SBIR Phase 1 Solicitation  Abstract Archives

NASA 2010 STTR Phase 1 Solicitation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T1.01-9924
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Small Probe Entry Descent and Landing Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Small Probe Reentry System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Global Aerospace Corporation
711 West Woodbury Road, Suite H
Altadena, CA 91001-5327
(626) 345-1200

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cal Poly Corporation
One Grand Avenue, Building 38, Rm 102
San Luis Obispo, CA 93407-0830
(805) 756-1123

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kerry Nock
kerry.t.nock@gaerospace.com
711 West Woodbury Road, Suite H
Altadena,  CA 91001-5327
(626) 345-1200

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Global Aerospace Corporation (GAC), and its research partner, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo (CPSLO), will develop an integrated Small Probe Reentry System (SPRS) for low Earth orbit (LEO) small satellite Earth reentry missions. The SPRS delivers the small probe to a targeted reentry, protects it from the harsh atmospheric reentry environment, slows it down so that it can land without damage to its payload, and announces its position for recovery. This technology will be applicable to very small satellites that could carry 1 kg sample return payload will experience a low-temperature rise and a low deceleration load.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Small satellite missions are an increasing segment of space operations for astrobiology experiments; low-cost, in-space satellite component technology testing; orbital science constellations; and commercial applications. One reason for this growth is that the access to space for small satellites has increased and is expected to expand as commercial companies complete the development of systems to deliver cargo to the International Space Station (ISS) and ancillary payloads to LEO. This expansion of small satellite activities has already resulted in significant interest in self-contained small satellite sample return missions. SPRS technology responds to the NASA need for low-cost, LEO sample return and reentry experiment capabilities. This innovation could be used for thermal protection system tests, astrobiology experiments, material space exposure investigations and technology demonstrations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are potential non-NASA applications of the Small Probe Reentry System technology that could be applied to defense, academic and commercial small satellite sample return and reentry experiment missions. Already a number of small satellites are being developed and launched by DARPA, a number of US and international universities and commercial companies. At least one Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) supplier is planning to deliver small commercial self-contained payloads to LEO as an adjunct to International Space Station resupply. As small LEO satellite capabilities expand, there will be a growing interest in small satellite sample return and reentry experiment missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Aerobraking/Aerocapture
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Navigation & Guidance
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Polymers
Deployment
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Structures
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T1.01-9930
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Small Probe Entry Descent and Landing Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fiber Optic Temperature Sensors for Thermal Protection Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation
2363 Calle Del Mundo
Santa Clara, CA 95054-1008
(408) 565-9004

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
North Carolina State University
2701 Sullivan Drive, Suite 240 (Campus Box 7514)
Raleigh, NC 27695-7514
(919) 515-2444

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Black
rmjb@ifos.co
2363 Calle Del Mundo
Santa Clara,  CA 95054-1008
(408) 565-9000

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS) proposes an innovative fiber optic-based, multiplexable, highly ruggedized, integrated sensor system for real-time measurement and monitoring of temperature in an Ablative Thermal Protection System (TPS). Such measurement will allow for an effective estimation of temperature gradient and subsequent calculation of heat flux. IFOS will initially develop such a system for thermal monitoring in Small Probe applications. However, the technology will readily be applicable to other NASA vehicle applications where TPS is employed. The IFOS fiber optic sensors will incorporate Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs). These sensors are extremely light-weight, small, electromagnetically immune, and electrically passive. Multiple sensing FBGs can be fabricated on a single fiber for simplified design and reduced cost. The proposed fiber optic sensing technology is highly sensitive and accurate. It is also low-cost and lends itself to high-volume production. In the Phase I, IFOS will perform a feasibility study of its proposed temperature measurement and monitoring system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The TPS-integrated temperature sensing technology will support NASA's goal of developing more complete understanding of ground test-to-flight traceability issues in TPS small probe applications. Furthermore, this technology has potential to support NASA's efforts in developing higher performance TPS materials as well as integrated Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed work will significantly benefit the commercial re-entry vehicle development and hypersonic vehicles (engine and airframe). Additionally, this technology could readily lend itself to temperature measurement and monitoring applications in, for example, gas turbines and furnace heat recovery units (recuperators).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Aerobraking/Aerocapture
Gratings
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Active Systems
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T1.01-9956
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Small Probe Entry Descent and Landing Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Small Probes for Orbital Return of Experiments (SPORE)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110-2702
(617) 500-0536

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Georgia Institute of Technology Center for Space Systems
620 Cherry Street Northwest
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
(404) 385-3819

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Spencer
david.spencer@aerospace.gatech.edu
270 Ferst Drive, NW
Atlanta,  GA 30332-0150
(404) 385-7641

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Analogous to the CubeSat standardization of micro-satellites, the SPORE flight system architecture will utilize a modular design approach to provide low-cost on-orbit operation and recovery of small payloads. The Phase 1 investigation will evaluate a scalable flight system architecture consisting of a service module for on-orbit operations and deorbit maneuvering, and an entry vehicle to perform entry, descent and landing (EDL). The design space for the SPORE system architecture is shown in Figure 1. Flight system designs capable of accommodating payload volumes ranging from 1-unit (1U) dimensions of 10x10x10 cm to 4U dimensions of 20x20x20 cm will be investigated. The proposed system will be capable of flight operations and return from low-Earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO). The SPORE design can be launched as a primary or secondary payload into LEO or GTO, or it can be deployed from the International Space Station (ISS).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aurora believes the market for a science platform that allows access to the space environment while returning the experiment for laboratory examination is growing rapidly. Microgravity experiments traditionally flown on the Shuttle mid-deck for up to a week before returning to Earth will require alternative flight platforms. There is a forthcoming capability gap between sounding rocket flights and longer duration ISS flights. SPORE has the benefit of filling a market niche not filled by short duration sounding rockets providers, and where ISS flight time is unavailable or too complex or expensive. Researchers requiring longer duration exposure to the space environment lack a capability in between several minute sounding rockets flights and months-long ISS missions. SPORE also provides lower cost and flexible scheduling for ISS downmass.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aurora has already begun looking at additional markets for the SPORE system. In addition to commercial launch vechile TPS testing and commercial experimental payload missions, SPORE subsystem technology can be inserted into non re-entering CubeSats. CubeSats have become a de-facto standard for low-cost access to space. SPORE however adds significant capability to the basic CubeSat platform. For this reason Aurora feels that in addition to marketing complete SPORE systems, many SPORE technologies can be inserted into commercial CubeSats providing additional capabilities and expanding the revenue potential of SPORE. Examples of these technologies include propulsion system concepts which could provide CubeSats a limited altitude or plane change capability or payload accommodation architecture that could allow CubeSats to provide greater payload support in the form of thermal control or data handling.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T1.02-9834
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Information Technologies for Intelligent Planetary Robotics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Simultaneous Localization and Mapping for Planetary Surface Mobility

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ProtoInnovations, LLC
1908 Shaw Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15217-1710
(412) 916-8807

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Carnegie Mellon University
5000 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890
(412) 268-5421

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Wettergreen
dsw@cmu.edu
5000 Forbes Ave.
Pittsburgh,  PA 15213-3890
(412) 268-5421

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ProtoInnovations, LLC and Carnegie Mellon University have formed a partnership to commercially develop localization and mapping technologies for planetary rovers. Our first aim is to provide a reliable means of localization that is independent of infrastructure, such as GPS, and compatible with requirements of missions to planetary surfaces. Simultaneously solving for the precise location of the rover as it moves while building an accurate map of the environment is an optimization problem involving internal sensing, sensing of the surrounding environment, probabilistic optimization methods, efficient data structures, and a robust implementation. Our second aim is to merge simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) technologies with our existing Reliable Autonomous Surface Mobility (RASM) architecture for rover navigation. Our unique partnership brings together state-of-the-art technologies for SLAM with experience in delivering and supporting both autonomous systems and mobility platforms for NASA. Our proposed project will create a SLAM framework that is capable of accurately localizing a rover throughout long, multi-kilometer traverses of barren terrain. Our approach is compatible with limited communication and computing resources expected for missions to planetary surfaces. Our technology is based on innovative representations of evidence grids, particle-filter algorithms that operate on range data rather than explicit features, and strategies for segmenting large evidence grids into manageable pieces. In this project we will evaluate the maturity of these algorithms, developed for research programs at Carnegie Mellon, and incorporate them into our RASM architecture, thus providing portable and reliable localization for a variety of vehicle platforms and sensors. Mission constraints will vary broadly, so our SLAM components will be able to merge readings from various suites of sensors that may be found on planetary rovers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Technical innovations from this project will have immediate application to the Lunar All-Terrain Utility Vehicle (LATUV) and will enable it to achieve its full capability as it becomes a research appliance for NASA. We also see direct applicability of this work to vehicles developed by NASA for scientific exploration, habitat construction, and landing site preparation. ProtoInnovations will seek to sustain this work by providing SLAM capability to a wide range of planetary rover vehicles and prototypes.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We believe that our effort can be sustained by our unique capability and experience, which we believe is valuable to emerging lunar-rover activities in Canada, Japan, and India / Russia. The market for lunar-rover autonomy is not large but it is highly technical and critical to mission success. ProtoInnovations intends to continue R&D to position itself as a world leader in rover navigation software and experience. Commercially-available, high-resolution positioning systems have been maturing rapidly over the past decade and have penetrated into agricultural, mining, and defense markets. Most of these products filter GPS data with measurements from IMUs, encoders, and so on. Such products are robust to brief GPS drop-outs but are not robust to long-term GPS losses. Such losses are frequent in urban areas or in dense foliage, and should be expected indoors and when GPS signals are jammed. When GPS is lost, inertial measurements and dead-reckoning drift and the resulting localization error increases over time and distance traveled. SLAM is an ideal way of correcting these errors without the need for infrastructure. Our SLAM approach, with its computational efficiency and loose requirements on operating environment, is a feasible add-on technology for commercially available positioning systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Perception/Vision
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Ranging/Tracking


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T1.02-9853
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Information Technologies for Intelligent Planetary Robotics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Agent Architecture for Continuous Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kestrel Technology LLC
3260 Hillview Avenue
Palo Alto, CA 94304-1225
(650) 320-8474

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Texas Tech University
2500 Broadway
Lubbock, TX 79409-3104
(806) 742-3527

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lindsay Errington
lindsay@kestreltechnology.com
3260 Hillview Avenue
Palo Alto,  CA 94304-1225
(650) 320-8474

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop an Action Languages which allows for the representation of time and time dependent processes and which allows for the valid composition of modules. Furthermore, we will develop a provably correct translation from the Action Language into Logic Programs under the Answer Set Semantics. Action Languages have already proven useful for the representation of intelligent agent that can perform planning and diagnosis. Our proposed work would allow for more robust agents as well as the ability to do tasks such as scheduling. We will also develop proof techniques to ensure correctness of the agents. We propose to support control systems developed for such agents in distributed real-time systems with a dynamic, on-line, verification of the system behavior with respect to time-based properties.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We anticipate the implementation of continuous-time action languages with online verification will be especially important to NASA's efforts in developing robotic capabilities to support human exploration. Owing to its reusability to attack different problems, domain models built with Action Languages provide an efficient way to collection knowledge about the system and leverage that knowledge to accomplish operational objectives. The addition herein of continuous time and time-bounded properties adds new capabilities for reasoning about real-time systems in distributed architectures. These capabilities in particular address challenges faced by operational architectures having adjustable levels autonomy in human-computer cooperation. We anticipate that these results then will support a broad range of planning, control, and dynamic verification development activities as well.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential customers of this technology are mission and distributed real-time system designers and integrators. These customers develop the application solution with their customers, and need to meet high-performance operations requirements with robust performance exceeding those requirements. With humans in the control loop for interactive operations, the requirements are difficult to meet and are best supported with run-time verification to ensure the requirements are upheld now and in the foreseeable future. Outside of aeronautics, space, and other transportation examples, the recent pursuit of Smart Grid applications has these operational attributes. The interactive control is in the exploration of price points meeting expected utility derived from energy distribution for building or microgrid operations. The operating requirements depend on time-valued parameters and online verification ensures safety requirements are satisfied.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Knowledge Management
Verification/Validation Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T1.02-9882
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Information Technologies for Intelligent Planetary Robotics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Building and Executing Rover Plans with Contingent Tasks

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRACLabs, Inc.
100 N.E. Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio, TX 78216-6363
(281) 461-7884

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Carnegie Mellon University - Silicon Valley
NASA Research Park, Building 23
Moffett Field, CA 94305-2823
(650) 335-2823

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Debra Schreckenghost
schreck@traclabs.com
100 N.E. Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio,  TX 78216-6363
(281) 461-7884

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
During recent robotic field tests, NASA investigated the use of intelligent planetary rovers to improve the productivity of human explorers on planetary surfaces. For these field tests, a remote Science Team built rover plans to collect data that supplements astronaut EVA and a remote Flight Team supervised the execution of these plans. This model of operation requires the Science Team to generate and revise all plans, often taking a partially executed plan and quickly updating it in response to issues that may have nothing to do with science. As a result the Science Team pre-builds alternative plans, many of which are not used. In future exploration operations, astronauts orbiting a planet will supervise rovers operating on the surface below without benefit of real-time support from Earth because of time delay. In such cases it becomes important to provide a more flexible planning approach that permits the Science Team to distinguish essential tasks from tasks to be performed as time and resource permit, or in response to discovery (contingent tasks). TRACLabs and Carnegie Mellon University propose to build science alternatives into a single rover plan as contingent tasks, potentially reducing the time spent building plans and providing the Flight Team with more flexibility when executing plans. We will identify use cases describing how the Science Team will build plans with contingent tasks and how the Flight Team will execute these plans. We will design software for use by the Science Team to build plans with contingent tasks. We will design rover software for executing such plans and software for the Flight Team to supervise this execution. We will evaluate this design for use in K10 rover operations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology for building and executing plans with contingent tasks has immediate application to NASA robotic field tests with intelligent rovers. The Science Team planning rover plan can express their priorities as minimum science requirements within the plan, with options for going beyond these minima as opportunity arises. The Flight Team responsible to execute these plans can adapt the plan by selecting among alternative tasks based on conditions and observations made during plan execution. Longer term, the proposed project provides a technology pathfinder for exploration missions where astronauts must supervise intelligent planetary robots without the real-time backup from Earth that is possible for near-Earth missions. The use of plans with contingent tasks provides a means for the Earth-based planning team to express priorities in mission objectives and to predicate the decision about what tasks the rover performs on what the rover discovers. This approach gives astronauts flexibility to adapt the plan when opportunities or problems arise to maximize mission return.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Department of Defense (DOD) is actively pursuing remote supervision of Unmanned Air/Ground Vehicles for surveillance and reconnaissance. The software for building and executing robot plans with contingent tasks combines reactivity with the predictability needed for such operations. The ability to perform contingent tasks based on what has been discovered by earlier tasks in the plan also is relevant to this domain. In the private sector, electronic procedures and technology for procedure assistance provide a means of gradually deploying plant automation. The technology for building and executing contingent plans supports defining reactive plant automation that adjusts tasks in response to production performance. Plants that have telemetry and commanding is available electronically are the most likely to adopt this technology, such as 1) Refineries, (2) Petrochemical plants, (3) Power plants (nuclear, conventional), (4) Pharmaceutical plants, (5) Food processing plants, and (6) Ethanol plants.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Sequencing & Scheduling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T2.01-9869
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Foundational Research for Aeronautics Experimental Capabilities
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Refined Model for the Behavior of Nitrous Oxide to Assess the Limits of N2O Cooling

