SBIR Phase I Solicitation  STTR Phase I Solicitation    Abstract Archives

NASA 2014 SBIR Select Phase I Solicitation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A20.01-8672
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Air Traffic Management Research and Development
PROPOSAL TITLE: Large-Scale Data Analysis Using Machine Learning Framework for Trajectory Prediction Algorithms

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimal Synthesis, Inc.
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos, CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Veera Vaddi
vaddi@optisyn.com
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos,  CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A significant portion of the NextGen research is aimed at (i) developing ground-side automation systems to assist controllers in strategic planning operations such as scheduling flights, and (ii) developing tactical controller decision support tools to separate and space the traffic. Central to the success of these automation systems is the ability to predict the future trajectory of any aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS). The research related to this area is referred to as Trajectory Prediction (TP) and sometimes Trajectory Synthesis. Notwithstanding past research, TP remains a very challenging exercise and the quest for improved TP accuracy continues. Any improvements in TP can benefit a wide array of NextGen concepts pursued by NASA. The objective of the current research is to seek a novel approach to TP specifically aimed at addressing some of the deficiencies of the past TP research. The approach involves: (i) machine learning algorithms, and (ii) big data computational platforms. Phase I research will demonstrate the benefits of supervised and unsupervised machine learning algorithms for TP. Phase II research seeks to develop real-time trajectory prediction algorithms that can be used for a wide variety of NASA NextGen concepts.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The TP algorithms developed under this research are expected to be applicable all over the National Airspace System. These algorithms could be part of the En Route Automation Modernization (ERAM) currently being developed by Lockheed Martin for the FAA. During Phase II research, Optimal Synthesis Inc. seeks to identify transition mechanisms for implementing these algorithms in ERAM software system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Algorithms developed under the current research are expected to directly contribute towards NASA's NextGen air traffic management research, especially to the Separation Assurance (SA) research focus area.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Intelligence
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A20.01-8743
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Air Traffic Management Research and Development
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robust Voice Communication Understanding for Single-Pilot Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimal Synthesis, Inc.
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos, CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hui-Ling Lu
vicky@optisyn.com
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos,  CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Motivated by the anticipation of pilot shortage in the future and the quest of cost reduction in airline operations, the single-pilot operation (SPO) concept emerges as a promising alternative of the current-day multi-pilot operations. This proposal addresses the feasibility of constructing a spoken language understanding system for decoding voice communications in Air Traffic Control. In particular, we address the issue of developing a voice communication understanding system (VCUS) that would serve as one key component in both cockpit automation and ground-based automation for supporting the SPO concept. Leveraged from our prior development on noise-robust speech recognition system for the Navy and virtual agents for NASA to support human-in-the-loop simulations, an infrastructure of VCUS in Air Traffic Control of commercial flights will be developed. A feasibility demonstration of the VCUS that extracts out semantic information for persistent display of clearance message within the flight deck will be provided by the end of the Phase I research. Phase II work will utilize the infrastructure built in Phase I to expand the VCUS to a full-scale prototype that supports cockpit automation and ground-based automation for SPO.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Voice Communication Understanding System (VCUS) will benefit air traffic control training facilities, including the FAA Academy at the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center in Oklahoma City, OK, and DoD training facilities such as the Naval Air Technical Training Center (NATTC) in Pensacola, FL. VCUS would also benefit the Army PEO Aviation, which calls for voice communication understanding capability for supporting the manned-unmanned teaming training. In addition, VCUS can be integrated with the Speech-Enabled Simulation Interface Agent (SESIA) currently under development. The integrated product can be adapted for other simulation facilities within the FAA for supporting HITL experiments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Voice Communication Understanding System (VCUS) designed for Air traffic Control is conceived as part of the cockpit automation and ground-based automation prototypes that support SPO feasibility assessment studies within NASA. In addition to supporting SPO operations, the VCUS that enables real-time and post-flight analysis of pilot-controller voice communications can directly benefit human-in-the-loop (HITL) experiments conducted at numerous NASA simulation facilities identified in an FAA/NASA NextGen Human Factors Research Coordinate Plan.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Man-Machine Interaction
Command & Control
Teleoperation
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A20.01-8872
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Air Traffic Management Research and Development
PROPOSAL TITLE: Airline Operations Center Simulation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robust Analytics
2053 Liza Way
Gambrills, MD 21054-2007
(410) 980-3667

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Peter Kostiuk
peter.kostiuk@robust-analytics.com
2053 Liza Way
Gambrills,  MD 21054-2007
(410) 980-3667

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The NASA Airspace Systems Program (ASP) uses a large suite of models, simulations, and laboratories to develop and assess new ATM concepts and technologies. Most of these capabilities focus on aircraft movements, evaluating the impact of airport and airspace constraints on traffic flows. Emphasis is placed on the actions and interactions of the flight deck and air traffic controllers, including tactical ATC and traffic flow management at the FAA System Command Center and traffic management units (TMUs). The role of the airline operations center (AOC) in these analyses tends to be limited and recognized primarily as a communications mechanism and not an independent actor with designated legal responsibilities and decision making authority. In a NextGen environment, the AOC will be a major participant, as it offers greater situation awareness across the entire airline network, with superior access to data, analytical capability, and communications. Our proposed AOC simulation offers several innovations to support ASP research and the aviation community: 1. Provide a stand-alone simulation for analyzing AOCs and their complex interactions with ATM. 2. Increase the realism with which NASA can evaluate new ATM concepts, technologies, and algorithms that affect airline operations, from flight planning to flight following and re-routing, and gate-to-gate aircraft movement control. 3. Provide airlines with the ability to evaluate the effects of NASA ATM research products on their operations, investment criteria, and internal decision processes. 4. Offer a simulation that can integrate with other NASA models and simulations, expanding NASA's system-wide evaluation, gate-to-gate modeling and simulation capability. 5. Uses industry-standard inputs for flight schedules, messages, and timekeeping to maximize usability by airlines and NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Robust Analytics and its partner Sabre Airline Solutions plan to commercialize the AOC Simulation by improving the ability of its airline customers to plan and operate scheduled flights. The mechanism for providing this improved capability will be through airline flight operations center planning and operational software. Many NextGen and Airspace Systems tools rely on airline AOCs to manage flights, trajectory planning, and re-routing. Our AOC Simulation provides airlines with the ability to test and evaluate the impacts of ASP and NextGen concepts on their operations, using their live data, automated decision support systems, and current and planned businesses rules. In addition to evaluating the impacts of NASA and NextGen ATM an CDM concepts, Robust Analytics and Sabre believe that there is a potential market with airlines to improve the operations of their AOCs. With real data exchange and the airline's own automated systems, the AOC Simulation could evaluate alternate business rules and decision support tools and help the airline optimize its operation and improve recovery from severe disruptions. Mature airlines possess decision support tools to perform some, but not all, of these analyses. Smaller airlines lack good decision support and would benefit significantly from the ability to deploy them.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most immediate and pressing need for the AOC simulation is fill the current gap in NASA modeling capabilities regarding airline operations. Providing a robust AOC simulation model offers NASA a significantly enhanced ability to support the development and evaluation of ATM concepts, technologies, algorithms, and architectures. The AOC Simulation will also satisfy the requirements for AOC simulation for the ASP Shadow Mode Assessment for Realistic Technologies in the National Airspace System (SMART NAS) project. This research effort was recently started under the ASP Concepts and Technology Development Project and Robust Analytics is a prime contractor developing a system architecture. Our AOC Simulation solution will meet the requirements of SMART NAS while simultaneously providing the much-needed AOC modeling capability to integrate with FACET and other models. Additional NASA aeronautics applications include: 1. The AOC Simulation can be used to support ASP trade studies and provide useful feedback to researchers on likely operator acceptance based on realistic assessments of how specific ATM and CDM concepts will affect that airline's ability to implement and benefit from the technology. 2. Conduct trade studies for other ARMD programs and projects, to determine the most promising solutions that account for operator objectives and constraints.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A20.01-8906
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Air Traffic Management Research and Development
PROPOSAL TITLE: Air Traffic Management Cost Assessment Tool

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robust Analytics
2053 Liza Way
Gambrills, MD 21054-2007
(410) 980-3667

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Peter Kostiuk
peter.kostiuk@robust-analytics.com
2053 Liza Way
Gambrills,  MD 21054-2007
(410) 980-3667

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Robust Analytics air traffic management cost assessment tool provides the comprehensive capability to analyze the impacts of NASA Airspace Systems Program (ASP) air traffic management (ATM) research from individual flight trajectories through airline network operations and airline investments in equipment and training. Our model generates cost-benefit estimates for concept and procedure alternatives for individual airlines. The model also estimates a variety of impacts on industry, including input utilization and productivity, throughput, air transportation industry costs and fares, and broader economic effects such as employment and benefits to other industries. Existing cost models are typically limited to simple flight cost factors, with occasional added detail on fuel burn and flying time. Assessment of deployment times, the feasibility of obtaining the assumed benefits, and cost risk are typically ignored although always a constant concern of airlines. Our model suite overcomes these deficiencies by providing greater fidelity in the cost analysis of flight segments, explicit estimation of training and certification cost, and realistic treatment of deployment time and risk. Our cost analysis is performed using airline-specific data, enabling more realistic assessment of airline investment decisions and identification of disparate effects and willingness to invest among airlines. Robust Analytics expect to leverage the current body of knowledge by our partner Sabre Airline Solutions and two U.S. airlines to provide input and validate the model. An important use of the proposed model for the airline industry is that potentially this tool could help them make decisions in real time to improve their decision making during irregular operations and during severe weather events.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Robust Analytics sees an excellent opportunity to work with our partner Sabre Airline Solutions to commercialize the cost model by improving the ability of its airline customers to plan and operate scheduled flights. The mechanism for providing this improved capability will be through airline flight operations center planning and operational software. Many NextGen and Airspace Systems tools rely on airline FOCs to manage flights, trajectory planning, and re-routing. We envision the cost model as an added capability to AOCs to assist in evaluating the impact of airline investments in ATM and NextGen capabilities. Other potential commercial applications include: 1. The Flight Profitability Model offers smaller airlines a useful tool for assessing the financial benefit of adding additional flight to their network. 2. Provide analysis to smaller U.S. airlines and foreign carriers that need improved flight-based and system-wide cost estimating capabilities. 3. Provide enhanced analytical capability to NextGen planning organizations that analyze the benefits and costs of the overall portfolio of NextGen and other FAA investments. 4. Provide analytical input to FAA study groups examining policy alternatives to incentivize NextGen equipage.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are three immediate NASA applications: 1. Support ASP trade studies and provide useful feedback to researchers on likely operator acceptance based on realistic return on investment estimates, assessment of risks and deployment timelines, and financial constraints. 2. Provide a much-needed model or analytical tool that can estimate the total system operating cost for the current baseline or under the advanced concepts and architectures in ARMD's research portfolio. 3. Meet the requirements for a total system cost model for the Airspace Systems Shadow Mode Assessment for Realistic Technologies in the National Airspace System (SMART NAS) project. This research effort was recently started under the ASP Concepts and Technology Development Project and Robust Analytics is a prime contractor developing a system architecture. Our solution aims to meet the requirements of SMART NAS while simultaneously providing the much-needed cost estimating capability to integrate with FACET and other models.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A20.01-9145
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Air Traffic Management Research and Development
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integration of Tactical Departure Scheduling and Traffic Flow Management

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
540 Ft. Evans Road, Northeast
Leesburg, VA 20176-4098
(800) 405-8576

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris Brinton
brinton@mosaicatm.com
540 Ft. Evans Road, NE, Suite 300
Leesburg,  VA 20176-4098
(703) 980-3961

