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NASA 2015 SBIR Select Phase II Solicitation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H20.01-9428
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CJ46P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Solid and Liquid Waste Management for Human Spacecraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Torrefaction Processing for Human Solid Waste Management

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Fuel Research, Inc.
87 Church Street
East Hartford, CT 06108-3720
(860) 528-9806

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Serio
mserio@AFRinc.com111
87 Church Street
East Hartford,  CT 06108-3720
(860) 528-9806

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The NASA SBIR Phase I project addressed the technical feasibility of an innovative torrefaction (mild pyrolysis) processing system that can be used to sterilize feces and produce a stable, odor-free solid product than can be easily stored or recycled, while simultaneously recovering moisture and producing small amounts of other useful products. The Phase I project demonstrated that mild heating (200-250 C) was adequate for torrefaction of a fecal simulant and other analogs of human solid waste (canine feces). The net result was a nearly undetectable odor, complete recovery of moisture, some additional water production, a modest reduction of the dry solid mass and the production of small amounts of gas (mainly CO2) and liquid (mainly water). The amount of solid vs gas plus liquid products can be controlled by adjusting the torrefaction conditions (final temperature, holding time). The solid product was a dry material that did not support microbial growth and was hydrophobic relative to the starting material. In the case of canine feces, the solid product was a mechanically friable material that could be easily compacted to a significantly smaller volume (~50%). In addition, the torrefaction method can be applied using the same or similar conditions to other types of wet solid wastes and is compatible with the Universal Waste Management System (UWMS), now under development by NASA. The torrefaction process could also be accomplished with minimal crew interactions and modest energy requirements, which could be improved even further in an optimized and innovative Phase II Torrefaction Processing Unit (TPU), which is the objective of the current proposal.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The goal of the Phase I project was to demonstrate that torrefaction processing of human fecal waste could be advantageous in a spacecraft or habitat environment. In the near term, the fecal waste processing component of the technology would also have applications to fecal resource recovery and/or sterilization/stabilization problems in remote areas such as underdeveloped countries, arctic regions, military operations, oil production platforms, rural areas, farms, submarines, ships, etc., analogous to the uses for NASA technology developed for water purification. In the long term, the technology could be modified and integrated with widespread terrestrial efforts using fecal and related organic solid waste streams to produce biochar for soil amendments, soil remediation, polymer fillers, composite materials, carbon sequestration, solid waste disposal and resource recovery.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed approach will make it technically feasible to process human fecal waste and wet mixed waste streams and produce additional water and other useful products in space which will benefit long term space travel, such as an extended Lunar stay or a mission to Mars and Asteroids/Phobos. It is beneficial to NASA in also allowing for solid waste sterilization and stabilization, planetary protection, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) and/or production of chemical feedstocks and carbon materials. In particular, the solid residue has several potential applications in space. These include production of activated carbon, a nutrient-rich substrate for plant growth, as a filler for polymers and composites, radiation shielding, carbon/hydrogen storage, and fuel gas (CH4, CO, H2) production. In addition to its primary purpose to process fecal waste, torrefaction could potentially be beneficial for other types of wastes, including food wastes, wipes, clothing, and brine.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Isolation/Protection/Radiation Shielding (see also Mechanical Systems)
Remediation/Purification
Waste Storage/Treatment
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Resource Extraction
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Fuels/Propellants


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S20.01-9000
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CG47P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Novel Spectroscopy Technology and Instrumentation
PROPOSAL TITLE: GNSS Reflectometer Instrument for Bi-static Synthetic Aperture Radar (GRIBSAR) Measurements of Earth Science Parameters

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 190
Rockville, MD 20855-2814
(301) 294-5221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arvind Bhat
abhat@i-a-i.com111
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 190
Rockville,  MD 20855-2814
(301) 294-5254

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals scattered from ocean, land and ice are affected by the reflecting surface, and hence the changes induced by the surface can be observed. The full-time operation of radio navigation satellites system, abundant global signal coverage and spread spectrum communication for flexible signal processing makes GNSS reflected signals a viable candidate for Signal-Of-Opportunity (SOO) passive sensing. Existing research has shown that GNSS-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) based remote sensing has the potential to give environmental scientists a low-cost, wide-coverage measurement network that will greatly increase our knowledge of the Earth?s environmental processes. The Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI) team proposes to develop a GNSS Reflectometer Instrument for Bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar (GRIBSAR) for measuring earth science parameters. Our proposed approach is modular, scalable and meets the NASA goals of multi-channel, GNSS-R system to exploit GNSS reflected signals as SOO.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications are: ? Real-time digital processors. ? Multi-node Network emulators ? Passive direction-finding and asset tracking

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA/ Government applications are: ? Multi-Channel direction finding receivers ? Algorithm development platform. ? Phased-Array Passive Radar receivers. ? Ocean altimetry, measurement of ocean roughness and Sea-Ice monitoring. ? Multi-Channel, real-time, waveform recorders

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Antennas
Transmitters/Receivers
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Image Processing
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Processing
GPS/Radiometric (see also Sensors)
Microwave
Radio


