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NASA 2009 STTR Phase 1 Solicitation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T1.01-9857
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Information Technologies for System Health Management and Sustainability
PROPOSAL TITLE: Distributed Diagnosis, Prognosis and Recovery for Complex Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRACLabs, Inc.
100 N.E. Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio, TX 78216-4727
(210) 822-2310

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vanderbilt University
2301 Vanderbilt Place Station B #7749
Nashville, TN 37235-7749
(615) 322-3979

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Kortenkamp
korten@traclabs.com
100 N.E. Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio,  TX 78216-4727
(281) 461-7884

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Complex space systems such as lunar habitats generate huge amounts of data. For example, the International Space Station (ISS) has over 250,000 individually identified pieces of low-level telemetry and commands. Innovative algorithms for collecting and analyzing this data are leading to new technologies for managing large, complex and distributed systems. Lunar habitats will have multiple interacting subsystems that govern their behavior and performance. Assessing the health of the different subsystems and their effect on the overall system will be crucial to effective and safe control and operation of lunar habitats. There are three complementary approaches to diagnosis, prognosis, and recovery: 1) model-based approaches that rely on a priori models of the systems; 2) data-driven approaches that mine sensor and command data using machine learning and statistical methods; and 3) procedure-driven approaches that perform system tests and branch on the results until a root cause is found and a recovery strategy executed. We are proposing to build a comprehensive and integrated approach to fault diagnosis, prognosis and recovery that combines all three of these approaches emphasizing their strengths and negating their weaknesses. The resulting system will monitor spacecraft systems, detect and diagnose failures and respond to mitigate those failures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Long duration space missions, such as Lunar outposts, will require significantly improved system health management systems due to their distance from ground controllers and the expectation that they will be uncrewed for certain periods of time. Integration of data- and model-based diagnosis and prognosis systems with procedure-based systems will enable new system health management capabilities for NASA. This will result in more efficient operation of space vehicles such as Orion, Ares, Altair, Lunar habitats and Lunar rovers. Several existing NASA programs can make immediate use of this technology including: CxPASS, ConFRM, A4O, LSS and MCT.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Any complex system must diagnose faults and use procedures to recover capabilities. This is true of aircraft, ships, petrochemical plants, oil refineries, nuclear power plants, etc. Many of these industries are still using manual procedures and simple fault diagnosis with no prognosis or data mining. TRACLabs has worked with industry leaders such as Honeywell and Foxboro to research applying NASA-developed procedure technology to a variety of industries. Vanderbilt has worked closely with Boeing Phantom works to develop model-based reasoning and data mining capabilities for aircraft maintenance. We will expand these ties and search for additional markets for these capabilities. Given the tens of thousands of aircraft, ships, power plants and processing plants worldwide the market for these technologies is enormous.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Intelligence
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T1.01-9862
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Information Technologies for System Health Management and Sustainability
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Structural Health Monitoring System for Comprehensive Real-Time Vehicle Characterization

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
American GNC Corporation
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley, CA 93065-1812
(805) 582-0582

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc.
2385 Irving Hill Road
Lawrence, KS 66045-7563
(785) 864-3441

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tasso Politopoulos
tpolito@americangnc.com

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In providing an innovative solution to improving information technologies and health management systems, AGNC is proposing a significant technological achievement with the Advanced Structural Health Monitoring System for Comprehensive Real-Time Vehicle Characterization. During in-flight conditions, this system is able to not only provide the status of information such as regarding the flight envelope, but also make accurate diagnostic and prognostic statements of aircraft subsystems. Real-time capabilities are enabled using intelligent algorithms and advanced techniques to provide both time and frequency localization of data. As such, the health management system is able to provide information quickly enough as to monitor an aircraft subsystem in a highly dynamic environment and to make statements regarding anomalies as well as future problems. A key enabling technology is newly developed low-power sensors that offer significant advantages over traditional sensor methods. In addition, automated reasoning technologies to improve sustainability, increase identification of system degradation, and enhance scientific understanding include data fusion, and advanced decision-making, among others. With this system, a comprehensive image of the system/subsystems, and in particular, the structural components, is provided in real-time.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Advanced Structural Health Monitoring System (ASHMS) will directly support a host of NASA's information technology and health monitoring requirements. The proposed system is specifically designed with aircraft in mind as it provides an increased understanding of the complex interactions of the vehicle intrinsic modes and its structures by constantly providing relevant information that aids in characterizing the in-flight vehicle. Examples of specific application areas include unmanned aircraft such as NASA Helios, Pathfinder, and other newer critical high-altitude, long-endurance (HALE) technologies. In addition, the ASHMS system would find use for unmanned hypersonic aircraft (X-43) as well as non-aircraft applications such as the International Space Station, and the Space Shuttle.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
One of the main objectives of this STTR is the commercialization of the project's research results and introduction of a commercialized product to the marketplace (both civilian and military). The ASHMS system will provide an integral solution for information technologies with respect to health monitoring for both military and civilian aircraft. Different types of aircraft may use the proposed product such as fixed-wing types or rotor-wing types. Further non-aviation uses include monitoring of other vehicle types such as maritime applications with barges, navy ships, submarines, as well as autonomous ground vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Testing Requirements and Architectures
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Human-Computer Interfaces
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T1.02-9872
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Information Technologies for Intelligent Planetary Robotics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reliable Autonomous Surface Mobility (RASM) in Support of Human Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ProtoInnovations, LLC
1908 Shaw Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15217-1710
(412) 916-8807

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Carnegie Mellon University
5000 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890
(412) 268-5421

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Wettergreen
dsw@ri.cmu.edu

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ProtoInnovations, LLC and Carnegie Mellon University have formed a partnership to commercially develop rover-autonomy technologies into Reliable Autonomous Surface Mobility (RASM). Our aim is to provide safe and reliable means for lunar rovers to travel at substantial speeds and operate in proximity to astronauts and other vehicles. Our unique partnership brings together state-of-art technologies for autonomous rover navigation with experience in delivering and supporting mobility systems for NASA. The RASM project will create an autonomy framework that is capable of supporting off-road vehicle speeds beyond 3 m/s with planetary-relevant constraints including a lack of infrastructure (such as GPS) and limited communication and computing resources. Our RASM framework is based on environment modeling, obstacle avoidance, path planning, and localization algorithms developed by Carnegie Mellon and proven by hundreds of kilometers of traverse in planetary analog landscapes on Earth. On the RASM project we will mature and package these algorithms in a reliable and portable software architecture that supports a variety of vehicle platforms, sensors, and middleware alternatives. Unique to RASM will be a failure-modes analysis of the autonomy system to model and mitigate hazards posed by operating alongside astronauts and lunar vehicles. Mission constraints and operating scenarios will vary broadly, so RASM will be adaptable. We will develop abstraction layers to enable portability across various vehicle chassis configurations, perception sensors, localization sensors, and communications protocols. In Phase 1 of our project, we will demonstrate the ease with which RASM can be ported by implementing it on a rover such as the Lunar All-Terrain Utility Vehicle (LATUV) developed by ProtoInnovations. Our goal is to advance autonomy-system TRL from 4 to 6 on the contract.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technical innovations advanced by this project will have immediate application on the Lunar All-Terrain Utility Vehicle and enable it to achieve its full capability as it becomes a research appliance for NASA. We also see direct applicability of this work to other lunar rovers developed by NASA as part of the research and development program in lunar surface systems. ProtoInnovations will seek to sustain this work by developing portable software for rover navigational autonomy that can be adapted and applied to a wide range of lunar vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Canadian Space Agency has announced that it will perform intensive research in lunar rovers with plans to produce multiple concept vehicles in the next one to two years. ProtoInnovations will aggressively pursue this market and apply its expertise in autonomy and navigation to CSA rovers. We are currently negotiating with Canadian aerospace corporations regarding licensing of navigation and mobility technology. We also believe that our effort can be sustained by our unique capability and experience which we believe is valuable to emerging lunar rover activities in China, Japan, and India/Russia. The market for lunar rover autonomy is not large but it is highly technical and critical to success in lunar missions. ProtoInnovations intends to continue research and development and position itself as the world leader in rover navigation software and experience. Markets exist for specific components in our system. One strong example is perception for correcting position drift without GPS. Several commercial products exist that filter GPS data with measurements from IMUs, encoders, and so on. Such systems are robust to GPS drop outs but not as robust to long-term losses of GPS. In these cases, inertial measurements and dead-reckoning drift and the resulting localization error increases over time and distance traveled. Our SLAM-like method of optimizing the merging of terrain meshes could prove to be a useful add-on technology for commercially available positioning systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Intelligence
Mobility
Perception/Sensing


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T1.02-9928
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Information Technologies for Intelligent Planetary Robotics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integration of Notification with 3D Visualization of Rover Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRACLabs, Inc.
100 N.E. Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio, TX 78216-4727
(210) 822-2310

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Carnegie Mellon University - Silicon Valley
NASA Research Park, Building 23
Moffett Field, CA 94305-2823
(650) 335-2823

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Debra Schreckenghost
schreck@traclabs.com
8610 N. New Braunfels, Suite 110
San Antonio,  TX 78217-6370
(281) 461-7884

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
3D visualization has proven effective at orienting remote ground controllers about robots operating on a planetary surface. Using such displays, controllers can watch a robot move through surface terrain maps and react to objects in that terrain. Readings taken in the robot's surroundings can be overlaid on terrain maps to improve human understanding. 3D visualization, however, focuses a controller's attention on what is happening in the vicinity of the robot. The effectiveness of visualization at centering attention on the robot means that information not spatially linked to that view could be missed. TRACLabs, Carnegie Mellon University, and Stinger Ghaffarian Technologies propose to develop software for notifying users of 3D visualization about important new information that may not be spatially linked to the current view. We will identify use cases where notification is needed when using 3D visualization and design software for constructing and presenting notices for these use cases. We will evaluate this design for use in K10 rover operations by defining an approach for integrating notification with the Visual Environment for Remote Virtual Exploration (VERVE). The extensive experience of this team in developing advanced software for robotic surface operations will contribute to the timely delivery of the proposed technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has demonstrated in recent analog robotic field tests that 3D visualization is effective for remote supervision of a planetary robot. 3D visualization, however, focuses the controller's attention on what is happening in the vicinity of the robot. The proposed notification technology improves existing 3D visualization by addressing the issue of notifying users about information that may not be spatially linked to the current view. The notification software produced in Phase II will be immediately useful for future analog robotic field tests where VERVE provides 3D robot visualization. Our separation of notice construction from notice presentation should ease integration of the notification software with other 3D visualization software that NASA might use in the future. Longer term, the techniques for determining when to shift the user's attention from the visualization and how to notify without increasing visual clutter should be useful when specifying flight support software for remote robotic operations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Using 3D visualization for remote supervision of robots is not unique to NASA. The Department of Defense (DOD) is interested in remote supervision of military robots for surveillance and reconnaissance. 3D visualization of robots for military operations includes supervising multiple robots operating concurrently to accomplish a military objective. In such multi-robot operations, it is essential to shift the user's focus when another robot outside the current field of view requires attention. Thus the proposed technology for notification should be directly applicable to remote supervision of military robots. The separation of notice construction from notice presentation should ease integration of the notification software with whatever 3D visualization software is used by the military. Since the military is actively funding research on human attention shifting and visual de-cluttering of geospatial displays, the proposed approach should be both interesting to a variety of DOD customers and compatible with military robotic operations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Human-Robotic Interfaces
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T2.01-9899
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Foundational Research for Aeronautics Experimental Capabilities
PROPOSAL TITLE: Acoustic Reduction of Flow Separation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
Lynntech, Inc.
College Station, TX 77840-4023
(979) 693-0017

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Texas at Dallas
Box 860688, MP 15
Richardson, TX 75083-0688
(972) 883-2313

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alan Cisar
alan.cisar@lynntech.com

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Airfoils produce more lift and less drag when the boundary layer is attached to the airfoil. With most aircraft there are combinations of airspeed and angle of attack where the boundary layer at least partially detaches from the airfoil. Reducing boundary layer detachment will increase lift and reduce drag. This will reduce fuel consumption saving money for the operator and improving control for the pilot. Two methods are known to improve boundary layer attachment: heating the air and supplying acoustic pressure at an airspeed and airfoil shape dependent frequency. Carbon nanotubes can be used to produce heating elements as thin as a layer of paint. Because they are thin they can be heated and cooled hundreds of times per second. This combination means that carbon nanotube heating elements can be thermoacoustic speakers to both heat the air stream and generate the appropriate acoustic frequency to maximize boundary zone attachment. All system components have been demonstrated individually achieving TRL 2. Phase I will demonstrate multifrequency sound generation on surfaces in a wind tunnel using nanotube heating elements, and achieving TRL 3. Phase II will include medium seals wind tunnel tests verifying the effects and achieving TRL 5.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
One of NASA's functions is developing and demonstrating new flight technologies for both military and civilian use. The technology proposed here, if implemented, can reduce fuel consumption or increase payload. Either will make aircraft operation more profitable. Reducing fuel consumption will also reduce emissions, including aircraft produced CO2. Increasing boundary layer attachment will also make the aircraft more responsive to its controls, an added advantage.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
One of NASA's functions is to supply technology to the civilian and military sectors. Developing and dispersing this technology will be of greatest benefit outside of NASA, with improved safety and profitability for commercial aircraft operators at all levels, from private pilots to commercial airlines. The technology proposed here, if implemented, can reduce fuel consumption or increase payload. It will also improve the effectiveness of control systems. Either will make aircraft operation more profitable. Reducing fuel consumption will also reduce emissions, including aircraft produced CO2. Increasing boundary layer attachment will also make the aircraft more responsive to its controls, an added advantage.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Structural Modeling and Tools
Attitude Determination and Control
Composites
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T2.01-9944
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Foundational Research for Aeronautics Experimental Capabilities
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wide Range Flow and Heat Flux Sensors for In-Flight Flow Characterization

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tao of Systems Integration, Inc.
144 Research Drive
Hampton, VA 23666-1325
(757) 220-5040

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
1880 Pratt Drive, Suite 2006
Blacksburg, VA 24060-0000
(540) 231-5281

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arun Mangalam
arun@taosystems.us