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In the ATM Select topic area of Integrated Arrival, Departure and Surface (IADS) planning, this proposal addresses Tactical Departure Scheduling (TDS), which is a commonly used procedure in the NAS. It is estimated that approximately 60,000 flights each month are subject to tactical delays via TDS, which is approximately 3.5 times the number of flights that are impacted by strategic Traffic Management Initiatives (TMIs). Despite recent advances in tactical departure scheduling like that demonstrated in NASA's Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC), little is currently known about the overall effect on the NAS when implementing tactical events. In fact, today no comprehensive guidance exists for FAA personnel to determine which TMI to use for a particular traffic problem, the duration of that TMI and the recommended control parameters. An integrated decision support capability is needed to provide ATM specialists and flight operators with information to support planning and decision-making about tactical and strategic TMIs. The significant challenge that exists in providing this decision support capability is the uncertainty of prediction of both demand and capacity. To address this current shortfall of the National Airspace System (NAS), Mosaic ATM proposes to conducted detailed research on the interrelationship between IADS scheduling and metering capabilities and other TMIs. The output of this research will be both mathematical and simulation models that characterize and quantify the relationship between IADS capabilities and other TMIs. These models will provide guidance and input for further NASA research efforts and activities, and they will also provide real-time operational decision support for Traffic Management Coordinators (TMCs) and other ATC specialists.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The system impact assessment concept described in this proposal can provide valuable information for airlines and other flight operators about the potential constraints and congestion that flights will experience in the NAS based on traffic management initiatives that are implemented. Flight operators can then use this information to plan for potential delays or reroutes and their effect on their overall network of flight operations. Advance notice of potential delays can aid dispatchers in planning what routes to file, which alternative arrival airports to utilize, and how much fuel to load on the aircraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As this innovative concept is directly related to the air transportation system, the most appropriate application of the concept and prototype will be further research on ATM operational improvements. This concept for the integration of strategic and tactical Traffic Management Initiatives can be applied by NASA across many concepts and technologies to enhance their integration within the Traffic Flow Management procedures and tools in the National Airspace System. Mosaic ATM has provided significant support on numerous projects in the successful transfer of NASA research into the operational inventory of the FAA. Our approach to this technology transfer is to provide support for the transfer process, but to remain within the direction of NASA and the FAA at all times. Using this approach, the research is properly recognized as NASA technology, and the FAA receives in-depth support from an organization that already knows the details of the technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A20.01-9147
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Air Traffic Management Research and Development
PROPOSAL TITLE: Strategic Arrivals Recommendation Tool

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
541 Ft. Evans Road, Northeast
Leesburg, VA 20176-4098
(800) 405-8576

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lara Shisler
lshisler@mosaicatm.com
540 Ft. Evans Road, NE, Suite 300
Leesburg,  VA 20176-4098
(703) 955-9731

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
During the conduct of a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) in 2012 and 2013, the Mosaic ATM team first developed the Strategic Arrivals Recommendation Tool concept, or START. Though this concept was developed in direct response to Miami Center's request to our team to provide a tool that could assist them during the summer convection season, this concept could be applied anywhere in the NAS. Given that the Florida region has some of the most challenging convection to predict, we believe that if START can be successful for ZMA, it can be adapted to support TMUs in other areas of the NAS where convection is an issue. START is the use of en route weather translation and airspace capacity models to the challenge of strategically planning arrival flows in advance of expected capacity reductions due to convective weather. START provides probabilistic en route capacity estimates for corridors used by arriving flights, models the impact of capacity reductions on traffic, and then provides recommendations for strategic Traffic Management Initiatives that better balance demand and capacity given the uncertainty in the weather. In Phase I, our objective is to demonstrate the feasibility and potential benefit of the START automated recommendations concept. We intend to accomplish this by developing and testing specific algorithms that will be necessary to achieve this goal and providing a preliminary benefit assessment of the concept. These include the airspace capacity model and the reroute recommendation optimization model. Our Phase II objectives are to integrate the algorithms developed in Phase I into the START prototype software. We will continue to work with Miami Center and American Airlines to vet START as the capabilities mature, ensuring that the tool is meeting the needs of the Traffic Management Unit specialists and airspace users. Through the accomplishment of the Phase II activities, START will be ready for full field evaluations to be conducted by NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The START concept can provide valuable information for airlines and other flight operators about the potential constraints and congestion that flights will experience en route in the NAS. The ability of START to recommend strategic reroutes can be used by flight operators to know which of their flights may be subject to a reroute advisory. Flight operators can then use this information to plan for potential reroutes and their effect on their overall network of flight operations. Additional areas of potential use of the START concept include its use by dispatchers when planning flight plans. Advance notice of convective weather, and its expected impact on arrival routes to ZMA, can aid dispatchers in planning what routes to file, which alternative arrival airports to utilize, and how much fuel to load on the aircraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As this innovative concept is directly related to the air transportation system, the most appropriate application of the START concept and prototype will be further research on ATM operational improvements. Mosaic ATM has provided significant support on numerous projects in the successful transfer of NASA research into the operational inventory of the FAA. Our approach to this technology transfer is to provide support for the transfer process, but to remain within the direction of NASA and the FAA at all times. Using this approach, the research is properly recognized as NASA technology, and the FAA receives in-depth support from an organization that already knows the details of the technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Sequencing & Scheduling
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A20.01-9354
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Air Traffic Management Research and Development
PROPOSAL TITLE: DSAT: Data Storage and Analytics Tool

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jyotirmaya Nanda
jnanda@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville,  MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-4634

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The aim of this project is the development a large data warehousing and analysis tool for air traffic management (ATM) research that can be accessed by users through intuitive web-based User Interface (UI). DSAT is designed to support requirements of a variety of ATM users, from data handlers interested in maintaining data quality to researchers looking for patterns in acquired data to analysts who need to compute basic metrics on a particular subset of data to managers who need to visualize and report results from a particular analysis. DSAT is a multi-level, multi-objective tool for big data analysis that extracts ATM data from a variety of ATM data stores and prepares it for holistic analysis within an actionable timeline. At this time no turnkey software exists that supports all levels of data handling from storage to reporting for ATM research DSAT serves the purpose of a variety of users through a set of tools customized to handle different types of ATM analysis for different types of users. In particular, DSAT is a (i) data storage tool, (ii) data analysis tool, and (iii) visualization and reporting tool all wrapped into one.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The data storing, analyzing and visualizing capabilities are attractive to researchers from any organization that work with large amount of heterogeneous data. DSAT is equally applicable for research projects at other government agencies including FAA and DoD and commercial enterprises including airlines, and research institutes. For these agencies the set of metrics and data parsers would be modified but the framework would remain the same.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Researchers at NASA are experienced in using data from a number of sources towards their project objectives. Currently they are forced to deal with each data source individually which is a very manual process prone to errors and duplications. DSAT provides a standard efficient process for not only data import, and parsing but also storing it on a platform of choice, be it cloud or a remote hard disk. It saves researchers from having to write yet another import script or tool for their data import needs. This single aspect of DSAT alone can save NASA valuable resources and drastically reduce the errors in data import and warehousing. The researchers can use the tool compute standard metrics are regularly used for any research project. Simple metrics such as flight count, fleet mix, level of equipage etc. are used regularly and can be initiated from within DSAT once the data import has completed. DSAT's visualization features allow researchers to call upon previously chose set of chart and graphs conveniently thus saving more time and effort.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Computer System Architectures
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Fusion
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Inventory Management/Warehousing
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A20.01-9565
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Air Traffic Management Research and Development
PROPOSAL TITLE: Evaluation of ADS-B Surveillance Data to Identify Flight Operations with Reduced Safety Margin in the National Airspace System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
4 Cambridge Center, 11th Floor
Cambridge, MA 02142-1494
(703) 369-3633

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fabrice Kunzi
4 Cambridge Center, 11th Floor
Cambridge,  MA 02142-1494
(617) 229-6810

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As part of the FAA's plans for modernization of the Air Traffic Control (ATC) system, Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) will be the basis of the future surveillance system in the US, supplemented by the current Radar system. With significantly more frequent updates and higher data quality than radar, ADS-B provides unprecedented access to general aviation operational data. Given this unique opportunity, Aurora proposes to conduct an in-depth analysis of the potential for ADS-B derived operational data to identify operations with a reduced safety margin – similar to the FAA's voluntary Flight Operation Quality Assurance (FOQA) safety program. Since comprehensive operational data of this quality and magnitude has not been available until now, new and innovative approaches for their analysis are needed. Ultimately, the goal of the proposed effort is to provide a "big data" capability for using ADS-B data to identify the underlying causes and pre-cursers for a majority of aviation accidents. The insights from this analysis could then be used to identify approaches for improving aviation safety and lead to recommendations about where to focus educational efforts, recurring training or proficiency checks. These insights may also lead to the re-design or introduction of avionics that specifically address the true underlying causes of accidents.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
"Virtual Flight Instructor" avionics could be developed that perform a real-time analysis of flight operations using the tools developed under this project. Such avionics would monitor operations and alert flight crews to situations where the safety margin is reduced.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
- Establish a "FOQA-Lite" program available to general aviation pilots. This would allow flight crews to perform post-analysis of their flights and evaluate areas where they may require additional training if their aircraft is equipped with ADS-B. (could be commercial or non-commercial) - Generate a safety monitoring system that would allow NASA to evaluate operations of unmanned systems as they are being introduced into the National Airspace System, effectively introducing a real-time safety evaluation tool.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Analytical Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 H20.01-8788
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human-Robotic Systems - Manipulation Subsystem and Human-System Interaction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Pneubotics - Membrane-Based Robotics for Remote Material Handling

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Otherlab, Inc.
3101 20th Street
San Francisco, CA 94110-2714
(415) 970-2209

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kevin Albert
kalbert@otherlab.com
3101 20th St
San Francisco,  CA 94110-2714
(617) 372-6915

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We have invented a new class of robotics, called `Pneubotics', that rival current manipulators in payload and reach at 1/10th the weight. Our technology leverages insights into lightweight materials and mass manufacturing to create robots that derive power, structure, and movement from pressurized air. As a result, drive trains, motors, bearings, shafts, sliding surfaces, and excess structural material are eliminated, leading the way for robots that exhibit extremely high strength to weight ratios, inherent human safe operation, and high degrees of freedom at comparatively low part count. This transformative new technology has the potential to enable the widespread use of automated material handling on missions beyond low earth orbit. The compliant nature of these robotic systems allows them to robustly grasp arbitrarily shaped objects and make them ideal for operating around sensitive equipment or cooperatively with humans. Similarly, due to their fluidic architecture they can be deflated and stowed for efficient transport. The work described in this phase I SBIR proposal aims to develop the key technological components that will allow the production of Pneubotic systems, including novel pressure vessel based fabric actuator design, a pneumatic power architecture that exceeds electromagnetic efficiency, and dynamic models of inflated fabric structures. These components will enable the construction of a full prototype manipulation system in phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Due to the low weight and price point of Pneubotic technology, high performance manipulators with the strength of industrial arms become available to mobile applications. The commercial potential of such a product is immense and has applications in a wide range of markets including manufacturing, agriculture, military, commercial, and consumer. We are targeting an untapped sector of the global material handling market that we are calling "mobile material handling". This market encompasses tasks that take place outside the confines of a structured industrial cell where objects between 10kg - 30kg need to be moved short distances. Distribution centers, fulfillment centers, package delivery, baggage centers, and small manufacturing facilities are all potential customers. Traditionally, these applications have resisted robotics due to their high cost, weight, lack of mobility, and need for safety cages. Pneubotics can uniquely address the challenges presented by mobile material handling and offer a product that replaces pallet jacks and hand trucks with human directed solutions that take the burden of lifting off of the operator.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Pneubotic systems offer robust grasping, human safe operation, and efficient transportation, vital qualities for robotic manipulators that will join future NASA missions. This unique technology enables a diverse set of applications from tele-operated repairs to safe capture systems at the large scale. The lightweight, fully compliant structure alleviates concerns about errant motion during interactions with humans while the use of fabric manufacturing techniques allows for the construction of complex shapes which enhances dexterous manipulation. The technology also enables wearable fabric orthotics (exoskeletons) that can be actuated based on a tele-operated arm and provide haptic feedback to a human user.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Man-Machine Interaction
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Teleoperation
Actuators & Motors
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 H20.01-9095
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human-Robotic Systems - Manipulation Subsystem and Human-System Interaction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Subsurface Access, Characterization, Acquisition, Transport, Storage and Delivery in Microgravity

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Grainflow Dynamics, Inc.
1141 Catalina Drive, PMB 270
Livermore, CA 94550-5928
(925) 447-4293

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Otis Walton
walton@grainflow.com
1141 Catalina Drive, PMB 270
Livermore,  CA 94550-5928
(925) 447-4293

