STTR Phase I Solicitation  Abstract Archives

NASA 2017 SBIR Phase I Solicitation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A1.01-8463
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Structural Efficiency-Tailored Airframe & Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Manufacturing For Design of Titanium Alloys

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Transition45 Technologies, Inc.
1739 North Case Street
Orange, CA
92865-4211
(714) 283-2118

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Edward Chen
transition45@sbcglobal.net
1739 North Case Street
Orange,  CA 92865-4211
(714) 283-2118

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase I program proposes to exploit the tremendous benefits that could be offered by the development of a microstructural refinement and control technology for titanium alloys. A severe plastic deformation (SPD) technology based on hot die isothermal forging technologies will be explored in this work. The goal is to demonstrate a practical, production level manufacturing approach to producing bulk-sized titanium alloy components with refined and controllable microstructure-properties. Higher performance titanium alloys would be particularly advantageous for next generation airframe and engine structures and components seeking improved structural efficiency. The effect of different thermomechanical conditions to achieve the requisite microstructure-properties also needs to be understood in order to identify the optimum process.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA commercial applications are commercial and military airframe, aircraft engine, and spaceframe structural components that require greater structural efficiency and/or higher performance. Other potential applications include higher performance industrial pump and valve components, biomedical implants, and sporting goods.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications are airframe, aircraft engine, and spaceframe structural components that require greater structural efficiency and/or higher performance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Metallics
Nanomaterials
Fasteners/Decouplers
Structures
Atmospheric Propulsion
Launch Engine/Booster
Spacecraft Main Engine
Destructive Testing
Characterization
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A1.01-8592
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Structural Efficiency-Tailored Airframe & Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Interchain Transesterification as a Solid-State Composite Welding Mechanism

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ATSP Innovations
60 Hazelwood Drive
Champaign, IL
61820-7460
(217) 417-2374

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jacob Meyer
jacob.l.meyer@atspinnovations.com
60 Hazelwood Drive
Champaign,  IL 61820-7460
(217) 778-4400

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We will develop novel composite structures of carbon fiber reinforced high performance aromatic thermosetting copolyester (ATSP) resin composites (ATSP/C) being solid-state bonded to primary metal spacecraft structures in order to build lightweight elements with tailorable structural properties without necessitating additional uses of adhesives or mechanical joints. The ITR bonding approach uniquely enables chemical interfacial (surface) self-welding mechanism effectively consolidating pre-cured parts through a smooth strong and continuous bond line. The ITR bonding fully solid-state process, which eliminates approaches that rely on uncured polymer or a meltable interstitial phase. The ITR ensures physical integrity of joint members of the structure and the reversible adhesive within the range of temperatures experienced during day/night cycles in space. The ITR is the first viable composite welding scheme for fully cured thermoset composites. Tailorable ATSP chemistry can be adapted to nearly any polymer processing technique by adjustments in oligomer structure providing unique advantages compared to conventional polymer matrices. In Phase I, we will develop an out-of-autoclave fabrication method to produce solid-state bond consolidated carbon fiber reinforced ATSP composite laminae and ATSP coated aerospace grade metal substrates. Additionally, we will perform physical characterization, thermomechanical property measurements and performance analyses of ITR bonded specimens. Additionally, we will develop thermal-electrical-mechanical finite element analysis models for optimized composite design with tailorable physical properties.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ITR bonding scheme could have a broad impact on other U.S. agencies and particularly aerospace industry is to promote welding-like bonding scheme along with cost, labor and material savings for primary aerospace composite structures. Regarding DARPA/Lockheed Martin X-55 Advanced Composite Cargo Aircraft demonstration, utilizing bonded composite components and fuselage structure, substantial weight savings on an aircraft frame were enabled by simply eliminating rivet and fastener use (more than 85%) along with other improvements in fabrication and assembly stages. Also, through a reliable and leak-tight arrangement of fibers, failure of cryogenic fuel tanks could be prevented (Space X Falcon 9 Rocket explosion). Similar improvements can be obtained in polymer composite or metal used structural elements through application of ITR bonding.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The solid-state ITR bonding approach could potentially find an application space in spacecraft technologies of NASA missions. For example, cryogenic liquid hydrogen (LH2) tanks used on Earth-departure weight critical architectures and in-space propellant depots to sustain deep space missions could be produced using the solid-state ITR mechanism. Particularly, metal and composite layers of composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) can be strongly combined to prevent buckling, leaking as well as minimizing thermal effects. Also, construction of on-site habitable architectures requirements of NASA's foreseen deep space missions beyond low-Earth orbit would be facilitated via orbital replacement units transporting ITR joinable high disassembled packing factor building blocks to build next-generation structures. Additionally, on-going Solar Electric Propulsion project requirements of readjustable (folding/rolling) solar arrays configurations would be enriched through various other arrangements enabled through automated ITR bonding assembly.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Fasteners/Decouplers
Structures
Simulation & Modeling
Heat Exchange
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
In Situ Manufacturing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A1.01-9469
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Structural Efficiency-Tailored Airframe & Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Single-Process, Unitized, Composite Fuselage

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cornerstone Research Group, Inc.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH
45440-3638
(937) 320-1877

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bryan Pelley
pelleybm@crgrp.com
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton,  OH 45440-3638
(937) 320-1877

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA seeks tailored airframes and structures to reduce structural mass in support of the NASA Aeronautics Strategic Implementation Plan (2015), following the Roadmap for Ultra-Efficient Commercial Vehicles, Subsonic Transport. Tailored structures are comprised of the right materials, at the right place, in the right orientation, in the right amount. Whatever the material or structural configuration, excess weight is driven out through optimization, within the limitations of the manufacturing approach. CRG has been laying the foundation for the design and production of tailored structures for more than a decade. CRG's vision for tailored airframes and structures begins with unitization, enabled by Smart Tooling for affordable manufacturing of complex composites. CRG began work on Smart Tooling for fuselages in 2005, targeting fully-integrated, single-process skins, stringers, and frames. CRG subsidiary Spintech launched in 2010 to commercialize Smart Tooling into the aerospace industry, and soon after demonstrated a quarter-scale unitized fuselage. Today, CRG brings robust capabilities in composite structural optimization, expanding capabilities in aerospace composite fabrication, leading-edge understanding of hybrid nano-composites, and Spintech's Smart Tooling technology to provide NASA with advanced, highly-tailored fuselage configurations with unmatched structural efficiency.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project's technologies, developed for NASA systems, would directly apply to systems operated by other government and commercial enterprises. Government systems that would derive the same benefits would include future DoD aircraft, both manned and UAS. This technology's attributes for reduced manufacturing costs and reduced operating costs should yield a high potential for private sector commercialization for aircraft production by the major OEMs, prime contractors, and Tier 1 suppliers in both the commercial aircraft and defense industries.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Supporting NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate, this project's technologies directly address requirements for tailored airframes and structures resulting in mass reduction for improved fuselage structural efficiency. The goals support NASA's roadmap for Ultra-Efficient Commercial Vehicles - Subsonic Transport. This project's technologies enabling structural unitization lead to reduced manufacturing cost, reduced operating costs resulting from reduced fuel burn, and reduced emissions, leading to cleaner and more affordable flight in the future.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Air Transportation & Safety
Prototyping
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A1.02-9654
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Quiet Performance - Airframe Noise Reduction
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Channel Count, High Density Microphone Arrays for Wind Tunnel Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Interdisciplinary Consulting Corporation
5745 Southwest 75th Street, #364
Gainesville, FL
32608-5504
(352) 283-8110

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stephen Horowitz
shorowitz@thinkIC2.com
9598 Pulaski Pike
Toney,  AL 35773-7464
(256) 698-6175

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Interdisciplinary Consulting Corporation (IC2) proposes the development of high channel count, high density, reduced cost per channel, directional microphone arrays for noise source measurement using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based piezoelectric microphones with backside contacts and advanced packaging technology. The goal of this research is to develop an advanced phased-array technology to revolutionize array measurement capabilities through increases in array density and channel count while easing installation into wind-tunnels and significantly reducing cost per channel. Specifically, this array technology will be developed to address NASA?s needs for acoustic and relevant flow field measurement methods for subsonic, transonic and supersonic vehicles targeted specifically at airframe noise sources and the noise sources due to the aerodynamic and acoustic interaction of airframe and engines, as per Subtopic A1.02 Quiet Performance - Airframe Noise Reduction of the NASA FY 2017 SBIR/STTR Solicitation. This work is aimed at meeting the aerospace industrys need for economically viable array technology that meets required metrics.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed instrumentation technology has the potential to be implemented across government-owned, industry and academic institution test facilities. The target market is instrumentation and measurement microphones and arrays for the aerospace industry. The target application is as wind tunnel instrumentation for phased-array beamforming to enable noise source localization. In addition to wind-tunnel testing, the proposed microphone technology is also applicable to the types of technological solutions sought for pressure measurements and focusing acoustic measurements that can be used in a flight-test tunnel environment and ground test instrumentation for static engine testing. The primary characteristic of this market is the need for high performance measurements with relatively low volume requirements. Ultimately, the cost per unit and size constraints of existing technologies limit the array size and density below customer desired levels. IC2 seeks to change that dynamic via microphones with reduced size and complexity, at drastically lower cost (roughly an order of magnitude), enabling vastly larger, affordable arrays of higher density. Furthermore, we achieve those goals while meeting individual microphone performance requirements,leading to potentially game-changing improvements in array performance.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed instrumentation technology has the potential to be transportable across multiple NASA facility classes as well as implemented across government-owned, industry and academic institution test facilities. The target application for entry into NASA ATP is as wind tunnel instrumentation for phased-array beamforming to enable noise source localization. In addition to wind-tunnel testing, the proposed microphone technology is also applicable for dynamic pressure measurements, in-flight acoustic measurements, and static engine testing. The proposed innovation is applicable to NASA LaRCs 14x22 Subsonic Wind Tunnel for advanced phased array measurements of fixed- and rotary-wing civil and military aircraft over a wide range of takeoff, landing, cruise and high angle-of-attack conditions. The Structural Acoustics Branch at LaRC would also benefit from support to the Acoustics Research Laboratorys 20x24x30 anechoic quiet-flow facility and aircraft sidewall noise transmission measurement facility. The measurement capabilities would also help support LaRCs Aeroacoustics Branch by supplying validation of simulation of the Rotorcraft, the Subsonic Fixed Wing, and the Supersonic Projects. Additionally, wind tunnel test facilities at GRC and Ames will benefit from this microphone/array technology (as microphones and/or dynamic pressure sensors arrays).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Acoustic/Vibration
Pressure/Vacuum
Aerodynamics
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A1.02-9739
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Quiet Performance - Airframe Noise Reduction
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Fidelity Tool for Noise Source Identification

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
701 McMillian Way Northwest, Suite D
Huntsville, AL
35806-2923
(256) 726-4800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
H. Q. Yang
hq.yang@cfdrc.com
701 McMillian Way NW, Suite D
Huntsville,  AL 35806-2923
(256) 726-4800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Thorough understanding of airframe and propulsion aerodynamic noise sources and the subsequent acoustic propagation to the farfield is necessary to the design and development of efficient, environmentally acceptable aircraft. In this SBIR study, we propose to develop a high fidelity tool using high-order low-dissipation methods in the NASA flagship unstructured CFD code FUN3D. The developed prediction tool can accurately represent the nonlinear flow processes with minimum dissipation, including turbulence, coherent vortices and shock waves critical to the noise generation. Compared to the state-of-the-art unstructured production codes, an increase of one order-of-magnitude in resolvable scales is expected at the expense of just 10% overhead. In Phase I, the effort will include improvement of the 3rd-order scheme for high-aspect ratio unstructured grids, and consistent temporal and spatial accuracies. High-order limiters will be developed to improve the shock capturing capability for sonic boom. The performance improvements will be assessed for the unsteady subsonic and supersonic flows. The Phase II effort will further mature and advance the technology utilizing FUN3D?s massively parallel infrastructure to enable its applications for the prediction of airframe noise sources and the noise sources due to the aerodynamic and acoustic interaction of airframe and engines.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The FAA spends millions of dollars each year buying homes, or making acoustic improvements to homes to comply with FAA regulations. There is an enormous market for efficient aeroacoustic analysis tools, which is driven by new aircraft, missile, and reusable launch vehicle design and by the need for multiple aeroacoustic analyses over time as a consequence of aircraft modifications and expanded/changing missions. These are important areas for defense contractors. The proposed technology provides a viable tool for several commercial applications such as wing-trailing vortex dynamics of large civil aircraft, analysis of noise generated by the landing gear of civil aircraft, and others. The present high-order low-dissipation CFD technology is also applicable to a broad range of applications that involve embedded flow features requiring high resolution with limited grid size. Such applications include turbomachinery, cavitation, biomedical, electronic cooling, and many others.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The work proposed in this effort will advance the state-of-the-art of unstructured CFD technology not only for aeroacoustics problems in airframe but also in other areas such as high-lift surfaces and propulsion design. The developed tool can also be directly applied to several of NASA?s multidisciplinary noise and vibration programs such as the prediction of noise mechanisms and propagation for engine, fan, duct, propellers, and airframes, and for the analysis of wake/frame interaction induced noise and vibrations. The developed technology will support multiple NASA programs, projects and initiatives including Advanced Air Transport Technology (AATT) Project, Commercial Supersonic Technology (CST) project, Revolutionary Vertical Lift Technology (RVLT) project, the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) vehicle, and many others. It can be used for the design of revolutionary aircraft with innovative configurations and technologies for minimum noise signature, and for the improvement of current aircraft noise performance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation & Modeling
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A1.03-9051
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Emissions Propulsion and Power-Turboelectric and Hybrid Electric Aircraft Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Based Solid State Smart Circuit Protection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
LaunchPoint Technologies, Inc.
5735 Hollister Avenue, Suite B
Goleta, CA
93117-6410
(805) 683-9659

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Ricci
mricci@launchpnt.com
5735 Hollister Avenue, Suite B
Goleta,  CA 93117-6410
(805) 683-9659

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced solid state power component technology is necessary for future hybrid aircraft systems with increased power demands. There is a need for adequate circuit protection in these high powered electrical systems to achieve safety, reliability, and ultimately airworthiness. Solid State Power Controller (SSPC) modules already exist for aircraft applications but they were developed for the lower power levels seen in existing aircraft branch circuits. Hybrid-Electric aircraft have electrical power levels that are one or two orders of magnitude higher than existing aircraft and the presently existing SSPCs are simply not appropriate for use in these vehicles. SSPCs at the power levels required for a GA aircraft propulsion motor hardly exist; and SSPCs at the power levels required by small electric UAVs are too heavy and bulky. The LaunchPoint SSPC unit will incorporate all of the capabilities of existing SSPCs but with a few distinctions. LaunchPoint's SSPC will utilize Silicon Carbide and Gallium Nitride semiconductors to create SSPCs that are not only significantly smaller but can operate at much higher power levels. In addition to utilizing a different MOSFET element, the LaunchPoint SSPC would incorporate a microcontroller that would perform high bandwidth monitoring of current and voltage waveforms and derive low bandwidth metrics that can be reported back to the system Hybrid Power Controller. These metrics could include transient peak currents and voltages, RMS currents and voltages, and frequency content. In addition to these metrics, LaunchPoint would like to evaluate the feasibility of using the smart SSPC to detect imminent insulation failures resulting from coronal discharge, a particularly troubling problem associated with high altitude flight. This could be accomplished by real time analysis of partial discharge currents and other characteristic phenomena. These advancements represent a novel contribution to electric aircraft propulsion systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
LaunchPoint Technologies is providing a gen-set and hybrid power system to a potential customer for evaluation on a small UAV they are planning to manufacture and sell. This customer has expressed a desire for circuit protection to enable the vehicle to survive the failure of a motor speed controller that could short out the entire DC bus of the vehicle. Other UAV manufacturers that wish to conduct operations over people will eventually need to meet some airworthiness requirements and circuit protection that allows the vehicle to remain in the air after a short circuit in a feeder wire or other single point electrical failures will be essential to demonstrate airworthiness to the FAA. Eventual electric powered Personal Air Vehicles will require high power and low weight circuit protection to enable safe reliable ubiquitous flight.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA spacecraft could benefit from significant weight savings as well as increased safety, x-57 Maxwell aircraft, GL-10 hybrid electric VTOL aircraft, HEIST project could replace heavy electromechanical relays in the power system with lightweight, fast Solid State Power Controller (SSPC) modules. The SSPC modules can also be incorporated into the front end of motor speed controllers and allow the controllers to safely disconnect from the DC bus in the event of a short circuit fault within the controller. The modules also will have use as battery pack disconnect switches in the event of a pack failure that could short circuit the main power bus.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Space Transportation & Safety
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Distribution/Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A1.03-9410
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Emissions Propulsion and Power-Turboelectric and Hybrid Electric Aircraft Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Superconducting Rotors Coils for Turboelectric Aircraft Propulsion

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hyper Tech Research, Inc.
539 Industrial Mile Road
Columbus, OH
43228-2412
(614) 481-8050

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Matthew Rindfleisch
mrindfleisch@hypertechresearch.com
539 Industrial Mile Rd
Columbus,  OH 43228-2412
(614) 481-8050

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future Turboelectric or Hybrid Electric aircraft requires high power density and efficiency power generation components for which superconductors are likely key enablers. Therefore, there is a need for light-weight, high-performance superconducting wire with sufficiently high operating temperature, is stable, and available in long piece-length for coil fabrication. Improved 2nd generation magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconducting wires potentially provide an order-of-magnitude enhancement in current carrying capacity, and offer many advantages in materials, technological, and engineering aspects over wires based on current state-of-the-art MgB2 and all other classes of superconductors. These proposed wires will be light-weight, low-cost, and have high engineering current density, operating temperatures of 4-30K, and long piece-length, potentially up to 60 km. This proposed Phase I program focuses on: 1) developing and improving 2nd generation MgB2 multifilament wires with very high engineering current density and uniform superconductivity properties over length, and 2) developing prototype rotor coils based on these improved wires. A two-pronged approach is proposed to achieve enhanced current density and uniformity of the wire: 1) maximizing critical current by alloying and modified heat treatment approach to increase the superconducting fraction inside wires, and 2) homogenizing the MgB2 formation reaction along each sub-element in the wire by modifying conductor design, and wire fabrication and heat treatment processing parameters.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Manufacturers of large electrical systems desire to increase the efficiency, and decrease the size of their systems in order to reduce costs. Presently major manufacturers of transformers, motors, generators, fault current limiters, and transmission cables are pursuing superconductor wires to achieve these objectives. More recently there has been a growing global market for a new class of large machines requiring high power density (from 4 to 20 MW) including wind and wave turbine generators, aircraft turbo-generators, offshore oil platform motors, marine propulsion and generation systems, and portable emergency power systems. Another major application is in next generation 1.5T and 3.0T MRI systems where cooling by conduction, i.e. liquid helium bath free is enabled by these advanced superconducting wires.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Besides power components (i.e., rotor and stator coils) in future Turboelectric or Hybrid Electric aircraft, the next generation, high power density magnesium diboride superconductors can benefit a variety of NASA applications where light-weight and/or high-efficiency electric components are required such as generators, motors, cables, transformers, inductors, power conditioning equipment and ADR coils. Other magnet applications that these advanced magnesium diboride wires can be considered for include magnetic bearings, actuators, MHD magnets, propulsion engines, magnetic shielding for spacecraft structures and magnetic launch devices.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Nanomaterials
Actuators & Motors
Airship/Lighter-than-Air Craft
Air Transportation & Safety
Superconductance/Magnetics
Generation
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A1.03-9411
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Emissions Propulsion and Power-Turboelectric and Hybrid Electric Aircraft Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low AC-Loss Superconducting Cable Technology for Electric Aircraft Propulsion

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hyper Tech Research, Inc.
539 Industrial Mile Road
Columbus, OH
43228-2412
(614) 481-8050

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Matthew Rindfleisch
mrindfleisch@hypertechresearch.com
539 Industrial Mile Rd
Columbus,  OH 43228-2412
(614) 481-8050

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The availability of low AC loss magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconducting wires enables much lighter weight superconducting stator coils than with any other metal or ceramic superconductor. This, together with Hyper Tech's capability to fabricate long piece-length (potentially 60 km) wires, in turn enables lighter superconducting motors/generators, essential components in the turboelectric aircraft propulsion system with high power densities (over 10 kW/kg) envisioned in next generation Air Vehicle Technologies. To that end, this proposed SBIR Phase I program focuses on developing MgB2 multifilament superconducting cables with exceptionally low AC losses (targeting a loss budget of 1 W/cm3) because superconductors in a cable form is arguably the only easily-accomplished and viable way to push down AC losses while retaining high operating current levels in the stator coils. Two recent advancements at Hyper Tech greatly increase the odds of success in developing superconducting cable technology in the Phase I: 1) the development of cutting-edge superconductor strand architecture designs with fine filaments, small twist pitches and resistive components for reducing AC losses and 2) improved wire manufacturing capability to fabricate multi-strand cables. A second benefit of using superconducting cable technology, beyond AC loss reduction, is the much lower heat load produced by the conductor.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Superconducting transformers, motors, generators, fault current limiters, DC transmission cables, 4 to 20 MW wind and wave turbine generators, aircraft turbo-generators, offshore oil platform motors, marine propulsion and generation systems, portable emergency power systems, and conduction cooled (liquid helium bath free) 1.5T and 3.0T MRI systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
All-electric aircraft power components (rotor and stator coils), generators, motors, cables, transformers, inductors, power conditioning equipment, ADR coils, magnetic bearings, actuators, MHD magnets, spacecraft electric propulsion systems (e.g. MPD and VASIMR thruster), magnetic shielding for spacecraft structures, and magnetic launch devices.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Nanomaterials
Actuators & Motors
Airship/Lighter-than-Air Craft
Air Transportation & Safety
Manufacturing Methods
Superconductance/Magnetics
Generation
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A1.03-9836
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Emissions Propulsion and Power-Turboelectric and Hybrid Electric Aircraft Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Software Toolkit to Accelerate Emission Predictions for Turboelectric/Hybrid Electric Aircraft Propulsion

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Combustion Research and Flow Technology
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville, PA
18947-1020
(215) 766-1520

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrea Zambon
azambon@craft-tech.com
6210 Keller's Church Rd.
Pipersville,  PA 18947-1020
(215) 766-1520

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Electric propulsion represents an attractive path for reducing overall emissions. For larger commercial aircrafts operating in the mega-watt range, power turboelectric and hybrid electric aircraft propulsion will continue to rely on gas turbine engines/generators to provide part of the thrust, charging batteries and driving generators. As a result, reduction of emissions such as oxides of nitrogen (NOx) remains a key concern. The innovation proposed is a software toolkit supporting high-fidelity yet computationally-tractable predictions of NOx emissions and other pollutants in gas-turbine engines/generators within the context of unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. A well-known difficulty limiting the accurate prediction of NOx levels in turbulent flames is related to the fact that NOx production can evolve through several different chemical pathways characterized by drastically different time scales. In this regard, the overall objective of the proposed SBIR program is to develop and implement an accurate modeling extension to CRAFT Tech?s parameterized LEM-CF turbulent combustion modeling framework to address pollutant formation such as NOx in a computationally-tractable manner and by capturing the relevant characteristic chemical time scales. The Phase I effort is intended to build the foundation of the proposed software toolkit by addressing the feasibility of the key attributes of predictive accuracy, computational efficiency, software portability and general applicability.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial market for this product includes the broad aerospace, power-generation and defense industry. The primary driver for the commercial market for this product is represented by commercial aircraft gas turbine engines. The proposed software toolkit directly addresses the resulting increased demand for high-fidelity design tools that accurately characterize emissions and unsteady combustion effects and will benefit commercial gas turbine OEMs (both commercial and military) by providing them with a powerful and tractable supplement to minimize the need for experimental testing. Other applications encompass power-generation turbines and internal combustion, HCCI and diesel engines, e.g., using engine recirculation (EGR) devices to mitigate harmful NOx production. DoD applications include the design of gas-turbine engines, scramjets, pulse-detonation-engines (PDEs), augmentors, UAVs propulsion systems and rocket engines. Of particular relevance is the Army single fuel policy mandate to use jet fuel in ground vehicle diesel engines to simplify the supply chain logistics in the battle space and to strengthen domestic energy security. Also noteworthy is the DoD growing interest in fuel blends with alternative or renewable fuels, e.g., synthetic paraffinic kerosene or camelina-derived bio-fuel, as an acceptable form of "drop-in" fuels.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This product addresses NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) core needs for enabling safe and reliable operation of next-generation (e.g., N+3 generation and beyond) ultra low-emission power turboelectric and hybrid electric aircraft propulsion, where gas turbine engines will continue to play a critical role. With increasingly stringent environmental regulations, reduction of emissions, including NOx, remains a key concern, in particular for larger aircrafts operating in the mega-watt range. This product also addresses core needs of NASA?s vision for next-generation aircraft systems with hybrid integrated wing/body systems that feature significant improvements in engine performance, emissions and noise reduction. Since low-emission gas turbine engines/generators tend to operate at fuel lean conditions near the flame lean blow-out limit while avoiding the occurrence of combustion instability, a detailed understanding of flame dynamics and unsteady combustion effects is required to develop fuel-efficient, low-emission, stable combustor designs. In this regard, advanced CFD design tools can provide fundamental physical insight that is difficult or cost-prohibitive to obtain experimentally. Given the inherent modularity of the LEM-CF approach, interfacing with the National Combustion Code (NCC) will provide NASA with a powerful design support tool.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation & Modeling
Generation
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Support


