead St. #140
Pasadena,  CA 91107-6016
(626) 351-4200

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The team comprising OEwaves Inc. and UC Davis offers to develop and demonstrate a SiN-platform integrated photonic circuit suitable for a spectrally pure chip-scale tunable opto-electronic RF oscillator (OEO) that can operate as a flywheel in high precision optical clock modules, as well as radio astronomy, spectroscopy, and local oscillator in radar and communications systems. The effort comprises integration of an ultra-high quality (Q) crystalline whispering gallery mode (WGM) microresonator with multiple lithographically defined photonic and electronic components and devices (including a laser, a detector and waveguides) on a single platform with nanometer-scale feature sizes. The proposed oscillator will be packaged in a volume of approximately 1cc, with net power consumption of less than 500 mW. The oscillator will produce a minimum of 10 mW of output RF power in Ka frequency band, and its single sideband (SSB) phase noise will be as low as -60 dBc/Hz at 10 Hz, and -160 dBc at 1 MHz and higher Fourier frequencies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Civilian: air traffic control (ATC) radar; GPS systems; satellite video mobile arrays; point-to-point microwave radio wireless data backhaul systems; local multi-point distribution service (LMDS) base stations; high-bandwidth terrestrial and space communications systems; scientific and test equipment. Military: phased array radar systems, including ship-based multi-functional phased arrays, large phased arrays for national ballistic missile defense, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), and mobile arrays for battlefield and regional missile defense systems; onboard guidance systems for interceptor missiles; high-bandwidth terrestrial and space communications systems; Electronic Warfare (EW), Electronic Counter-Counter Measure (ECCM) and Signal Intelligence (SIGINT) systems; radar test equipment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology is suitable for designing chip-scale tunable OEO and high precision optical clock modules particularly critical for small spacecraft platforms.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Microwave
Radio
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T8.02-9849
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Photonic Integrated Circuits
PROPOSAL TITLE: Heterogeneous Silicon Photonics OFDR Sensing System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luna Innovations, Inc.
301 1st Street Southwest, Suite 200
Roanoke, VA
24011-1921
(540) 769-8400

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of California, Santa Barbara
3227 Cheadle Hall
Santa Barbara, CA
93106-9560
(805) 893-3939

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Ohanian
ohanianj@lunainc.com
3155 State Street
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-6604
(540) 443-3872

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Luna will team with Dr. John Bowers of UCSB to develop an Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR) system-on-chip using heterogeneous silicon photonics to enable a minimal weight structural health monitoring system. This system-on-chip will be the building block for distributed sensing interrogation systems that are the size of a deck of playing cards. This lightweight, rugged, and miniature system will enable OFDR-based SHM sensing applications in space, where size and weight constraints are paramount. Phase I will prove the feasibility of using the heterogeneous silicon tuning laser chip developed by UCSB to drive an OFDR sensor in the laboratory, culminating with a distributed strain measurement in a composite part. During Phase II, Luna will develop a full OFDR system-on-chip, demonstrating the miniaturization and weight savings necessary for deep space SHM applications. Overcoming technical hurdles in laser tuning, polarization control, and delay line length are critical to successful commercialization of the innovation for SHM sensing, and will provide advancement in the state-of-the-art of silicon photonics and structural health monitoring.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful commercialization of an OFDR system-on-chip will revolutionize the fiber optic distributed sensing market. Attaining the unrivaled spatial resolution of OFDR in a miniaturized, lightweight, and low-cost package will enable many new sensing applications. Distributed fiber optic sensing is a perfect fit for embedding strain sensors in composite structures in aerospace and automotive vehicles. This innovation will be the first step to achieve in-flight, online SHM of aeronautical and space launch vehicle structures. The high-definition sensing of OFDR can identify defects, delamination, and stress concentrations that traditional strain gage sensors miss. The reduction in cost and size, weight, and power (SWaP) enabled by this research will be crucial to successful implementation. Advancing the state-of-the-art in structural health monitoring will increase safety and efficiency in aircraft and automotive transportation, and can also be adapted to benefit civil infrastructure like bridges and buildings.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Luna's proposed innovation will address the four chief technical challenges of deep space travel: mass reduction, reliability, affordability, and radiation hardening. The reduction of volume/mass/power of electronics and elimination of copper wires will maximize the science return for future missions. CMOS fabrication of optical networks will allow for ruggedization and increases in reliability as well as reductions in cost. Radiation hardening of a continuous wave tunable laser will provide a reliable building block for future missions such as Discovery, New Frontiers, Mars, and Europa-Jupiter. Applying OFDR to structural health monitoring will benefit launch vehicles, space stations, and inflatable habitats. Implementing OFDR as a photonics system-on-chip for SHM will achieve the size, weight, and power requirements for these innovative space applications. Teaming with UCSB (part of IP-IMI/AIM Photonics) adds credibility to achieving a viable OFDR-based photonics product for structural health monitoring.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)
Thermal
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T8.02-9931
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Photonic Integrated Circuits
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multifunctional Integrated Photonic Lab-on-a-Chip for Astronaut Health Monitoring

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation
2363 Calle Del Mundo
Santa Clara, CA
95054-1008
(408) 565-9004

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stanford Engineering Computer Science
353 Serra Mall
Stanford, CA
94305-4088
(650) 723-9775

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Behzad Moslehi
bm@ifos.com
2363 Calle Del Mundo
Santa Clara,  CA 95054-1008
(408) 565-9004

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Astronauts do not have a simple and reliable method to accurately and in real-time monitor their health during missions. IFOS proposes an innovative miniaturized blood monitoring lab-on-a-chip to directly monitor astronaut health in real-time. IFOS' innovative system comprises a miniaturized biosensor based on photonic integrated circuits and sensitive fluorescent assay. While IFOS' initial focus will be on measurement of total protein concentration in blood, IFOS will leverage and build upon pioneering work done by collaborator Stanford University to enable multi-analyte sensing. The implementation of the blood monitoring device on Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) will enabling a form factor of 1 cubic inch at competitive cost.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The IFOS innovation will enable widespread and affordable blood testing away from clinics. The sensor chip will also support warfighter health while deployed in forward-field environment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The IFOS innovation will enable new capabilities for NASA's planned and future long-duration manned space missions. Mission controllers and flight crew will have increased confidence that health issues can be detected before becoming acute, allowing mission focus.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Medical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T11.01-9896
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Machine Learning and Data Mining for Autonomy, Health Management, and Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flight Director In A Box: Using Learning to Develop Planning Agents For Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRACLabs, Inc.
100 North East Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio, TX
78216-1234
(281) 461-7886

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
77 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA
02139-4301
(617) 253-3922

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Russell Bonasso
bonasso@traclabs.com
100 North East Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio,  TX 78216-1234
(281) 461-7886