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project will develop geotechnical measurements, sample extraction and transport equipment for subsurface regolith on NEOs, asteroids, moons and planets, enabling accurate evaluation of subsurface composition and chemistry. Non-contact measurements can provide preliminary information regarding bulk density and composition; however, more accurate assessment of a bodies' composition and evaluation of potential resources, their abundance and ease of recovery will require physical contact with the surface, and penetration or drilling down to depths that are not subjected to significant space weathering. Such surface-contact and sampling probes will enable physical and chemical characterization of unweathered subsurface material. Inertial and autonomous percussive penetration to depth, along with novel drilling and tailings-transfer approaches, will be developed to both attain the required depth, and to advance semi-autonomous sample-collection/recovery technology so as to minimize the need for operator (or tele-operator) involvement. Both core- and bulk-regolith sampling methods which minimize loss of volatiles, will be developed. To the extent feasible in the laboratory, this project will approximate key features of reduced-gravity conditions both physically and in particle-scale numerical simulations to ensure that the methods developed will function in realistic environments. The primary aim of this study will be advancement of technologies suitable for use on robotic precursor characterization-missions, with the anticipation that further-improved versions of the same methods will minimize the time and effort of human intervention/involvement during follow-on exploration or prospecting missions. In addition, the feasibility of novel extraction, transport, handling, and storage methods for bulk regolith material, which minimize loss of volatiles, will be developed. Such developments will be especially useful for in-situ resource evaluation and utilization.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Most of the methods for sub-surface access under micro-gravity planned for development under this project are adaptations of geotechnical analysis methods already in use terrestrially. As such, they offer little advantage for terrestrial application. On the other hand, the novel methods for transport, storage and handling of cohesive granular solids under micro-gravity could offer improvements over current methods for similar operations with any cohesive material for which the bulk cohesive stresses acting in the material are comparable to, or exceed, gravity-induced stresses. For example, the novel approaches developed for transport and storage of cohesive dry granular materials under micro-gravity might offer more robust methods of pumping, transport, storage and handling of cohesive slurries or sludges under terrestrial conditions. Such technology improvements could benefit a number of waste-treatment processes involving sludge, including pumping, transfer and cleanup of highly radioactive sludge in old nuclear-waste storage tanks at Hanford, WA, or Oak Ridge, TN. They might also be useful in industrial processes involving corrosive or toxic slurries, such as in the manufacture of batteries.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Both Science and Human Exploration missions need to have knowledge of the composition and physical state of surface and sub-surface material comprising NEO's or other bodies to be visited. Science-driven characterization has different constraints and goals than some Exploration missions; however, in general, characterization and prospecting of NEO's, moons of Mars, and even the Earth's moon, go hand in hand with prioritization and planning for future missions. Precursor missions that identify abundant sources of water or other resources which could be used to lower costs of future deep space missions, could potentially benefit many future projects/programs. Characterization of both the physical state (i.e. porosity, geotechnical behavior, cohesion, etc.) and chemical composition (especially evaluation of volatile concentrations) will provide extremely valuable new knowledge vitally needed for planning future exploration or resource-recovery missions. The technology developed here will enable more accurate evaluation of the composition and sub-surface resource distribution for a variety of future missions. The regolith transport, handling, and storage methods developed will benefit future in-situ resource evaluation/ processing/utilization. Also, delevopment of telerobotic penetration and physical characterization methods for NEA surface material can have significant benefits for proposed planetary defense scenarios (especially hypervelocity impact or nuclear scenarios).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Resource Extraction
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 H20.01-9149
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human-Robotic Systems - Manipulation Subsystem and Human-System Interaction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multi-Purpose Anthropomorphic Robotic Hand Design for Extra-Vehicular Activity Manipulation Tasks Using Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation
2363 Calle Del Mundo
Santa Clara, CA 95054-1008
(408) 565-9004

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Black
rjb@ifos.com
2363 Calle Del Mundo
Santa Clara,  CA 95054-1008
(408) 565-8530

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
IFOS proposes to design and build fiber-optically sensorized robotic fingers that can sense force and, objects using only tactile feedback, similar to the skin on a human hand. The innovation, employing fiber optic sensors, will b integrate the highest-density EMI-immune optical sensing for robotic hand systems to enable human-like tactile sensing capabilities. The innovative high-density manipulative system will add great dexterity to robotic hands and will be fully adaptable to performing complex Extravehicular tasks. In Phase I, IFOS will design a robotic hand and fingers system, focusing on the skin and muscle hardware requirements for tactile and force feedback information to be relayed to a central processor, which will then identify objects based on tactile feedback and provide a full haptic sense. A proof-of concept experiments planned for Phase I will demonstrate gripping and grasping using a sub-scale sensorized set of fingers. Results will be used as input for prototype planned for Phase II, along with preliminary test and evaluation recommendations for potential insertion into an advanced Robonaut servicer.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Multiple commercial applications exist for the transformational robot sensory capabilities proposed here. Market sectors benefiting from the proposed innovation include the military, energy, mining, construction, search & rescue, manufacturing and medicine. In most applications, robots with haptic capabilities can perform (a) dexterous tasks in environments dangerous or inaccessible to humans, such as encountered in the handling nuclear or bio-hazardous materials, (b) highly skilled operations for which human operators may require enhanced capabilities, e.g., robotic tele-surgery. According to IFR, the national robot associations and UNECE, there are approximately 1 million robots in use worldwide with over 100,000 units sold annually across several industries. Meanwhile, BCC Research estimates a $700M market in medical robotics, with a compounded annual growth rate of 18% to 2014, with 60% by surgical robots. IFOS has established partnerships with medical robotics pioneers and progress has been made towards demonstrating the promise of the IFOS technology in medical robotics.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
If a single basic transducer technology (such as FBGs) can be adapted to multiple sensory modalities, the problems of sensing, wiring, weight, size, instrumentation and signal processing will be reduced and system reliability will improve. Space exploration, including future missions to Mars, will greatly benefit from robotic sensing technologies. High-dexterity robots will enable remote operation in high risk or inaccessible areas, such as encountered in long space voyages and hazardous exploration. In other applications, human-safe manipulators will collaborate with operators and astronauts to enhance performance and to reduce fatigue. This project will assist NASA in its goal to achieve safe and responsive robotic manipulators designed to have the dexterity of a space-suited astronaut capable of operating tools and performing extra-vehicular activities (EVAs), particularly repairs, on spacecraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Gratings
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Acoustic/Vibration
Contact/Mechanical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 H20.01-9235
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human-Robotic Systems - Manipulation Subsystem and Human-System Interaction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Context-Augmented Robotic Interaction Layer (CARIL)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CHI Systems, Inc.
2250 Hickory Road, Suite 150
Plymouth Meeting, PA 19462-1047
(215) 542-1400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Wayne Zachary
wzachary@chisystems.com
2250 Hickory Road, Suite 150
Plymount Meeting,  PA 19462-1047
(215) 542-1400

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Today, as humans reach beyond the earth to near and deep space, there is obvious and urgent need to augment the capabilities of human astronauts and (ground-) controllers with smarter and more capable automation. In conventional approaches to human-robot interactions for supervisory control paradigms, coordination often breaks down for a variety of reasons and progress toward interactive goals is often impeded due to the inability of the work system to adapt to context shifts. Hence, human-robot teams can be almost entirely non-adaptive. To address these complex problems, CHI Systems and the Institute for Human Machine Cognition have teamed to create a human-robot interaction system based on recent theories and tools developed by CHI Systems leveraging cognitive representations of shared context as basis for a fundamentally new approach to human-robotic interaction. This approach includes a framework for representing context and using it to support decision making and control of automation and will form the core of the proposed solution termed the Context-Augmented Robotic Interaction Layer or CARIL. CARIL will enable efficient and effective human-robot control-oriented cooperation through the use of adaptive behaviors to mediate cooperation between humans and robots. Phase I will focus on development and demonstration of the CARIL concept.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications of CARIL will include both commercial and DoD contexts. For commercial, we first envision commercial licensing of CARIL directly to robot manufacturers, as well as custom application sales to specific vertical industries which use robotics to mitigate human risk in dangerous working conditions (e.g., nuclear power plants, chemical manufacturing sites, and petrochemical refineries). Second, additional vertical markets include businesses heavily relying on the use of robots and drones to optimize supply-chain and warehouse distribution processes (e.g., Amazon, UPS, and FEDEX). Third, we see a tremendous opportunity to apply CARIL to commercial applications for household and personal-care robots and we will develop a penetration strategy for this market based on evolving consumer application trends. Applications for DoD (military) robots include IED/EOD operations (the Foster-Miller Army TALON robot), surveillance/reconnaissance/assault missions (Gladiator Tactical Unmanned Ground Vehicle - TUGV), scout robots (PacBOT), and other multi-purpose robots (Armored Combat Engineer Robot - ACER).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
To date, robotic usage on the ISS has been limited to prototype demonstrations, but the envisioned value added by robots has yet to materialize. Our work will take the next steps to providing robotic systems that add value on the ISS. In the short term, we have the potential to merge with existing JSC robotic projects like Robonaut and Valkyrie. IHMC has a project currently working on integrating with these systems in simulation, with plans to validate on the actual hardware in the future. IHMC's ongoing humanoid and UAV work each overlap with many of NASA's goals for robotics. The complexity of NASA's mission would suggest that successful robot projects in that domain would have great potential for transition to commercial domains.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Tools/EVA Tools
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Man-Machine Interaction
Perception/Vision
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Process Monitoring & Control
Teleoperation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 H20.01-9525
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human-Robotic Systems - Manipulation Subsystem and Human-System Interaction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Natural Touch Interaction for Virtual Reality and Teleoperation via Ungrounded Tactile Shear Feedback

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tactical Haptics
947 South McClelland Street
Salt Lake City, UT 84105-1416
(650) 762-6842

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Provancher
william.provancher@tacticalhaptics.com
615 Arapeen Dr., #310
SALT LAKE CITY,  UT 84108-1254
(650) 762-6842

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed research innovation will create a low-cost, intuitive means for people to have multi-fingered interaction with Robonaut 2 and training simulations via tactile shear feedback. This work builds on the PI's prior university research. Tactile shear feedback imparts friction and shear forces to the user's hand via sliding plates that are built into the handle of the grasped device. These sliding plates rub against the user's skin and induce in-hand friction forces to create perceived force/torque-like sensations despite not being connected to a fixed surface. Translational motions and forces can be portrayed along the length of the handle by moving the sliding plates in unison in the corresponding direction; whereas moving the plates at opposing locations in the handle in opposite directions creates the feeling of the device's handle wrenching within the user's grasp. To this novel form of haptic feedback, the PI proposes to add a more intuitive means for a user to interact with virtual and teleoperated environments by allowing the user to open and close his/her grasp as he/she would naturally do when grasping an object. It is hypothesized that adding the ability for the user to interact by opening and closing his/her grasp will provide improved interaction performance and be preferred by users. The proposed work also creates the ability to individually control the fingers on multi-fingered robot hands like those on Robonaut 2. Our developed haptic interface will provide a low-cost means for mission scientists, astronauts, and others to interact with Robonaut 2. The developed interface will also provide greater access for planning and training of EVAs, and could provide a more intuitive interface for ground personnel to operate and supervise robots. Furthermore, the developed system's low cost would also permit it to be used directly in NASA outreach / STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, & Math) activities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications of this research include creating more immersive and natural interactions in virtual reality, as well as video games. The Oculus Rift Head Mounted Display (HMD) has brought a resurgence in Virtual Reality (VR) because of its low cost. Our technology could provide a powerful haptic counterpart to their HMD. The grasp sensing developed in this project will create the ability to roughly measure hand pose and grasp gestures that could also be used to provide greater immersion for VR and video games. There are also applications for controlling telerobots for handling hazardous materials (e.g., for toxic cleanup or handling nuclear waste) or for interacting in hazardous environments (e.g., oil well maintenance at the ocean bottom or underwater search and rescue). It is also possible that our developed haptic interface could be used to interface with a remote care-giving robot, for in-home elder care by a remote caregiver.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The low-cost haptic interface could be used to provide finger-level control of a Robonaut 2 hand. Simpler grasp gestures can also be detected to simply indicate that a robot should grasp an object. The developed interface will also provide greater access for planning and training of EVAs, and could provide a more intuitive interface for ground personnel to operate and supervise robots. Haptic feedback from the developed ungrounded haptic interface will increase a user's level of presence relative to other ungrounded interfaces. Because of its low cost, the developed haptic interface could also be used as a common hardware interface to recruit academic and industry researchers to rally around and solve NASA grand challenges, because they could all afford and use the same human-robot interface hardware. These devices could also be used in NASA outreach/STEM activities within science installations that will allow young and old space enthusiasts to interact with NASA training simulations in the same manner as NASA personnel.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Teleoperation
Mission Training
Outreach