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The tracking of critical flow features (CFFs) such as stagnation point, flow separation, shock, and transition in flight provides insight into actual aircraft performance/safety. Sensing of these CFFs across flight regimes involves numerous challenges such as a wide temperature/pressure range from subsonic to hypersonic flows. Tao Systems, Mesoscribe Technologies and Virginia Tech propose to develop a novel direct-write sensor architecture for the in-flight measurement of skin friction and heat flux that is survivable to temperatures exceeding 1000 deg. C while simultaneously providing fast response necessary for real-time signal processing to obtain CFFs. As a consequence, this technology will extend the utility of CFFs for aeroservoelastic control from subsonic to supersonic and hypersonic flows, as well as provide test information from experiments in flight.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary target application of the proposed innovation and associated products and services (IAPS) is the current and next generation reusable launch vehicles, whose safety, reliability and efficiency are mission critical factors that involve informed trade-offs in a complex interaction between aerothermodynamics and aerostructures. The IAPS can be used to improve safety/reliability margins, obtain better estimates on performance predictions based on quantified flow characterization, e.g., location of boundary layer laminar-to-turbulent transition, with significant impact on the design of the thermal protection system. It has even been asserted that the uncertainty in transition location for some hypersonic vehicles can result in an uncertainty of 20\% in total vehicle weight, which is then compensated only by heavier thermal protection systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A potential non-aerospace commercial application of the IAPS relates to requirements where heat flux/skin friction would be usefu: e.g., for fire monitoring/control. Some examples of such applications are: safety of naval ships (to monitor the heat flux from weapons systems to adjoining areas and vice versa). A matrix of heat flux sensors covering an area will determine how much heat is penetrating/leaving a room, and the skin friction sensor can determine the level of air flow. These two parameters can provide much more information to determine if there is a fire and the rate at which it will expand. The potential customers range from weapons manufacturers to practically every large industry where fire hazard is a serious problem.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Perception/Sensing
Control Instrumentation
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T2.01-9961
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Foundational Research for Aeronautics Experimental Capabilities
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aeroelastic/Aeroservoelastic Uncertainty and Reliability of Advanced Aerospace Vehicles in Flight and Ground Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stirling Dynamics, Inc.
4030 Lake Washington Blvd NE #205
Kirkland, WA 98033-7870
(425) 827-7476

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The University of Washington
1100 NE 45th Street, Suite 300
Seattle, WA 98105-4696
(206) 685-0338

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrey Styuart
astyuart@stirling-dynamics.us.com

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ASSURE - Aeroelastic / Aeroservoelastic (AE/ASE) Uncertainty and Reliability Engineering capability - is a set of probabilistic computer programs for isolating uncertainties in simulation, manufacturing, test, measurement, and test to analysis correlation affecting the AE/ASE characteristics of advanced flight vehicles in flight and on the ground, and for studying the effects of such uncertainties. ASSURE will provide a quantitative assessment of the statistics of AE/ASE stability and dynamic response of aircraft at given flight conditions, throughout the flight envelope, on the runway, and throughout the aircraft fleet and its missions. It is designed to have significant flexibility in the types of problems analyzed, the solution methods used, and how problems are defined. ASSURE will be unique in the scope of problems tackled, systems complexity involved, and the inclusion of all elements affecting the ASE behavior of flight vehicles; including detailed models of structures, aerodynamics, sensors, actuators, control systems, landing gear, and flight operations and maintenance procedures. Uncertainties of the undamaged and damaged / repaired systems (structural, actuator, sensor, control computer, and landing gear, including possible aerodynamic consequences of damage) will be covered, with applications to test planning and analysis, design, certification, and fleet operation and maintenance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Proposed ASSURE development will equip NASA with a comprehensive Aeroelastic / Aeroservoelastic uncertainty, reliability, and safety assessment and optimization tool that will be applicable to practically all of NASA's aerospace flight vehicle system development, optimization, test, and operation, including fleet management for NASA vehicles and for flight transportation system researched by NASA. ASSURE will contribute to the evolution of small and large UAVs, efficient and environmentally friendly new transport flight vehicles flying at all flight regimes, launch and re-entry vehicles, high performance vehicles, and any vehicles displaying tight integration and interaction of light weight structures, unsteady aerodynamics, active controls (including engine controls), and advanced landing gear systems. ASSURE will help guide test planning and the utilization of test results for such vehicles covering flight, runway operations and ground tests.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Proposed ASSURE development will equip the aerospace industry with a comprehensive Aeroelastic / Aeroservoelastic uncertainty, reliability, and safety assessment and optimization tool that will be applicable to practically all aerospace flight vehicle system development, optimization, test, and operation, including fleet management and maintenance procedures for airlines and the US DoD. ASSURE will have the potential to contribute to the certification of flight vehicles and increase safety. It will contribute to the evolution of small and large UAVs, efficient and environmentally friendly new transport flight vehicles flying at all flight regimes, launch and re-entry vehicles, high performance vehicles, and any vehicles displaying tight integration and interaction of light weight structures, unsteady aerodynamics, active controls (including engine controls), and advanced landing gear systems. ASSURE will help guide test planning and the utilization of test results for such vehicles by the aerospace industry, covering flight, runway operations and ground tests. It will also help support universities in ASE and airplane design education.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Simulation Modeling Environment
Structural Modeling and Tools
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T2.01-9974
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Foundational Research for Aeronautics Experimental Capabilities
PROPOSAL TITLE: Extensible Data Set Architecture for Systems Analysis

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110-2702
(703) 369-3633

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
77 Massachusetts Avenue, Building E19-750
Cambridge, MA 02139-4307
(617) 253-3907

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Houghton
jhoughton@aurora.aero

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The process of aircraft design requires the integration of data from individual analysis of aerodynamic, structural, thermal, and behavioral properties of a flight vehicle. At present, there is no simple way to integrate the results of the analyses early in the design process. Aurora Flight Sciences and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Aerospace Computational Design Laboratory propose to create a system level analysis framework called the Extensible Data Set Architecture to facilitate this integration, and therefore provide rapid system-wide impact assessment of design changes to a flight vehicle. The Extensible Data Set Architecture (EDSA) is a generic data storage structure ready for use by a diverse and extendable set of software tools and codes. The EDSA can be arbitrarily extended to allow additional functionality and provides a natural framework for future development of aerospace systems. The framework includes as part of its structure the relevant metadata for ensuring version control, traceability, context-specific documentation, and interface data for relevant tools, while providing a simple structure for extending an existing data set to transparently include new members. The four primary components of this framework will be 1) an extensible data set used by all codes and analysis tools to store and exchange relevant information; 2) a tool set which can take advantage of the data set, made up of both existing programs and user defined vehicle specific codes; 3) a controller which provides organization, operates the tools, and manages iteration and optimization of the design, and 4) a display code which presents the results of the analysis to the user.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The implementation of this architecture will speed turnaround time for NASA Dryden flight test safety simulation, and allow for rapid evaluation of design concepts and collaborative effort between disciplines and across geographical distances. The proposed framework will facilitate multi-disciplinary analysis by giving each discipline's preferred tool a common model source, and allow the results of one calculation to be rapidly integrated into another. The framework will allow systems engineers to ensure consistency between disciplinary analyses through the use of universal version control as applied to design changes. The framework will facilitate communication between geographically disparate users by allowing updated model data to be seamlessly pushed to various users, preventing outdated model data from being used for any new work. Additionally, the framework will give the engineer unprecedented access to complete system information during preliminary design, with a choice of display tools which is independent of the origin of the data.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Modern aircraft system engineering strives to integrate subsystems into an efficient concept which responds to the needs of the vehicle's mission. As these designs become more tightly coupled, such that changes to a subsystem rapidly propagate through the vehicle, the design process must adapt to show the interactions between subsystems as early as possible in the design process, and to facilitate communication between traditionally separate engineering disciplines. The primary financial incentive for Aurora's development of this system is the increased productivity associated with use of the tool. Aurora completes on average 4 preliminary aircraft designs per year, each taking up to ½ a man-year. This tool is anticipated to speed preliminary analysis by as much as 50% as the system matures, with potential net benefit to Aurora of up to 50,000 per design. This tool is also expected to generate more business for Aurora by improving our turnaround for tightly coupled system engineering and increasing Aurora's ability to respond to needs in the military and civilian UAV markets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T3.01-9864
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Space Power and Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Biotemplated Nano-Structured Materials for Advanced Li-ion Batteries

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFX Battery, Inc.
1300 W Optical Drive, Suite 300
Azusa, CA 91702-3251
(626) 610-0660

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Georgia Institute of Technology
505 10th Street, NW
Atlanta, GA 30332-0420
(404) 894-6929

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Simon Jones
simon.jones@cfxbattery.com

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 0 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has identified a critical need for pioneering advances in battery technology to give high performance, low-weight, durable and long-life power sources for future missions. In this Phase I proposal, CFX Battery, Inc. and Georgia Institute of Technology propose the chemical conversion of micron-sized, nano-structured templates available from renewable resources into functional electrode materials. In nature, diatom species form complex cell wall structures made of silica through biological self-assembly. We will take advantage of these intricate structures to generate hierarchically-ordered functional nanocrystalline oxide architectures, and investigate the application of these materials in electrochemical devices. We intend to establish that electrodes fabricated from these nanostructures are innovative materials that display improved electrochemical performance compared to traditional electrodes. This will enable us to address the significant increases in energy capacity, power capability and cycling stability necessary to meet the NASA requirements for advanced Li-ion battery technology. Our manufacturing strategy is conceptually-straightforward, rapid, scalable and amenable to commercialization.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is interested in innovative rechargeable cell chemistries and advanced electrode materials that will enhance the performance of high-power/high-rate cells in advanced battery systems for use in Exploration Mission applications, including power for Landers, Rovers, and extravehicular activities. The successful application (over the lifetime of both Phase I and Phase II proposals) of biotemplated nanostructured materials in electrochemical cells will provide aggressive performance improvements beyond current state-of the-art lithium-ion systems by achieving the following goals: (i) Specific energy (cell level)> 300 Wh/kg at C/2, (ii) Energy density (cell level)> 600 Wh/l at C/2, and (iii) Calendar life >5 years and cycle life of 500 cycles at 100% depth of discharge for use in future NASA missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Rechargeable batteries continue to represent a strong growth market, with worldwide sales of $36 billion in 2008 anticipated to expand to $51 billion by 2013. This decade has already witnessed a transition in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technology. At present, Ni-MH batteries are used in HEVs, although it is expected that lithium-ion batteries will be implemented in HEVs by 2010 as demand increases. Rechargeable batteries will continue to be the energy storage system of choice for portable electronics and power tools for the next five years, as well expanding into new markets in motor vehicles and large scale renewable energy systems. Regardless of application, energy and power density and lifetime drive rechargeable battery research, and high-performance Li-ion batteries based on the nanostructured materials proposed here will be well-positioned to compete aggressively in all of these markets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T3.01-9881
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Space Power and Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Power High Thrust Ion Thruster (HPHTion): 50 CM Ion Thruster for Near-Earth Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ElectroDynamic Applications, Inc.
P.O. Box 131460
Ann Arbor, MI 48113-1460
(734) 786-1434

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Michigan
3003 South State Street, Room 1058
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1274
(734) 764-1976

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Peter Peterson
info@edapplications.com
P.O. Box 131460
Ann Arbor,  MI 48113-1460
(734) 786-1434

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advances in high power, photovoltaic technology has enabled the possibility of reasonably sized, high specific power, high power, solar arrays. New thin film solar arrays have demonstrated specific powers of over 4000 W/kg (exceeding the current SOA of ~130 W/kg). At high specific powers, power levels ranging from 50 to several hundred kW are feasible for communication satellites. Coupled with gridded ion thruster technology, this power technology can be mission enabling for a wide range of missions ranging from ambitious near Earth NASA missions to those missions involving other customers as well such as DOD and commercial satellite interests. The appeal of the ion thrusters stems from their overall high efficiency, typically >70%. At present, the most advanced and mature gridded ion thruster technology is that embodied in the 7-kW NEXT ion thruster. The proposed Phase I effort seeks to design and fabricate a ion thruster discharge chamber with an equivalent beam area of a 50-cm-diameter cylindrical ion thruster with the capacity to fill the 7 to 25-kW void that currently exist for ion thrusters. The overall effort (Phases I and II) will advance the TRL level of the discharge chamber for the 50-cm thruster by understanding and optimizing the discharge chamber.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
EDA is committed to developing spacecraft propulsion related systems such as the 50 cm ion thruster. EDA is uniquely qualified to advance this technology rapidly through initial prototype development and qualification due to its experience in flight hardware. The PIs of this proposed project have first-hand experience with commercial EP devices having assisted three major aerospace engineering firms with thruster (and associated electronics) qualification and one in the design of a new flight engine. EDA also a solid relationship with the spacecraft propulsion divisions at Aerojet and Busek, all of whom have developed flight-ready EP engines. The technology under development here has numerous applications in the area of electric propulsion, supporting those current and future NASA missions with high power requirements.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High power ion thruster propulsion technology is also enabling for DOD customers as well as commercial satellite interests for orbital transfer applications. The appeal of the system to non-NASA customers has been heightened through the availability of high power solar arrays. The coupling of such arrays with high power, efficient gridded ion is indeed mission enabling. In this respect, there would be likely benefits for both government satellites as well as commercial satellite markets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Solar
Electrostatic Thrusters


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T3.01-9893
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Space Power and Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Next-Generation Ion Thruster Design Tool to Support Future Space Missions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tech-X Corporation
5621 Arapahoe Avenue, Suite A
Boulder, CO 80303-1379
(303) 448-0727

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Wright State University
3640 Colonel Glenn Hwy
Dayton, OH 45435-0001
(937) 775-2425

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sudhakar Mahalingam
sudhakar@txcorp.com

