01.01-0511A Computation of Tip Flow Field in Advanced Aircraft Propellers Scientific Research Associates Inc. PO Box 498 Glastonbury CT 06033 Levy Ralph NAS3-24881 Amount: LeRC NAS3-24532
The Phase I effort has established the feasibility of computing the tipflow field in advanced aircraft propellers using a forward-marching computation procedure. The innovative effort has demonstrated the capability of the forward-marching procedure to compute generation and roll-up the tip vortex in high subsonic Mach numbers and in high Reynolds number turbulent flows. Additional tasks, beyond the scope of the Phase I Statement of Work, have demonstrated capability in handling complex geometry of advanced propeller blades. The proposed Phase II effort would extend capabilities demonstrated by the Phase I innovations. The objective of the Phase II study would be to provide a computer code of verified accuracy capable of predicting the tip flow field in advanced propeller blades. Such a computer code would be a valuable tool in the design of advanced propeller blades and the analysis of propeller performance. In particular, such a code would be valuable in computing the effects of details of propeller tip geometry on tip vortex generation and suppression. Specific tasks have been identified in the Phase II proposal to accomplish the above-mentioned objectives.
01.01-8500 Optimization Procedure for Aerodynamic Design for Advanced Turbo Propeller Flow Industries Inc. 21414 68th Avenue South Kent WA 98032 Jou Wen-Huei NAS3-24855 Amount: LeRC NAS3-24533
In recent years, the turboprop propulsion system has received increasinginterest due to substantial savings that can be achieved in fuel consumption. Substantial resources have been invested in developing new technologies for aerodynamic design, aeroacoustic performance, aerodynamic structural design, power generation and power transmission. In propeller design, prediction codes are available to assist design engineers. However, optimization of the design requires manual manipulation of the propeller configuration guided by experience and intuition. The objective of the proposed Phase II work is to develop an automated aerodynamic design code by combining a prediction code and a numerical optimization procedure. In Phase I, the feasibility of using numerical optimization as a design tool was demonstrated by optimizing the twist distribution of the blades for an incompressible flow. The objective was to maximize the propeller at operating Mach numbers of approximately 0.8. In designing the propeller, shock wave effects must be considered. The design objective for Phase II will therefore include the requirements that choking be prevented near the hub and that the strength of shock waves near the blade tip be as weak as possible to increase efficiency and reduce noise.
01.03-5052 Adiabatic Wankel Type Rotary Engine Adiabatics Inc. 630 South Mapleton Avenue Columbus IN 47201 Kamo Roy NAS3-24880 Amount:437,000 LeRC NAS3-24533
The Phase I study of the turbocharged "Adiabatic Wankel-Type Rotary Engine"indicated progressive performance improvements in Wankel rotary engines when the combustion chamber components were insulated. The adiabatic Wankel engine with the advanced concepts: turbocompounding, higher compression ratio, reduced leakage, and faster combustion could decrease the specific fuel consumption by 25% and increase power output by 34%. The elimination of the cooling system can give another 5% reduction due to cooling system components. A total possible improvement of 30% in performance and a 15% reduction in specific weight on an installed basis could provide the next spring-board for the adiabatic Wankel rotary engine to compete in the worldwide aircraft, automotive, industrial, and other power plant markets. Based on the Phase I incentive, a two-year program is proposed herein to design, fabricate, procure, and assemble a prototype, adiabatic Wankel rotary engine with 50% adiabacity. The prototype engine will be extensively tested in the laboratory to determine: (1) performance improvements, (2) integrity of the ceramic coatings and components, (3) emissions characteristics, and (4) wear and durability trend. Turbocompound performance improvements will be calculated from the laboratory test data by simulating intake and exhaust mainfold pressures.
01.03-5444 Rapidly Solidified Titanium Alloys by Melt Overflow Ribbon Technology Corp. PO Box 30758 Gahanna OH 43230 Gaspar Thomas NAS1-18288 Amount: LaRC NAS1-17978
The feasibility of casting rapidly solidfied aluminum alloys, magnesiumalloys and titanium alloys was demonstrated during Phase I research project. A mathematical model of melt overflow was developed to predict cast dimensions from process parameters. The model was verified by laboratory experiments. Microstructural analysis of the foils cast by melt overflow led to estimates of cooling rates on the order of 105 K/s or greater. The proposed Phase II research project will be directed toward the production of rapidly solidified titanium alloys having gine uniform microstructures, minimum gaseous and foreign object impurities, dimensional and compositional uniformity and reproducibility. A facility that combines transferred plasma arc melting and melt overflow will be designed, constructed, operated and maintained at Ribbon Technology Corporation. Mathematical and physical models of the Melt Overflow Process will be developed. Processing experiments will be conducted to cast rapidly solidified titanium alloy foils, filaments, and particulate. A sample quantity of 10 kg will be delivered to NASA. The microstructures and compositions of the rapidly solidified titanium alloys will be evaluated. The melt overflow process will be evaluated for commercial scale operation.
01.05-3812 New Perfluoroalkylether Fluids with Excellent Oxidative and Thermal Stabilities Exfluor Research Corp. PO Box 7807 Austin TX 78713 Bierschenk, Thomas R. NAS3-24856 Amount: LeRC NAS3-23896
The goal is to utilize direct fluorination technology to produce perfluoroalkyletherfluids and lubricants. The direct fluorination process involves the selection of a hydrocarbon with the proper structure which is converted to fluorocarbon by a controlled reaction with elemental fluorine. Since the starting material is a hydrocarbon, numerous structures can be made due to the wide variety of monomers and synthetic techniques available. In contrast, the synthesis of fluorocarbon polymers from fluorocarbon monomers is costly and the types of reactions that can be carried out are extremely limited. The perfluoro- alkylethers produced will have a variety of uses in environments where extreme stability, very low vapor pressure, low acute toxicity, high lubricity and very low pour points are required. Nowhere is this demand so evident as in the aeronautical and space industries.
02.02-8500A Feasibility of Generating an "Artificial" Burst in a Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow Industries Inc. 21414 68th Avenue South Kent WA 98032 Gad-el-hak Mohamed NAS1-18292 Amount:294,000 LaRC NAS1-17930
It is generally agreed that the bursting phenomenon is the most significantdynamic event in a turbulent boundary layer. About 80% of the momentum transport occurs during these bursts. Previous attempts to understand the physics and structure of these events were frustrated by the fact that bursts occur randomly in space and time and that successive bursts are not necessarily identical. During Phase I of this study, "artificial" bursts were generated in laminar and turbulent boundary layers. The burst- like events were produced by withdrawing near-wall fluid from two minute holes separated in the spanwise direction or by pitching a miniature delta wing that was flush-mounted to the wall. Either of these actions generated stream-wise vorticity and a low-speed streak that resembled a naturally occuring one. The resulting sequence of events occurred at a given location and at controlled times, allowing detailed examination and comparison with natural, random bursts by means of flow visualization and fast-response probe measurement techniques. During Phase II of the investigation, the topological properties of the artificial bursts will be deduced from phase-locked hot-film measurements and from pattern recognition algorithms. As part of this investigation, a new technique to reduce skin friction drag in a turbulent boundary layer is proposed. The technique combines the beneficial effects of suction and a longitudinally ribbed surface. The suction will be applied selectively in space and time to minimize pumping energy requirements and to alleviate the need for a porous wall. It is anticipated that net drag reduction using the proposed method will far exceed the reduction attained using suction alone or longitudinal grooves alone.
02.03-5903 Magnetic Suspension and Balance System Advanced Study Madison Magnetics Inc. 216 Walnut Street Madison WI 53705 Boom W. Roger NAS1-18279 Amount: LaRC NAS1-17931
The innovation investigated in Phase II is to achieve more powerful,more compact, less expensive and more reliable suspension systems by new design concepts and by the experimental and theoretical development of new key components. The results of the Phase I work are improvements over the previous 1984 Madison design as to reductions in: cost (28%), weight (43%), conductor (38%), helium liquefier (33%), power (68%), stored energy (55%); and increased pole strength (19%) and increased wing permanent magnetization (40%). Costs for an MSBS for an 8' x 8' tunnel have decreased from $89,000,000 in 1982 (G.E.) to $29,900,000 in 1984 (M.M.I.) to $21,400,000 in the Phase I study. The objectives of Phase II are to confirm and enhance the new features of the Phase I design which are better persistent current superconducting solenoids in the suspended airplane model, better permanent magnet wings, and better designs. The planned efforts to develop new key components are to construct and test a full-scale cryostat and solenoid wound on a holmium core, to experimentally develop even better solenoids with new NbTi wire and better epoxy potting, to test new permanent magnet wing material, and to confirm better designs. The results expected are experimental confirmations of the key component developments which substantiate the major MSBS design improvements.
02.06-4037 Shear Stress Development Using Surface Acoustic Waves Raman Aeronautics Inc. 734 Melville Avenue Palo Alto CA 94301 Raman K. R. NAS2-12481 Amount: ARC NAS2-12121
This project is concerned with the development of a small, reliable anduniversally acceptable surface shear stress (or skin friction) sensor for aerodynamic boundary layer research at subsonic to supersonic speeds. The interdigital transducers (IDTs) required by the surface acoustic wave (SAW) delay-line concept on the crystal substrates have been generated and are being evaluated. The enclosure to house the crystal cantilevered beam has been designed, all parts machined and two units assembled to accept the crystal beam. After bench tests are completed, a more sensitive and sophisticated SAW resonator (replacing the delay-line IDTs) on the crystal beam will be designed. A pair of reflector gratings and IDT in the acoustic cavity that are required for resonator concept will be designed and generated on the crystal surface. The developed sensor will be extensively tested inthe laboratory prior to being used in the wind tunnel.
03.02-8477 Optical Technique to Study the Impact of Heavy Rain on Aircraft Performance Spectron Development Laboratories Inc. 3303 Harbor Blvd., Suite G-3 Costa Mesa CA 92626 Hess Cecil F. NAS1-18242 Amount: LaRC NAS1-17932
A technique to measure the size, velocity, and concentration of raindropsin very heavy rain is proposed. Studies conducted during Phase I show the feasibility of this technique under simulated very heavy rain experiments. In Phase II, a working prototype will be produced and demonstrated in the 4 x 7 m wind tunnel at NASA Langley. The technique bases the size of the drops on the intensity of the light scattered at a prescribed solid angle, and the velocity on the classical Doppler frequency. The Phase I studies showed that spray interference had no significant effect on the size distribution, and an accurate size obtained. The studies also include a scattering model for nonspherical drops which helps establish the optical conditions less sensitive to droplet shape. These studies also point out that to measure the flows expected at NASA's facilities, a more powerful laser and faster electronics are needed. These elements will be incorporated in the advanced prototype developed during Phase II.