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rolling Hills Research Corporation
420 N. Nash Street
El Segundo, CA 90245-2822
(310) 372-9609

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cal Poly Corporation
1 Grand Avenue, Building 38, Room 102
San Luis Obispo, CA 93407-0830
(805) 756-1123

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Murray
wrmurray@calpoly.edu
1 Grand Ave.
San Luis Obispo,  CA 92407-9000
(805) 756-2414

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed project is crucial to enabling safe flight research on a rocket nozzle that is based on our recent innovation, which is to use the refrigerant capabilities of nitrous oxide (N2O) to provide cooling for an aerospike nozzle on hybrid rocket motor using N2O as the oxidizer. The phase change cooling as liquid N2O is flashed from a liquid into a vapor, limits to acceptable levels the erosion of both the nozzle throat and spike, thereby enabling reusable operation and/or long burn times. The N2O used for cooling will be reintroduced into the rocket motor and used to boost performance. Because of potentially the violent exothermic decomposition of N2O, a thorough understanding of N2O behavior is crucial to developing an aerospike nozzle and hybrid rocket motor that are sufficiently safe for flight testing, where cooling the aerospike is necessary to get the burn duration required for good flight tests to yield the illusive flight test data for aerospike nozzles. Our prior work seeking to develop a fundamental understanding of the behavior of N2O when it is used in applications has answered some important questions about the behavior of N2O, yielded significant advances in designing instrumented nozzles for N2O cooling experiments, and generated important advances in making accurate temperature measurements on the coolant flowing in these nozzles. However, our work in developing and validating analytical models for predicting heat transfer coefficients in N2O-cooling applications was only partially successful due to unanticipated levels of uncertainty from a variety of sources. By addressing the sources of the above-mentioned uncertainty using a combination of nozzle design, novel construction, analytical, FEA, and CFD modeling, along with experimental validation of all models, this work will yield the refined models of N2O behavior that are necessary for the future design of safe N2O-cooled aerospike nozzles.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed work will enable the design of safe N2O-cooled hybrid rocket motors having truncated aerospike nozzles, which will allow cost effective, reusable, and less expensive rocket designs. NASA could use this technology in any single-stage-to-orbit program.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed work will enable the design of safe N2O-cooled hybrid rocket motors having truncated aerospike nozzles, which will allow cost effective, reusable, and less expensive rocket designs. The potential non-NASA users of this technology are the U.S. military and companies providing inexpensive access to low Earth orbit. In addition to the business of launching satellites, there is a burgeoning interest in space tourism. Scaled Composites and Virgin Galactic have teamed up to develop SpaceShipTwo specifically to pursue the space tourism market. Likewise, Benson Space Company is developing the Dream Chaser, which is a 4-passenger suborbital or 6-passenger orbital vehicle. Each of these vehicles will use a hybrid rocket motor. Under study in the U.S. is a sewage treatment process that intentionally increases the production of nitrous oxide and methane, and uses the gases to power the treatment plant. In a low-oxygen environment in the treatment plant, where N2O-producing bacteria are favored, while aerobic species die off, the N2O-producing microbes consume relatively small amounts of organic matter, which allows for an increased production of methane. The methane will be used as a fuel, and the N2O will be burned in a hybrid rocket motor, where it will decompose into pure nitrogen and gaseous oxygen, both of which are completely green from a sustainability viewpoint. N2O-cooling could produce rocket nozzles with very long burn times for the use in this process.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Atmospheric Propulsion
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T2.01-9880
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Foundational Research for Aeronautics Experimental Capabilities
PROPOSAL TITLE: Versatile Electric Propulsion Aircraft Testbed

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rolling Hills Research Corporation
420 N. Nash Street
El Segundo, CA 90245-2822
(310) 372-9609

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois
1901 South First Street, Suite A
Champaign, IL 61820-7473
(217) 333-2187

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Kerho
Mike.Kerho@RollingHillsResearch.com
420 N. Nash Street
El Segundo,  CA 90245-2822
(310) 640-8781

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An all-electric aircraft testbed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft. The new testbed aircraft will be developed from an existing conventional airframe and provide a dedicated platform to study, design, and test electrically powered propulsion systems for use in commercial, military, and general aviation vehicles. The testbed aircraft will allow various electrical propulsion system technologies to be tested to determine performance, reliability, safety, and cost. These include various battery, fuel cell, super capacitor, and motor technologies. Additionally, the new aircraft could be used to study energy-harvesting solutions including photovoltaics, vortex energy extraction, and piezoelectrics. An electric aircraft has several significant advantages over a conventional internal combustion driven aircraft. These include zero, or near zero emissions, increased reliability and safety with only one moving part, reduced noise and vibration, increased comfort, and reduced maintenance. RHRC and the University of Illinois propose to develop an all-electric testbed aircraft able to systematically evaluate new and existing technologies, which will make these systems, safe, reliable, and cost effective.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
An advanced aircraft electric propulsion system will have significant potential application across a wide range of NASA aircraft including both manned and unmanned systems. With two of NASA's primary goals being reduced aircraft emissions and noise, a realizable, efficient, and competitive aircraft electric propulsion system is a highly sought after commodity. The testbed aircraft will allow NASA personnel to quickly and rigorously evaluate multiple electrical propulsion systems in a cost effective and timely manner. The advanced technology developed through the testbed aircraft will be highly desirable to both commercial and military customers for both manned and unmanned systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential for an advanced electric propulsion aircraft is quite good. If results from the testbed aircraft show that an all-electric propulsion aircraft can be produced which can compete with a conventionally powered aircraft on both a performance and cost basis, the system will be in extremely high demand. The systems emissionless, or near emissionless operation will be highly desirable in an increasingly environmentally conscious world where ever more stringent emissions standards are continually being enacted. The additional benefits of electric propulsion including increased reliability, low maintenance and maintenance costs coupled with low noise and reduced vibration will make the system highly attractive to commercial, military, and general aviation markets for both manned and unmanned systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Atmospheric Propulsion
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T2.01-9953
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Foundational Research for Aeronautics Experimental Capabilities
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robust Aeroservoelastic Control Utilizing Physics-Based Aerodynamic Sensing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tao of Systems Integration, Inc.
144 Research Drive
Hampton, VA 23666-1339
(757) 220-5050

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Regents of the University of Minnesota
450 McNamara Alumni Center, 200 Oak Street South East
Minneapolis, MN 55455-2070
(612) 624-5599

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arun Mangalam
arun@taosystems.us
144 Research Drive
Hampton,  VA 23666-1339
(757) 220-5040

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
New aircraft designs depend on an integrated active approach to flight control, flutter suppression and structural mode attenuation to meet desired handling quality performance and gust load alleviation. Tao Systems will team with Professor Gary Balas at the University of Minnesota to (1) develop a robust controller that demonstrates improved aerostructural performance over the state-of-the-art by utilizing a novel aerodynamic load sensor, and (2) provide a robust linear parameter varying controller that (a) requires no ad hoc methods of gain-scheduling, (b) provides robustness guarantees that more traditional methods do not offer, and (c) allows for explicit rate bounds enabling less conservative, higher performing controller designs. The benefits include improvement of aerodynamic and structural efficiency using robust aeroservoelastic control methods over a range of flight speeds, in the presence of significant turbulence.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The combination of robust control and accurate real-time aerodynamic load/moment sensors will enable a number of revolutionary capabilities across a wide speed range, including, but not limited to: (1) shorter take-off and landing, (2) safe, reliable supersonic operation, and (3) larger passenger and cargo capacity. The primary difficulty in all three revolutionary capabilities is the uncertainty in aerodynamic load \& moments generated by the airstream in design and off-design conditions, e.g., turbulent flows and high angles of attack. Measuring the aerodynamic loads/moments reduces the aerodynamic uncertainty enabling the aircraft to timely, robustly compensate for the adverse flow conditions, and utilizing a robust control methodology will provide guarantees otherwise not available. Therefore, the proposed innovation could be of significant interest to the aircraft civilian industry.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For national security, the ability to cruise efficiently at a range of altitude, enabled by a substantial increase in cruise lift-to-drag (L/D) ratios over today's high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft, is vital, providing sustained presence and long range. Robust control utilizing aerodynamic load/moment sensors would enable the efficient, robust active control of adaptive, lightweight wings to optimize lift distribution to maximize L/D. Cost-effectively, robustly improving the energy capture and reliability of wind turbines would help national renewable energy initiatives. A standalone aerodynamic load/moment sensor could provide output for robust control feedback to mitigate the turbine blade lifetime-limiting time varying loads generated by the ambient wind.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Attitude Determination & Control
Command & Control
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Sequencing & Scheduling
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Generation
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Support
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing
Actuators & Motors
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Structures
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Inertial
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)
Thermal
Simulation & Modeling
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T3.01-9872
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Space Power and Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Magnesium Hall Thruster for Solar System Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Busek Co., Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Pennsylvania State University
PO Box 30
State College, PA 16804-0030
(814) 865-0305

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Szabo
jszabo@busek.com
11 Tech Circle
Natick,  MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Busek proposes to prove the feasibility of a Mg Hall effect thruster system that would open the door for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) based solar system exploration. Elemental magnesium has favorable thermophysical properties and is very easy to ionize. The estimated specific impulse for a high efficiency magnesium Hall thruster operating off of a standard 400 V power processing unit is 5000 s. Efficiencies >50% will be possible. Although the vapor pressure of Mg is relatively low, it is believed that spacecraft interactions can be managed through the implementation of a simple plume shield. Moreover, magnesium is found abundantly in the regolith of Mars and the Moon, from which it can be readily extracted. In Phase I, we will prove the concept's feasibility through four technical tasks. In the first task, the overall architecture of a Mg Hall thruster system will be established and subsystem requirements will be identified. In the second task, Busek will integrate an magnesium vapor propellant Hall thruster with a wire feed system. In the third task, the integrated system will be tested in Busek facilities. In the fourth task, the Applied Research Laboratory (ARL) at Penn State University will develop a powder feed system capable of fueling both medium and high power thrusters. A fully integrated system sized for NASA needs will be developed and characterized in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Magnesium Hall thrusters are attractive for NASA Flagship, Frontier, and Discovery class missions because Isp ~ 5000 s is possible at low voltage, enabling the use of low cost flight qualified power processors. These thrusters can also be deeply throttled. Examples mission targets include asteroids, comets, and the outer planets. Sample return missions are also enabled. Magnesium thrusters are also well suited for lunar and Martian missions. A high power cluster would support manned missions by transporting fuel and cargo. In-situ propellant utilization is possible, as is a multi-mode system incorporating a Mg based rocket. Advantages over SOA noble gas Hall thrusters include higher Isp at the same voltage, less erosion (longer lifetime) at the same Isp and power, and much lower propellant, propellant storage, and tests costs. High pressure propellant tanks will not be required. Vapor pressure curves suggest modest precautions may fully mitigate spacecraft interactions. The powdered feed system technology may also be used to develop powdered metal propellants such as Mg and Al to bipropellant rockets.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Light metal Hall thruster technology may enhance many critical DoD and commercial missions such as satellite orbit maintenance, orbit raising and repositioning. Magnesium offers the possibility of efficiencies close to xenon with the possibility of lightweight, long term, low maintenance, solid propellant storage. High pressure propellant tanks will not be required and spacecraft interaction issues should be manageable. Mg Hall thrusters could also form one half of a multi-mode propulsion system that also contains a Mg based rocket. This system would provide both high thrust and high Isp. The two systems would share propellant feed system components, tanks, and fuel.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In Situ Manufacturing
Resource Extraction
Fuels/Propellants
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine
Active Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T3.01-9892
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Space Power and Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Functionalized Graphitic Supports for Improved Fuel Cell Catalyst Stability

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Sciences, Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Connecticut
438 Whitney Road Extension, Unit 1133
Storrs, CT 06269-1133
(860) 486-3622

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher Lang
lang@psicorp.com
20 New England Business Center
Andover,  MA 01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) together with the University of Connecticut (UCONN) proposes to demonstrate the improved fuel cell catalyst support durability offered by directly incorporating nitrogen functionality into graphitic carbon supports. In Phase I, PSI will utilize the functionalized carbon support in the construction of single cell fuel cells in order to demonstrate the performance and durability of the support material in the PEM fuel cell environment. The performance of cells upon accelerated life testing will be characterized and compared with that of cells assembled using commercially available support materials to quantify the benefits offered by the functionalized support. In Phase II, PSI will work with UCONN to optimize and scale-up the support production processes. Incorporation of additional functionalities will also be investigated. Demonstration cells will be constructed and delivered for functional and environmental testing at the completion of the Phase II contract.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology could be utilized in all primary and regenerative proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems (PEMFCs). Incorporation in NASA PEMFC systems would enhance the durability of the electrocatalyst-support system extending the system lifetime. Further, increased interaction with the catalyst may allow for reduced catalyst loadings, reducing total system cost.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The initial market for the proposed technology is military applications requiring a stable, long-life power source. Military applications of fuel cells range from portable power sources for the foot soldier to undersea vehicle power supplies. The Army and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency have been funding the development of proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems for individual soldiers in the field. Applications for these fuel cell power sources include electronic equipment, micro-climate cooling, digital battlefield sensors, and battery charging.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Generation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T3.01-9898
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Space Power and Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight Metal Rubber Wire and Cable for Space Power Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanosonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke, VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Texas A&M
3126 TAMU
College Station, TX 77843-3126
(979) 845-1321