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
TRACLabs has developed a procedure integrated development environment called PRIDE that is currently being used by NASA for ISS and Orion procedures. As these procedures execute, they log all the pertinent execution information. Automated planners, developed by NASA over the years will be used to sequence these procedures to achieve goals during exploration flights or for planetary base operations. TRAClabs has successfully integrated planning and procedure execution, but humans manually code the most likely sequence of activities for the planner to use, a practice that is sub optimal and fraught with error. As flight directors and their flight control teams train for exploration using PRIDE in simulated environments, the procedure sequences they develop for exploration can be captured along with all the execution data. TRACLabs proposes to use the resulting logs, along with archived telemetry, as a basis for applying apprenticeship learning to learn what procedures should be used in a given situation and in what order. Automated planners could then ingest these learned policies during explorations operations to yield plans as they would be generated from an experienced flight control team. Further, as the planner executes plans, we contend that the learner can continue to refine its policies during exploration missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
TRACLabs is already selling PRIDE as a commercial product to oil field services companies and is providing automation assistance to other companies for drilling operations. The companies involved have already expressed interest in licensing the new capabilities being developed in this project. We will work with them to make sure that this project meets their requirements. TRACLabs expects additional customers in the oil and gas industry will deploy PRIDE once it has been proven effective. Sierra Nevada Corporation has also purchased PRIDE licenses for use in their Dream Chaser program, which was recently selected to deliver cargo to ISS. In all of these cases, we will offer the features developed this proposal as an "add-on" to the existing PRIDE software we deliver. Thus, we can immediately move this research out into industry by leveraging our existing PRIDE user base.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Mission planning is at the core of all space missions in order to efficiently employ high cost space assets such as astronauts, equipment, vehicles and communication links. Because of the light distances involved in exploration missions, the need for technologies that adapt over time will be of interest to all exploration activities. The "Proving Ground" and "MARS ready" phases of space exploration suggest this technology will be needed as these missions are designed and simulated. In the past at Johnson Space Center (JSC) we have worked with EVA personnel and flight directors in migrating PRIDE and planning technologies into mission control. These are the same people working on EVAs for the potential asteroid redirect mission as well as planetary base operations. We expect applications of our technology to impact several research programs, such as the new Mission Control Technologies (MCT) software being developed by NASA JSC DS, that is exploring ways to minimize the number of personnel working the flight control stations. This work will also provide a connection to automated planning technology development through NASA ARC's Automation for Operations (A4O) project and its successors.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Process Monitoring & Control
Sequencing & Scheduling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T11.02-9854
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Distributed Spacecraft Missions (DSM) Technology Framework
PROPOSAL TITLE: Vision-Based Navigation for Formation Flight onboard ISS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jaycon Systems
801 East Hibiscus
Melbourne, FL
32901-3252
(888) 226-4711

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Florida Institute of Technology
150 West University Boulevard
Melbourne, FL
32901-6975
(321) 674-8000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hector Gutierrez
hgutier@fit.edu
150 W. University Blvd.
Melbourne,  FL 32901-6975
(321) 298-5751

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The RINGS project (Resonant Inductive Near-field Generation Systems) was a DARPA-funded effort to demonstrate Electromagnetic Formation Flight and wireless power transfer in microgravity. Integration inconsistencies in both hardware and software prevented the experiment from achieving its objectives during the planned test sessions. A later project supported by NASA ARC focused on the assessment, diagnostics, corrections and ground testing of RINGS, to understand the reasons for the failure of RINGS to complete its science sessions, and assess the possibility of correcting these errors in future missions. The assessment concluded that RINGS can be successfully used in future science sessions provided that a new metrology system is available to navigate RINGS in real time onboard ISS. The proposed study supports the implementation, integration and ground testing of vision-based navigation of RINGS, using the Smartphone Video Guidance Sensor (SVGS) with SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellite). SVGS was developed at NASA MSFC for application on cubesats and small satellites to enable autonomous rendezvous and capture, and formation flying. SPHERES are free-flying robots that have been used for numerous experiments on board ISS. Their metrology system is based on ultrasonic beacons, and does not operate correctly with large flyers due to multi-path signal reflections. The main objective of this study is the integration of SVGS (as vision-based position and attitude sensor) with the SPHERES GN&C environment. Successful integration will be demonstrated by 3DOF vision-based guidance, navigation and motion control experiments on a flat floor using the RINGS ground units available at Florida Tech. Performance assessment will be done by a vision-based metrology system based on data fusion using high resolution cameras. A path forward for deployment on ISS will be developed in coordination with NASA ARC.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1. The proposed Phase I effort will deliver a positioning/metrology system well suited for navigation and positioning control applications in Robotics when vision-based feedback is desirable, such as in automated docking or inspection tasks. 2. The proposed vision-based GN&C sensor would also be well suited for positioning, navigation and visual inspection tasks in Cubesats.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
(1) The proposed effort will deliver a positioning/metrology system based on smartphones that can be used for navigation and positioning control applications in space robotics. (2) Orientation and navigation in cubesat and smallsat missions. Automatic docking and maneuvering cubesats can be used for inspection tasks. Cubesats capable of vision-based navigation can be used to perform close-up science missions. (3) Other applications: orbital debris mitigation, cubesat or smallsat formation flying, spacecraft docking, space robotic systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Command & Control
Teleoperation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T11.02-9927
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Distributed Spacecraft Missions (DSM) Technology Framework
PROPOSAL TITLE: Optical Intersatellite Communications for CubeSat Swarms

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CrossTrac Engineering, Inc.
2730 Street Giles Lane
Mountain View, CA
94040-4437
(408) 898-0376

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
77 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA
02139-4307
(617) 253-3906

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Hanson
john.hanson@crosstrac.com
2730 Street Giles Lane
Mountain View,  CA 94040-4437
(408) 898-0376

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The growing interest in CubeSat swarm and constellation systems by NASA, the Department of Defense and commercial ventures has created a need for self-managed inter-satellite networks capable of handling large amount of data while simultaneously precisely measuring the distances between the spacecraft. CrossTrac Engineering, Inc., in cooperation with our partners Professor Kerri Cahoy of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Mr. Paul Graven of Cateni, Inc., proposes to develop a free space optical communications and ranging system with inherent precision pointing as a 1U module for 3U and larger CubeSats requiring intersatellite crosslinks. Based on technology developed by Professor Cahoy and her team at MIT, the module will enable small satellites to achieve the sub-milliradian pointing control of the optical beam necessary to close laser crosslinks at ranges from 200 km to 1000 km with input power of less than 20 W and data rates of 100 Mbps and greater, all within a 10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm (1U) volume or smaller. The proposed work is directly aligned with the STTR solicitation T11.02 and the objectives of Technology Area 5.1 Optical Communications and Navigation in the NASA 2015 Technology Roadmap.1 Optical crosslinks are a key technology that will enable new multi-spacecraft CubeSat and microsatellite missions. These missions include large constellations for global data distribution and rapid response Earth imaging and asset tracking as well as swarm missions that, among other tasks, can be formed into sparse aperture systems providing unprecedented image resolution. These swarm missions require precise relative position knowledge as well. The optical terminal being developed under this effort will provide this sub-mm level relative position knowledge. Furthermore, the free space optical crosslinks can be used to make atmospheric composition and thermophysical measurements (e.g., via laser occultation).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In many ways, commercial ventures have led the way in the development of capable CubeSat platforms and the exploitation of their capabilities to meet customer needs. The optical terminal and related network will enhance the capabilities of existing imaging and asset tracking CubeSat constellations by providing a means to move large amounts of data through the constellation quickly, reducing data transfer latency and making more efficient use of ground stations. Proposed constellations that intend to provide data services to customers throughout the world even in remote locations will require crosslinks to provide immediate connections between users and distributed ground stations. Optical crosslinks will be necessary for these users to move the large amounts of data they produce. Swarms of spacecraft, relying on the close coordination of action to perform a mission in unison that cannot be performed by a single spacecraft, can use this technology to create large sparse aperture imaging systems with unprecedented resolution, among other applications. Similar missions are being explored by the Department of Defense and the National Reconnaissance Office.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The optical communications terminal and networking concept developed under this effort will provide new capabilities to small spacecraft operating in constellations and swarms, allowing them to transfer large amounts of data around the network while simultaneously measuring the positions of the spacecraft relative to one another. This development will support NASA constellation and swarm missions, providing a high data rate network and precision metrology system. Swarms of spacecraft, relying on the close coordination of action to perform a mission in unison that cannot be performed by a single spacecraft, can use this technology to explore Earth-Sun interaction by measuring spatial variations in electromagnetic fields and create large sparse aperture imaging systems with unprecedented resolution, among other applications. These swarm missions can be performed around other celestial bodies, comets, near-Earth objects just as well as they can around the Earth.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Ad-Hoc Networks (see also Sensors)
Transmitters/Receivers


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T11.02-9964
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Distributed Spacecraft Missions (DSM) Technology Framework
PROPOSAL TITLE: Efficient On-board Lamberts Solution for DSM