03.08-9191 Optimal Guidance with Obstacle Avoidance for NOE Flight Theory & Applications Unlimited 10 Jackson Street, Suite 101 Los Gatos CA 95030 Denton Richard V. NAS2-12402 Amount: ARC NAS2-12092
This project is developing automatic guidance for helicopter Nap-of-the-Earth (NOE) flight. The guidance technology uses information from the onboard sensors combined with an onboard digital map, when the digital map is available, to result in safe low-altitude flight corridors. The guidance technology makes a digital map truly useful to the pilot, while affording acceptable workload levels. Such an integrated digital map/optimal NOE guidance system will revolutionize low-level helicopter operational performance and its impact on crew workload. The applicability of the concept has been sucessfully demonstrated through analysis, through simulations, and through delivery of a videotape showing how well the low-altitude NOE algorithm can be made to operate in real time. Engineering feasibility will be established. The work continues with the algorithm refinements, particularly in relating the rotorcraft equations of motion to the NOE trajectory computation scheme. Ride quality consideration and pilot-vehicle interfaces will also be treated. The refined algorithm will be implemented in an engineering testbed that emulates the eventual operation in an airborne flight computer. Appropriate display advisories and the flight control coupler design requirements will also be addressed. This will result in a prototype design that meets pilot acceptability criteria, and that will operate in real time.
03.09-2281 Decision Making Modeling for Theory of Human Error Systems Technology Inc. 13766 S. Hawthorne Blvd Hawthorne CA 90250 Clement Warren F. NAS2-12540 Amount: ARC NAS2-12094
A quantitative theory of human error applicable to monitoring, decisionmaking, information processing, and control operations has been developed. The theory comprises models for: (1) risk acceptance decision-making in the presence of uncertainty and divided attention, and (2) operations in which slips, blunders, and control errors become more prevalent as the level of divided attention is increased. Quantitative measures such as risk acceptance functions, slip probabilities, and dwell fractions for control and managerial tasks (to characterize divided attention) are sensitive indicators of the susceptibility of system config- ura-tions and procedures to human error. The theory and measures will address a current critical problem in aeronautics: the pilot decision to continue or go around in dangerous wind shear situations. Competing possible content, format, and precision of wind shear advisory information (ranging from tower communications to on-board precision guidance) will be assessed using the theory and associated metrics. Exploratory "Pilot" and "Validation" experiments are proposed to obtain the risk acceptance and other functions for the most interesting set of advisory possibilities. The experimental data will also permit refinement of the analytical models to a higher confidence predictive form.
04.05-5911 Ceramic Fiber/Ceramic Matrix Composites Fiber Materials Inc. Biddeford Industrial Park Biddeford ME 04005 Cox M. K. NAS2-12449 Amount:471,000 ARC NAS2-12104
Various types of ceramic fiber/ceramic matrix composites have been successfullyfabricated using novel materials and processing methods. The material developed is a durable and lightweight composite with temperature capability of 2000 deg F. It consists of woven ceramic fibers impregnated with a preceramic polymer which forms silicon carbide after pyrolysis. The material properties of these ceramic composites are comparable to a four directional carbon-carbon while the resistance to oxidation is much greater for the ceramic than the carbon-carbon. Process development parts, which will undergo various processing schedules will be screened to choose a candidate material for full scale fabrication to define the mechanical and thermal properties along with studies concerning matrix formation.
04.09-5050 Providing Structural Modules with Self-Integrity Monitoring Anco Engineers Inc. 9937 Jefferson Blvd Culver City CA 90232-3591 Ibanez Paul NAS7-961 Amount:439,000 JPL NAS7-937
An important aspect of having complex space structures, and any relatedoperations, function successfully is to be able to rapidly and remotely detect structural damage. The Phase I research involved developing five approaches that can be used for structural damage detection. They are all dependent on defining a substructure transfer function matrix. The space structure would be divided into substructures. The substructure being analyzed would be excited by an external load source and changes in the transfer function matrix would be detected. Some of the "tools" used for the detection are (1) Taylor series expansion of the transfer function (TF), (2) phase shift of the TF, (3) modal strain energy distribution, and (4) nonlinear parameter estimation. First cut validations of all the approaches are presented in the final report. Overall, the results are good. The Phase II work will involve an extension of the Phase I work, with there being certain areas of concentration because of the greater possibility of substantial success in those areas. The deliverables will consist of benchmarked, final algorithms/ approaches to damage detection, together with all the material used for validation. Also, all software needed for basic damage detection will be provided.
04.10-0332 Ultrasonic Correlator for Nondestructive Characterization of Materials Industrial Quality Inc. P.O. Box 2397 Gaithersburg MD 20879-0397 Berger Harold NAS1-18258 Amount: LaRC NAS1-17937
A new cross-correlator has been developed and shown to be useful formaterials characterization. A simplified cross-correlator technique, originally developed for work in the kilohertz frequency range, is the primary element in the new ultrasonic cross-correlator. The cross-correlator output provides the same information as the impulse response of a material. Therefore, the cross-correlator is an attractive approach for ultrasonic characterization of materials. In the Phase I program the range of the cross-correlator has been extended to meghertz frequencies, thereby making the instrument useful for ultrasonic measure- ments. A test made with the new system showed significant differences in frequency versus time reponse for fatigued and fatigued aluminum samples. In addition, the processing of the cross-correlator data has been adapted to an IBM personal computer making the instrument more generally useful, and leading directly to a Phase II program. In the new program the cross-correlator performance will be improved by electronic changes such as an improved white noise generator, by compatible broadband transducers and by software modifications leading to display of both frequency and phase. Further work to understand the theoretical limits of cross correlation versus conventional ultrasonic characterization problems will lead to the identifi- cation of potential applications. A demonstration will be made of a prototype cross-correlator instrument to be designed and fabricated as part of the Phase II program.
04.13-1504 Space Structures Concepts and Materials DWA Composite Specialties Inc. 21119 Superior Street Chatsworth CA 91311-4393 Supan Edward C. NAS8-37257 Amount: MSFC NAS8-35264
The objective of the project is to expand the successful developmentof DWG (Grfiber/Al) end fitting and integrate the continuing work into a comprehensive program designed to achieve a thermally stable truss structure using DWG end fittings and tubes. Zero CTE end-fitting material, fabricability of DWG into complex geometry, and end-fitting design concepts have been accomplished. The major objective is to establish the design requirement for fittings, tubes and joints in terms of CTE, load capability and weight; to optimize DWG materials used for fittings and tubes over the intended temperature spectrum. The program will also consider innovative DWG heat pipe for temperature control; cored panel with DWG face sheet; DWG-angle structural members; and metal-matrix composite weldment. It is anticipated that uses of DWG in the steady will spawn applications of this stiff, strong, low-density MMC in aerospace structure, missile components, medical apparatus, and instrumentation.
04.14-9030 Novel Oxygen Atom Source for Material Degradation Studies Physical Sciences Inc. P.O. Box 3100, Research Park Andover MA 01810 Caledonia George NAS7-963 Amount: JPL NAS7-938
NASA requires a ground-based test facility to study material degradationresulting from impact of energetic oxygen atoms exhibiting velocities appropriate to low earth orbit. Physical Sciences Inc. has demonstrated the ability to produce a high flux pulse of oxygen atoms, with a characteristic velocity of 8 km/s, using a laser breakdown technique. We propose in the Phase II effort to build an O-atom material erosion facility utilizing this technique for the O-atom source. This facility would have the capability of irradiating material specimens of area of up to 200 cm2 with an average high velocity O-atom of 5 x 1016 atm/cm2-s. Facility diagnostics would include real time mass removal evaluation, mass spectrometry and target effluent radiative signatures. This facility would provide the ability to provide material aging simulations of interest to Space Shuttle and Space Station over relatively short periods of time (1/2 day to 1 week).
05.04-4561 Dead Reckoning Optoelectronic Docking System Energy Optics Inc. 224 North Camp Street Las Cruces NM 88001 Ward Steven M. NAS9-17603 Amount: JSC NAS9-17283
The feasibility of applying existing, military and commercial optoelectronicsystems to the problem of automating space proximity operations, particularly the hard docking of two space vehicles has been evaluated. Although no specific system was found adequate, existing optoelectronic components and technologies such as "time of flight" laser ranging, "tone" ranging and "optical contrast" video tracking were applied. The two specific problems of configuring a wide field, laser tracker with no moving parts and precision target attitude sensing at ranges under three meters were solved by innovating new optoelectronic techniques. Feasibility of the resulting DROID system was predicted by simulation, by performance analysis and by constructing rudimentary hardware. The thrust of further studies is to solidify system requirements and to design and construct operational prototypes of the three intelligent sensors; (1) pulsed array LIDAR, (2) CW array LIDAR and (3) CCD TV LIDAR. In addition, the DROID Main CPU will be configured from a commercially available microprocessor system. The resulting DROID system prototype will be extensively tested by both the contractor and NASA to determine operational performance and measurement resolution.
06.01-3030K Optimal Systolic Architectures for the Navier-Stokes Equations Zeroone Systems Inc. 2431 Mission College Blvd Santa Clara CA 95054 Fok Simon K. NAS2-12444 Amount: ARC NAS2-12082
The objective is to construct a Systolic Navier-Stokes Attached Processor(SNAP) connected to a VAX computer for high speed NASA flow code computations. A high level architecture for the SNAP has been designed. The architecture consists of: (1) a narrow bandwidth linear solver which is currently under development for NASA by ZeroOne Systems, Inc. and (2) fast Fourier transform modules and matrix-vector multiplier modules which will be constructed using Sky Computers' Sky Warrior array processors. All these processors will be integrated with the host computer through the Apter DPS-2400 which is, in essence, a shared memory multiprocessor. The three NASA flow codes already studied will be mapped into the SNAP. This involves restructuring of the whole computational process in each code to facilitate systolic chaining; the actual computational algorithm will not be changed. Software will also be developed to coordinate the operations of multiple processors, shared memory and the host using low-level interprocessor communication primitives to create semaphores, critical regions and other synchronization primitives to ensure reliable operations of the SNAP. Cost-effectiveness of the SNAP with respect to a range of computers will be assessed.