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A1.04-8890
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamic Efficiency-Active Flow Control Actuators and Design Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Modeling and Controls for Synthetic Jet-Based Active Flow Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Actasys, Inc.
8 Callaway Circle
Loudonville, NY
12211-2640
(917) 621-5322

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Menicovich
david.menicovich@gmail.com
8 callaway circle
loudonville,  NY 12211-2640
(917) 621-5322

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In order to enable widespread application of Active Flow Control (AFC) technology on commercial transports, Actasys Inc, in collaboration with The Center for Advanced of Multifunctional Material Systems at University of California, Los Angeles (CAMMS-UCLA) and the Princeton University, intend to develop a model-based environment for the advancement of design and performance validation of AFC using Synthetic Jet actuators (AFCSJ). The core of this approach is establishing a feedback loop between new computational models, lab tests and field experiments in order to mature AFC actuation system design in a time-efficient and cost-effective and ready-implementable manner. This is a significant improvement on the current prevailing approach of iterative build-and-test for AFC development. Phase I will result in computational tools for modeling the performance of Synthetic Jet Actuators (SJA) resulting in optimized performance; Control loops which increase system energy efficiency; and a Data Management Platform (DMP) for test bed result analysis. Phase II will result in full- scale system validation in lab and field tests. Field demonstration of the system capabilities will use phase I outputs and will be performed using a previously developed full-scale tractor-trailer test bed in order to reduce risk and cost compared to flight-testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The developed technology has the potential to be commercialized in a wide set of markets and for a wide set of purposes. By leveraging its ability to reduce the drag of vehicles, the developed system can be used to increase the fuel efficiency of a range of ground vehicles, including tractor-trailers, SUV, sports cars, trains, and buses. Furthermore, similarly to ground vehicles, the developed system can be used to reduce the aerodynamic drag of large marine vessels, increasing their fuel efficiency (both in commercial and military applications). By leveraging its ability to enhance maneuverability and stability, the new system can be applied to high-speed boats (both for military and commercial applications) and to sports cars. Furthermore, it can be integrated with wind turbine blades to enhance their energy output and reduce their mechanical vibrations, ultimately prolonging their life. Finally, the developed system can be utilized to enhance cooling and heating in a variety of applications, ranging from computer and power electronics to HVAC systems in buildings.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Fuel efficiency improvement of commercial flying vehicles is only one of several potential applications of the developed system within the aerospace industry. Another application that would benefit NASA is the use of the developed technology to enhance the maneuverability of a wide set of applications, including rockets, missiles, UAVs and landing payloads. By integrating the developed system into such devices it will be possible to achieve a higher degree of maneuverability with very small amount of power. Furthermore, synthetic jet technology can in principle be used to enhance cooling of computer and power electronics, a critical aspect of several NASA missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Actuators & Motors
Atmospheric Propulsion
Active Systems
Heat Exchange
Aerodynamics
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A1.04-9154
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamic Efficiency-Active Flow Control Actuators and Design Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Chemically-Based Actuation for Active Flow Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Virtual AeroSurface Technologies
2101 Jarrod Place
Smyrna, GA
30080-5685
(678) 360-5218

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tom Crittenden
tom.crittenden@vastechnologies.com
2101 Jarrod Place
Smyrna,  GA 30080-5685
(678) 360-5218

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed SBIR program by Virtual AeroSurface Technologies (VAST) focuses on the development of a novel variant of pulsed blowing active flow control in which chemically-based flow control actuators are utilized to create high-impulse pulsed jets from discrete reaction chambers with a flowable propellant mixture provided to each. Chemically-based actuation is capable of producing high-impulse jets with sufficient control authority for full-scale flight vehicles and speeds, and, compared to other pulsed blowing flow control schemes, this type of actuation inherently requires less energy from other flight systems as the energy used to create the high jet momentum is stored chemically within the propellant. This general actuation approach has been successfully demonstrated before in the form of COMPACT (in which gaseous fuel and air are repetitively combusted to form pulsed jets for control of separation) and gas generator actuators (in which microfabricated combustion chambers with solid propellant mixtures are utilized for single-shot trajectory control of spin-stabilized projectiles). The innovation proposed here (in which flowable propellant is dynamically supplied to the chambers from an integrated local reservoir) will eliminate the challenges and infrastructure associated with supplying large volumes of air which are necessary for most pulsed blowing approaches and, to a lesser extent, for COMPACT. The proposed Phase I program will investigate multiple propellant chemical compositions, mechanisms for delivering the fuel and oxidizer compounds to the actuator chamber, and methodology for successful repetitive initiation of the chemical reaction within the chamber. A benchtop prototype with repetitive firing will be demonstrated at the end of the Phase I program. A prospective Phase II follow-on program will proceed to develop and demonstrate large arrays of these actuators and perform wind tunnel demonstrations of their utility for active flow control.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The benefits of aerodynamic flow control as described above for NASA applications will extend broadly to the commercial and military aerospace industry. In addition to external flow control applications for increased lift and reduced drag (with subsequently improved fuel economy and potential extensions of the flight envelope), active control of separation for internal flows is also of interest, including at serpentine engine inlets and even within gas turbines.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Active flow control can have a wide range of applications for modifying and improving aerodynamic properties on fixed and rotary wing flight platforms. Successful implementations can yield reductions in the size of physical control surfaces on fixed wing aircraft with resultant improvements in weight and drag, and subsequently reduced fuel consumption. Similar improvements in fuel economy may also be envisioned with separation control and drag reduction applied to the fuselage or external stores of rotorcraft. Active flow control can also enable improved performance at off-design conditions with subsequent extensions of the flight envelope (e.g., short takeoff and landing for fixed wing aircraft and suppression of retreating blade stall for rotorcraft). Actuators with high control authority and minimized infrastructure and energy requirements will be vital to practical implementation of all of these applications and may enable shock manipulation control strategies at even higher flight speeds.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A1.04-9841
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamic Efficiency-Active Flow Control Actuators and Design Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Active Flow Control (AFC) Design and System Integration Software

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Clear Science Corporation
663 Owego Hill Road, PO Box 233
Harford, NY
13784-0233
(607) 844-9171

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Henry Carlson
hcarlson@clearsciencecorp.com
663 Owego Hill Road, PO Box 233
Harford,  NY 13784-0233
(607) 844-9171

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Clear Science Corp. proposes to develop and demonstrate computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based software for designing and evaluating active flow control (AFC) systems on aircraft. The software will facilitate the identification of optimal types of actuation and their locations, will support virtual flight testing with both open- and closed-loop control systems, and will enable quantitative trade studies that compare performance enhancements through AFC to the costs of control. In subsonic, transonic, and supersonic applications, AFC systems can improve air vehicle performance by reducing and/or eliminating separation and increasing circulation---resulting in smaller control surfaces, less weight, lower drag, and less fuel consumption. Many AFC applications involve highly unsteady flow dynamics with turbulence, unsteady shocks, separation, and aeroservoelasticity interacting in complex ways that render open-loop systems either ineffective or too costly in terms of energy, weight, and volume. For this reason, closed-loop AFC system design will be a critical area of focus in the proposed project. Components of closed-loop systems include dynamical and measurement-based state estimators, regulators, and compensators. The proposed AFC system design and analysis software will be developed using the X-56 experimental aircraft as a demonstration platform, a long-range, highly flexible air vehicle currently under development at the NASA Armstrong Flight Test Center.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Clear Science Corp.'s AFC software is enabling technology with applications, first, inside NASA and the Department of Defense (DoD) during development of new ultra-efficient, subsonic air vehicles, and, second, among aircraft manufacturers as these vehicles reach the commercial market. The proposed project will focus on the experimental X-56 program with much broader potential applications relating to active flow control. These include flutter suppression and gust load alleviation in other types of subsonic, highly flexible airframes, aerodynamic, aeroelastic, and aeroservoelastic flow control in highly maneuverable fighter aircraft operating in the subsonic, transonic, and supersonic regimes (with shocks and shock-boundary layer interactions), aerodynamic and aero-optical flow control in fixed-wing aircraft and rotorcraft, and aerothermodynamic flow control in hypersonic air vehicles. The AFC technology to be developed in the proposed project and demonstrated with the subsonic X-56 is directly applicable to higher-speed air vehicles. Phase III product development would extend the scope of application to a wide range of commercial and military aircraft, both manned and unmanned.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed AFC design and system integration software, using the X-56 as a demonstration platform, targets key aspects of the NASA ARMD Strategic Thrust 3A: Ultra-Efficient Commercial Vehicles Subsonic Transport. The scope of the thrust covers fixed wing commercial vehicles carrying passengers and cargo in both civil and military capacities. The objective is pioneering technologies for big leaps in efficiency and environmental performance: environmental compatibility while reducing cost, increasing range, and maintaining safety. The technology is also an enabler for NASA ARMD's Strategic Thrust 2: Innovation in Commercial Supersonic Aircraft. The targeted "ultra-efficient" vehicles will use less energy with less emissions and lower perceived noise. The centerpiece of NASA's 10-year acceleration for advanced technologies testing is New Aviation Horizons (NAH), consisting of a suite of future X-planes that include hybrid electric, wing-body, and quiet supersonic demonstrators. These constitute potential Phase III applications through direct contracts with NASA and through collaborations with its industry and university partners.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Support


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A1.05-8647
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Computational Methods & Tools - High Fidelity Mesh and Geometry Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: HeldenSurface: A CAD Tool to Generate High-Quality Surfaces

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Helden Aerospace Corporation
2463 Saluda Drive
Acworth, GA
30101-8088
(678) 849-9420

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Hooker
rkhooker@comcast.net
2463 Saluda Drive
Acworth,  GA 30101-8088
(678) 849-8420

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
One of the primary shortcomings identified during the NASA sponsored CFD Vision 2030 Study conducted during 2012-2014 was that the generation of meshes suitable for CFD simulations constitutes a principal bottleneck in the workflow process as it requires significant human intervention. CAD simplification and cleanup is one of the most user-intensive steps of the CFD mesh generation process and it is also one of the areas with the least amount of research taking place. The successful completion of this Phase I effort results in a validated method (HeldenSurface) for automatically converting arbitrary geometries (such as a cloud of points, "dirty" CAD, or CFD meshes) into a collection of watertight CAD surfaces that are smooth, connected, and split into as few number of surfaces as possible. This represents a critical capability needed to automate the CFD mesh generation process, which is the primary bottleneck in the application of CFD. The development of HeldenSurface would permit the thousands of engineers performing CFD to focus their energies on interpreting results instead of generating meshes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Helden Aerospace has already successfully transitioned its existing HeldenMesh commercial grid generator to companies such as Gulfstream and Boom Technologies. The completion of this Phase I effort would further improve the HeldenMesh grid generation process through nearly complete automation of the process. The development of HeldenSurface will result in a product with strong commercial viability.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful completion of this Phase I effort results in a validated method (HeldenSurface) for automatically converting arbitrary geometries (such as a cloud of points, "dirty" CAD, or CFD meshes) into a collection of watertight CAD surfaces that are smooth, connected, and split into as few number of surfaces as possible. As described in the technical proposal, this represents a critical capability needed to automate the CFD mesh generation process, which is the primary bottleneck in the application of CFD. The development of HeldenSurface would permit the hundreds NASA's engineers performing CFD to focus their energies on interpreting results instead of generating meshes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Tools/EVA Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A1.05-8731
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Computational Methods & Tools - High Fidelity Mesh and Geometry Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Order Mesh Curving and Geometry Access

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pointwise, Inc.
213 South Jennings Avenue
Fort Worth, TX
76104-7610
(817) 377-2807

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steve Karman
skarman@pointwise.com
213 S. Jennings Avenue
Fort Worth,  TX 76104-7610
(817) 377-2807

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
During Phase I, our effort will focus on three software tools; CurveMesh, Geode and SLUGS. These tools will be developed in anticipation of use in the commercial mesh generation software Pointwise and consideration will be given to requirements for parallel implementation in a distributed computing environment. A new initialization procedure will be implemented in CurveMesh to provide more robust starting perturbation field prior to the optimization based smoothing scheme placing points in final position for optimal cell quality of the curved mesh. Access to the geometry kernel, Geode, will be provided through an API for operations required for mesh curving and mesh adaptation. Communication protocols will be developed to permit flow solver to prescribe mesh sizing information to mesh generation programs for h-p adaption. And discrete surface tessellation will be process using SLUGS to create smooth splined surfaces.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Phase I tools will also benefit other high order FEM flow solver developers by providing a means to create curved meshes for realistic geometries. The existing CurveMesh code has been used to create curved meshes for the 6th AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop and the 3rd High Lift Prediction Workshop. Generated meshes have been analyzed by PyFR, CREATE-AV COFFE and others. The Geode API will also benefit other researchers in need of geometry access who have valid Pointwise licenses. The commercialization of CurveMesh will benefit any Pointwise users in need of high order meshes.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Phase I will produce usable tools that could be beneficial to NASA. The enhancement of CurveMesh is potentially beneficial to any NASA unstructured CFD FEM code that can use high-order meshes. FUN3D is under development to include a high order FEM flow solver. Its core methods are similar to the FUNSAFE methods developed by Dr. Newman. The Geode API will work with geometry provided in a Pointwise proprietary file format. This file can be exported by any Pointwise user and is potentially beneficial to any NASA tool that needs access to geometry. FUN3D is again a tool that could use Geode for adaptive refinement and shape optimization. Phase II will result in a commercial implementation of the CurveMesh methods in Pointwise. NASA engineers with Pointwise licenses will benefit from this implementation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A1.05-9645
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Computational Methods & Tools - High Fidelity Mesh and Geometry Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Fully Automated Mesh Generation Tool

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
D&P, LLC
3409 North 42nd Place
Phoenix, AZ
85018-5961
(602) 957-2868

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lei Tang
tanglei@d-p-llc.com
3409 North 42nd Place
Phoenix,  AZ 85018-5961
(602) 957-2868

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase I project proposes to develop a fully automated mesh generation tool which contains two parts: surface mesh generation from the imported Computer Aided Design (CAD) models and volume mesh generation from the generated surface mesh. It is well known that CAD geometry models constructed for manufacturing purposes are generally not directly useable by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Currently it usually takes several weeks to repair and defeature CAD models for surface mesh generation. The proposed effort aims to alleviate this issue by replacing the tedious CAD-fixing process with the fully automated level set approach. After obtaining high-quality surface mesh, the proposed mesh generation tool further generates high-quality volume mesh with mixed elements, taking advantages of the Cartesian cells away from the surfaces and semi-structured cells next to the surfaces. The resolution requirement is satisfied with local refinement capability.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Design engineers in various industries face fluid flow problems in their work, ranging from airflow over aircraft and automobiles to flows in plastic injection molding, the movement of fluids and heat transfer in nuclear reactors, spray cooling and humidification, etc. The proposed mesh generation tool can allow design engineers to significantly reduce the turn-around time and the business to improve profit margins because companies can bring products to market faster and incur less expense in doing so.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA CFD engineers can use the proposed mesh generation tool to reduce labor times and efforts to prepare CAD geometry files for use by computational applications and generate high-quality meshes to achieve more accurate CFD simulations. Advanced Air Vehicles Program (AAVP) and Transformative Aeronautics Concepts Program (TACP) will directly benefit from the proposed mesh generation tool through increased productivity and improved computational analyses used for exploring new aircraft systems and far-future concepts that hold promise for revolutionary air-travel improvements.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A1.05-9738
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Computational Methods & Tools - High Fidelity Mesh and Geometry Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Software Tool for High-Order Element Mesh Generation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
701 McMillian Way Northwest, Suite D
Huntsville, AL
35806-2923
(256) 726-4800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
H. Q. Yang
hq.yang@cfdrc.com
701 McMillian Way Northwest, Suite D
Huntsville,  AL 35806-2923
(256) 726-4800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Various attempts to advance high-order mesh generation technology have been made in recent years, however an integrated solution capable of robustly creating optimal curved element meshes in 3D still does not exist. In this SBIR project, CFDRC will develop a software tool for the generation of meshes formed by high-order elements. Our approach consists of (a) linear mesh generation and import, (b) reconstruction of curved boundary using NURBS and Bızier surfaces and optimal high-order nodal distribution; (c) volumetric deformation using elasticity analogy with imposed boundary displacement on curved part of the boundary; and (d) export and display capability of final mesh. Phase I will develop an advanced NURBS fitting procedure and Bızier surface method for retaining boundary geometry and will demonstrate the solution of both linear and nonlinear elasticity analogy to accommodate curved elements and retain high quality for both orthogonal and stretched linear meshes. The resultant improved accuracy will be demonstrated using two high-order CFD codes, including FUN3D with high-order scheme implemented by CFDRC, and a high-order Discontinuous Galerkin code. Phase II will fully develop the software and bridge the gap between linear mesh generation and high-order CFD predictions for complex configurations. Parallel algorithms will be implemented to enable execution on NASA HPC clusters. Phase II will also increase the TRL by integrating with high-order CFD codes for demonstration on large scale applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology provides a viable tool for several commercial applications such as wing-trailing vortex dynamics of large civil aircraft, analysis of noise generated by the landing gear of civil aircraft, and others. The enabling technology of high-order low-dissipation CFD solver is also applicable to a broad range of applications that involve embedded flow features requiring high resolution with limited grid size. Such applications include turbomachinery, cavitation, biomedical, electronic cooling, and many others.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The developed software will formalize and streamline the process of high-order curved volume mesh generation, and flow calculation within a single all-encompassing framework, removing the bottleneck between geometric definition and flow solution. The software will enable wide use of CFD solvers with high-order schemes. These schemes are especially efficient for the prediction of noise mechanisms and propagation for engine, fan, duct, propellers, and airframes, and for the analysis of wake/frame interaction induced noise and vibrations. The developed technology will fulfill several goals of NASA Technology Roadmap TA15 by a) enabling design of airframe configurations with high levels of aerodynamic performance and reduced noise, b) reduction of turbofan propulsion noise and emissions, and c) reduction of perceived noise and aircraft fuel burn through integrated airframe-engine concepts.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Verification/Validation Tools
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A1.06-8527
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vertical Lift Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Intelligent Electronic Speed Controller

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
4D Tech Solutions, Inc.
1275 Stewartstown Road, Suite 200
Morgantown, WV
26505-3636
(443) 604-0256

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eric Sorton
esorton@4dtechsolutions.com
1275 Stewartstown Road, Suite 200
Morgantown,  WV 26505-3636
(304) 685-9436

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project intends to design and develop an Intelligent Electronic Speed Controller (IESC) for use on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The IESC will advance the state-of-the-art of health-state awareness. This will be achieved through the integration of propulsion system health monitoring sensors that - in unison with an Intelligent Rule Set - will be able to monitor system and component performance trends and predict propulsion system faults. The system is designed to provide the analytic capability necessary to predict propulsion system degradation, maintenance or repair needs. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) will be trained on data from IESC sensors from nominal flights and those with known faults leading to failure. After training, an initial Intelligent Rule Set will be extracted to represent the knowledge of the ANN and used in the system to predict failures. This set of rules will be periodically updated as more flight data is collected.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA use will target manufacturers of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in the industrial and hobbyist market sectors that wish to provide their end-users with highly reliable UAVs. Reliability will become increasingly important in these market sectors as the cost and complexity of payloads increases and as proximity to humans and property decreases. The technology developed will be low-cost and will integrate seamlessly with existing designs. UAVs are well-suited to performing many types of missions including those that are inherently dangerous to humans, those that require precision flight for data collection, and those that need to be performed within a limited budget. Applications for UAVs include aerial photography, remote sensing, disaster response, agricultural monitoring, forestry service support (including forest fires), infrastructure inspection, mining and quarrying, and environmental surveys to name a few.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This effort supports the objectives of the NASA Unmanned Aerial System Traffic Management (UTM) system concept and also the activities of NASA's Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Laboratory (SUAVE Lab). Successful implementation of the UTM concept will require that UAVs operate without failure or fault to the greatest extent possible. UTM Technical Capability Level Four will involve higher-density urban areas for autonomous vehicles used for news gathering and package delivery (with a demonstration target of 2019); flight incidents in urban areas could result in injury to humans or damage to property of loss of control incidents occur. The SUAVE Lab designs, develops, builds and tests small UAVs and provides expertise to national level organizations on small UAV designs, operations and airspace integration. The technology serves to ensure the reliability of small UAV systems advances as needed to support expansion of their use in the future.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Man-Machine Interaction
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Attitude Determination & Control
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A1.06-8999
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vertical Lift Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Light-Weight, Non-Contact Magnetic Transmission for UAV and Rotorcraft Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
LaunchPoint Technologies, Inc.
5735 Hollister Avenue, Suite B
Goleta, CA
93117-6410
(805) 683-9659

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jonathan Sugar
jsugar@launchpnt.com
5735 Hollister Ave. Suite B
Goleta,  CA 93117-6410
(805) 683-9659

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Speed reducing units consisting of mechanical gears are widely used in applications to match high speed prime movers to low speed loads. All aerospace applications of gearboxes require lubrication, maintenance, and overhaul; and are subject to eventually wearing out due to tooth surface wear and gear tooth fatigue. In many cases the requirements for gearbox lubrication, maintenance/overhaul and service life limits are acceptable; but in some extreme applications these requirements become a severe performance limitation. For example, high altitude long endurance missions (HALE) typically operate at an altitude greater than 60,000 feet and stay in flight for durations longer than 24 hours. HALE vehicles need a lightweight, highly efficient solution to operate slow moving propellers maintenance free for an extended period of time in an extreme environment. We are proposing to develop a magnetic gearbox technology that can meet the needs of these extreme applications. A magnetic gearbox has many advantages over a traditional mechanical gearbox. The different rotating components in the magnetic gearbox will never touch so the only lubrication required is in the bearing systems. The magnetic gearbox will be essentially maintenance-free except for periodic bearing lubrication/inspection. Vibrations that do not exceed the pull-out torque of the magnetic teeth do not add measurably to the mechanical stresses in the magnetic gearbox so fatigue issues will be minimal. If the pull-out (maximum) torque is exceeded the magnetic gearbox will simply skip a tooth and re-engage when the overload situation is resolved. In the present research we have demonstrated an experimental magnetic gearbox that achieves much higher specific torque than any previously demonstrated design.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
HALE UAVS are an emerging market that many companies have studied to solve various technical problems. Electric propulsion is an attractive approach for these vehicles. Our magnetic gear technology fits well for the propulsion system for these vehicles due to their efficiency, weight, environmental, and longevity requirements.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our magnetic gear technology would work well for NASA electric propulsion vehicles such as LEAPTECH or the Centrifugally Stiffened Rotor Atmospheric Satellite concept being evaluated by NIAC. Lunar and Mars rovers could benefit from this technology in their drivetrains due to the extreme environmental and reliability requirements.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Actuators & Motors
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Atmospheric Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A1.06-9070
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vertical Lift Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Onboard Generic Fault Detection Algorithm Development and Demonstration for VTOL sUAS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Empirical Systems Aerospace, Inc.
P.O. Box 595
Pismo Beach, CA
93448-9665
(805) 275-1053

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Philip Osterkamp
philip.osterkamp@esaero.com
P.O. Box 595
Pismo Beach,  CA 93448-9665
(805) 275-1053