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Space, LLC
2100 Central Avenue, Suite 102
Boulder, CO
80301-3783
(720) 545-9191

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Regents of the University of Colorado
3100 Marine Street, Room 479
boulder, CO
80303-1058
(303) 492-6221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jay McMahon
jay.mcmahon@colorado.edu
3100 Marine Street Room 479
Boulder,  CO 80303-1058
(303) 492-3944

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Distributed Spacecraft Missions (DSMs) such as constellations, formation-flying missions, and fractionated missions provide unique scientific and programmatic benefits. Distributed mission architectures allow for multipoint in-situ measurements, multi-angle viewpoints, and considerably improved understanding of the connections between separately measured phenomena and their time variations. DSMs are particularly important for NASA's efforts to better understand Sun-Earth interactions, space weather, and heliophysics, and they deliver operational and scientific benefits for missions to small bodies and planetary satellites as well. In all cases these missions impose unique operational requirements that can stress ground tracking stations and mission operators by increasing the number of vehicles or create challenges when establishing sufficient communications contacts. These DSM challenges can be addressed by employing automation both on board and on the ground. Moving autonomous operations on board the spacecraft mitigates both the operational burden of such missions as well as the ground segment congestion faced in these scenarios. Advanced Space proposes developing a real-time (RT), open source, embedded software (ESW) application for on-board maneuver planning and relative orbit determination that is compatible with NASA's Core Flight System (cFS) and that enables DSMs to operate with increased autonomy in their spacecraft operations. In combination with cFS, an on-board software engine capable of employing a linearized solution of Lambert's problem will yield a powerful and enabling application for a wide variety of missions using distributed spacecraft arrangements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other government agencies can leverage this technology in multiple applications and environments. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in partnership with the Department of Defense (DoD) and NASA, has been directed to lead the White House's Space Weather Action Plan, which will oversee the "deployment of new operational space-weather-observing assets." NOAA operates the NASA-developed Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) satellite in deep space and intends to deploy other satellites to maintain the continuity of this mission's data collection objectives. The proposed innovation is potentially critical to allowing the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) (in partnership with NASA), to develop an autonomous multi-spacecraft Landsat. Launch vehicles, like United Launch Alliance's (ULA) Vulcan rocket and its future Advanced Cryogenic Evolved Stage (ACES), will maximize the time the vehicle remains operational. Our proposed solution enables ACES to autonomously monitor its orbit relative to other spacecraft and accurately deliver payloads to target orbits reliably.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has targeted heliophysics, Earth sciences, and planetary sciences as high-priority areas of scientific interest. Developing advanced distributed spacecraft capabilities will strongly advance NASA's ability to investigate and understand the complex physical interactions characteristic in these areas. NASA's goals in heliophysics are particularly well-suited for the proposed application. Understanding phenomena like magnetic reconnection in geospace requires multi-point, multi-instrument data acquisition over short and long time scales. Obtaining sufficient quality and quantity of data to characterize these environments will remain difficult until distributed systems of spacecraft working with significant more autonomy are available. Stereographic and multi-viewpoint imaging enables the resolution of features and their setting in detail that is simply unobtainable via single spacecraft observations. The notional MEDICI mission proposes using two spacecraft to observe the same environment from differing angles to obtain a stereographic view of ionospheric behavior.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T12.01-9795
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Structural Health Monitoring
PROPOSAL TITLE: Structural-Health Aware Failure-Tolerant Engineered to Respond (SAFER) Additively Manufactured Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Made in Space, Inc.
427 North Tatnall Street, #56666
Wilmington, DE
19801-2230
(209) 736-7768

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Ohio State University
224 Bolz Hall, 2036 Neil Avenue
Columbus, OH
43210-1226
(614) 247-6080

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Derek Thomas
derek@madeinspace.us
150 Dailey Rd
Moffett field,  CA 94035-0000
(415) 341-5303

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Structural degradation and failure can cause malfunctions and long-term problems aboard spacecraft, jeopardizing the crew, especially in deep space missions. On Off-world habitats, this can lead to extensive maintenance procedures and dangerous EVAs to fix malfunctions. Micrometeorite impact and shielding breaches can have lasting impacts that pose a significant hazard to the longevity of missions. Made In Space, Inc. (MIS) has been developing novel additive manufacturing (AM) technologies for the production and application of embedded sensors and actuators. MIS's Structural-Health Aware Failure-Tolerant Engineered to Respond (SAFER) Additively Manufactured System is a suite of integrated technologies and composite materials that are compatible with AM processing techniques ranging from Free-Form-Fabrication, Direct-Write, and injection molding. Using the advanced AM technologies developed for microgravity manufacturing at MIS and piezoelectric thermoplastics provided by the Ohio State University (OSU), a major suite of structural monitoring and sensing technologies will be made available to designers for a variety of applications. The SAFER Additive Manufactured System will include a suite of AM solutions for the following applications: embedded strain-sensors for health monitoring and diagnosis; piezoelectric actuators and sensors for system prognosis; and embedded heaters and actuators for system self-healing and increased rigidity. SAFER embedded systems empower designers to cut weight of structural monitoring and increase structural safety with the freedom of AM. With the development of a novel piezoelectric AM material, SAFER will be a key component to safe long-duration manned space flight such as NASA's Journey to Mars and beyond. SAFER gives NASA peace of mind by coupling health-monitoring and self-repairing materials.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a number of applications by other government agencies, including: - Vehicles having integrated structural health monitoring and repair/reinforcement, including planes, boats, small submarines such as the SEAL Delivery Vehicle. - Actively monitored and reinforced pressure vessels and containment vessels. There are a number of potential commercial applications of SAF3R, including: - 3D printable piezoelectric material enables piezoelectric microphones, speakers, inkjet printer pumps, motors sensors, fuses, strain gauges, and the like. - SAFER cars - SAFER can be integrated into future vehicles to provide an even greater level of systems monitoring than currently exists in motor vehicles. The addition of SAFER?s repair/reinforcement abilities is functionality that currently does not exist in the market.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a number of NASA applications for SAFER, including: - Active support structures for imaging telescopes - Piezoelectric solenoids enable active optical systems. As part of Phase I, 3D printable piezoelectrics are developed, thereby enabling optimized construction of active optical backplanes. - Resilient backbone structures for long duration human spaceflight missions. - Active monitoring and reinforcement of spacecraft deployed for long durations in extraterrestrial locations - Active monitoring and repair/reinforcement of space launch vehicle structure, enabling portions of the structure to be reinforced if weakened, thereby increasing mission resilience.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Metallics
Nanomaterials
Nonspecified
Polymers
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T12.01-9839
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Structural Health Monitoring
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Ultrasonic Wireless Sensor Network for Data Communication and Structural Health Monitoring

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
X-wave Innovations, Inc.
555 Quince Orchard Road, Suite 510
Gaithersburg, MD
20878-1464
(301) 948-8351

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Maryland Eastern Shore
30925 College Backbone Road
Princess Anne, MD
21853-1299
(410) 651-6365

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dan Xiang
dxiang@x-waveinnovations.com
555 Quince Orchard Road, Suite 510
Gaithersburg,  MD 20878-1464
(301) 200-8168