06.03-1234 A Floating-Point Computer Module for Array Processing on the FLEX/32 MultiComputer Flexible Computer Corp. 1801 Royal Lane, Bldg #8 Dallas TX 75229 Matelan Nicholas NAS1-18241 Amount: LaRC NAS1-17939
The FLEX/32 MultiComputing Environment is a general-purpose, digitalmultiple-processor system that allows virtually any number of high performance, hetergeneous, 32-bit computer modules to compute in parallel together on one or more tasks. The Phase I study has shown the feasibility of using the FLEX/32 MultiComputer in floating-point array processing. This can be done through development of a new Floating-Point Computer Module (FPCM) specifically adapted to floating-point arithmetic, vector and array processing. Phase II will result in production of a new FPCM module and library software that will be fully integrable into any FLEX/32 configuration, be it all FPCM's or mixed as needed with already existing module types. FPCM software would execute under UNIX System V used by other FLEX/32 modules. A single FLEX/32 cabinet, equipped with the new modules, could give 32-bit computing power in the 80 to 120 megaflops range. Since there is no inherent architectural limitation to the number of cabinets that can be directly coupled together, there is no theoretical limit to the size and processing power that such a machine can attain. A five-cabinet FLEX/32 could offer performance in the 400-500 megaflops range, for example, depending on use of suitable algorithms. The availability of an FPCM would turn the commercially available FLEX/32 MultiComputer into a lower cost array-processing supercomputer replacement.
06.04-1625 Enhancement of Simulation/Animation Graphics System (Phase II) Lincom Corp. 18100 Upper Bay Rd, Suite 100 Houston TX 77058 Voss Mark J. NAS9-17606 Amount: JSC NAS9-17277
The objective is to design and develop very high performance graphicssubsystem for use in simulation, animation and general graphics applications. The system must provide real time dynamics for complicated scenes, realistic shading models, and be commercially realizable. Research will be conducted on graphics architectural concepts and VLSI implementation to produce an expandable modular display system with the ability to render scenes composed of over 10,000 patches in real time with realistic shading models and programmable light sources. The system will have expandable performance by using parallel processing techniques, and will have the ability to display infinitely complex scenes by using incremental shading and hidden surface techniques with a frame buffer for output. General purpose graphics capabilities are also included to allow the system to perform a variety of duties.
07.04-1112 Focal-Plane Processing of Visual Information Q-DOT Inc. 1069 Elkton Drive Colorado Springs CO 80907 Roberts Peter C. T. NAS1-18287 Amount: LaRC NAS1-17940
A Phase II follow-on program is proposed based on the good results generatedin the Phase I program. An actual layout was performed in the Phase I program showing that a 128 x 128 x 3 mil square focal-plane processor (FPP) chip is feasible. The performance of that FPP and an improved hexagonal symmetry version will be studied with actual test chip measured data from the Phase II tasks. Support hardware is to be assembled using low-cost standard components and a full system definition developed for the Phase III subsequent program. Optical performance will be determined by a combination of test chip measurements and analytic and computer simulation method. Reasonable expectations of device yield indicate that working versions of 32 x 32, 64 x 64, and 128 x 128 array FPP will be achieved. Throughput of the final optimized FPP using the brick-wall architecture is expected to greatly outperform conventional approaches to visual information acquisition and initial processing for computer and/or robotic vision systems. Frame rate of 100 to 1,000 per second at grey-scale (four to six bits) resolution are possible at > 1 GOPS throughput.
07.06-1000 Low Power Spectrum Analysis and Real Time Data Compression Defense Systems Inc. 7903 Westpark Drive Mclean VA 22102 Starkey Donald L. NAS5-29432 Amount: Center: GSFC NAS5-28624
For deep space probes where the distance of the probe from the Earthlimits the communication bandwidth, there is a need to develop an on-board, low power, spectrum analyzer signal processor with flexible and programmable post processor capabilities to analyze three axis magnetometer data. Defense Systems, Inc. (DSI) on Phase I designed and built such a "brassboard" Fourier transform programmable spectrum analyzer that has the potential to meet all stated NASA requirements. While, with the software supplied on Phase I, it handles only one channel inputs, it can be remotely programmed according to an uplinked schedule through an RS-232 interface, it has programmable resolution from 0.025 to 1.6Hz, 512 arbitrarily distributed frequency bins, it can detect spectral clusters, track their peak frequencies and display the spectral history on an IBM PC computer, CRT display and printer. With additional effort the analyzer can be expanded to handle 3- channel inputs, logarithmic spectral resolution, keep the I and Q components separate, perform spectrum energy change detection, spectral peak detection and tracking and other time and spectrum averaging statistical operations NASA requires. It is proposed in Phase II to develop flight hardware signal processor of approximately 1 watt power consumption, packaged to the required configuration. The design maturity of the DSI processor enables the accomplishment of these objectives in Phase II.
07.06-8911 West Coast Storm Forecasting with SSMI Remote Sensing Systems 475 Gate Five Rd, Suite 211 Sausalito CA 94965 Wentz Frank J. NAS5-29438 Amount: GSFC NAS5-28634
The first in a new generation of satellite microwave radiometers, theSSMI, will be launched in spring of 1986. Our SBIR project is a demonstration that SSMI images of water vapor V, rain rate R, and wind speed W (VRW images) can improve the forecasting of North Pacific storms coming into the West Coast of the United States. The Phase I study established the feasibility of this project by determining the accuracy and resolution of the SSMI products, the SSMI spatial coverage, and the timeliness of the SSMI data. Also, VRW images of the severe storms that devastated the California shoreline in 1982 and 1983 were produced using NIMBUS 7 SMMR data. Phase II will be a demonstration of SSMI's forecasting capabilities. An image processing system will be developed to overlay the SSMI VRW images onto NMC analyses and GOES imagery. Advection forecasting of using SSMI products in techniques will be tested, and the potential of using SSMI products in numerical forecast models will be investigated. The Phase II project will end with a real-time demonstration in which actual forecasts are made using the SSMI data in conjunction with other meteorological information. We expect that SSMI will have a significant impact on West Coast forecasting.
08.01-6882 Radial Concentric Grating Ruling Engine Hyperfine Inc. 1930 Central Avenue Boulder CO 80301 Bach Bernhard W. NAS5-29415 Amount: GSFC Phase I Contract Number:
Future space astronomy missions propose new designs of in-plane and off-planegrating configurations. The new grating designs have been theoretically calculated and two types have recently been test ruled at Hyperfine. A concentric grating of 600 1/mm, 50x50mm ruled area and nominal groove curvature radius of 400mm was ruled for the Phase I effort for NASA. A radial fan groove grating was ruled for the University of Colorado. Both ruling projects required extensive temporary modifications to our existing ruling engines. For this Phase II effort, we propose to construct a new ruling engine capable of accommodating the new ruling requirements. We will add a circular motion to the grating carriage, allowing the various ruling commands and its computing capability will calculate variable grating spacing positions. Variable spaced, concentric and radial fan gratings will offer new performance possibilities to the science community.
08.03-4520 A TEOM Particulate Monitor for Comet and Planetary Atmospheres Rupprecht & Patashnick Co Inc. 17 Maple Road, Box 330 Voorheesville NY 12186 Rupprecht George NAS7-962 Amount: JPL NAS7-941
Future missions to comets and planetary atmospheres require particulatemonitoring instrumentation to fulfill a number of scientific and engineering measurement needs. This project involves an investigation to characterize and expand the particulate measurement capabilities of TEOM instrumentation. The results of the Phase I effort demonstrated that vacuum compatible tapered elements (the mass detecting component of the system) could be produced to achieve a mass resolution in the 10-12 g region. The groundwork laid in Phase I will be extended in Phase II to further improve the sensitivity of the instrument and to develop fabrication procedures to increase yield and uniformity. A further objective is to test these devices under space simulated conditions with controlled particulate fluxes. To accomplish these objectives, additional work on the reduction of the electronic noise is planned. Futhermore, the production of these devices must be elevated from current laboratory fabrication techniques to standardized manufacturing procedures. This also involves the definition of meaningful test procedures and the establishment of a quality control program to insure consistent and reliable performance levels. It is also planned to develop a facility to produce a particulate flux in vacuum to provide test data for the instrument under a simulated comet mission environ-ment.
08.05-1590 Simultaneous Orbit Determination with Physical Connectedness Applied Technology Associates Inc. 444 Castro Street, Suite 520 Mountain View CA 94041 Wright James R. NAS5-29417 Amount: GSFC NAS5-28637
The innovation, called SIMULTANEOUS ORBIT DETERMINATION, refers to thesequential simultaneous estimation of the orbits of two spacecraft (TDRS and SPACE SHUTTLE, or TDRS and SME, or TDRS and any low altitude "USER") when tracking measurements depend simultaneously on both orbits. TDRS relay range measurements and TDRS relay doppler measurements satisfy this tracking measurement condition. Two Phase I objectives have been accomplished: (1) Live TDRS relay-doppler measurements were collected for SHUTTLE Mission 41G, together with appropriate support data; (2) A 200-page Experiment Design Report was written to define the development of a live data engineering test-bed for Phase II. The principal objective for Phase II is to demonstrate significant orbit determination accuracy improvements for the TDRS and SHUTTLE (or SME) orbits using live TDRS relay range and/or relay doppler tracking data; and using our innovation: SIMULTANEOUS ORBIT DETERMINATION. Planned Phase II efforts will consist of: (1) development and validation of the ATA algorithm/software capability; (2) live tracking data demonstrations with TDRS/SME and TDRS/SHUTTLE spacecraft combinations; (3) determination of predicted and post- fit ephemeris accuracy performance. We expect that a successful demonstration of SIMULTANEOUS ORBIT DETERMINATION will enable the elimination of both the GSTDN and BRTS tracking network.