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Computational tools that accurately predict the performance of electric propulsion devices are highly desirable by NASA and the broader electric propulsion community. Large investments in running the long duration test programs (> 20 kHrs) at NASA GRC can be reduced with computer models and allow more focus on exploring the NEXT ion thruster design for future space missions. The current state of electric propulsion modeling relies heavily on empirical data – frequently taken directly from the device of interest – and relies on numerous computational "knobs". A self-consistent particle model that minimizes the number of free parameters used in thruster modeling, and allows accurate electric thruster simulations is desired. We propose a kinetic model that simulates the dynamic electric fields inside the NEXT ion thruster discharge chamber plasma. This will be the first time that this has been done. In addition kinetic erosion models will be used for modeling the ionimpingement effects on thruster components. We envision one seamless model of the plasma from emission within the hollow cathode to ejection to outer space in the exhaust plume. This model will help NASA GRC to predict the lifetime operation of the high power ion propulsion options for earth-orbital applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The off-the-shelf ion thruster discharge chamber computational tools should reduce the time spent by NASA employees developing these tools for electric propulsion systems such as the 40-cm diameter NEXT thruster. The easy-to-use and user-friendly graphical user interface plasma softwares from Tech-X are viable high performance modeling tools for NASA to study the current and future electric thruster concepts which will help their planning for future space missions. Also these tools can be applied to modeling Hall thrusters such as the HiVHAC thruster, which is currently being developed at NASA GRC. The fully electromagnetic capabilities in these codes make them an ideal tool for modeling cathodeless RF ionization schemes as well.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Electric propulsion is important to other government agencies including the Air Force and the Navy. Air Force electric propulsion codes will benefit from additional/advanced plasmasurface interaction models available in our tools. The multi-billion dollar military and commercial satellite industries design and develop electric thrusters similar to the one used at NASA for the purposes of satellite station keeping and orbit changing maneuvers in space. These industries would benefit from the user-friendly computational tools, which include more realistic physics models, to study the ion thruster plasma. The innovations proposed in this work will also benefit the ion source and plasma processing industries.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Electromagnetic Thrusters
Electrostatic Thrusters


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T3.01-9972
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Space Power and Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Firefly Technologies
2082 Hackberry Lane
Shakopee, MN 55379-4622
(608) 698-0935

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rochester Institute of Technology
One Lomb Memorial Drive
Rochester, NY 14623-5603
(585) 475-2480

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Forbes
dvfsps@rit.edu
2082 Hackberry Lane
Shakopee,  MN 55379-4622
(608) 698-0935

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Firefly, in collaboration with Rochester Institute of Technology, proposes an STTR program for the development of a space solar cell having record efficiency exceeding 40% (AM0) by the introduction of nanowires within the active region of the current limiting sub-cell. The introduction of these nanoscale features will enable realization of an intermediate band solar cell (IBSC), while simultaneously increasing the effective absorption volume that can otherwise limit short circuit current generated by thin quantized layers. The triple junction cell follows conventional designs comprised of bottom Ge cell (0.67eV), a current-limiting middle GaAs (1.43eV) cell, and a top InGaP (1.90eV) cell. The GaAs cell will be modified to contain InAs nanowires to enable an IBSC, which is predicted to demonstrate ~45% efficiency under 1-sun AM0 conditions. The InAs nanowires will be implemented in-situ within the epitaxy environment which is a significant innovation relative to conventional semiconductor nanowire generation using ex-situ gold nanoparticles. Successful completion of the proposed work will result in ultra-high efficiency, radiation-tolerant space solar cells that are compatible with existing manufacturing processes. Significant cost savings are expected with higher efficiency cells which enables increased payload capability and longer mission durations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful completion of the Phase I and II of the proposed work will result in a photovoltaic cell having an efficiency that significantly exceeds performance that exists in the marketplace today. Upon achieving this goal, Firefly plans to license the technology to one of the major US space solar cell manufacturers, Emcore or Spectrolab. Firefly will continue to work with this entity during technology transfer and ongoing R&D. Firefly personnel have a strong track record of bringing innovative technical projects to the marketplace.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The high efficiency of the proposed device represents a significant competitive advantage for any space-based power generation application. This proposed device offers a significant increase in efficiency which corresponds to a significant cost savings in terms of PV array size, array weight, and launch costs. The proposed cells would represent a disruptive technology within the space PV marketplace.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Beamed Energy
Solar
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Optical
Photonics
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Optical & Photonic Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Energy Storage
Photovoltaic Conversion
Power Management and Distribution
Renewable Energy


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T4.01-9882
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar, Radar and Passive Microwave
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid Integrated Photonics for Ultrahigh Throughput Optical Signal Processing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Structured Materials Industries, Inc.
201 Circle Drive North, Suite 102/103
Piscataway, NJ 08854-3723
(732) 302-9274

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cornell University
120 Day Hall
Ithaca, NY 14853-2801
(607) 255-1050

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bruce Willner
bwillner@structuredmaterials.com
201 Circle Drive North, Suite 102/103
Piscataway,  NJ 08854-3723
(732) 302-9274

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Structured Materials Industries, Inc. and Cornell University propose to develop high speed integrated photonic switches and WDM for LIDAR applications. The team has recently shown that single mode silicon nitride (Si3N4) waveguides to have very low propagation losses. This material is an ideal candidate for the propagation and manipulation of optical signals at LIDAR wavelengths (1.06 &#956;m). It is possible to imbue electro-optic (EO) properties to these waveguides using an electro-optic polymer. Such polymers have been demonstrated to have very high switching speeds, where light signals were modulated at frequencies in excess of 1 THz. The program will address the efficient integration of active hybrid materials for externally controlling the silicon nitride photonic structures for the goal of obtaining high speed (< 1 ns) switches. Furthermore, these devices also will have qualities that are attractive to this LIDAR project with their compact size, low power consumption and power efficiency. Solutions to these technical challenges will enable the design of systems of unprecedented performance. This program begins at Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 2, will advance to TRL 3 at the end of Phase I and products will achieve TRL 6 at the end of Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
These devices will be highly useful for many NASA LIDAR programs including Lidar for Surface Topography (LIST), ASCENDS, and direct-detection LIDAR in general. Also for the use of multiple LIDAR tools on the same laser source to reduce instrument mass for satellite and planetary missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This knowledge will fit together with other ongoing programs at SMI. Related programs such as this will build on and expand the silicon nano-fabrication photonic technology. In addition to LIDAR applications at 1µm, all of these combined efforts contribute to our long term research and development aims -- to include all of the active and passive optical functions needed to fabricate and commercialize a low power, high bandwidth, high speed, and ultra-small multi-channel wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) transponder on a single optoelectronic silicon chip as well as other optical communication components. It also may lead to other photonic IC applications including reconfigurable photonic ICs for high speed signal processing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Computer System Architectures
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Optical
Photonics
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T4.01-9939
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar, Radar and Passive Microwave
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Compact, Waveguide Based Programmable Optical Comb Generator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ADVR, Inc.
2310 University Way, Building 1
Bozeman, MT 59715-6504
(406) 522-0388

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stanford University
Office of Sponsored Research, 340 Panama Street, MC 4100
Stanford, CA 94305-4100
(650) 725-6864

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Philip Battle
battle@advr-inc.com

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This NASA Phase I STTR effort will establish the feasibility of developing a compact broadband near to mid-IR programmable optical comb for use in laser based remote sensing and communications. The comb generator will use a waveguide-based optical parametric gain block technology that can have ultra wideband (>250nm) operation with very high gain (>25dB) in a very compact footprint. This approach is enabled by advances both in waveguide processing and in substrate growth, which allows for fabrication of complex waveguide structures to be formed in commercially available large-diameter nonlinear optical substrates. Optical comb sources are increasing the achievable sensitivity and system performance for a range of applications including gas sensing, optical communications, frequency metrology, precision spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography and thus directly addresses NASA's mission to advance remote sensing measurements to improve the scientific understanding of the Earth specified in 2009 STTR call: T4.01 Lidar, Radar and Passive Microwave.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Integrated waveguide components play a key role in many NASA systems. Multi-element components such as quasi-phase matching and phase modulation are efficient approaches for laser doubling and would be suitable for iodine locking (ACE) and O2 detection (ASCENDS). Additionally, the Parametric Gain block itself can be used to generate 3-5&#956;m communications signals derived from 1550nm communications signals through parametric amplification, which would be beneficial to Free-Space Optical Communications at the Optical Communications Group at JPL. Finally, the compact programmable optical comb would be useful for advanced remote technology for precision spectroscopy and remote sensing of trace gas.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Enabling features of the proposed technology include an all-fiber footprint with fast, reconfigurable capability for arbitrary frequency grid synthesis in both the near and mid-IR spectral regions. Potential commercial applications include gas sensing, precision spectroscopy, frequency metrology, monitoring and optimization of combustion processes, multi-channel source for fiber and free space communication systems, medical diagnostics such as spectroscopy-based disease diagnosis and optical coherence tomography.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Laser
RF
Optical
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T5.01-9926
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties in Integrated Spacecraft System Models
PROPOSAL TITLE: Quantification of Uncertainties in Integrated Spacecraft System Models

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
M4 Engineering, Inc.
4020 Long Beach Blvd
Long Beach, CA 90807-2683
(562) 981-7797

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Curators of the University of Missouri
300 W. 12th Street
Rolla, MO 65401-1330
(573) 341-4134

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tyler Winter
tyler.winter@m4-engineering.com

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed effort is to investigate a novel uncertainty quantification (UQ) approach based on non-intrusive polynomial chaos (NIPC) for computationally efficient and accurate quantification of uncertainties in spacecraft system models within a multidisciplinary analysis and optimization (MAO) framework. The UQ approach will include the modeling of both inherent (probabilistic) and epistemic uncertainties and the propagation of these with NIPC. Comparisons between crude Monte-Carlo sampling will be made during validation of the approach. Software will be developed to implement the UQ approach in a generic way. With scalability in mind, this software will be utilized within a space system MAO framework containing many uncertain parameters. Also in Phase I, a simple graphical user interface will be created to implement the UQ approach. Both the software and UQ approach developed will be tested on a model spacecraft simulation problem with uncertainties. This proposed work will compliment M4 Engineering's expertise in developing modeling and simulation technologies that solve relevant demonstration applications. The researchers from Missouri S&T (RI) will guide the implementation of UQ methodology and contribute to the proposed effort with their experience and expertise in UQ in aerospace simulations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications will include the use of the developed software with any complex integrated space system containing uncertain parameters and models.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Generic to any system containing uncertainty, the developed software could be utilized by commercial companies such as Boeing, Lockheed Martin, and Northrop Grumman.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T5.01-9952
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties in Integrated Spacecraft System Models
PROPOSAL TITLE: Efficient Quantification of Uncertainties in Complex Computer Code Results

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
IllinoisRocstar, LLC
60 Hazelwood Drive; P. O. Box 3001
Champaign, IL 61826-3001
(217) 417-0885

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Illinois
OSPRA, 1901 S. First Street, Suite A
Champaign, IL 61820-7473
(217) 333-2187

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Dick
wdick@illinoisrocstar.com
(217) 417-0885

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal addresses methods for efficient quantification of margins and uncertainties (QMU) for models that couple multiple, large-scale commercial or proprietary simulation codes, effective methods for treating epistemic uncertainty in large scale simulations, scalability to models with hundreds or thousands of uncertain parameters, and competition with traditional Monte Carlo Based methods. The Reduced-Order Clustering Uncertainty Quantification (ROCUQ) methodology described in this proposal has been under development over the past several years at the University of Illinois, and is being commercialized by IllinoisRocstar LLC. ROCUQ uses a combination of common stratified Monte Carlo techniques, coupled with well-chosen reduced order models, statistical clustering, and a few (less than tens) high-fidelity simulation runs to provide estimates of the uncertainty distributions for the System Response Quantities (SRQs) of interest to the modelers. The goal of the ROCUQ methodology is to minimize the number of high-fidelity, computationally-intensive simulation runs that are needed in order to provide estimates of output uncertainties of interest, especially when it is not possible to run the high-fidelity model more than a few (e.g., 5 to 10) times. ROCUQ has been, or is currently being applied to solid propellant rocket internal ballistics uncertainties, coupled fluid-structure interaction modeling of stresses in an Air Force Training Fighter wing, and structural dynamics/vibration of a specially-designed experimental apparatus for studying simulation validation under uncertainty.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This program will provide pathways to two commercial products: software and engineering services. • Software: The completed module will be architected in such as manner as to allow introduction of specialized reduced-order model modules without requiring changes to the base software. IllinoisRocstar has significant expertise in building modular, extensible software. As a module operable within the open-source Dakota framework, it will be useable by a wide variety of entities and organizations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This program will provide pathways to two commercial products: software and engineering services. • Engineering services: Consulting services will be available based on the extensibility of the proposed system. IllinoisRocstar has the broad-based experience with a wide variety of supercomputing platforms to allow support of the proposed system on platforms located at NASA, DoD components, DOE, and private companies. Assisting companies and government agencies with customization of the reduced-order models for their specific applications will provide a market, as well as a source of reduced-order library models for these services.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T5.01-9983
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties in Integrated Spacecraft System Models
PROPOSAL TITLE: QMU in Integrated Spacecraft System Models

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ACTA, Inc.
2790 Skypark Drive, Sutie 310
Torrance, CA 90505-5345
(310) 530-1008

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sandia National Laboratories
P.O. Box 5800
Albuquerque, NM 87185-0557
(505) 845-9190

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Timothy Hasselman
hasselman@actainc.com
2790 Skypark Drive, Sutie 310
Torrance,  CA 90505-5345
(310) 530-1008

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ACTA and Sandia National Laboratories propose to quantify and propagate substructure modeling uncertainty for reduced-order substructure models to higher levels of system assembly, thereby enabling predictive simulations of engineering designs with quantified margins and uncertainties for model-based flight qualification of complete spacecraft. A critical part of this process is the accurate modeling of interface structures, especially nonlinear interface structures that connect major substructures, and the quantification of their uncertainties. By developing generic uncertainty models for reduced order models of specific substructures, NASA will be able to quantify margins and uncertainties for structural systems outside the domain of model validation tests.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has long been required to ground-test spacecraft and spacecraft components in their launch configuration for model verification, validation and flight qualification because of the severity of the dynamic environment. Ground-testing of spacecraft in their on-orbit configurations is usually impractical because they are not designed to withstand earth-gravity forces. The ability to quantify modeling uncertainty at the substructure level and propagate it to system levels could obviate the need for launch environment model V&V and qualification testing, and enable the assessment of predictive accuracy for on-orbit modeling as well. This technology has potential application to virtually all NASA spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Air Force has requirements similar to NASA's for launch environment model V&V and qualification testing. While Air Force spacecraft may not approach the size of some NASA spacecraft, such as the NASA space station for example, Air Force satellites may have instrumentation appendages that cannot be tested in an earth-gravity environment. So, potential non-NASA applications stand to benefit from the proposed technology in the same ways as NASA applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Erectable
Kinematic-Deployable
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Training Concepts and Architectures
Testing Facilities
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Modular Interconnects
Structural Modeling and Tools
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Metallics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T6.01-9868
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Safe High Energy Density Batteries and Ultracapacitors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Li/CFx Primary Batteries with Non-Flammable Electrolytes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFX Battery, Inc.
1300 W Optical Drive, Suite 300
Azusa, CA 91702-3251
(626) 610-0660