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 H20.01-9561
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human-Robotic Systems - Manipulation Subsystem and Human-System Interaction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Adaptive LIDAR Vision System for Advanced Robotics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics Spacecraft Mechanisms Corporation
460 West 34th Street
New York, NY 10001-2320
(626) 421-7902

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Herman
herman@honeybeerobotics.com
460 West 34th Street
New York,  NY 10001-2320
(646) 459-7819

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced robotic systems demand an enhanced vision system and image processing algorithms to reduce the percentage of manual operation required. Unstructured environments, whether man-mad (e.g., International Space Station) or natural (e.g., Mars), present significant challenges to supervised autonomy or fully autonomous systems – advanced perception sensors and associated software are required. This will be particularly important both for future long duration exploration missions where the transmit (Tx) / receive (Rx) delay will be substantial and a high degree of autonomy will be required to maximize science gain, as well as for telerobotic systems where a human operator is IVA and advanced operations in a short timeline are desired. No solution currently exists for small robotic platforms. Honeybee Robotics proposes to develop a compact, wide-angle, Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system that is able to detect dynamic changes in the field of view (FOV) and focus the laser scan pattern centered on the area of interest while maintaining a lower-resolution fixed FOV for robotic path planning, navigation, inspection, and identification tasks.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Over the past decade, Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) have proven their worth both on the battlefield and in search and rescue operations. Thousands of man-transportable Packbot and Talon platforms have been deployed overseas. From explosive ordinance disposal (EOD), to urban search and rescue (USAR), to intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR), UGV usage for defense and homeland security initiatives is increasing. The UGVs of the future must have advanced degree of autonomy, lowering the attention demands on the operator. Three-dimensional sensing technology is at the heart of such functionality, enabling sophisticated telerobotic manipulation, robust autonomous navigation, and detailed survey and inspection. A compact LIDAR system that is able to detect dynamic changes in the FOV and focus the laser scan pattern centered on the area of interest while maintaining a lower-resolution fixed FOV for path planning and navigation tasks is the next advancement for UGVs. In industry, the automation of operations in partially unstructured environments, e.g. pallet transport and stowage, earth moving, steel construction, crop harvesting, requires advanced sensors. Automation in these more challenging environments is beginning to mature in the mining, agricultural, personal assistance, and logistics industries. The coming decade will see a large increase in demand for the sensors that enable smarter, more flexible operations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A recent collaborative survey entitled, 'A Roadmap for US Robotics – From Internet to Robotics' identified robust 3D perception, planning and navigation, intuitive human-robot interfaces as critical capability gaps that are cross-cutting for the robotics industry which includes space exploration . The Adaptive LIDAR System is ideally suited to telerobotic navigation, path planning, inspection, and identification. This is directly applicable to NASA's planetary exploration initiatives (e.g., Moon, Mars, & NEOs). Current robotic platforms, such as MER and MSL rovers, require significant manpower to analyze and plan mobility operations to ensure obstacle avoidance as well as identify objects of interest for science operations. Some of these tasks could be automated with an adaptive LIDAR system greatly enhancing tactical planning algorithms and simplifying crew telerobotic interfaces. In addition, an adaptive LIDAR system can be used for advanced telerobotic research and development at NASA centers. To realize advanced telerobotic systems for space exploration, a large amount of development and testing is required both of sensing technologies as well as intelligent control algorithms. The proposed system will provide a platform for which advanced algorithms can be developed and implemented.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Perception/Vision
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
3D Imaging
Image Analysis
Ranging/Tracking


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 H20.02-8934
SUBTOPIC TITLE: International Space Station (ISS) Demonstration and Development of Improved Exploration Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Chip-scale Integrated Silica Ring Optical Gyro

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Freedom Photonics, LLC
90 Arnold Place
Santa Barbara, CA 93117-3119
(805) 967-4900

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Milan Mashanovitch
mashan@freedomphotonics.com
90 Arnold Place
Santa Barbara,  CA 93117-3119
(805) 967-4900

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The next generation of space systems can benefit greatly by reduced c-SWaP integrated gyroscopes. By using photonic integration, it is possible to fit the entire gyro onto a single chip and inside a package <10 cm3, weighing < 50 g, and consuming <1 W of power. Furthermore, the fabrication of such chip-scale solutions reduces the cost per unit dramatically as ~thousands of optical gyroscopes can be made on each wafer and assembled using mature high-throughput semiconductor technology. Freedom Photonics has developed advanced photonic integrated circuit (PIC) and planar lightwave circuit (PLC) capabilities to realize this device. By leveraging our technology, we can delivery <0.05 deg/hr sensitivity optical gyroscopes with 10x lower weight, volume, and cost. These gyroscopes will have few components, require minimal assemble, and have no moving parts. The highly integrated devices are more resilient to shock and vibration, and can have longer gyroscope lifetimes with fewer component failures. In Phase I of this program, Freedom Photonics will determine the feasibility of meeting space-grade gyroscope specifications with a low c-SWaP solution leveraging our proprietary, commercially deployed photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology. A hardware benchtop demonstration will be included.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
- Automotive control and guidance. - Airplane navigation. - Missile guidance. - Oil pipeline inspection and guidance. - Robotic control, positioning, and navigation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
- Aeronautical and astronautical navigation. - Alignment for earth and space observation. - Inertial sensors. - Inertial Measurement Units (IMU).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Attitude Determination & Control
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Lasers (Guidance & Tracking)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Inertial (see also Sensors)
Optical
Inertial
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 H20.02-9027
SUBTOPIC TITLE: International Space Station (ISS) Demonstration and Development of Improved Exploration Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator for Life Support and Thermal Control Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Izenson
mgi@creare.com
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 640-2405

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future human space exploration missions will require advanced life support technology that can operate across a wide range of applications and environments. Thermal control systems for space suits and spacecraft will need to meet critical requirements for water conservation and adaptability to highly variable thermal environments. To achieve these goals, we propose an International Space Station (ISS) demonstration program for an innovative Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) technology. A SEAR system comprises a lithium chloride absorber radiator (LCAR) for heat rejection coupled with a space water membrane evaporator (SWME) for heat acquisition. SEAR systems provide heat pumping to minimize radiator size, thermal storage to accommodate variable environmental conditions, and water absorption to minimize use of expendables. In Phase I we will prove the feasibility of our approach by building and testing an LCAR with flight-like internal structures and designing an ISS demonstration experiment. In Phase II we will design and build a SEAR test module according to ISS flight requirements and demonstrate its operation in ground tests that simulate flight test conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Technology developed under this program can be used for commercial dehumidification systems, particularly heat-driven systems in which desiccant/enthalpy wheels are used to transfer water vapor between air streams. The lithium-chloride containment and management technology developed for the SEAR can be applied to make these systems more compact and efficient. SEAR technology can also benefit microclimate cooling systems for industrial, medical, military, and recreational purposes. Absorption cooling can enable lightweight, low-power, man-portable refrigeration systems that can remove both heat and humidity from fully enclosed protective garments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are two primary NASA applications for the SEAR technology. (1) Nonventing thermal control systems for space suits. SEAR can be used to provide a temperature control system that rejects heat by radiation instead of venting water vapor. The advanced LCAR design we demonstrate in this program can provide a multifunctional structure and double as the shell that houses the portable life support system backpack. Nonventing thermal control systems for spacecraft, particularly spacecraft such as lunar orbiters that must accommodate highly variable thermal environments. (2) Nonventing thermal control and thermal storage system for manned spacecraft. SEAR technology can enable lunar orbiters and other spacecraft that must operate in highly variable thermal environments a system for high-efficiency thermal energy storage and heat rejection without venting water.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Active Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 H20.02-9404
SUBTOPIC TITLE: International Space Station (ISS) Demonstration and Development of Improved Exploration Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight and Compact Multifunction Computer-Controlled Strength and Aerobic Training Device

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 West 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033-1916
(303) 940-2347

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Douwe Bruinsma
dbruinsma@tda.com
12345 West 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge,  CO 80033-1916
(303) 940-5395

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
TDA Research proposes to develop a computer-controlled lightweight and compact device for aerobic and resistive training (DART) to counteract muscular atrophy and bone loss and to improve the overall wellness of astronauts operating in microgravity. The DART will be able to provide resistive loads up to 350 lbf and will accurately simulate the load profile of a mass in a 1-g environment. It will also be capable of applying custom load profiles such as eccentric overloading. In aerobic training mode, the DART will simulate the loads of a rowing machine with loads up to 175. The system will computer-controlled and can automatically calibrate to a user's range of motion. The total weight of the device will be less than 20 lbs and have a compact form factor to enable integration into a small crew module. By using a regenerative energy recovery system, the average power consumption of the DART will be less than 100 W during an exercise session. TDA is able to build on previous experience building exercise equipment for NASA and develop the DART in a short timeframe. TDA will prove the feasibility of providing effective aerobic and resistive training with a single device that is lightweight and compact in Phase I. At the end of Phase I a prototype will be delivered to NASA for evaluation. In Phase II we will advance the technology and provide the second generation prototype to NASA for testing on the International Space Station.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is major commercialization potential for the Device for Aerobic and Resistive Training in the academic research, physical therapy, athletic departments, and fitness markets. The DART can be incorporated in the home-gyms to replace the heavy weight-stacks and to add an electronic interface that can be used to monitor progress or to share results with a remote coach or other users online. The demand for a DART is also large in the academic research market. There is currently much research being performed to study the physiological benefits of different load profiles during strength training, with a large fraction of this work being focused on the effects of eccentric overload. The DART is perfectly suited for this application because the amount of eccentric overload can be precisely controlled and set by entering the desired value on the user-interface. The DART also allows the study of custom load profiles throughout an exercise motion. For this application the DART has unique capabilities in that it can calibrate to a user's range of motion (ROM) in seconds and then apply a custom load profile based on the ROM while logging position and force data. Lastly, the advanced features of the DART also make it perfectly suitable for physical therapy. With the DART, the strength training can be designed to precisely meet the needs of the patient by providing resistive loads only where desired during the range of motion.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The crew's health is one of the key priorities for NASA and to achieve this, regular resistive and aerobic training is required, even on short missions. During Phase I we will work together with NASA to develop the required interfaces to incorporate the DART into the small crew capsules. Incorporation of the DART will help to maintain the crew's health and wellness while placing a minimum burden on the operational logistics. The weight and size will be minimal and the crew will spend minimum time configuring the exercise equipment. We will develop mechanical and electrical interfaces to incorporate the DART into existing and future spacecraft. By utilizing this approach, NASA will achieve tangible benefits from the proposed research in a short timeframe. TDA will provide a first prototype of the DART to NASA at the end of Phase I and a second prototype for testing on the International Space Station at the end of Phase II. TDA has the skillset, expertise and resources to develop this technology in a short timeframe so that it can be integrated into current and future spacecraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Physiological/Psychological Countermeasures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 H20.02-9489
SUBTOPIC TITLE: International Space Station (ISS) Demonstration and Development of Improved Exploration Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: ISS Launched Cubesat Demonstration of Variable-Drag Magnetoshell Aerocapture

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MSNW, LLC
8551 154th Avenue Northeast
Redmond, WA 98052-3557
(425) 867-8900

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Kirtley
dkirtley@msnwllc.com
8551 154th Avenue North East
Redmond,  WA 98052-3557
(425) 867-8900