08.05-3220 Implementation of an Integrated Receiver Using Programmable Charge Coupled Device Stanford Telecommunications Inc. 6888 Elm Street Mclean VA 22101 Weinberg Aaron NAS5-29416 Amount: GSFC NAS5-28638
The combination of concept development, theoretical analysis and computersimulation in Phase I demonstrated the technical feasibility of the Charge Coupled Device/Pseudo-Noise Matched Filter (CCD/PNMF) concept towards achieving a unique, integrated receiver processing capability that encompasses PN, carrier and symbol synchronization. Its potentially significant application to TDRSS was established, and other possible applications were identified. The principal goal of the proposed Phase II effort is to again focus on the CCD/PNMF Integrated Receiver (CPIR) concept and use the solid foundation provided by Phase I as the basis for an in-depth research and development effort, to comprehensively demonstrate the viability of the CPIR. This is to be accomplished by a carefully selected mix of concept development, theoretical analysis, computer simulation and laboratory hardware/software model development. Two hardware demonstrations are proposed for presentation to NASA during the course of the Phase II effort. If this effort is successful, the Phase III basis for expanded research and hardware development in multiple areas will have been established, especially in regard to advanced signal processing for the Second TDRSS Ground Terminal. Representative areas may include: Autonomous Integrated Receiver System (AIRS), interference detection/mitigation, and advanced processing for hybrid spread-spectrum systems.
08.06-1920 Technical Proposal to Develop Technology for a Space Qualifiable Carbon Dioxide Laser System Pulse Systems Inc. 139 Longview Drive Los Alamos NM 87544 McLellan Edward J. NAS5-29419 Amount: GSFC NAS5-28639
Global wind sensing using CO2 lasers is a prime NASA mission objective. Pulse Systems, Inc. (PSI) has analyzed its unique patented laser discharge design in a Phase I SBIR grant to determine how it could best aid in the development of a space-qualifiable CO2 laser remote-sensor system. This analysis combined with test data accumulated during Phase I shows that, with the unique PSI discharge design, it is feasible to design, construct and test a CO2 discharge module with performance goals of greater than 108 sealed shot-life with total system volume of less than 0.01 m3 and weight of less than 8 kg including all electronics, optics and tube. Additional goals for the proposed CO2 module when used as a laser are greater than 1.0 Joules per pulse at 10 Hertz with a wall-plug (total system including all electronics losses) efficiency of greater than 10%. The objective of Phase II is to design, fabricate and test a sealed CO2 laser using the unique PSI laser discharge technology. This system will be used to conduct tests and accumulate data which will be used to optimize far-field energy per pulse, efficiency and shot-life while minimizing size and weight. Expected results from the proposed Phase II program include meeting the above stated performance goals with minimal chirp in a rugged thermally stable package suitable for spaceborne applications.
08.07-8629 Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator for Use in Zero Gravity Alabama Cryogenic Engineering Inc. P.O. Box 2451 Huntsville AL 35804 Hendricks John B. NAS5-29418 Amount: GSFC NAS5-28641
This study covers the design of an adiabatic demagnetization refrigeratorfor use in zero gravity. The most important element in the study is a combined precooler/heat switch for cooling the paramagnetic salt during magnetization. The precooler reduces the required magnetic field and simplifies the design of the system. The Phase II effort is a demonstration of the concepts developed in Phase I.
08.08-0537 A Solid State Tunable Laser for Remote Sensing Applications Lasergenics Corp. P.O. Box 33010 Los Gatos CA 95031-3010 Schlecht Richard NAS1-18303 Amount: LaRC NAS1-17941
During Phase I of our SBIR program, four titanium doped sapphire crystalswere evaluated. Two of the crystals from separate vendors proved to be of laser quality, indicating that crystals can be produced by multiple vendors. Pumping configuration and laser physics analyses indicated that a longitudinal pumping configuration should be used. It was determined that at the near infrared laser lines, which are of interest, for remote sensing, a large conversion efficiency of 50% is possible from the pump lasers. There is little likelihood of optical damage occurring. Several techniques for wavelength control were evaluated with two appearing attractive. It was determined that relatively efficient crystals are available for second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation which would extend its output from the fundamental band of 650nm to 1000nm into the 90nm to 500nm region. System scaling issues were addressed, indicating large energies per pulse are obtainable from a single aperture device. Based on these results, we are proposing to develop a breadboard laser to demonstrate the capabilities of this system for scaling to the 1 Joule per pulse energy level. The specifications of the breadboard laser are 100mJ per pulse at a 10 Hz repetition rate and 1 pM laser line width at 724,760 and 940nm.
08.08-9030 Laser Spectrometer and Wavemeter Physical Sciences Inc. Dascomb Research Park, P.O. Box 3100 Andover MA 01810 McKay J. A. NAS1-18243 Amount: LaRC NAS1-17942
The device to be built is a laboratory prototype of a combination high-accuracywavemeter and high-resolution spectrometer capable of real-time, pulse-by-pulse analysis of laser pulses. This instrument will be built with attention to further development into a rugged, flight-qualifiable, unattended-operation model with little redesign. The device will be invaluable for numerous laboratory spectroscopic applications as well as for the principal application, airborne/spaceborne DIAL for remote sensing of the atmosphere. The conceptual design of this wavemeter/spectrometer, completed in Phase I, incorporated the innovative combination of a Snyder low- finesse interferometer with a Fizeau high-finesse interferometer, yielding a dual-function instrument well suited to compact, rugged construction. The objective of Phase II is the construction of a working prototype of this instrument. The system will be evaluated for accuracy, resolution, and speed capabilities. The prototype will yield (1) an optical design, (2) an electronic system, and (3) a software package, providing a high-confidence projection of the performance capabilities of, and a solid foundation for the construction of, a next-generation, flight-ready instrument. The prototype itself will be suitable for laboratory use.
08.09-6500 Optimization of Silicon Carbide Production Aerodyne Research Inc. 45 Manning Road Billerica MA 01821 Warmhoudt Joda C. NAS3-23891 Amount:500,000 LeRC NAS3-24531
Silicon carbide (SiC) is an advanced material which has significant technicaland economic potential in electronic and optical device applications. The high temperature tolerance of SiC makes it particularly attractive in applications requiring active electronics which operate at elevated temperatures. Progress toward realizing the benefits provided by SiC devices has been limited by difficulties in growing semiconductor quality material. Recently, however, a NASA research team has developed a two-step CVD process, for producing epitaxial B-SiC on Si single crystal wafers. In this process, buffer or initial layers deposited in the first step minimize lattice mismatches so that high quality SiC can be deposited in the second or crystal growth step. The objective of this program is to develop a mechanis- tically accurate, predictive model which will provide the required basis for optimizing the two-step process. Phase I of this program focused on the gas phase chemistry and led to an evaluation of the impact of gas phase chemistry on deposition. Phase II focuses on the surface chemistry of the deposition process and extending current modeling capabilities. Provisions are included for additional gas phase studies where warranted by the surface and modeling work.
08.11-2227 Widely Tunable Gas Laser for Remote Sensing of Stratospheric Constituents Rothe Technical Research 5205 Avenida Encinas, Suite E Carlsbad CA 92008 Rothe Dietmar, E. NAS7-970 Amount: JPL NAS7-935
The Phase I study has resulted in the definition of an advanced, compactmultigas TE laser for remote interrogation of the earth's atmosphere from a space platform. Newly developed excimer laser and pulse power technology permit the design of a laser with extended tunability in the UV and IR and with greatly increased efficiency. Incorporation of these advances (e.g. prepulse- assisted efficiency, impedance matching, constant-V,I PFL, X-ray preionization, magnetic switching) lead to a doubling of the electric efficiency, longer system life, improved discharge uniformity and higher beam quality. The proposed system may be operated as a rare-gas halide (RGH) laser, a multi-atmospheric CO2 laser, or as a DF laser. Narrowband, frequency-stabilized optical pulses are tunable over the UV excimer bands and are continuously tunable from 9 to 11 um in the IR. At 25 pulses per second, projected pulse energies are 2 to 5 J for CO2 and 0.2 to 2 J for RGH, with wallplug efficiencies of 4 to 7% and 2 to 3%, respectively. Besides being ideally suited for the active sensing of upper atmospheric O3, H2O, CH4, CO, N2O, NO2, SO2, HNO3, CH3Cl, LIF, the proposed system may be used for stratospheric wind determinations by incoherent UV Doppler detection. Other NASA applications are in aerosol monitoring, cloud-top mapping and mineral exploration.
08.12-7847 Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosols with 0.3 Micrometer Spatial Resolution ST&E Technical Services Inc. 1214 Concannon Blvd. Livermore CA 94583 Klainer Stanley M. NAS1-18253 Amount: LaRC NAS1-17943
Raman spectroscopy is a non-destructive analytical technique that performsmolecular identification and characterization by the analysis of inelastically scattered laser light. Commercial Raman instruments are available that can analyze individual micro- particles in the 1 micrometer ranges with difficulty. NASA, however, has identified a problem area that requires molecular analysis of particles under 1 micrometer in diameter. In Phase I the application of micro-Raman analysis to the NASA problem area was established. The applicability of existing commercial and custom micro-Raman to solve this problem was evaluated. These spectrometers were shown to have sensitivity to selected particles no smaller than 1 micrometer in diameter and their potential as a micro-particle analyzer was rejected. A first principal calculation was performed on the feasibility of micro-Raman analysis of a representative 0.3-micrometer-diameter particle. The results indicated that with spectroscopic innovation, a new- generation, user friendly, automatic micro-Raman spectrometer with routine sensitivity to 0.3 micrometer could be built. A preliminary design of this instrument is presented in the Phase I final report. In Phase II, the research and development to complete design, construction, and delivery to NASA of a prototype of this new- generation micro-Raman spectrometer is discussed. In addition, this spectrometer will be used to generate a partial library of micro-Raman spectra using selected particles in the 0.3 to 1.0 micrometer range. Analysis will also be performed on particles provided by NASA.
08.13-4561 Miniature Infra-Red Data Acquisition and Telemetry System Energy Optics Inc. 224 North Campo Street Las Cruces NM 88001 Stokes John H. NAS1-18285 Amount: LaRC NAS1-17944
Phase I demonstrated a heretofore unavailable telemetry technology relyingon IR communications and hybrid miniaturization to allow data from small aircraft models to be transmitted in realtime to a remote test console. The thrust of the program was miniatur-iza- tion of a Telemetry Transmitter Unit (TTU) which resides within the confines of the model. The resulting two-way communications capability allows data acquisition commands to be transmitted to the TTU and test data to be received from it, while the model is magnetically suspended in a wind tunnel. Phase II is designed to advance the Miniature Infra-Red Data Acquisition and Telemetry (MIRDAT) system to the user. The miniature TTU developed in Phase I will be modified to meet user production stage requirements for wind tunnel telemetry. The TTU will be further miniaturized by means of advanced hybridization techniques to a total volume of about one cubic inch. Telemetry transmitters will undergo extensive laboratory testing and actual wind tunnel testing before the final design is released for production. A small quantity of TTUs, along with the required MIRDATperipherals, will be manufactured and delivered to user.