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Missouri University of Science and Technology
202 Centennial Hall, 300 West 12th Street
Rolla, MO 65409-1330
(573) 341-4134

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arunkumar Tiruvannamalai
arun.t@cfxbattery.com

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA seeks to develop high specific energy primary batteries that are safe and capable of performing under a wide temperature range, for manned space missions. To meet this goal, CFX Battery Inc. proposes to develop, characterize, and establish technological feasibility of a new Li/SF-CFx based high capacity lithium primary battery that offers higher rate capability and enhanced safety than conventional Li/CFx primary systems. In Phase I of the project, CFX Battery will develop the sub-fluorinated CFx cathode materials that offer high capacity (>700 mAh/g) and rate capability. In addition, novel non-flammable electrolytes that are highly conductive and electrochemically stable at a wide temperature range will be developed to increase the safety of the Li/SF-CFx system. The technological feasibility of the sub-fluorinated CFx cathode and non-flammable electrolyte combination will be demonstrated using small coin and pouch cells. Phase II of the project will implement the developed technology in large cell formats and perform any refinement and optimization that will be needed to bring the technology to a commercially usable stage.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is in constant need of a safe, high energy primary battery that is tolerant to the extreme conditions encountered during space missions. The commercially existing lithium primary batteries, including Li/MnO2 and Li/SOCl2, have low energy density values or safety issues that make them incompatible for manned space missions. The successful completion of Phase I work will demonstrate the feasibility of using a high-rate sub-fluorinated CFx cathode and non-flammable ionic liquid electrolyte pair for the development of a safe, high energy lithium primary battery system that can be used for NASA's exploratory mission applications including power to support outposts, habitats, and science packages. The high specific energy will greatly reduce the mass of the batteries used onboard in long distance space missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The success of the proposed approach of developing a safe, high energy density lithium primary cell will also open other avenue of business opportunities such as the oil field, military, transportation, and commercial markets. Oil fields require primary batteries that can withstand temperature up to 150oC, to power electronics used down-hole for data logging, monitor, and control. The currently used Li/SOCl2 battery system has lower capacity and safety issues that justify the search for an alternative power source. The proposed ionic liquid based lithium primary battery has the necessary specific energy and temperature resistance for down-hole applications. It will also serve as a safe and reliable power supply for military radio man-pack, tire pressure monitoring system, implantable medical devices, utility meters, memory back-up, portable electronic such as cameras and measuring equipments, and emergency power source.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T6.01-9894
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Safe High Energy Density Batteries and Ultracapacitors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Self Assembled Carbon Nanotube Enhanced Ultracapacitors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanosonic, Inc.
1485 South Main Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060-5556
(540) 953-1785

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Blacksburg, VA 24061-0001
(540) 231-4876

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hang Ruan
hruan@nanosonic.com
1485 South Main Street
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-5556
(540) 953-1785

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of this NASA STTR program is to develop single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) based ultracapacitors for energy storage devices (ESD) application, using NanoSonic's patented molecular level self-assembly process performed at room temperature. Specifically, we would combine advances in metallic SWCNTs, metal and oxide nanoclusters, and polymeric materials and electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) processes, to enable large-area, low-cost and integrated device manufacturing on rigid and flexible substrates. Such a combination of solution-based thin film deposition approaches to form ultracapacitor based devices and materials offers advantages over conventional high temperature and costly processes such as vacuum processes and vapour-phase deposition, in that very different materials can be incorporated uniformly at room temperature and pressure. We will perform synthesis of SWCNT and other precursors that can be used for ESA processing and transitioned to deposition of two-dimensional patterned materials. Layer by Layer fabrication of multilayered CNT enhanced ultracapacitors leads to the analysis of chemical, physical and optical properties during and after synthesis, and verification of material morphology and response. We will study the cyclic voltammetric (CV) behavior and derive the power density from the inner integrated area. We will also investigate the specific capacitance as a function of discharge current density. From here, NanoSonic and Virginia Tech will develop an equivalent circuit model of the CNT ultracapacitor device for NASA applications. NanoSonic and Virginia Tech will also experimentally validate CNT ultracapacitor performance through extended field test evaluation, and possible testing with industrial partners, and produce first-generation ultracapacitors and energy storage systems for sale.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Ultracapacitors, also known as electrochemical capacitors or electrical double-layer capacitors, are energy storage devices which combine the high energy storage potential of batteries with the high energy transfer rate and high recharging capabilities of capacitors. Ultracapacitors can have hundreds of times more energy density than conventional capacitors and thousands of times higher power density than batteries and may be used to power Lunar surface system vehicles. Ultracapacitors can be used as independent power sources or in a hybrid mode with rechargeable batteries to power Lunar surface mobility systems and/or portable electronic equipment such as cameras, camcorders and power tools.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Due to their high capacitance and high power, ultracapacitors can be effective energy storage devices for a wide variety of applications. In low-voltage configurations of 5.5 volts or less, ultracapacitors have applications in consumer electronics, such as backup power supplies for memories, microcomputers and clocks. In higher voltage configurations, ultracapacitors have opportunities in electrical power load leveling, battery augmentation and pulse discharge applications, such as in wireless communication products. Other battery augmentation applications are possible in electric and fuel cell vehicles in which ultracapacitors could be used to boost acceleration and regulate braking energy. Since ultracapacitors can be recharged many times faster than rechargeable batteries and through many thousands of cycles, ultracapacitors have applications in rechargers for such products as power tools, cordless phones, flashlights, electric shavers and other rechargeable devices. Ultracapacitors are also expected to be useful in a wide range of robotic applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T6.01-9988
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Safe High Energy Density Batteries and Ultracapacitors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Magnetically Modified Asymmetric Supercapacitors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Giner, Inc.
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0500

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The University of Iowa, Div. of Sponsored Programs
2 Gilmore Hall
Iowa City, IA 52242-1320
(319) 335-2123

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Kosek, Ph.D.
jkosek@ginerinc.com
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton,  MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0505

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is for the development of an asymmetric supercapacitor that will have improved energy density and cycle life. Supercapacitors that utilize an aqueous electrolyte are limited to a maximum voltage of 1 volt due to the decomposition of water. Methods used to increase voltage include use of an organic electrolyte, which introduces additional complexity, cost and undesirable environmental concerns, or to use an asymmetric or hybrid configuration, with two different electrode materials. Supercapacitors that utilize MnO2 and carbon as the electrodes have been developed. However, due to changes in the MnO2 while cycling the capacitor to 2 volts, the MnO2 will change over time and lose its ability to cycle. One method around this problem, reported in the literature, is to charge the capacitor to 1.5 volts, resulting in reduced power and energy storage. In this Phase I program Giner, Inc. will demonstrate a novel solution to this problem by modifying the MnO2 positive electrode through the use of magnetic microparticles dispersed throughout the electrode structure. Using a Giner, Inc. novel high-energy density carbon as the negative electrode, complete, button-cell capacitors will be assembled and tested.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Supercapacitors can be used as independent power sources or in a hybrid mode with rechargeable batteries to power Lunar surface mobility systems and/or portable electronic equipment such as cameras, camcorders and power tools. Supercapacitors can also be used as power sources for electromechanical actuators.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are three major markets where supercapacitors are needed, each having its own specific requirements. These are industrial power management, automotive and consumer electronics. By far the highest-value target is the global automobile industry which wants to use supercapacitors as load-leveling devices with batteries in electric and hybrid vehicles. The consumer electronics market needs small high-frequency devices in order to reduce battery size. The industrial power market needs the supercapacitors for power quality to handle power surges and short-term power loss.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Energy Storage
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T6.02-9912
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Planetary Surface Analog Support Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Scalable Gravity Offload System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Astrobotic Technology, Inc.
4551 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3524
(412) 682-3282

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Carnegie Mellon University
5000 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3815
(412) 268-2000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Whittaker
red@cmu.edu

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovation is a scalable gravity off-load system that enables controlled integrated testing of Surface System elements such as rovers, habitats, and space suits in planet-relevant gravity which addresses T6.02 in the direct solicitation of a gravity off-load system. Phase I delivers a nominal design in the form of a final report, Phase II builds this design and delivers hardware, and Phase III commercializes the gravity off-load system as a commercial product/service of Astrobotic Technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Mobility systems tuned to lunar or Martian gravity are a fundamental need of all government and commercial endeavors on these bodies, both crewed and robotic. The scalable gravity off-load system will enable NASA-funded mobility research to test approaches under the reduced gravity that mobility systems they will experience during missions. Because it is inherently portable, this technology approach can be added to existing NASA infrastructure such as vacuum chambers and regolith stimulant test beds or transported to field locations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Initially, Astrobotic will put this technology to commercial use in its own development program for private-sector lunar robots that gather data, perform services and emplace payloads for government and commercial customers. This early demonstration on the moon the first mission is scheduled for May 2011 will generate data to show how closely actual lunar mobility performance matches the results of simulated lunar gravity tests conducted on Earth. Validation with near-term lunar activity is a key step that enables others to confidently adopt the gravity off-load technology in their own test programs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Mobility
Testing Facilities
Microgravity


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T7.01-9887
SUBTOPIC TITLE: One-Sided 3D Imaging of Non-Uniformities in Non-Metallic Space Flight Materials
PROPOSAL TITLE: Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Based 3D Imaging

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
LongWave Photonics, LLC
2711 Centerville Rd
Wilmington, MA 19808-1645
(310) 650-6276

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
77 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02139-4301
(617) 253-2431

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alan Lee
awmlee@longwavephotonics.com
2711 Centervill Rd
Wilmington,  DE 19808-1645
(310) 650-6276

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The NASA Constellation program has a need to non-destructively test (NDT) non-metallic materials (foams, Shuttle Tile, Avcoat, etc) for defects such as delaminations and voids. While imaging systems at terahertz frequencies (0.3 to 3 THz) have been demonstrated for 2D imaging of similar materials, they have not yet demonstrate full 3D volumetric imaging. To meet this need, LongWave Photonics proposes to use high-power, low-frequency terahertz quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) developed at MIT, to demonstrate 3D imaging using Laser Triangulation. By using high-power QCL sources, large signal to noise ratios (SNRs) are attainable, resulting in resolution of subtle defects at fast scan speeds. The shorter wavelengths emitted by QCLs, 60 to 250 µm, allow high lateral and depth resolution. The feasibility of a second system based on Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography will also be explored using a recently developed tunable THz QCL from MIT. In addition to the benefits of high SNR, this technique allows sub-wavelength depth resolution. The current generation of QCLs are compatible with a cooling package that is <1 Kg, with <100 W power consumption. Phase II work will package a second generation of QCLs in a compact system to meet NASA's portable 3D NDT needs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Terahertz QCL based 3D Imaging system will be valuable in characterizing the voids and delaminations in materials used in the Constellation program (e.g. urethane based foams, silica based composites, etc). The high depth resolution enabled by this system will also allow measurement of thin non-conductive polymer layers, such as paints and compositions to verify thicknesses and integrity. Further application include inspection for corrosion damage under paint layers or foams.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Pharmaceutical applications for this technology include in-process monitoring of thicknesses of polymer coatings in controlled release tablets. Numerous defects in the thin coatings can occur during processing affecting the performance of the tablet, leading drug complications and drug recalls. The use of QCL based 3D imaging technology could improve the uniformity in a batch tablet coating process. In the automotive and aerospace industry spray application of paint is both inefficient and environmentally unfriendly. In situ monitoring of sprayed paint thicknesses would allow reduced paint usage and reduced emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ablatives
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Thermal Insulating Materials
Microwave/Submillimeter
Optical
In-situ Resource Utilization
Ceramics
Composites
Optical & Photonic Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T7.01-9931
SUBTOPIC TITLE: One-Sided 3D Imaging of Non-Uniformities in Non-Metallic Space Flight Materials
PROPOSAL TITLE: Time-Domain Terahertz Reflection Holograhic Tomography Nondestructive Evaluation System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Picometrix, LLC
2925 Boardwalk Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-6765
(734) 864-5600

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Regents of the University of Michigan
3003 South State Street, Room 1072
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1274
(734) 936-1289

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Zimdars
dzimdars@picometrix.com

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to demonstrate key elements of feasibility for a single-sided time-domain terahertz reflection holographic tomographic imaging (TD-THz RHT) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) system which will provide high quality three dimensional images of the interior of complex aerospace composite structures. Time-domain terahertz imaging in the 0.1 to 3 THz spectral range is currently being used to characterize defects in Space Shuttle insulation and related materials. The principal imaging technique has utilized 2D raster scanning of a THz transmitter and receiver to generate a two-dimensional image from the reflected signal intensity. The proposed STTR will use existing Picometrix THz imaging hardware, but incorporate measurements of the scattered THz fields, enabling full 3D reflection-mode reconstruction of non-metallic materials on a metallic substrate. It will use holographic information consisting of phase and amplitude data collected through a 2D sampling plane. The specific reconstruction algorithm to be developed is a novel model-based reconstruction algorithm. This will algorithm will maximize the 3D reconstruction accuracy for the data available. Various options for image angles and sample geometries will be explored. The final imaging system will incorporate 2D or 3D scanning hardware and multiple angle data collection to maximize 3D image quality in rapid scanning applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The capabilities provided by a TD-THz holographic tomography NDE imager will be valuable in characterizing new spacecraft materials in complex 3-dimensional forms. Material examples include SOFI and other foam materials, TUFI and other thermal protection systems (TPS), Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) and adhesive systems, and other non-conductive polymer composite structures. Example NDE applications where these materials are used include inspection of soft shell fan containment, thermal protection systems, and composite overwrap pressure vessels (COPV). The technique is fully applicable to single-sided imaging and can locate and quantify internal structure, regions of damage, porosity, cracking, delaminations, intrusion, and other sub-surface properties.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial potential of the technology from a successful Phase I development effort extends well beyond the NASA Polymer matrix composites are used in automobile and ships and many other consumer and industrial products. TD-THz reflection holographic tomography (TD-THz RHT) 3D imaging applications can include inspection of automobile dashboards, imaging inspection for delamination of printed circuit boards, inspection of pipe insulation, as well as with manufactured parts such as pure plastic and paper products. TD-THz RHT imaging benefits homeland security applications under development such as personnel and luggage inspection for concealed weapons and explosives (in luggage, shoes, and etc.). TD-THz RHT imaging and spectroscopy can inspect items in shipment such as mail, cardboards packages, and plastic and wood crates.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Microwave/Submillimeter
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T7.01-9948
SUBTOPIC TITLE: One-Sided 3D Imaging of Non-Uniformities in Non-Metallic Space Flight Materials
PROPOSAL TITLE: Three-Dimensional Backscatter X-Ray Imaging System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ARIBEX
744 S 400 E
Orem, UT 84097-6322
(801) 226-5522