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In the proposed SBIR study, Empirical Systems Aerospace, Inc. (ESAero) will develop a fault detection and identification avionics system implementing a generic statistical fault detection algorithm and demonstrate the system's effectiveness through flight testing on board a VTOL UAV testbed. The algorithm is aimed to be generic in the sense that it is agnostic to the specific platform or avionics suite on which it is implemented, making the developed technology broadly applicable to VTOL aircraft configurations, other aircraft types, and beyond. Using a statistics-based method, the system will not need to have direct knowledge of the sensors, the system, or the vehicle configuration. By simply monitoring the available sensors and comparing their signals to a trained nominal statistical data model, abnormalities in systems, sub-systems and individual components can be detected before a major failure occurs, greatly improving system operational safety and potentially significantly reducing maintenance costs. To develop the fault detection system, the team will leverage previous ePHM (Prognostic and Health Management) investment and configure a COTS VTOL UAV with a sensor suite and onboard data acquisition and processing system. The team will operate this VTOL UAV testbed to acquire data for nominal operation and then intentionally inject failures into the system to gather data for various faulty operations. The algorithm will be adapted to this dataset and loaded onto the testbed. Finally, in Phase I, ESAero will demonstrate the fault detection algorithm in flight verifying that the algorithm is capable of both detecting and identifying faults during actual operation. In Phase II, ESAero envisions further productionizing the technology by working with commercial motor and speed control vendors to broaden the statistical dataset and miniaturize the sensor and processing modules with the goal to integrate into existing hardware offerings.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
With millions of VTOL UAV aircraft sold every year for both commercial and personal use, the number of accidents due to system or component failure will inevitably increase hampering their safe integration into the NAS. In addition, VTOL UAVs are gaining traction in the commercial sector as businesses invent new and innovative use cases such as package delivery, farming, photography, land surveying, disaster relief, gas/oil pipeline inspection, and much more. As these commercial UAV fleets grow larger, fleet operators will need new ways to efficiently manage and streamline vehicle maintenance. A generic fault detection system would allow the operators to detect abnormalities and then preemptively repair or replace faulty components before the vehicle becomes a safety hazard and/or causes a disruption in operations. The generic plug-and-play capability of the proposed system is critical to commercialization. By creating a common solution and integration approach that minimizes the complexity, installation, and setup time this technology can bring enhanced safety to the consumer UAV market and ease the integration of these aircraft into the NAS.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A generic fault detection algorithm for VTOL UAVs would be directly applicable to many NASA applications. With successful Phase I and envisioned Phase II efforts, this system will truly be generic in the sense that it can be installed on nearly any aircraft, manned or unmanned, vertical lift or conventional. Furthermore, the generality of the system does not require a precise installation or a tedious training process. NASA would have the ability to integrate the system into existing and future flight test programs and install it on nearly any test article including the ESAero-primed X-57 "Maxwell". Such a system would provide an additional layer of safety to the program. Such technology will be vital as NASA begins testing electric and hybrid-electric aircraft where electric motor, generator, and battery performance is being pushed into unknown territory. The system could also be installed onto ground test articles or within wind tunnels.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Electromagnetic
Simulation & Modeling
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)
Air Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Distribution/Management
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A1.07-8502
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Efficiency-Propulsion Materials and Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ceramic-Metal Interfaces by Functional Grading

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Glacigen Materials, Inc.
135 Isaiah Terrace
Belgrade, MT
59714-5971
(406) 570-0686

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Driscoll
ddriscoll@glacigen.com
135 Isaiah Tr
Belgrade,  MT 59714-5971
(406) 570-0686

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Glacigen Materials proposes a novel technique for producing large-area sheets of functionally graded materials (FGM), which yield robust ceramic-metal interfaces capable of withstanding harsh environments that include high temperatures. Propulsion systems offer some of the harshest possible design conditions from a materials perspective and the demands placed on engineering materials will become more rigorous in future systems. The combination of structural and environmental constraints often dictate that ceramics and metals be used synergistically. Unfortunately, the limitations of ceramic-metal joining are exacerbated in these same environments where simultaneous use of ceramics and metals would be most useful. Large discrepancies in thermal expansion coefficients and near-planar interfaces lead to delamination and spallation even in the best engineered bonds. As a novel approach to this problem, Glacigen will create robust C-M interfaces by grading from one material phase to the other through a tailorable thickness. The technique is materials flexible, enjoys exceptional damage tolerance, and can accept significant mismatches in thermal expansion coefficients. The method for producing FGM sheets presented in this proposal will have the added advantage of controlled anisotropic properties within the sheets. In particular, it is anticipated that this new material system will be particularly valued for its damage tolerance at the interface where up to 96% of the interface can be destroyed before contact area is reduced to that of a planar joint with the same footprint. A second point of unique value will lie in the utility of engineered anisotropy where through thickness thermal conductivity is expected to be dramatically higher than in-plane thermal conductivity. Phase I efforts will demonstrate fabrication of these sheets and will include the characterization of mechanical, thermal, and functional properties.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications in hybrid electric propulsion systems, gas turbine components, and thermal management systems can be directly applied similar or identical problems of commercial interest.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Specific applications which are foreseen at this time include hybrid electric propulsion systems, damage-tolerant radiators, and gas turbine components. The fundamental technology also has the potential to extend into high-temperature aerostructures. As efforts continue in the development of hypersonic vehicles, extreme environmental conditions dictate the need for better ceramic-metal interfaces along the leading edges of these structures.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ceramics
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Atmospheric Propulsion
Launch Engine/Booster
Spacecraft Main Engine
Passive Systems
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Isolation/Protection/Radiation Shielding (see also Mechanical Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A1.07-8869
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Efficiency-Propulsion Materials and Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Cost Resin for Self-Healing High Temperature Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
HARP Engineering, LLC
2055 Kimberwicke Court
Ann Arbor, MI
48103-1406
(480) 205-1202

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Timothy Shankwitz
tshankwitz@harpengineering.com
3905 Varsity Dr
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-2225
(480) 205-1202

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Over the past few decades, the manufacturing processes and our knowledge base for predicting the bulk mechanical response of fiber reinforced composite materials has matured and opened the capability to design lightweight materials. The rapid development and progress of composites technology has been spawned by the high specific strength, stiffness, and toughness offered with respect to other engineering materials. However, the performance of a composite material is heavily influenced by the strength and toughness of the polymer matrix, which binds the high stiffness fibers into a cohesive element. Unfortunately, the highly cross-linked polymers necessary to achieve the high Tg required by propulsion systems are costly and prone to brittle fracture under even small elastic deformations. While the rigidity of the polymer is required for practical applications, the lack of resistance to crack propagation leads to damage prone materials. This proposed SBIR will develop a new low cost self-healing thermosetting polymer which exhibit high Tg (>550 F), high strength, stiffness and toughness from a room temperature low viscosity resin that allows processing without heating the polymer. The self-healing properties of polymer will yield increased reliability of the composite and reduced maintenance costs. HARP Engineering will formulate a polymer that meets or exceeds both the performance and cost metrics required by NASA through the use of multifunctional self-healing resins. This Phase I will perform mechanical testing of the resin at elevated temperatures and layup composites for ASTM testing to demonstrate the high specific strength, stiffness, and toughness compared to existing high temperature resins.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology has numerous advantages that make it particularly well suited for commercialization, most notably the low cost, low room temperature viscosity and high thermal stability. Commercialization of the resin will be initially focused on aerospace related applications where high temperature stability is required. However, our commercialization efforts will go beyond aerospace, with focus on the transition of the resin to wind turbine and automobile production, which are currently two of the fastest growing areas for composite materials and place a primary focus on resin cost and mold time both of which are unprecedented for the proposed resin.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Throughout NASA's technology roadmap the need for improved materials is called out in nearly all Technology Areas and are highlighted as the enablers behind the structures, devices, vehicles, power, life support, propulsion, entry, and many other systems that NASA develops and uses to fulfill its missions. New materials are required, as are materials with improved properties, combinations of properties and reliability. In the field of propulsion, polymers which yield improved processing for fiber reinforced composites and lower cost while providing high specific strength and stiffness at extreme temperatures are necessary for wide ranging impact to NASA systems. The proposed research will specifically develop low cost resin systems for extreme environments which can be processed out of autoclave and with short mold times therefore allowing lighter weight materials to be designed. Furthermore, the self-healing behavior of the proposed polymer would provide increased reliability and reduced maintenance costs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A1.07-8887
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Efficiency-Propulsion Materials and Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Mathematical Model to Assess CMAS Damage in EBCs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Research and Design, Inc.
300 East Swedesford Road
Wayne, PA
19087-1858
(610) 964-9000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Dion
michael.dion@m-r-d.com
300 East Swedesford Road
Wayne,  PA 19087-1858
(610) 964-9000

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As the power density of advanced engines increases, the need for new materials that are capable of higher operating temperatures, such as ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), is critical for turbine hot-section static and rotating components. Such advanced materials have demonstrated the promise to significantly increase the engine temperature capability relative to conventional super alloy metallic blades. They also show the potential to enable longer life, reduced emissions, growth margin, reduced weight and increased performance relative to super alloy blade materials. Environmental Barrier Coatings (EBCs) are required for SiC-based composites used in hot-section components of aircraft turbine engines to limit degradation from reaction of the composite with combustion gases. EBCs themselves are subject to degradation when debris composed of calcium-magnesium alumino-silicates (CMAS) is ingested into the engine melts in the turbine hot-section, and deposits on the coated components. The CMAS reacts with the coating and degrades the mechanical properties of the coating during temperature cycling which occurs during normal engine operation. Models linking the thermochemical and thermomechanical degradation of the EBCs due to CMAS are needed to understand life of the coatings and to identify best strategies for developing improved coating systems. MR&D is proposing a combined analytical and experimental program to develop a mathematical model for CMC EBCs exposed to CMAS.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In the commercial sector, the Rolls Royce Trent 1000 and Trent XWB engines are being developed for the Boeing 787 and Airbus A350 XWB aircraft, respectively. The Trent 1000 was the launch engine for the Boeing 787. These are large markets where the benefit of this technology will have a lasting impact in efficiency and cost. By working closely with Rolls Royce during the early stages of this development program, MR&D has ensured that the resulting products will meet the requirements of future customers. Rolls Royce has expressed a serious interest in this technology and, as demonstrated above, has a sizable market for its application. The aerospace industry is not the only potential beneficiary of this technology. The Department of Defense (DoD) is working hard to improve environmental barrier coatings' resistance to CMAS attack. The proposed modeling effort could be used to both improve existing CMAS damage models for in-service components and to aid in the evaluation of new coatings exposed to a wide range of CMAS compositions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA Glenn has been directly involved in the effort to bring these materials to turbine hot section components. The NASA Ultra Efficient Engine Technology program (UEET) was focused on driving the next generation of turbine engine technology. Currently, the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Thrust 3 for Ultra-Efficient Commercial Vehicles focuses on the development and demonstration of advanced high-temperature materials which are capable of surviving the extreme environments of turbine combustion and CMAS attack.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Atmospheric Propulsion
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A1.07-9718
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Efficiency-Propulsion Materials and Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Cost Corrosion and Oxidation Resistant Coatings for Improved System Reliability

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Faraday Technology, Inc.
315 Huls Drive
Englewood, OH
45315-8983
(937) 836-7749

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Timothy Hall
timhall@faradaytechnology.com
315 Huls Drive
Englewood,  OH 45315-8983
(937) 836-7749

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In order to improve high-temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance of critical superalloy components in turbine engines innovative processing methods must be devised to improve coating and materials properties at a higher reliability and lower costs. Whether or not thermal barrier coating are applied to the engine components, the resistance to oxidation and hot corrosion relies on metallic coatings protecting the superalloy substrate. These metallic coatings are commonly either diffusion aluminides or MCrAlY overlays (where M=Ni, Co, Fe, Ni+Co, etc). Compared with diffusion coatings, MCrAlY coatings are more flexible in terms of composition selection for achieving a more balanced combination of coating properties and having a lower ductile to brittle transition temperature, which makes them more resistant to cracking upon thermal cycling. Several techniques have been developed to deposit MCrAlY coatings including physical vapor deposition, electrolytic codeposition, electrophoresis, and autocatalytic electroless deposition, of which electrolytic codeposition appears to be a promising, low cost, non-line of sight approach. Therefore, the overall objective of the Phase I and II programs is to create a scalable cost effective process to produce coatings that can enhance high temperature reliability and corrosion/oxidation and erosion resistance. This program will build off of Dr. Ying Zhang (Tennessee Technological University) electrolytic codeposition work and Faraday Technology's alloy coating development efforts to create a scalable process to electrolytic codeposit MCrAlY onto engine shaped components and to investigate other potential MCrAlX alloy elements that could further increase the coatings temperature resistance. If successful this program has the potential to greatly improve the oxidation and corrosion resistance of metallic coatings while also improving their reliability at higher operating temperatures and reducing their manufacturing costs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The market consist of all potential energy consumers, the need for next generation high temperature corrosion resistant materials is critical to improving generation efficiencies and reducing production costs. However, it is believe that once optimized this process could improve energy efficiency up to 20% in steam turbine plants alone. This would be accomplished by reducing the amount of waste heat discharged from steam power systems, which is estimated at 280,000 MW. That energy is enough to provide up to 20% of the U.S. electricity needs while slashing natural resource consumption, GHG, and saving $70-150B per year on energy costs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Turbine engines serve as the primary and/or auxiliary power source for numerous NASA, DoD, and commercial enterprises. It is a desired cost-driven goal that gas turbine engines have a long lifecycle, with ability to refurbish deteriorated hardware for additional service life without replacement. While some engines have approached this goal, others have fallen significantly short. For example, time between overhauls (TBO) for 501K-34 gas turbine engine has been falling significantly short (<10,000 h) of the 25,000 h goal primarily because of hot corrosion damage noted on high pressure turbine hardware. Operational changes and future needs will require increased turbine operating temperatures and change the associated operating environment to one where Type I and Type II hot corrosion and oxidation will be prevalent in newly anticipated operational profiles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Metallics
Atmospheric Propulsion
Surface Propulsion
Quality/Reliability
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A1.07-9737
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Efficiency-Propulsion Materials and Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Fluid and Materials Modeling of Environmental Barrier Coatings

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
701 McMillian Way Northwest, Suite D
Huntsville, AL
35806-2923
(256) 726-4800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bryce Devine
bryce.devine@cfdrc.com
701 McMillian Way, NW, Ste. D
Huntsville,  AL 35806-2923
(256) 726-4816

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Environmental barrier coatings (EBC) prevent oxidation of ceramic materials in reactive, high temperature environments such as the exhaust regions of gas turbine engines. CFDRC proposes to a develop a physics based model of an EBC system interacting with the flow environment to provide a means to gain better understanding of the dynamic processes that effect EBC durability and performance under propulsion conditions. The model will use computational fluids dynamics to establish the conditions and species concentrations across the surface of the structure. Structural models of the part based on the finite element method (FEM) will be used to establish the thermal and mechanical loads acting on the coating material. The response of the coating materials will be modeled at the microscale where each component of the coating system is discretely resolved. The micromechanics model is based on peridynamics, a mesh free theory of continuum mechanics that is well suited to model damage in brittle ceramic materials. Recent developments in peridynamics adapted the method to model diffusive transport coupled with deformation and damage, which will be applied to predict the distribution of reactive species over time through the coating system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
DoD programs such as the development of hypersonic systems involve the selection and use of materials for extreme flow environments. Power generation and fossil energy extraction involve applications where material degradation in harsh flow conditions limits the performance.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed product falls within the scope of integrated computational materials engineering as a means to investigate material response to service conditions with discrete material descriptors. This work applies to other applications where resistance to thermo-mechanical stress coupled with transport of reactive species is critical to material performance. Ablative and thermal barrier coating for hypersonic vehicle and propulsion system components are comparable applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Atmospheric Propulsion
Air Transportation & Safety
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A1.08-9460
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeronautics Ground Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Distributed Anemometry via High-Definition Fiber Optic Sensing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luna Innovations, Inc.
301 1st Street Southwest, Suite 200
Roanoke, VA
24011-1921
(540) 769-8400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Osgar Ohanian
ohanianj@lunainc.com
3155 State Street
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-6604
(540) 443-3872

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Luna is developing a distributed anemometer that can directly measure flow field velocity profiles using high-definition fiber optic sensing (HD-FOS). The concept is inspired by hot-film anemometry, but extends the capability from a point measurement to a distributed measurement. With a spatial resolution of 1.25 mm, thousands of data points can be collected along an optical fiber to enable 1D, 2D or 3D field measurements, depending on the routing of the sensor. The benefits of this approach compared to particle image velocimetry (PIV) include: no seeding of the flow is necessary; the sensor can be used in non-line-of-sight locations; velocity and temperature profiles can simultaneously be acquired; and the technology can potentially be implemented in a flying vehicle. Measurements of boundary layer velocity and temperature profiles, transition location, and skin friction can be attained with this technique. Phase I will prove the feasibility of flow velocity measurement from a distributed fiber optic sensor over a range of temperatures and Mach numbers to quantify its accuracy. During Phase II, the technology will be matured for implementation in NASA wind tunnels and commercial jet engines. During Phase III, Luna will work with NASA and industry partners to commercialize the technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Luna?s high-resolution flow velocity measurements will provide unprecedented data to better understand flow fields being ingested by turbofan jet engines. This will allow for optimization of inlet geometry, fan blade design, and serpentine ductwork flow profiles. The end result will be more efficient engines with reduced specific fuel consumption (SFC) that weigh less than current state-of-the-art engines. There is significant interest in understanding the flow and temperature profiles in the cold and hot sections of turbine engines, and this technology will provide visualization of this critical data.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Distributed hot-film anemometry can revolutionize ground-based aerodynamic testing for wind tunnels and air-breathing engines. Instead of sensor rakes or traverses to probe the flow, thousands of velocity measurements will be acquired simultaneously from a single optical fiber. This capability can be used in wind tunnel calibration to document boundary layer profiles, uniformity of the tunnel flow, measurements of flow fore and aft of a model, and identify areas of unsteady or separated flow. For engine testing applications, radial and circumferential distributed anemometer sensors will fully document the engine inlet flow and distortion entering the fan and compressor. Further adaptation of the technique can allow for flow measurements in the hot section of engines. The high-resolution velocity and temperature profile data can be used to validate CFD models and optimize future vehicle designs for maximum efficiency.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Atmospheric Propulsion
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)
Thermal
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Aerodynamics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A1.08-9629
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeronautics Ground Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fast Response, Fiber-Optic Micromachined Five-Hole Probe for Three-Dimensional Flow Measurements in Harsh Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Interdisciplinary Consulting Corporation
5745 Southwest 75th Street, #364
Gainesville, FL
32608-5504
(352) 283-8110

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stephen Horowitz
shorowitz@thinkIC2.com
9598 Pulaski Pike
Toney,  AL 35773-7464
(256) 698-6175

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Interdisciplinary Consulting Corporation (IC2) proposes the development of a fiber-optic, micromachined five-hole probe for three-dimensional flow measurements in harsh environments. The goal of this research is to develop a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based, optical probe capable of significantly improved performance compared to existing available sensors, by enabling faster response time, higher bandwidth transduction and increased angular measurement range while reducing sensor power requirements. The proposed technology offers these benefits in a compact, high-temperature capable package, extending past successes in fiber-optic, micromachined pressure sensing technology. Specifically, this sensor technology will be developed to address NASAs objective to develop innovative tools and technologies that can be applied in NASA?s ground-based test facilities to revolutionize wind tunnel testing and measurement capabilities and improve utilization and efficiency as per subtopic A1.08 Aeronautics Ground Test and Measurements Technologies of the NASA FY 2017 SBIR/STTR Solicitation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The target markets can be broken down into immediate and potential long-term markets. The primary immediate market is the scientific test, measurement and instrumentation market. These applications constitute a low volume/high average selling price (ASP) market entry, which allows for slightly higher margins to garner resources for market-centric innovation. The inherently expensive nature of conducting these measurements represents a very niche market with highly specific needs coupled with stringent transducer performance specifications. The high performance and relatively low volume enables establishment of a value based on per-unit cost while addressing long term customer needs. This approach also allows for room to resolve product issues related to process variations and yield. It also helps make improvements by incorporating customer feedback on product performance while generating revenue. IC2s technology attempts to address this market directly through the development efforts proposed in this proposal and a follow-on Phase II. The proposed technology seeks to meet all performance and operational requirements for the scientific instrumentation market. As part of IC2s longer-term vision, the company will later seek to slide the product focus of this technology into a higher volume market. The potential long-term markets include scientific flight-test measurements and operational in-flight sensors for feedback and control.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed instrumentation technology has the potential to be transportable across multiple NASA facility classes as well as implemented across government-owned, industry and academic institution test facilities. The target market is the wind tunnel test and instrumentation market, beginning with low-speed wind-tunnels but also expanding into higher-speed, high temperature tunnels. In addition to wind-tunnel testing, the proposed sensor technology is also applicable to the types of technological solutions sought for flight-test measurements, as the sensing head is already compact and solutions exist for miniaturizing the optical sensor control unit. Given the capability of the proposed transducers ability to withstand harsh environments, the technology is applicable to multiple ground and flight test facilities. The target application for entry into the NASA Aeronautics Test Program is as instrumentation for 3D flow measurements within ground test facilities such as those at NASA Langley, Glenn, and Ames Research Centers. In addition, the instrumentation can be further miniaturized to enable entry into flight test facilities, such as those at Neil A. Armstrong Flight Research Center.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Atmospheric Propulsion
Acoustic/Vibration
Pressure/Vacuum
Aerodynamics
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Characterization
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A1.08-9684
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeronautics Ground Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Sensor for Wind Tunnel Calibration and Characterization

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Southwest Sciences, Inc.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM
87505-3993
(505) 984-1322

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joel Silver
jsilver@swsciences.com
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe,  NM 87505-3993
(505) 984-1322

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advances in computational capabilities for modeling the performance of advanced flight vehicles depend on verification measurements made in ground-based wind tunnels. As part of this process, the wind tunnels themselves must be well-calibrated and characterized. In particular to this project, the density, pressure and multi-component velocity of the air flow are of key interest. Southwest Sciences, in collaboration with the Southwest Research Institute, proposes to develop a novel, non-intrusive, laser-based measurement system for characterizing and calibrating the flow conditions upstream and downstream of test articles in wind tunnels. It uses inexpensive visible diode lasers and could be configured to match the needs of any particular type of wind tunnel, ranging from subsonic to hypersonic. The Phase I research will concentrate on developing and demonstrating the basic methodology of the system over a modest range of conditions. In Phase II we would expand the operation to the full range of expected conditions and verify the performance of the system in NASA-provided wind tunnels.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Besides NASA, potential customers include various military labs where aeronautical research uses wind tunnels, as well as aerospace contractors and universities, where wind tunnels are used for product development and research. This technology could possible be used for velocity measurements in combustion flows and eddy flux correlation measurements, providing a much wider group of customers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This work would develop a versatile diode laser-based system for monitoring the flow conditions in wind tunnels of all sizes and velocities, with only minor changes to accommodate each specific configuration. In particular to the 3D velocity measurements, our approach could be adapted to characterizing combustion flows in turbines and hypersonic engines as well.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Aerodynamics
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A1.09-8639
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vehicle Safety- Internal Situational Awareness and Response
PROPOSAL TITLE: Improved UAS Robustness through Augmented Onboard Intelligence

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Black Swift Technologies, LLC
2100 Central Avenue, Suite 102
Boulder, CO
80301-2887
(720) 638-9656

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jack Elston
elstonj@blackswifttech.com
2100 Central Avenue, Suite 102
Boulder,  CO 80301-2887
(720) 933-4503