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Typical Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) uses embedded ultrasonic transducers exclusively for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) purposes, whereas data transfer is performed over separate wireless radio frequency (RF) links. Ultrasonic systems, however, are also effective as a communication technology, and in fact may prove to have crucial advantages over RF-based sensor networks in certain scenarios. In this proposal, X-wave Innovations, Inc. (XII) and University of Maryland Easton Shore (UMES) outline an innovative Self-powered Ultrasonic Wireless Sensor Network (SUWSN) technology, which performs simultaneous NDE and wireless data communication. Our communication approach is based on a special modulation technique that mitigates the dispersive nature of the ultrasonic channel and allows the simultaneous determination of structural health. For the Phase I program, we will prototype a SUWSN system and demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed technique for simultaneous data communication and NDI/SHM. For the Phase II program, we will focus on refining the SUWSN prototype system design and development with improved hardware and software. For the Phase III program, XII will focus on optimizing the SUWSN performance and collaborating with our commercial partners to improve and package the SUWSN technology into a turnkey commercially-available system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We envision that the proposed system has many market applications in different industries such as exploration, defense, aviation, and civil and environmental engineering sectors. Other government agencies, including DoD, DOE, DOT will benefit from this technology. Wireless technologies for SHM and other applications are constantly being sought in many markets, especially those that require constant real-time monitoring of large structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has great interest in methods and approaches for intelligent wireless monitoring of structural health and sensing in aircrafts. Wireless communications has been identified as a promising technology that could enable aircraft health monitoring in difficult to reach locations while reducing or eliminating the weight and logistical burden of using wires for sensing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Acoustic/Vibration
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Air Transportation & Safety
Ad-Hoc Networks (see also Sensors)
Transmitters/Receivers


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T12.01-9924
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Structural Health Monitoring
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Structural Health Monitoring

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Texas Research Institute Austin, Inc.
9063 Bee Cave Road
Austin, TX
78733-6201
(512) 615-4497

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Missouri University Science and Technology
202 Centinial Hall, 300 West 12th Street
Rolla, MO
65409-1330
(573) 341-4126

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Russell Austin
raustin@tri-austin.com
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin,  TX 78733-6201
(512) 263-2101

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) are periodic arrays of conductive elements or patches that cause a particular reflection or transmission response when illuminated with high frequency electromagnetic energy. These arrays have been used as high frequency filters and in radar, stealth and advanced antenna applications, and more recently, as sensors. In particular, FSS-based sensing has found a home as a next-generation structural health monitoring (SHM) approach. FSS sensors are inherently wireless and passive, and are interrogated remotely via microwave energy. These sensors can be embedded in layered dielectric (non-conducting) structures during manufacture or installed during the service lifetime on the surface (conductive or dielectric). Microwaves penetrate through dielectrics, so in the case of layered structures, FSS sensors can be placed on materials/layers of interest that may be covered by additional dielectrics (such as reentry heat tiles covered with insulation). Multiple sensing parameters can be concurrently sensed through proper sensor design and interrogation, as is illustrated below through a strain and temperature sensor. This Phase I effort will focus on creating a design for a field deployable prototype that can be ruggedized for use in space environments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
FSS sensors can be applied to large infrastructure assets including bridges and dams and other hard to inspect large area structures. FSS sensors can provide instantaneous readouts of the strain state of a structure. FSS sensors can also be applied in the petrochemical field, being placed on pipes and tanks monitoring for any sign of induced strain or a temperature change that would be indicative of a potential leak.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
FSS sensors can be applied to any of the current or any future launch vehicles used by NASA. The sensors can be applied under Thermal Protection Systems, high temperature reusable surface insuslaiton, advanced flexible reusable insulation, and under composite overwrap on pressure vessels. FSS sensors can be applied to habitat areas on structural components that are not readily accessible. The FSS sensors can be used to monitor strain loads, detect impact damage, and monitor temperatures in crewed environments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Metallics
Structures
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Microwave
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Space Transportation & Safety
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Characterization


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T12.02-9846
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies to Enable Novel Composite Repair Methods
PROPOSAL TITLE: Efficient Composite Repair Methods for Launch Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luna Innovations, Inc.
301 1st Street Southwest, Suite 200
Roanoke, VA
24011-1921
(540) 769-8400

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerospace Corp
2350 East El Segundo Boulevard
El Segundo, CA
90245-4609
(310) 336-5664

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Metrey
metreyd@lunainc.com
3155 State Street
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-6604
(540) 961-4509

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Polymer matrix composites are increasingly replacing traditional metallic materials in NASA launch vehicles. However, the repair and subsequent inspection methods for these materials are considerably more complicated. Typically, a composite laminate patch must be manually fabricated and bonded or co-cured to the damaged structure. To ensure high quality patches with sufficient compaction and low void content, significant time, preparation and equipment is required. Current surface preparations require time consuming labor and can be a risk for further damage. The ideal repair methodology would allow for a rapid structural repair to be performed on-site in locations with minimal access and without the need for extensive tooling, surface prep, cure times and complicated inspection techniques. Engineers at Luna have developed a number of technologies that have the potential to enable high performance composite repair and inspection during pre-launch ground processing. Luna's comprehensive system will realize improvements via facile surface preparation, reduction of specialized fabrication equipment, rapid-on-demand curing resins and utilization of Luna's unique fiber optic measurement capability for monitoring repair state. This Phase I program will focus on developing these methods for composite damage that can be performed during ground processing of the launch vehicle without the need for full replacement

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Luna's technology is applicable to a wide range of composite material systems, manufacturing methods, and applications. The barrier and curative approaches can be adapted to prepreg systems that would have prolonged room temperature storage capability with the ability to be quickly cured, out of autoclave and on-demand. The impact of these systems on the broad composite commercial market could be enormous. A good example where the technology would be directly applicable and would make a dramatic impact is the military and commercial aerospace industry, where optimal performance is required of structural components for the absolute maximum weight savings.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Luna's composite repair system will be directly applicable to launch pad damage mitigation activities for current and future launch vehicles. Ground processing operators will be able to identify the damage that will require patching and Luna's technology will enable rapid surface preparation, patch bonding, vacuum debulking and consolidation without the need for complicated tooling or equipment. This should dramatically reduce time and energy costs while maintaining high probabilities of mission success.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Polymers
Structures
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T12.02-9910
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies to Enable Novel Composite Repair Methods
PROPOSAL TITLE: Composite Repair System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gloyer-Taylor Laboratories, LLC
112 Mitchell Boulevard
Tullahoma, TN
37388-4002
(931) 455-7333

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brigham Young University
A-285 ASB
Provo, UT
84602-1231
(801) 422-2970

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zachary Taylor
Zachary.taylor@gtlcompany.com
41548 Eastman Drive Unit A
Murrieta,  CA 92562-7051
(951) 600-9999

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
GTL has developed an innovative composite repair methodology known as the Composite Repair System (CRS). In this phase I effort, CRS is being developed for the repair of damaged induced in thin-laminate composite cryotanks. In applying CRS to damaged composite structures, the required level of structural capacity is recovered to within a predetermined percentage of its original performance after being damaged. GTL?s CRS offers a repair method that reduces complexity and time required to perform repairs. Designed to repair damage in locations with minimal access, the CRS repairs can be made at any point after laminate fabrication. The CRS can be used to perform launch vehicle repairs in assembled states while on the launch platform. In the phase I effort, GTL will perform initial feasibility studies and tests to validate the anticipated performance capacities of the CRS repairs. At the close of this effort, the design will be refined. At this time, initial studies will be performed to incorporate ?smart? sensing technology into the repairs. In the phase II effort, GTL will extend this analysis and apply this ?smart? technology to refined repair patches. These patches will be tested one of GTL?s pre-existing cryotanks in the phase II effort.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
CRS can be developed as a general composite repair technology, with possible application to laminates ranging from highly specialized (e.g. GTL?s BHL cryotank) to more general. In terms of general composite structures, CRS can be used to repair composite military structures including fixed and rotary wing aircraft, tanks, and missiles. The CRS technology is just as applicable to existing composite structure within the commercial market. It could also be used to repair both military and civilian space vehicles and tankage.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Composite Repair System will be a tool that can be used to quickly repair damaged cryotanks in assembled states while on the launch pad. Its application to the repair of thin-laminate cryotanks can easily be extended to the repair of other pre-existing cryotanks of varying thickness. Future development will expand the applications of the CRS to in-vitro repairs for more general laminates. In this vein, the CRS could be applied to the repair of a multitude of aerospace structures in addition to cryotanks. This repair technique would also be useful in repairing space habitat structures as minor space related damages are incurred into the composite structure.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Destructive Testing
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Characterization