08.13-8500 Modular Digital Holographic Fringe Data Processing System KMS Fusion Inc. 3621 S. State Rd, P.O. Box 1567 Ann Arbor MI 48106 Downward James C. NAS1-12531 Amount: LaRC NAS1-17945
Holographic and interferometric techniques are used routinely for measuringwind tunnel flow field density distributions and structural deflections. The goal of this proposal is to develop a general purpose, modular, fringe analysis system which will be able to use global and expert knowledge to control the processing of fringe patterns into useful engineering data. During Phase I of this proposal, the VAX/VMS software architecture for this system was designed and critical components were prototyped to insure the implementation method would meet the system design goals. In addition, existing in-house fringe locating algorithms were applied to NASA wind tunnel fringe data and were shown to semi-automatically locate the fringes. Phase II of this proposal will implement the Phase I architecture in software to produce a prototype Fringe Analysis System (FAS). Specifically, the FAS monitor, core components of the Fringe Processing Command Language, and fringe locator modules will be developed. In addition, a prototype Expert Decision Module will be developed and its use within the FAS environment evaluated.
08.15-1315 Measurement of Chlorophyll, Related Pigments, and Productivity in the Sea Biospherical Instruments Inc. 4901 Morena Blvd, #1003 San Diego CA 92117 Booth Charles R. NAS7-969 Amount: JPL NAS7-942
The Phase I effort successfully demonstrated a new method of remotelymaking instantaneous measurements of the rates of primary production in phytoplankton in the ocean. This approach avoids the manpower-intensive requirements of previous methods and will allow NASA to make and correlate measurements of chlorophyll and productivity with the optical signals sensed by spaceborne sensors at levels not previously practical. As a result of this technique, the linkage between ocean color and production will be further developed. A series of models was developed that suggested that the rates of solar-stimulated fluorescence from chlorophyll in plankton provided a good estimation of the concentration of chlorophyll and a measure of the rates of carbon fixation of primary production. A series of field tests verified these models and the agreement was excellent: Natural fluorescence is readily measured and provides an accurate and rapid determination of both the photosynthetic rate and pigment concentration. The small size and low power consumption for the sensor would allow easy adaption to a variety of field sampling. The biological and optical relationships fundamental to this new technique will be refined and verified. This sensor will be designed and tested for validation.
08.15-1512 Time-Resolved In-Situ Field Measurement of the Liquid and Frozen Water Contents of Snow Ophir Corp. 7333 West Jefferson Ave, Suite 210 Lakewood CO 80235 Nelson Loren D. NAS7-966 Amount: JPL NAS7-943
In Phase I of this SBIR research effort we have fabricated prototypehardware and demonstrated in the laboratory that is feasible to independently and simultaneously sense the liquid (unfrozen) and ice (frozen) water content of in-situ natural snowpack in real-time with an electronic sensor. Such measurements are critical for "ground-truth" assessment of active and passive satellite microwave sensors used in high- latitude environmental research and military monitoring of arctic sea ice. Microwave reflectivity and emissivity of snowpack are strongly dependent on its unfrozen water content. Phase I laboratory tests and theory indicate that we will be able to extend our preliminary Phase I results to simultaneous real- time volumetric measurement of liquid, air, and frozen water in natural snowpack in Phase II development. This will require refinements to our Phase I designs to eliminate interfering effects such as space charge polarization, DC conductivity offsets, and insulation caused artificial Debye dispersion. We will then test our second generation snow-liquid-water-content sensor technology in the field during cooperative field-trials sponsored by the Division of Ice Dynamics of the U.S. Geological Survey.
09.04-9450 Variable Emissivity Electrochromic Panels for Control of Radiant Energy Transfer in Spacecraft EIC Laboratories Inc. 111 Downey Street Norwood MA 02062 Rauh David R. NAS8-37259 Amount: MSFC NAS8-35267
Heat transfer in the space environment is largely a radiative process. The emissivities of the surface linking the payload to the space environment are key to the problem of temperature stabilization and control in orbiting spacecraft. The purpose of the proposed research effort is to develop thin film coatings which have variable thermal emissivities and variable solar absorptivities. The development of such coatings will provide a means of actively controlling heat transfer between orbiting spacecraft and the space enviroment. Modulation of the emittance and absorptance is achieved by the passage of a small DC electric current and is based on the concept of electrochromism. The Phase I program was successful in demonstrating the principle of variable thermal emittance (e = 0.06-0.75) and variable solar absorptance (as = 0.32-0.98) switching in thin films of WO3. In addition, the concept of a solid-state five-layer electrochromic coatings was formulated and optical switching experiments showed that variable emittance/absorptance coatings could undergo a large number of switching cyles without degradation. The Phase II program is intended to develop electrochromic coatings to the point of commercialization. To accomplish this objective, the Phase II program will include: fabrication of variable emittance and variable absorptance solid-state thin film coatings, demonstration of long-term optical switching, determination of design parameters for thermal engineers, development of magnetron sputtering process, and delivery to NASA of optimized variable thermal emittance and variable solar absorptance electrochromic coatings.
09.05-1504 Electronic Component Temperature Control Using Metal-Matrix Composites DWA Composite Specialties Inc. 21119 Superior Street Chatsworth CA 91311-4393 Supan Edward C. NAS3-24896 Amount: LeRC NAS3-24245
Research and development of high thermal conductivity metal-matrix compositeheat pipe for ???? will continue. The goal is to produce a metal-matrix composite exhibiting thermal conductivity significantly higher than that of copper, and to demonstrate performance of this "heat-pipe" material in controlling the temperature of a demonstration electronic heat source. Variations of "DWG" composite material (continuous graphite fiber in a metal matrix) tailored to optimize thermal conductivity will be featured. The objectives are to optimize thermal conductivity; demonstrate fabrication of generic shapes; develop joining methodology; assess performance of the material used in real hardware; compile a beginning data base; and promote commercial sector commitment to sponsor further ManTech programming. It is confidently expected that DWG exhibiting more than 150% the thermal conductivity of copper can be demonstrated and that several of the DWG composites will exhibit this high conductivity over the temperature range -150C +150C. The potential applications for this unique and innovative material concept are in controlling and dissipating heat from high-power-density electronics as found in space, robotics, avionics, medical equipment, automative components, computers, and advanced military systems. All these applications need the reliability of solid- state, superconducting "DWG" heat pipe.
09.06-5785 Metallized Kevlar Space Tether System Material Concepts Inc. 666 North Hague Avenue Columbus OH 43204 Orban Ralph F. NAS8-37256 Amount: MSFC NAS8-35268
Metal coated Kevlar has been investigated as a space tether system. Several different tether samples were evaluated against atomic oxygen attack. A pilot production unit capable of coating Kevlar was also designed and built. After modification and improvement, the pilot production unit is capable of producing high-quality, metal-coated Kevlar in a timely and economic manner. Samples were exposed to an oxygen plasma, then evaluated. Results indicate that metal coating does not seriously degrade strength. A copper undercoat, a nickel overcoat and an insulating polymer overcoat over both metals appears to be a viable candidate. The objective now is to produce a 2.5 kilometer metallized Kevlar tether which has the required strength characteristics, the required electrical conductivity and the required degree of protection against attack by atomic oxygen. Work will include further production, exposure, and testing of selected candidate tether materials, improvements in testing and process quality control, increasing production from the pilot coating unit, examination of various tether constructions, preparation of processsing and tether specifications, and production of a finished tether.
09.08-6551 High Performance Ambient Temperature Heat Pipes Thermacore Inc. 780 Eden Road Lancaster PA 17601 Keddy Michael D. NAS8-37261 Amount: Center: MSFC NAS8-35269
The goal is to develop a 50 foot (15 m) long ambient temperature compositeheat pipe capable of transporting 5000 W. The aluminum/ammonia heat pipe will be designed for operation in spec over the temperature range of 0-40C. The concept selected for development was deemed the most desirable configuration based on heat transport capability, mass, T, cost, ease of fabrication and integration with the Thermal Bus. The design based on preliminary tests shows that the heat pipe will be capable of transporting 8400 W on earth, and accepting a heat flux of 10 W/cm2 over the entire perimeter of the evaporator. The heat pipe as designed has a 5.04 MW-in (12.8 MW-cm) figure of merit based on total pipe length which compares to a 1.3 MW-in (3.3 MW- cm) for the current state-of-the-art monogroove heat pipe. The efforts will focus on developing full scale prototype heat pipes for ground testing and space flight testing. The work will include fabricating and testing pre-prototype heat pipes for the purpose of fully characterizing and optimizing their performance as well as the development of a computer model to aid in predicting and evaluating the performance of composite heat pipes. The hardware for coupling heat pipe components having differing cross sections will be developed and the fabrication and testing of scale prototype composite heat pipe(s) will be conducted.
09.09-0546 Investigation of Metal Hydrides for Integration of Spacecraft Hydrogen Resources Hydrogen Consultants Inc. P.O. Box 10454 Denver CO 80210 Egan Gregory J. NAS8-37262 Amount: MSFC NAS8-35270
Metal hydride reversible hydrogen absorbers can manipulate hydrogen andheat in unique ways that may be useful in the Space Station Program. Preliminary designs of hydride devices, which would interface with Space Station-related hydrogen and thermal systems have been made. Realistic estimates of mass, power requirements, volume and performance were derived for each potential application. Two applications offer significant advantages over any known alternative: Hydrides can serve in heat pumps or refrigerators with virtually no consumption of electric power. Hydrides are also the lightest alternative for hydrogen storage when holding times are too long for cryogenics. Additional work will carry both applications forward to demonstration hardware. The limits of hydride refrigeration will be probed by studying desorption dynamics in the low temperature region. Based on these results, the lowest temperature refrigerator deemed feasible will be designed, constructed and tested. The long-term hydrogen storage study has two parallel objectives: (1) investigate advanced lightweight hydride materials and (2) construct a proof-of-concept demonstration tank, based on state-of-the-art hydride materials.