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aerobraking and aerocapture have been shown to be mission enabling for deep space orbiters and manned missions, and yield dramatic cost and mass savings for near earth missions. However, high dynamic pressure aerocapture is high risk and requires large, complex, and heavy deflector shells. Magnetoshell Aerocapture (MAC) is a revolutionary technology that has been developed by NASA and MSNW that can enable low-cost, low-risk aerocapture for a range of Earth and deep space missions. The Magnetoshell deploys a simple dipole magnetic field containing a magnetized plasma. Interaction of neutral particles in the atmosphere with this magnetized plasma produces the desired drag for braking, acting in effect like a plasma parachute. With the aeroshell now being composed of a massless magnetic field, the scale of the shell can be as large as 100 meters with only a gram of plasma and a simple copper magnet. Drag can be dynamically controlled in response to atmospheric conditions, enabling very aggressive aerocapture maneuvers. By providing pulsed power, the thermal and power processing requirements can be kept within the scope of conventional technologies. In a Phase I NIAC program a 1.6 meter diameter Magnetoshell was demonstrated and increased the drag force of a supersonic flowing neutral jet by 1000X. A wide range of mission studies showed that MAC can enable a Neptune orbiter mission, reduce the cost of a manned Martian mission by $2B, and provide the low-cost drag system for Earth return missions. In the following proposal a three year ISS-launched CubeSat demonstration mission paves the way for full scale operation missions. In Phase I a complete system design will be completed and several of the primary technology risks will be mitigated. When demonstrated, Magnetoshell Aerocapture will dramatically reduce cost and risk for applications ranging from nanosatellites, deep space Flagship science missions, and commercial applications such as reusable tankers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology to be explored under this program would have a wide ranging impact in many fields of scientific research and industry, both in space and on earth. In space, a lightweight aerocapture and aerobraking system would be beneficial for space debris mitigation, ISS crew return, moon return, space station construction, and numerous DOD applications. Further, the study and understanding of the generation of reactive gas magnetized plasmas and their interaction with neutral background gases have practical application for controlled doping for the creation of novel semi-conductor materials, chemical vapor deposition, catalyzed plasma chemistry for biomedical applications, and energy generation and storage technologies. During this mission, the scientific goals will contribute to both active plasma-neutral interaction physics as well as greater magnetospheric planetary dynamics physics.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Three missions have been fully designed and simulated: a Cassini-class Neptune orbiter, an HEOMD-scale Mars orbital insertion, and an L2 Earth return and insertion. Magnetoshell Aerocatpure increased payload delivered to Neptune by 75% and most importantly, allows for the dynamic capture as a function of the Neptune atmosphere. For Mars insertion, the primary benefit is mass savings. A 20 MT aeroshell could be replaced with a 2.5 meter Magnetoshell system mass of less than one metric ton. This would save over 20 MT of launched propellant per launch. The Martian insertion was capable of supporting a 60 metric ton payload with the Magnetoshell fitting into a standard faring size. For an L2 to Earth return mission, a 2000 kg payload was decelerated and placed into a LEO orbit. These examples show how a lightweight, high performance, and low risk aerocapture system can yield dramatic improvement for any mission in which requires near-planetary operations and large delta-V maneuvers. Finally, the mission of interest, namely an earth return from an ISS orbit was enabling fast reentry with only a few grams of fuel. In addition to the simple de-orbit mission, phase changes, debris avoidance, and controlled re-entry can all be attained.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerobraking/Aerocapture
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 H20.02-9529
SUBTOPIC TITLE: International Space Station (ISS) Demonstration and Development of Improved Exploration Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Plastic Melt Waste Compactor Flight Demonstrator Payload (PFDP)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Orbital Technologies Corporation
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717-1961
(608) 827-5000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeff Johnson
johnsonj@orbitec.com
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison,  WI 53717-1961
(608) 229-2828

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The PMWC Flight Demonstrator Payload is a trash dewatering and volume reduction system that uses heat melt compaction to remove nearly 100% of water from trash while significantly reducing the volume. Recent advances have proven that ORBITEC's HEHO-PMWC is a viable technology for producing 16" square tiles for radiation protection. ORBITEC proposes to enhance the current SOA by repackaging all the components developed under prior SBIR efforts for ISS utilization and to create a test protocol for testing of the system on orbit for radiation effectiveness. The HEHO-PMWC and other Heat Melt Compactor technology has often been tested piecemeal. The proposed system will contain all systems including the primary processing chamber where the tiles are produced, any necessary avionics, and any necessary support equipment, which includes devices for air removal, contaminant and odor scrubbers, water degassers, and water handling. Plastic tiles output can be placed within the ISS or within the BEAM (ORBITEC has an excellent working relationship with Bigelow Aerospace). Any and all data gathered during on-orbit testing can be used by NASA to create the next generation of heat melt compaction technology for future manned spaceflight.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As commercial space travel becomes more prominent, the need for efficient water recovery, volume reduction, and safe atmospheric conditions has become more critical. The PFDP, and similar HMC technology, will be a viable system not only within all NASA space travel vehicles but also in commercial space vehicles as well. The addition of a system that reduces waste volume, recovers water, and creates a useful byproduct can be a boon for commercial aerospace companies, such as Bigelow Aerospace, trying to reduce overall mission costs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA application of this technology is for any long-duration human spaceflight mission, including microgravity and planetary surface operations. Besides the primary benefits of the PFDP, which include waste volume reduction and water recovery, secondary benefits include additional health benefits by completely encapsulating the final compacted waste product, ultimately deterring microbial elements from entering the breathable airstream, and the plastic tile byproduct, which is high in polyethylene, can be used as an effective radiation barrier.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Isolation/Protection/Radiation Shielding (see also Mechanical Systems)
Waste Storage/Treatment


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 H20.02-9712
SUBTOPIC TITLE: International Space Station (ISS) Demonstration and Development of Improved Exploration Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Bead Evaporator for Complete Water and Salt Recovery from Brine

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
UMPQUA Research Company
P.O. Box 609
Myrtle Creek, OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-7770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Thompson
jthompson@urcmail.net
P.O. Box 609
Myrtle Creek,  OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-2658

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A microgravity-compatible Brine Evaporation and Mineralization System (BEMS) is proposed for 100% water recovery from highly contaminated wastewater as well as water generated from entrained organic contaminant oxidation without concern for precipitation of organic and inorganic solids. The BEMS utilizes fully regenerable evaporation media, a catalytic oxidizer, and heat exchange technologies, which reduce Equivalent System Mass (ESM) for water recovery by eliminating the nominal brine byproduct, dramatically lowering consumables and reducing long-term waste storage requirements. The BEMS process will exceed the goal of 95% water recovery by 2017-2022 set forth by NASA in the space technology roadmap. Highly contaminated wastewater streams such as urine, hygiene water, and RO brines are major wastewater streams for the BEMS. The Phase I project will focus on development of the evaporation bed capacity and catalytic oxidizer efficiency. The Phase II will incorporate thermal efficiency and introduce catalytic capability into the evaporation bed to improve efficiency and result in delivery of a prototype system. These efforts will be the foundation for the design and construction of a flight ready prototype for use on the International Space Station.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This specialized, innovative technology cannot compete effectively against large-scale distillation or reverse osmosis based desalination processes; however, the BEMS technology is ideal for smaller scale or specialty applications due to its simplicity, small size, and ability to rapidly produce pure water and dried inorganic salts. These applications include routine or emergency water production and the reduction of wastewater disposal volumes aboard ships, at industrial sites, or where nuclear wastes require concentration and confinement. Other highly advantageous commercial applications include the recovery of valuable salts from concentrated solutions where relatively low temperature recovery is required and the destruction of volatile components is desired.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA application for this technology will be as Flight Hardware for deployment in support of future, long duration exploration objectives beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) where efficient, reliable, and low-maintenance water reclamation systems will play a critical role in reducing ECLSS logistics. The Brine Evaporation and Mineralization System (BEMS) technology provides a simple, microgravity compatible method to recover water from highly contaminated wastewater and brines without concern for organic and inorganic solids. The use of regenerable evaporation media, catalytic oxidation, and heat exchange technology will lower the ESM for this technology compared to conventional air evaporation technologies. Such a water recovery system will be purchased as Flight Hardware by NASA, or by an aerospace contracting firm on behalf of NASA, resulting in enhanced capability in support of manned missions beyond LEO, where minimization of expendables, reliability, and simple operation are highly valued.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Waste Storage/Treatment


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 S20.01-8853
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Array Technologies for Microwave Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ku/Ka-Band Electrically-Scanned Line Array for Tri-Band Cloud and Precipitation Radar Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nuvotronics, LLC
7586 Old Peppers Ferry Loop
Radford, VA 24141-8846
(800) 341-2333

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Benjamin Cannon
bcannon@nuvotronics.com
2305 Presidential Drive
Durham,  NC 27703-8039
(800) 341-2333

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A spaceborne radar system that operates simultaneously at multiple frequency bands from microwave through millimeter-wave frequencies can exploit the largely varying frequency response of electromagnetic radiation to various atmospheric conditions, thus forming a highly-capable remote sensing system for NASA earth science objectives such as cloud and precipitation monitoring. We propose the development of an electrically scanned, co-located Ku/Ka-band (13.4/35.6 GHz) linear array in the Nuvotronics PolyStrata&#174; technology for integration with an electrically scanned W-band (94 GHz) linear array to form the feed for a three-band remote sensing system. The PolyStrata&#174; wafer-scale microfabrication process, with the capability to monolithically integrate dielectric-free antenna arrays with ultra-low-loss air-coax feed networks in three-dimensions, will be a key enabler of achieving the state-of-the art performance requirements for front-end losses at the desired operating frequencies as well as the desired scalability to 2-3 meters. Unprecedented transmit efficiencies and power levels will be achieved by leveraging Nuvotronics' history of developing Gallium Nitride (GaN) power amplifiers and low-loss switches at similar frequencies. A prototype hardware demonstration of the co-located Ku/Ka-band antenna array fabricated in the PolyStrata&#174; process will be provided.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Military applications include: active denial directive energy systems and millimeter-wave radar systems for: degraded visual environments, actively guided missile seeker technology, and unmanned aerial system collision avoidance. Non-military, commercialization opportunities for this technology include: point-to-point datalinks and homeland security systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Nuvotronics proposed solution applies to several NASA earth science missions including: the Global Cloud and Precipitation Mission (GCPM), Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems (ACE) mission, and the Snow and Cold Land Processes (SCLP) mission. Additionally, this state-of-the-art electrically scanned millimeter-wave array technology has applications in planetary landing radars such as what is used for the Mars Science Laboratory mission.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Amplifiers/Repeaters/Translators
Antennas
Power Combiners/Splitters
Transmitters/Receivers
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
3D Imaging
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Electromagnetic
Microwave


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 S20.01-9356
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Array Technologies for Microwave Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Frequency, All Digital Radar (ADR) for Biomass and Ice-sheet Investigations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arvind Bhat
abhat@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Dr STE 400
Rockville,  MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5254

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Low-Frequency, All Digital Radar (ADR) can be a key component for NASA Phased-array and tomographic Radar systems spanning multiple earth-science measurement objectives. One of the key attractions of ADR is hardware re-use for different scenarios. Intelligent Automation Inc. (IAI) proposes the design of an ADR system to meet the technology requirements listed in this solicitation. State-of-the-art technologies in the design of data conversion devices like Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADC), Digital-to-Analog Converters (DAC), Direct Digital Synthesizers (DDS) and reconfigurable logic devices like Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) MMIC make it possible to realize the concept of ADR with low SWaP and low-cost goals. The proposed ADR will build upon IAI's Software Defined Radio/ Radar (SDR) design expertise. Our proposed approach is modular, scalable and meets the NASA goals of multi-channel, coherent altimeters along the cross track to obtain high resolution in the cross track direction.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most promising commercial applications of the proposed ADR, besides NASA Radar applications are: -Real-time digital processors -Network emulators -Arbitrary waveform synthesizers. -Reconfigurable Radar and Communications prototyping.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our proposed design can be used for a wide range of remote sensing applications for NASA including: -Miniaturized, reconfigurable radar systems for UAVs -Digital Receivers and Exciter (DREX) -Radar Target Generators. -Tomographic Radar for Biomass and Ice-sheet imaging. -Algorithm development platform for existing NASA radar platforms (GISMO, EcoSAR, DBSAR, HIWRAP, URAD) or communications systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Antennas
Transmitters/Receivers
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
3D Imaging
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Processing
Microwave
Radio


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 S20.01-9951
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Array Technologies for Microwave Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Power Digital Correlator System for PATH Mission