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T12.03-9812
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thin-Ply Composites Design Technology and Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Mechanism Based Damage Model for Linerless Thin-Ply Composite Pressure Vessels

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Research and Design, Inc.
300 East Swedesford Road
Wayne, PA
19087-1858
(610) 964-9000

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Dayton Research Institute
300 College Park
Dayton, OH
45469-0101
(937) 229-4704

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Hladio
dan.hladio@m-r-d.com
300 E. Swedesford Road
Wayne,  PA 19087-1858
(610) 964-9000

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Thin-ply composites are being considered by NASA for space exploration applications, where the suppression of microcracks could give rise to linerless cryogenic tanks. In this proposed Phase I STTR effort, material testing coupled with health monitoring techniques will be used to quantify damage accumulation within composite materials, both standard ply thickness and of the thin-ply design. A multi-scale physics based approach, verified with empirical data, will be used to develop a design tool capable of predicting the useable life of a composite structure subjected to cyclic loads. A fracture mechanics based model in a multi-scale framework is proposed as a design tool for modeling thin-ply laminates. The key variable of the model, the microcracking critical energy release rate (CERR), is to be calibrated to quasi-static and fatigue testing. Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring will be used to quantify the crack density as a function of load history. The model will be interrogated with CERRs to best match the crack density as a function of load observed during the experiments. If the CERR is indeed a material property, the same value should exist regardless of ply thickness and fiber architecture. The design tool will include a stand-alone program to perform this calibration of the CERR for cross-ply laminates. Additionally, a User Material (UMAT) will be written to link the microcracking model to a structural level model in a commercial finite element code.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Any industry utilizing composite materials can benefit from the advancement of thin-ply composites, which includes the automotive industry, fixed-wing aircraft, rotorcraft, industrial pressure vessels, and recreational sports equipment. Benchmarking the relationship between acoustic emissions and composite damage enables Structural Health Monitoring Systems for any application where safety is of a concern (i.e. commercial aircraft).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The program will directly benefit the advancement towards linerless cryogenic tanks for space exploration applications. Structural components in both manned and unmanned vehicles will benefit from the thin-ply composites by increasing design allowables resulting in thinner and lighter structures. Additionally, Structural Health Monitoring Systems (SHMS) and Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) are both technologies that aim to improve component life prediction through the analysis of operational data collected by sensors. The correlation between AE signal accumulation and crack density within composite parts is a powerful tool for any industry currently using composite materials. This technology can give real time information regarding the health of the composite part, allowing for efficient servicing and/or replacement of parts.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Lifetime Testing
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T12.03-9971
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thin-Ply Composites Design Technology and Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Design and Process Development of Thin-Ply Composites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Composites Automation, LLC
9 Adelaide Court
Newark, DE
19702-2068
(302) 584-4184

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Delaware

Newark, DE
19716-0099
(302) 831-8626

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Roger Crane
crane@compositesautomationllc.com
9 Adelaide Court
Newark,  DE 19702-2068
(410) 562-2163

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project evaluates automated tape placement (ATP) processing of thin ply composites, including process and design modeling, test panel fabrication and mechanical performance evaluation. Key to successful transition of standard ply to thin ply ATP processing is the ability to fabricate uniform high fiber volume and fiber distribution composite parts with below 1% void content. Our ATP robotic system will be adapted to handle thin ply materials, including accurate placement and consolidation to minimize potential defects (adjacent tape gaps creating voids, non-uniform compaction of plies, etc.). Existing modeling of the placement process at our academic partner will support hardware optimization. Coupon fabrication and testing will provide validation of the process to produce high quality parts and initiate the development of a property database (microstructure, mechanical performance, etc.).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The general approach and specific technologies developed in this STTR can also be applied to other military platforms and commercial applications (aerospace, automotive, wind etc). These applications may require additional material testing and R&D to meet certifications and particular application requirements.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has interest in applying thin ply technology in various programs including the Composite Cryotank Technologies and Demonstration (CCTD) project. The Boeing Company was contracted to design, analyze, and manufacture the large composite cryotanks for testing at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. An automated placement system was utilized to place thick and thin prepreg plies with final consolidation using out-of-autoclave processing (OOA). The approach has the potential to reduce cost by 25% and weight by 30 percent compared to existing aluminum-lithium propellant tanks.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Structures
Simulation & Modeling
Airship/Lighter-than-Air Craft
Analytical Methods
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T12.04-9880
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Experimental and Analytical Technologies for Additive Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Computational Material Engineering Technologies for Additive Manufacturing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
QuesTek Innovations, LLC
1820 Ridge Avenue
Evanston, IL
60201-3621
(847) 328-5800

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Pittsburgh
123 University Place
Pittsburgh, PA
15213-2698
(412) 624-7400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jiadong Gong
jgong@questek.com
1820 Ridge Avenue
Evanston,  IL 60201-3621
(847) 425-8221

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
QuesTek Innovations, a pioneer in Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) and a Tibbetts Award recipient, is teaming with University of Pittsburgh, proposing to expand their Materials by Design technology and develop the essential ICME technologies that help optimize the additive manufacturing (AM) process of Inconel Alloy718. One of the biggest hurdles to the adoption of AM of metals is the qualification of additively manufactured parts while currently available systems are based largely on hand-tuned parameters determined by trial-and-error for a limited set of materials with significant uncertainty. A comprehensive ICME approach is needed to address this issue by modeling the process-structure-property chain to predict performance of AM parts. We propose to improve state-of-the-art modeling for AM by coupling FEM codes with materials phase transformation and precipitation simulation software. The Phase I focus on determining the ICME framework architecture and identifying the necessary models as building blocks, as well as key data and experiments for calibration and validation. The resulted ICME tools will enable engineers to develop efficient machines and to optimize and certify AM process and materials, with greatly reduced time, cost, uncertainty, and risk and improved reliability, confidence, and quality assurance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Additive manufacturing processes are being integrated into the manufacturing pathways of a wide range of industries. Industries with high temperature applications where alloy 718 is used, and in which companies are either producing components with additive manufacturing or integrating additive processes, include the commercial space, aerospace, industrial and automotive industries. The commercial space industry applications would be identical to the NASA applications outlined in the previous section. For the aerospace industry, key applications focus on jet engine components including supporting structures, airfoils, blades, sheets, discs, rotating parts and other components that are either being built with additive processes or would be considered for additive with the knowledge gained from the proposed software technology under this program. Industrial applications include gas turbine components similar to those aforementioned.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The software developed in this program would apply to a wide range of NASA applications, specifically for platforms that utilize components made of alloy 718 and the associated manufacturing supply chain that would aim to integrate additive manufacturing technologies. These include high temperature applications where strength, creep resistance, and cracking resistance in welds is of benefit. Specific components where additive manufacturing of 718 can bring value to the supply chain are rocket engine and turbine components such as disks, combustion chambers, bolts, casings, shafts, housings and fasteners. The significance of a software tool that can model the additive process and bring reliability to AM 718 parts is seen in the high level of structural integrity and performance required by flight- and mission-critical components.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Metallics
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Quality/Reliability
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T12.04-9923
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Experimental and Analytical Technologies for Additive Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Prediction and Control of Selective Laser Melting Product Microstructure

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
701 McMillian Way Northwest, Suite D
Huntsville, AL
35806-2923
(256) 726-4800

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arizona State University
660 South Mill Avenue, Suite 312
Tempe, AZ
85281-3670
(480) 727-2720

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Cole
vernon.cole@cfdrc.com
701 McMillian Way, NW, Ste. D
Huntsville,  AL 35806-2923
(256) 726-4852