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This work will focus on the development of a highly capable avionics subsystem and machine learning algorithms to provide early warning of potential failures of critical subsystems on small UAS. This modular system will consist of networked onboard monitoring nodes capable of observing operations and providing notification of off-nominal conditions to the autopilot as well as the operator, mitigating the risk of failure, and providing critical information regarding required maintenance. The boards, while computationally powerful will be limited in size, weight and power to avoid significantly impacting the performance of current vehicles and simplify its installation. Furthermore, the networked devices will be able to communicate with each other as well as the autopilot, allowing for vehicle wide information to contribute to a high degree of awareness of the vehicle's well-being. The primary objectives are: 1.Determination of a set of subsystems commonly employed by UAS whose failure would cause a system critical issue. 2.The identification of a set of sensors and machine learning algorithms capable of providing the necessary inputs to detect the health and status of its associated subsystem, and determining the probability of a fault occurring in the near future. 3.The design of a monitoring node capable of interfacing to the required set of sensors and implementing the machine learning algorithms. The nodes will also be limited to a size and weight that will allow for them to be installed on most UAS without impacting the vehicle's performance. 4.The design of an onboard network capable of supporting communications between all smart monitoring nodes on the aircraft. Each node can then communicate any potential failures to the autopilot and/or operator as well as share information that will allow for the implementation of distributed machine learning algorithms between the nodes and recognition of cross-correlation between systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
BST is excited about the potential of this technology for the commercial side of our UAS business. BST's commercial UAS are primarily used to generate 3D point clouds and orthomosaic imagery. Up until now BST has focused on ease of use and intuitive control from an Android tablet to lower the barrier of entry for operators. This is important especially for small businesses that do not have the resources to hire full time UAS pilots, but can greatly benefit from this technology in their day to day business. BST aims to utilize the proposed technology to further lower the barrier of entry and reduce the risk of mission failure. By making the UAS more reliable by both reducing the chances of failure from inconsistent maintenance and better dealing with in flight anomalies, new types of missions and sensing packages will become possible. Commercial customers will be able to begin using more expensive sensors with less fear of crashing. This capability will also be one important aspect in allowing beyond visual line of sight operations. Certain markets will eventually need this capability to grow to their potential; specifically pipeline monitoring and higher altitude missions for atmospheric science. BST has operated demo missions for NOAA that really will only have long term value if allowed to operate much beyond the current limitations of 400 ft AGL. Pipeline inspection with UAS is much more valuable with beyond line of sight operations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The small size and modularity of the proposed system allows for integration into many UAS missions flown or funded by NASA. Automated warnings and actions during flight will reduce the need for expert operators to be able to deal with these contingencies. Over the past several years BST has operated UAS for scientists (both at NASA and NOAA) for scientific field campaigns including severe storm measurements and satellite calibration missions with various sensors. It is the goal of this technology to remove the need for expert UAS operators, and allow scientists to directly conduct these field campaigns without sacrificing safety. Achieving this will allow wider adoption by NASA personnel since this will reduce the reduce costs and stress on scheduling flight crews. NASA has a history of conducting new and difficult missions with UAS in challenging environments such as the Arctic The proposed system will be designed in such a way to extend the monitoring capabilities to new types of missions and reduce flight risks. One example of this sort of new capability is the plan to extend the technology in Phase II and beyond for the detection of aircraft icing using machine learning approaches that try and predict icing by looking at environmental conditions combined with reductions in aircraft performance. This type of capability can then be employed in even smaller UAS than usual allowing more flight campaigns that will help increase the market for NASA Earth Science missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Lifetime Testing
Simulation & Modeling
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A1.10-9277
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Hypersonic Technology-Improvement in Solar Operability Predictions using Computational Algorithms
PROPOSAL TITLE: Machine-Learning & QMU for Multi-Fidelity Analysis of Scramjet Operability

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CASCADE Technologies, Inc.
2445 Faber Place, Suite 100
Palo Alto, CA
94303-3346
(650) 521-0243

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Amirreza Saghafian
saghafian@cascadetechnologies.com
2445 Faber Place, Suite 100
Palo Alto,  CA 94303-3346
(650) 521-0243

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Dual-mode scramjets have the potential to operate efficiently in a variety of flight conditions without requiring complicated variable configurations, thus providing cost-effective access to space and potential for high-speed atmospheric transport. However, the successful design and operation of these systems requires the identification of potential failure modes related to the transition between ramjet and scramjet modes and inlet-isolator-combustor unstart events. High-fidelity computer simulations and detailed diagnostics in a ground-based facility provide invaluable data, but cannot be routinely used for an extensive exploration of design solutions due to cost. Furthermore, it is challenging to formulate efficient design strategies that accommodate performance constraints and guarantee safe operations; as a consequence safety factors (and limitations in vehicle operability) are typically introduced a-posteriori leading to suboptimal systems. Cascade's proposal aims at investigating modern scramjet systems using a combination of computational tools focusing on design strategies that a-priori include safety margins from unstart. The project goal is to combine machine-learning tools, in-house high-fidelity simulation capabilities, and high-throughput low fidelity engineering techniques within a risk-aware optimization framework that can potentially enhance the ability to generate safe and performant design. Machine learning will enable the extraction and categorization of knowledge from in-house high-fidelity data and experiments; the engineering tools afford the exploration of a large set of geometrical configurations and operating scenarios; the QMU (Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties) technique, will provide the optimization framework. Validation of the high-fidelity and low-fidelity tools with data from the HIFiRE experimental campaign will provide an explicit measure of the confidence in the simulations which will explicitly be included within QMU.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The unstart prediction technology can be used to detect the precursors to engine failure in military and commercial aircrafts and spacecrafts developed by companies such as Lockheed, Boeing, SpaceX, BlueOrigin, and Virgin Galactic. It can also be used to detect incipient structural failures in other sectors such as transportation and energy. The image-based machine learning tools can be utilized for detecting physical phenomena across a diverse set of applications, possibly not even limited to fluid-dynamics problems, such as the detection of incipient structural failures in the transportation and energy sector (i.e. failure in a power generation turbine). Lastly, the Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties (QMU) methodology can be applied to any engineering application that is required to adhere to certain safety margins relating to uncertainty. The methodology's focus on identifying uncertainty and rigorously assessing their impact on performance to create more accurate operability margins based on prediction can lead to a more comprehensive design process that optimizes for operational profitability and safety.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The unstart prediction technology is applicable to three main areas within NASA. First, the combination of high-fidelity and high-throughput engineering tools employed and validated in this project enables NASA to design and virtually test the impact of various dual-mode scramjet inlet and combustor chamber designs for hypersonic travel and access to space. Finding the most efficient method to transition between subsonic to supersonic combustion speeds, while avoiding unstart is a key requirement to propel scramjet usage into reality. Second, the image-based machine learning tools can be utilized for detecting physical phenomena across a diverse set of applications, possibly not even limited to fluid-dynamics problems, such as the detection of incipient structural failures. Lastly, the Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties (QMU) methodology can be relevant for many complex systems beyond scramjets. The methodology's focus on identifying uncertainty and rigorously assessing their impact on performance to create more accurate operability margins based on prediction can lead to a more comprehensive strategy that directly combines performance criteria and safety into the design process.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Atmospheric Propulsion
Simulation & Modeling
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Image Analysis
Data Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A1.10-9734
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Hypersonic Technology-Improvement in Solar Operability Predictions using Computational Algorithms
PROPOSAL TITLE: Non-Intrusive Computational Method and Uncertainty Quantification Tool for Isolator Operability Calculations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
701 McMillian Way Northwest, Suite D
Huntsville, AL
35806-2923
(256) 726-4800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ragini Acharya
ragini.acharya@cfdrc.com
701 McMillian Way, NW, Ste. D
Huntsville,  AL 35806-2923
(256) 726-4826

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are extensively used by NASA for hypersonic aerothermodynamics calculations. The physical models used in CFD codes and initial/boundary conditions for numerical simulations carry significant uncertainties. There are also inherent errors in experiments designed for model validation, and numerical discretization. Despite this knowledge, only a limited number of efforts have been undertaken to formally characterize these uncertainties and to evaluate their impact on the predictive capability of CFD tools for hypersonic applications such as isolator dynamics. Major challenges with uncertainty quantification for such simulations include lack of sufficient data to characterize the associated uncertainties in the isolator dynamics phenomena and the computational cost of the required large number of cases. CFDRC in partnership with Virginia Tech and UTSI proposes to directly address these issues and deliver an non-intrusive tool for uncertainty quantification that can be integrated with the state-of-the-art CFD tools currently utilized by NASA and its customers. During Phase I, this team will develop and demonstrate a dimensionally adaptive sparse grid approach for uncertainty quantification coupled with NASA LaRC VULCAN-CFD code. In phase I, the developed tool will be demonstrated on the test rig developed and characterized at the NASA-LaRC Isolator Dynamics Research Lab. Surrogate models including polynomial response surface and gradient-enhanced Kriging will be developed based upon the samples generated from the adaptively sparse grid algorithm, thereby providing a modeling tool to estimate the operability of isolator over the relevant flight regime and ultimately to optimize design of isolator to prevent scramjet unstart. In Phase II, the framework will be further developed to include uncommon probability density distributions of uncertain parameters, and will be validated and demonstrated on more complex problems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The work established in this project can be transitioned to support a significant number of other applications where reacting CFD modeling tools are utilized. Energy and propulsion applications such as gas-turbine combustors, augmentors, rockets, and many others can benefit from the product developed in the proposed work.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-intrusive uncertainty quantification has been identified as an enabling technology to advance the role of computational fluid dynamics codes in the Design Development Research and Engineering community, ultimately leading to utilization for certification for flight. The proposed computational product offers a direct solution to link the various sources of uncertainties to predictions made by CFD tools, thereby enabling the usability of CFD tools for making risk-informed design decisions. The adaptive sparse grid method offers a significant advantage over other uncertainty quantification methods due to the ability to handle non-smooth system response with complex probability density distributions and much smaller number of required CFD simulations. This product can be a highly effective tool for wider applications requiring aerothermodynamics calculations where the lack of confidence in modeling parameters and predictive capability of the CFD codes has limited their impact.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Atmospheric Propulsion
Verification/Validation Tools
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Quality/Reliability
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A2.01-8297
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Reconfigurable Transmitter and Receiver for Aeronautical Telemetry Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Indiana Microelectronics, LLC
1281 Win Hentschel Boulevard
West Lafayette, IN
47906-4182
(765) 237-3397

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eric Hoppenjans
Eric@IndianaMicro.com
1281 Win Hentschel Blvd
West Lafayette,  IN 47906-4182
(765) 237-3397

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project focuses on the development of a reconfigurable microwave transmitter and receiver for telemetry applications. Both the transmitter and receiver are able to operate at any frequency between the L and C Bands. The software defined transmitter is able to change its center frequency, output bandwidth and output power as well as operate with multiple simultaneous output frequencies. The flexible receiver is also capable of reconfiguring its center frequencies and bandwidths to match the output characteristics of the transmitter. Interference sensing and mitigation techniques also allow the receiver to provide pristine signal reception in over-crowded microwave environments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The telemetry community is under increasing pressure when it comes to spectrum availability for flight tests and missile system testing. The proposed RMFTR will provide the telemetry community with a flexible, programmable transmitter that can quickly adapt to the available spectrum, maximizing the spectrum usage and minimizing interference to neighboring systems. Therefore, it is anticipated that the telemetry community will be the first adopters of the proposed product, and the commercialization strategy is based upon this first-use application.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential applications of the RMFTR for NASA will be advanced aeronautical system testing capabilities, that enable high data rate telemetry. Increasing the data capacity of telemetry systems will allow NASA flight test teams to increase the sensor payloads on test vehicles. An increased number of sensor will provide NASA the ability to test and monitor an increasing number of flight metrics, enhancing the quality and quantity of flight test data.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Electromagnetic
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Microwave
Radio
Non-Electromagnetic
Transmitters/Receivers
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A2.01-8831
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Combined Health Estimation and Active Balancing Electronic System for the Life Enhancement of Batteries in Hybrid and/or All-Electric Propulsion Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
X-wave Innovations, Inc.
555 Quince Orchard Road, Suite 510
Gaithersburg, MD
20878-1464
(301) 948-8351

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Carlos Rentel
crentel@x-waveinnovations.com
555 Quince Orchard Road, Suite 510
Gaithersburg,  MD 20878-1464
(301) 200-8067

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA seeks intelligent monitoring for hybrid and/or all electric propulsion systems, and methods to significantly extend the life of electric aircraft propulsion energy sources and their safety. Active balancing is an attractive technique that can be used to increase battery pack life. If performed efficiently and accurately, active balancing can translate into longer battery life and more efficient battery utilization. Active balancers presently equalize either voltage or State of Charge (SOC) in a group of cells or super-cells in series. The more accurate in-operando SOC active balancers depend on on-line SOC estimation algorithms that are typically based on terminal voltage, current, and temperature. These algorithms (e.g., Coulomb counting, Kalman-based filter estimation, etc) accumulate errors and/or become unstable as a consequence of measurement errors, model simplifications, and the lack of an accurate battery parameter determination and tracking method, which is critical as the battery ages and/or operates under unforeseen conditions. To address this problem we propose an active balancing electronic system that can jointly balance the battery pack and measure battery health related parameters without additional hardware. We propose to use this efficient electronic system to demonstrate an improved active balancing system capable of battery life enhancement and safety operation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed system has many market applications in different industries such as exploration, defense, terrestrial hybrid and all-electric vehicles, unmanned vehicles, and energy sectors. Other government agencies, including DOD, DOE, DOT, and commercial sectors will benefit from this technology. Battery technologies are constantly being sought for renewable systems, such as solar, wind, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Besides propulsion systems batteries are used in commercial airplanes for auxiliary load support among others.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has great interest in methods and approaches for intelligent monitoring and innovative techniques that enable extended and safer operation of aircraft with electric propulsion systems. NASA is specifically interested in battery life and health improvement methods for fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly aircrafts. This includes the development of systems capable of improving battery utilization and safety via prognostics and fault detection.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Air Transportation & Safety
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Storage
Characterization
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A2.01-8971
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Tunable Laser for High-Performance, Low-Cost Distributed Sensing Platform

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sequent Logic LLC
3265 North 1950 East
North Logan, UT
84341-2063
(435) 915-4425

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ryan Seeley
seeleyr@sequentlogic.com
3265 N 1950 E
North Logan,  UT 84341-2063
(435) 915-4425

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed effort will establish technical feasibility of an approach to optimizing a low-cost, fast-sweeping tunable laser for distributed sensing. Multiple approaches for performance optimization will be reviewed, modeled, and simulated. Subsystem prototypes will also be fabricated and analyzed to understand subsystem hardware manufacturing and performance limitations. This Phase I effort will result in selection of an appropriate laser performance optimization approach and will yield estimates of performance, size, weight, power, and cost improvements expected from a Phase II prototype. The resultant optimized tunable laser module would enable a distributed fiber-optic sensing platform with dramatically-improved performance and significant simultaneous improvement in platform size, weight, power, and cost compared to current commercial offerings. The technology will considerably improve NASA's flight test measurement and in-situ monitoring capability over the current state of the art, opening up new distributed sensing possibilities for real-time, in-situ airframe/spaceframe measurements. In addition to supporting distributed static strain and temperature measurements, the technology allows for distributed fiber-optic acoustic/vibration sensing allowing for distributed modal analysis, non-destructive evaluation, and identification/characterization of transient events. With an improved understanding of distributed airframe/spaceframe structural dynamics, the technology will lead to improved airframe and component designs. With improved, integrated real-time feedback control signal generation and structural health monitoring, future aircraft and space-flight vehicles will operate more safely, predictably, and efficiently.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications of the technology include renewable wind energy, commercial aerospace & aviation, oil & gas, automotive, nuclear energy, and perimeter security. In wind energy, the technology could inform real-time turbine control decisions for enhanced power generation efficiency. In addition, the subject technology could be used to measure deterioration of blades over their operational lifetime and detect adverse conditions or damage events, informing condition-based maintenance schedules. Commercial aerospace companies would find use for the proposed technology in applications similar to those of NASA. In particular, real-time distributed thermal monitoring of critical propulsion and fuel-storage system components appears to be an excellent application for the technology. The technology would benefit commercial aviation applications by informing condition-based maintenance schedules to reduce operational cost and improve passenger safety. In automotive applications, the proposed technology could be used for real-time structural monitoring during road testing and/or crash testing. It could also be applied to thermal monitoring of electric vehicle battery banks.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology enables acquisition of real-time, in-flight strain and/or temperature data related to structural dynamics analysis and health monitoring of airframes and spaceframes. In addition, the technology enables feedback control signal generation, distributed NDE / modal analysis, and distributed thermal profiling. The technology can be applied to components, structures, aerodynamic surfaces, fixed and morphable flight control surfaces, and electrical propulsion system power sources. The proposed technology has particular applicability to laboratory and in-flight testing of airframes and spaceframes. Distributed strain measurements can be used to infer distributed loading throughout a structure, and can additionally be used to infer shape of a structure. Most notably, the technology opens up possibilities for distributed modal analysis, distributed resonance mapping, and other sensing modalities. The dramatically-improved sample rate not only leads to a system impervious to vibration effects, but that can fully characterize those vibration effects. As such, the technology is particularly applicable to incredibly harsh shock/vibe environments such as the launch vehicle environment.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Acoustic/Vibration
Interferometric (see also Analysis)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Thermal
Lifetime Testing
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A2.01-9077
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: In-Flight Measurements of Unsteady Pressure using Fast PSP

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc.
7610 McEwen Road
Dayton, OH
45459-3908
(937) 630-3012

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jim Crafton
jwcrafton@innssi.com
7610 McEwen Road
Dayton,  OH 45459-3908
(937) 630-3012

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Flight research is a critical element for the validation of ground test measurements and the maturation of new technology. Experimental measurement systems that offer fast response, high accuracy and reliability, and require minimal modification of the flight vehicle are needed to conduct flight research more effectively. There have recently been significant advances in the use of one such technology, fast responding Pressure-Sensitive Paint. Fast PSP offers a means of acquiring unsteady pressure data at millions of locations on a model surface, a capability that has recently been demonstrated in large transonic wind tunnels such as AEDC 16T, the Ames 11-foot, and Langley 14X22. Demonstration of this measurement technique in flight testing is the goal of this proposal. Use of the fast PSP system in flight involves, applying a polymer paint to the region of interest, illuminating the paint with 400-nm lighting, and then imaging the paint with a fast framing camera. Each pixel on the camera acts as a pressure tap, and therefore, continuous distributions of the unsteady pressure on the painted surface are acquired. While optical access to the region of interest is required, there are key fluid structures on the top surface of a wing, such as shock boundary layer interactions and wing buffet, that are easily viewed from the passenger compartment of a plane. ISSI, in collaboration with Calspan, propose a demonstrating unsteady pressure measurements on a shock wave boundary layer interaction on the top surface of the Calspan Gulfstream G-III wing in-flight using fast PSP. By combining ISSI experience with fast PSP and Calspans existing flight test capability, a successful program is anticipated. During Phase II, we anticipate packaging the fast PSP system for deployment to the NASA flight test bed aircraft, specifically the SCRAT program, and repackaging the system for use in regions with limited optical access, such as the landing bay, to study cavity acoustics.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is considerable interest in measurements of unsteady pressure for the study of fluid flows such as shock wave boundary layer interactions, flow control, landing bay acoustics, wing buffet, and supersonic inlets. Interest in unsteady pressure measurements in flight spans academic, commercial, and military research. Companies that offer flight testing services, such as Calspan, as well as several commercial aircraft companies such as Cessna, Hawker, and Embraer, have expressed interest in the proposed in-flight fast PSP measurement technology. The proposed fast PSP system would improve flight test utilization by allowing the flight test vehicle to be instrumented with unprecedented spatial resolution, and do so without physical modifications to the vehicle. Evolution of the system into a smaller package that could be mounted on inaccessible regions of the flight test vehicle such as the weapons bay will occur naturally as fast camera imaging technology evolves. This will further extend the commercialization of the technology. This system would enable the investigation of fluid flows at flight conditions, data that will advance the accuracy of numerical models and yield insight into evolving flow control concepts. Furthermore, the demonstration of a productive and validated fast PSP system for flight testing would provide a marketing tool for commercialization of the measurement technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is considerable interest in measurements of unsteady pressure for the study of shock wave boundary layer interactions, flow control, landing bay acoustics, and wing buffet. The proposed fast PSP system would give NASA and their test bed aircraft programs the ability to acquire continues distributions of unsteady pressure in flight using a sensor that can be sprayed onto a model and interrogated optically. This measurement capability is of interest to NASA programs such as the Subsonic Fixed Wing and Environmentally Responsible Aviation programs. SBLI impacts aircraft performance at transonic Mach numbers as the shock induced flow separation can cause buffeting and large-scale lift oscillations that can limit an aircraft's flight envelope. Landing bay acoustics are a significant source of aviation noise and flow control concepts are needed for noise reduction and drag reduction. Each of these applications would benefit from the proposed sensor. The Phase I system would establish the technical capability of the fast PSP system and provide data on the top surface of wings and flaps. The Phase II system would be packaged so that it could be integrated into a region such as the landing bay, and allow regions without optical access to be interrogated. The proposed fast PSP system would improve flight test utilization by allowing the flight test vehicle to be instrumented with unprecedented spatial resolution, and do so without physical modifications to the vehicle.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Aerodynamics
Image Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A2.01-9301
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Photonic Engine for Miniaturized Fiber Optics Sensor Interrogators

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Freedom Photonics, LLC
41 Aero Camino
Goleta, CA
93117-3104
(805) 967-4900

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Milan Mashanovitch
mashan@freedomphotonics.com
41 Aero Camino
Goleta,  CA 93117-3104
(805) 967-4900

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Structural health monitoring is critical capability for NASA, and it is required for launch vehicles, space vehicles, re-entry vehicles, vehicle pressure systems, Space Station, as well as in flight research. Health monitoring systems need to have fast and robust data acquisition and management, low volume, minimal intrusion, and high accuracy and reliability. Armstrong Flight Research Center has developed a revolutionary 4-fiber interrogation system for Fiber Optic Smart Structures (FOSS) sensor networks interrogation. This system meets the required specifications on the sensing side, however, its size, weight, power consumption, fragility and cost make it prohibitive for the massive deployment into air vehicles. In this program, we are proposing to develop and integrate all optical functions needed to enable next generation of miniaturized, low-cost NASA's FOSS interrogator systems. Through innovative photonic integration of key functions, and hybrid packaging using interposer technology, we anticipate that the size of the existing system will be reduced by two and cost by one order of magnitude. This, in turn, will fulfill one of the key requirements of the solicitation, yielding a miniaturized fiber optic measurement system with low power suitable for migration into platforms spanning from launch vehicles, reentry vehicles, to UAS platforms or aviation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The unique attributes of fiber optical sensing technology make its applications numerous and relevant to a broad spectrum of industries and government entities. Vehicles, structures, and medical devices are constantly being engineered smarter, smaller, lighter, safer, and more reliable, thus opening the door for high-speed distributed optical sensing to make a significant impact in how these products are designed, tested, and operated. Following is the list of potential applications: *3D Shape Sensing *Strain Measurements *Temperature Measurements *2D Shape Sensing

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Structural health monitoring is critical capability for NASA, and it is required for launch vehicles, space vehicles, re-entry vehicles, vehicle pressure systems, Space Station, as well as in flight research. Health monitoring systems need to have fast and robust data acquisition and management, low volume, minimal intrusion, and high accuracy and reliability. Potential NASA applications thus include: *3D Shape Sensing *Strain Measurements *Temperature Measurements

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Acoustic/Vibration
Contact/Mechanical
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Thermal
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A2.01-9699
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Active Battery Management System with Physics Based Life Modeling Topology

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Electric Power Systems
4233 S Bedford Drive
Chandler, AZ
85249-4597
(480) 416-2624

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Randy Dunn
randy.dunn@ep-sys.net
16175 E Gale Ave
City of Industry,  CA 91745-1746
(714) 200-3209

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Robust Data Acquisition on flight applications enables Researchers to rapidly advance technology. Distributed Electric Propulsion (DEP) and Hybrid Electric architectures rely heavily on batteries to achieve fuel efficiency and reduced CO2 emissions. DEP Aircraft of the future have demands for Energy Storage Systems with large counts of cells put in series and parallel to achieve needed voltage and energy levels. The X57 Maxwell Battery comprises of over 6000 cells. As the pack goes through repeated charge/discharge cycles, as well as environmental cycles, each individual cell begins to lose its capacity. Cell to cell capacity variation causes the entire pack to limited by the weakest cell. Traditional Passive Balancing topologies are limited in their ability to address cell mismatch on the discharge cycle. Active balancing allows a dynamic measurement & control system to discharge cells at variable rates. With a more robust measurement & control architecture, Active topologies have the ability to integrate more advanced algorithms. These algorithms include predictive health monitoring, life based management, physics based cell modelling. Batteries can last longer, avoid thermal runaway, and avoid maintenance. EPS is proposing development of an active BMS concept, with associated algorithms to achieve a 40% life improvement on the X57 pack.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
All commercial aviation applications with a lithium ion battery have the ability to benefit from this research. No deployed Li-Ion battery system in Aviation today has an active topology. This is due to the stringent FAA DO311 requirements which require designers to show that their systems can meet a 1E-9 probability requirement of failed condition occurring such as overcharge. This is achieved through redundancy and the elimination of single point failures. With charge current being transferred from cell to cell, no one has achieved a cost effective design that meets the 1e-9 requirement. If the TRL is advanced on such a topology, the economics of lithium becomes much more compelling given the much improved cycle life. Other key markets who could benefit from Research would be the Air Taxi Manufacturers. Much of their business model is based on the economic properties of the battery. Right now cell manufacturers who are achieving the energy density targets for the application are no where near the cycle life requirement to make this market viable. This technology fills a critical gap in both cycle life and certification aspects.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project is targeted for NASA's X-planes with lithium based energy storage systems. The X57 Maxwell is the target application, however, other X-planes, as well as Space applications may re-use the research to extend pack life, and avoid unpredicted Thermal Events. Vertical Take off & Lift working groups studying air taxi transportation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation & Modeling
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Air Transportation & Safety
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Distribution/Management
Storage
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A2.02-8360
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Integrity SAFIT