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The SCI Institute of the University of Utah
72 S. Central Campus Drive
Salt Lake City, UT 84112-9200
(801) 585-1867

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Clark Turner
cturner@aribex.com
744 S 400 E
OREM,  UT 84097-6322
(801) 226-5522

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The overall objective of the proposal is to design, develop and demonstrate a potentially portable Compton x-ray scatter 3D-imaging system by using specially designed rotationally movable x-ray source and x-ray detector, and the development of a suitable 3D-processing computer model. The proposed rotational configuration will allow the acquisition of multiple projections or images 360„a around the region of interest, probing a conical volume of the object to be interrogated. The subsequent application of a computer model on these multiple projections, developed during Phase I, will allow a three-dimensional reconstruction of the object under study. In the proposed x-ray imaging system, the primary technical advance will be to extend methods that normally supplied a 2D projected image through a sheet of material, to a 3D image with more complicated features at different depths, such as cracks, corrosion, voids, delaminations, land mines, or improvised explosive devices. Also, the proposed system will be potentially portable, allowing it to be brought to the object to be imaged. The Beta and Production Phases of the proposed system would incorporate a battery self-contained package and wireless data transfer capabilities. These systems would revolutionize the current imaging applications that rely on 2D x-ray imaging systems only.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed three-dimensional backscatter x-ray imaging system addresses he interest for NASA is one-side 3D imaging of non-uniformities in non metallic space flight materials. The proposed x-ray backscatter 3D system will help determine defects, voids or imperfections in the workmanship of the Space Shuttle components at the launch site. In general, a portable, wireless 3D or in-depth imaging capability will address the NASA¡¦s need for a system that can generate 3D images of non-metallic materials when the access is limited to one side of them. The system portability will allow it to be brought to the spacecraft and to be handled in the field for multiple applications. Furthermore, this 3D capability can be used at the launch site to meet the inspection requirements for new NASA programs, such as the Constellation program.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aerospace - In addition to NASA's needs, there is a routine need in the aerospace industry to inspect for metal fatigue on the wings and fuselage of airplanes. Cargo Inspection - There is a demonstrated need for one-sided imaging for inspecting cargo and other transportation containers that are already loaded onto a ship or other transportation carrier. A portable, battery-powered unit would enable random inspections at a much lower cost than truck-based imaging systems. Explosives Detection - Current explosives ordinance detection systems require an imaging plate to be positioned behind a suspicious package such as a suitcase or backpack. The x-ray source is positioned in front of the package, and an x-ray transmission image is obtained. Construction and Related Industries - There is a need for contractors to be able to image inside walls, floors, ceilings, etc., to determine the location of pipes, electrical wires, and other internal obstructions before demolition or remodel work.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Architectures and Networks
Computer System Architectures
Data Input/Output Devices
Expert Systems
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
In-situ Resource Utilization
Composites
Metallics
Radiation Shielding Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T8.01-9896
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Computational Fluid Dynamics Mesh Creation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Generation and Adaptive Modification of Anisotropic Meshes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Simmetrix, Inc.
10 Halfmoon Executive Park Dr.
Clifton Park, NY 12065-5630
(518) 348-1639

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
110 8th Street
Troy, NY 12180-3590
(518) 276-6283

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Saurabh Tendulkar
saurabh@simmetrix.com

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The ability to quickly and reliably simulate high-speed flows over a wide range of geometrically complex configurations is critical to many of NASA's missions. Advances in CFD methods and parallel computing have provided NASA the core flow solvers to perform these simulations. However, the ease of use of these flow solvers and the reliability of the results obtained are a strong function of the technologies used to discretize the domain. Many applications involve solutions with highly anisotropic features: boundary layers, shear layers, wakes, shocks etc. Efficient resolution of those features motivates matching the mesh resolution/anisotropy to the solution's anisotropy but, in the more challenging applications, the location and strength of those features is difficult to precisely estimate prior to solution. Currently available meshing tools are not capable of producing and controlling the required initial meshes, nor adapting the mesh to match evolving anisotropic features. This project will combine Simmetrix Inc. expertise in the development of meshing components for flow simulations, and Rensselaer's Scientific Computation Research Center expertise in the development of adaptive mesh control technologies, to provide NASA the mesh generation and adaptation technologies needed. New techniques will be developed to create highly anisotropic semi-structured and unstructured meshes suitable for CFD simulations with high Reynolds number flow features (e.g., boundary layers, bow shocks, free shear layers, wakes, contact surfaces). Techniques to adapt these meshes based on mesh correction indicators will be developed to enable fully automated adaptive simulations. All procedures to be developed will work effectively in parallel on large-scale parallel computers and will support a wide range of flow solvers. The overall capabilities will be demonstrated through execution of fully automated parallel adaptive simulations on problems relevant to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications of this technology include any type of computational fluid dynamics simulations that involve complex geometry and/or complex flow features whose solution resolution needs cannot be precisely defined before starting the solution process. Applications in the aeronautics area include airflow around aircraft and engines. Applications to astronautics include propulsion, liftoff and reentry aerodynamics, and energy generation systems in space. Problems with a wide range of spatial scales resulting from complex geometry and flow features will benefit most from the proposed developments. Specific examples may include passive and/or active flow control devices, inlet configurations for blended wing body with boundary layer ingestion, hypersonic flight vehicles with scramjet engines, crew launch and exploration vehicles, launch vehicles, re-entry capsules, tethered ballute configurations. In addition to these "high speed" aerodynamics applications, there are also NASA commercial applications related to power generation and other spacecraft systems in a low gravity environment. The mesh resolution needs of two phase flow systems in such environments can also be addressed by the proposed developments. Finally, there are also biomedical applications of CFD such as the effects of low gravity on the cardiovascular system and the respiratory system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High speed flow simulations are also of interest to many organizations outside of NASA thus the majority of the NASA applications also apply to non-NASA organizations. Moreover, the generality of these procedures proposed to be developed will allow them to apply them for other flow applications such as cardiovascular flows to accurately predict wall shear stress, flow over wind turbines to obtain better designs, two-phase annular flows to predict liquid film thickness to avoid dry out conditions, etc. In addition there are other types of physics such as electromagnetics and heat transfer that have solutions with high gradients that can also utilize these types of meshes for simulations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T8.01-9965
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Computational Fluid Dynamics Mesh Creation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Mesh Generation and Adaption for High Reynolds Number RANS Computations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Research South, Inc.
555 Sparkman Dr. Suite 1612
Huntsville, AL 35816-3431
(256) 721-1769

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
George Mason University
4400 University Drive
Fairfax, VA 22030-4444
(703) 993-9309

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lawrence Spradley
lawrence@researchsouthinc.com
555 Sparkman Dr. Suite 1612
Huntsville,  AL 35816-3431
(256) 721-1769

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal offers to provide NASA with an automatic mesh generator for the simulation of aerodynamic flows using Reynolds-Averages Navier-Stokes (RANS) models. The tools will be capable of generating high-quality, highly-stretched (anisotropic) grids in boundary layer regions and transition smoothly to inviscid flow regions even in an adaptive context. The objective of the work is to offer a unified view for generating quality and robust RANS meshes coupled naturally with anisotropic mesh adaptation. Our innovation is to view the anisotropic mesh generation within the Riemannian metric framework which thus far has been used exclusively in anisotropic mesh adaptation. Using the metric-based framework allows much easier handling of the large mesh size ratios involved in the computation, whereas traditional methods use the Euclidean framework to compute distance and volume. This innovative view to generate these meshes makes the entire procedure more generic and much more robust. The emphasis is being put on deriving a completely automatic process to generate quality and robust anisotropic meshes. Our existing and proven software package will be modified to include these innovative methods. A NASA test case will be computed for validation of the methods. The software will be delivered in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Next generation vehicles are being designed at NASA for space travel including launch configurations and modules for entry into planetary atmospheres at extreme velocities. Analysis and design of propulsion systems will be a major requirement for this new generation aerospace flight hardware. High fidelity CFD software is needed for design of these new systems across speed ranges from subsonic to supersonic to hypersonic. Our proposed program addresses this time-critical technology development item by providing a new meshing code to address high Reynolds number viscous flow fields. Existing unstructured tetrahedral-based mesh generators cannot provide the high aspect ratio meshed needed for solvers such as our FEFLO and NASA's FUN3D. The software to be provided here is a next generation computation capability for design and analysis of these new space vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The software system resulting from this program can be applied to DoD programs involving predicting and understanding fluid dynamic environments, designing flight hardware, test planning and analyzing test data. Such an overall system can be applied to the design and development of missiles for defensive interceptor systems which involve blast dynamics, impact and fragmentation. This system can be applied in the analysis of foreign missile concepts and threats. Example commercial industries and applications are: Analysis of nuclear blast accidents from power plants: Automobile manufacturers for design of car and truck engines; Bio-Medical applications such as blood flow in elastic arteries, hearts, and air flow in lungs: Computer simulation of blast waves for use in anti-terrorists investigations: Housing design for protection from hurricanes, and tornados: Heating and air conditioning manufacturers for home units, large office complexes and automobile air conditioning systems: Solar collector systems for alternative energy development.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Structural Modeling and Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T8.01-9986
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Computational Fluid Dynamics Mesh Creation
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Automated High Aspect Ratio Mesher for Computational Fluid Dynamics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ciespace Corporation
319 Olde Chapel Trail
Pittsburgh, PA 15238-1255
(412) 952-5990

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Carnegie Mellon University
5000 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3815
(412) 268-3614

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kenji Shimada
shimada@cmu.edu

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are routinely used while designing, analyzing, and optimizing air- and spacecraft. An important component of CFD simulations is mesh generation, or discretization into polygonal or polyhedral cells, of the domain being analyzed. The overall computational cost and accuracy of simulations depend heavily on mesh quality – the size, shape, and structure of the cells. Another important aspect of CFD simulation is that solutions are achieved iteratively, with each subsequent pass decreasing error and increasing solution accuracy. Grid adaption uses output from the last simulation to improve the mesh for the next. FUN3D is a CFD simulator developed at NASA that requires both a tight integration with mesh generation software for grid adaption and the generation of high aspect ratio cells (i.e. 10,000:1) to accurately capture dynamics around boundary layers. Current meshing methods use the well known advancing front or Delaunay algorithms, and the user must often perform multiple manual inputs and interactions to generate a mesh of sufficient quality. Ideally, a meshing module would subdivide complex designs and perform grid adaption automatically, with little or no human intervention. The proposed innovation is the development of a very high aspect ratio mesher that demonstrates a significant improvement over current techniques as measured by the time and effort necessary for FUN3D users to solve CFD problems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The BubbleMesh product suite includes 2D triangular, quadrilateral, and quad-dominant; and 3D tetrahedral and hex-dominant meshing engines. Even for complex models, the mesh quality is excellent because all mesh types—curve, surface, and volume—are unified; they are derived from the same BubbleMesh formulation. The company plans to leverage its product portfolio to mature the proposed anisotropic meshing product quickly and at significantly less cost than would otherwise be possible. Ciespace anticipates the first commercial application within NASA is with the NASA CFD simulator, FUN3D. Ciespace will work closely with the FUN3D team, meet their requirements and help them to solve difficult CFD problems in a more automated fashion. Because there are several additional CFD simulators within NASA, each targeting different problems, the proposed work could be extended to meet their requirements as well. In addition, products from Ciespace's meshing portfolio could be used inside of other physics based simulators at NASA - those performing crash, impact, warpage or other types of nonlinear analysis. To date, customers using Ciespace products have realized significant savings though increased automation, decreased outsourcing cost and decreased product design time.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Ciespace has emerged as a successful advanced meshing software provider to the electronics and manufacturing industries. Customers include Honda, IBM and more than 40 other companies, like Hitachi, Hyundai, Mitsubishi Electric, Ricoh, Sony, and Samsung, that use Ciespace's meshing products via Toray Engineering's finite element analysis (FEA) software. Because an automated and general purpose, highly anisotropic mesher is not yet commercially available, the new product's increased automation will provide a compelling ROI to potential customers. Preliminary discussions with strategic partners and CAE companies indicate that Ciespace can target CFD and EM simulators to grow this new product's revenue to several million dollars. Potential customers include IBM, NASA, DoD, Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, Honda Jet, Boeing, Intel, ANSYS and Agilent.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Fluid Storage and Handling
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T9.01-9844
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Human and Robotic Space Exploration Propulsion Design and Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Carbon Nano-Composite Ablative Rocket Nozzles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Orion Propulsion, Inc.
1525 Perimeter Pkwy Suite 250
Huntsville, AL 35806-3581
(256) 327-7611

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Central Florida
4000 Central Florida Blvd., ENGR1-307
Orlando, FL 32816-2450
(407) 823-2155

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Fisher
mfisher@orionpropulsion.com