09.12-3800B A Reliable, Long-Lifetime Closed-Cycle Cryocooler for Space Creare Inc. P.O. Box 71 Hanover NH 03755 Sixsmith Herbert NAS5-29436 Amount: GSFC NAS5-28642
This proposal describes Phase II of a program to develop a 5 watt, 70Kcryocooler based on rotating turbomachines in a reverse- Brayton cycle. The recently completed Phase I of this program established the preliminary design specifications for the cryocooler and showed that the proposed concept is feasible. The objective of Phase II is to build and test a single stage, closed- cycle cryocooler using miniature turbomachinery. The main component development effort will center around the development of a high-speed motor/centrifugal compressor unit. We will use existing designs/technology for the other cryocooler components. The turboexpander design will be based on that of other expanders we have built in the past to meet very similar specifications, and heat exchanger suitable for demonstrating the cycle on earth will be built from commercially available finned tubing. This effort will result in a working engineering model of a turbomachine-based cryocooler which will be used to demonstrate the concept, validate the component design methodologies, and establish the design for a flight prototype cryocooler.
09.13-5000 Handheld Optical Radar Odetics Inc. 1515 S. Manchester Avenue Anaheim CA 92802-2907 Drap Robert P. NAS9-17604 Amount: JSC NAS9-17289
The general system configuration and specifications for the HandheldLaser Radar in spaceborne proximity operation applications have been determined. Detailed studies on the range processing electronics and optics were conducted. Further research will encompass the development, fabrication and test of prototype laser radar equipment aimed at space proximity operations, robotic manipulator control, and precision measurement applications. The prototype equipment will feature high accuracy, small size and lower power consumption and will be tested to demonstrate the suitability for space applications.
09.14-4942 Non-Azeotropic Spacecraft Cooling Systems Frederick A. Costello Inc. 12864 Tewksbury Drive Herndon VA 22071 Costello Frederick A. NAS5-29439 Amount: GSFC NAS5-28643
We propose to design, build, ground test and flight test a small-scale, complete, working spacecraft temperature-control system that uses a non-azeotropic, two-phase fluid as the working medium. The innovation lies in the use of the non-azeotropic fluid. In Phase I we showed analytically that this novel system has great potential. We resolved all of the previously identified problems. In addition, to resolve the one potential problem that our analyses uncovered, we built a model of and ground tested a complete system, not just the mixing section. This system will bring the technology development to completion. All that will remain will be to implement the concept in a full-scale application. Non-azeotropic fluid mixture boils not at a fixed temperature but over a small range in temperature (at a fixed pressure). Therefore, unlike conventional fluids, the thermodynamic quality can be readily determined by sensing the easily measured temperature. The following advantages result: simpler and more reliable control systems; faster control system response; higher average evaporator and condenser heat-transfer coefficients; smaller evaporators and condensers; reduced fluid flow rates; lighter temperature-control systems, and less power practical means for measuring quality. Quality sensors are heavy and costly and their response time long. Instead, either the fluid is superheated and poor heat-transfer coefficients are accepted or the platetemperature is measured and the control-system response is long.
09.16-1227 Modular Cold Plates For High Heat Fluxes Thermacore Inc. 780 Eden Road Lancaster PA 17601 Dussinger Peter M. NAS9-17610 Amount: JSC NAS9-35272
Full and effective use of the thermal bus on the space station will requireuniversal thermal/mechanical mounting plates for power dissipating experiments and permanent equipment. The cold plates designed for this purpose will use heat pipe technology to increase the thermal conductivity of the plates and to minimize the contact resistance between the plates and the thermal bus. Flexible heat pipes with a cold plate as an evaporator will also be developed. These can then be coupled to the thermal bus and will increase the utility of the thermal bus significantly. The efforts will be directed at developing high performance modular cold plates with an emphasis on system integration with the space station. Cold plates, flexible heat pipe-cold plates, and thermal bus couplers will be designed, fabricated, and tested in depth. The results of this developmental effort will aid designers in system studies for the heat rejection system of the space station.
09.19-8629 A Helium-3/Helium-4 Dilution Cryocooler for Operation in Zero Gravity Alabama Cryogenic Engineering Inc. P.O. Box 2451 Huntsville AL 35804 Hendricks John B. NAS8-37260 Amount: MSFC NAS8-35273
The proposed Phase II effort is an experimental program to demonstratethe concepts developed in the Phase I study. Three alternate approaches to the operation of a zero gravity dilution refrigerator were developed in Phase I. The method selected uses surface tension forces to separate and circulate the He-3 rich component in a He-4 circulation dilution cycle. The absence of gravity means that the space refrigeration cycle is quite different from the cycle used in earth based refrigerators. The Phase II effort will demonstrate, in the earth laboratory, the principles of the zero gravity machine.
10.01-7270 Novel Electrodes for Hydrogen-Bromine Battery Giner Inc. 14 Spring Street Waltham MA 02154 Jalan Vinod NAS3-24878 Amount: LeRC NAS3-24394
Poisoning of the hydrogen electrode by ion, and intercalation of carbonbased bromine electrodes are life-limiting factors in state-of-the-art hydrogen/bromine batteries. Electrocatalysts which have improved resistance to these limiting factors were identified, prepared and evaluated. These electrocatalysts were evaluated in half-cell configuration as well as in a complete hydrogen/bromine battery based on a solid polymer electrolyte configuration. The complete battery was successfully subjected to over 150 quick charge/discharge cycles. This technology, after optimization will lead to stable and efficient hydrogen/bromine batteries for long-term applications of NASA such as space stations.
10.03-6000 High Efficiency Radiation-Resistant Indium Phosphide Solar Cells Spire Corp. Patriots Park Bedford MA 01730 Spitzer Mark NAS3-24857 Amount: LeRC NAS3-24395
This Phase II proposal addresses radiation-resistant indium phosphide(InP) solar cells. Owing to unusual radiation damage annealing properties, (1-3) such cells are of considerable interest for space applications. Research in Phase II has as its primary object the development of innovative cell processing techniques that may be applied to cell manufacture. In Phase I, the feasibility of various InP cell fabrication techniques were evaluated. A new cell fabrication process based on ion implantation was identified, and all steps in the cell fabrication process were evaluated. Solar cells with efficiency of 10% were fabricated with the techniques identified in this research. Concurrently, modeling was carried out which indicates the manner in which efficiency of 20% may be attained. The modeling and analysis of actual cells fabricated during Phase I has identified areas requiring further research in Phase II. This Phase I research has thus established the feasibility of the proposed work. In Phase II, research will be carried out that addresses specific problems in cell design and fabrication that were identified in Phase I. This research will include an investigation of improved junctions and junction formation techniques. Phase II also includes research on the contact metallurgy. Various types of cells will be fabricated for testing of radiation resistance.
10.04-2221A Device to Measure Reversing Flow Pressure Drops in Stirling Engine Heat Exchangers Sunpower Inc. 6 Byard Street Athens OH 45701 Wood J. Gary NAS3-24879 Amount: LeRC NAS3-24396
The effect of oscillating flow on pressure drop and heat transfer isvery important to the design and optimization of Stirling engines. Even with all the present work being done on Stirling cycle machines, very little is known about oscillating flow. The purpose of this project is to generate the needed basic test data on oscillating flow pressure drop. A novel test rig has been designed for measuring pressure drop under oscillating flow conditions. The unit is a dedicated piece of hardware and thus allows for the measurement of pressure drop independent from the other processes and losses that occur in Stirling cycle machines. The rig is designed to operate at frequencies from less than 1 hertz up to greater than 120 hertz, and at test pressures up to 150 bar. It is thus capable of testing heat exchangers and regenerators for most existing and proposed engine designs including those of the NASA SP-100 program. Fabrication of the hardware will be completed and the operation of the unit tested. The rig will then be used to generate basic test data on oscillating flow pressure drop.
10.04-7039 A Large Deployable Solar Concentrator with Receiver & Heat Storage Energy Science Laboratories Inc. 11404 Sorrento Valley Rd, #113 San Diego CA 92121 Carroll Joseph A. NAS3-24882 Amount: LeRC NAS3-24397
We investigated designs for 2 key components of solar dynamic power systems: concentrator and receiver. Our concentrator stows compactly for launch, on the unused 2nd Remote Manipulator System ledge. The receiver ??????? both concepts greatly. The Phase I study led us to downsize the concentrator from 35 m to 14 m across. This fits NASA's program needs better and also reduces production tooling cost. We also discovered a better stowing geometry, which may allow 4 concentrators to be stowed on one RMS ledge. We also fabricated small self-deploying models which validated our stowage/deployment concept. The Phase II effort will revise the design, fabricate 20% prototypes & sections of full-scale models, and test for performance ruggedness. The receiver evolved from separated-storage in liquid media to integral storage for a Brayton cycle in solid media. This prevents contamination from leakage of condensible volatiles. Several receiver features were discovered which raise system efficiency for any given concentrator. The Phase II effort will revise the design, model the system behavior, and fabricate & test critical components.
10.08-1140 Thermally Stable Electrolytes for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries Covalent Associates Inc. 52 Dragon Court Woburn MA 01801 Koch Victor R. NAS7-967 Amount: JPL NAS7-944
Phase I research has identified two organolithium salts that cycle wellin Li/TiS2 cells containing sulfolane. Of major importance was the discovery that one organolithium salt, which failed as a supporting electrolyte, may be used as a high energy cathode material. During Phase II, we will further characterize the stability of organolithium salt/sulfolane electrolytes with Li via SEM/ESCA and a new grazing angle FTIR technique. This technique allows for the in situ collection of infrared data at the Li/electrolyte interface. Full Li/TiS2 cells incorporating organolithium salt/sulfolane will be prepared and cycled. Particular attention will be paid to cathode composition and electrolyte wettability thereof. Finally, the new high energy density cathode material will be cycled in both cyclic ether and sulfolane-based electrolytes. Both pressed and pasted cathode formulations will be studied. The best combinations of electrolyte and cathode will be extensively cycled in full cells with an emphasis on temperature, rate, and depth of discharge. At the end of Phase II, hermetically sealed cells will be delivered to JPL for inhouse evaluation.