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pacific Microchip Corporation
3916 Sepulveda Boulevard #108
Culver City, CA 90230-4650
(310) 683-2628

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Denis Zelenin
denis@pacificmicrochip.com
3916 Sepulveda Boulevard #108
Culver City,  CA 90230-4650
(310) 638-2628

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The NASA's PATH mission employs a synthetic aperture radiometer that produces 768 IF (10MHz - 500MHz) signals. Digitizing the signals results in 1.536Tb/s (1GS/s, 2-bit) data stream. Within the NASA's SBIR contracts NNX12CE50P and NNX13CP01C, Pacific Microchip Corp. has developed a low power 64x64 cross-correlator ASIC offering the reduction of the amount of data to manageable levels. This ASIC includes an array of 128 digitizers operated at 1GS/s and 2-bit precision. This ASIC is the key component in the proposed cross-correlator system for the PATH mission. The innovation offers to greatly reduce the power consumption, weight and the system's complexity. Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of implementation of the system based on the developed ASIC. We will design the cross-correlator system's schematic, its behavioral model and will run the simulations proving the requirements of the PATH mission can be met. The PCB will also be designed to prove the feasibility of the system's physical implementation and meeting electrical and thermal requirements. Phase II will result in the complete system's assembly, its electrical and thermal characterization and validation on the PATH's radiometer which is being developed at JPL.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High energy efficiency at high data processing speed, radiation hardness and wide operating temperature range of the proposed cross-correlator system make it applicable in many space-based commercial and military systems to perform such functions as radiometry, interferometry, polarimetry, and spectrometry required for remote sensing applications. Low-power cross-correlators are also required for neural implants in medicine, for image sensor signal processing in military and homeland security, as well as for synthetic aperture radars in both military and civil aviation. The proposed system can be included into the signal-processing path of artificial eyes, ears or other sensory applications for signal processing, based on artificial neural networks. In order to ensure the highest outcome of the developed technology, the proposed system's core will also be offered as an IP block, which will be licensed to interested parties for a variety of applications that require fast and high energy-efficient parallel signal processing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed low-power cross-correlator system is specifically targeted for NASA's PATH mission to process the GeoSTAR instrument's microwave sounder signals. The proposed system will digitize the signals at 1GS/s with 2-bit accuracy and will cross-correlate the IF (I and Q) signals of 3X128 receivers, located on the three arms of the Y-shaped antenna array. A total of 48 cross-correlator ASICs will be employed in order to implement the complete cross-correlation function required for the PATH mission. A novel cross-correlator system will allow to process these signals at greatly reduced power consumption, compared to the systems based on off-the-shelf components and FPGA. The proposed cross-correlator system, with some modifications, can also be applied in signal processing systems required for radio telescopes, such as the SKA that may employ more than 2000 receivers. The cross-correlators installed on such telescopes are projected to consume tens of kilowatts of power. Our system offers major reduction of power consumption. The proposed system's core will be made available as an IP core, which we will offer for implementation in other cross-correlators, employed in space-born and Earth-based NASA instruments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Data Input/Output Devices (Displays, Storage)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 S20.02-8519
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Novel Spectroscopy Technology and Instrumentation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Improved Hyperspectral Imaging Technologies

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanohmics, Inc.
6201 East Oltorf Street, Suite 400
Austin, TX 78741-7509
(512) 389-9990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Byron Zollars
bzollars@nanohmics.com
6201 East Oltorf Street, Suite 400
Austin,  TX 78741-7509
(512) 389-9990

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Improved hyperspectral imaging technologies could enable lower-cost analysis for planetary science including atmospheric studies, mineralogical investigations, and geological mapping. Traditionally, multispectral imaging (beyond RGB) requires numerous optical filters, complex spectroscopic instrumentation, or massive systems. A compact system that enables real-time hyperspectral imaging or long-term averaging without moving parts could revolutionize planetary observation techniques. Nanohmics, Inc. proposes to develop a novel on-chip hyperspectral imaging system for use in planetary missions. The hyperspectral system can be integrated with existing commercial-off-the-shelf imaging systems, providing an immediate route towards commercialization. The compactness will enable the technology to be applied in a variety of mission environments ranging from Flagship-class programs to cubesats.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This has cross-application in chemical engineering for imaging multi-fluid flow fields with unprecedented simplicity. Surveillance applications can include improved target identification. Additional applications can include environmental monitoring efforts, such as discovery of chemical dumping sites through contaminant spectral response.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A real-time hyperspectral camera would provide the planetary sciences realm with the ability to record atmospheric phenomena at multiple frequencies simultaneously. Furthermore, geo-mapping capabilities would be greatly improved. As an on-chip technology, it would greatly improve the mission base that could support hyperspectral imagers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Multispectral/Hyperspectral


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 S20.02-9113
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Novel Spectroscopy Technology and Instrumentation
PROPOSAL TITLE: On-Chip hyperspetral imaging system for portable IR spectroscopy Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied NanoFemto Technologies, LLC
181 Stedman Street, Unit #2
Lowell, MA 01851-5201
(978) 761-4293

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jarrod Vaillancourt
jarrod.vaillancourt@appliednanofemto.com
181 Stedmen Street, Unit #2
Lowell,  MA 01851-5201
(978) 430-7128

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Hyperspectral middlewave infrared and longwave infrared (MWIR/LWIR) imaging systems capable of obtaining hundreds of narrow band (10-15 nm) spectral information of Earth's surface, the atmosphere, and land use in agriculture are of great importance in NASA's Earth remote sensing missions. Existing hyperspectral MWIR/LWIR imaging systems are bulky and heavy and thus not suitable for portable and small satellite applications. This SBIR project aims to develop an on-chip hyerspectral imaging system with integrated narrow-band (15 nm) hyperspectral filers on the pixels of the MWIR/LWIR image array. Successfully developing the proposed innovation will provide an enabling ultra-compact on-chip hyperspectral imaging technology with significantly reduced size, weight, and power consumption suitable for NASA's portable and small satellite earth remote sensing missions. In phase I, the proposed on-chip hyperspctral imaging system will be evaluated and compared with existing technologies. A preliminary MWIR/LWIR photodetector with the integrated plasmonic narrow-band filter will be fabricated and characterized. In Phase II, a prototype of the miniature on-chip mega pixel (1024x1024) MWIR/LWIR hyperspectral imaging system will be developed for laboratory demonstration.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The on-chip hyperspectral MWIR/LWIR imaging technology with high sensitivity and high spectral-resolution is particularly useful in portable and standalone sensing and imaging for many critical military and homeland security applications such as night vision, missile early launch detection and remote chemical sensing and detection for biological/chemical warfare. Commercial markets include leak detection, chemical process control, remote chemical sensing for atmospheric pollution and drug monitoring, IR spectroscopy, and medical diagnoses. The technology developed herein should considerably accelerate the commercialization of ultra-compact portable hyperspectral IR camera technologies to meet the potential needs of the huge defense and commercial market.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The on-chip plasmonic hyperspectral MWIR/LWIR imaging system enables hyperspectral MWIR/LWIR sensing and imaging on a single chip with substantially reduced device size, weight and power consumption and improved system reliability for portable and small satellite remote sensing applications. This on-chip hyperspectral MWIR/LWIR imaging system will significantly reduce the costs of NASA's Earth mission in measurement of Earth's resources and its environment as well as land use in agriculture, such as carbon-based trace gases, CH4, and CO2, mapping of Ozone (O3) layers, as well as soils, and understanding of the Earth system and its response to natural and human-induced changes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Image Analysis
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Thermal Imaging (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Filtering
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Infrared
Multispectral/Hyperspectral


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 S20.02-9702
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Novel Spectroscopy Technology and Instrumentation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wide-Field, Deep UV Raman Hyperspectral Imager

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ChemImage Sensor Systems
7301 Penn Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15208-2528
(412) 241-7335

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nathaniel Gomer
gomern@chemimage.com
7301 Penn Ave
Pittsburgh,  PA 15208-2528
(412) 241-7335

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS), teaming with the University of South Carolina, proposes a revolutionary wide-field Raman hyperspectral imaging system capable of meeting the stated needs. The proposed innovation couples a spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS), a novel slit-less spectrometer that operates similar to Michelson interferometer, with a fiber array spectral translator (FAST) fiber array, a two-dimensional imaging fiber for hyperspectral imagery, to create a novel wide-field, high throughput Raman hyperspectral imager capable of yielding very high spectral resolution in a small form factor. The system can be configuredin both benchtop and standoff configurations. A standoff configuration is beneficial for any rover based mission, since it does not require close contact to the analyte of interest and Raman can interrogate targets up to 100 meters away.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology has potential in numerous commercial markets including quality assessment of security printing, pharmaceuticals, food, agriculture, textiles, plastics, semiconductors and even detection of certain types of cancer. This technique can be used for forensic analysis of documents, latent prints, bloodstains, and gun powder residue; clinical diagnostics such as detection of cancer, diabetes, skin disorders, and infection; pharmaceutical development; detection of illegal drug substances and hazardous materials; and much more. In addition, the technology can be utilized for the detection of chemical, biological and explosive threats. Potential users of the proposed technology include DoD military branches such as EOD teams. In addition, the DHS including the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), Customs and Border Patrol (CBP), and United States Secret Service, as well as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF), bomb squads, and hazmat teams. State and local law enforcement can face similar threats and could also be a potential customer.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The wide-area, deep UV Raman hyperspectral imaging system holds great potential for many NASA applications. The proposed system specifically addresses NASA's Science Instruments, Observatories, and Sensor Systems Roadmap Technology Area 8, which stated the need for in situ sensors. The proposed system could offer in situ molecular analysis without damaging the sample, allowing for multiple measurements to be made. In addition, the roadmap states an on-going need for spectroscopy technologies for various missions to support astrophysics technology needs. The field with the most benefit for this technology will be planetary science technology, with upcoming missions that aim to characterize the surface and environments of various planetary bodies. These missions are looking for systems that can provide mineralogical analysis (8.3.4.2) and biomarker detection (8.3.4.4), which the proposed system can provide. Section 8.1.3.4 also states the need for advanced spectrometers with a focus on miniaturization. This is another feature that the proposed system can meet, since the SHS can be quite small, which was demonstrated on STS-1122. The proposed system can also be complimentary to laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS- ChemCam instrument), since the Raman system provides information on molecular bonding while LIBS provides elemental composition.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 S20.03-9947
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Hardened Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) Platforms
PROPOSAL TITLE: Radiation Hardened Structured ASIC Platform for Rapid Chip Development for Very High Speed System on a Chip (SoC) and Complex Digital Logic Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Microelectronics Research Development Corporation
4775 Centennial Boulevard, Suite 130
Colorado Springs, CO 80919-3332
(719) 531-0805

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sasan Ardalan
sasan.ardalan@micro-rdc.com
2100 Airpark SE, Suite 120
Albuquerque,  NM 87106-3227
(505) 294-1962