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Despite the rapid commercialization of additive manufacturing technology such as selective laser melting, SLM, there are gaps in models for material microstructure and property prediction that slow qualification and certification. Improvements in coupling microstructure prediction models to local process conditions, validation, and control of material microstructure are required to mature the state of the art. To address these needs, CFDRC in partnership with Arizona State University will develop and apply modeling and simulation tools for prediction and control of microstructure in SLM fabricated parts. The Phase I effort will establish critical software elements, modeling methodology, and experimental data analysis required for Phase II. We will demonstrate the feasibility of high-fidelity models that are capable of predicting the formation of key metallurgical microstructures observed in SLM additive manufacturing processes as a function of the local thermal environment at different locations within the as-built component, reduced models for mapping process conditions to additional microstructure features impacting material quality, and potentially controlling material quality throughout a sample as-built part. The Phase II program will focus on the development of efficient, validated high-fidelity simulation codes and reduced models providing the means to reduce variability in as-built material microstructure and properties, and culminate with the delivery to these tools to NASA researchers and other stakeholders.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
DoD and their prime contractors will also benefit from rapid process development and improved control of material qualities when applying AM to achieve cost-effective low-volume production. A number of DoD agencies - in particular, DARPA, Air Force and Navy - are also evaluating the functional benefits that can be obtained by a combination of advanced design methods (topology optimization) and AM. The modeling tools and fundamental understanding resulting from this effort will be particularly valuable for quickly developing processes to produce AM fabricated components with high confidence in material quality.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has identified a number of components within the SLS, including RS-25 engine parts, which provide the opportunity for significant cost and time savings if additive manufacturing can be used for their production. These high-value AM applications are typically for complex structures that require forming, machining, and welding of multiple pieces using traditional manufacturing methods. SLM provides economic advantages by enabling replacement of such multi-piece machined and welded components with single-piece elements. The proposed modeling tools will provide the needed understanding of how material microstructure evolves during SLM fabrication of such components as a single unit, enabling increased confidence in the resulting part quality.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Metallics
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T13.01-9800
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Intelligent Sensor Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Through Wall Wireless Intelligent Sensor and Health Monitoring (TWall-ISHM) System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
American GNC Corporation
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley, CA
93065-1812
(805) 582-0582

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
110 8th Street
Troy, NY
12180-3590
(518) 276-6283

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Francisco Maldonado
emelgarejo@americangnc.com
888 Easy Street
888 Easy Street,  CA 93065-1812
(805) 582-0582

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's strategic needs include those related to flexible instrumentation capable of monitoring remote or inaccessible measurement locations within Stennis Space Center (SSC) testing facilities. Looking to support the advancement of NASA SSC's infrastructure, American GNC Corporation (AGNC) and the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) are proposing the Through Wall Wireless Intelligent Sensor and Health Monitoring (TWall-ISHM) System. Distinctive TWall-ISHM system core capability is monitoring remote and/or inaccessible measurement locations constrained or completely sealed by barriers (such as metallic walls, composite structures, or even concrete layers) where wiring through the barrier (wall or enclosed structure) is not an option. TWall-ISHM system's key advantages are: (a) non-intrusive sensing scheme, meaning that perforations through the isolating wall are not required; (b) capability of wireless data and power transmission through the wall by robust ultrasound techniques; (c) Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) elements self-diagnostics (those used either for ultrasound communication or as sensors); (d) embedded intelligent algorithms within Transducer Interface Modules (TIM, i.e. smart sensors); (e) Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) with high level analysis, more powerful algorithms, and standard communications; and (f) sensor network operation capability, i.e. several smart sensors on both sides of the wall and in remote locations can communicate to the NCAP.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The TWall-ISHM directly or with few modifications can be applied to embedded system health monitoring (by processing of strain, stress, humidity, temperature, etc.) of equipment/machinery/assets in difficult to access locations such as airframe components (wings and enclosed fuselage compartments); remote and inaccessible bridge elements; civil structures; and military infrastructure. Innovative aerospace instrumentation and advanced measurement techniques are enabled when considering data and energy transferal in pressurized aircraft cabin or cockpit, where sensors in both the outside and inside of the cabin can communicate data based on the thru-wall ultrasound technology. Corrosion monitoring within inaccessible locations where; (a) civil structures (buildings, bridges, etc.); (b) vessels; and (c) military infrastructure can be beneficiated by this technology. Military assets life-cycle status monitoring and tracking by vibration base analysis and internal conditions monitoring (such as temperature and humidity) within sealed metallic structures (as stores) can provide information about operational conditions to which the asset has been exposed (such as transportation or in-fly exposure time to events of interest). When infused to AGNC's Health Monitoring Enterprise infrastructure markets include: (1) Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS) and Enterprise Asset Management; (2) complex system maintenance and repair guidance; (3) and Internet of Things (IOT).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The TWall-ISHM System will directly support NASA's Propulsion test facilities by providing innovative cost-effective sensor & Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system with minimally intrusive ultrasound communication and intelligent data analysis diagnostic techniques. SHM will be focused to pipelines health monitoring for leakage detection. Distribution system key parameter (such as pressure, flow, heat flux, and temperature) monitoring capability is leveraged by wireless through wall communication. As result applications of the TWall-ISHM are broad. Potential NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) use specifically involves: (i) distribution systems; (ii) vacuum lines and pressurized systems; (iii) cryogenic test facilities; (iv) propellant delivery systems; (v) cooling water or gas lines; (vi) various facilities and the A, B, and E test complexes; and (vii) other complex systems. Other potential monitoring applications include support to: (a) Glen Research Center, for example, vacuum line monitoring at the zero gravity research facility; (b) International Space Station (ISS) where the sensor nodes can be deployed along the station's structure or in enclosed, difficult to reach spaces for gathering, processing, and disseminating data; (c) Smart Structures Development; (d) Flight Test and Measurement Technologies; (e) Integrated System Health Management for Sustainable Habitats; (f) Vehicle Safety - Internal Situational Awareness and Response; and (g) NDE analysis, among others.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Network Integration
Routers, Switches
Transmitters/Receivers
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T13.01-9820
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Intelligent Sensor Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Self-Powered Multi-Functional Wireless Sensor Network for Nondestructive Evaluation and Structural Health Monitoring

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
X-wave Innovations, Inc.
555 Quince Orchard Road, Suite 510
Gaithersburg, MD
20878-1464
(301) 948-8351

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
New York Institute of Technology
Old Westbury Campus, P.O. Box 8000
New York City, NY
11568-8000
(212) 264-2069

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dan Xiang
dxiang@x-waveinnovations.com
555 Quince Orchard Road, Suite 510
Gaithersburg,  MD 20878-1464
(301) 200-8128

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is looking for advanced sensor technologies, especially wireless embedded sensor systems, to support rocket propulsion development. The enabling technology should provide a highly flexible instrumentation solution capable of monitoring remote or inaccessible measurement locations. This sensor system should substantially reduce operational costs and evolutionary improvements in ground, launch and flight system operational robustness. It should provide an advanced diagnostics capability to monitor test facility parameters including temperature, pressure, strain and near-field acoustics. To address this critical need, X-wave Innovations, Inc. (XII) and Prof. Fang Li from New York Institute of Technology (NYIT) propose an innovative passive, wireless, high temperature embedded sensor system that is capable of providing high-bandwidth measurements of temperature, pressure and strain on both rotating and non-rotating propulsion engine components. For the Phase I program, XII will prototype a embedded sensor system and demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed technique for passive, wireless, multi-parameter measurements. For the Phase II program, XII will focus on refining the prototype system design and development with improved hardware and software. For the Phase III program, XII will focus on optimizing the prototype performance and collaborating with our commercial partners to package the sensor technology into a commercially-available system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed wireless sensor system has many market applications in different industries such as exploration, defense, aviation, and civil and environmental engineering sectors. Other government agencies, including DOD, DOE, DOT will benefit from this technology. Passive, wireless, embedded sensor technologies for SHM and other applications are constantly being sought in many markets, especially those that require continuous monitoring of large infrastructures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has great interest in embedded sensor system with wireless data communication capabilities for a variety of applications, from ground testing, to flight testing, to in-service monitoring, etc. The proposed passive, wireless, high-temperature embedded sensor system provide a highly flexible instrumentation solution to monitor remote or inaccessible measurement locations for NASA's rocket propulsion test facilities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Acoustic/Vibration
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Ad-Hoc Networks (see also Sensors)
Transmitters/Receivers
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T15.01-9848
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Distributed Electric Propulsion Aircraft Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Methodology for Distributed Electric Propulsion Aircraft Control Development with Simulation and Flight Demonstration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Empirical Systems Aerospace, Inc.
P.O. Box 595
Pismo Beach, CA
93448-9665
(805) 275-1053