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The constantly evolving science of nanotechnology keeps coming around to old ideas re-tooled with new technologies. Though much work has been done examining the potential for nanotechnology to be used in ablative materials in a rocket nozzle, there have been relatively few testing opportunities of this application. Carbon nanofiber (CNF) composites have been identified as a lightweight and effective material that could be used in rocket motor applications. This technology when used in rocket nozzles could exhibit increased ablation resistance in the throat area and lower backside temperatures that would allow higher temperatures inside the nozzle. This could translate into a nozzle lighter in mass and higher in durability than conventional ablative nozzles. Benefits from this application could trickle across the board of high-temperature and dynamic pressure environments of different types of rocket motors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
• Solid rocket motor nozzle materials (for NASA, DoD, and commercial missile, spacecraft, and launch vehicle applications • Liquid rocket nozzle and/or throat insert material • Material for other high temperature, long-life applications

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
• Solid rocket motor nozzle materials (for NASA, DoD, and commercial missile, spacecraft, and launch vehicle applications • Liquid rocket nozzle and/or throat insert material • Material for other high temperature, long-life applications

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T9.01-9927
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Human and Robotic Space Exploration Propulsion Design and Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Extremely High Suction Performance Inducers for Space Propulsion

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Concepts ETI, Inc.
217 Billings Farm Road
White River Jct, VT 05001-9486
(802) 280-6170

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brigham Young University
435 Crabtree Building
Provo, UT 84602-0002
(801) 422-2625

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kerry Oliphant
kno@conceptsnrec.com

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced pump inducer design technology that uses high inlet diffusion blades, operates at a very low flow coefficient, and employs a cavitation control and stability device. A preliminary scoping inducer test with this technology indicated a doubling of the suction specific speed capability over current inducers. A three to four fold increase over current technology is the goal of this research effort. This increase would significantly enhance the capability of rocket engine systems through increased thrust-to-weight, specific impulse, simplicity, operational safety, and turbopump life. It would also reduce turbopump and propellant tank weight and system costs by eliminating boost pump systems and allowing for thinner lower pressure tank walls. Ultimately, the technology opens up the rocket engine/vehicle design space and allows for a large increase in vehicle performance by significantly moving the pump suction performance constraint from its current position.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology could be used as a retrofit onto current, in development, or future rocket engines for launch vehicle or in space propulsion that require high suction performance, high turbopump efficiency, and wide operating range. It is ideally suited for clean sheet engine designs where the full advantage of moving a key system constraint, pump suction performance, can be used to optimize the entire launch system. The technology could also be used for propellant ground handling systems and aircraft fuel pumps were fuel vaporization is an issue. Finally, the code validation work in the technology development will enhance the turbopump design tools used by NASA and improve the suction performance prediction capability.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology could be used for any situation where it is necessary to pump a low vapor pressure fluid. Nuclear reactor boiler feed pumps, vehicle fuel pumps, and cryogenic fluid transfer pumps are all potential commercial applications. In addition, the inducer suction performance predictive capability that will be validated and enhanced during this project will be incorporated into Concepts NREC's suite of commercially available turbomachinery design software tools.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Propellant Storage
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Simulation Modeling Environment
Tankage
Feed System Components
Fluid Storage and Handling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T9.01-9969
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Human and Robotic Space Exploration Propulsion Design and Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Unsteady Turbulent Combustion Simulation Capability for Space Propulsion Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Streamline Numerics, Inc.
3221 NW 13th Street, Suite A
Gainesville, FL 32609-2189
(352) 271-8841

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Michigan
Room 1061, 3003 S. State Street
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1274
(734) 763-2171

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Siddharth Thakur
st@snumerics.com
3221 NW 13th Street, Suite A
Gainesville,  FL 32609-2189
(352) 271-8841

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovation proposed here is a high performance, high fidelity simulation capability to enable accurate, fast and robust simulation of unsteady turbulent, reacting flows involving cryogenic propellants (such as LOX/LH2 and LOX/LCH4). The key features of this proposed capability are: (a) Hybrid RANS-LES (HRLES) methodology, and (b) flamelet modeling for turbulent combustion incorporated in a proven existing solver called Loci-STREAM which has been developed by the proposing personnel under funding from NASA over the last several years. The proposed enhancement in Loci-STREAM is anticipated to yield an order of magnitude improvement in simulation turnaround times relative to existing capability for turbulent reacting flow applications. The work proposed here will ultimately result in a state-of-the-art design and analysis tool to enable the accurate modeling of for multiphase combustion in solid and liquid rocket engines, combustion stability analysis, etc. which constitute critical components of versatile space propulsion engines part of NASA's deep space missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The outcome of Phase I and Phase II research activities will be a powerful CFD-based design and analysis tool for propulsion engines at NASA. This tool is envisioned to very beneficial for space propulsion devices including full rocket engine simulations, injector design, etc. Specific applications at NASA of this capability include: (a) design improvements of J-2X and RS-68 injectors, (b) design of space propulsion engines involving LOX and LCH4 propellants, (c) modeling of multi-element injectors coupled with fuel and oxidizer feedlines and manifolds, (d) prediction of stability and stability margins, (e) design of acoustic cavities for combustion stability, etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The computational tool resulting from this project will have wide-ranging commercial applications. The Hybrid RANS-LES methodology can be used for a wide variety of engineering applications involving unsteady turbulent flows. The reacting flow capability can be used for simulating combusting flows in various industrial applications, such as gas turbine engines, diesel engines, etc. The real-fluids methodology can be used in a large number of industrial flow situations involving both chemically inert and reacting flows. With additions of multi-phase combustion modeling capability, the applicability of this tool can be further broadened.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Fundamental Propulsion Physics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T10.01-9906
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Test Area Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hydrogen Recovery System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sustainable Innovations, LLC
160 Oak St.
Glastonbury, CT 06033-2336
(860) 652-9690

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Connecticut
438 Whitney Road Extension, Unit 1133
Storrs, CT 06269-1133
(860) 486-3622

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Trent Molter
trent.molter@sustainableinnov.com
160 Oak St.
Glastonbury,  CT 06033-2336
(860) 652-9690

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Liquid hydrogen is used extensively by NASA to support cryogenic rocket testing. In addition, there are many commercial applications in which delivery and use of cryogenic hydrogen is more economical than gaseous hydrogen. Unfortunately, loss of hydrogen resulting from boiloff can both increase the cost of the end product and create safety concerns. Sustainable Innovations and its teammates, The University of Connecticut and FuelCell Energy, Inc., are developing a highly efficient Hydrogen Recovery System (HRS) based on an electrochemical process that converts cool, gaseous hydrogen to pure, high pressure hydrogen that can be stored for subsequent use. We anticipate that this can bring significant cost savings to NASA's rocket test facilities, and open up exciting new avenues for product commercialization.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA currently uses large amounts of cryogenic hydrogen to support cryogenic rocket testing. Much of this hydrogen is lost during the test process due to boil-off resulting from heat transferred into the equipment. Recovery and recycle of this hydrogen can provide a significant cost savings for NASA's test facilities. In addition, regenerative fuel cells are being examined as a potentially viable technology for energy storage in both space vehicles and planetary/lunar bases. The ability to efficiently store gaseous hydrogen is a critical capability in this application. The technology being developed as part of the HRS can be instrumental in assisting with this energy storage requirement.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Large amounts of cryogenic hydrogen are utilized in high-volume merchant hydrogen applications. Hydrogen boiloff is a critical cost and safety factor for each of these applications. The development of a means of capturing and recycling this hydrogen in the form of a high pressure, storable gas can yield significant economic benefits to the end user.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Testing Facilities
In-situ Resource Utilization
Energy Storage
Renewable Energy


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T10.01-9918
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Test Area Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Gaseous Helium Reclamation at Rocket Test Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sierra Lobo, Inc.
426 Croghan Street
Fremont, OH 43420-2448
(419) 499-9653

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Hawaii
2530 Dole Street, Sakamaki D-200
Honolulu, HI 96822-2309
(808) 956-8890

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Haberbusch
mhaberbusch@sierralobo.com
426 Croghan Street
Fremont,  OH 43420-2448
(419) 499-9653

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The ability to restore large amounts of vented gaseous helium (GHe) at rocket test sites preserves the GHe and reduces operating cost. The used GHe is vented into the atmosphere, is non-recoverable, and costs NASA millions dollars per year. Helium, which is non-renewable and irreplaceable once released into the atmosphere, is continuously consumed by rocket test facilities at NASA centers such as KSC, SSC, and CCAFS at a rate of more than 6.6 Mscf per year. This use is projected to increase to more than 10 Mscf by the year 2018, assuming the same inefficient and costly operating procedures and facilities continue to be used. Given the decrease in the world's supply of helium, NASA is heading toward to an economic, operational, and programmatic disaster. New and highly innovative approaches are required to drive down launch operation life cycle costs. Scaling-up of existing systems to meet an increased demand of helium is not an option. Our team, Sierra Lobo, Inc. and University of Hawaii at Manao, proposes the use of PEM fuel cells to remove most of the impure oxygen and hydrogen in the helium gas stream. The small traces of oxygen and hydrogen impurities in the GHe will be removed by cryo-separation using commercial cryocoolers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Application of this technology would significantly reduce the loss of gaseous helium and maintain the availability of quantities of commodities (GHe) at low cost for future launch service and test sites at NASA centers. The proposed technology recovers vented GHe and will save NASA millions of dollars in terms of operating cost and improving the operating efficiency. Another potential NASA application is to generate power and water using fuel-cell-powered impurity reactant with inner helium gas on Lunar surface landing vehicles efficiently. The Lunar landing vehicle consists of a great amount of residual oxygen and hydrogen in the propellant tanks pressurized with gaseous helium. The current design concept is to use residual oxygen and hydrogen to power the fuel cell to generate electrical power and water. The fuel cell used in the Lunar surface landing vehicle shows significant reduction in performance if reactants (O2/H2) consist of inner gas helium. Success of the proposed technology eliminates the limitation of fuel cells operating with helium gas impurity reactants.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Sierra Lobo, Inc.'s proposed technology of using PEM fuel cells to purify helium will directly benefit other government agencies and private company space missions. The success of the proposed technology will be implemented at launch pads and test facilities, which will result in saving millions of dollars in cost of helium while lowering costs in launch services and in operation. The non-NASA governments agencies that will benefit from the technology application are the Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defend (DoD). Private companies that will benefit from the technology application are major launch providers and vehicle developers such as Lockheed Martin, Boeing, ATK, and Pratt & Whitney.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Reuseable
Fluid Storage and Handling
In-situ Resource Utilization
Renewable Energy


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T10.02-9869
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Energy Conservation and Sustainability
PROPOSAL TITLE: Innovative Solid State Lighting Replacements for Industrial and Test Facility Locations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Energy Focus, Inc.
32000 Aurora Road
Solon, OH 44139-2814
(440) 715-1300

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lighting Innovations Institute
20700 North Park Blvd.
University Heights, OH 44118-4581
(216) 397-1657

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jerry Martins
jmartins@efoi.com
32000 Aurora Road
Solon,  OH 44139-2814
(440) 715-1299

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovation is the replacement of existing test stand and parking lot fixtures with current SSL LED technology. The replacement fixtures will reduce energy consumption, generate less heat and provide maintenance free operation for over 50,000 hours. An explosion-proof fixture is capable of containing an internal combustion event without allowing flames or hot gasses to escape to the surrounding environment. The lighting fixture defined is an explosion-proof fixture for use in hazardous hydrogen/oxygen atmospheres. Current fixtures contain a 110 Watt reflectored incandescent lamp. SSL sources are remarkably efficient compared to incandescent sources. The 110 Watt lamp in existing explosion-proof fixtures will be replaced by an SSL fixture requiring only around 29 Watts for the equivalent lighting output. The proposed Energy Focus solution will be an efficient, solid-state, explosion-proof fixture for use in hydrogen/oxygen atmospheres which is compatible with current systems and provides the required lighting distribution. It will do this through advanced thermal and electrical power management to ensure long fixture life

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications will include replacement of existing explosion proof fixtures for test stands and replacement of parking lot and low bay fixtures. Energy Focus has already achieved some sales of its Solid-State Lighting (LED) products to the DoD. These were the result of contacts made within the DoD sourcing community during the execution of the DARPA Temporary Ship Installation of HEDLight program. Energy Focus built and installed high efficient LED and HID lighting systems for the Fort Meade Commissary located in Ft. Meade, Maryland. The first LED application replaced 36 incandescent globe fixtures in a drive-in/walk-in freezer unit with 15 Watt LED globes. A second LED application was a dock installation which replaced 150 Watt Par spotlights with 15 Watt LED spotlights. Energy Focus is presently working with GSA (Government Services Administration) to obtain listing for several of its energy-efficient lighting products.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Energy Focus currently sells a wide range of commercial SSL lighting products: • LED Dock Lights • LED Globe Lights • LED Light Rails • LED MR-16 replacements Energy Focus Inc has traditionally utilized direct sales, or sales through distributors for bringing products to the market place. This practice has been successful in the past and this strategy will be used for bringing EFOI Ergonomic LED Products to the commercial market. We will use a dedicated staff to educate lighting specifiers and support them as needed to help them decide to incorporate our fixtures into their lighting plans. We will go to energy managers at large companies and enlist their help in convincing merchandisers that a change to this technology can be made without affecting the look of the store while improving the well-being and working efficiency of their employees and increasing the alertness of their customers. Sales tools will include catalogs, CDs with data for lighting simulation programs, direct mailings and demonstration kits.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Facilities
Optical
Photonics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T1.01-9951
RESEARCH SUBTOPIC TITLE: Information Technologies for System Health Management and Sustainability
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Approach to Health Management and Sustainability for Critical Aircraft Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (SBC): RESEARCH INSTITUTION (RI):
NAME: Impact Technologies, LLC NAME: Georgia Insitute of Technology
STREET: 200 Canal View Blvd. STREET: 505 Tenth St. NW
CITY: Rochester CITY: Atlanta
STATE/ZIP: NY  14623 - 2893 STATE/ZIP: AL  30332 - 0420
PHONE: (585) 424-1990 PHONE: (404) 894-6929

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
George Vachtsevanos
george.vachtsevanos@impact-tek.com