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Radiation Hardened Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) provide for the highest performance, lowest power and size for Space Missions. In order to dramatically reduce the development cycle and reduce the cost to tapeout Rad Hard ASICs, we propose a Structured ASIC approach. In this approach we fix an array of complex logic cells and provide a fixed Area Array for I/O pads supporting in excess of 400 CMOS GPIO pins. In addition, we fix the power grid and the pins associated with power (core and I/O) and ground. Thus, we require only routing in a subset of the metal layers in order to configure the Structured ASIC to a specific design. This leads to substantial reduction in design and verification time to tapeout, and results in reduced cost by requiring a subset of Mask changes per design. In this work, we will build on existing 90nm Silicon proven Radiation Hardened Structured ASIC platform and develop a Structured ASIC platform at the 45nm SOI technology node with the objective to increase the clock speeds to hundreds of MHz with SEU mitigation in sequential logic. We will also use High Density Interconnect (HDI) for packaging the Die in BGA and LGA packages. The HDI design does not change for each configuration of the Structured ASIC so that the same benefits of Structured ASIC are extended to packaging the part with high pinout and high speed I/O requirements eliminating layout design costs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial companies that deploy Geosynchronous satellites will benefit from the capability to design Rad Hard ASICs that can be configured in a rapid production cycle to meet specific demands for interfacing to communication systems over high band width busses. The dramatic cost reduction with Structured ASIC will make possible missions that required ASICs but were cost prohibitive. The Rad Hard Structured ASIC approach will also allow commercial CubeSat missions to extend beyond low Earth orbit to interplanetary missions that requite greater TID and SEU immunity. Also commercial missions with high cost payloads can plan longer term low earth orbit missions using Rad Hard, high performance low cost ASICs in place of COTS parts that will fail.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
With the rapid development cycle to manufacture packaged Radiation Hardened ASIC chips with the increased speed performance and dramatically lower power, NASA can enable interplanetary and long term low Earth orbit missions that support 32 bit and 64 bit Systems on a Chip (Soc) with high speed networking and multiple sensor bus support. These SoC ASICs will enable more complex sensor integration with the C&DH. Designs can be adapted to various bus protocols proposed and in use for CubeSat missions. The reconfigurable high gate count, multi-MHz SEU immune sequential logic, embedded RAM and mask programmable ROM capability, allows for high performance processors to be designed to meet mission requirements in rapid production cycles with proven in Silicon fabric and standard Die I/O and robust high pin count packaging. The 6 month to Silicon cycle, will allow NASA to meet mission schedule without sacrificing speed and power requirements and also enable missions that were otherwise impossible to achieve in harsh radiation environments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Prototyping
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Computer System Architectures
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 Z20.01-8655
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deep Space Cubesat Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Deployable Solar Energy Generators for Deep Space Cubesats

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanohmics, Inc.
6201 East Oltorf Street, Suite 400
Austin, TX 78741-7509
(512) 389-9990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steve Savoy
ssavoy@nanohmics.com
6201 East Oltorf Street, Suite 400
Austin,  TX 78741-7509
(512) 389-9990

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Cubesats require highly compact technologies to maximize their effectiveness. As cubesats are expected to be low-cost and, relative to the space industry, mass produced, their technologies should be simple to manufacture, yet achieve aerospace quality standards. This proposal aims to describe a novel high-efficiency (i.e., comparable to solar panels) fabricated power supply for cubesats and other small satellites that has marked advantages over solar photovoltaic cells. Nanohmics Inc. proposes to develop and test a compact, high efficiency solar thermoelectric generator. The technology is amenable to mass manufacturing and is based on recent development successes at Nanohmics: thermoelectrics development and coatings to maximize emissivity. On a space vehicle, the energy generator would be deployable in a number of ways including a folding fan-like unpacking or other compact designs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Thermoelectric waste heat recovery is a growing industry. A low-cost manufacturing solution for thermoelectrics, even at moderate efficiency, would allow regeneration of substantial power from parasitic heat losses in industrial and commercial systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A low-cost alternative to solar panels could enable long-term operations for cubesats and cubesat constellations. As a scalable technology, it could be applied to 1U through 6U cubesats for missions in Earth orbit and beyond. Due to the lack of a fragile semiconductor junction, the energy generators would be robust to radiation and increased life. Additionally, the robust architecture would improve ease of handling, packaging, and deployment.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 Z20.01-8807
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deep Space Cubesat Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: LunarCube for Deep Space Missions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Busek Company Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kurt Hohman
kurt@busek.com
11 Tech Circle
Natick,  MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Busek Co., Inc. and Morehead State University propose to develop a 6U CubeSat capable of reaching a lunar orbit from GEO. The primary objective is to demonstrate heretofore unavailable high Isp(~3000s) with a small and very efficient ion thruster. A mission to the moon will demonstrate a propulsion technology that enables a variety of other deep space missions. Unlike the well-known and much larger DC ion thrusters flown on missions such as Deep Space 1 and Dawn, the proposed thruster is powered by an inductively coupled RF discharge with condensable propellant. The chosen propellant is stored as a high-density solid at room temperature with minimal vapor pressure. Such property enables the storage tank to be small, lightweight and moldable for maximizing propellant volume. These benefits are further realized by the use of Busek's miniature RF ion thruster (RFIT) system. Busek's ion thrusters were developed to answer the need for a small yet high-performance EP device, as their DC counterparts are difficult to scale down and achieve long life due to the internal cathode. The BRFIT-3 thruster proposed for the LunarCube has a 3cm grid diameter, is close to 50% efficient and delivers variable Isp and thrust of ~3000s and ~2mN, respectively. With this performance, <0.8kg of propellant can sufficiently provide delta V >3km/s. The thruster's life by estimation is in excess of 20,000 hours. An additional objective is to demonstrate that much of the spacecraft electronics, primarily the C&DH portion, can be based on low-cost components and survive the deep space environment. The mission will also require pioneering approaches to ADCS and power generation. Initial design of the solar arrays includes two winged panels mounted on Honeybee Robotics' gimbals, and together they will deliver peak power of ~96W. One option for the payload will be a miniature long wavelength IR camera made by Malin Space Science Systems that could be used for geological studies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA customers include commercial human exploration and presence in space, commercial asteroid missions and DOD and commercial EO missions. For example, in communication with Planetary Resources, they are interested in the propulsion system in their Arkyd Series 200 - Interceptor for asteroid mining. NRO has indicated interest in this propulsion technology for low earth orbit spacecraft to make up for atmospheric drag. We have letters of support from both of these two entities based on a full Lunar Cube proposal to an earlier Edison BAA. The Morehead State University C&DH system will also be ultimately produced for both the small satellite and UAV and UAS markets. The small size, low power consumption and significant processing capabilities combined with low cost and expandability will make this C&DH system competitive in these markets.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Both the high-Isp ion propulsion and the low-cost radiation tolerant electronics needed for the lunar mission are crucial for future deep space missions. Exploring our solar system with low-cost robotic/scout vehicles as precursors for human missions or science missions will benefit from these technologies. Busek's RF ion thruster (BRFIT) enables small satellites to fly beyond earth orbit and can be used in close proximity operations applications. Missions for the moon, inner planets and asteroids are therefore made possible. Additionally the BRFIT is ideal for drag make up applications for earth observation (EO) missions from low flying platforms, down to altitudes of ~200km. Altitude reduction is essential for high resolution EO from small, low-cost satellites that are by definition unsuitable for large optical or RF apertures and thus lower altitude is the only option for higher image resolution. Potential post applications of the Morehead State University multi-band communications systems include productization and marketing this system to the small satellite community for a variety of applications in LEO and beyond. The capabilities and flexibility of this system (software controlled frequency agility and controllable, variable power output combined with a variety of modulation schemes) combined with an extremely low price point will make the system attractive to small satellite developers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 Z20.01-9350
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deep Space Cubesat Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Power Betavoltaic Technology

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MicroLink Devices, Inc.
6457 Howard Street
Niles, IL 60714-3301
(847) 588-3001

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Glen Hillier
ghillier@mldevices.com
6457 Howard Street
Niles,  IL 60714-3301
(847) 588-3001

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovation will dramatically improve the performance of tritium-powered betavoltaic batteries through the development of a high-aspect ratio, expanded surface area p/n junction composed of indium gallium phosphide. The enhanced surface area features will be built using reactive ion etch (RIE) modified germanium substrates via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The proposed 3-dimensional betavoltaic p/n junction will provide a cost saving of up to 90%, while increasing energy density to up to ten times that of lithium batteries. Such an advanced semiconductor device will produce much higher power outputs than are possible with existing state-of-the-art devices. It will provide the battery a life span in excess of 20 years with the broad-range temperature-insensitivity benefits normally associated with betavoltaics. This increased power/energy density for tritium betavoltaics will open up pathways for significant advances in power solutions for diminutive sized, low-power microelectronic devices that may be used in Cubesat and in-space power systems. Example applications include microwatt-to-milliwatt autonomous 20+ year sensors/microelectronics for use in structural monitoring, mesh networks, tagging and tracking wireless sensors, medical device implants, and deep space power where solar is not easily available. Tritium betavoltaics are capable of addressing this power niche for devices requiring reliable, uninterrupted power through extremes of temperature, longevity and diminutive form factors where traditional batteries cannot operate.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other government agencies that would benefit from high power betavoltaic batteries are: - Battery back-up power for FPGA encryption keys used in many defense and security applications - Domestic anti-tamper for defense applications - Nuclear storage/ device monitoring for defense applications Commercial markets that are of interest include: - Satellite power supplies, including cubesats - SRAM (static random access memory) volatile memory It should be noted that City Labs has sold prototype and commercial batteries into select high value markets with premium customers such as Lockheed Martin, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. - Sensors - Medical bionics/ implants

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For high value deep space missions, it may be possible for this technology to provide a cost-effective amount of the total power requirements for a 20+ year mission. Betavoltaic cells are capable of producing up to 1 microwatt/cm2 and will power commercial-off-the-shelf microcontrollers such as the Texas Instruments MSP-430 and similar electronics. Furthermore, it would provide a power density of 50-100 microwatts per cubic centimeter and an energy density roughly equivalent to 5-10 watt hours/cm3 integrated over 20 years, which is 5-10 times the energy density of highest energy-density lithium batteries!

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Conversion
Generation
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Metallics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 Z20.01-9516
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deep Space Cubesat Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Solar Electric Propulsion CubeSat Bus for Deep Space Missions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ExoTerra Resource, LLC
9754 Las Colinas Drive
Lone Tree, CO 80124-4206
(303) 565-6898

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael VanWoerkom
m_vanwoerkom@exoterraresource.com
9754 Las Colinas Drive
Lone Tree,  CO 80124-4206
(303) 565-6898

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As electronics continue to shrink in size, the capabilities of CubeSats continues to expand. CubeSats can now perform a wide range of sensing and telecommunications applications. However, CubeSats have been limited in their ability to conduct propulsive maneuvers and to withstand deep space environments. This limits them to the orbits they are deposited in from their rideshare flight. ExoTerra's Solar Electric Propulsion CubeSat Bus opens a whole new set of mission opportunities to CubeSats by providing over 1 km/s of dV for CubeSats through its 6U bus. The bus expands the CubeSat state of the art by implementing 3x higher power solar arrays, high efficiency power distribution and a low power, high efficiency Hall Thruster. To meet deep space mission requirements, we add guidance and navigation systems, incorporate radiation tolerant electronics and integrate thermal control systems into the bus. The SEP CubeSat project demonstrates a first of its kind propulsive capability by building, qualifying and flying the SEP CubeSat. The mission launches from the SLS opportunity in 2017. After Translunar Injection, the Cubesat uses its SEP system to perform lunar orbit insertion and spiral in, becoming the first Cubesat to successfully perform a capture maneuver at another celestial body.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The dV capability has potential commercial applications as well. By enabling dispersion of a constellation of satellites, commercial operators can provide global coverage with Cubesats for telecommunications or remote sensing applications at a cost below today's monolithic systems. In addition, the system allows for orbit adjustment from the rideshare drop-off orbit. This allows operators to move into inclinations or altitudes that are more advantageous for their mission and eliminating the reliance on finding a rideshare going to their preferred orbit. At the extreme, scaling the system to 12U can result in sufficient dV to transfer Cubesats to Geosynchronous Orbit, opening up Geosynchronous mission opportunities. As CubeSat capabilities continue to expand, the mission opportunities afforded by a 1 km/s propulsion system expand as well.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The low launch cost of CubeSats makes them a highly attractive option for a number of remote sensing missions. By adding the ability to provide >1 km/s dV to a CubeSat we open a wide range of additional missions for NASA. The system can provide sufficient dV to perform lunar orbit insertion, allowing a constellation of low-cost CubeSats to be sent to the Moon to provide global coverage at a fraction of current costs. Similarly, NASA can affordably send a number of CubeSats to rendezvous with multiple asteroids to perform precursor missions leading to an eventual asteroid capture or manned landing mission. Finally, the dV capability allows NASA to disperse a series of CubeSats launched on a single flight to form constellations that work together to provide global sensing around Earth.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Conversion
Distribution/Management
Deployment
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 Z20.01-9599
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deep Space Cubesat Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Deep Space CubeSat Gamma-ray Navigation Technology Demonstration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ASTER Labs, Inc.
155 East Owasso Lane
Shoreview, MN 55126-3034
(651) 484-2084

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Suneel Sheikh
sheikh@asterlabs.com
155 East Owasso Lane
Shoreview,  MN 55126-3034
(651) 484-2084