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Adaptive Aerospace Group, Inc.
100 Exploration Way, Suite 330
Hampton, VA
23666-6266
(757) 941-4921

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sally Johnson
sjohnson@adaptiveaero.com
100 Exploration Way, Suite 330
Hampton,  VA 23666-6266
(757) 593-3236

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Our team is proposing to develop a high-integrity flight management system and multi-UAS ground control station (GCS) called the Safe Autonomy Flexible Innovation Testbed (SAFITTM) for safe operation of multiple fixed-wing UAS across a wide range of missions, including Beyond Visual Line of Sight operations. The onboard flight management system will include: Onboard autonomous traffic and obstacle avoidance, geospatial containment, and flight envelope protection; Waypoint route-following, using preplanned route or waypoints produced in real-time by an onboard application or from ground control station; Direct control inputs from an onboard application or manual control from the ground control station. Traffic and obstacle avoidance and geospatial containment will be based on publicly available ICAROUS software developed by NASA Langley's formal methods team. Formal methods will be applied to core safety elements, including high-level formal specification and verification of accordance with key safety properties. AAG's key strengths in flight dynamics and UAS separation assurance, combined with NIA's formal methods experience make our team uniquely suited to perform this effort. Phase I will show technical feasibility and demonstrate verification/certification feasibility of applying formal methods combined with extensive testing, through meeting the following objectives: Generate high-level architecture and verification/certification strategy; Demonstrate feasibility of applying formal methods by proving the high-level specification meets a limited set of safety properties; Create a prototype implementation of the flight management system and limited GCS and demonstrate in simulation and in flight; Create a simulation prototype of an advanced multi-UAS GCS; Develop commercialization plan. In a follow-on Phase II effort, AAG and NIA plan to focus on completing development and verification of SAFITTM and collecting artifacts to support future certification.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is high commercial potential for high-integrity SAFITTM from research institutions, commercial UAS manufacturers, and companies that wish to utilize UAS in their routine business operations because current UAS flight management systems are typically of limited reliability. Our multi-UAS ground control station enables a wide variety of missions that are of interest in the commercial community. There is also a commercial market for our high-integrity core functionality as a closed core into which other software developers could add open-source functions, with our core system effectively bounding the behavior of any software added by third parties.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SAFITTM concept was originally developed as a research testing platform to support NASA's future research in autonomous systems. A high-integrity version of SAFITTM would provide a much more robust and reliable platform, allowing safe flight testing of unproven test systems, including high-integrity traffic and obstacle avoidance and geospatial containment. The advanced ground control station supports NASA's research into single operators safely and effectively managing multiple UAS as well as research into how multiple autonomous UAS can cooperatively work together on missions, with SAFITTM protections providing separation assurance between the multiple UAS so that functionality does not have to be incorporated into the test software. AAG believes that there is a significant commercial market for our product, and the reuse of NASA's ICAROUS software and the further application of formal methods are thus a valuable commercial spinoff from NASA's research, demonstrating the practical application of NASA's research to solve real-world problems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Attitude Determination & Control
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A2.02-8539
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: NExT ADS-B - An Affordable Architecture for ADS-B Coverage to the Surface for UAS in the NAS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dynamic Systems Integration
572 Central Drive, Suite 104
Virginia Beach, VA
23454-5255
(757) 431-5000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gregg Schneider
gschneider@dsivb.com
572 Central Drive, Suite 104
VIRGINIA BEACH,  VA 23454-5255
(757) 431-5000

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We have designed an UAS and aircraft extended communication network to cover the critical low altitude national tracking gap from the ground to 3000ft in the FAAıs NextGen. Our no-Gap ADS-B network design is nationally scalable and offers interoperability with the deployed national network. Our design does not need expensive infrastructure, it is modular for on-location demand yet is nationally scalable, so will cost far less than existing solutions. Our FAA approved secure weather data network design will be extended to provide secure UAS & aircraft traffic data.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The FAA requires ADS-B for all US aircraft & drones flying in controlled airspace by 2020. The Total Available Market is over 10,000 small airports and UAS launch sites: agricultural, pipeline patrol, natural resources etc. We have strong interest from a weather sensors company and have discussed network development for commercialization with Google and Amazon.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASAıs Aero Aviation Programs operate many UASs, LaRC has a Cirrus SR-22 research aircraft to simulate autonomous UAS flight, other research UASs, e.g., AFRCıs Ikhana collects atmospheric data. Most NASA UAS program can use our technology to set up their custom UAS site with ADS-B transition capability. The network platform design will allow interfaces to NASAıs SSA software for their and ground control stations, simulator and its other NextGen R&D labs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ad-Hoc Networks (see also Sensors)
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Network Integration
Transmitters/Receivers
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A2.02-8755
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Developing a Certifiable UAS reliability Assessment Approach Through Algorithmic Redundancy

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Systems Technology, Inc.
13766 Hawthorne Boulevard
Hawthorne, CA
90250-7083
(310) 679-2281

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Danowsky
bdanowsky@systemstech.com
13766 Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne,  CA 90250-7083
(310) 679-2281

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Manned aircraft, civilian or military, are required to meet certain reliability standards specified by the FAA in order to operate in the US national airspace. These reliability standards are typically met via hardware redundancy. Multiple, dissimilar components of hardware designated for a single purpose increases the physical redundancy and offers a viable way to detect and correct for hardware malfunctions. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are often subject to weight/power constraints and therefore unable to accommodate similar redundancies. A common approach to solving this problem has been to employ analytical redundancy in the form of fault detection and isolation (FDI) algorithms. Although significant breakthroughs have been achieved in increasing UAS redundancies analytically, certification has been challenging. The primary objective of the proposed work is to develop a software architecture for UAS that provides certifiable analytical redundancy. The proposed approach is called algorithmic redundancy, owing to its underlying philosophy of increasing UAS reliability via multiple, dissimilar FDI algorithms. Certification of an algorithmically redundant system relies on well-established methods similar to those for hardware redundant systems. We propose to develop a framework for evaluating and selecting FDI algorithms, combining them to build algorithmically redundant software and finally, assess the overall reliability for certification

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The low-altitude (<500 ft.) drone industry is growing rapidly in the commercial sector with the emergence of new autonomous UAS applications including package delivery, infrastructure inspection, and environmental and agricultural monitoring. At higher altitudes, emerging commercial UAS technologies include high-altitude communications relay systems for expanding internet access to remote areas. The proposed algorithmic redundancy framework will be beneficial for ensuring that new commercial UAS in these applications will be safely integrated with less hardware redundancy, reducing weight and increasing achievable performance bounds. UAS are prolific in the DoD with many currently operational UAS and others that are nearing operational status. There are several other DoD programs where smaller UAS are at lower but increasing TRLs. The proposed algorithmic redundancy framework has direct application to these DoD UAS by providing detailed risk assessment and mitigation for safety assurance using less hardware redundancy, resulting in lower weight and increased performance.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed algorithmic redundancy framework for UAS directly addresses three of the six strategic thrusts in the current NASA ARMD Strategic Implementation Plan. Thrust 1: ıSafe, Efficient Growth in Global Operationsı will be addressed by a sustained focus on reducing risks in UAS to maintain acceptable levels of safety for all air traffic. Thrust 5: ıReal-time, System-Wide Safety Assuranceı will be addressed by the development of an analytic technique that directly addresses and mitigates UAS risks toward integrated, system-wide safety assurance. Thrust 6: ıAssured Autonomy for Aviation Transformationı is addressed by the development of an innovative redundant FDI framework that will better enable safe integration of UAS into the NAS. NASA is also addressing air traffic management for low-altitude drones with the goal of developing a system to ensure safe entry of new UAS. The proposed algorithmic redundancy framework will benefit this system by providing safety assurance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Process Monitoring & Control
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A2.02-9024
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Argument-Driven Application of Formal Methods

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dependable Computing, LLC
2120 North Pantops Drive
Charlottesville, VA
22911-8648
(434) 293-8358

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ashlie Hocking
ben.hocking@dependablecomputing.com
2120 North Pantops Drive
Charlottesville,  VA 22911-8648
(434) 981-4975

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal, in response to SBIR topic A2.02, develops low-cost, high-assurance UAS autonomy through argument-driven application of formal methods to runtime assurance. Autonomous UAS operations promise lower cost hardware and a reduction in labor force compared to conventionally piloted aircraft. While loss of a UAS may not be catastrophic, the possibility of catastrophic collateral damage exists. UAS software is therefore safety critical, and safety-critical software remains expensive to build and certify. The full economic benefit of autonomous UAS operations cannot be realized until the cost of autonomous UAS software can be reduced without negatively impacting safety. Software architectures providing software fault tolerance through reconfiguration to a trusted backup, such as runtime assurance, offer fixed-cost assurance for autonomous software. They obviate traditional V&V by shifting the assurance burden from the autonomous software to the architecture. Traditional V&V approaches focus on rigorous testing, but providing the level of assurance required to enable UAS autonomy through testing remains infeasible. Formal methods offer an alternative, but comprehensive application of formal methods remains too costly. Application must be targeted at elements of the architecture for which assurance is most critical. Determining where formal methods should be targeted is a challenge. Rigorous safety arguments link safety claims to evidence gathered and not only provide justifiable assurance of safety, but also enable developers and certifiers to identify the most critical elements of the system. Rigorous safety arguments can identify where formal methods should be applied. Argument-driven application of formal methods to runtime assurance therefore provides high assurance of safety while reducing development cost. This circumvents traditional V&V of autonomous UAS software without sacrificing system safety, enabling low-cost high-assurance UAS autonomy.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
UAS and UAS autonomy represent areas of significant interest for other government agencies, in particular the DoD. AFRL, for example, is beginning a major development project named Loyal Wingman, in which an autonomous UAS will operate with a manned aircraft to conduct military operations. Runtime assurance backed by argument-driven application of formal methods would enable a high degree of autonomy for the UAS while ensuring that critical safety properties ? such as minimum distance to the manned aircraft ? cannot be violated during operations. AFRL is specifically interested in runtime assurance and has sponsored its development and application over the past 15 years. Argument-driven application of formal methods to runtime assurance provides high assurance and reduced cost for commercial UAS. The rigorous argument combined with formal method evidence will help commercial users with certification, providing a path to demonstrating conformance to standards. Customers for this technology include companies that want to use autonomous UAS for delivery, and companies that use autonomous UAS for surveillance. While autonomous cars are tested in a wide range of environments, runtime assurance can be used to handle unexpected situations. As standards are developed for autonomous cars, rigorous arguments can be used to demonstrate conformance to these standards. Potential customers for this technology include all companies developing autonomous automobiles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Argument-driven application of formal methods is applicable to all NASA safety-critical systems. Safeguard represents a current NASA project that provides runtime assurance. Currently, Safeguard is being developed following NASA software safety practices and will be undergoing a rigorous test and evaluation phase as it seeks to transition to a commercial system. Safeguard will benefit significantly from the argument-driven application of formal methods that will be developed under this effort: the application of the technology will result in a safety argument for Safeguard and an alternative set of high-assurance artifacts developed using formal methods. UAS and increasing autonomy for UAS are significant focus areas for NASA. The application of an argument-driven application of formal methods to runtime assurance represents a particularly appealing approach to addressing the risks posed by autonomy as well as enabling low-cost UAS operations. In addition to increasing confidence in autonomous UAS in a reduced-cost manner, this approach provides an argument that can be leveraged to demonstrate compliance with appropriate regulations. Argument-driven application of formal methods to runtime assurance can also be applied to autonomous spacecraft, whether operating in Earth orbit, on Mars, or in the Kuiper belt. This approach can provide the requisite very high levels of assurance that such missions require at reduced costs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Verification/Validation Tools
Analytical Methods
Project Management
Quality/Reliability
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Fusion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A2.02-9133
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-power, ultra-fast deep learning neuromorphic chip for unmanned aircraft systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mentium Technologies Inc.
2208 Pacific Coast Drive
Goleta, CA
93117-5494
(805) 617-6245

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mirko Prezioso
mprezioso@mentium.tech
2208 Pacific coast Dr.
Goleta,  CA 93117-5494
(805) 617-6245

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is driving the fourth industrial revolution as well as permeating every aspect of our day-to-day life. From big data analysis to language analysis and real time translation, from speech recognition to image recognition. The latter is a powerful and quite general application with a scope that spans from medical imaging to autonomous driving and to military applications. Mentium Technologies Inc., spun from a UC Santa Barbara research lab in the Electrical and Computer Engineering department is committed to embrace the AI revolution strong of the experience of its team in the neuromorphic hardware for AI. Indeed, we will develop a neuromorphic chip able to do higher than real-time image recognition and/or object classification on board the UAS. The chip will use 1/100th of the energy while reaching 100x in speed compared to state of the art. The team already had demonstrated 1000x and 1/1000th energy consumption in a smaller scale experimental demo. From this experience UCSB has a patented technology licensed by Mentium Technologies Inc. thanks to this technology and its develpment within this project, the Neuromorphic Chip will empower the UAS with Cognitive functions enabling autonomous guidance, decision making and complex image processing, while keeping the power consumption low.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Deep neural networks are envisioned to revolutionize the field of machine learning and their applications because they provide a simple platform to achieve performances beyond what could have been achieved with conventional digital Von Neumann architectures. In fact, despite of being a very young technology, it is already in use in so many commercial applications including but not limited to: - Google is using DNNs for speech recognition in Alexa, for image recognition to diagnose diseases from medical images, for object detection in its self-driving cars, for translating text from one language to another one, etc. - Baidu is using DNN to automatically convert speech to text in mobile phones - The hand-written text on all checks and envelops are automatically read with DNNs - In the huge market of advertising, DNN are now helping to identify the potential costumers for a particular product - All face recognitions and people identifications happening in Facebook pages are possible only because of DNNs - Automatic game playing - Automatic image caption generation

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Compared to conventional and classical signal processing algorithms, the process done in Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) resembles more to what is happening in human brain and because of that, these networks can provide more useful insight and perception form the surrounding environment. Moreover, by following a teacher like a crew member, they can learn by themselves to how to react autonomously in different and complex situations. All these properties make them a valuable technology to help NASA automates earth and space missions. Here are some of the applications of DNN in NASA-related missions: - Aircraft control - Damage-adaptive decision making - Detect extreme weather in climate datasets - Classification of aerial images - Fire detection and control - Autonomous driving of vehicles for space missions - Automatic feature extraction from large datasets of probes images

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Perception/Vision
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Image Analysis
Image Processing
Computer System Architectures
Data Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A2.02-9572
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Portable Virtual Aircraft Test System (PVATS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TMC Technologies of WV Corporation
2050 Winners Drive
Fairmont, WV
26554-2655
(304) 816-3600

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scott Zemerick
scott.zemerick@tmctechnologies.com
2050 Winners Drive
Fairmont,  WV 26554-2655
(304) 806-2090

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
TMC's reusable modeling and simulation technologies are currently utilized by NASA for enabling advanced verification and validation (V&V) and dynamic analysis of complex systems such as spacecraft and launch vehicles by executing the exact flight software binaries in a software-only test bed. These reusable technologies, already developed under a NASA contract, are also applicable to unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and will provide a portable, faster-than-real-time test bed capable of dynamic analysis, fault injection, and automated testing, including Monte Carlo analysis. This test bed, named Portable Virtual Aircraft Test System (PVATS), leverages TMC's existing virtualization and modeling technologies to create a virtual environment that includes a CPU instruction set emulator and modeled UAS components such as sensors and actuators, and which executes in an automated virtual machine. The PVATS goals are to directly improve the timeliness and thoroughness of test and evaluation outcomes while reducing costs and increasing UAS flight software assurance. The three targeted goals are 1) V&V of UAS flight software, 2) Assist UAS software development and early testing by providing many portable virtual test environments to developers, and 3) Training of UAS operators using a virtual environment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
PVATS has applicability to Non-NASA applications. It can be used by multiple government and private entities for V&V of unmanned systems. V&V of unmanned systems remains a challenging field mainly due to system complexity and the large number of requirements levied by diverse stakeholders. NASA unmanned systems research is similar to other agencies and private companies that utilize unmanned systems, including utilization of remote command and control systems. In any developed UAS system, there is a computing architecture that can be modeled and exercised with input/output (I/0) interfaces in order to provide a virtual unmanned system for V&V risk reduction and to assist with validating aircraft technologies including the maintenance of separation distances from other aircraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technologies described in this SBIR Phase I proposal are currently being applied to various NASA applications including dynamic testing, V&V, and mission training. For example, these technologies are being utilized to develop a James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) spacecraft simulator that is able to execute the unmodified (not recompiled) flight binaries of three flight computers which then interact with other modeled components, including virtual MIL-STD-1553 busses. This entire environment is running in two virtual machines on commodity laptops. Another example is the TMC-developed simulator for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle that contains triple-redundant flight computer models running the as-delivered flight software binary. The core modeling and simulation technologies which are leveraged in these examples are available for use on this SBIR and are also applicable to unmanned (aircraft) system test beds. PVATS is directly applicable to complex unmanned systems requiring rigid software testing requirements, providing a portable environment for testing avionics and payload software early in the life-cycle.TMC's experience has shown that NASA hardware test beds, which usually incorporate extremely specialized hardware, are overscheduled and prone to downtime due to integration and hardware failures. PVATS provides a virtual dry-run test environment that can be utilized prior to testing in hardware labs, ensuring a more efficient lab test experience.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Development Environments
Verification/Validation Tools
Destructive Testing
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Lifetime Testing
Simulation & Modeling
Air Transportation & Safety
Mission Training
Training Concepts & Architectures
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A3.01-8685
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Collective Inference based Data Analytics System for Post Operations Analysis

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ATAC
2770 De La Cruz Boulevard
Santa Clara, CA
95050-2624
(408) 736-2822

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Bertino
jlb@atac.com
2770 De La Cruz Boulevard
Santa Clara,  CA 95050-2624
(408) 736-2822

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Current-day capabilities for performing post operations analysis (POA) of air traffic operations at airports, airlines and FAA facilities are mostly limited to creating reporting type of analysis results which compare mean values of key performance indicators against the respective expected nominal levels (e.g., average daily delay). This single point comparison method does not directly enable a POA analyst to identify the root-cause for a particular observed inefficiency, nor does it help in identifying a solution for mitigating that inefficiency. This SBIR develops a machine learning based approach for improving POA and for potentially making it more autonomous. We call this tool Collective Inference based Data Analytics System for POA (CIDAS-P). CIDAS-P will provide airport, airline, FAA and NASA personnel with a fast, flexible and streamlined process for analyzing the day-of-operations, rapidly pinpointing exact causes for any observed inefficiencies, as well as recommending actions to be taken to avoid the same inefficiencies in the future. It does this by developing an innovative, collective inference algorithm for cross-comparing performance of the same facility on different days as well as cross-comparing performance across different facilities. The algorithm leverages sophisticated probabilistic modeling techniques that consider the subtle nuances by which cross-facility and cross-day operational scenarios differ to enable apples-to-apples comparisons across traffic scenarios and identify what works well and what does not in similar situations. User acceptance of NASA Trajectory Based Operations research products stands to benefit from CIDAS-P because CIDAS-P's automated recommendations can help identify and fix problems with these products early on in their deployment life-cycle.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A direct application for the proposed technology, CIDAS-P, is as a decision support tool (DST) to be used at airports, airlines or FAA facilities for analyzing root causes for observed operational efficiencies or irregularities at the end of a day of operations. ATAC is well-placed to provide an operational POA capability to airports, airlines and FAA facilities by integrating CIDAS-P into one of its commercial tools that have been or are been used by some of these entities for other purposes. Another alternative is for ATAC to license the CIDAS-P software to these entities for direct integration within their own tools. The proposed technology can also be infused into DSTs to support the FAA's Plan Execute Review Train and Improve (PERTI) initiative, whose goal is to translate post-event reviews into operational improvements in a repeatable manner. FAA recently started PERTI to address current impediments to improvements in NAS performance. PERTI defines new operational roles and processes to enable integration of analytics into training, operational planning, post-event analysis and training. The current-day manual POA process is inadequate to fulfill PERTI's ambitious goal of translating post-event reviews into operational improvements in a repeatable manner, and it is recognized that new automated POA tools are required. CIDAS-P, integrated into ATAC's commercial platforms or directly into FAA systems, fulfills this need.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed innovation, CIDAS-P, is applicable to NASA research in the areas of Trajectory Based Operations (TBO) and Airspace Technology Demonstrations (ATD). It provides a tool for evaluating performance of airport, TRACON and enroute traffic under the management of new NASA research-products developed by these projects. CIDAS-P can also be used as a 'grading' system for ATD-2 operations, for evaluating and classifying operation types in real-time to inform switching between multiple ATD-2 scheduling strategies (e.g., conservative gate-holding, aggressive gate pushbacks). As applied to NASA's Data Science research group's work on identifying operational anomalies, CIDAS-P can be used to rank or measure safety of operations during the identified anomalies, thus providing a hitherto missing capability to automatically identify scenarios falsely tagged as anomalous by the research group's algorithms.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation & Modeling
Air Transportation & Safety


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A3.01-9556
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Turbulence Awareness for Strategic Aircraft Re-Routing (TASAR-R)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Innovation Laboratory, Inc.
2360 Southwest Chelmsford Avenue
Portland, OR
97201-2265
(503) 242-1761

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jimmy Krozel
Jimmy.Krozel@gmail.com
2360 SW Chelmsford Ave
portland,  OR 97201-2265
(503) 242-1761

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Innovation Laboratory, Inc., proposes to develop a Decision Support Tool (DST) for strategic guidance to pilots for mitigating encounters with en route turbulence hazards. Implemented on either Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Electronic Flight Bags (EFBs) or Personal Electronic Devices (PEDs), and standard turbulence data formats, the system is designed to increase the likelihood of Air Traffic Control (ATC) approval of a pilots trajectory change request by strategically presenting viable, pro-active trajectory change options to the pilot based on timely traffic and weather information. Distribution of our turbulence information to Airline Operations Centers (AOCs) allows airline dispatchers the ability to provide an additional safety net, adjusting flight plans to strategically avoid turbulence related hazards.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Turbulence data is needed in the Flight Deck (FD) and at Airline Operations Centers (AOCs) for use by dispatchers and ATC coordinators, for instance, for flight plan adjustments and safety warnings; this may occur even if the TASAR or TASAR-R system is not in use on the FD. Key potential customers include all the major commercial airlines, other smaller General Aviation (GA) and corporate flight departments; and service providers who market flight management services to corporate flight departments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our proposed SBIR product helps NASA researchers study technologies and concepts that enhance aviation safety. An example of this would be the identification and mitigation of moderate or severe mountain wave turbulence (MWT) or Convective Induced Turbulence (CIT) detected by our system, distributed to other aircraft via EFBs and PEDs, voice communication warnings, or other mechanisms to tactically adjust the flight levels of nearby aircraft prior to entering into an area of turbulence. NASA can investigate Route Availability (RA) and Route Blockage (RB) accordingly.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Command & Control
Process Monitoring & Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A3.01-9704
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Transition Airspace Resource Management

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
540 Fort Evans Road, Suite 300
Leesburg, VA
20176-3379
(800) 405-8576

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steve Atkins
atkins@mosaicatm.com
540 Fort Evans Road, Suite 300
Leesburg,  VA 20176-3379
(978) 692-9484