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
Impact Technologies, in collaboration with the Georgia Institute of Technology and its industrial partners, proposes to develop and demonstrate innovative technologies to integrate anomaly detection and failure prognosis algorithms into automated fault mitigation strategies for advanced aircraft controls. Traditional reactive fault tolerant control approaches fail to provide optimal fault mitigation over a long period of time to guarantee the integrity of the platform for the mission duration. We will create a generic simulation environment to demonstrate fault detection and progression at the component level, using electromechanical actuators as a testbench. The proposed Anomaly Detection/Mitigation system accepts sensor inputs, extracts features from raw data and employs an anomaly detection module to determine the presence of an anomaly with performance guarantees; a prognostic routine, built on Bayesian estimation (particle filtering) techniques to estimate the remaining useful life of the component; finally, a mitigation strategy trades off between performance and control authority to extend the life of the failing component until the mission is completed. This innovative prognostics-enhanced approach to fault mitigation uses Model Predictive Control techniques running in real time. Core algorithms will be implemented on embedded systems and used in hardware-in-the-loop demonstrations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
The need for automated fault diagnosis and anomaly mitigation technologies is evident in several new NASA programs focused on autonomous system operation. A potentially significant outcome of this program is to provide critical vehicle subsystems with the potential to become more reliable, operationally available and economically maintained through the use of the proactive anomaly detection and mitigation strategies. The real-time automated anomaly detection and fault mitigation technologies will be directly applicable to NASA's IVHM applications, Crew Exploration Vehicle, Reusable Launch Vehicles, Unmanned Air Vehicles and future generation general aviation platforms.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
The integration of prognostics and adaptive reconfigurable control technologies within the proposed framework is unique and represents a potentially significant advancement for air/space transportation systems. The potential commercial use of the proposed technologies is broad. Examples of key customers that could benefit through use of the developed technologies include: unmanned combat air vehicles, JSF, future combat systems, commercial airlines, land and marine propulsion systems, industrial actuation systems, and robotic applications.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
On-Board Computing and Data Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T1.02-9908
RESEARCH SUBTOPIC TITLE: Information Technologies for Intelligent Planetary Robotics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Active Electromechanical Suspension System for Planetary Rovers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (SBC): RESEARCH INSTITUTION (RI):
NAME: Balcones Technologies LLC NAME: University of Texas - Center for Electromechanics
STREET: 10532 Grand Oak Circle STREET: P.O. Box 7726
CITY: Austin CITY: Austin
STATE/ZIP: TX  78750 - 3851 STATE/ZIP: TX  78713 - 7726
PHONE: (512) 785-6728 PHONE: (512) 471-6424

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Joseph H. Beno
j.beno@cem.utexas.edu
(512) 918-1496

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
Balcones Technologies, LLC proposes to adapt actively controlled suspension technology developed by The University of Texas at Austin Center for Electromechanics (CEM) for high performance off-road vehicles to address STTR 2009-1 Subtopic T1.02, Information Technologies for Intelligent Planetary Robots. In particular, our team will develop a concept design for an actively controlled ElectroMechanical Suspension (EMS) system, including algorithms, software and hardware, that dramatically improves mobility for MER to MSL scale rovers. Our system exploits and adapts approximately $25M of highly successful active suspension R&D at CEM since 1993. It also exploits CEM's experience developing electromechanical systems for space applications gained during NASA funded programs to develop flywheel energy storage system technology for the International Space Station. Finally, it exploits our team's extensive experience migrating University technology to commercially viable manufacturable products. Relevant features of our anticipated solution include:
• Capable of vehicle speeds exceeding 3 m/s over lunar relevant terrain while maintaining hyper-stability for payloads of 100 kg or more
• Large suspension travel to enable obstacle negotiation
• Control system that can operate autonomously or slaved to higher level vehicle controller for specialized operations such as obstacle negotiation
• Four quadrant actuator control, capable of power regeneration for damping operations to improve system efficiency
• Passive springs to support rover static weight (no power consumption to support static weight)
• Highly efficient electromechanical suspension actuators for each wheel station, individually sized to support a high proportion of vehicle mass to enable obstacle negotiation
• Modular control system, based on our highly successful control system for terrestrial manned and unmanned vehicles
• Scalable technology for rover sizes representative of MER to MSL rovers

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
The primary NASA application will be a full range of planetary rovers. However, the rotary actuators developed for the active suspension system will have widespread applications as general purpose, highly efficient, torque-dense actuators for planetary and space environments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
Our active EMS system and the general EMS technology being designed for the planetary rover will be useful in a variety of applications, either directly or through scaling of components. Our system will likely utilize many components similar to those being developed for military vehicles and will benefit from ongoing commercialization efforts in that area to reduce costs and increase life. In addition to the planetary application, our active EMS technology will be applicable for unmanned vehicles exposed to harsh environments. Some immediately apparent applications include other NASA rover applications, hazardous waste clean-up applications, unmanned military vehicles, and hazardous material handling operations. The lightweight, efficient EMS actuator developed for the planetary rover application will have numerous military and NASA space applications.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Mobility
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Testing Facilities


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T2.01-9878
RESEARCH SUBTOPIC TITLE: Foundational Research for Aeronautics Experimental Capabilities
PROPOSAL TITLE: Highly Reliable Structural Health Monitoring of Smart Composite Vanes for Jet Engine

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (SBC): RESEARCH INSTITUTION (RI):
NAME: Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation NAME: Auburn University
STREET: 2363 Calle Del Mundo STREET: 310 Samford Hall
CITY: Santa Clara CITY: Aubrun
STATE/ZIP: CA  95054 - 1008 STATE/ZIP: AL  36849 - 5131
PHONE: (408) 565-9000 PHONE: (334) 844-5956

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Behzad Moslehi
bm@ifos.com
2363 Calle Del Mundo
Santa Clara, CA 95054 - 1008
(408) 565-9004

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems and Auburn University propose a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) integrated Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) sensor system capable of providing in-situ crack detection, location and quantification of damage, as well as validating structural models, using recent advances in non-contact, non-destructive dynamic testing of composite structures. The key innovation is an FBG-based SHM system for detecting, locating and quantifying crack and de-lamination in composite structures such as smart, composite jet engine vanes with embedded FBG sensor systems. These new techniques make it possible to analyze complex structures not only non-destructively, but also without physically contacting or implanting electrical elements into test samples. The state-of-art FBG sensor system will be capable of measuring strains, stress, temperature and pressure and monitor damage to the structure under test at the same time at wide temperature ranges. IFOS and its university research collaborator will investigate the feasibility of such multi-functional FBG sensors with great potential for SHM. Advanced signal processing, system identification and damage identification, location and quantification algorithms will be applied. Potentially, the solution could evolve into an autonomous onboard monitoring system to inspect and perform Non-Destructive Evaluation and SHM.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
The proposed project has direct NASA applications in the following areas regarding aerospace vehicles and structures:
o Automated Nondestructive Evaluation of fault development in structural components:
o Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM)
o Flight control System• Real-time autonomous sensor validity monitors
o Monitor statistical manufacturing, assembly process and control; internal temperature and pressure monitoring of composite materials during the curing process; composite bonded repairs; sandwich structures; gun barrel; reusable launch vehicles; burst testing of pressure vessels and tanks; aero propulsion flight tests
o Self-monitoring structures with alarm and abort capabilities

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
For aerospace vehicle health monitoring applications, this fiber sensor network and method will significantly increase the sensing capability, extending the applicability of grating-based fiber-optic sensors systems and at low cost, as well as enabling a dynamically configurable deployment of embedded transducers into a structure. Further applications include instrumentation for jet turbines and Flight Control Systems, oil exploration, marine structures and nuclear power plants requiring real-time control and monitoring, and critical infrastructure monitoring for homeland security.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T2.01-9980
RESEARCH SUBTOPIC TITLE: Foundational Research for Aeronautics Experimental Capabilities
PROPOSAL TITLE: Extension of an Object Oriented Multidisciplinary Analysis Optimization (MDAO) Environment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (SBC): RESEARCH INSTITUTION (RI):
NAME: ZONA Technology, Inc. NAME: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
STREET: 9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive STREET: 1880 Pratt Drive, Suite 2006
CITY: Scottsdale CITY: Blackburg
STATE/ZIP: AZ  85258 - 4578 STATE/ZIP: VA  24061 - 0203
PHONE: (480) 945-9988 PHONE: (540) 231-5281

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Dong-Hwan Lee
dhlee@zonatech.com

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 6
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
Multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization (MDAO) tools today possess limited disciplines with little fidelity modeling capability. These tools are typically developed as a single large software application that performs analysis for all disciplines but has little or no capability to integrate multi-fidelity and multi-discipline components that have already been developed as stand-alone analysis codes. Even though a multitude of tools have been developed and well adapted to the interdisciplinary aircraft design/analysis, they have not been developed to work together.
The objective of the development of the MDAO tool is to generate a "central executive" that can integrate disparate software packages in a cross platform network environment so as to perform optimization and design tasks in a cohesive streamlined manner. This object-oriented framework can integrate the analysis codes for multiple disciplines, instead of relying on one code to perform the analysis for all disciplines.
ZONA Technology and its team member Virginia Polytechnic Institute propose to develop three object-oriented components that will fully leverage tools currently under development within NASA's MDAO framework. The three major components are:
(1) an automatic re-meshing tool that can provide a fast and efficient mesh generation capability for complex structures like curved panels with curved stiffeners and aircraft wings of any shape with curved spars and ribs.
(2) a hybrid optimization tool that combines a non-gradient based optimization method and a gradient based optimization method. The advantage of this hybrid optimization is that a global optimum point can be achieved through the non-gradient optimization and acceleration of the convergence can be obtained by aiding gradient based optimization algorithm.
(3) a fast transonic unsteady aerodynamics method for accurate aeroelastic analysis and shape sensitivity information due to the change of external wing shape.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
NASA has recognized the benefit of utilizing commercial engineering applications within an MDAO environment. The proposed enhanced NASA MDAO framework will allow NASA to further leverage existing tools that can directly be applied for sizing and/or shape optimization of aircraft while considering multi-disciplinary analyses such as flutter, static aerodynamic loads, stress, strain, and buckling in conceptual and/or preliminary design phases.
The proposed enhanced NASA MDAO framework with its robust automatic re-meshing tool providing fast and efficient mesh generation of complex internal structures, its hybrid optimization tool combining a non-gradient, and its gradient based method for faster solutions, and a fast transonic unsteady aerodynamics method for accurate aeroelastic analysis and shape sensitivity information will allow NASA to more rapidly modify existing and/or new aircraft structures while obtaining a higher level of fidelity in the optimized solutions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
The object-oriented MDAO framework for producing multi-fidelity unsteady aerodynamic loads and rapid Aeroelastic/Aeroservoelastic shape design of complex flight vehicles is a necessary tool throughout the aerospace industry. Such a tool is still non-existent, leading to a gap in practically every current flight vehicle MDAO capability. The MDAO framework will be developed in the Phase I can be such a commercialized product. If the proposed effort is a success, the developed MDAO framework can be directly employed for conceptual and/or preliminary design of aircraft considering multi-disciplines like flutter, static aerodynamic loads, stress, strain, buckling, etc.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Simulation Modeling Environment
Structural Modeling and Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T3.01-9920
RESEARCH SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Space Power and Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Radiation Resistant, Reconfigurable, Shape Memory Metal Rubber™ Space Arrays

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (SBC): RESEARCH INSTITUTION (RI):
NAME: Nanosonic, Inc. NAME: Colorado State University
STREET: 1485 South Main Street STREET: 1618 Campus Delivery
CITY: Blacksburg CITY: Ft. Collins
STATE/ZIP: VA  24060 - 5556 STATE/ZIP: CO  80523 - 1618
PHONE: (540) 953-1785 PHONE: (970) 491-6450

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Jennifer Lalli
jlalli@nanosonic.com
1485 South Main Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060 - 5556
(540) 953-1785

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
NanoSonic has demonstrated that Shape Memory Metal RubberTM (SM-MR) adaptive skins exhibit reconfigurable and durable RF properties. It is hypothesized that such morphing skins shall also exhibit durable radiation resistance upon morphing; a property that few, if any, flexible materials offer. Typical highly filled or metal evaporated nanocomposites crack and spall upon flexation, and cannot be repeatedly mechanically stretched without rupture after a few cyclic strains. SM-MR nanostructured morphing materials are based on self-assembled high z, dense, Au and Ag nanoparticles, rather than Pb. Our manufacturing process yields tough skins that can be repeatedly and severely mechanically morphed without loss of EMI shielding (-88dB). NanoSonic, together with Colorado State University, have demonstrated that SM-MR is up to 50% lighter in weight and provides greater gamma ray attenuation relative to commercial off-the-shelf shielding materials, without emitting harmful secondary radiation under a 137Cs source. During Phase I, radiation shielding would be verified for SM-MR during potential disparate space array morphed configurations to demonstrate durability, stowability, and reconfigurability for space tolerant structures with self-healing properties to reach TRL6. TRL8 and 9 shall be reached during Phase II and III with assistance from our space systems prime partner upon flight testing and integration.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
Structural, high temperature, radiation resistant Shape Memory-Metal RubberTM composite materials having unique morphology and multiple controlled electromagnetic properties are possible via NanoSonic's automated spray ESA manufacturing approach. SM-MR adaptive materials represent a new class of robust, stowable deployable structures for spacecraft based on covalently bound shape memory polymers and nanostructured conductive particles. For this program, SM-MR shall be integrated as rad hard space power systems, radiation tolerant deployable solar arrays, and shielding coatings for exploration vehicles and satellites in LEO, GEO, and HEO. NanoSonic's SMPs may be combined with our family of nanostructure materials produced in house (noble metals, magnetics, ceramics and quantum dots) for limitless combinations of multifunctional morphing materials for civil and space applications. SM-MR free standing nanostructured skins offer dual-use commercialization for NASA and civil markets in the electronics, aerospace, automobile and microelectronics markets for the production of conductive, high temperature, rad hard coatings.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
Additional applications for SM-MR include ultra-lightweight sensors/actuators for shape changing inflatables, rigidizable/deployable aerospace structures, and as protective coatings against electrostatic charging, radiation, and abrasion. Low cost, highly EMI/ESD protective skins for aerospace, biomedical and microelectronic components are offered via Shape Memory Metal RubberTM with metal-like EMI SE up to -88dB under repeated and severe reconfigurations. Such EMI shielding skins can be envisioned for use on aircraft, morphing unmanned aerial vehicles, antennas and space structures. Structural, high temperature, composite materials having unique dielectric and multiple controlled electromagnetic properties are possible via NanoSonic's layer-by-layer approach. Spray ESA is envisioned as a cost-effective, environmentally friendly technology to displace sputtering and traditional dense filled composites. Metal RubberTM Fabrics and films can also function as conducting electrodes for high strain mechanical actuator and sensor devices, and as low-weight, electrically conductive and mechanically flexible coatings for systems requiring physically-robust electromagnetic shielding, ground planes or electrical interconnection.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ablatives
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Ceramics
Composites
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
Erectable
Highly-Reconfigurable
Inflatable
K-12 Outreach
Kinematic-Deployable
Manned-Maneuvering Units
Metallics
Micro Thrusters
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Photovoltaic Conversion
Portable Life Support
Radiation Shielding Materials
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Renewable Energy
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Suits
Thermal Insulating Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T3.01-9921
RESEARCH SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Space Power and Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microchannel Thermo Catalytic Ignition for Advanced Mono- and Bipropellants

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (SBC): RESEARCH INSTITUTION (RI):
NAME: Plasma Processes, Inc. NAME: University of Connecticut
STREET: 4914 Moores Mill Road STREET: 438 Whitney Road Ext., Unit 1133
CITY: Huntsville CITY: Storrs
STATE/ZIP: AL  35811 - 1558 STATE/ZIP: CT  06269 - 1133
PHONE: (256) 851-7653 PHONE: (860) 486-3994

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Anatoliy Shchetkovskiy
ashchetkovskiy@plasmapros.com

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
Small and micro-spacecrafts require the efficient, micro-propulsion systems. Chemical micro-propulsion is best suited for use as primary thrust, orbital insertion and attitude control because of its high energy density. When grouped into arrays for larger thrust applications, micro-propulsion devices provide high propulsive flexibility or can be used as igniters.