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed novel program will use measurements of high-energy photon output from celestial gamma-ray sources to design a new, unique navigation system for a deep space CubeSat demonstration. An integrated CubeSat design will be developed to demonstrate the performance and feasibility of the Gamma-ray source Localization-Induced Navigation and Timing, or "GLINT", technology and software developed under a previous NASA Phase I SBIR. In this past research, our team established the feasibility of using photons from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) to provide deep-space vehicles the capability for self-navigation, showing that with key improvements to detector and timing instrumentation, the technique could achieve three-dimensional position accuracies of less than one kilometer. In this proposed research, recent developments in these hardware components will facilitate the design of a high resolution GRB monitor and precise timing circuit board, which, due to their size, weight, and power requirements, are prime candidates for integration into a 6U or smaller CubeSat. The mission proposed will fly two 3U-sized CubeSats equipped with this system, which will use time differenced of arrival measurements from the same observed GRB to determine a relative position solution. The GLINTSAT demonstration mission will measure the performance capabilities of this system. The team will design the mission architecture, including system requirements and components. An advanced photon timing instrument board will be designed, along with an accompanying high-resolution gamma-ray detector. Integration into the 3U CubeSat design will be detailed. Navigation performance will be evaluated using the designs and a prototype laboratory relative timing experiment. An integrated system error budget will be produced and the mission performance will be assessed to establish the feasibility and detail the path to environmental testing and full CubeSat system development for a 2017-timeframe launch.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications include lower operations cost for DoD and military deep space ventures, backup relative navigation capabilities for commercial crewed transport, low-cost space-based terrestrial nuclear detonation detection, and terrestrial detectors and dosimeters. The integrated design of the GLINTSAT system could easily support any commercial or military venture far from Earth, without requiring costly communication and telemetry for navigation, and instead would allow these vehicles to navigate, coordinating with measurements from other deep space vehicles both collecting their own measurements, or already in communication with the GCN or IPN. These new cost-efficient sensors would include missions in geosynchronous or supersynchronous orbits, and ventures to the Moon or asteroids. The precision timing of the detector and timing circuit could also greatly enhance the capabilities of ground-based nuclear detonation detection and dosimeters, without the need for site inspections or frequent site monitoring.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications consist primarily of support for the autonomy of low-cost CubeSats into deep space, the offset of Deep Space Network workload, dual-use gamma-ray detector technology for both science and navigation use, improved high-energy celestial source analytics and detector technologies, formation flying and asteroid rendezvous, and space weather research and warnings. The GLINTSAT demonstration mission would allow direct feasibility and performance assessments of this technology in enabling self-navigating deep space CubeSats. This will provide NASA load shedding for potentially oversubscribed DSN operations. The advanced detectors and sub-microsecond timing capabilities will also serve to enhance the science capabilities of high-energy photon experiments onboard these vehicles, and eventually extend to the Inter-Planetary Network and Gamma-ray Burst Coordinate Network for burst detection and localization. Additionally, this relative navigation technique could support formation flying spacecraft missions, as well as precise navigation to planetary objects like asteroids. The integration of these systems onboard future CubeSat missions will also provide space weather researchers with a solar system-wide early warning system for solar storms and intense celestial gamma-ray outbursts, allowing notifications for safe harboring of personnel and hardware, monitoring EVA high-energy radiation dosages, or post-burn analysis of data from sensitive instruments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Space Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
Ranging/Tracking
X-rays/Gamma Rays


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 Z20.01-9685
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deep Space Cubesat Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: CubeSat Ambipolar Thruster for LEO and Deep Space Missions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aether Industries, LLC
3600 Green Court, Suite 300
Ann Arbor, MI 48105-1570
(608) 225-3173

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Benjamin Longmier
bwlongmier@gmail.com
3600 GREEN CT, STE 300
Ann Arbor,  MI 48105-1570
(608) 225-3173

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aether Industries proposes the development of a novel, primary plasma propulsion system that is well suited for small spacecraft. This technology, called the CubeSat Ambipolar Thruster (CAT), would provide CubeSats and other micro- and nano-satellites with the propulsive capability to make meaningful orbital plane and altitude changes &#151; capability that does not currently exist with state-of-the-art micropropulsion technologies. As such, the CAT engine is an enabling technology that supports NASA, commercial, university, and military CubeSat needs from constellation deployment to lunar orbit insertion and beyond. In the CAT engine, a high-power RF plasma discharge is expanded adiabatically along a magnetic nozzle topology established by permanent magnets. A resultant ambipolar electric field accelerates the ions to high energies to generate thrust while retaining high propellant utilization. The CAT engine offers a means of providing efficient and high thrust-to-power primary propulsion for CubeSats and microsatellites. The CAT engine promises to change the CubeSat paradigm from passive sensor carriers to fully capable mission-completing spacecraft. Successful implementation by our team will result in the transition of technology developed into the commercial sector by a small business, the engagement of the next generation of the space sector workforce, and the infusion of an advanced in-space propulsion technology for future NASA, commercial, and government missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of the CubeSat Ambipolar Thruster (CAT) as a self-contained, CubeSat-compatible micropropulsion module takes advantage of the commercial opportunities in a rapidly growing nanosatellite market. Since 2000, academic, military, governmental, and commercial nanosatellite launch demand has grown by an average of 4% per year; this demand is projected to have a 20% growth per year over the next three years with over a hundred nanosatellites expected to be launched each year by 2020. These nanosatellites will be tasked with increasingly demanding missions (i.e., >100 m/s delta-v) with the corresponding need for high-performance micropropulsion systems to enable these missions. Unfortunately, current state-of-the-art cold-gas micropropulsion systems, with specific impulses <100 s, do not provide the requisite performance. In the development of the CAT engine, Aether is joined with several commercial partners in an effort to rapidly develop the necessary subsystems to a point where a large number of commercial units can be used for LEO constellation deployment, and prospecting and radio beacon deployment on many near-Earth asteroids. A phase 1 SBIR would allow Aether to more aggressively pursue the rapid testing necessary to bring the CAT engine to commercial fruition.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The CAT engine can achieve specific impulses (Isp) readily in excess of 1000 s. A CAT primary propulsion module can thus provide CubeSats with up to 10 km/s of delta-v, and hence major changes in orbital parameters in LEO can be achieved, as well as deploying CubeSats into Deep Space. With performance capability that is one to two orders of magnitude greater than the <100 m/s of delta-v that can be obtained from state-of-the-art micropropulsion systems , the CAT engine will enable mission planners to use CubeSats for many innovative mission concepts, including but not limited to the following scenarios of interest to NASA and other potential customers: (1) LEO to GEO and Lagrange point (Earth-Moon and Earth- Sun) orbital insertion and station-keeping, (2) Trans-lunar insertion and lunar orbit capture, (3) Earth's escape velocity generation for interplanetary CubeSat missions, (4) Final orbit acquisition at target destination following CubeSat deployment from carrier spacecraft, (5) Polar orbit insertion from mid-latitude initial orbits, (6) Mid-mission orbital adjustments for scientific sampling of a larger volume of the ionosphere and magnetosphere, (7) Long-duration cluster formation flying with the ability to reconfigure the constellation's orbital parameters, (8) Rendezvous and close-proximity operations .

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Prototyping
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Lifetime Testing
Simulation & Modeling
Heat Exchange
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 Z20.01-9855
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deep Space Cubesat Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multi-Purpose Interplanetary Deployable Aerocapture System (MIDAS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Altius Space Machines, Inc.
511 East South Boulder Road
Louisville, CO 80027-2566
(720) 362-2778

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Copel
dcopel@altius-space.com
1590 Eisenhower Drive,
Boulder,  CO 80303-8135
(914) 260-2318

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Altius Space Machines and MSNW LLC propose the development of a cubesat-scale Multipurpose Interplanetary Deployable Aerocapture System (MIDAS), to provide cubesats with the capability to perform reliable aerocapture and aerobraking missions. The MIDAS system consists of a thin, deployable, Magnetoshell Aerocapture (MAC) electromagnet coil that is deployed outward from the cubesat body using multiple elastically deployed composite STEM booms. The MIDAS system also incorporates into its structure a high-power cubesat-scale roll-out solar array (capable of >5W orbit averaged power even at Jupiter distances), and a high-power burst-mode Loop Yagi antenna for potential deep-space spacecraft-to-Earth ground link communications. While it will not be investigated in the proposed Phase I workplan, previous research at MSNW indicates that the MIDAS technology may also be able to provide shielding against solar flares and planetary radiation belts. The goal is to package this system into 2-3U of a 6U cubesat for missions to Mars, Venus, or Europa. The Phase I workplan will focus on sizing the MAC coil, creating an Active Aerogravity Tour (AATOUR) design tool for sizing MAC hardware for aerocapture missions, designing and sizing the MIDAS structure, analyzing the burst-mode Loop Yagi system to verify it can close a useful data link with Earth (and vice versa), and then designing and prototyping the MIDAS system for packaging and deployment. The Phase I efforts will culminate in the deployment testing of a full-scale MIDAS system. If completed successfully, the Phase I effort will raise the system from a TRL of 2 to 3. Follow-on Phase II efforts will develop and perform development tests on a full Brassboard MIDAS demonstration system, raising the system to a TRL of 4 or 5.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary Commercial applications Altius has identified include radiation shielding for all-electric DoD and Commercial GEO spacecraft that have to transit the Van Allen belts en route to GEO, systems for aerobraking GTO stages to LEO prior to LEO recovery, and reusable space tugs/propellant tankers. In order to address the first market, which has real near-term demand, Altius and MSNW will identify ways to fund the radiation shielding work needed to use MIDAS for that application, and will coordinate with DoD and commercial comsat companies to identify ways to adapt this technology to their specific mission needs. For the second market, Altius will communicate with commercial launch companies such as SpaceX and ULA to market the technology, and seek opportunities for experimental flight demonstration on one of their upper stages.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA applications include developing MIDAS systems for interplanetary cubesat missions to planets with atmospheres, and larger-scale MIDAS systems for traditional-sized robotic and manned spacecraft enhancing or enabling missions to Mars, Venus, and the Outer gas giants and their moons. Altius and MSNW will work with the NASA COTR to identify members of the interplanetary cubesat community to market this technology to. Altius and MSNW will also work with NASA's Office of the Chief Technologist and the to find opportunities for cubesat flight demonstration of the MIDAS system post Phase II, and also for research and flight demonstration of MIDAS variants optimized for radiation shielding. Altius and MSNW will reach out to NASA and aerospace contractors involved in traditional deep-space missions to find opportunities to partner on future space science missions. Lastly, Altius and MSNW will work with the NASA Advanced Exploration System Division to brief them on the technology, and investigate ways to infuse scaled-up versions of MIDAS technology into future manned exploration missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerobraking/Aerocapture
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Antennas
Transmitters/Receivers
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Composites
Deployment
Structures
Telemetry (see also Control & Monitoring)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 Z20.01-9909
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deep Space Cubesat Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Deep Space Cubesat Regenerative Ranging Transponder (DeSCReeT)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innoflight, Inc.
9985 Pacific Heights Boulevard, Suite 250
San Diego, CA 92121-4310
(858) 638-1580

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joseph Koeniger
jkoeniger@innoflight.com
5850 Oberlin Drive, Suite 340
San Diego,  CA 92121-4712
(858) 638-1580

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Innoflight proposes developing a 0.5U Deep Space Cubesat Regenerative-ranging Transponder (DeSCReeT) compatible with NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) and similarly capable ground assets and with flight-ready units available for CubeSats deployed in cis-lunar space via the Exploratory Mission 1 (EM1) program. The transponder will leverage Innoflight's flight-heritage Software-defined Compact Radio (SCR) family of radios. Phase 1 design efforts include requirements gathering from Pre-Phase A and Phase A CubeSat missions, Forward Error Correction trades, X-Band versus S-Band trades, and radiation-tolerant component trades. Given the EM-1 timeline, the Phase 1 effort will successfully complete a CDR-level design by the end of the period of performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Ever since our 2012 success of qualifying a s/w-defined CubeSat S-Band radio, spacecraft and payload system primes have contacted Innoflight about a similar SWaP ranging transponder and/or X-Band transmitter capability for payloads generating higher data rates. Besides NASA, the interested customers have been both DoD and commercial, e.g., looking into early surveyin