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Claus
roclaus@nanosonic.com
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke,  VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of this NASA STTR program is to produce ultra-lightweight electrical wire and cable harnesses to reduce the liftoff weight of future space flight vehicles. In cooperation with materials scientists at Texas A&M, NanoSonic would develop and manufacture ultra-lightweight Metal Rubber- and carbon nanotube-based rubber (CNT Rubber) wire and cables with performance equivalent to that of conventional copper cables but with only 10% the weight. Wiring harnesses contribute significant weight load to the spacecraft structure. Ultra-lightweight Metal Rubber and CNT Rubber wires and cables can reduce that weight while offering comparable or superior electrical power and data transmission performance and EMI resistance. During Phase I, NanoSonic would design, fabricate and test lightweight Metal Rubber and CNT Rubber wire and cable prototypes. Texas A&M's nanotechnology laboratory would co-develop methods for CNT Rubber production and evaluate resulting material properties. The conducting core and outer shielding layers would be fabricated by molecular-level self-assembly. Electrically-conducting cable shielding tape layers would be dimensioned using CAD-driven templating equipment at NanoSonic. Wire and cable would be manufactured using wire feed, dielectric extrusion and shielding tape winding steps. NanoSonic is working with a major U.S. cable manufacturer and a major U.S. spacecraft prime contractor on this program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Ultra-lightweight wires, cables and instrumentation harnesses have application on all future NASA spacecraft, research aircraft, and upper altitude instrumentation surveillance missions. Mechanically flexible Metal Rubber and CNT Rubber wire has potential applications as a replacement of conventional lead-tin solder in electronic assemblies, and as sensors and interconnects in crew diagnostic sensor systems for measurement of EKG, and heart and respiration rate. Ultra-lightweight sheet forms of Metal Rubber and CNT Rubber materials offer direct replacements for conventional shielding materials for spacecraft systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications of Metal Rubber and CNT Rubber materials include 1) EMI resistant and EMC shielding materials for electronic enclosures, 2) direct replacements for conventional solder forming metals in flip-chip bonding systems, 3) highly flexible interconnects in medical prostheses that require high deformation, and 4) in lightweight wires for portable personal electronic equipment.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Metallics
Nanomaterials
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T3.01-9899
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Space Power and Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Superconducting Resonant Inductive Power Coupling

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Axis Engineering Technologies
One Broadway, 14th Floor
Cambridge, MA 02142-1187
(617) 225-4414

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Maryland
3112 Lee Building
College Park, MD 20742-5141
(301) 405-6269

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Raymond Sedwick
sedwick@umd.edu
3146 Martin Hall
College Park,  MD 20742-0001
(301) 405-0111

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed effort will develop a technology to wirelessly and efficiently transfer power over hundreds of meters via resonant inductive coupling. The key innovation of this approach is the use of dielectricless high-temperature superconducting (HTS) coils to overcome the limitations in efficiency and range of existing solutions. This approach is informed by existing research models that predict a nominal application of this technique is capable of delivering 100 Watts of power at a distance of 100 meters with over 90% efficiency. A notional application of the technology is to deliver power to rovers exploring the inside of craters at the Lunar poles, where solar power is not available. The naturally low temperatures would eliminate the need for thermal control overhead on the rover, allowing the system to be charged from a completely unenergized state or powered directly. Multiple rovers could be powered by the same transmission system and there would be no pointing requirements for operation. The phase I effort will demonstrate efficient wireless power transfer using superconducting wires as a proof of concept (TRL 3-4), which will be integrated with existing thermal control technology (TRL 4) into a working prototype (TRL 6) at the end of Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology applies wherever power generation at the point of need is unavailable, insufficient or too costly (in terms of mass). Powering multiple rovers within a polar lunar crater is an ideal application since the lack of sunlight generates a need for power delivery while providing an ideal thermal environment for the superconductors. Another example is a Mars rover architecture where a slow moving "crawler" provides power to a suite of agile rovers performing sampling and analysis tasks over a wide swath. Near the crawler the small rovers would fully function and store excess energy, whereas farther away they would operate primarily from stored energy until recharging becomes necessary. Other applications may involve human or robotic EVA outside of ISS, where the ISS would provide an ample power source. In 6 DOF operation the inductively coupled system has the advantage of less sensitivity to orientation than solar power generation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In military operations unmanned rovers can be sent into dangerous situations to acquire intelligence. The inductive coupling allows for a rover to explore caves or the rubble of a demolished building, as well as undersea operations to power Unmanned Underwater Vehicles. FEMA could benefit by providing temporary power in areas where the infrastructure has been lost. A primary interest in commercial markets is power delivery to small electronics such as laptops, cell phones and PDAs. In this application, the receive side would not be superconducting. These wireless power systems are currently under development by other companies, however the efficiency of such systems could be substantially improved if the stationary transmission coil were superconducting, with the appropriate thermal control. This combination could increase the efficiency of such a system from 10% to over 90% over the distances of interest.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Superconductance/Magnetics
Distribution/Management
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T3.01-9915
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Space Power and Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Particle-in-Cell (PIC) Tools for Simulation of Electrodynamic Tether Plasma Interactions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tech-X Corporation
5621 Arapahoe Avenue, Suite A
Boulder, CO 80303-1379
(303) 448-0727

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Colorado State University
6010 Campus Delivery
Fort Collins, CO 80523-5105
(970) 491-5105

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sudhakar Mahalingam
sudhakar@txcorp.com
5621 Arapahoe Ave
Boulder,  CO 80303-1379
(303) 996-7257

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Electrodynamic tethers are optimally suited for use in Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) to generate thrust or drag maneuver satellites. LEO region is polluted with space debris from the left over of rockets and abandoned satellites. It becomes important to clean them, i.e., de-orbit and ED tethers are promising for such applications. ED tethers are operating without propellants, so less polluting in our space and also cost-efficient. Tether powered satellites can operate in dual mode (thrust or power generation). Advanced PIC tools can perform self-consistent 2-D and 3-D tether simulations to study the plasma interactions and will improve the understanding of the self-induced magnetic field effects on the current collection ability of these ED tethers. These tools once validated using tether ribbon tape experiments can help NASA researchers to analyze various tether geometries in efforts to optimize tether design for space missions on a wide range of operating conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ED tether plasma simulation tools will allow NASA researchers to determine the optimum tether design for space operations. The easy-to-use and user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) plasma software from Tech-X is a viable high performance modeling tool for NASA to analyze the ED tether operation in LEO. Our validated numerical tool can significantly cut-down the expenses involved in running ground-based tether experiments. Similar tools are being already used for electric propulsion systems like NEXT ion thruster and Hall thrusters at NASA GRC. The fully electromagnetic capabilities in these codes make them ideal for modeling other advanced electric propulsion concepts like cathode less radio frequency (RF) ionization, micro size, nano size field emission and laser ablative propulsion.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Tether satellite is important to other government agencies including the DoD/Air Force. Air Force considers tether powered satellite system for space operations. Our tools will support this effort while it can also be considered for Hall thruster and other advanced electric thruster concept programs at Air Force. Multi-billion dollar military and commercial satellite and aerospace industries such as Boeing, Lockheed Martin, L-3 Communications, Northrop-Grumman, space research companies around the world have shown interest in using computational models to study the plasma characteristics around the tether structure. Also our tools are applicable to ion sources and plasma processing industries where increased performances are desired in terms of ion beam extraction and improved discharge efficiency via the effective predictions of plasma sheath structures.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Tethers


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T3.01-9942
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Space Power and Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Superconducting Magnetic Bearings for Space-Based Flywheel Energy Storage Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Balcones Technologies, LLC
10532 Grand Oak Circle
Austin, TX 78750-3851
(512) 785-6728

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Texas - Center for Electromechanics
P.O. Box 7726
Austin, TX 78713-7726
(512) 471-6424

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joseph Beno
j.beno@BalconesTech.com
10532 Grand Oak Circle
Austin,  TX 78750-3851
(512) 918-1496

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Balcones Technologies, LLC proposes to adapt technologies developed by and resident in The University of Texas at Austin Center for Electromechanics (CEM) in the areas of superconducting Trapped Field Magnet (TFM) motors, magnetic bearings, terrestrial and space-based flywheel energy storage systems, and air-core generators to address STTR 2010-1 Subtopic T3.01, Technologies for Space Power and Propulsion. In particular, our team will develop a concept design for high field intensity superconducting Trapped Field Magnetic Bearings (TFMB) for a space-based flywheel system, including magnetic field activation and cryogenic cooling subsystems. The design will focus on exploiting approximately $47M of CEM technology to develop commercially viable superconducting magnetic bearings that significantly exceed the force density (developed force per unit of system mass) of today's magnetic bearings and will optimize the design for the space flywheel application rather than adapt terrestrial designs for space. Relevant features of our anticipated solution include: ? Much lower power usage than conventional non-superconducting magnetic bearings. ? Much stiffer magnetic bearings than conventional non-superconducting magnetic bearings. ? Much stiffer magnetic bearings than current superconducting magnetic bearing technology. ? Capable of high rotational speeds. ? Operation at magnetic fields of 2.5-3 Tesla to allow demonstration within a normal 24 month Phase II STTR, but with a design approach amenable to future systems at ~ 10 Tesla . ? Air-core magnetic circuit design (e.g., does not employ iron to guide magnetic fields which limits magnetic fields to 2 Tesla or less and practically limits operational fluxes to ~ 1 Tesla). ? TFM charging system to inject the magnetic field, most likely based on a system to cool the magnet while maintaining an applied charging field, but could also be a pulse charging system of a pre-cooled TFM.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our Trapped Field Magnetic Bearing system will be applicable to any NASA space or terrestrial flywheel energy storage application or any application that can benefit from very low loss rotating bearing systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our Trapped Field Magnetic Bearings system and the related high performance flywheel technology being designed for NASA will be useful in a variety of energy storage applications, especially in energy and transportation industries, either directly or through scaling of components. Our system will likely utilize many components similar to those being developed by CEM for Trapped Field Motors (e.g., TFM pucks) and will benefit from ongoing commercialization efforts in that area to reduce costs and increase life of the system. The bearing system can be marketed to customers who have missions where ultra high speed rotors and low losses are critical. Although this will include other space applications, our TFMB technology will also be applicable for terrestrial applications where fail safe operation of energy storage systems is critical.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Conversion
Distribution/Management
Generation
Storage
Processing Methods
Actuators & Motors
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T4.01-9837
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar, Radar, and Passive Microwave
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Waveguide Based, High Power Pockels Cell Modulator for Sub-Nanosecond Pulse Slicing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ADVR, Inc.
2310 University Way, Bldg. 1-1
Bozeman, MT 59715-6504
(406) 522-0388

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Montana State University
PO Box 172470, 309 Montana Hall
Bozeman, MT 59717-2470
(406) 994-2381

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Justin Hawthorne
hawthorne@advr-inc.com
2310 University Way, Building #1-1
Bozeman,  MT 59715-6504
(406) 522-0388

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Goal of this STTR is to develop a high speed, high power, waveguide based modulator (phase and amplitude) and investigate its use as a pulse slicer. The key innovation in this effort is the use of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) waveguides making the high power, polarization based waveguide amplitude modulator possible. Furthermore because it is fabricated in KTP, the waveguide component will withstand high optical power and have a significantly higher rf modulation figure-of-merit (FOM) relative to lithium niobate.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This device should benefit various NASA recommended earth science decadal (http://decadal.gsfc.nasa.gov/index.html) missions for use in Lidar applications such as the ACE, LIST and DESDynI NASA programs. NASA has a need for low loss, high power waveguide based electro-optic devices for many missions including the Light Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Mission, the NASA High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) program, which requires the use of fiber pigtailed modulators and wavelength doublers to stabilize seed laser system for eventual satellite operation, the NASA Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE) program which needs efficient, high power frequency conversion modules for ultra-violet (UV) generation and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment-2(GRACE-2) NASA/JPL, which wants robust, high power, integrated, laser stabilization components.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Nonlinear waveguides are playing an increasingly important role in photonics applications, some of which include microwave photonics, up conversion, infrared detection, IR generation, and bio-photonics. Additional markets that can utilize high power, low loss, electro-optically efficient components are free space telecommunications, remote sensing, precision spectroscopy, interferometry and frequency metrology. The low loss, integrated planar lightwave circuit technology advanced in a high power handling NLO material will result in wide commercial applications for a host of watt class waveguide based photonic components previously unavailable on the commercial market.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Medical
Transmitters/Receivers
Waveguides/Optical Fiber (see also Optics)
Prototyping
Lasers (Communication)
Lasers (Cutting & Welding)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Lasers (Machining/Materials Processing)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Lasers (Medical Imaging)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T4.01-9890
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar, Radar, and Passive Microwave
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Sensitivity, Radiation Hard InGaAs LIDAR Receiver for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Voxtel, Inc.
15985 NW Schendel Avenue, Suite 200
Beaverton, OR 97006-6703
(971) 223-5646

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Georgia Tech Applied Research Corporation
925 Dalney Street
Atlanta, GA 30332-0001
(404) 407-6493

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrew Huntington
andrewh@voxtel-inc.com
15985 NW Schendel Avenue, Suite 200
Beaverton,  OR 97006-6703
(971) 223-5646

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has a requirement for a large-area, high-quantum-efficiency, high-throughput optical receiver for ground-, air-, and space-based LIDAR systems. A radiation-hardened direct detection analog LIDAR receiver will be developed to address this need in the proposed STTR program. The rad-hard LIDAR receiver will be based upon a high gain (M > 1000), low excess noise (k ~ 0.02) InGaAs APD technology with high quantum efficiency (>80%) between 1000-1600 nm, deployed in a 61-element segmented array with a 600-um-diameter aggregate sensitive area. Segmentation of the detector area will minimize pixel capacitance, reducing amplifier noise and enabling GHz-class bandwidth. In Phase I, the proposed hexagonal APD array will be fabricated and hybridized to a custom fanout board for operation with discrete amplifiers. In the Phase II effort, a custom low-noise readout integrated circuit will be developed to mate directly to the hexagonal array, enabling higher sensitivity and higher bandwidth due to reduced interconnect parasitics. At the end of Phase II, the APD receiver will be integrated into a LIDAR test bed by the Electro-Optical Systems Laboratory at Georgia Tech for evaluation in a 6-month measurement campaign. Voxtel anticipates that its technology will enter the program at TRL=4, finish Phase I at TRL=5, and exit the Phase II program at TRL=7.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed low-noise optical receiver technology is applicable to a large number of NASA applications, including lidar atmospheric profiling, laser ranging, ladar navigation and hazard avoidance, and free-space optical communications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The innovation has numerous dual-use applications in US military, industrial and commercial markets, including 3D modeling and site survey, autonomous navigation, automotive cruise control and obstacle avoidance, and robotics. Military applications include navigation and targeting for manned and unmanned systems, including fixed- and rotary-winged platforms, ground-based vehicles, and weapon mounts, as well as helmet-mounted low-light-level imaging.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Transmitters/Receivers
3D Imaging
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T4.01-9931
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar, Radar, and Passive Microwave
PROPOSAL TITLE: New Lidar Laser Configuration for Earth Science Measurements

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fibertek, Inc.
510 Herndon Parkway
Herndon, VA 20170-5225
(703) 471-7671

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
1000 Hilltop Circle
Baltimore, MD 21250-0001
(410) 455-3140

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Youming Chen
ychen@fibertek.com
510 Herndon Parkway
Herndon,  VA 20170-5225
(703) 471-7671