The proposed effort will focus on thermo-catalytic ignition and combustion of advanced mono- and bi-propellants in micro-channels; and the development of a micro-propulsion device. An innovative near net shape forming technique, in combination with carbon nanotube deposition, will facilitate manufacturing of sub-millimeter diameter micro-channels and tubes with enhanced internal surfaces area for maximum catalytic reaction. The microchannels will provide thermo-catalytic ignition of bi-propellant rockets without needing high voltage igniters and can also provide stable and reliable ignition source for advanced, environmentally friendly, mono-propellants.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
Mono-propellant rocket engines, bi-propellant rockets, and igniters for large rocket engines for large, small (100 kg), very small (10 kg) and very, very small (1 kg) satellites.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
In addition to NASA applications, the technology has many commercial applications including iridium electrodes for ferroelectric capacitors and high-performance spark plug igniters; crystal growth crucibles, catalyst electrodes for chemical production processes; and radiation oncology.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Combustion
Metallics
Micro Thrusters
Monopropellants


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T3.01-9950
RESEARCH SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Space Power and Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wide Bandgap Nanostructured Space Photovoltaics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (SBC): RESEARCH INSTITUTION (RI):
NAME: Firefly Technologies NAME: Rochester Institute of Technology
STREET: 2082 Hackberry Lane STREET: One Lomb Memorial Drive
CITY: Shakopee CITY: Rochester
STATE/ZIP: MN  55379 - 4622 STATE/ZIP: NY  14623 - 5603
PHONE: (608) 698-0935 PHONE: (585) 475-2480

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
David V. Forbes
dvfsps@rit.edu
2082 Hackberry Lane
Shakopee, MN 55379 - 4622
(608) 698-0935

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
Firefly, in collaboration with Rochester Institute of Technology, proposes an STTR program for the development of a wide-bandgap GaP-based space solar cell capable of efficient operation at temperatures above 300oC. Efficiency enhancement will be achieved by the introduction of InGaP quantum wells within the active region of the wide-gap base material. The introduction of these nanoscale features will enable harvesting of low-energy photons that are normally lost by transmission through the wide bandgap material.

Successful completion of the proposed work will combine the high-temperature, radiation-tolerant wide-bandgap material with current-enhancing nanostructures to produce a high efficiency space solar cell capable of operating at higher temperatures suitable for near-sun missions. This achievement can result in significant cost savings as active cooling of PV systems would be unnecessary with this technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
Successful completion of the Phase I and II of the proposed work will result in a photovoltaic cell having an elevated temperature efficiency that significantly exceeds performance available in the marketplace today. State of the art concentrator cells are nominally limited to 120oC, whereas this work is expected to demonstrate high-temperature solar cells that exceed GaAs response above 300oC. Such a cell may have significant impact on power system designs for inner-ring planetary and solar missions by simplifying the cooling system design for the solar array. Upon achieving this goal, Firefly plans to license the technology to one of the major US space solar cell manufacturers, Emcore or Spectrolab. Firefly will continue to work with this entity during technology transfer and ongoing R&D. Firefly personnel have a strong track record of bringing innovative technical projects to the marketplace.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
While not directly aligned with space power generation, the InGaP/GaP quantum well system has the potential to emit visible light efficiently. Therefore, it is envisioned that the development of an InGaP/GaP quantum well system may lead to advances in understanding for QW-based LEDs, with the significant advantage of a transparent substrate as an integral part of the epitaxial structure. Visible LEDs represent a significant commercial opportunity and should this technology demonstrate a competitive advantage in the LED industry, Firefly is poised to license the technology.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Beamed Energy
Energy Storage
Optical
Optical & Photonic Materials
Photonics
Photovoltaic Conversion
Power Management and Distribution
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Renewable Energy
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Solar
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T3.01-9968
RESEARCH SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Space Power and Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Maximum Power Tracker for Improved Thermophotovoltaic Power Generation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (SBC): RESEARCH INSTITUTION (RI):
NAME: Creare Inc. NAME: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
STREET: P.O. Box 71 STREET: 77 Massachusetts Avenue
CITY: Hanover CITY: Cambridge
STATE/ZIP: NH  03755 - 0071 STATE/ZIP: MA  02139 - 4301
PHONE: (603) 643-3800 PHONE: (617) 253-5694

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Richard Kaszeta
rwk@creare.com
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755 - 0071
(603) 640-2441

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are critical for future flagship exploration missions in space and on planetary surfaces. Small improvements in the RPS performance, weight, size, and/or reliability can have a dramatic effect on the scientific capability of the vehicle and the overall mission costs. Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) energy converters are a particular type of RPS that directly converts the heat produced by a General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) to electrical power using a specialized Photovoltaic (PV) cell. A key element in an RTPV system is the power conversion electronics system that efficiently converts the low-voltage current from each PV cell into useable, stable bus voltage for powering spacecraft systems despite issues such as non-uniform illumination, PV cell degradation, and decay of the GPHS source. In this project, Creare and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) propose to develop an advanced, multi-channel maximum power point tracking module (MPPT) that is optimized for RTPV systems. The converter will provide stable output voltage from a 16-cell PV array that, when coupled with advanced PV technology of the RTPV system, will provide high system efficiency. In Phase I, we will design a prototype power tracking module, which will be fully characterized for conversion efficiency. We will also assess the impact of this new MPPT on the overall RTPV system design and performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
Exploration missions that extend much beyond the earth's orbit around the sun are severely limited by the amount of power that can be generated by conventional solar panels. Radioisotope power systems are, therefore, required to enable flagship missions to the outer solar system and in some cases to the inner solar system (e.g., the lunar poles). RTPV systems offer the potential for high specific power and high efficiency, both of which can lead to vehicles with more science capability at lower cost and lower launch mass. RTPV offers the potential reliability and low vibration of a static conversion process like thermoelectrics with efficiency approaching that of dynamic systems like Stirling and Brayton energy converters. RTPV could, therefore, be a viable alternative for any NASA exploration mission requiring an RPS.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
Radioisotope power systems are used for a number of military applications. RTPV based systems would be a viable alternative to the current thermoelectric-based systems. There is also current interest in small nuclear powered batteries based on RTPV. The power-conversion technology developed on this project could be readily applied in both these military applications. TPV with combustion-based heat sources has long been considered for a number of industrial and consumer applications. The technology developed on this project would have potential application in many of these systems if a commercial TPV system were ever marketed. Most likely, this would be a low power energy scavenging application(s) (e.g.,
self-powered sensors).

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Nuclear Conversion
Photovoltaic Conversion
Thermodynamic Conversion
Thermoelectric Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T6.01-9891
RESEARCH SUBTOPIC TITLE: Safe High Energy Density Batteries and Ultracapacitors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Enhanced Carbon Nanotube Ultracapacitors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (SBC): RESEARCH INSTITUTION (RI):
NAME: Scientic, Inc. NAME: Vanderbilt University: Division of Sponsored Research
STREET: 555 Sparkman Drive, Suite 214 STREET: Station B #357749 2301 Vanderbilt Place
CITY: Huntsville CITY: Nashville
STATE/ZIP: AL  35816 - 3440 STATE/ZIP: TN  37235 - 7749
PHONE: (256) 319-0858 PHONE: (615) 322-2631

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Scott von Laven
scott.vonlaven@scientic.us
555 Sparkman Drive, Suite 214
Huntsville, AL 35816 - 3440
(256) 319-0858

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
The proposed innovation utilizes carbon nanotubes (CNTs) coated with pseudo-capacitive MnO2 material as nano-composite electrode and ionic electrolyte for the construction of ultracapacitors. This novel approach of using nano-structured CNTs architectures provides high surface area of attachment of MnO2 nano-particles to maximize the charge efficiency and power capacity and to reduce series resistance. Preliminary results at Vanderbilt University using this CNTs/ MnO2 nano-composite as electrode of an ultracapacitor has demonstrated enhanced capacitor behavior of >400X over pristine CNTs as electrode.

During Phase I, we will demonstrate in the laboratory that the proposed novel concept is feasible and measure the power and energy generation capacity, efficiency, and charging/discharging cycle durability. The key factor to successful exploitation of the CNT/ MnO2 nano-structured composite for ultracapacitor applications is closely related to further understanding and control of the physics, materials, and micro-fabrication technology. The proposed Phase I work provides a systematic, logical, and coherent investigation of the material issue, device fabrication, characterization, simulation, evaluation, and optimization to meet high power requirements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
Enhanced CNT Ultracapacitors will have dramatic effects on NASA applications. The potential enhancements over current technology will allow MgO2 enhanced CNT ultracapacitors to be utilized anywhere independent power sources are required. Ultracapacitors combined with battery technology can power spacecraft, lunar surface mobility systems, and portable electronic equipment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
Minimizing the use of oil in the US economy requires the invention of advanced energy storage devices that provide orders of magnitude higher efficiencies over present commercial technology. The application of enhanced CNT ultracapacitors in the automotive, aviation, and military provides an enormous market; which ,as is well understood in economics, drives cost down providing advanced innovation to markets that might not be induced into pursuing cutting edge science and engineering due to the inherent risk (and cost) associated with it.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Energy Storage
Manned-Maneuvering Units
Nuclear Conversion
Photovoltaic Conversion
Portable Life Support
Power Management and Distribution
Renewable Energy
Suits
Thermoelectric Conversion
Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 T6.01-9917
RESEARCH SUBTOPIC TITLE: Safe High Energy Density Batteries and Ultracapacitors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Metal Oxide-Carbon Nanocomposites for Aqueous and Nonaqueous Supercapacitors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (SBC): RESEARCH INSTITUTION (RI):
NAME: NANOSCALE MATERIALS, INC. NAME: Battelle Memorial Institute
STREET: 1310 Research Park Dr. STREET: 505 King Avenue
CITY: Manhattan CITY: Columbus
STATE/ZIP: KS  66502 - 5000 STATE/ZIP: OH  43201 - 2693
PHONE: (785) 537-0179 PHONE: (614) 424-6113

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Slawomir Winecki
slaweki@NanoScaleCorp.com
1310 Research Park Dr.
Manhattan, KS 66502 - 5000
(785) 537-0179

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I effort focuses on development of novel metal-oxide-carbon nanocomposites for application in pseudocapacitive electrochemical supercapacitors. Specifically, nanocomposites based on manganese, titanium, tantalum and vanadium oxides will be incorporated, at the nanoscale level, with electrically conductive carbon supports. Our focus will be to combine the desired pseudocapacitive characteristics of metal oxides with high surface area and large electrical conductivity of carbon supports while achieving economical and scalable manufacturing. The proposed nanocomposite materials will be tested as electrode materials in aqueous and nonaqueous supercapacitors.
The proposed project will be a joint effort on NanoScale Corporation and Battelle Memorial Institute. NanoScale's role in the effort will be to synthesize nanocomposite materials, characterize their physical and chemical properties, and to optimize them based on results of electrochemical testing carried out by Battelle. Battelle's role in the effort will be to take the metal oxides prepared by NanoScale and fabricate them into supercapacitor elements to be tested in half-cell and full-cell devices.
NanoScale is uniquely qualified to carry out the proposed research due to its rich experience in development and scaled-up synthesis of nanosized materials, including materials for battery applications. NanoScale has worked previously on several projects related to battery technologies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
The top level requirements of NASA space applications demand highly efficient and highly reliable energy storage systems. Long cycle lifetime (100,000 cycles) and long calendar lifetime (years or decades) requirements favor supercapacitors over batteries in space systems. Existing supercapacitors based on carbons or ruthenium oxide offer low capacities or are prohibitively expensive. The proposed project will develop new materials that have high potential to provide superior capacities and be economical. This development will enable a new generation of supercapacitors for various NASA missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
Technologies that allow for storage of electrical energy are critically important for today's energy-intensive applications. Hybrid and electric cars, power conditioning or backup systems, and various portable electronic devices (cameras, camcorders, and power tools) all require high density storage of energy and high power delivery rates. Supercapacitors are expected to be widely used in these applications and provide the high power density and long lifetime capabilities that are out of reach for batteries. Unfortunately, existing carbon based supercapacitors are inefficient for these applications while the state of the art ruthenium oxide devices are prohibitively expensive. Nanocomposite materials that will be developed in this project will combine high capacities with low cost and will satisfy the demands of industrial and Customer applications. NanoScale and Battelle anticipate great commercial opportunities originating from the proposed project.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Energy Storage