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Similar to how the FAA's Terminal Flight Data Manager will bring runway use configuration support to a large number of airports in the National Airspace System, there exists a need to support how controllers use capacity constrained arrival and departure fixes. This project will develop and validate the Transition Airspace Resource Manager (TARM) concept. The goal of TARM is to increase the efficiency with which capacity-limited transition fixes connecting the enroute and terminal airspaces are used in both clear and disruptive weather conditions, by proactively suggesting reroutes to balance arrival and departure demand across available fixes, relative to capacity, and temporarily reallocating fixes between arrivals and departures when extreme demand or weather conditions warrant. TARM uses stochastic weather and capacity forecasts. The TARM concept represents an important step toward Trajectory Based Operations by integrating a traffic management decision with individual flight trajectories, and applying a TBO paradigm in which arrival and departure flights are separated by trajectory rather than procedural airspace regions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary application for this work beyond advancing NASA's IADS research goals is with the FAA. Our goal is for NASA to transfer a validated concept and TARM prototype to the FAA so that the capability may be included in future TBFM and TFDM releases. The operational need is substantial and current method - manual intervention by controllers - is inconsistent and reactive, not providing the possible benefits. The TARM capability is needed and wanted by the FAA. TARM's ability to efficiently update trajectory assignments through transition airspace based on current conditions will also prove essential under TBO. Mosaic ATM is also considering offering a cloud-hosted, service-based product to flight operators. The service would forecast fix capacities and demand, and advise when a re-route using an alternate fix would be beneficial to that flight, or to the operator if the operator represents the majority of the demand at the fix.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed SBIR will complete work that is highly beneficial to NASA by being directly relevant to future NASA Integrated Arrival Departure Surface (IADS) research, without overlapping ongoing work. NASA has contributed remarkable advances in arrival and departure traffic management technologies. NASA's advanced arrival management technologies, Terminal Sequencing and Spacing (TSAS) and Flight Deck Interval Management (FIM), assume aircraft fix assignments are known. Similarly, NASA's ATD-2 departure management research, based on NASA's previous PDRC and TDS technology, assumes the fixes as well as the assignments of flights to those fixes are static. The TARM concept addresses an opportunity to reallocate fixes and reassign flights to available fixes prior to NASA's existing arrival and departure solutions scheduling flights. In this way, this TARM research could be applied to extend NASA's current IADS work, delivering the next generation of IADS capabilities into the NASA-FAA ATM technology pipeline.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation & Modeling
Air Transportation & Safety
Sequencing & Scheduling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A3.01-9763
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: NAS Integrated Collaborative Planning Service

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
540 Fort Evans Road, Suite 300
Leesburg, VA
20176-3379
(800) 405-8576

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alicia Fernandes
afernandes@mosaicatm.com
540 Fort Evans Road, Suite 300
Leesburg,  VA 20176-3379
(571) 293-2056

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NAS evolution points to different kinds of vehicles (e.g., UAS, on-demand mobility) operated by different kinds of organizations and individuals for different purposes. Currently, vehicles other than aircraft are accommodated in the NAS via manual licensing and planning processes or severe restrictions on acceptable operations. Ultimately, vehicle operators will demand access to airspace, which is a shared public resource. To date, most research has focused on vehicle characteristics and aggregate effects on NAS performance. There has been limited focus on planning needs of the various stakeholders involved in these operations or on envisioning a future NAS that supports collaborative operations planning for a wide variety of vehicles and operations. Planning systems need to evolve to support collaborative planning among all stakeholders' requirements and equitable access to the NAS for different kinds of vehicles used by different stakeholders for different missions that present different safety and planning challenges. Mosaic ATM proposes NICoPS, the NAS Integrated Collaborative Planning System, which works across vehicle types, missions, and planning time scales. Not only does it support a variety of vehicle operators, but it also support traffic management personnel in evaluating different vehicle operations proposals in the context of all other proposed operations, expanding their current capabilities beyond evaluating aircraft operations. It leverages Mosaic's SWIM Gateway and Mosaic Analytics Suite capabilities, among others, to facilitate data exchange and operations analysis. In Phase I, we propose to characterize different stakeholders' planning needs, and design the NICoPS prototype. We will implement the design into an early-stage NICoPS prototype sufficient for initial stakeholder evaluations in Phase II. In Phase II, we propose to iteratively enhance the NICoPS design and prototype, and carry out stakeholder evaluations including field evaluation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Beyond NASA, the primary potential applications for this work are with the FAA, vehicle operators, and the research communities associated with various vehicles. As new types of vehicles, such as on-demand mobility vehicles, become feasible, the capability will be available for those operators as well. At the end of Phase II, the NICoPS concept and prototype will be mature enough for transition to the FAA for further concept and system development. The NICoPS will provide a mechanism by which various vehicle operations can be evaluated and negotiated in the context of NAS operations, significantly reducing the amount of work that must be performed manually. Simultaneously, researchers associated with new vehicle types can use the NICoPS concept and prototype to support their efforts to design their vehicles for integration into NAS operations. At the end of Phase III, a prototype NICoPS SWIM service will be developed and available to demonstrate the capability to the commercial market.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed SBIR will complete work that is highly beneficial to NASA - work that can directly benefit NASA's research into integration of on-demand mobility vehicles and UAS into the NAS, as well as its space vehicle operations. While NASA has been a leader in these areas of research, our effort will provide validated, centralized documentation of multiple stakeholders' planning needs, as well as the NICoPS capability that can be used to evaluate different vehicle mission concepts in the context of NAS planning operations. This can drive new vehicle and airspace concepts. At the end of Phase III, the NICoPS will be available for use by NASA personnel responsible for planning missions by various vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Sequencing & Scheduling
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Input/Output Devices (Displays, Storage)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Transport/Traffic Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A3.02-8346
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace Systems (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Integrity GPS Solution for Trusted Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
R Cubed Engineering, LLC
4103 11th Street Court West, Unit #203
Palmetto, FL
34221-6343
(240) 298-1025

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
V. Micheal Contarino
mike@rcubedengineering.com
4103 11th Street Court West, Unit #203
Palmetto,  FL 34221-6343
(240) 298-1025

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) is the most CSWaP compatible safety solution for Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and will be mandated for use by the FAA in the National Airspace System (NAS) by 2020. The ongoing miniaturization efforts will continue to enable a cooperative approach to the integration of UAS into NAS moving forward. A critical limitation of ADS-B is the use of GPS-derived position vector in its broadcast, which can be easily spoofed or jammed, or confused by reflections in urban areas. We present a low-CSWaP solution to secure and verify the GPS integrity using a novel antenna design so that ADS-B can be used as a trusted vehicle to vehicle communications and navigation link for UAS.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Higher integrity GPS can positively affect a multitude of non-NASA applications. For the FAA, ADS-B could be a more "trusted" resource, as one can verify the position of the broadcasted source. For users of GPS technologies in urban environments, this elegant solution to removal of reflections would enable a higher fidelity of GPS for use in navigation, cell phones, and future UAS operations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Techniques that increase the confidence of ADS-B afford opportunities to equip UAS and other aircraft in the NAS with a reliable tool for air traffic management in the near and mid-term timeframe. Correcting limitations in ADS-B provides an overarching goal of NASA to safely integrate UAS into the NAS, while increasing automation, tracking and situational awareness for all participants. A low-CSWaP solution that removes false GPS sources (reflections, jamming, spoofing) expands the usefulness of ADS-B for UAS flying in urban areas.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Navigation & Guidance
Antennas
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A3.02-8684
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace Systems (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Airport Movement Area Closure Planner

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ATAC
2770 De La Cruz Boulevard
Santa Clara, CA
95050-2624
(408) 736-2822

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Keller
wjk@atac.com
2770 De La Cruz Boulevard
Santa Clara,  CA 95050-2624
(408) 736-2822

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR research develops an automation tool improving temporary and permanent runway closure management. The Movement Area Closure Planner (MACP) provides airport stakeholder capability to improve decision processes and decision outcomes during surface closure events by developing a what-if simulation functionality to explore multiple operational decision choices during surface closure events. MACP ensures realistic simulation of airport traffic operations by relying on a high-fidelity airport simulator which has been used in multiple high-fidelity airport operations analyses for FAA and airport operational improvement evaluation projects. The key innovation added to a high-fidelity simulator is a machine learning based predictive engine which realistically projects multiple probable future evolution trajectories for key factors influencing the airport operations under surface closure events (e.g., predicted gate pushback rates, predicted runway arrival and departure demands, predicted departure queue lengths, predicted de-ice pad queue lengths). Reliable what-if analysis is enabled by taking each of these probable evolution trajectories of key variables and kicking off multiple airport traffic simulations, each simulating airport traffic under one of these probable scenarios. Another variable input for the simulations is surface closure operational decision parameters, e.g., start and end times for runway closure. Multiple probable futures are simulated for each choice of surface closure operational decision parameter, thereby enabling us to predict not just one value for key airport performance metrics, but multiple probable values each associated with its probability of occurrence.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
What-if scenario analysis decision support tool supports runway closure decision making at the FAA ATCSCC, FAA ARTCCs and AOCs supporting NAS-wide what-if analyses while planning and negotiating potential TMI actions under a CDM operational paradigm. MACP input portals can also be installed at busy TRACONs and Towers so controllers or Traffic Management Coordinators (TMCs) at those facilities can provide real-time inputs on current or forecast local conditions. Airport operations staff is the most reliable local runway closure forecast source and MACP portals provide an expedient approach for generating the most reliable forecasts. Deploying MACP as a web based tool enables airlines and ATCT to share data with central airport tools to improve CDM. Airlines providing expected gate pushback times, high-value flight preferences, ATCT can share data on the expected arrival landing rates, airspace configuration (e.g., what departure-fixes are open for use), expected runway configuration changes, etc. Enhanced non-NASA application includes predicting and managing the closure of any movement area during any selected airfield irregular operational condition. Movement areas may include any surface between the gate and the departure runway surface or may be limited to portions between those points. Movement area closures can be more disruptive to airlines than a runway closure due to extended taxi times, fuel burn, and overall delay.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
MACP is relevant to NASA's AORG that supports R&D airline focused work, including the airline operations center (AOC) & flight deck. AORG seeks to integrate industry ideas with NASA solutions to develop innovative and automated solutions for increasing airline operations efficiency and safety. The AORG is gaining a better understanding of the effects of winter storms on NAS operations (especially airports) and developing knowledge and tools needed to improve efficiency (reduce cancelations and delays). AORG developed a tool called FACT. FACT is a web-based application that would improve winter weather operations within the AOC and at airports. Accessing the MACP would represent a significant shift in airport runway closure decision making processes. The ability to create a reliable data driven CDM process automates the decision process during irregular (non-emergency) operational situations, namely prediction. By having predictive data at hand when multiple decision making processes are active, airport staff have a greater flexibility to focus on safety related aspects - thereby enhancing safety. A quick and easy tool that can provide efficiency and safety benefits, reduce staff workload, and drive data into the multiple management decision making layers would be highly desirable for commercial application. Deploying this tool across a wide variety of airport sizes and types could have a significant positive efficiency impact on the NAS.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation & Modeling
Air Transportation & Safety


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A3.02-8717
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace Systems (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aircraft Icing Hazard Management LIDAR for Take-Off and Landing Safety

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Dynamics, Inc.
2560 North Triphammer Road
Ithaca, NY
14850-9726
(607) 257-0533

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joseph Gerardi
jg@idiny.com
2560 North Triphammer Road
Ithaca,  NY 14850-9726
(607) 257-0533

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There is a need for technologies focused on increasing the efficiency and safety of UAV operations for the first and last 50 feet, and under diverse weather conditions. UAV's are not typically equipped for icing avoidance and many have been lost close to airports when encountering icing hazards or un-forecasted weather conditions. Current aircraft weather radars that operate at X-band (8-12 GHz) have limited or no ability to help pilots detect and quantify icing potential due to atmospheric attenuation. Use of 3D LIDAR technology for ice and snow avoidance could significantly expand the mission envelope of aircraft and UAV's during cold weather operations. IDI is proposing development of a multi-channel 3D LIDAR that will identify low altitude cloud layers - as well as provide runway surface hazard information for UAV's. Unique wavelengths are chosen to identify both cloud moisture content and runway surface contaminates (ice, water, snow, slush) within the local surroundings of the aircraft. During the Phase I IDI will demonstrate a 3D scanning LIDAR in the icing chamber with multiple wavelengths and multiple channels. The LIDAR design will be optimized and packaged to meet the desired range and accuracy requirements during the Phase 2 program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed compact LIDAR instrument will have widespread application to aircraft that do not currently have certified on-board ice protection equipment, such as police, air ambulance, and search and rescue helicopters. The proposed LIDAR will augment standard cockpit radars and provide a new capability to locate hazardous icing cloud layers that are currently invisible to weather Radar. The product will find widespread applications to enhance General Aviation aircraft safety.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed 3D LIDAR sensor will provide icing cloud imaging and ranging information for NASA's all weather UAV operations both in-flight and during take-off and landings. The LIDAR will identify cloud layer location at night to allow safe separation distances from icing clouds and identify clearings for safe decent and landing. The LIDAR also has the capability for ground obstacle avoidance and detecting hazardous surface conditions such as black ice that require increased stopping distance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A3.02-8740
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace Systems (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Selecting Days for Concept and Technology Evaluation in SMART-NAS Test-Bed Scenario Generation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Crown Consulting, Inc.
1400 Key Boulevard
Arlington, MD
22209-1577
(703) 650-0663

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tom Davis
tdavis@crownci.com
1400 Key Blvd
Arlingtion,  VA 22209-1577
(703) 203-7221

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Crown Consulting, Inc. will investigate and demonstrate methods to enable rapid selection of days for scenario generation in the development and evaluation of Air Traffic Management concepts and technologies (C&T) in the Shadow Mode Assessment using Realistic Technologies for the National Airspace System (SMART-NAS) Test-bed (SNTB). The proposed capability will enable the rapid generation of highly operationally relevant scenarios for use in the development and evaluation of technology demonstrators such as NASA Airspace Technology Demonstrator, ATD-2 and ATD-3, Unmanned Aerial System Traffic Management, as well as new operational concepts such as Integrated Demand Management and Trajectory Based Operations. A significant motivation for the development of the SNTB is enabling C&T benefit, impact, safety and cost assessments for speeding up deployment in the NAS. Today, C&T introduction into the NAS takes decades. The primary reason for this is an inability to assess the operational impact of the interaction between the proposed C&T and operationally deployed systems in terms of NAS-wide safety, traffic flow efficiency, roles and workload of controllers and traffic managers, and impact on airline operations. Human-In-The-Loop testing and shadow-mode evaluation driven by operational data. Slow and incremental steps are typically taken towards deployment because of limitations in the development of mathematical modeling and simulation. The proposed innovation seeks to augment the scenario generation capability of NASA's SNTB with methods and tools for selecting traffic, winds and weather based on the needs of the experiment allowing for highly operationally relevant scenarios. These methods and tools would actively categorize incoming and historical data using advanced machine-learning algorithms, allowing fast access to NAS streaming and legacy data in a big-data warehouse through queries generated via a simple user interface for specifying desired characteristics.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential customers for this innovation include: - Government, industry, and academia researchers exploring new concepts for the NAS, advanced safety assurance methods, and applications of autonomy. - FAA offices, industry, and operators involved in development, approval, and certification of new concepts or procedures. - Airlines researching new methods for managing their own traffic flow within the NAS.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This work will be targeted for use in Big Data Analytics of Air Traffic Systems, specifically focusing on how existing and future decision support systems can better perform to meet the needs of greater demand in the National Airspace System.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A3.02-8875
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace Systems (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: 3D Flash LIDAR All Weather Safety

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc.
135 East Ortega Street
Santa Barbara, CA
93101-1674
(805) 966-3331

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ardit Velia
avelia@asc3d.com
135 East Ortega Street
Santa Barbara,  CA 93101-1674
(805) 966-3331

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ASC has tested the LIDAR in diverse weather conditions (rain and fog) and has created landing maps, but has not done the two simultaneously. A number of algorithms for landing site evaluation have been developed, but none of those algorithms have been evaluated for adverse weather conditions. This effort will allow for the acquisition of data and the evaluation of algorithms, so that the architecture for a Phase II prototype can be developed for use in diverse weather conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications include collision avoidance to save pedestrians and prevent vehicle damage, Mid-Air Refueling, Surveillance, Terrain Mapping, Autonomous Navigation for unmanned ground, air and surface vehicles. The 3D maps created by the system will be useful to avoid automobile accidents and guide robots for Hazard Material Detection and Handling.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This sensor will increase the success of NASA operations such as: Rover Mobility and Navigation Topographical Mapping Mars Landed Exploration Exploration of Moons (ALHAT, Jupiter Icy Moons) Asteroid and Comet Rendezvous and Sample Return ISS Rendezvous and Docking (*Figure 19) Space Situational Awareness Rock Abundance and Distribution Maps

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Infrared
Air Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
3D Imaging


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A3.02-8935
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace Systems (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: ON-DEMAND: Operations in Dynamic Environments with Manned And Unmanned Aircraft Deconfliction

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scientific Systems Company, Inc.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA
01801-6562
(781) 933-5355

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joseph Jackson
Joseph.Jackson@ssci.com
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn,  MA 01801-6562
(781) 933-5355

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA Unmanned Traffic Management Program (UTM) and its early builds focus on requirements for fixed geofencing and low-altitude UAS without interaction with manned flights. However, later builds will require functionality for operation in dynamic missions employing multiple collaborating UAS in mixed manned-unmanned teams, and in environments where pre-specified geofencing, flight planning, and separation rules are not applicable. To address this challenge, SSCI proposes to develop, implement and test an innovative ON-DEMAND (Operations in Dynamic Environments with Manned And Unmanned Aircraft Deconfliction) system, a portable ATC center, whose role will be to monitor the environment, predict the environmental changes, and approve new geofencing boundaries, new manned-unmanned vehicle separation boundaries, and new flight plans in real-time while avoiding conflicts and assuring overall system safety. Specific system functions will include: (i) Prediction and adjustment of the geofence boundaries based on user requests or environmental changes; (ii) Prediction of the effects of user commands which may generate potential conflicts between manned and unmanned aircraft; and (iii) Dynamic mission re-planning, requiring real-time generation of new flight-plans under separation assurance guidelines. The main project objective is to develop requirements for the design and implementation of a local ATC for dynamically varying environments. We plan to propose an effective mission and flight plan re-planning approach, and effective conflict monitoring and resolution procedures which will enable smooth mission operation while assuring overall system safety. Under the project SSCI will leverage its state-of-the-art flight path prediction routines, collision detection and avoidance system, and system-level safety evaluation approach. Phase I will also include simulation testing and flight data collection with our partners at Olin College of Engineering.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Local ATC center for operation of mixed manned-unmanned teams in dynamic environments is of great interest for missions by the Department of Homeland Security, Border Patrol, and various law enforcement agencies. ON-DEMAND will also find applications in maritime surveillance, fire management, search and rescue, and disaster relief missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Immediate applications of the On-DEMAND technology are in the NASA UTM Program. However, due to its versatility, the proposed system is also applicable to other NASA programs focused on collaborative control of multiple UAS and manned-unmanned aircraft teaming architectures. Other applications of the ON-DEMAND system are envisioned in NASA Space Exploration Programs where there is a need for safe operation of multiple collaborating space vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Command & Control
Transport/Traffic Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A3.02-9118
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace Systems (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Machine Learning of Multi-Modal Influences on Airport Delays

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Innovation Laboratory, Inc.
2360 Southwest Chelmsford Avenue
Portland, OR
97201-2265
(503) 242-1761

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jimmy Krozel
Jimmy.Krozel@gmail.com
2360 SW Chelmsford Ave
portland,  OR 97201-2265
(503) 242-1761

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We build machine learning capabilities that enables improved prediction of off-block times and wheels up times which are critical inputs to NAS stakeholders. NextGen will rely on machine learning techniques utilizing all sources of useful information in order to improve predictive accuracy and reliability of flight operations in the NAS. These predictive capabilities will support real-time optimization of surface operations. We use machine learning to learn from historical data and similar situations in the past in order to optimize the performance of the NAS for the current situation. The proposed Multi-Level, Multi-View (MLMV) machine learning approach takes real-time weather, demand, and other data inputs (including landside data from TSA security line queues and traffic congestion levels on highways), searches through an archived set of historical data, identifies similar situations and NAS controls used in those situations, ranks historical situations according to their effectiveness, estimates a set of Traffic Management Initiatives (TMIs) and other control strategies impacting off-block-times and wheels up times.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The FAA Air Traffic Service Provider (ATSP) can use our SBIR technology for better control of airports in the NAS. A commercial product can be customized and implemented under contract to Airline Operations Centers (AOCs) for use by dispatchers and ATC coordinators. In such applications, when the ATSP is deciding on taking a certain TMI action, for instance, as discussed in a Collaborative Decision Making (CDM) telecom that occurs on a 2-hour basis, the AOC user can run forward in time through the remainder of the schedule for the day to see if delays will propagate, if weather impacts will cause cancellations or delays, or if crew curfew limits will be negatively affected. AOCs could use SMART NAS to make decisions about what is the best course of action in response to TMIs that could soon be implemented.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's Airspace Operations and Safety Program (AOSP) Shadow Mode Assessment Using Realistic Technologies for the National Airspace System (SMART-NAS) Project will benefit from machine learning. Additionally, NASA can use this technology in: Integrated Arrival/Departure/Surface Operations (IADS), Weather Integrated Decision Making (Wx Integration), Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA), and Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Processing
Knowledge Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A3.02-9829
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace Systems (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Predictor of Airport Runway Capacity (PARC)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Architecture Technology Corporation
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN
55344-3586
(952) 829-5864

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sebastian Timar
stimar@atcorp.com
1698 Dell Avenue
Campbell,  CA 95008-6901
(408) 627-2215

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Estimates of arrival and departure capacities of individual airport runways are used to predict occurrences of demand-capacity imbalance, and to meter arrivals and departures to balance runway demand with capacity. Inaccurate estimates incorrectly identify demand-capacity, imbalance time periods and metering solutions; resulting in underutilized runways or excessive traffic congestion. Accurate predictions enable maximizing airport and flight efficiency. The Predictor of Airport Runway Capacity (PARC) forecasts the future capacities of individual airport runways under specified operating conditions and a time horizon. PARC uses historical operations data to create and update statistical Bayesian network (BN) models of inter-aircraft spacing, accounting for influencing factors. The BN models are used in Monte-Carlo simulations of airport runway traffic to predict their arrival and departure capacities for the specified operating conditions and scheduled traffic. Traffic managers use PARC's capacity estimates to implement metering programs to efficiently balance runway demand with capacity. For example, forecast weather proximate to Charlotte-Douglas International Airport (CLT) will change the prevailing wind direction, ceiling, and Runway Visual Range (RVR), requiring changing the airport runway configuration from South Flow to North Flow and the operational flight rules from visual to marginal. Traffic planners want to know if these changes will cause excessive traffic congestion warranting implementation of a departure metering program. PARC determines that the number of scheduled departures will exceed capacity on runway 36C under the forecasted runway configuration, visibility, and traffic conditions. The traffic planners implement metering of runway 36C departures using PARC's runway capacity estimate. Because the estimated runway capacity is accurate, metering neither starves the runways of flights nor creates excessive runway departure queues.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The first application is to use these technologies to create standard products. PARC would become available to anyone wanting to predict runway capacity, including air Navigation Service Providers (ANSPs) and airport authorities around the world. For example, ANSPs could use PARC to support their traffic planning and management, and airport authorities could use PARC to estimate peak capacity for facility and operations planning. The second application is to license the technology. PARC would be made available to large system integrators/prime contractors providing ATM automation solutions. For instance, PARC could be licensed to Lockheed Martin for use with the Time Based Flow Management (TBFM) traffic metering automation or to the Tower Flight Data Management (TBFM) airport traffic planning and management system; or to Harris Orthogon for use with the OSYRIS Departure Manager (DMAN) departure metering automation. The third application is to retain the PARC technology and components, and to use them to provide analytical services to customers. The customer defines the problem or issue for which analysis is required, and ATCorp applies PARC or its components, and our professional services expertise, to analyze the problem and produce a report of the results. PARC would fit into this business model as an advanced tool augmenting existing analysis tools. For instance, PARC could be used to predict peak capacity of an airport for master planning.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
PARC supports NASA Airspace Technology Demonstration-2 (ATD-2) and FAA Surface Collaborative Decision Making (CDM) concepts of operations for maximizing the efficiency of airport departure and arrival traffic. PARC could be applied to the NASA ATD-2 integrated arrival-departure-surface traffic management tools for planning and management of airport departures and arrivals. Specifically, PARC could be used to provide accurate estimates of the individual arrival and departure capacities of the airport's runways. The estimates could be used to schedule airport takeoffs and landings to comply with the capacities, and to plan departure gate pushbacks accordingly; to guide airport ground controllers in clearing aircraft to enter the movement area, or to plan the use of holding areas on the airport surface. PARC could be applied to the FAA Surface CDM Concept of Operations. Specifically, PARC could support the airport traffic control tower, aircraft operators, the airport operator and other stakeholders in predicting demand-capacity imbalances under future operating conditions and plan traffic management strategies to mitigate the imbalance. The PARC-estimated capacity values could be used to plan departure metering programs, and to schedule movement area entry times for departures to balance demand with runway capacity.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Fusion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A3.03-8309
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Future Aviation Systems Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Detecting Anomalies by Fusing Voice and Operations Data

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robust Analytics
2053 Liza Way
Gambrills, MD
21054-2007
(410) 980-3667