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S20.01-9064
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP66P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Novel Spectroscopy Technology and Instrumentation
PROPOSAL TITLE: PolyStrata Greenhouse GasRadiometer for Small Satellite Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nuvotronics, LLC
7586 Old Peppers Ferry Loop
Radford, VA 24141-8846
(800) 341-2333

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jennifer Arroyo
contracts@nuvotronics.com111
2305 Presidential Drive
Durham,  NC 27703-8039
(800) 341-2333

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Traditional millimeter wave designs use split block or waveguide components and large planar filter banks. This implementation is large in mass and size which are at a premium on CubeSats. Nuvotronics proposes to reduce size and weight of these systems by leveraging low-loss PolyStrata-integrated component and interconnects. The PolyStrata process enables highly accurate, repeatable, compact, low loss filters which can stack to further reduce footprint. With savings in weight and size Nuvotronics will increase the total functionality by increasing the number of frequency bands served by a single CubeSat. A recent advancement in switches will be implemented eliminating the need for a motor to control the reflector, creating further reductions in power and weight. A novel interconnect structure will be showcased that can be implemented on any MMICs to provide a manufacturable, low loss, impedance matched method of launching onto MMICs in bands up to 300 GHz.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Millimeter-wave radiometers can be used in many remote sensing and passive surveillance applications such as airport screening, target detection, navigation aids for aircraft, and precision terminal guidance and munitions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Radiometers operating in the GHz to THz region provide valuable information regarding the content of water vapor, a major greenhouse gas and oxygen. The distribution and movement of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere provides key information to scientists seeking to refine climate models as well as predict extreme weather events. Researchers would benefit from having widely deployable satellite based radiometers with short revisit times. The advent of small satellite constellations makes this idea feasible.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Multiplexers/Demultiplexers
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Radiometric
Microwave


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S20.01-9000
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CG47P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Novel Spectroscopy Technology and Instrumentation
PROPOSAL TITLE: GNSS Reflectometer Instrument for Bi-static Synthetic Aperture Radar (GRIBSAR) Measurements of Earth Science Parameters

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 190
Rockville, MD 20855-2814
(301) 294-5221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arvind Bhat
abhat@i-a-i.com111
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 190
Rockville,  MD 20855-2814
(301) 294-5254

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals scattered from ocean, land and ice are affected by the reflecting surface, and hence the changes induced by the surface can be observed. The full-time operation of radio navigation satellites system, abundant global signal coverage and spread spectrum communication for flexible signal processing makes GNSS reflected signals a viable candidate for Signal-Of-Opportunity (SOO) passive sensing. Existing research has shown that GNSS-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) based remote sensing has the potential to give environmental scientists a low-cost, wide-coverage measurement network that will greatly increase our knowledge of the Earth?s environmental processes. The Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI) team proposes to develop a GNSS Reflectometer Instrument for Bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar (GRIBSAR) for measuring earth science parameters. Our proposed approach is modular, scalable and meets the NASA goals of multi-channel, GNSS-R system to exploit GNSS reflected signals as SOO.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications are: ? Real-time digital processors. ? Multi-node Network emulators ? Passive direction-finding and asset tracking

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA/ Government applications are: ? Multi-Channel direction finding receivers ? Algorithm development platform. ? Phased-Array Passive Radar receivers. ? Ocean altimetry, measurement of ocean roughness and Sea-Ice monitoring. ? Multi-Channel, real-time, waveform recorders

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Antennas
Transmitters/Receivers
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Image Processing
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Processing
GPS/Radiometric (see also Sensors)
Microwave
Radio


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S20.01-9064
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP66P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Novel Spectroscopy Technology and Instrumentation
PROPOSAL TITLE: PolyStrata Greenhouse GasRadiometer for Small Satellite Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nuvotronics, LLC
7586 Old Peppers Ferry Loop
Radford, VA 24141-8846
(800) 341-2333

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jennifer Arroyo
contracts@nuvotronics.com111
2305 Presidential Drive
Durham,  NC 27703-8039
(800) 341-2333

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Traditional millimeter wave designs use split block or waveguide components and large planar filter banks. This implementation is large in mass and size which are at a premium on CubeSats. Nuvotronics proposes to reduce size and weight of these systems by leveraging low-loss PolyStrata-integrated component and interconnects. The PolyStrata process enables highly accurate, repeatable, compact, low loss filters which can stack to further reduce footprint. With savings in weight and size Nuvotronics will increase the total functionality by increasing the number of frequency bands served by a single CubeSat. A recent advancement in switches will be implemented eliminating the need for a motor to control the reflector, creating further reductions in power and weight. A novel interconnect structure will be showcased that can be implemented on any MMICs to provide a manufacturable, low loss, impedance matched method of launching onto MMICs in bands up to 300 GHz.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Millimeter-wave radiometers can be used in many remote sensing and passive surveillance applications such as airport screening, target detection, navigation aids for aircraft, and precision terminal guidance and munitions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Radiometers operating in the GHz to THz region provide valuable information regarding the content of water vapor, a major greenhouse gas and oxygen. The distribution and movement of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere provides key information to scientists seeking to refine climate models as well as predict extreme weather events. Researchers would benefit from having widely deployable satellite based radiometers with short revisit times. The advent of small satellite constellations makes this idea feasible.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Multiplexers/Demultiplexers
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Radiometric
Microwave