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois, OSPRA
1901 South First Street, Suite A
Champaign, IL
61820-7473
(217) 333-2187

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffrey Freeman
jeff.freeman@esaero.com
P.O. Box 595
Pismo Beach,  CA 93448-9665
(805) 275-1053

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In the proposed STTR study, Empirical Systems Aerospace, Inc. (ESAero) and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) will create a methodology for the development of a flight control algorithm featuring differential thrust provided by a distributed electric propulsion (DEP) system. The focal piece of the study is a dynamically scaled Cirrus SR22T UAV at UIUC, which will be modified to include multiple electrical ducted fans (EDF) arranged to exhibit strong propulsion-airframe integration (PAI) effects. Although aeropropulsive efficiency of the DEP system will be monitored, the team's goal is to establish a methodology which can be applied to any DEP aircraft regardless of how well it is designed. The study will include a combination of low-order aerodynamic simulation via OpenVSP/VSPAERO, dynamics modeling in MATLAB/Simulink, wind tunnel characterization of the EDF units, and flight testing to educate and demonstrate the flight control algorithm. During Phase I, the team will characterize the baseline vehicle as the control for the experiment and then compare measured control authority of the DEP system against a simple thrust-line dynamics model to determine the influence of PAI. Subsequent phases will develop and demonstrate closed-loop flight control using differential thrust from the DEP system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The knowledge gained from this STTR study in conjunction with other ongoing research efforts would enable ESAero to independently develop integrated aircraft controllers (IAC) for hybrid electric distributed propulsion (HEDP) systems. With the growing emergence of HEDP aircraft designs, this ability to take such a highly nuanced system and make it fly both safely and efficiently will be in high demand by commercial and military customers. Additionally, the tools developed as a result of this study can be marketed for engineering of commercial, government, or military aircraft applications and conceptual designs. The development of a validated, robust DEP UAV flight test bed will also provide a one-of-a-kind experimental capability for an emerging niche technology. This platform can be used for commercially-funded testing of industry DEP concepts as distributed propulsion aircraft move towards production.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Flight control of DEP aircraft using differential thrust has been identified as an enabling technology for ARMD's Strategic Thrust #3 (Ultra-Efficient Commercial Vehicles) and #4 (Transition to Low-Carbon Propulsion). In particular, it is a major component of the envisioned hybrid electric distributed propulsion (HEDP) integrated autonomous controller (IAC) (a.k.a. "super controller") which is sought to realize the proposed efficiency, safety, and reliability of HEDP aircraft. Upon completion of this study, the team will be able to apply their experience in DEP flight control system development to other NASA flight test programs such as the X-57 "Maxwell" and the upcoming Ultra-Efficient Subsonic Transport (UEST) X-Plane program. Additionally, lessons learned from the program regarding the as-built effectiveness of and additional requirements associated with control using DEP differential thrust can inform conceptual design studies for futuristic aircraft "Vision Vehicles" including ESAero's ECO-150 and NASA's STARC-ABL and N3-X.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Electromagnetic
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Aerodynamics
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Conversion
Distribution/Management
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T15.01-9907
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Distributed Electric Propulsion Aircraft Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Distributed Electric Propulsion Aircraft Comprehensive Analysis and Design Tool

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ
08618-2302
(609) 538-0444

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Pennsylvania State University
233 Hammond Building
University Park, PA
16802-2131
(814) 865-4700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Wachspress
dan@continuum-dynamics.com
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing,  NJ 08618-2302
(609) 538-0444

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The solicitation seeks innovative approaches in designing and analyzing Distributed Electric Propulsion (DEP) aircraft to support ARMD's Strategic Thrust #3 (Ultra-Efficient Commercial Vehicles) and #4 (Transition to Low-Carbon Propulsion). This proposal seeks to address this need by developing DEP aircraft analysis tools able to accurately predict and optimize aerodynamic and aeroelastic performance, loads, flight dynamics and acoustics of DEP aircraft in computational times commensurate with daily design work. The proposed approach is to leverage and enhance existing V/STOL aircraft analysis and flight simulation software with new capabilities that address current gaps in technology identified by NASA in this solicitation and developers of DEP aircraft. The new comprehensive DEP aircraft analysis will be built in a modular fashion, coupling flight simulation, aeromechanics and acoustics components into a single tool but with an eye toward implementing each transportable software library within alternate analyses and optimization tools, such as NASA's Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis and Optimization (MDAO) platform. In Phase I, a prototype DEP aircraft comprehensive analysis will be created and validated for accurate, fast prediction of DEP-related aeromechanics phenomena. A modular form of the new analysis will be coupled with a flight simulation enhanced to support additional control options available to DEP aircraft like variable RPM and thrust vectoring. Automated coupling with an acoustic prediction code will provide DEP aircraft acoustic characteristics for both steady and maneuvering flight. A model of NASA's SCEPTOR X-Plane will be constructed and demonstration calculations performed predicting flight dynamics, acoustics, aerodynamics and aeroelasticity. Phase II will see the implementation of further enhancements and completion of commercial software ready for use by government and industry.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The DEP aircraft comprehensive analysis and flight simulation software proposed to be developed by CDI would also be of great benefit to industry and the DoD. NASA and CDI are collaborating with industry partners who are already developing future DEP aircraft concepts and who will participate in determining which additional analysis capabilities would be of greatest benefit to them in this endeavor. CDI already licenses analysis and design software throughout the V/STOL aircraft manufacturing community and our clients are eager to see enhancements required for modeling DEP aircraft developed and implemented. Because of this close collaboration, CDI anticipates swift commercialization and utilization of the new developed software by industry. CDI also has a long history of participating in industry teams performing large scale Future Vehicle Lift (FVL) aircraft development programs for the military, (e.g. DARPA MAR, TERN and GREMLINS; DoD JMR). The software developed in the proposed effort would advance the analysis capabilities required for these and future FVL aircraft programs and thus find immediate use in these applications as well, not only by CDI providing engineering services, but also by aircraft manufacturers who license our software and DoD agencies who evaluate FVL concepts proposed by industry. Thus the new technology will find a relevant home in the entire arena of V/STOL aircraft development.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The DEP aircraft comprehensive analysis and flight simulation software proposed to be developed would enable accurate prediction and optimization of aerodynamic and aeroelastic performance, loads, flight dynamics and acoustics of DEP aircraft in computation times required for daily design work. The proposed approach would address many of the key technical objectives cited in the solicitation of "innovative approaches in designing and analyzing the DEP aircraft", directly supporting NASA's ARMD Strategic Thrust #3 (Ultra-Efficient Commercial Vehicles) and #4 (Transition to Low-Carbon Propulsion) in the Technology Roadmap to achieve Low Carbon Emissions through use of alternative propulsion systems such as electric/hybrid propulsion. The developed analysis, flight simulation and acoustic prediction tool would be of immediate use to NASA engineers evaluating and investigating advantageous DEP configurations to develop and pursue, such as the current NASA SCEPTOR configuration under study. The modular approach would allow the new technology to be implemented within NASA's MDAO software - a flexible optimization environment being developed by NASA to support advanced optimization methods. As such, the new technology could leverage the MDAO framework to provide NASA an efficient means to quickly determine optimum DEP (and other V/STOL) aircraft designs, a great benefit given the broad possibilities afforded by multiple distributed propulsors.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation & Modeling
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T15.01-9993
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Distributed Electric Propulsion Aircraft Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Maneuvering Environment for Tiltwing Aircraft with Distributed Electric Propulsion