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Peter Kostiuk
peter.kostiuk@robust-analytics.com
2053 Liza Way
Gambrills,  MD 21054-2007
(410) 980-3667

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Our innovation will detect, in near real-time, NAS operational anomalies by uniquely combing with analytical methods our existing Microsoft Azure based TFMData flight information warehouse, live Air Traffic Control (ATC)-Pilot voice communication records, and IBM Watson capabilities such as natural language processing. Implementation of our proposed capability will fill one of the gaps for monitoring and predictive safety tools in the terminal area. In the enroute domain, predictive metrics such as the Monitor Alert Parameter (MAP) and "going red" forecasts help traffic flow managers balance traffic and workloads, thereby increasing safety. However, this relies on the assumption that ATC-pilot communication is of superior quality, unambiguous, and strictly procedural. Also, pilots reacting to controller resolutions by changing the trajectory of the aircraft (either using lateral or vertical maneuvers) may react late, react wrongly, or not react at all. We aim to find these anomalies by correlating actual flight trajectory data and ATC voice communication data. While these anomalies could be precursors to unsafe events, we view them as indicators of inefficiencies in flight operations. Identifying these inefficiencies through innovative data mining methods can uncover unique and recurring problems that otherwise go undetected. Our concept will also provide better insight into the frequency and content of controller instructions and interventions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Operators and controllers report on recurring congestion in subsectors that cause inefficient deviations from planned routes. These inefficiencies do not typically get reported to the ATSCC and get de-conflicted in the planning process. Both the FAA and airlines would benefit from our system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
RSSA: We offer an innovative approach to detecting anomalies that will benefit the RSSA milestone for deploying real-time safety monitoring tools. TBO: Our concept offers a method for identifying recurring operational inefficiencies that reduce capacity and increase flight time and costs. Our method complements traditional airspace analyses by providing for real-time monitoring that compares what should happen to what does happen.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Data Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A3.03-8388
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Future Aviation Systems Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Cost, Low-Power Sensor For In-Flight Unsteady Aerodynamic Force and Moment Estimation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tao of Systems Integration, Inc.
1100 Exploration Way
Hampton, VA
23666-1339
(757) 220-5040

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arun Mangalam
arun@taosystem.com
1100 Exploration Way
Hampton,  VA 23666-1339
(757) 220-5040

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Tao Systems and University of Minnesota propose to develop a sensor system providing sectional aerodynamic forces and moments with fast response, low volume/size/power requirements for ease of installation, and minimal calibration requirements. Aviation loss of control (LOC) accidents often result from stall and uncertain weather/flow conditions, often at low altitudes e.g., take-off/landing. The sensor system: (1) uses a robust transduction mechanism, (2) has a one-time lifetime calibration requiring minimal maintenance, (3) provides monotonic output with speed and circulation, and is (4) relatively insensitive to environmental parameters such as flight altitude, pressure, temperature, and density. This technology provides real-time output for energy state awareness under both nominal and off-nominal flight conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ability to cruise efficiently at a range of altitudes, enabled by a substantial increase in cruise lift-to- drag (L/D) ratios over today's high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft, is vital, providing sustained presence and long range. Aerodynamic load/moment sensors would enable the efficient, robust active control of adaptive, lightweight wings to optimize lift distribution to maximize L/D. Cost-effectively improving the energy capture and reliability of wind turbines would help national renewable energy initiatives. A standalone aerodynamic load/moment sensor could provide output for control feedback to mitigate the turbine blade lifetime-limiting time varying loads generated by the ambient wind.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The benefits of a distributed aerodynamic force measurement system has a number of benefits: (1) addresses uncertainties in aerodynamics for safe envelope prediction, (2) increases controller robustness: reduces dependency on aerodynamic and structural uncertainties, (3) increases aerostructural efficiency, (4) enables mission persistence at a lower cost. For example, degradation due to atmospheric effects such as moisture and fatigue caused by constant wing stresses provides significant risk over the life of a HALE-type UAV, e.g., DARPA Vulture. Longevity of components is also a major technological risk. Using extremely high aspect ratios reduces drag. The system can utilize turbulence control for further aerodynamic efficiency.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A3.03-8644
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Future Aviation Systems Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Vision-Based Automation System for Safe and Efficient Taxi Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimal Synthesis, Inc.
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos, CA
94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Victor Cheng
vcheng@optisyn.com
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos,  CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In 2012 the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) issued safety recommendations to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), recommending certain anti-collision aids for large airplane models. These communications referenced investigations of accidents that occurred during taxi when a large airplane?s wingtip collided with another airplane or object on the taxiway. In all of the accidents referenced, the pilots of the large airplanes were either unable to determine or had difficulty determining the separation between the airplane?s wingtips and the other airplane or object while taxiing. Typically, pilots look out the cockpit window at the wingtips to determine wingtip path and clearance, but on large airplanes the pilot cannot see the airplane?s wingtips from the cockpit unless the pilot opens the cockpit window and extends his or her head out of the window, which is often impractical. Certain aircraft have cameras to aid taxi operations, but the cameras? view did not include the wing tips. NTSB recommended the installation of an anti-collision aid, such as a camera system, on all newly manufactured and newly type-certificated large airplanes, and existing large airplanes to be retrofitted with a similar anti-collision aid. In view of the recommended camera systems, additional automation is proposed that will take advantage of such sensors to further enhance the safety and efficiency of taxi operations, beyond that made possible by the sensors alone. The envisioned vision-based automation system will provide benefit in three applications: (i) to provide automated collision detection and avoidance for enhanced safety during taxi; (ii) to provide vision-based navigation for enhanced situation awareness during taxi operations; and (iii) to aid in autonomous taxi capabilities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In the near term, the envisioned technologies will improve safety during taxi operations, with collision detection and avoidance capabilities that will benefit manufacturers of large airplanes. In the U.S., these include primarily Boeing for commercial transport aircraft, joined by Lockheed Martin when military transports are considered. In the far term, the envisioned automation technologies provide additional navigation data based on recognition of airport signage and airfield features that will improve situation awareness of the flight crew. Another set of technologies will enable autonomous taxi operations to realize Trajectory-Based Operations (TBO). These automation technologies will be of interest to avionics manufacturers such as Honeywell and Rockwell Collins, and air carriers in general.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed vision-based automation system for taxi operations align with multiple strategic thrusts of the NASA Aeronautics Strategic Implementation Plan. For ARMD Strategic Thrust 1 on Safe, Efficient Growth in Global Operations, the proposed technology will contribute towards NextGen operational performance, surface operations to realize Trajectory-Based Operations (TBO), and autonomous trajectory services. For ARMD Strategic Thrust 5 on Real-time System-Wide Safety Assurance, the technology will contribute towards improved safety through real-time detection and alerting of hazards, and human-automation teaming for optimum threat management. Finally, for ARMD Strategic Thrust 6 on Assured Autonomy for Aviation Transformation, the automation technology will contribute towards the candidate mission products of autonomous airport surface operations, autonomy-enhanced vehicle safety, and fully autonomous transport aircraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Man-Machine Interaction
Perception/Vision
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Image Analysis
Image Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A3.03-8665
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Future Aviation Systems Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: HATIS: Human Autonomy Teaming Interface System for UTM Risks Management

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Human Automation Teaming Solutions, Inc.
20944 Sherman Way, Suite 211
Canoga Park, CA
91303-3643
(818) 912-6166

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Walter Johnson
walter.w.johnson@gmail.com
20944 SHERMAN WAY, SUITE 211
Canoga Park,  CA 91303-3643
(818) 912-6166

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Unmanned Traffic Management (UTM) is a key NASA initiative to integrate low altitude UAS into the national airspace system, and one of UTM key thrusts is to ensure safe usage of UAS. Technologies which can be used for real-time risk assessment of UAS flights are being developed by UTM Safety researchers, but there is currently no user interface to connect these technologies with the UTM managers and/or UAS operators. We propose to develop a human autonomy teaming interface system (HATIS) composed of tools, multimodal interfaces, and human-autonomy teaming software, which will permit human operators and UTM/UAS automation to collaborate in real-time risk management and mitigation (RMM). In Phase I, we will work collaboratively with UTM Safety researchers throughout the project to identify hazard categories; make assumptions about UTM RRM roles, responsibilities, and automation capabilities; develop representative use cases; formulate HATIS requirements for interface, software, and interoperability; design and document HATIS architecture; and demonstrate HATIS proof-of-concept through interactive wireframes of interfaces and presentation of software architecture. In Phase II, we will implement HATIS interfaces and software components, work with UTM Safety researchers to transition HATIS to NASA, and identify technology transition partners and develop a commercialization plan.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We envision that HATIS will be a great asset for a number of organizations. This first is companies that build UAS and avionics systems which will have a need for HATIS to do risk-evaluations and mitigation. The second is those (e.g., FAA) that have similar research interests to NASA in investigating the regulatory, liability, and socio-policy-economic implications of operating a large number of UAS. The third are companies that have developed UAS systems for package delivery or emergency response applications and UAS-based cargo companies. These companies will have a need to operate their UAS safely within the NAS. The fourth are military organizations that have made large investments in UAS technologies and deployed them in military missions. Their operational units and research labs are actively researching risks and autonomy issues, and will have need for a tool such as HATIS to conduct simulations for training or evaluations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We envision that HATIS will be broadly used and play a key role in all future NASA R&D projects that involve UTM safety and UAS and human autonomy teaming. HATIS will help provide NASA's UTM researchers, such as Dr. Belcastro's UTM Safety research, a human system interface to help visualize, test, and mature the technologies for the Real-time System-Wide Safety Assurance effort that develops risk assessment and mitigation methods for different levels of Autonomy and Authority, Hazard Sources and Risk/Safety Impact, and Application Domains (e.g., sUAS to mixed manned/unmanned operations) in a number of contexts, including UTM's Technology Capability Levels 3 and 4. Other NASA programs that can leverage HATIS capabilities include UAS-in -the-NAS project, which has a component that establishes minimum operational performance standards for risk management, and NASA's ongoing Strategic Thrust 6 (Assured Autonomy for Aviation Transformation), which involves R&D with multi-vehicle collaboration.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Intelligence
Man-Machine Interaction
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A3.03-8743
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Future Aviation Systems Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development and Assessment of Loss of Control Prevention Techniques

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Adaptive Aerospace Group, Inc.
100 Exploration Way, Suite 330
Hampton, VA
23666-6266
(757) 941-4921

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Keith Hoffler
khoffler@adaptiveaero.com
100 Exploration Way, Suite 330
Hampton,  VA 23666-6266
(757) 377-3247

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Our team proposes to develop an innovative Angle of Attack (AoA) system for General Aviation (GA) with the new ability to estimate flap position combined with our derived AoA algorithm yielding the correct AoA for the current aircraft configuration. The algorithm will be combined with cost-effective haptic feedback and a head-mounted display. The result provides a substantial improvement in alerting pilots that they are nearing stall conditions, addressing Loss of Control, which is recognized by the FAA and NTSB as the leading cause of fatal GA accidents. Current GA AoA systems are limited due to lack of flap position information, and their displays are not likely to capture a pilot's attention while maneuvering. Our cost-effective haptic feedback (similar to a 'stick shaker' which is known to be the most effective interface but not compatible with GA aircraft), and our head-mounted display are expected to capture the pilot's attention. AAG's experience in developing and flight testing AoA systems and our history of partnering with avionics manufacturers to develop and flight test commercial avionics systems, uniquely position us to successfully develop and commercialize this innovative AoA system. Our novel derived AoA algorithm has been tested in flight against other AoA systems under FAA and internal funding and shown to have good performance to near-stall conditions. Technical objectives for Phase I are to demonstrate technical feasibility of flap deflection estimation, cost effective haptic alerting in a typical GA cockpit, and cost-effective head-mounted display, and to create a prototype implementation of the integrated AoA system ready to flight test in Phase II. The Work Plan includes: development and evaluation of flap position estimation algorithm in simulation and flight; design, prototype development and inflight evaluation of haptic interface; simulation evaluation of AoA alerting on head-mounted display; and integration of components.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
AAG and our industry avionics contacts believe that there is tremendous commercial potential for our integrated AoA system for GA, which addresses the leading cause of fatal GA accidents, Loss of Control, and is a substantial improvement over the commercial systems that are now being developed. Our haptic feedback system could also be used to prevent Controlled Flight into Terrain. The development of a cost-effective head-mounted display suitable for GA opens the door to displaying PFD, navigation, hazard (traffic, terrain, etc.), and other information, including a simple attitude display to prevent a non-instrument pilot losing attitude awareness upon blundering into IMC.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed integrated AoA system addresses a key area within NASA's safety research, specifically "develop and demonstrate products to address technologies, simulation capabilities and procedures for reducing flight risk in areas of attitude and energy aircraft state awareness." Our proposed system advances the state of the art in detecting, predicting and preventing a major GA safety problem in real-time, loss of control due to aerodynamic stall. AAG's derived AoA algorithm, coupled with our proposed in-situ flap position estimation algorithm, can be used in concert with a sensed AoA system to provide redundant sources of AoA that are not dependent on the same set of sensors. Highly accurate and redundant AoA information is a key input for NASA's research in detecting and recovering from off-nominal states, including control upset prevention, resilient controls, envelope protection systems, and detecting and recovering from control surface position errors in future aircraft, whether the control surface failed or the sensor feeding back its position failed. Highly accurate AoA information as well as the haptic feedback and the head-mounted display can both be applied to enabling NASA's On-Demand Mobility research to move towards manned vehicles that may be operated by passengers who are not experienced pilots, significantly reducing accidents due to loss of control, loss of attitude awareness, and controlled flight into terrain.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Acoustic/Vibration
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Attitude Determination & Control
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
3D Imaging
Display


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 A3.03-9117
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Future Aviation Systems Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Turbulence Awareness via Real-Time Data Mining

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Innovation Laboratory, Inc.
2360 Southwest Chelmsford Avenue
Portland, OR
97201-2265
(503) 242-1761

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jimmy Krozel
Jimmy.Krozel@gmail.com
2360 SW Chelmsford Ave
portland,  OR 97201-2265
(503) 242-1761

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to create an automated, real-time, remote turbulence detection and diagnostics system for the National Airspace System (NAS). The system is remote in the sense that it does not mount any sensors onboard any aircraft, nor does it add any software to Flight Deck (FD) avionics systems. The system exploits data mining to search through thousands of aircraft surveillance measurements in real-time as aircraft fly in the NAS. We propose to use Automatic Dependent Surveillance ? Broadcast (ADS-B) information as the basis of atmospheric wave and turbulence detection, and combine this with satellite-based visual and infrared imagery to complete the diagnostics. We design the system to access a large network of ADS-B receivers across the NAS. Automated analysis of ADS-B aircraft altitude and velocity information is used to detect the presence of mountain waves and Mountain Wave Turbulence (MWT) in the vicinity of steep terrain as well as atmospheric waves and turbulence from other sources, for instance, Convective Induced Turbulence (CIT). When combined with other weather state information gained by in situ sensors, satellite, and radar-based technology in the NAS, our SBIR effort will allow for a total situational awareness of mountain wave, MWT, and CIT information in the Continental United States (CONUS). Because ADS-B is mandated by 2020, the percentage of aircraft using ADS-B will grow each year, and this in turn will benefit all who use our innovation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A commercial service can be customized for distributing data collected by our SBIR system for use by airline dispatchers and ATC coordinators, for instance, for flight planning and safety warnings. Key potential customers include all the commercial airlines, other smaller General Aviation (GA) and corporate flight departments, and service providers who market flight management services to corporate flight departments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our proposed SBIR product helps NASA researchers study technologies and concepts that enhance aviation safety. An example of this would be the identification and mitigation of moderate or severe mountain wave turbulence (MWT) or Convective Induced Turbulence (CIT) detected by our system, distributed to other aircraft via EFBs and PEDs, voice communication warnings, or other mechanisms to tactically adjust the flight levels of nearby aircraft prior to entering into an area of turbulence. NASA can investigate Route Availability (RA), Route Blockage (RB), and flight level congestion monitoring accordingly in NASA decision support tools.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Process Monitoring & Control
Data Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H1.01-9111
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mars Atmosphere Acquisition, Separation, and Conditioning for ISRU
PROPOSAL TITLE: ISRU CO2 Recovery

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 West 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge, CO
80033-1916
(303) 940-2347

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gokhan Alptekin
galptekin@tda.com
12345 West 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge,  CO 80033-1916
(303) 940-2349

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Human exploration of Mars and unmanned sample return missions can benefit greatly from the resources available on Mars. The first major step of any Mars in-situ propellant production system is the acquisition of carbon dioxide and its compression for further processing. TDA Research Inc. proposes to develop a compact, lightweight, advanced sorbent-based compressor to recover high-pressure, high purity CO2 from the Martian atmosphere. The system eliminates the need for a mechanical pump, increasing the reliability with relatively low power consumption. TDA?s system uses a new, high capacity sorbent that selectively adsorbs CO2 at 0.1 psia and regenerates by temperature swing, producing a continuous, high purity CO2 flow at pressure (> 15 psia). In the Phase I work, we successfully completed bench-scale proof-of-concept demonstrations, elevating the TRL to 3. In Phase II, we will further optimize the sorbent and scale-up its production using advanced manufacturing techniques such as continuous microwave synthesis. We will carry out multiple adsorption/desorption cycles to demonstrate the sorbent's cycle life. Finally, we will design and fabricate a sub-scale prototype to fully demonstrate the technology under simulated Martian atmospheres (TRL-5); this unit will be sent to NASA for further testing and evaluation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The sorbent developed in this project could potentially find use in a large commercial market in the removal of CO2 emissions from the coal- and natural gas-fired power plants. If regulations are put in place this market could develop in to billions of dollar. It is also applicable to CO2 removal from biogas, natural gas, and the water-gas-shift reaction in hydrogen manufacturing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The main attraction of our research to NASA is its ability to provide a lightweight, compact and energy efficient adsorbent based solid-state CO2 compressor system to collect and pressurize CO2 from the Martian atmosphere. The sorbent developed will also find application as a CO2 control system for commercial space craft cabin air revitalization and space suit.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Resource Extraction
In Situ Manufacturing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H1.01-9317
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mars Atmosphere Acquisition, Separation, and Conditioning for ISRU
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Capacity Multi-Stage Scroll Compressor for Mars Atmosphere Acquisition

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Air Squared, Inc.
510 Burbank Street
Broomfield, CO
80020-1604
(513) 200-3787

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Wilson
j.wilson@airsquared.com
510 Burbank St.
Broomfield,  CO 80020-1604
(303) 466-2669

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There are several ways to capture and pressurize CO2, including freezing at cryogenic temperatures, mechanical compression, and absorption. Completed studies on each approach, have generally favored cryogenic temperature and mechanical compression solutions. Recently, mechanical compression has gained momentum through the Mars Oxygen ISRU Experiment (MOXIE), which utilizes an Air Squared compressor for mechanical compression of CO2. If this approach is pursued further for a larger system, there are still several questions concerning reliability over 10,000 hours of autonomous operation in Mars environment and scalability. Air Squared plans on addressing these issues as part of Phase I. Air Squared proposes the development of a Multi-Stage Scroll Compressor (MSSC) that will be configured to support a store-and-utilize strategy (high pressure) or a collection-only strategy (high flow). If a store-and-utilize approach is required, the MSSC will be set up to pressurize the gas over the triple point (>77 PSIA), which provides the ability to liquefy CO2 downstream of the MSSC as it cools, while N2 and Ar remain a gas. If only collection is necessary, the MSSC will be configured to maximize flow at a pressure above 15 PSIA. There will be two ıtypesı of MSSCs pursued during the Phase I, an orbiting and spinning MSSC. The orbiting MSSC has the advantage of longer design heritage and lowers associated risk, as this scroll configuration is widely used at Air Squared and the compressor industry as a whole. The spinning MSSC has the advantage of achieving an aggressive size and weight target but has little design heritage. The orbiting MSSC and spinning MSSC both have substantial advancement over state of the art mechanical compression technologies, such as high-speed turbo-compressors. Size, weight, and power requirements are all reduced. Reliability is also improved, as both MSSCs operate at significantly lower speeds than turbo-compressors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Compared to state of the art positive displacement compressors and vacuum pumps, a spinning scroll compressor offers substantially reduced size and weight. Air Squared realized the potential benefit to the aerospace industry while developing a spinning scroll prototype to replace an existing Air Squared compressor used for the potable water system onboard the Airbus A380. While the prototype functionally operated and demonstrated the feasibility of spinning scroll technology, the prototype had reliability issues related to the outer bellows. The proposed spinning scroll MSSC mitigates this, by replacing the bellows with an internal coupling. If successful, the spinning scroll MSSC will provide a pathway for tailoring the technology to the additional compressor and vacuum pump applications in the commercial aerospace industry. Initial efforts will concern replacing existing orbiting scroll products currently used in aerospace applications, with reduced size and weight spinning scroll products. Air Squared will pursue additional applications after establishing flight heritage.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A key advantage of the proposed technology is scalability. The sizes identified for the MSSC concepts are inside the nominal pressure and flow spectrum for Air Squared scroll compressors and vacuum pumps. After the technology has matured, it can be modified to meet a broad range of size and pressure requirements, supporting additional Mars ISRU applications that require increased flow or pressure capacity. With NASA identifying Mars as the primary focus for human exploration programs, ISRU is a crucial component in enabling future exploration or even Mars colonization. ISRU includes the production of rocket propellant, oxygen, and other resources harvested from the Martian atmosphere. As the atmospheric pressure of Mars is approximately 1% of Earth's, acquisition and pressurization of the Martian atmosphere will be a critical component of ISRU, as well as applications with demanding size, weight, and power requirements.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Pressure & Vacuum Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H1.02-9600
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mars Soil Acquisition and Processing for In Situ Water
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Mars Water Acquisition System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pioneer Astronautics
11111 West 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood, CO
80215-5516
(303) 980-0890

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Berggren
mberggren@pioneerastro.com
11111 W. 8th Ave, Unit A
Lakewood,  CO 80215-5516
(303) 980-0231

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Advanced Mars Water Acquisition System (AMWAS) recovers and purifies water from Mars soils for oxygen and fuel production, life support, food production, and radiation shielding in support of human exploration missions. The AMWAS removes water from Mars soils using hot, recirculating carbon dioxide gas to provide rapid heat transfer. The AMWAS evaporates water from ice and salt hydrates, leaving dissolved contaminants in the soil residue. The water distilled from the extraction vessel is condensed, treated with activated carbon to remove residual volatiles and organic material, filtered to remove suspended solids, and subjected to deionization in preparation for proton exchange membrane electrolysis. Recuperative heat exchange is employed to minimize heat losses from recirculating carbon dioxide gas. Cold temperatures of the Mars atmosphere are used to facilitate condensation and separation of water from recycled carbon dioxide gas. A vacuum jacket is used to minimize heat losses from the extraction vessel. Much of the net heat input to the AMWAS can be supplied by solar concentrators or waste heat from radioisotope thermoelectric generators. The AMWAS vessel is equipped with a single, stationary seal that facilitates materials handling automation and minimizes potential leakage over the nominal operating period of up to 480 days.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The AMWAS could be implemented in arid terrestrial climates for recovery of water from soils. Even in the driest regions of Earth, the regolith is several times wetter than on Mars, and the AMWAS can operate efficiently under those conditions. Regions that are too far from the coastline to economically pipe water may be potential markets. Units sized for vehicles traveling in desert regions could reduce logistical requirements for the military and civilians operating in remote areas, since it is very lightweight, cheap, and portable. By enabling agriculture in arid areas the AMWAS could also support the production of renewable energy in the form of biofuels.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary application of AMWAS is for production of clean water from Mars soils for electrolysis, fuel and oxygen production, food production, and radiation shielding. The AMWAS can provide a reliable, low-cost, low-mass technology to produce water, hydrogen, and liquid oxygen on the surface of Mars out of indigenous materials at low power. The ability to extract water from Mars could also serve to supply the crew of Mars missions with water, which is the second most massive logistic component of a Mars mission. Smaller versions of the AMWAS could be used to help make the return propellant for a Mars sample return mission on the Martian surface, thereby making such a mission both cheaper to launch and much easier to land.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Resource Extraction
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H2.01-8820
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar Resources
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cuberover for Lunar Resource Site Evaluation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Astrobotic Technology, Inc.
2515 Liberty Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA
15222-4613
(412) 682-3282

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrew Horchler
Andrew.Horchler@astrobotic.com
2515 Liberty Avenue
Pittsburgh,  PA 15222-4613
(216) 272-3882