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Fibertek, Inc. and Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC) propose to optimize and verify, an advanced platform for direct-detection lidar transmitter, based on using a dual-wavelength fiber-lidar transmitter. The proposed lidar tramsitter is based on a recently developed fiber lidar platform at Fibertek, that is capable of high spectral resolution at both 1064nm/532nm, has flexible pulse capability from sub-nsec to micro-seconds, with arbitrary optical waveform generation. This will be integrated in the lidar measurement system at UMBC, and lidar calibration, validation, and performance analysis will be conducted under different atmoshperic aerosol loading conditions. Such measurements will also be compared to co-located measurements conducted via the ELF and MPLNET lidar systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
(1) Ground-based High-Spectral Resolution Lidar for atmospheric aerosol mapping (2) Airborne/UAS and potentially space-based aerosol mapping (3) Multi-beam approach to high-resolution lidar mapping (4) Direct-detection lidar transmitter applications enabled by arbitrary optical waveform capability of proposed fiber-lidar transmitter

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
(1) Precision lidar ranging applications for target range estimation (2) Target tracking of RAM for military applications

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Infrared
Multispectral/Hyperspectral


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T5.01-9824
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for In Situ Compositional Analysis and Mapping
PROPOSAL TITLE: Extended Wavelength InP Based Avalanche Diodes for MWIR Response

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Princeton Lightwave, Inc.
2555 Route 130 South, Suite 1
Cranbury, NJ 08512-3509
(609) 495-2600

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Virginia
PO Box 400195
Charlottesville, VA 22904-4195
(434) 924-6272

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bora M. Onat
bmonat@princetonlightwave.com
2555 Route 130 South, Suite 1
Cranbury,  NJ 08512-3509
(609) 495-2546

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
For this NASA STTR program, we propose to develop a novel superlattice-based near infrared to midwave infrared avalanche photodetector (APD) grown on InP substrates for single photon counting applications at high operating temperatures on the order of 200K accessible using thermoelectric coolers. This enables a detector with broad spectral response spanning 0.9 to 4 μm wavelength with reduced cooling requirements, offering a reliable detector technology with small size weight and power requirements that is ideal for future planetary missions. The detector is based on Princeton Lightwave's industry-leading planar-geometry single photon counting APD detector platform designed for 1.55 μm wavelengths, with incorporation of a novel absorber region.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications of our product is in-situ compositional analyses, deep space Earth long distance optical communication links, 3-D planetary terrain mapping, and Robot arm compatible time-gated detectors (and arrays). These systems aboard spacecrafts carry vital roles in the mission millions of miles away from Earth. These instruments designed for remote planetary missions have stringent requirements on reliability, size, weight and power. The reliability is of great concern, since the entire goal of the mission may be jeopardized if a malfunction occurs while at the remote destination. The instrument's size and weight and power needs to be reduced to reduce mission cost. Our detector is a solid state broadband detectors that can address all of these concerns, by providing a by replacing more bulkier and power consuming devices.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For commercial applications, the reduced cooling requirements significantly reduce the cost of the detector since the packaging requirements are much simpler and have higher yield compared to cryogenic cooling. The broad band detection with high sensitivity has many commercial uses such as in industrial sensing, spectroscopy, security, defense, and biomedical (molecular spectroscopy) applications. Furthermore, there are currently no detector technologies that provide true single photon sensitivity extending into the MWIR wavelength range. This dramatic increase in detector capability can be used to provide higher level system performance (e.g., detection of weaker signals or detection over longer distances ) or to relax other system-level requirements (e.g., launched laser power in active sensing systems). Military applications include laser radar for target identification and detection, night vision, infrared thermal sensors, and remote sensing. Homeland Security-related applications involve the remote scanning of public areas and government buildings for chemical and biological agent detection.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Transmitters/Receivers
Characterization
3D Imaging
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T5.01-9939
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for In Situ Compositional Analysis and Mapping
PROPOSAL TITLE: Real-Time Smart Tools for Processing Spectroscopy Data

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Signal Processing, Inc.
13619 Valley Oak Circle
Rockville, MD 20850-3563
(301) 315-2322

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of` Tennessee
1508 Middle Drive
Knoxville, TN 37996-2100
(865) 974-8527

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chiman Kwan
chiman.kwan@signalpro.net
13619 Valley Oak Circle
Rockville,  MD 20850-3563
(301) 315-2322

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose novel and real-time smart software tools to process spectroscopy data. Material abundance or compositional maps will be generated for rover guidance, sample selection, and other scientific missions. First, we propose a novel anomaly detector called clustered kernel Reed-Xiaoli (CKRX) algorithm. This tool was developed by us, is fast, and can achieve very high anomaly detection rate in hyperspectral images from the Air Force. This is important in planetary missions because we may need to look for some anomalous regions in a scene. Second, if target material signatures are available, then we propose a fast matched signature identification algorithm called Adaptive Subspace Detector (ASD). We compared ASD with several other tools and found that ASD outperformed other methods. Third, if target material signatures are not available, then we propose a new technique called minimum volume constrained non-negative matrix factorization (MVCNMF) to perform unsupervised material identification. In a recent comparative study by using hyperspectral images from the Air Force, the MVCNMF performed better than some conventional unsupervised methods. Fourth, the above tools can be implemented in a parallel processing architecture, in which the computations are distributed to multiple cores. We have applied it to speech processing and genomic processing recently. Real-time performance is achievable.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our proposed algorithm can exactly meet the NASA's mission needs, including rover guidance, sample selection, and other scientific missions. We can handle different scenarios such as anomaly detection, supervised material identification, and unsupervised material identification.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We expect to produce real-time tools containing the above mentioned algorithms for hyperspectral and multispectral image processing. The tools can be useful for military surveillance and reconnaissance, and civilian applications (vegetation monitoring). The market size is estimated to be 20 million dollars over the next decade.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Image Processing
Data Processing
Multispectral/Hyperspectral


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T6.01-9860
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Inflatable Modules
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight, Radiation Resistant, Low Tg, Thoraeus Rubber Inflatable Space Habitats

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanosonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke, VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Colorado State University
1618 Campus Delivery
Ft Collins, CO 80523-3126
(979) 491-6450

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jennifer Lalli
jlalli@nanosonic.com
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke,  VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NanoSonic's Shape Memory Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> (SM-MR) exhibits reconfigurable and recoverable changes in structural and RF properties as it can be mechanically and repeatedly inflated without loss of EMI shielding (-88dB). In support of NASA's goals for a robust space exploration program, it is anticipated that NanoSonic's lightweight low permeable bladders shall also exhibit long term radiation resistance upon morphing; a property that few, if any, inflatable materials offer. Typical highly filled or metal evaporated nanocomposites crack upon flexing. Conformal and compliant SM-MR is based on self-assembled high-z, dense, nanoparticles covalently bound to ultra-low glass transition temperature (as low as -145&#61616;C, 128 Kelvin) elastomeric or shape memory polymers. NanoSonic and our STTR partner, Colorado State University, have demonstrated that SM-MR is up to 50% lighter in weight and provides greater gamma ray attenuation relative to commercial shielding materials, without emitting harmful secondary radiation under a 137Cs source. During Phase I, low temperature flexibility, and radiation/micrometeorite (lunar dust) resistance would be verified under simulated Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) conditions, using gamma radiation sources and an electron accelerator with uniform beams up to 20 MeV. TRL9 shall be reached with our space systems partner upon infusion of Thoraeus Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> onto NASA habitats.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Structural, yet compliant, high temperature, radiation resistant Shape Memory-Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> composite materials having unique morphology and multiple controlled electromagnetic properties are possible via NanoSonic's automated spray-on ESA manufacturing approach. SM-MR adaptive materials represent a new class of robust, stowable deployable structures for inflatable habitats and spacecraft based on covalently bound shape memory polymers and nanostructured conductive particles. For this program, SM-MR shall be integrated as a low temperature flexible bladder for Lunar systems, and shielding coatings for exploration vehicles and satellites in LEO, GEO, and HEO. NanoSonic's SMPs may be combined with our family of nanostructure materials produced in house (noble metals, magnetics, ceramics and quantum dots) for limitless combinations of multifunctional morphing materials for civil and space applications. SM-MR free standing nanostructured skins offer dual-use commercialization for NASA and civil markets in the electronics, aerospace, automobile and microelectronics markets for the production of conductive, high temperature, rad hard coatings.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Additional applications for SM-MR include ultra-lightweight sensors/actuators for shape changing inflatables, rigidizable/deployable aerospace structures, and as protective coatings against electrostatic charging, radiation, and abrasion. Low cost, highly EMI/ESD protective skins for aerospace, biomedical and microelectronic components are offered via Shape Memory Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> with metal-like EMI SE up to -88dB under repeated and severe reconfigurations. Such EMI shielding skins can be envisioned for use on aircraft, morphing unmanned aerial vehicles, antennas and space structures. Structural, high temperature, composite materials having unique dielectric and multiple controlled electromagnetic properties are possible via NanoSonic's layer-by-layer approach. Spray ESA is envisioned as a cost-effective, environmentally friendly technology to displace sputtering and traditional dense filled composites. Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> Fabrics and films can also function as conducting electrodes for high strain mechanical actuator and sensor devices, and as low-weight, electrically conductive and mechanically flexible coatings for systems requiring physically-robust electromagnetic shielding, ground planes or electrical interconnection.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airship/Lighter-than-Air Craft
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Man-Machine Interaction
Isolation/Protection/Radiation Shielding (see also Mechanical Systems)
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Outreach
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Radiography
Processing Methods
Aerogels
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Metallics
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Textiles
Deployment
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
X-rays/Gamma Rays
Lifetime Testing
Passive Systems
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T6.01-9879
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Inflatable Modules
PROPOSAL TITLE: Self-Healing Inflatable Extraterrestrial Shield (SHIELD)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Astro Terra Corp
1255 N. Christine st
Orange, CA 92869-1203
(619) 339-7279

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Virginia Commonwealth University
800 East Leigh Street
Richmond, VA 23298-0568
(804) 828-6772

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vishnu Baba Sundaresan
vbsundaresan@vcu.edu
E3251 East Engineering Building, 401 W Main St
Richmond,  VA 23284-3015
(804) 827-7025

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The team of Astro Terra Corp, Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU), and Virginia Tech (VT) propose the development of a composite polymer over Phase-I and Phase-II into a "Self-Healing Inflatable Extraterrestrial ShieLD (SHIELD) membrane with autonomic self-healing properties and active radiation protection. The multi-layer composite architecture of SHIELD membrane is envisioned to have three layers. The outer layer is fabricated from polyimide and the innermost layer made from a viscoelastic polymer. The middle layer will be a self-healing layer fabricated from ionomeric polymers or PDMS-based ionenes and will be the focus of research activities in this program..The team proposes to fabricate the self-healing layer from two polymers (i) an ionomer (Surlyn) and (ii) a novel PDMS-based polyionene and demonstrate autonomic self-sealing in Phase-I. In addition, this polymer layer will be embedded with magnetoelectric nanoparticles and carbon fibers bundles that are in electrical contact and connected to an external circuit. The combination of magnetoelectric nanoparticles and carbon fibers will provide damage detection, resistive and/or inductive heating based self-healing and electromagnetic radiation protection. The polymer candidate that offers the most advantage in autonomic healing and radiation protection will be pursued for further development into a lightweight inflatable membrane in Phase-II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Self-healing materials potentially have a broad range of applications for NASA. These include extra-terrestrial habitats, orbital modules, solar sails, flexible solar arrays, deep space systems, structural components, and space suits. For example, unmanned missions such as the planetary probes and telescopes could see great benefit. The thin film shade for JWST could self-heal from potential damage from cosmic particles flying through interplanetary space. This will help mitigate degradation in the performance of the shade. Similar benefits could be seen with probes sent to investigate asteroids or comets where the likelihood of damage from small objects will increase. Missions such as New Frontiers spacecraft to the larger planets and outer planets will benefit by self-healing components such as arrays, antennas, and other structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Military applications are an obvious area that will benefit from self-healing systems. Aircraft such as UCAV systems could mitigate minor damage which would increase their survivability and durability. Damage could be the result of flak and blasts. With further development, small projectile damage could be mitigated by even partial healing of the impacted area. This could be extended to manned applications. Ground vehicles could heal from minor impacts in hostile environments or could be embedded in tires to heal punctures. Aquatic vehicles could similarly benefit from the same self-healing materials. Temporary structures such as tents like field hospitals or chemical and biological warfare shelters could benefit by having the capability to heal from minor damage. Similarly, biological, chemical, and hazardous material suits for soldiers could be healed in the event of a breach. This can be extended to non-military suits for hazardous materials responders.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Project Management
Prototyping
Quality/Reliability
Composites
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Structures
Destructive Testing
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T6.02-9858
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Portable Sensor Technology for High-Purity Oxygen Determination
PROPOSAL TITLE: Highly Accurate Sensor for High-Purity Oxygen Determination

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Los Gatos Research
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041-1518
(650) 965-7772

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The University of Wisconsin - Madison
21 North Park Street, Suite 6401
Madison, WI 53715-1218
(608) 262-3822

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Manish Gupta
m.gupta@lgrinc.com
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View,  CA 94041-1518
(650) 965-7772

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this STTR Phase I effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) and Professor Scott Sanders (Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Wisconsin ? Madison) propose to develop a highly-accurate sensor for high-purity oxygen determination. The analyzer, which is based on near-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry (TDLAS) and LGR's patented Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectrometry (Off-Axis ICOS), will be capable of rapidly quantifying high-purity oxygen (95 ? 100 %) with very high accuracy (to better than 0.05 %), minimal calibration, and no zero drift. The analysis will be completely specific and exhibit no measurable cross-interferences from other background species (e.g. argon, nitrogen, water vapor, CO, CO2, or small organics). Moreover, the analyzer will be low-power, battery-operable, require no consumables, and sufficiently compact and robust for adaptability to future space missions. The high-purity oxygen sensor will help characterize NASA oxygen generators for breathing and propulsion applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In low-pressure environments similar to those found during spacewalks or high-altitude flights, manned deployments require high-purity oxygen for breathing applications. This oxygen can be generated via in-situ resource utilization of extraplanetary regolith or extraction from ambient air. Both strategies involve using zeolite and carbon molecular sieves to remove other trace gases, and it is critical to continuously monitor the oxygen purity to optimize the generator conditions (e.g. gas flow rates, zeolite temperature, etc?), and account for sieve saturation, and quantify aging effects. Current technologies, including gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and electrochemical detection, cannot accurately quantify minute changes oxygen purity without the use of consumables and calibration.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Besides its application to NASA, an ultrasensitive, lightweight oxygen analyzer also has significant commercial application for industrial process control monitoring and scientific instrumentation development. LGR is actively collaborating with several commercial partners to develop oxygen sensors for real-time control and optimization of electric arc furnaces. Additionally, LGR can readily extend the analyzer technology to address other trace gases for military applications. The proposed work is essential in making these instruments smaller, lighter, and more cost effective, thus enabling LGR to penetrate into these lucrative markets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T6.02-9943
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Portable Sensor Technology for High-Purity Oxygen Determination
PROPOSAL TITLE: Differential Diode Laser Sensor for High-Purity Oxygen

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MetroLaser, Inc.
8 Chrysler
Irvine, CA 92618-2008
(949) 553-0688