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Embedded Dynamics
1031 East Moorhead Circle
Boulder, CO
80305-6109
(970) 376-7775

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Colorado
3100 Marine Street, Room 479
Boulder, CO
80303-1058
(303) 492-6221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Hauser
john.hauser@colorado.edu
425 UCB
Boulder,  CO 80309-0425
(303) 492-6496

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The tiltwing class of aircraft consists of vehicles with the ability to rotate the wing and propulsion system as a unit a full 90 degrees from the standard fixed wing configuration to one in which the wing and thrust axis become perpendicular to the body axis. This thrust vectoring capability allows the aircraft to utilize thrust borne flight for vertical takeoff and landing as well as the conventional configuration for more efficient lift borne flight operations. The pitching moment is typically controlled by one or more propellers that is/are either mounted statically to the tail (Canadair CL-84) or attached to an articulated tail wing plane (NASA GL-10). In contrast to a tiltrotor, the lifting and control surfaces of a tiltwing are immersed in the slipstream of the attached propellors, potentially delaying the onset of stall during transitions and also allowing, for example, the ailerons to provide some yaw control in the hover configuration. Distributed Electric Propulsion (DEP) is a natural enhancement for tiltwing aircraft, where additional thrust can be used in vertical take-off and landing (and transition) operations and then scaled back (and tucked away) for conventional flight operations. The use of a centralized electric power plant for DEP leads to an increased payload capacity without large sacrifices in endurance and efficiency, all while maintaining its VTOL capabilities. Our goal is the development of a flight maneuvering system for distributed electric propulsion, toward this end we propose the development of model analysis and design tools and techniques focused in particular on the transition maneuvers. The proposed innovation will facilitate the development of analytical tools and methods with which to assess the tiltwing vehicles using DEP; this includes aerodynamic force and moment models for transition, dynamic simulations for trajectory exploration, and tools for trajectory optimization.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Agriculture applications include spraying, fertilizing, frost mitigation, crop drying and monitoring. Power line surveying. With the extensive network of the electrical grid across the country the industry would greatly benefit from a vehicle capable of traveling long distances efficiently and being able to hover for close inspection. Package Delivery Numerous companies are developing automated delivery services using rotor type aircraft, currently these have highly restrictive range capabilities. The tiltwing aircraft with DEP can extend the range while maintaining the precision landing capability. This will reduce the number and density of the require distribution centers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
GL-10 program The foremost application for NASA would be for their own GL-10 prototype aircraft. A simulation environment designed to explore and optimize the maneuvering capabilities of a tiltwing vehicle with distributed electric propulsion would quicken the pace of development, advance the development of unique control concepts and facilitate the transition to larger scale vehicles. SCEPTOR program The model and simulation environment can easily be modified to explore the maneuvering capabilities of other concept vehicle using DEP. Similarly control concept learned from this investigation could have direct applications to the SCEPTOR program. Remote Sensing Other applications include the use of tiltwing aircraft is planetary research, primarily in remote sensing applications where the lack of developed airstrips and range requirements make the tiltwing with DEP a good fit.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation & Modeling
Aerodynamics
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 T15.02-9963
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Bio-inspired and Biomimetic Technologies and Processes for Earth and Space
PROPOSAL TITLE: 25x Space Fresnel Lens Concentrator Using 4(+) Junction IMM Solar Cells and Nyctinastic Graphene Radiators to Mitigate LILT Effects for Outer Planet Missions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark O'Neill, LLC
812 Belinda Drive
Keller, TX
76248-2809
(817) 380-5930

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Connecticut
U-3060
Storrs, CT
06269-3060
(860) 486-3213

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark O'Neill
markoneill@markoneill.com
812 Belinda Drive
Keller,  TX 76248-2809
(817) 380-5930

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovation is a unique solar array for powering NASA's deep space missions without the low-intensity, low-temperature (LILT) problems of conventional arrays. The new array uses a robust, ultra-light, color-mixing Fresnel lens to point-focus sunlight at a 25X concentration ratio onto the most advanced 4-junction and 6-junction inverted metamorphic (IMM) photovoltaic cells. Waste heat from the cells is dissipated to space by a bio-inspired nyctinastic graphene radiator. The radiator passively folds up around the cell, like a flower at night, to reduce the drastic temperature drop in deep space, due to the reduction in solar irradiance at large distances from the sun. The 25X concentration and the high-optical-efficiency lens eliminate the low-intensity (LI) problem by maintaining an irradiance on the cell of nearly one AM0 sun at 5 AU distance from the sun. The nyctinastic radiator mitigates the low-temperature (LT) problem of conventional arrays by maintaining the cell temperature at about -100 C instead of the typical -140 C at 5 AU. This warmer cell temperature minimizes changes in band gaps for the 4 junctions or 6 junctions in the cell, thereby maintaining better current matching for the series-connected junctions. The performance metrics of the new array are unprecedented. The expensive solar cells are reduced in area and cost by 95% compared to conventional one-sun cells. The cells can be heavily shielded front and back from space radiation at very low mass penalty, due to the small cell size. The overall specific power of the lens + cell assembly + radiator is more than 1,400 W/kg for a heavily shielded cell, about 3X better than for a one-sun cell with the same shielding. The feasibility of the new array technology will be proven in Phase I by the small business (Mark O'Neill, LLC), the research institution (University of Connecticut), and the IMM cell firm (SolAero). In Phase II, fully functional hardware will be developed and delivered.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The new array will apply to a wide range of non-NASA space missions, most of which use solar power. The new array's superior attributes include specific power (W/kg), stowed power density (kW/cu.m.), areal power density (W/sq.m.), high-voltage operation, radiation hardness, and low cost per Watt, all critical to non-NASA customers including established space companies (e.g., Boeing, Lockheed-Martin, Space Systems Loral, Orbital-ATK, et al.), the U.S. DOD (USAF, MDA, et al.), and newer entries into the space business (e.g., Planetary Resources, Bigelow, Ad Astra Rocket Company, SpaceX, et al.). The U.S. DOD is particularly interested in rad-hard arrays, which led them to fund the SCARLET array that flew on Deep Space 1 in 1998-2001 and the Stretched Lens Array Technology Experiment (SLATE) which flew on TacSat 4. The new array will offer excellent rad-hardness as well as hardness against other potential threats (e.g., ground-based lasers). The new array will also be ideally suited to Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) missions, including orbit-raising (e.g., LEO-to-GEO for communication satellites), asteroid mining (as planned by Planetary Resources), drag compensation (for inflated space stations in LEO as planned by Bigelow), and multi-hundred-kW spacecraft (as planned by Ad Astra). Our team (Mark O'Neill, LLC, University of Connecticut, and SolAero) is ready to address these applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The new array will apply to a wide range of NASA missions, most of which use solar power. The new array's superior attributes include LILT-mitigation, scalability to high power, radiation hardness at low mass penalty, reliable high-voltage operation, outstanding power metrics (specific power, areal power density, and stowed power volume), and low cost per Watt. The LILT mitigation will be ideal for deep space missions to the outer planets and their moons. These other attributes will be especially important for high-power missions of all types, including Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) missions. The high unit cost (e.g., >$10/sq.cm.) of advanced multi-junction solar cells (e.g., IMM cells), may make conventional one-sun solar arrays too expensive for very high-power NASA missions, such as, for example, 300-600 kW SEP tugs to carry large amounts of cargo from low earth orbit (LEO) to GEO, the Earth-Moon Lagrange Points, lunar orbit, Mars orbit, or beyond. For such high-power missions, the new array could be mission-enabling because of its much lower cost per Watt, combined with its superior performance attributes, compared to one-sun arrays. The new array is also high-temperature-capable, allowing inner planet missions or slingshot trajectories to the outer planets. Potential NASA customers of the new array therefore include the Space Technology Directorate, the Science Directorate, and the Human Exploration and Operations Directorate.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Lenses
Passive Systems
Generation