11.03-1856A Temperature Sensitive Variable Area Joule-Thomson Expansion Nozzles General Pneumatics Corp. 7662 E Gray Road, Suite 107 Scottsdale AZ 85260 Walker Graham NAS10-11322 Amount: KSC NAS10-11144
Gas liquefiers utilize isenthalpic (Joule-Thomson) expansion of cooled,compressed gas to generate refrigeration. Effective usage of the compressed gas requires a variable mass flow rate: a high initial flow with progressive reduction to the operating condition and intermittent flow thereafter according to load demand. A common problem of fixed orifice nozzles is blockage by condensed contaminants in the expanding fluid. Innovative Joule-Thomson expansion nozzles were investigated experimentally. Materials having different coefficients of thermal contraction were incorporated in a J-T nozzle--to achieve the load demand flow characteristic. The problem of orifice blockage by condensed contaminants was resolved by design for expansion of the compressed gas in a tappered annulus with the annular labyrinth flow spoilers acting as catchment reserviors. The experimental prototype nozzles were equipped with a screw flow adjustment capable of precise control over a wide range, permitting the same nozzle to be used in a variety of applications or in permitting the same application for a wide variety of flow regimes. Further work will extend the flow capacity of the new nozzle design to embrace most of the potential space and non-space orientated J-T cryocoolers reliquefiers. A critical design review will be carried out to achieve minimum production time and cost for the new nozzles. Fabrication and test of prototype closed cycle Linde-Hampson cryocooler liquefiers is proposed. These would incorporate the novel J-T nozzles and an innovative diaphragm compressor with linear electric actuator.
11.06-0511 Internal Fluid Mechanics of Liquid Propellant Rocket Thrust Chambers Scientific Research Associates Inc. P.O. Box 498 Glastonbury CT 06033 Gibeling Howard J. NAS8-37255 Amount: MSFC NAS8-35274 Abstract The multicomponent, multiphase, reacting flow inside a liquid propellant rocket thrust chamber influences both the performance and life of the rocket engine. A unique Lagrangian discrete particle transport model has been developed and combined with an existing state-of-the-art, multidimensional, time-dependent, compressible Eulerian Navier-Stokes computer code. The procedure was successfully used to compute a gas/particle flow with strong interaction due to droplet evaporation. The effort will continue the development of this computer code by investigating and implementing an advanced turbulent dispersion model for particle motion, and a stochatic droplet injection model. These models will be evaluated extensively and detailed comparisons with available experimental data will be made. A sensitivity study will be conducted to determine the applicability of the various models to liquid propellant rocket thrust chamber flows. Also, the convergence of the Eulerian-Lagrangian coupling procedure will be improved by use of matrix conditioning and other applicable techniques in order to reduce code execution times signifi- cantly. Both the Eulerian and Lagrangian analyses will be modified to include a sufficient number of species to adequately model typical liquid propellant combustion process. A turbulent flow combustion model will be developed, implemented and tested by comparison with experimental data. Several axisymmetric reacting flow calculations for rocket thrust chambers will be performed. Finally, the analysis will be extended to treat three-dimensional thrust chamber flows, and will be demonstrated by a calculation for a realistic chamber-injector configuration. Additional computer code variation will be performed to decrease computer run time.
12.01-2484 Reagentless Water Quality Monitor (Organic Content) Astro Resources International Corp. 100 Park Avenue League City TX 77573 Ejzak Edward M. NAS9-17612 Amount: JSC NAS9-17282
The innovation being investigated is a reagentless Total Organic CarbonAnalyzer that can determine quantitative TOC values on a wide variety of organic inputs. Based on all information available to date (including Phase I results), the best way to analyze a water sample for TOC is still oxidation to carbon dioxide (CO2). The chosen method of oxidation is high energy ultraviolet light irradiation at elevated temperatures with subsequent gas sparing to remove CO2. This is followed by gas-liquid separation and gas analysis for CO2 in a specialized Infrared Analyzer (IRA) which is free of water interference. The results and conclusions of Phase I efforts include: (1) "Delta" conductivity analysis for quantitative CO2 measurement after oxidation is not acceptable. (2) Added heat improves UV promoted oxidation. (3) Reagentless TOC analysis of typical NASA water samples at 5PPM TOC or less is possible given enough UV energy, heat input, and time. Phase II approach is to characterize and improve the technique. Also, the specific problems of sparging and gas-liquid separation at zero gravity, speed of response, NASA water recovery system interface, computer interface/control, IRA response, power consumption, and size will be investigated.
12.01-4100 A Novel Membrane-Based Water Reclamation Post-Treatment Unit Bend Research Inc. 64550 Research Road Bend OR 97701-8599 Ray Roderick J. NAS9-17611 Amount: JSC NAS9-17286
On future long-term space missions, launch and resupply penalties associatedwith the storage and one-time use of the required quantities of water will be prohibitive; consequently, space craft wastewater recycle systems are now under development. Most system configurations are hybrid in nature--i.e., they are a combination of several technologies, each optimized for the specific waste- water stream to be treated. At the heart of most systems is a phase-change subsystem that produces distillate. Another source of relatively clean water is the dehumidification of the space craft cabin, which produces a "humidity condensate." These condensate and distillate streams must be "polished" by a post- treatment subsystem typically consisting of expendable sorption beds. The goal is to develop a hybrid post-treatment subsystem consisting of a combination of conventional sorption beds and a membrane module. The membrane module will act to reduce the level of contaminants in streams entering the sorption beds and thus reduce the rate of use of the sorption beds and the corresponding resupply penalty. The goal of the project is to deliver a breadboard hybrid post-treatment subsystem to NASA-JSC for testing.
12.02-8606 Tissue Fixation Apparatus for Flight Experimentation Phyoresource Research Inc. 707 Texas Ave, Suite 202-d College Station TX 77840 SCHELD H. W. NAS9-17608 Amount: JSC NAS9-17291
The objective is the development of modular flight research hardwarewhich will meet the requirements of a broad range of plant and animal cell experiments in the environment controlled growth and chemical treatment of cultured cells, tissues, or organisms. A list of experiments has been developed in collaboration with a representative group of NASA life sciences investigators and concepts for hardware configuration developed and tested through use of mockups and breadboard models. In the continuing effort, a previously used hardware item, the SO-15 cell culture system, will be prepared for use in preliminary experimentation and a laboratory research effort will be carried out to develop baseline data for guidance of culture chamber design. The final product of this effort will be in a engineering development unit of hardware which incorporates the requirements of the investigators into the space occupied by a single Shuttle locker.
12.04-8606 In-flight Acquisition of Engineering Data for Plant Growth System Design Phytoresource Research Inc. 707 Texas Ave., Suite 202-d College Station TX 77840 Scheld H. W. NAS9-17609 Amount: JSC NAS9-17292
This project will undertake the development of a flight test system forroutine exposure for plants or plant models aimed at generation of engineering data necessary for design and construction of space-rated plant culture systems for use in Shuttle, Spacelab or beyond. The general data base on plant interaction with its environment was evaluated and a set of test protocols and apparatus defined for acquisition of flight data. Currently available and potential test support hardware items have been evaluated. In the continuing effort, hardware will be fabricated and tested and a series of routine data acquisition flight tests will be developed.
12.05-3309 An Animal Development Habitat for Space Biology Star Enterprises Inc. 3595 N. Hinkle Rd Bloomington IN 47401 Alberts R. Jeffrey NAS2-12476 Amount: ARC NAS2-12113 Abstract A full-size model of a life support system has been designed and constructed to sustain a lactating rat and her offspring during a Shuttle mission. The configuration of this burrow-like habitat meets the spatial and environmental requirements of the Shuttle middeck. An innovative aspect of the design phase was a program of observational and choice tests of animals, which was used to establish their needs and preferences. The Habitat model includes: nest, den, passageway, waste and airhandling modules, lighting and temperature control, regulated airflow, two video cameras and timelapse recording capability, as well as food and water provisions for the full mission. Further objectives are: (a) construction of a flight-type prototype of the Animal Development Habitat, (b) provision of extensive bioengineering data on its functional characteristics and the quality of animal life within it, (c) assembly drawings, and (d) videographic documentation of Habitat structure and function. Use of the Habitat by NASA and private interests is anticipated on the Shuttle and space station. Components developed for the project have commercial potential.
12.06-9500 An Open Path Diode Laser Flux Meter for Trace Gases Aerodyne Research Inc. 45 Manning Road Billerica MA 01821 Stanton Alan C. NAS2-12433 Amount: ARC NAS2-12117
The purpose of this study is the development of instrumentation to measurefluxes of trace gases in order to determine their sources and sinks in the biosphere. A tunable diode laser source combined with an open path multiple pass absorption cell is used for trace species detection at sub-ppb levels. Absorption lines for sensitive, interference-free atmospheric pressure detection of important trace gases have been identified. Laboratory tests, including measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide at atmospheric pressure, demonstrated the feasibility of the multiple pass diode laser approach. Preliminary evaluations of alternative cell designs and data processing techniques have also been performed. Phase II, an open path tunable diode laser monitor of trace gases will be interfaced with a sonic anemometer and thermistor temperature sensor to permit simultaneous measurements of trace species concentration, temperature, and fluctuating velocity field. These measurements will be correlated to obtain fluxes of at least four trace species, possibly including nitrous oxide, methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ammonia, carbonyl sulfide, or carbon disulfide. The result will be a prototype instrument which will be delivered to NASA and tested in field measurements of trace species fluxes.
13.05-1424 Operational Forecasting of Florida Sea Breeze Thunderstorms Using a Mesoscale R*SCAN Corp., Business & Technology Center 511 Eleventh Avenue South Minneapolis MN 55415 Lyons Walter A. NAS10-11321 Amount: KSC NAS10-11142
Sea breeze convection (SBC) thunderstorms are a major impediment to SpaceShuttle operation at KSC, and are notoriously difficult to forecast. A mesoscale numerical model (MNM), previously used as a research tool [Pielke, 1974], shows a great potential for improving forecast guidance in the "mesoscale forecast gap," extending from T+1 to T+12 hours. Three case studies with similar synoptic conditions but distinctly different SBC storm patterns were simulated. A hybrid thunderstorm potential index, combining model predicted mesoscale maximum vertical motion fields and the perturbations of thermodynamic stability due to localized moisture convergence, yielded very encouraging results when compared to thunderstorm distributions (determined by a lightning tracking system). The model physics will be upgraded by (1) incorporating the Fritsch-Chappell convective parameterization scheme to forecast cloud tops and wind gusts, (2) improving the initialization schemes for cloudiness and non-homogeneous and non- stationary synoptic situations, and (3) developing a fine mesh grid (2.5 km) version to account for the local convergence effects of Cape Canaveral. A two-year test and evaluation program (up to 100 simulations) is proposed, with the second year generating real-time forecasts transmitted for use on an experimental basis. Other model uses (evaluating dispersion regimes and providing input to the MIDDS and MARSS systems) will be tested experimentally.