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stanford University
340 Panama Street
Stanford, CA 94305-3032
(650) 721-6394

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Thomas Jenkins
tjenkins@metrolaserinc.com
8 Chrysler
Irvine,  CA 92618-2008
(949) 553-0688

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A compact portable sensor for determining the purity of oxygen concentrations near 100 percent is proposed based on differential absorption of two beams from a diode laser. One beam passes through a cell containing the sample of gas to be analyzed and the second beam passes through a reference cell containing a known concentration of high-purity oxygen. An autobalanced detection system will be used for measuring the difference in photocurrents of the transmitted beams. Common mode noise such as laser intensity noise will be rejected to a high degree. The system should not be subject to drift because it would be possible to lock the laser wavelength to the oxygen line using the reference cell. We estimate that the proposed sensor concept should enable an accuracy of 0.05 percent to be achieved with a cell length of less than 10 cm. The sensor can be made rugged with a small footprint using microelectronics for laser control and signal processing. The proposed effort will test the feasibility of this sensor concept by seeking to demonstrate measurements of the desired accuracy using a breadboard system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications of the proposed sensor include on-orbit monitoring of oxygen from storage tanks to determine long-term structural stability as affected by chemical attack of tank and seal materials, monitoring of oxygen streams in wastewater aeration processes, and monitoring for leaks in oxygen storage systems. In addition, the sensor may find use in land based NASA activities such as monitoring of oxygen during purification processes and testing of oxygen purity at remote locations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A compact portable high-purity sensor for oxygen would be useful to gas suppliers for verifying purity in remote locations such as storehouses, delivery vehicles, and onsite at customer locations without having to bring the sample to the lab. High purity oxygen applications that could benefit include academic and governmental research, industrial cutting and welding, and municipal wastewater treatment. The sensor can serve as a complementary method to more complex laboratory analyses to check the purity of oxygen sources in the field. We will market commercial versions of the sensor to gas supply companies, research labs, and anywhere high purity oxygen is used. The sensor technique can also be adapted to other gases that have near infrared absorption lines, such as NH3, CH4, and CO2, which may find use in research and process quality control.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Visible
Infrared
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T6.02-9958
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Portable Sensor Technology for High-Purity Oxygen Determination
PROPOSAL TITLE: Portable High Sensitivity and High Resolution Sensor to Determine Oxygen Purity Levels

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innosense, LLC
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance, CA 90505-5245
(310) 530-2011

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Research Foundation of SUNY
402 Crofts Hall
Buffalo, NY 14260-3000
(716) 645-4408

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Uma Sampathkumaran
uma.sampathkumaran-1@innosense.us
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance,  CA 90505-5245
(310) 530-2011

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of this Phase I STTR project is to develop a highly sensitive oxygen (O2) sensor, with high accuracy and precision, to determine purity levels of high concentration (> 99%) O2 gas streams. This sensor will meet NASA applications for on-orbit O2 purity checks in portable life support systems (PLSS) and during in situ O2 production activities. InnoSense LLC (ISL) will utilize its proprietary Chemical Fingerprint (TM) sensor array fabrication technology in this project coupled with the combinatorial analysis and high throughput sensor evaluation capabilities of the STTR partner. In Phase I, ISL will engineer a working model and demonstrate NASA use potential of the technology. Upon fine-tuning various parameters in Phase II, the system performance will be tested with a prototype hardware. For assuring success of this project, ISL has assembled a technical team with a cumulative 90 person-years of experience in developing commercially viable sensor systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA vision calls for safe, affordable human missions beyond Earth orbit to Mars, and through the Solar System. Monitoring and controlling of the life-support process needs to be performed by devices having attributes such as: (a) high accuracy and precision, (b) reduced size and weight, (c) long operational life, (d) reliable performance, (e) minimal calibration and maintenance requirements, and (f) portability. Oxygen is the "breath of life" in the environmental life support system (ECLS) for space-craft crew habitat and during extravehicular activities (EVA). In situ O2 production is likely in the future. The proposed sensor technology will provide NASA with a low-cost, robust, highly sensitive and accurate O2 sensor in a portable format.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The multiplexing capabilities of the device make it very attractive for applications ranging from environmental monitoring to process control. A study by Frost & Sullivan titled " World Gas Sensors, Detectors and Analyzers Market" reveals that these markets earned revenues of over $1 billion in 2005 and estimates this to exceed $1.4 billion in 2012 (Source: Frost and Sullivan Report MC1377591, August 31, 2006). Pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, fermentation monitoring, cell culturing, and tissue culturing represent additional important applications. Upon repackaging, the device will have applications in firefighting, hazardous material response, hazardous material workers, industrial safety workers (e.g., coal miners, steel workers, etc.), and industrial confined space monitoring associated with many occupations (e.g., industrial chemical manufacturing).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Space Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Fire Protection
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Physiological/Psychological Countermeasures
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Quality/Reliability
Material Handing & Packaging
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Aerogels
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Nanomaterials
Organics/Biomaterials/Hybrids
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Deployment
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Visible
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Lifetime Testing
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T7.01-9855
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Wireless SAW Sensor Arrays
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hypergol Sensor Using Passive Wireless SAW Devices

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied Sensor Research & Development Corporation
1195 Baltimore-Annapolis Blvd., Unit #2
Arnold, MD 21012-1815
(410) 544-4664

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Temple University
1938 Liacouras Walk, Room 217A
Philadelphia, PA 19122-6027
(215) 204-8691

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jacqueline H
jhines@asrdcorp.com
1195 Baltimore-Annapolis Blvd., Unit #2
Arnold,  MD 21012-1815
(410) 544-4664

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal describes the preliminary development of surface acoustic wave (SAW) based hypergolic fuel sensors for NASA application to distributed wireless leak detection systems. SAW devices are a platform technology for passive wireless sensing of numerous possible measurands. ASR&D and its collaborators have demonstrated passive wireless sensors using SAW devices, for applications including temperature sensing, cryogenic liquid level sensing, hydrogen sensors, and humidity sensors under NASA SBIR and STTR funding. The proposed hypergolic fuel sensors will use SAW devices combined with chemically selective film elements to explore the possibility of producing sensitive hydrazine (HZ, MMH, and DMH), and nitrogen tetroxide sensors capable of detecting low ppb concentrations over a range of ambient conditions. This research will utilize the results obtained in ASR&D's nanocluster Palladium (Pd) film and coded SAW sensor and wireless interrogation system research, and existing hypergol sensing technologies. The proposed films should experience large conductivity changes due to interactions with the hypergolic chemicals being detected, producing measurable changes in SAW device performance, as seen in ASR&D's hydrogen sensors. During the Phase I project, issues including formation of the chemically selective films on piezoelectric substrates, optimization of these films, and sensor performance for different device types will be investigated. Successful completion of the proposed Phase I activities will establish the technical feasibility of producing the proposed sensors, evaluate the potential performance capabilities of optimized sensors, and define the additional work necessary to effect device implementation. Assuming the results of Phase I are positive, Phase II could result in development of multiple uniquely identifiable, wirelessly interrogable hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide sensors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Compounds in the hydrazine family and nitrogen tetroxide, which are hypergolic when used together, are used as rocket propellants in NASA, Air Force, and civilian spacecraft. Until recently, the Shuttle's APU and HPU systems used such fuels,as do both mono- and bi-propellant propulsion systems. The continued use of these compounds to fuel rockets in the next generation launch vehicles under development at NASA is likely. However, these compounds are hazardous, and human exposure or atmospheric release may present serious health, safety and environmental risks. Hence adequate leak detection technology is essential for safe use of these materials. The proposed hypergol sensors will be developed to work with the SAW multi-sensor interrogation system being developed by ASR&D. This would provide a multi-sensor system to be used by NASA for distributed real-time hypergolic fuel leak detection. The passive wireless nature of these sensors will allow remote monitoring, with power only required at interrogation system nodes, where sensor ID and signal processing occurs. The processed data can then be sent back to a central reporting station using standard wireless communication protocols. Small size, low cost, RFID capability, and rapid reversible responses make this sensor technology potentially applicable for personnel monitoring and similar applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Hydrazine [HZ], along with its methyl-substituted derivatives (including monomethylhydrazine [MMH] and dimethylhydrazine [DMH]) are flammable, toxic compounds that are also suspected carcinogens. Permissible exposure limits, as recommended by the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists, are 10ppb. Nitrogen tetroxide is a strong oxidizing agent, and has a threshold limit of 3 ppm. In order to minimize potential exposure of personnel and to facilitate cleanup, it is essential to rapidly identify and localize accidental releases of these materials in both vapor and liquid form. Sensor systems used for this purpose must be capable of detecting levels of these compounds at concentrations far enough below regulatory limits to trigger alarms before regulatory exposure limits have been met. Thus, detection at low ppb levels is desirable for hydrazine, and high ppb levels for nitrogen tetroxide. The proposed sensors have the potential of providing rapid, real-time monitoring for these chemicals, at levels low enough to enable alarm system operation. Such sensors would be useful in any facility that manufactures, stores, transports, or uses these compounds. The world market for hydrazine and its organic derivatives is growing, with applications in space, defense, and civilian arenas. Availability of a cost-effective monitoring technology for these compounds could enhance regulatory compliance and safety industry-wide.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fuels/Propellants
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T7.01-9856
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Wireless SAW Sensor Arrays
PROPOSAL TITLE: Enhanced Codeset Passive Wireless SAW Sensor-Tags and System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied Sensor Research & Development Corporation
1195 Baltimore-Annapolis Blvd., Unit #2
Arnold, MD 21012-1815
(410) 544-4664

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Maine
5717 Corbett Hall
Orono, ME 04469-5717
(207) 581-2201

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jacqueline Hines
jhines@asrdcorp.com
1195 Baltimore-Annapolis Blvd., Unit #2
Arnold,  MD 21012-1815
(410) 544-4664

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed project will develop a set of at least 100 passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) RFID sensor-tags for near-simultaneous remote monitoring of groups of conventional sensors. Coded SAW sensor-tags have been demonstrated by ASR&D under NNX09CE49P to be capable of providing a passive wireless interface to external sensors, including switches, thermistors, and strain gages, as well as external sensors that generate voltages. These sensor-tags consist of a SAW device with an antenna attached to one port and sensor(s) and reference impedance(s) connected to the other ports. RF signals of the correct frequency range are reflected off of the surface wave device, and their reflection characteristics are modified by changes in the impedance/voltage of the attached sensor(s). Under NNX10RA68P a set of 32 individually identifiable coded SAW temperature sensor devices that avoids the serious problems with code collision seen in conventional SAW RFID systems was developed using CDMA and TDMA. Wireless measurement confirmed the ability to selectively detect any single sensor out of the combined response of multiple sensors. The proposed effort will incorporate direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) codes into SAW tag devices also using time diversity, to produce sets of more than 100 individually identifiable coded sensor-tags. DSSS coding has been demonstrated by researchers at the University of Maine to produce sets codes with good auto- and cross-correlation properties. These sensor-tags will be tested to verify that they can be used as an interface to external pressure sensors and strain gages. This project will also evaluate the wireless reader system architectures commercially available and currently being developed at ASR&D and at other research institutions to determine what system architecture is most beneficial for operation with the codesets developed. This will form the basis of recommendations for future system development work.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Sets of the coded passive wireless sensor-tags proposed and appropriate wireless readers would enable remote monitoring of external sensors throughout NASA programs and facilities, reducing the wiring infrastructure for DFI and for vehicle/structure monitoring systems. While the proposed work will develop interface devices for use with strain gages and pressure sensors, prior work makes it clear that the results of the proposed work can be extended for use with other sensor types provided the sensor produces a change in impedance or a voltage in response to an external stimulus (or change in a measurand). Thus, sensor-tag interface devices could be used to provide wireless interfaces to numerous existing sensors. This would allow NASA to re-use existing flight qualified sensors in a wireless mode, by qualifying a wireless link device suitable for use with each class of sensors, avoiding the need to qualify new sensors for every application.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed sensor-tag interface devices will also find wide usage for distributed wireless monitoring of sensors in aerospace and other commercial applications. Monitoring of commercial airframes for aging and deterioration is a high priority for aerospace firms and for military and civilian aircraft operators. Civil infrastructure monitoring could enhance our understanding of the condition of bridges, tunnels, and pavements, with real-time detection of cracks, delamination, and other growing failure mechanisms in concrete, metal, composites, and other materials. This would provide actionable intelligence and allow effective prioritization of limited maintenance and repair resources. Other commercial applications will likely include inventorying and tracking high value industrial assets, and distributed sensing systems for environmental applications such as landfills.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Structures
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Contact/Mechanical
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Lifetime Testing
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T7.01-9980
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Wireless SAW Sensor Arrays
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wireless SAW Sensor Strain Gauge & Integrated Interrogator Design

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mnemonics, Inc.
3900 Dow Road, Suite J
Melbourne, FL 32394-9255
(321) 254-7300

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Central Florida
12201 Research Parkway, Suite 501
Orlando, FL 32826-3246
(407) 823-3031

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TJ Mears
tjm2nd@mnemonics-esd.com
3900 Dow Road, Suite J
Melbourne,  FL 32394-9255
(321) 254-7300

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Wireless, passive, Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) temperature sensors, which can operate in a multi-sensor environment, have recently been successfully demonstrated. A network of four (4) Orthogonal Frequency Coded (OFC) sensors developed at the University of Central Florida (UCF) has been successfully interrogated wirelessly at a distance of seven (7) feet with a transceiver system developed by Mnemonics, Inc (MNI). A single temperature sensor has been interrogated at a distance of twenty-one (21) feet. This proposal extends that work in two (2) important areas. The first is in the development of an additional sensor type, a strain gauge. The second is in the design of an integrated interrogator system. These will be useful devices for a broad range of NASA, as well as commercial applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A wireless, passive, coded sensor that is rugged, cheap and can be remotely interrogated has multiple applications at NASA. Temperature, pressure and acceleration sensors can be installed on the leading edges of wings to monitor temperature, pressure loss and also provide a profile of the forces on the structure. Additional NASA applications include acceleration sensing for monitoring vehicular acceleration and vehicular vibration, vehicular docking, rotation and directional sensing, tilt control, and fall detection. By exploring the future use of SAW devices for monitoring structural integrity, extreme temperature, extreme pressure, toxic or lethal environments, it is highly probable that the wireless SAW can change the future of Airframe safety and the required/planned maintenance process. This technology can allow the feasible embedment of sensors in key structural components of an airframe for persistent monitoring both during flight and as a post flight analysis. Not only could the structural integrity of the airframe be monitored but other critical states of air flight could be instrumented without the increased cost of weight associated with fiber optic or wired communication.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential Non-NASA commercial include the Automotive Industry (state of health), Civil Engineering (stress management), Chemical and Biological development (toxic safety monitoring) and Refinery process (safety monitoring). The utilization of a wireless SAW device for remote monitoring of hostile environments will become not only technically feasible but also economically feasible based on the extremely low cost associated with the device. By establishing the WSAW as a passive device and the wireless interrogator as the active portion of the link you have enabled an architecture which can support the monitoring of possibly hundreds of SOH sensors per interrogator. As an example in an automobile the wireless SAW can be deployed as pressure sensors in each tire, liquid contaminant sensors in the fuel and oil supplies, temperature and pressure sensors within the engine, and carbon monoxide sensors within the vehicle. Additionally, highway safety information could be deployed with each informational sign or within construction areas to alert the driver of a status change of speed or other conditions which could be interrogated by the onboard system.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Space Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Acoustic/Vibration
Pressure/Vacuum
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Thermal
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Active Systems
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Passive Systems
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T8.01-9926
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flexible Charge Dissipation Coatings for Spacecraft Electronics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Charge Dissipating Transparent Conformal Coatings for Spacecraft Electronics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle, Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016-4962
(540) 769-8400

