The lunar Gateway is a lunar space station that will orbit the Moon in a highly elliptical Near-Rectilinear Halo Orbit (NRHO). The Gateway is envisioned as a multi-purpose spacecraft serving as a temporary habitat for astronauts, a science laboratory (for crewed and un-crewed experiments), a communications store/relay, a holding area for other spacecraft and devices, etc. The Gateway requires autonomous system and operations management, including the ability to follow commands (from ground stations and astronauts), fault/degradation detection and diagnosis; warnings, recovery; preventative/precautionary measures; and more. The Gateway includes many subsystems such as the Electrical Power System (EPS) and Communications. The EPS underlies much of the PPE, the HAO, and the Gateway as a whole. We propose Gateway-MAESTRO (GatewayManagement through AdaptivE, autonomous, faulTidentification & diagnosis, Reconfiguration/replanning/reschedulingOptimization) to manage the Gateway system and operations.
During normal operations, Gateway-MAESTRO monitors onboard sensor values in order to: automatically characterize Gateway components and to be prepared to detect failures; based on that characterization, automatically predict resource availability over time; and automatically schedule the actions (i.e., determine what activities will occur and when (along with the modes of the associated equipment)). During a failure scenario, Gateway-MAESTRO would first detect the problem; immediately safe the spacecraft to minimize damage; diagnose the problem and determine the root cause; determine potential feasible courses of action (COAs) given the failed components or set of possible failed components; determine the impact and ramifications of each COA; select the most appropriate COA; generate the detailed schedule/sequence of actions to implement the COA; and finally adaptively execute the required actions.
The direct transition target is the Gateway. Other future manned and unmanned, deep-space and near-Earth NASA spacecraft (and perhaps ground stations) can benefit from autonomous, intelligent system and operations management. Because Gateway-MAESTRO is an open system, other developers can use it to create additional intelligent software. Additional interfaces can be developed over time to increase the number of such options. The planned Phase II demonstration of Gateway-MAESTRO in space onboard an MSU satellite will greatly aid its adoption.
Gateway-MAESTRO technology can be adapted to manage other Government systems (e.g., NOAA, Air Force), and private systems. MAESTRO technology is flexible and follows an open systems architecture. Systems handling fault identification/recovery, planning, scheduling, adaptive execution, etc. can use this technology (and can draw from previous NASA-funded efforts such as our EPS-MAESTRO).