13.08-8581C Space Flight Gas Temperature Probe Remtech Inc. 2603 Artie Street, Suite 21 Huntsville AL 35805 Bender R. L. NAS8-37258 Amount: MSFC NAS8-35277
A double-shielded, multi-sensor gas temperature probe with a thermalsink base is proposed to provide accurate measurement of the Orbiter base region gas temperature during Shuttle ascent. This component of the ascent environment was not successfully measured during Shuttle development flights. Research established the technical feasibility of the multi-sensor concept and provided preliminary design data for a probe configuration which meets the thermal responsiveness and accuracy requirements. Measurements of base gas temperatures of 3450R at high altitude (low density) can be achieved. The design will be finalized based upon the results of thermal and structural development tests to be performed by REMTECH. Two flight qualified probes will be fabricated and deliverable for acceptance tests. The flight probe will be flown on a future Shuttle flight and provide gas temperature data which, in conjunction with the heating rate measurement, will define heat transfer coefficients at critical base locations. Knowledge of the heat transfer coefficient is essential to complete understanding of the flowfield and for scaling of test data to future designs of Shuttle derivative launchvehicles.
14.01-6642 Advanced Low-Cost Universal 20 GHz Monolithic Receiver Front-End Microwave Monolithics Inc. 465 E. Easy Street Simi Valley CA 93065 Peterson Wendell C. NAS3-24894 Amount: LeRC NAS3-24246
A program to fabricate all components of a low cost universal monolithicreceiver front end covering the 17.7 to 20.2 GHz band has been undertaken. Key components of the front end, the low noise amplifier (LNA) and the local oscillator (LO), have been designed to establish feasibility of the proposed approach. Results indicate that a front end with 3.5 dB noise figure and in excess of 30 dB gain is feasible, with a projected production cost under $1,000 after fabrication of the first 10,000 units. The designs of the LNA and LO will be finalized and the mixer and intermediate frequency amplifier designs completed. Following fabrication utilizing proprietary "flash annealing" techniques, the chips will be evaluated and modified as required, resulting in a monolithic "chip set" applicable to a wide range of advanced communications systems. Revised cost estimates will then be generated. Final component integration to form a complete receiver front end is the ultimate objective. The approach will permit adaption to neighboring frequencies with minor mask modifications, further enhancing the utility of the proposed MMIC receiver front end.
14.02-6642 Advanced GaAs Monolithic 20 GHz RF Switch Matrix Microwave Monolithics Inc. 465 E. Easy Street Simi Valley CA 93065 Ch'en Daniel R. NAS3-24895 Amount: LeRC NAS3-24248
Fabrication and evaluation of a novel advanced GaAs monolithic 20 GHzRF switch matrix for satellite communications applica-tions has been accomplished. The feasibility of the RF switch matrix approach has been verified by detailed study of a proprietary crosspoint switching element design and the analysis of its performance in large arrays. Passive FET switches are used for signal steering, while FET buffer amplifiers provide an overall insertion loss of 0 dB, allowing two dimensional cascading to form larger arrays (up to 100 X 100), also with 0 dB insertion loss. A proprietary packaging concept initially conceived for a monolithic IF switch matix was extended to 20 GHz to facilitate modular construction of large crosspoint matrices and interfering to other systems components. The next level of effort will concentrate on demonstration of the monolithic RF matrix switch concept by building a complete 3 X 3 switch matrix. Following a second design iteration of the matrix and its associated package and test fixture, a 10 X 10 or TBD size monolithic switch matrix will be designed, complete with on-chip buffer amplifiers and partial drive electronics.
14.03-3220 Facility for Integrated System Testing (FIST) of Space Station Communication and Tracking System Stanford Telecommunications Inc. 6888 Elm Street Mclean VA 22101 Zakrzewski NAS9-17607 Amount: JSC NAS9-17281
The development and delivery of a prototype facility for integrated simulation,modeling and analysis of potential space station multi-access communication options has been accom- plished. The new hybrid modeling technique for the RF link analysis combines the inherent time benefits of analytic modeling extensions (such as importance sampling and extreme value theory) with the flexibility of a Monte Carlo direct simulation approach. An agenda-based expert system is proposed to take outputs from the RF link analysis and assess potential impacts on the multi-access technique. Run time control of this library of modeling tools and the innovative approaches to chaining data flow through the communication link components is performed by a master executive also to be implemented with Artificial Intelligence techniques. The goal is to provide JSC with a fully optional prototype which will reduce the time it takes a system engineer to evaluate a communication system and thus increase the number of options he can consider in Real Time. The results validated the technical feasibility of all module and user interfaces and demonstration CPU time savings of multipleorders of magnitude.
14.07-3319 Low Power Digital Controller for Laser Communications The Navitrol Company Inc. 9204 Markville Drive Dallas TX 75243 Brown Richard J. NAS5-29437 Amount: GSFC NAS5-28645
The objective of this research is the development of a Low Power DigitalController (LPDC), for providing the overall control electronics functions for a highly accurate and stable laser pointing and tracking system to be applied to laser inter- satellite communication system. Reductions in system power, size and weight are to be achieved while increasing performance by application of the latest technology in CMOS VLSI, computer architecture and advanced control system theory. The computational load for a control system processor to meet laser pointing and tracking requirements is considerable and, without severe design compromises cannot be handled in conventional microprocessors. With the LPDC system it can. The LPDC is a highly modularized multi-processor system, expandable or contractable to fit many and varied applications. Results clearly demonstrate the feasibility of such a system. The same technology applied to processing will be applied to reduce size, weight and power of the interface electronics, as well. Simulation and test results indicate that considerable gains can be made in power usage reduction by applying new system techniques to cutting on and off the motors and encoders.
15.01-7307 A Color Schlieren System for Large Scale Low-Gravity MPS Fluids Experiments E/Erg Inc. 2030 E. Speedway #214 Tucson AZ 85719 Poteet Wade M. NAS8-37254 Amount: MSFC NAS8-35278
A number of low-gravity materials processing experiments, such as crystalgrowth studies, require a specialized optical system capable of flow visualization. A small prototype color schlieren imaging system has been developed and tested for application to materials processing in space (MPS) programs. The system was successfully constructed and subsequently tested on the NASA KC- 135 low-gravity aircraft. Design, construction and testing of a protoflight system based on the prototype experience will begin. This will include applications of improved filtering, real time image acquisition and temperature monitoring of the experiment sample. This work will provide a foundation for the flight hardware development.
15.03-7039 Ultrafine Particle and Fiber Production in Micro-Gravity Energy Science Laboratories Inc. 11404 Sorrento Valley Rd #113 San Diego CA 92121 Webb George W. NAS8-37253 Amount: MSFC NAS8-35279
Results show that ultrafine particles and ultrafine fibers can be preparedby the evaporating material into an inert gas where it subsequently condenses. The results also show that the floating material can be connected by techniques appropriate to micro- gravity. Here ultrafine particles and fibers are defined to have characteristic diameters of less than 1000 angstroms. The growth process was found to be dominated in its later stages by coales- cence processes between particles and that the coalescence is made much worse by convection in the inert gas. These results suggest that the technique will produce smaller particles and fibers in microgravity. The objectives are: to determine optimum growth parameters for smallest diameter particles and fibers, to determine optimum heating methods for use in microgravity and to determine optimum collection methods for use in microgravity. Experimental test of the concept and methods in KC 135 reduced gravity flights will be conducted. Preliminary design of orbital hardware and procedure will begin. If the project is successful it will be possible to produce significant quantities of ultrafine particles and fibers of a wide range of materials.
15.04-7840 Lunar Oxygen Production from Ilmenite/Fluid Particle Processing Technology in Space Carbotek Inc. 2916 West T.C. Jester, Suite 101 Houston TX 77018 Gibson M. A. NAS9-17605 Amount: JSC NAS9-17288
A primary objective is to measure extensive fluidized-bed characterizationdata for simulated lunar ilmenite reactor feedstock at simulated lunar gravity conditions. These data will be combined with kinetics and solid reactivity studies already begun--a second major ojective. This information then will be used to plan the explicit design of a prototype lunar ilmenite reactor. Another major objective is to extend the fluid-particle characterization data to low, controlled gravity conditions characteristic of the space shuttle and space station for commercial space processing applications. The early work has shown that 1000 metric tonnes/year of oxygen can be produced using an 8 ft. O.D. x 6 ft. I.D. x 20 ft. tall refractory-lined, stainless steel reactor. The metal shell weight is 7 tons; internal insulation (firebrick) weight is 30 tons; total 37 tons. Process conditions are the 1000C, 150 psia and equilibrium H2 conversion. Ilmenite conversion is 90%; the reduction appears to follow a shrinking-core, chemical reaction- rate-controlled mechanism. Reduced-gravity fluid bed behavior and internal insulation designs were identified as areas where additional study could result in higher solids conversions and/or weight savings.
15.05-7606 The Large Format Camera: Novel Analyses of Sensor Applications Autometric Inc. 5205 Leesburg Pike, Suite 1308, Skyline 1 Falls Church VA 22041 Lucas Carroll NAS8-37263 Amount: MSFC NAS8-35280
The capability of Large Format Camera products to support analyses ina variety of user disciplines has been documented. Comple- mentary and competitive present and future imaging systems and their products were compared with LFC cartographic and multispectral properties to demonstrate the potential for LFC commercialization. Based upon the results of the earlier work it will be shown how LFC acquisitions and products can be profitably commercialized. The main goals are to refine procedures for exploiting LFC products, produce a prototype workstation for such exploitation, compile procedures and manuals for using LFC materials, and provide a training plan, a prototype training system, and training course materials. A market analysis will be conducted and a commercialization plan will be established working with the LFCIWG.