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Aerospace Corporation
2310 East El Segundo Boulevard
El Segundo, CA 90245-4609
(310) 336-5000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Adam Goff
goffa@lunainnovations.com
706 Forest Street, Suite A
Charottesville,  VA 22903-5231
(434) 220-2513

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The space environment poses significant challenges to spacecraft electronics in the form of electrostatic discharge (ESD) as a result of exposure to highly charged radiation belts. The NASA Europa Jupiter System Mission environment, for example, exhibits radiation levels seven times greater than Earth's geostationary orbit. In addition to the Jovian environment, highly charged environments can also exist at geosynchronous and medium Earth orbits owing to solar winds/storms and trapped radiation belts. Such environments can wreak ESD havoc on unprotected critical spacecraft components inside the spacecraft bus. While existing conformal coatings serve their purpose of insulating and protecting electronics from environmental effects, they do not exhibit ESD mitigation qualities. No solution currently exists to provide both electronic environmental protection, optical transparency for component inspection, and charge dissipation characteristics in one coating system. To address this need, Luna, in partnership with The Aerospace Corporation, proposes to modify industry standard and space-qualified conformal coatings by dispersing transparent and conductive nanoparticles within them to impart electrical conductivity levels sufficient for charge dissipation and increased radiation hardening capability. The proposed coating system will provide the appropriate performance properties of both common conformal coating protection and radiation hardening through ESD mitigation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
If Luna's approach is successful, a new electrically conductive conformal coating suitable for enhanced radiation hardening will be available that offers multifunctional performance for spacecraft applications. The resultant technology will be applicable to a wide range of NASA satellites, orbiting probes, and or planetary surface rovers that require enhanced ESD protection not afforded by existing conformal coatings. The most likely flagship platform will be the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) as part of the NASA Europa Jupiter System Mission.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The resultant technology will be applicable to a wide range of military and commercial satellites and related applications that require enhanced ESD protection not afforded by existing conformal coatings. Successful demonstration of the feasibility of using conductive nanoparticles to impart moderate electrical conductivity to commercial, MIL and Space-qualified conformal coatings will help provide spacecraft manufacturers and system integrators a simplified mitigation strategy for optimum spacecraft protection in service. Other potential uses include ESD sensitive aircraft electronics.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Polymers


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T8.01-9960
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flexible Charge Dissipation Coatings for Spacecraft Electronics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ionic Polymer-Based Removable and Charge-Dissipative Coatings for Space Electronic Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innosense, LLC
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance, CA 90505-5245
(310) 530-2011

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Nevada
4505 Maryland Parkway
Las Vegas, NV 89154-1055
(702) 895-1357

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tania Betancourt
tania.betancourt-1@innosense.us
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance,  CA 90505-5245
(310) 530-2011

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Protection of critical electronic systems in spacecraft and satellites is imperative for NASA's future missions to high-energy, outer-planet environments. The objective of this project is to develop flexible, transparent, and removable conformal coatings to protect delicate, mission-critical electronic components from electrostatic discharge damage. In collaboration with our partners, InnoSense LLC (ISL) proposes to develop a Transparent Conformal Conductive Coating that will meet the needs of NASA's space programs. The transparent conformal coatings will consist of a flexible and low-water-absorbing polymer matrix blended with conductive polymers. Phase I tasks focus on (1) preparing conductive polymers and conformal coating formulations, (2) developing coating and curing processes, and (3) testing conformal coatings with respect to adhesion, UV resistance, offgassing, resistivity, charge dissipation, ease of removal, and resistance to temperature cycling and vacuum.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's vision for the future focuses on missions beyond Earth's orbit to Mars and throughout the solar system. This vision will involve long-duration missions to environments with high radiation. Highly charged particles penetrate spacecraft and satellites and can do considerable electrostatic discharge damage to electronics. Electrostatic discharge will also be a problem in any long-term colonies engaged in lunar or other non-Earth mining activities. ISL's coatings will reduce the risk of damage by dissipating charge on the surface of electronic circuit boards in a controlled manner. The conformal coating will be applied by a standard industrial method such as brush painting or spray coating. The coatings will have low outgassing and low water absorption. In addition, our coatings will be transparent for visual inspection and thermoplastic for removal when necessary.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Damaging electrostatic charge accumulation and discharge is a grave issue in many industries including electronics, aerospace, transportation, and defense. ISL's coatings can be incorporated in printed circuit boards of sensitive electronic devices used in many industrial and commercial fields. These materials have applications in the protection of complex electronic-based products such aircraft, missiles, nuclear power plants, supertankers, and motor vehicles. They can also be used for static dissipation in the oil refinery industry, explosive environments, dust control, flexible displays, EMI shields, and industrial worker uniforms.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Space Transportation & Safety
Tools/EVA Tools
Training Concepts & Architectures
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Quality/Reliability
Support
Material Handing & Packaging
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Nanomaterials
Organics/Biomaterials/Hybrids
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T8.02-9893
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Internal Electrostatic Discharge (IESD) Resistant Circuit Board Materials
PROPOSAL TITLE: Polyimide Nanocomposite Circuit Board Materials to Mitigate Internal Electrostatic Discharge

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
International Scientific Technologies, Inc.
P.O. Box 757
Dublin, VA 24084-0757
(540) 633-1424

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The College of William and Mary
P.O. Box 8795
Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795
(757) 221-4910

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Russell Churchill
intlsci@earthlink.net
P.O. Box 757
Dublin,  VA 24084-0757
(540) 633-1424

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Sub-topic T8.02, NASA has identified a need for improved circuit boards to mitigate the hazards of internal electrostatic discharge (IESD) on missions where high energy electrons may lead to internal electrostatic discharge-based failure. The proposed STTR program will transition polymer technology developed at the Research Institution, the College of William and Mary, to NASA programs and to the private sector through the aegis of the Small Business, International Scientific Technologies, Inc. The program Technical Objectives include evaluation and selection of nanoparticle, organometallic, and metal-ligand additives compatible with polyimide resins to produce electrically conductive circuit boards that reduce the effects of IESD, fabrication of polyimide films incorporating metallic nanostructures to optimize both volume and surface electrical resistivities, and characterization of electrical conductivity, electron beam charging effects, and thermo-mechanical properties of the polyimide resin circuit board materials. The innovation of the Phase I and Phase II programs is the development of polyimide nanocomposite circuit board materials that are resistant to Internal Electrostatic Discharge. The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) is 2 at the beginning of Phase I and 4 or higher at the end of Phase I.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed multifunctional polyimide circuit board materials have NASA applications in mitigating Internal Electrostatic Discharge (IESD) in critical electronics in missions, such as the Plymouth Rock Deep Space Asteroid Mission, the Manned Mission to Mars and Outer Planet Flagship Mission (OPFM). The Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) segment of the OPFM would require a space probe to survive Jupiter's high-energy electron belts. NASA needs IESD-mitigating circuit boards for the EJSM. Critical Satellite systems can also benefit from the proposed IESD Mitigating Circuit Boards. Middle Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites are subject to internal charging that can lead to damage to sensitive electronics. Protection of Satellite-on-a-Printed Circuit Board (PCBSat) systems will also be one of the outcomes of a successful Phase I and Phase II program.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications of the Internal Electrostatic Discharge (IESD) mitigating circuit board are found in both commercial terrestrial and aerospace electronics applications. The printed circuit boards will extend the lifetime of computers, telephones and sensors subject to electrostatic discharge (ESD). The proposed nanocomposite polymer materials will find direct application in the prevention of charging by static electricity. Anti-static packaging having good mechanical and thermal properties will meet needs for electronic component enclosures. Additional non-NASA applications may be found in the development of flexible and transparent electronics. The STTR program will result in a technology base of design, process and testing knowledge that will enable ready transition from research into a product-production mode through interactions with suppliers of anti-ESD equipment and with aerospace companies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Electromagnetic


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T8.03-9870
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Innovative Green Technologies for Renewable Energy Sources
PROPOSAL TITLE: Photo-Enhanced Hydrogen Transport Technology for Clean Renewable Electrochemical Energy Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Phenom Technologies, Inc
5300 Palmer Ln, STE 2A
Williamsburg, VA 23188-2794
(757) 784-4647

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
College of William and Mary
Grants and Research Administration
Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795
(757) 221-3966

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gunter Luepke
luepke@wm.edu
College of William and Mary, Dept of Applied Science
Williamsburg,  VA 23187-8795
(757) 221-1894

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers are promising electrochemical devices for space and terrestrial applications due to their high power densities and clean operation. Furthermore, proton-conducting oxides have the potential to allow lower operational temperatures and promote more reliable and longer-lived devices?both valuable attributes for space applications?however, practical devices are not yet realized because of insufficient proton mobility at moderate temperatures. Phenom Technologies, Inc. has identified a new non-thermal technique to dramatically enhance the mobility of protons in solid oxides using resonant infrared irradiation to excite molecular O-H vibrations in the material. In our earlier work, we have shown that this photo-enhanced hydrogen transport effect can increase the proton diffusion rate in solid oxides by nine orders of magnitude. In this Phase I STTR proposal, we will build on our established research to complete a proof of concept study and lay the foundation for Phase II prototype development of a "photo-enhanced" solid oxide electrolyte for fuel cells and electrolyzers. This study will address NASA's need for more reliable and efficient solid oxide electrochemical components for clean renewable energy systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Advanced solid oxide fuel cells are crucial components for primary power generation and water production on NASA's spacecraft and outpost stations. Additionally, they can provide clean power for use in aircraft, reusable launch vehicles, rovers, buildings, and portable electronic devices. Solid oxide electrolyzers can help reduce the high costs of extended missions to the Lunar and Martian surfaces by producing oxygen from reformed regolith. They are also promising candidates to be used in advanced life support systems by regenerating oxygen from CO2 and H2O.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The application space for our advanced photo-enhanced electrochemical technology is very broad. Fuel cells, for example, are very attractive in today's consumer environment of heightened environmental awareness due to their high efficiencies and low pollution. Our technology will lower operational temperatures and reduce startup times, which will allow implementation of SOFC devices in portable-high power and automotive applications, where the fuel flexibility offers significant advantages over PEM devices that require reformed hydrogen fuel and its associated delivery infrastructure. Other applications include improved hydrogen sensors, pumps/separation membranes, and electrolysis for hydrogen production, desulfurization, and NOx removal.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Space Transportation & Safety
Outreach
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Conversion
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Storage
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Ceramics
Metallics
Nanomaterials
Nonspecified
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Lenses
Mirrors
Emitters
Lasers (Machining/Materials Processing)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Infrared
Destructive Testing
Lifetime Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T8.03-9877
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Innovative Green Technologies for Renewable Energy Sources
PROPOSAL TITLE: Energy Production for Sustainable Planetary Explorations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
LC Tech
280 Parkside Dr
Palo Alto, CA 94306-4530
(650) 283-3387

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
UCLA
420 Westwood Plaza
Los Angeles, CA 90095-1595
(310) 825-4217

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jinbo Yang
jyang@lctech-solutions.com
280 Parkside Dr
Palo Alto,  CA 94306-0000
(650) 283-3387

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Our basic approach is to use a photoelectrochemical cell operated under simulated Mars conditions. The light source will be solar simulator with a wide spectrum of emitted light. On Mars wavelengths of light down to 190 nm reach the surface (compared to Earth where only 300 nm and above reaches the surface). The soil will be the JSC.Mars 1 stimulant which is known to contain 10% TiO2 (in partial reduced forms) and is supposed to be a good analog for the surface soils on Mars. We will consider two possible sources of H2O: first water flowing as liquid from below the surface of the soil and second water deposited as condensate on the surface of the soil. Additional two types of photocatalysts will be evaluated for methane conversion efficiencies: off shelf low cost TiO2 (P25), and doped TiO2 nanostructures (nanotubes and nanowires) for broader solar wavelength absorptions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Fuel production for base power systems, local mobility, and launch for Earth return are key requirements for the exploration of Mars including sample return and human exploration. Methane has long been recognized as the fuel of choice for Mars in situ resource utilization (ISRU) due to its relatively high cryogenic temperature. However methane on Mars must be produced in situ from atmospheric CO2. We propose to demonstrate in a prototype device for the conversion of H2O and CO2 to CH4 using only sunlight and minerals (TiO2) already known to be present on Mars. Interestingly the mechanism we propose here may be responsible for natural methane production on Mars today and may therefore account for the curious methane observations recently reported.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed catalytical methane conversion uses nanomaterials for improved conversion efficiency. The success of the device application on Mars will substantially reduces the payload weight and mission costs. The proposed device is also applicable for terrestrial application in reducing the greenhouse gas emission and solar utilizations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Prototyping
In Situ Manufacturing
Nanomaterials
Smart/Multifunctional Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T8.03-9945
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Innovative Green Technologies for Renewable Energy Sources
PROPOSAL TITLE: Alternative Green Technology for Power Generation Using Waste-Heat Energy And Advanced Thermoelectric Materials

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brimrose Technology Corporation
19 Loveton Circle, P.O. Box 616
Sparks, MD 21152-9201
(410) 472-2600

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Penn State University: Applied Research Laboratory (ARL)
P.O. Box 30
State College, PA 16804-0030
(814) 863-3991

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Sudhir Trivedi
strivedi@brimrose.com
P.O. Box 616, #19 Loveton Circle
Sparks,  MD 21152-9201
(410) 472-2600

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is interested in advancing green technology research for achieving sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources for both terrestrial and space applications. It has been reported that thermo-electric power generation (TEPG) can contribute to electrical power generation scavenged from waste heat sources. Significant advantages to TE technology include: no moving parts, low-weight, modularity, covertness, high power density, low amortized cost, and long service life with no required maintenance. TEPG also has the potential of enabling large-scale electric power generation. We propose to continue are on-going research of PbTe single crystals and investigate the FAST technique, developed by Penn State Univ., to produce bulk nano-composites. We will assemble the material into TE devices and optimize the high temperature electrical contacts for minimal resistivity. We expect to standardize the processes to produce device with efficiency up to 10% (we currently have efficiency of 4.4%) by the end of Phase II. The major goal of the proposed work is to establish the feasibility that kilowatt levels of power can be produced in an environmentally clean (pollution free) manner using TEPG.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is interested in advancing green technology research for achieving sustainable and environmental friendly energy sources for terrestrial and space applications. Development of TEPG material can be used for both power generation and cooling applications. The proposed power generator material can provide power to run various space-based vehicular sub-systems and static sensor systems on Mars and Lunar environments over long periods of time at reduced size, weight, and cost. Recovery of waste heat is applicable to NASA applications and may be applied to building self-powered water and space heating systems. Devices utilizing thermoelectric (TE) technology are ideally suited to reducing the energy needs leading to the promotion of the practice of green building.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
TEPG has rich potential for broad commercial and military. Government agencies like DOD or EPA could benefit from this technology. It can be used to retrieve the waste heat emitted from automobiles, factories or other similar sources; and to promote the practice of green building. Potential military uses include battery recharging making TEPG useful for mounted/ dismounted soldier power. One use for this technology is to power military kitchen appliances without the need for an external generator. TE power sources can also generate power from the small temperature gradients that are available throughout the human body, making it possible to generate power using human body heat

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Composites
Nanomaterials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T9.01-9836
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Human and Robotic Space Exploration Propulsion Design and Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Non-Catalytic Self Healing Composite Material Solution

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ADA Technologies, Inc.
8100 Shaffer Parkway, Suite 130
Littleton , CO 80127-4107
(303) 792-5615

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Delaware
Center for Composit Materials
Newark, DE 19716-3144
(302) 831-3312

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steve Arzberger
stevea@adatech.com
8100 Shaffer Parkway #130
Littleton,  CO 80127-4107
(303) 874-8277

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Fiber reinforce polymer (FRP) composite materials are seeing increasing use in the construction of a wide variety of aerospace structures. However, uncertainties regarding the material's impact durability continue to plague the FRP composites community. To address this need, ADA Technologies, Inc. (ADA), Littleton, CO, in partnership with the University of Delaware's Center for Composite Materials (UD-CCM), Newark, DE, propose the development of a novel, non-catalytic, fully passive, self-healing polymer for use as a fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) matrix material If successful, the proposed technology will provide fully autonomous self-healing without the use of a catalyst. Further, while the proposed program is largely focused on demonstrating self-healing capabilities in FRP material form, the proposed technology is broadly applicable to next-generation polymer-based composites such as carbon nanotube reinforced composites (i.e., polymer nanocomposites).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
If successful, the proposed self-healing polymer technology would greatly increase the damage tolerance of current FRP composite materials as well as future, next-generation polymer nanocomposites. The resulting increase in composite durability would greatly increase the structural efficiency of vehicle designs as well as increase their overall lifetime. Ultimately, the proposed technology would allow for reductions in weight for space exploration vehicles thereby reducing the cost of space exploration (i.e., due to reduced launch costs).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Beyond NASA, the proposed technology could see use in virtually any large-scale, structural composite application where damage tolerance is of great concern. Potential applications include commercial and military satellites and aircraft, military naval marine vessels, wind and water turbine blades, automobiles and sporting goods among many others. Improvements based on the proposed technology would allow reductions in component mass (i.e., due to increased structural efficiency) as well as reductions in maintenance costs thereby increasing the commercial viability of the target application.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Structures
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T9.01-9887
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Human and Robotic Space Exploration Propulsion Design and Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Fidelity Prediction of Launch Vehicle Liftoff Acoustic Fields

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805-1944
(256) 726-4800

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Cincinnati
P.O. Box 210072
Cincinnati, OH 45221-0072
(513) 556-4607

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Abhijit Tosh
sxh@cfdrc.com
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville,  AL 35805-1944
(256) 726-4925

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The high-intensity level acoustic load generated by large launch vehicle lift-off propulsion is of major concern for the integrity of the launch complex and the vehicle payloads. The currently practiced computational methods are unable to offer the reliability of both the noise generation mechanism and acoustic environment. In order to uniquely address both of these critical aspects, the proposed approach will unify the physics of noise production with propagation and structural interactions. This method will utilize hybrid LES/RANS modeling established in NASA production flow solvers (Loci-Chem and OVERFLOW) capable of realistic descriptions of flow-acoustic interactions. A non-dissipative acoustic Boundary Element Method (BEM) will be coupled with the well-resolved noise source for high-quality acoustic environment predictions, equipped with the Fast Multipole Method (FMM) for solution acceleration. In Phase I, merits of the proposed approach will be investigated for plume impingement problems. A high-performance simulation architecture, easy user interfaces and post-processing utilities will be developed for complex geometries and efficient large-scale simulations. Phase II efforts will involve refinements and extensive evaluations for high-resolution noise source modeling, transition of mixed speed flow regimes, wave propagation through non-uniform flow, and supercomputing capabilities facilitating new insights into rocket exhaust acoustic loading and comprehensive noise suppression analysis.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Computational Aero-Acoustics (CAA) tool will be of first order importance in defining lift-off environments for Shuttle and new heavy lift launch vehicle designs, and for the analysis of noise suppression techniques such as targeted placement of water deluge systems or shaping of launch platform surfaces and exhaust ports to reduce the noise sources. The developed tool will provide greater confidence to NASA acoustics engineers offering accurate, quantitative acoustic loading predictions from first principle CFD/CAA simulations for specific launch vehicle configurations. The tool will also be invaluable to payload system and instrument developers, particularly for one-of-a-kind and experimental optics and telescope systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed innovation offers significant advantages over aeroacoustic prediction tools currently available in industry. The hybrid LES/RANS and acoustic BEM modeling will provide a unique combination of high-precision multi-physics tools. The proposed approach will offer a great technology advantage through its ability of high-quality predictions and fast simulation turnout. The toolset will be invaluable to launch service providers and payload system and sensitive instrument developers, particularly for one-of-a-kind DoD, NRO, and NOAA satellites. At the end of the SBIR, this technology will be readily available for analysis of micro-jet or other active/passive control systems, conventional and vertical landing jet engine noise, and airframe noise in general.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Launch Engine/Booster
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T9.01-9906
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Human and Robotic Space Exploration Propulsion Design and Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Flow Analysis Tools for Transient Solid Rocket Motor Simulations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tetra Research Corporation
420 Park Avenue West
Princeton, IL 61356-1934
(815) 872-0702

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mississippi State University
Engineering Research Center
Mississippi State, MS 39762-9627
(662) 325-7397

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rex Chamberlain
rex@tetraresearch.com
420 Park Avenue West
Princeton,  IL 61356-1934
(815) 872-0702

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The challenges of designing, developing, and fielding man-rated propulsion systems continue to increase as NASA's mission moves forward with evolving solid propulsion requirements. Recent developments in simulating solid rocket motor environments include Lagrangian particle tracking, particle combustion models, dynamic particle drag and breakup models, and two phase impingement phenomena. These advances are demonstrating success in numerically simulating solid motor environments, but evolutionary innovations leading to more realistic simulations are required. In particular, transient ignition phenomena, such as grain surface heating, initiation of surface reactions, and transition to steady burning, have not yet been addressed. Consideration of these transient flow aspects is extremely important for analyzing ignition delay, pressure buildup, nonuniform grain recession, and overall combustion behavior. Our research will combine existing two phase flow tools for solid motors with a grain heating and ignition model to produce software tools for simulating transient ignition phenomena and the subsequent flow development. These products will ultimately provide NASA with the important capability to simultaneously analyze solid propellant ignition and combustion, heat transfer, and grain burnback within a unified framework. We will demonstrate feasibility using a two phase solid propellant ignition model for a simple grain shape in the TRL range of 3-4.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology will provide NASA with an advanced analysis capability for the prediction of transient two phase flows in solid motors, including ignition phenomena and dynamic surface recession for a wide variety of propellants. Potential enhancements to the these tools include improved droplet/gas interface modeling for better statistical representations of particle laden flows, improved near-wall turbulence modeling, and extended model validation. The proposed methodology for ignition modeling in two phase solid motor flows is also well suited for extensions to additional multi-physics capabilities of commercial interest to NASA, including three dimensional coupled heat transfer within the solid propellant. Our research partner ATK, a leading manufacturer of solid rocket engines for NASA, will help ensure that our research products maximize commercial potential.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The growing trend toward complex multi-phase analyses is opening significant new markets as more difficult problems can be addressed using advanced computational techniques. The ability to analyze more complex solid motor problems will allow industry to speed development of new products and streamline testing. Further enhancements to our modeling system will find application in the aerospace, automotive, environmental, and nuclear industries. The basic architecture of the software will remain the same while new plug-in models are developed to address niche markets. Our research partner ATK, a leading solid motor manufacturer, will help ensure that our research products maximize commercial potential.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Ablative Propulsion
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T9.01-9909
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Human and Robotic Space Exploration Propulsion Design and Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Equipment for Solid State Stir Welding of High Temperature Materials

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Keystone Synergistic Enterprises, Inc.
698 SW Port Saint Lucie Blvd., Suite 105
Port Saint Lucie, FL 34953-1565
(772) 343-7544

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Edison Welding Institute
1250 Arthur East Adams Drive
Columbus, OH 43221-3585
(614) 688-5000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Raymond Walker
raymwalk@aol.com
698 SW Port Saint Lucie Blvd., Suite 105
Port Saint Lucie,  FL 34953-1565
(772) 343-7575

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Stir welding generates high-quality joints in fabricated structure and is the baseline joining process for most NASA aluminum alloy structures such as cryogenic tanks and lightweight structures. Incorporating ultrasonic vibration to critical stir welding machine components will enable and expand stir welding to other high-strength, high-temperature alloys using solid state joining. This project will scale up proven ultrasonic vibration technology and incorporate it on a NASA stir welding machine for the weld fabrication of extendable liquid rocket engine skirts and other high temperature applications for space structures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Solid state stir welding of thick-section aluminum, titanium, and high temperature nickel alloy materials is enabled for the improved manufacture of extendable rocket engine nozzle skirt applications, space vehicle primary structure, cryogenic tank structure, and for other fabricated structures for high temperature space craft structural components. Supports welding in space capabilities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aerospace and commercial airframe structures, Navy and commercial ship building (Ti and Steel alloys), bridge structures, rail car structure, tank trucks, DOD tracked and wheeled vehicles

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Metallics
Structures
Atmospheric Propulsion
Launch Engine/Booster
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T9.01-9949
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Human and Robotic Space Exploration Propulsion Design and Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Torque Control of Friction Stir Welding

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Longhurst Engineering, PLC
234 South Ewing Street
Guthrie, KY 42234-9208
(615) 289-1162

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vanderbilt University
2201 West End Ave
Nashville, TN 37235-7749
(615) 322-7311

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Longhurst
russlonghurst@comcast.net
234 South Ewing Street
Guthrie,  KY 42234-9208
(615) 289-1162

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Longhurst Engineering, PLC and Vanderbilt University propose the innovation of torque control of friction stir welding (FSW) as a replacement to force control of FSW. The value of the torque is significant because it indicates how far the tool is plunged into the work piece. Proper engagement of the tool into the work piece is critical for producing reliable welds. The commercialized innovation will consist of three elements. First, a FSW tool will be developed to produce a linear relationship between the welding torque and the tool's plunge depth into the work piece. Second, the welding torque will be measured from outside the welding environment via the spindle motor current, thus eliminating the need for expensive force sensors associated with force control. Third, a closed-loop architecture will be designed and implemented to control the welding torque. Torque control of FSW can be applied by NASA to increase welding reliability with the Upper Stage of the Ares I launch vehicle. Torque control will also reduce capital investment and operations costs for NASA. The expected TRL is 4 at the beginning of the project and 5 at the end of Phase I.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Torque control of FSW can be applied to welding the Ares I launch vehicle. In particular, the long and circumferential welds where work piece variation, machine deflection and changing thermal conditions create manufacturing challenges. By applying torque control instead of force control, the welding reliability will increase. Increasing the reliability of linear and circumferential welds that can range up to approximately 30 feet in length will increase the productivity of welding operations at NASA. There would be less weld defects due to the welding controls becoming unstable and causing weld defects. The vertical and robotic welding tools at Marshall Space Flight Center would be able to apply this technology almost immediately after project completion. Along with increasing reliability, torque control will be effective at reducing operating costs associated with FSW. Operations cost would be reduced by not having to replace or repair existing force sensors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Boeing, Lockheed Martin and other aerospace companies have FSW applications very similar to NASA that would benefit from torque control of FSW. As with NASA, these companies would increase the reliability of welding operations, in particular with very long linear and circumferential welds. In addition, they would experience reduced maintenance costs and the reduction in required capital investment for future endeavors with robotic FSW. Lastly, torque control of FSW could be used by numerous small businesses entering into the FSW market. This technology would provide a cost effective method for using traditional machine tools and industrial robots to perform FSW. Expensive force gauges and dynamometers would no longer be required. Potential small business users are the numerous automotive suppliers to General Motors, Toyota, Ford, and Chrysler. As these automotive companies begin to manufacture vehicles using FSW, many suppliers can utilize torque control of FSW.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Process Monitoring & Control
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T9.01-9962
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Human and Robotic Space Exploration Propulsion Design and Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Efficient Parallel Solver for Unsteady Flow Physics in Complex Space Propulsion Geometries

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Streamline Numerics, Inc.
3221 NW 13th Street, Suite A
Gainesville, FL 32609-2189
(352) 271-8841

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mississippi State University
449 Hardy Road, 133 Ethredge Hall
Mississippi State, MS 39762-6156
(662) 325-7397

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Siddharth Thakur
st@snumerics.com
3221 NW 13th Street, Suite A
Gainesville,  FL 32609-2189
(352) 271-8841

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovation proposed here is a framework for the incorporation of high performance, high fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques to enable accurate and robust simulation of unsteady turbulent, reacting or non-reacting flows involving real or ideal fluids with practically useful turnaround times. The emphasis will be on a major improvement in efficiency and scalability of Loci-STREAM which is a CFD code already in use at NASA. The Loci-STREAM code is becoming more and more reliable for individual calculations; however, the overall computational performance of the code on the computer clusters employed by NASA is not sufficient for the tool to be used effectively in the design process given the complexity of the configurations being modeled by NASA engineers along with the large grid sizes used to model these configurations. The proposed work targets an order of magnitude improvement in performance of Loci-STREAM. The work proposed here will enable the efficient and accurate modeling of: (a) multiphase combustion in solid and liquid rocket engines, (b) combustion stability analysis (c) acoustic fields of space propulsion systems in near-ground operation, (d) launch pad-induced environments, (d) small valves and turbopumps, etc.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The outcome of Phase I and Phase II research activities will be a powerful CFD-based design and analysis tool for propulsion engines at NASA. This tool will facilitate full rocket engine simulations, injector design, launchpad induced environment simulations, turbopump design, etc. Specific applications at NASA of this capability include: (a) design improvements of liquid rocket engine injectors, (b) modeling of multi-element injectors coupled with fuel and oxidizer feedlines and manifolds, (c) prediction of stability and stability margins, (d) design of acoustic cavities for combustion stability, (e) analysis of small valves and turbopumps, (f) prediction of loads during launch of new launch vehicle, (g) prediction of acoustic loads on rocket engine test stands, (h) launch pad modifications, (i) development of new launch facilities, (j) analysis of rocket engine exhaust plumes, (k) modeling of flow of liquids and supercritical fluids through piping system components such as valves and run tanks ,etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The computational tool resulting from this project will have wide-ranging commercial applications. The Hybrid RANS-LES methodology can be used for a wide variety of engineering applications involving unsteady turbulent flows. The reacting flow capability can be used for simulating combusting flows in various industrial applications, such as gas turbine engines, diesel engines, etc. The real-fluids methodology can be used in a large number of industrial flow situations involving both chemically inert and reacting flows. With additions of multi-phase combustion modeling capability, the applicability of this tool can be further broadened.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Launch Engine/Booster
Spacecraft Main Engine
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T10.01-9845
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Test Area Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Luminit Optical Tank-level Sensing System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luminit, LLC
1850 W. 205 Street
Torrance, CA 90501-1526
(310) 320-1066

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Southern Methodist University
6425 Boaz Lane
Dallax, TX 75205-0302
(214) 768-2033

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dmitry Voloschenko
kyu@luminitco.com
1850 West 205 Street
Torrance,  CA 90501-1526
(310) 320-1066

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 0
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To address the NASA need for innovative methods to measure liquid propellant tank volume and tank fluid level with improved accuracy, repeatability, and minimal tank entries for maintenance and calibration, Luminit, LLC, proposes to develop a new non-contact Luminit Optical Tank-level Sensing system (LOTS), based on the optical measurement of a small spotlight shone on the surface of the liquid. This approach incorporates commercial off-the-shelf components and Luminit opto-mechanical design, which enables us to meet NASA requirements for a novel liquid level sensor for low-density fluids such as liquid hydrogen, and offers the possibility of remote operation, compact size. In Phase I, Luminit will demonstrate the feasibility of accurate measurement of a low-density fluid by building and testing a proof-of-concept prototype, which will reduce development risk in Phase II. In Phase II, Luminit plans to build a functional prototype for cryogenic liquid level measurements. The demonstrated results will offer NASA a replacement for the multiple float switches currently in use. LOTS is expected to be at TRL 2 by the end of Phase I, with the results of this project paving the way to reach TRL 6 by the end of Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
LOTS can be successfully applied to measure liquid level of both conventional and cryogenic liquids.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
LOTS can be used for liquid level measurements in fuel tanks, in ship-board containers, and in potable water containers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Display
Adaptive Optics
Visible
Multispectral/Hyperspectral
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T10.01-9965
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Test Area Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Optical Approach to Augment Current Float Sensing Method of Determining Cryogen Fluid Height Within a Tank

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Imaging and Research
Building 1103, Suite 140C
Stennis Space Center, MS 39529-0001
(228) 688-2452

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The University of Southern Mississippi
118 College Drive #5157
Hattiesburg, MS 39406-0001
(601) 266-4119

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Ryan
rryan@i2rcorp.com
Building 1103, Suite 140C
Stennis Space Center,  MS 39529-0001
(228) 688-2276

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Innovative Imaging and Research, a small technology development company, has teamed with the University of Southern Mississippi Instrument and Cryogenics Research Laboratory to integrate existing NASA Stennis Space Center heritage cryogen level monitoring technology with noncontact optical methods and advanced signal processing to create a 21st century liquid cryogen level measurement technique. We propose to place a fiber-optic laser range finder on the upper surface of a low pressure cryogen run tank and use the existing Hall effect float system as an optical target to reflect the light signal back to the range finder. We also propose combining measurements obtained with the fiber-optic range finder with those taken by the heritage system using a custom Kalman filter signal processing algorithm to reduce measurement noise and increase overall accuracy. Our optical technique has several advantages over the existing Hall effect method. It yields near continuous measurements and is not dependent on the location of individual sensors. It is based on an alternate physics approach and therefore yields completely independent results. The optical range finder instrument calibration is performed outside the tank, so test operation is not significantly impacted and run tanks do not need to be emptied. In addition, an optical fiber mounted on the upper surface of a cryogen tank does not present foreign object debris (FOD) concerns. During our Phase 1 STTR project we will demonstrate our concept in a university cryogen research laboratory using a commercial optical range finder. In Phase 2 we plan to demonstrate our concept with fiber-optic technology using the SSC Instrument Test Apparatus under a NASA Space Act Agreement. Our Phase 1 concept is at a technology readiness level (TRL) of 2. We expect to complete Phase 1 at a TRL of 4 and complete Phase 2 at a TRL of 6.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
After a successful Phase 2 STTR project, Innovative Imaging and Research will be in position to offer advanced liquid cryogen monitoring technology to the NASA propulsion test and launch market. We believe that there are several NASA commercial applications for a fiber-optic based liquid cryogen height measurement method. We are aware of several liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen run tanks at the NASA Stennis Space Center A and B Test Complexes that contain an existing heritage Hall effect float system. These run tanks are strong candidates to be directly retrofit with our technology. In addition to the facility at SSC, we believe that low pressure cryogen tanks that support other NASA Rocket Propulsion Test operations at Marshall Space Flight Center, Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station and White Sands Test Facility and those that support NASA launch facilities at Kennedy Space Center could benefit by incorporating this advanced fiber-optic technology. Since alternate float approaches will be investigated during the technology development process, we will be in a position to develop custom fiber-optic range finder target float systems as part of our offering.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
After a successful Phase 2 STTR project, Innovative Imaging and Research will be in position to offer our advanced liquid cryogen monitoring technology to non-NASA government and commercial markets. The USAF AEDC and the AFRL at Edwards AFB are two defense-based facilities that actively test propulsion systems and as such have cryogen monitoring requirements. Launch facilities at Vandenberg AFB that require cryogen tank monitoring may benefit by our technology as well. There are also potential sales to aerospace companies like Lockheed Martin, Pratt and Whitney, Aerojet, Orbital and SpaceX that manufacture, design and build rocket motors. In addition, there is a large cryogen tank and instrumentation market worldwide that our technology could address. Major cryogen suppliers include Air Products, Linde Gas and Air Liquide. Related commercial applications include monitoring cryogenic storage facilities and transport tanks, particularly in the energy sector. Although it is not clear at this time whether there will be a significant move towards a Hydrogen-based economy, there are large investments being made worldwide to further the development of hydrogen based fuel cells and our fiber-optic based method could be used to monitor the liquid H2 tanks used for fuel cells. We also are exploring requirements for monitoring cryogen levels of liquefied natural gas tanks and we believe our technology may have use monitoring the fluid levels of hazardous chemical storage tanks.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Fuels/Propellants
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T10.01-9977
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Test Area Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Design of Orifice Type Control Element for Mitigating Instabilities

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Combustion Research and Flow Technology
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947-1020
(215) 766-1520

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Propulsion Research Center University of Alabama in Huntsville
S225 Technology Drive
Huntsville, AL 35899-0001
(256) 824-7200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vineet Ahuja
vineet@craft-tech.com
6210 Keller's Church Rd.
Pipersville,  PA 18947-1020
(215) 766-1520

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An orifice element is commonly used in liquid rocket engine test facilities either as a flow metering device, or to provide a large reduction in pressure over a very small distance in the piping system. While the orifice as a device is largely effective in stepping down pressure, it is also susceptible to a wake-vortex type instability that generates pressure fluctuations that propagate downstream and interact with other elements of the test facility resulting in structural vibrations. Furthermore in piping systems an unstable feedback loop can exist between the vortex shedding and acoustic perturbations from upstream components resulting in an amplification of the modes convecting downstream. Such was the case in the Arianne 5 strap-on P230 engine in a static firing test where pressure oscillations of 0.5% resulted in 5% thrust oscillations. The innovation described in this proposal directly relates to a proprietary design of a step down orifice that inhibits the instability modes generally associated with the operation of a traditional orifice while meeting performance guidelines. In the Phase I effort we will demonstrate the effectiveness of the new device through a combination of analysis and sub-scale testing in a cryogenic environment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The novel orifice type flow control element resulting from this proposal would help alleviate instabilities in liquid rocket propulsion systems and test facilities for rocket engines that usually are initiated or amplified at the orifice plates. Our product will addresses a severe shortcoming in NASA's test facilities since orifices/venturis are commonly used and are quite often responsible for resonance and structural vibrations observed in the piping system. Design of the new control element proposed here can be tailored to provide the required resistance in the flow path without the risk of cavitation or whistling/resonance/vibration in the test loop. The new orifice design can also be used in segmented solid propellant rockets where they can prevent low frequency oscillations from amplifying, thereby keeping thrust levels stable.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial market for our product is very large and includes plant installations and industrial facilities that use extensive piping systems such as nuclear power generation, chemical process plants etc. The technology proposed here can play a critical and imminent role in addressing an important safety concern in pressurized water reactors where orifices are used in the emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) in conjunction with throttle valves. Another application of our product is in reciprocating compressors where resonant pulsation in the piping can be managed through the judicious use of a well-designed orifice-type element. In summary our product will provide the needed resistance in the hydraulic flow-path of plant installations/devices in a variety of industries without the flow transients and instabilities that are commonly associated with orifice plates leading to high-performance, high-reliability systems with significantly reduced risk.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Characterization
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Acoustic/Vibration
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Simulation & Modeling
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T10.02-9885
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Energy Conservation and Sustainability
PROPOSAL TITLE: Helium-Hydrogen Recovery System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 W. 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033-1916
(303) 422-7819

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Colorado School of Mines
1500 Illinois Street
Golden, CO 80401-1887
(303) 273-3519

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steven Paglieri
spaglieri@tda.com
12345 W. 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge,  CO 80033-1916
(303) 940-5388

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Immense quantities of expensive liquefied helium are required at Stennis and Kennedy Space Centers for pre-cooling rocket engine propellant systems prior to filling with liquid hydrogen, for pressurizing tanks and for safely purging residual hydrogen. Presently, the helium used in these processes is discarded, along with substantial quantities of hydrogen. TDA Research proposes to design and build a compact, portable and cost effective membrane system for recovering, purifying and storing both helium and hydrogen. Recovered helium containing less than a few percent residual hydrogen can be re-used as a purge gas. The ultrapure hydrogen recovered concurrently may be burned as fuel or used to generate clean electricity in fuel cells. The performance of these high selectivity membranes has been demonstrated and is ready for implementation to solve this problem. In Phase I we will fabricate membranes and assess their performance by processing a simulated purge gas stream and determining the purities of the helium and hydrogen. We will also carry out a detailed engineering feasibility and cost analysis to determine the technical viability of scaling up the process in Phase II. TDA's system will help NASA conserve valuable hydrogen and the United State's rapidly dwindling and expensive non-renewable helium resource.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA consumes vast quantities of helium to safely test rocket engines for its space programs at Stennis and Kennedy Space Centers. Currently this helium is vented to the atmosphere, representing a loss of millions of dollars worth of this very expensive, non-renewable resource. NASA annually vents around 75 million standard cubic feet (SCF) of helium with a value of more than $6M. TDA's compact helium-hydrogen recovery system has the advantage of being portable so that it can be used to capture large and small purge streams at their source. Recovered helium containing less than a few percent residual hydrogen can be recycled as a purge gas. In addition to enabling cost effective helium recovery and purification for re-use at NASA's rocket launch and test facilities at Stennis and Kennedy Space Centers, TDA's helium-hydrogen recovery system will also recover the hydrogen that is vented during helium purging and lost to boil-off during the filling and storage of LH2 in propellant systems. Conservatively around 20% of this costly LH2 is lost through boil-off during system fills and storage. Recovered ultrapure hydrogen can be re-compressed and burned as a fuel or used to generate clean electricity on-site in fuel cells. TDA's helium-hydrogen recovery system conserves resources, saves money, and will make NASA's operations more sustainable.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Helium and hydrogen are important gases used in large quantities in many industries such as metal refining, welding, fiber optics, semiconductor manufacturing and deep sea diving. A compact and efficient system for recovering this often wasted hydrogen (and helium from helium-hydrogen mixtures) at both large and small scales for re-use would save money and help conserve these resources. TDA's technology will be useful for extracting hydrogen from many industrial gas streams that are currently vented or flared in the oil refining, petrochemical, chemical, ammonia, methanol, chlor-alkali, metallurgical, and electronics industries. This ultrapure hydrogen may be recycled for re-use or used to generate clean electricity in fuel cells.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fuels/Propellants


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 T10.02-9952
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Energy Conservation and Sustainability
PROPOSAL TITLE: Energy Conservation and Sustainability, Technologies for Propellant Conservation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Radiance Technologies, Inc.
350 Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805-1961
(256) 489-8584

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The University of Southern Mississippi
118 College Drive #5157
Hattiesburg, MS 39406-0001
(601) 266-4119

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William West
bwest@radiancetech.com
6971 Lincoln Road
Hattiesburg,  MS 39402-3227
(601) 268-2681

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) is one of the largest consumers of gaseous helium in the world through its engine testing operations. Because helium is a nonrenewable resource, it is desirable to conserve the gas when possible. For safety purposes, helium is used to purge an engine following a test that utilizes cryogenic liquid hydrogen fuel (e.g. a Space Shuttle Main Engine test). This proposal is another important step toward enabling helium conservation through real-time measurement of the H2 concentration in the purge gas. The STTR will continue the characterization of a commercial H2 detector for use as a real-time sensor for determining the concentration of H2 in the helium purge gas. The H2 concentration can be used as an indicator that the liquid hydrogen has been purged from the engine, allowing the helium purge to be of shorter duration, thereby conserving this resource. Significant analysis of sensor capabilities as well as experimental characterization of the sensor performance in a simulated test-stand environment will be performed. A sensor configuration will be recommended with the goal of identifying the best installation option that avoids pumps, mechanical actuators, or the need to vent or pipe a sample if possible.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The implementation of configurations that will reduce the purge time of liquid hydrogen will save value quantities of Helium. Accurately determining when the liquid hydrogen has been purged from the engine will save money while conserving the precious He resource. Additionally shorter H2 purge times will reduce operations time and increase safety. The installation option that avoids pumps, mechanical actuators, or the need to vent or pipe a sample will reduce the time and costs needed to approve the utilization of the new sensor. Complicated safety analyses will not be required due to the noninvasiveness of the new sensor.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Liquid hydrogen is a common liquid rocket fuel. Thus, the purging of liquid hydrogen will have the same cost, inherent safety, and conservation of energy benefits in commercial settings as in NASA applications. It will be applicable in the liquid hydrogen piping and storage facilities. There is a place for the technology in concept hydrogen vehicles and many research applications where the storage and flow of liquid hydrogen presents safety and costs issues. Additionally, other vehicle like the T212 and the T214 submarines use liquid hydrogen and may be able to use the technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Process Monitoring & Control
Characterization
Fuels/Propellants
Surface Propulsion