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovation is a Lunar CubeRover specialized as a 2 kg payload to evaluate lander ejecta and to characterize small-rover trafficability. This CubeRover and its roles are specific to the RFP though broadly more general and impactful for exploration enterprise. The proposal offers the prospect for standardization, democratization and broad applicability of CubeRover analogous to the way that CubeSats transformed the domain of Earth orbit and SmallSat enterprise. For the specific context of this proposal, CubeRover is specialized to address III-C-2 In-situ Lunar Surface Trafficability (topic III-C-2) and Descent Engine Blast Ejecta Phenomena (topic III-D-4).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A substantial commercial movement is evolving to layer robotics over hobby-grade remote control. This is a high demand for the automation capabilities that are proposed here using minimal assets like fixed monocular camera, limited computing and small-scale, low-powered platforms. The terrain modeling is highly relevant to non-NASA applications as encountered in nuclear waste cleanup,

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
CubeRover opens the prospect for a class of light, affordable, frequent and standardized planetary surface deployments. This is transformational in its own right.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H3.01-9384
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Habitat Outfitting
PROPOSAL TITLE: Expandable Habitat Outfit Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paragon Space Development Corporation
3481 East Michigan Street
Tucson, AZ
85714-2221
(520) 382-1723

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chad Bower
cbower@paragonsdc.com
3481 E Michigan Street
Tucson,  AZ 85714-2221
(520) 382-1705

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Topic H3.01 captures the need for robust, multipurpose deployable structures with high packing efficiencies for next generation orbital habitats. Multiple launch and payload providers have expressed interest in repurposing pressure vessels as on-orbit habitats and require outfitting for secondary structure, floors and dividers, ECLS ducting, thermal control accommodation, radiation shielding, wiring, lighting etc. to make the volume functional. The proposed innovation uses multi-functional, intelligent fabrics in a tensioned membrane architecture that can be deployed by means of (a) pressurized annulus envelope that when inflated, expands against the habitat hull to anchor the structure while (b) multipurpose telescoping tubes at the core of the habitat expand in the axial direction across the opposing bulkheads to index the annulus pressure vessels. Tensioned membrane structures exhibit the highest specific stiffness of any known structure and can produce significant weight savings over hybrid structural designs. Inflatable structures package well and can significantly reduce stowed volume requirements and dampen launch vibro-acoustics. An inflatable habitat structure can most effectively address packaging, deployment, damage tolerance, ease of repair and in-flight maintenance. With lightweight rigging, these secondary structures will be designed to be fully repositionable, creating a modular approach to habitat outfitting. The Paragon/TRLA team will develop a design that packages efficiently, deploys repeatability, and provides valuable capabilities including a.) minimum mass, design simplicity, minimal parts count, b.) a structure which folds efficiently deployment repeatability c.) secondary soft goods fabricated which are integrated during build-up yielding minimal ground handling loads, and d.) flooring, walls, ECLS air flow ducts, TCS fluid loops, lighting, electrical/data lines, and radiation protection structures all integrated in unison during buildup.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA application customers can include the Army and other DoD agencies in need of shelters. Other Non-NASA applications include: air bags, high altitude air ships, aerostats, compressed air energy storage, underwater habitats, underwater emergency escape systems (submarine), portable storage tanks for oil transport, remote fuel depot stations, remote water storage tanks for forest fire control, cargo lift balloons, large, deep space antenna reflector for ground stations, antenna radome, emergency shelters, and troop shelters with integrated ballistic protection.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The demand for space related habitats is starting to emerge. For example, the Inspiration Mars (IM) Foundation proposed a mission to Mars that included an inflatable habitat. Additionally, test flights to ISS have been proposed that deliver inflatable habitats for increased research space as well as for housing precursor tests for long-duration missions such as IM. The IM architecture study proposed a pre-flight experiment to the ISS that could use the proposed HOUSE solution for the pressure structure. Bigelow Aerospace, for which TRLA built the now-flying units in orbit, has staked the company?s future on the use of inflatable structures. The potential post applications of the proposed are targeted for manned habitats including lunar surface system habitats, airlocks and other crewed vessels. The NextSTEP program, which seeks commercial development of deep space exploration capabilities, will support more extensive human spaceflight. Under the NextSTEP program, NASA seeks to support human spaceflight missions to beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). Other potential post applications can range from NASA commercial applications including deployable antenna reflectors, solar collectors, solar sails, payload fairings, water storage tanks, cryogenic propellant tanks, greenhouse enclosures, debris shields, radiation shields, re-entry vehicles, large telescopes, propellant depots, rover vehicles, orbital debris removal systems, emergency escape vehicle (ISS), and Martian air ships.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Textiles
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Isolation/Protection/Radiation Shielding (see also Mechanical Systems)
Waste Storage/Treatment
Inventory Management/Warehousing
Material Handing & Packaging


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H3.01-9493
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Habitat Outfitting
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robotic Interface DogTags for Autonomous Habitat Outfitting and Logistics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Altius Space Machines, Inc.
3001 Industrial Lane, Unit #5
Broomfield, CO
80020-7153
(303) 438-7110

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jonathan Goff
jongoff@altius-space.com
3001 Industrial Lane, Unit #5
Broomfield,  CO 80020-7153
(801) 362-2310

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
One of the key elements of NASA's future human exploration plans is the development of human-tended deep space habitats. These may serve as habitats during transfer from Earth to a destination (the Moon, Mars, etc), or serve as periodically-inhabited orbital bases. For all of these deep-space habitats, especially ones left in orbit around a destination planet or Moon, astronaut time at the habitat will be both infrequent, and very valuable. As such it would be extremely desirable to develop ways to enable robots to outfit the habitat prior to human occupation, and to allow robots to perform maintenance and logistics tasks both when humans are present and when they are not. These robotic interaction aids ideally can serve three purposes: 1) helping robots determine their relative pose and position with respect to the target, and their relative location/pose inside or outside the habitat, 2) identifying what the objects are, especially if the objects are mobile like soft-goods bags, and 3) simplifying physical interactions with the object, including anchoring to and manipulating the object. To enable these types of robotic interactions, Altius proposes the development of a lightweight, low-cost, passive "DogTag" robotic interface that can be attached to various habitat structures and objects. The DogTag interface includes: 1) a thin (<0.4mm) ferromagnetic material layer that allows robots with magnetic grippers to stick to the DogTag, 2) a printed on long-range optical fiducial on the DogTag face for allowing the robot to determine relative pose and position of the object even from across a large habitat, 3) an identification code and possibly RFID tag for identifying the object, also on the DogTag face, and 4) methods for attaching the DogTag to the desired object. During Phase I, Altius and team will define requirements, develop and test the optical fiducials and identification codes, and develop conceptual DogTag designs and prototypes, raising the TRL from 2 to 3.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The key non-NASA applications of this robotic interface are: 1) robotic navigation and capture interfaces for robotic outfitting, maintenance, and logistics support for commercial human-tended space facilities, 2) lightweight robotic interface tags for drone package delivery systems, 3) lightweight robotic navigation and capture interfaces for cooperative satellite servicing, 4) robotic navigation and capture interfaces for megaconstellation satellites to interface with the magnetic grippers, and 5) robotic navigation and capture interfaces for upper stage capture for on-orbit refueling of upper stages.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The key NASA applications for this robotic interface include: 1) enabling robotic outfitting of orbital habitats and related maintenance and logistics tasks by providing lightweight robotic navigation and capture interfaces that can be easily integrated into habitat structures, tools, and soft-goods bags, 2) robotic navigation and capture interfaces enabling free-flying robots to assist astronauts on EVA missions, 3) lightweight robotic navigation and capture interfaces for cooperative satellite servicing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Tools/EVA Tools
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Attitude Determination & Control
Superconductance/Magnetics
Image Processing
Data Processing
Inventory Management/Warehousing
Material Handing & Packaging


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H3.02-8895
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring for Spacecraft Cabins
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hydrazine Monitoring Technology for Spacecraft Cabin

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mesa Photonics, LLC
1550 Pacheco Street
Santa Fe, NM
87505-3914
(505) 216-5015

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrei Vakhtin
avakhtin@mesaphotonics.com
1550 Pacheco Street
Santa Fe,  NM 87505-3914
(505) 216-5015

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project will develop an innovative, fast, sensitive and selective hydrazine measurement technology specifically designed for spacecraft cabin monitoring applications. The target instrument will be compact, robust and low-power with battery-powered option. The target hydrazine limit of detection is < 1 ppm, time response 30 s or better. The Phase I project will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed hydrazine measurement approach and will yield benchtop technology ready for transition to a compact standalone prototype in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercialization of the proposed technology will result in a hydrazine sensor that will combine high performance characteristics, small footprint and relatively low price. Hydrazine is a common propellant used in missile systems; therefore, DOD is expected to be interested in this technology. In industry, hydrazine is used as a precursor to blowing agents, gas-forming compounds for air bags and also several pharmaceuticals and pesticides. Maintaining safe levels of hydrazine requires fast and sensitive hydrazine monitoring technology, which creates a high commercial potential for this technology as an industrial hydrazine monitoring application.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Hydrazine, its derivatives and their mixtures are used as propellants in nearly every spacecraft's thrusters, orbital maneuvering systems and auxiliary power units. The problem with hydrazine is that it is extremely toxic and corrosive. Hydrazine contamination of the spacecraft cabin may occur as a result of exposure of astronauts to hydrazine residuals or leaks during extravehicular activity operations. By providing sensitive and selective continuous hydrazine monitoring in a compact lightweight package the proposed technology will significantly enhance the safety of the International Space Station and future NASA missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Infrared
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Space Transportation & Safety


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H3.02-9356
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring for Spacecraft Cabins
PROPOSAL TITLE: A 3D Printer Enabled, High Performing, Microgravity Compatible, and Versatile Sample Preparation Platform

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AI Biosciences, Inc.
1902 Pinon Drive, Suite C
College Station, TX
77845-5816
(979) 268-1091

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Season Wong
season.wong@aibiosciences.com
1902 Pinon Dr, STE C
COLLEGE STATION,  TX 77845-5816
(979) 268-1091

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
AI Biosciences proposes to demonstrate the ability of a microgravity-compatible, compact, light-weight, and automated versatile sample preparation platform (VSPP) that processes samples from various sample matrices (swab, potable water, blood, urine, etc.) to yield high quality nucleic acids for downstream molecular detection and identification in a closed-cartridge system. Its primary function will enable NASA to rapidly identify microorganisms that could affect crew safety. This near-term deployable cartridge and platform system also has the option to perform isothermal and PCR amplification of nucleic acids. This highly flexible system will allow previously complicated, labor-intensive, and time consuming processes to be carried out by a turn-key and closed system using pre-filled cartridges. We have demonstrated on the ground in a laboratory setting that the entire setup for high quality DNA/RNA extraction from urine, whole blood, serum, and saliva can be achieved via simple and reversible retrofitting of a low-cost fused deposition modeling (FDM) based 3D printers ranging from $199 to $750. The VSPP can also be used to capture and purify cell and protein targets. The ability of having a dual-use 3D printer in-flight to carry out sample preparation and additive manufacturing in-flight can be an attractive option in long duration space flights.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
With advances in molecular diagnostics, life science, and forensics, there will be a vast increase in demand for instrumentation that can handle automated sample preparation in a closed format to eliminate cross-contamination. According to a recent report by Markets and Markets, the global nucleic acid isolation and purification market is expected to reach $3.8 billion USD by 2020. Increasing healthcare expenditure will aid the growth of the nucleic acid isolation and purification market. Our unit also has the capability to carry out molecular detection by isothermal amplification. We see it as a great opportunity to offer at-home healthcare diagnostics. Other applications of this VSPP include environmental monitoring, agriculture, and food production safety.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ability to carry out sample preparation in microgravity using a small footprint, versatile device and extensible cartridges in an enclosed format will introduce the ability to carry out sample preparation for molecular biology tests from a variety of sample matrices (cell culture, plant tissue, blood, swab, etc.). The unit can also be easily coupled with suitable downstream detection modules to expand its capabilities to include processes such as PCR, isothermal amplification, and sequencing. With the development of proper assays, new applications can be extended to include microbial detection in advanced life support systems, in-vitro testing for infectious diseases during space flight, gene expression analysis for radiation exposure monitoring/studies, and effect of space flight on microbial gene expression and virulence. These processes can be completed inside the Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG) or disposable glove bag to minimize sample transfer or contamination concerns. By offering a medium throughput sample preparation platform, our VSPP unit will enable researchers and companies to carry out in-situ life sciences research inside the ISS with near real-time result capability when coupled with appropriate detection systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Medical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H3.02-9523
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring for Spacecraft Cabins
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wearable Personal Hydrazine Monitoring System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Warner Babcock Institute for Green Chemistry
100 Research Drive
Wilmington, MA
01887-4460
(978) 229-5400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Warner
grantsofficial@warnerbabcock.com
100 Research Dr
Wilmington,  MA 01887-4460
(978) 229-5420

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a rapid, high sensitivity, personal monitoring device for hydrazine that is based upon the Surface Triggering of Propagated Crystal Lattice Destabilization (STPCLD) phenomenon. This represents a novel approach to rapid, high sensitivity sensors and is based upon noncovalent derivatization (NCD). The sensor will consist of a two-dimensional cocrystal film of a hydrazine-interacting molecule and a color-forming molecule. When bound within the crystal, the color-former is not colored, but when the crystal liquefies, the color-former takes on color. The uncolored crystal is maintained just below its phase transition temperature. When hydrazine interacts with one of the hydrazine-interacting molecules, it causes a defect in the two-dimensional lattice. Because the composition is chosen near the crystal melting temperature, the crystal is entropically poised to melt. A local liquefication occurs, which spreads rapidly along crystal dislocations. The specific objectives are: 1. To synthesize and prepare a set of bis-phthalimide derivatives for testing as hydrazine-interactive substrates. 2. To test the set of bis-phthalimide derivatives as hydrazine-interactive substrates for hydrazine induced melting. a. To determine the best substrate. b. To determine the ideal operating temperature. c. To determine the sensitivity to hydrazine and ammonia. 3. To design Phase II configuration.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Hydrazine monitoring is a very significant problem faced by US industries. The US industrial hydrazine market size was $355.7 million in 2015 and is growing at a CAGR of 4.9%. Globally, the hydrazine market is forecasted to reach $547 million by 2024. According to the Royal Chemical Society, there are ~ 100 million Kg of hydrazine produced per year worldwide. In the United States, the CDC has identified 45 chemical companies that manufacture or process significant amounts of hydrazine. Thus, there is a very significant market for hydrazine monitoring to protect the safety of personnel.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
WBI's hydrazine monitoring system is designed to meet NASA's mission goal for Environmental Monitoring, particularly for occupants of the ISS and subsequent extended space missions as well as during fueling. Our system is designed to meet the requirements of: requiring no ground analysis, limited crew time, miniaturization, low power consumption, no need for calibration. Because of the nature of the sensing element, replacement is only necessary when an adverse hydrazine event occurs. The proposed device will provide a significantly more rapid warning of potential hydrazine danger than existing systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Space Transportation & Safety
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H3.02-9612
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring for Spacecraft Cabins
PROPOSAL TITLE: Micro-Electro-Analytical Sensor for Sensitive, Selective and Rapid Monitoring of Hydrazine in the Presence of Ammonia

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innosense, LLC
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance, CA
90505-5245
(310) 530-2011

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Maksudul Alam
maksudul.alam-1@innosense.us
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance,  CA 90505-5245
(310) 530-2011

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Hydrazine, a volatile and flammable colorless liquid, is classified as a carcinogen by the US Environmental Protection Agency. It can cause chromosome aberrations and negatively affect the lungs, liver, spleen, thyroid gland, and central nervous system. NASA's existing hydrazine measurement technology is sensitive, selective and reliable, but it takes 15 minutes to collect and analyze a sample. For future missions beyond Low Earth Orbit, NASA will need a measurement system that responds within 30 seconds without any performance limitations such as lack of specificity and maintenance challenges. To address NASA needs, InnoSense LLC (ISL) proposes to develop micro-electro-analytical sensor for rapid monitoring of hydrazine (Micro-Zin) in the presence of ammonia in spacecraft cabin atmosphere (SCA) for long-term performance without maintenance. Micro-Zin builds on ISL's nanomaterial-based sensor technology and electronic data processing systems. In Phase I, ISL will design and fabricate a Micro-Zin working model. To establish feasibility, we will characterize Micro-Zin's sensitivity, selectivity, response time, and reliability. In Phase II, we will optimize sensor performance with an appropriate prototype.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Micro-Zin will find applications in the commercial space industry (including SpaceX, Blue Origin and Orbital ATK), missile defense, the toxic chemical process control industries, environmental/EPA regulatory compliance and biomedical sensor areas. Micro-Zin is an adaptable platform and it can be modified to address point-of care diagnostics. A modification of the sensing element will allow development of highly sensitive and selective biosensors for monitoring disease biomarkers, making the medical market the largest transition opportunity. This market demands high performance, low life-cycle cost and low-power consumption. The global nanomedicine market was $212B in 2015 and could reach $1.3T by 2025.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Micro-Zin is designed for rapid monitoring of hydrazine for measurements of spacecraft cabin atmosphere to identify and minimize the risks to crew health during Exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). Micro-Zin will offer sensitive, selective and reliable detection of hydrazine with quick response time (T90 &#8804;30 seconds) in the presence of confounding background gas ammonia (50 ppm) in spacecraft cabin atmosphere. Micro-Zin will be compact (device volume ~480 cubic centimeters) and lightweight to accommodate NASA's mass and volume constraints. One or more of these miniature Micro-Zins can be placed within the crew cabin, thereby supporting crew health and wellbeing for future space missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Nanomaterials
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H3.02-9639
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring for Spacecraft Cabins
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact Chemical Monitor for Silver Ions in Spacecraft Water Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 West 237th Street
Torrance, CA
90505-5217
(424) 263-6300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Berry
davidb@intopsys.com
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance,  CA 90505-5217
(424) 263-6328

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has identified silver ions as the best candidate biocide for use in the potable water system on next-generation spacecraft. Though significant work has been conducted to develop systems for controlled release silver ions in the water systems, there is no sensor for continuous in-line monitoring of the concentration of silver in the water used by the crew, nor a reliable device to analyze silver in space. Intelligent Optical Systems plans to develop a luminescent indicator-based optical sensor probe to monitor silver concentration directly in spacecraft water systems in real time. The proposed sensor will be based on a technology recently demonstrated by IOS for monitoring wastewater in space systems, in which a specific indicator dye is copolymerized with a stable polymer matrix, resulting in highly sensitive and stable sensor elements. The capability of indicator-doped polymer matrixes to detect silver in the ISS has been demonstrated by NASA and its partners, but further development is required to achieve in-line stand-alone monitoring. Our monitor will incorporate robust sensor elements, interrogated via a compact, low-power optoelectronic unit. The proposed sensor elements will be remotely connected to the electronic circuitry by an electromagnetic interference (EMI)-proof optical fiber cable, allowing flexibility in placing the sensor system, where space is highly valuable. In Phase I we will develop novel sensor elements for silver, and will demonstrate sensitivity, measurements range, and stability. In Phase II, in collaboration with UTC, we will produce prototypes for integration into the ISS Potable Water Systems, and conduct extensive testing under simulated environmental conditions, culminating in delivery to NASA of a monitoring system, bringing the monitor to TRL 7.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The antimicrobial coatings market is expected to grow to $4 billion by 2021, with silver being the leading antimicrobial agent. Key segments include the medical and healthcare industry and the indoor air/HVAC industry. The forecasted growth in the antimicrobial coatings industry will be accompanied by an increased demand for technologies to properly monitor and assess antimicrobials such as silver to ensure their efficacy. Silver-based antimicrobial materials for medical applications are gaining share in that market niche. Fiber optic sensors have significant advantages for biomedical monitoring, and IOS has already transitioned its sensor technology initially developed for space applications to blood and tissue chemical monitoring.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Effective use of biocides to assure the quality of potable water is essential for the success and sustainability of manned space missions. The proposed sensor probe responds directly to a NASA need for in-line silver monitoring in spacecraft. Successful development of a compact, low power, fully automated multisensor probe for silver ions will give NASA a powerful tool to maintain water quality in the potable water systems. Real-time knowledge of silver concentration will lead to optimal water disinfection aboard the ISS, and on other manned space missions. Sensors capable of monitoring organic, inorganic, and trace contaminants in water under microgravity could make use of the same sensing technology and optoelectronic unit, expanding the capability of the monitor for silver, and monitoring water quality in all other water streams aboard the ISS.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Remediation/Purification
Waste Storage/Treatment


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H3.03-9108
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Control and Life Support
PROPOSAL TITLE: Spacecraft Cabin Air CO2 Recovery

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 West 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge, CO
80033-1916
(303) 940-2347

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gokhan Alptekin
galptekin@tda.com
12345 West 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge,  CO 80033-1916
(303) 940-2349

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An advanced Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for long duration manned space missions ?such as planetary flight missions or planetary bases- requires an almost complete closure of all relevant material loops. Energy efficient carbon dioxide (CO2) removal and reduction systems are critical to reducing the power consumption of the spacecraft atmosphere revitalization systems. TDA proposes to develop a rapidly cycling vacuum-assisted thermal swing adsorption (VTSA) system to remove CO2 from cabin air and concentrate it for subsequent reduction and pressurization. Our unique sorbent exhibits one of the highest capacities reported for CO2 adsorption at very low CO2 partial pressures (1-3 torr CO2 partial pressure range). The low heat of adsorption of CO2 on the sorbent and the relatively low heat input needed to desorb the CO2 across a small temperature differential during regeneration will reduce the power requirement for the process. The new material is also highly tolerant to moisture. In Phase I, we will prepare the sorbent and demonstrate its ability in selectively removing CO2 from air under representative conditions. The technology readiness level (TRL) will be elevated to 3 at the end of Phase I. We will also complete the detailed design of the VTSA reactor. In Phase II, we will build a high fidelity prototype assembly and demonstrate the concept at full-scale, elevating the TRL to 5.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA and military (i.e., the submarines), we believe the new CO2 control system can find applications in commercial aerospace applications (a vacuum swing sorbent will eliminate the engine air intake to control the CO2 levels in commercial airliners) and shelters (e.g., mine rescue shelters). There is also potentially a very large market exist for CO2 capture if regulations put in place to capture carbon emissions from power plant and industrial sources.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
If successful, the sorbents developed in this project will find immediate use in NASA life support applications. Reducing the weight and volume of the sub-components of the spacecraft atmosphere restoration system is of critical importance to NASA particularly for next generation planetary exploration missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Prototyping


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H3.03-9217
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Control and Life Support
PROPOSAL TITLE: Solid State Oxygen Concentrator and Compressor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sustainable Innovations, LLC
111 Roberts Street, Suite J
East Hartford, CT
06108-3653
(860) 652-9690

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Trent Molter
trent.molter@sustainableinnov.com
111 Roberts Street, Suite J
East Hartford,  CT 06108-3653
(860) 652-9690

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Sustainable Innovations has developed a novel solid state technology for gas separation and will be applying it for the first time to meet a critical life support function: to develop an oxygen concentration module that minimize the hardware mass, volume, and power footprint while still performing at the required NASA capabilities. The Sustainable Innovations Oxygen Concentration Module is an extension of our proven H2 concentration, generation and compression technology that we are currently developing for NASA applications, including several configurations specifically designed for operation in Zero Gravity. This cell hardware has been demonstrated in mock zero and negative gravity on the bench-top and is currently being scaled for greater throughput applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Government- Other applications of oxygen capture and compression technology include military uses. The U.S. Department of Energy and Department of Defense may be interested in the development of this technology for military operations as an aircraft on board oxygen generation system, capable of providing breathing oxygen for the crew. Commercial Aircraft- Sustainable Innovations' Solid State Oxygen Concentrator has the potential to become a cost efficient platform for the onboard generation of oxygen in commercial aircraft. The system will be capable of recycling breathing oxygen from the on board atmosphere and providing supplemental oxygen for passengers during emergency descent. Medical Oxygen-Current medical oxygen markets are moving to become less reliant on bulky, stationary oxygen concentrator systems. Sustainable Innovations' Solid State Oxygen Concentrator will serve as a low cost, efficient, and portable oxygen generation system for use in medical practices and private homes.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Sustainable Innovations Solid State Oxygen Concentrator and Compressor will concentrate the oxygen within the cabin environment and provide the required concentration of oxygen to the crew members. Sustainable Innovations' electrochemical cell technology will separate pure oxygen from dilute, mixed gas streams. In addition, the Solid State Oxygen Concentrator and Compressor system has the potential to replenish the secondary oxygen pack (SOP) used by astronauts during extravehicular activity (EVAs) should the primary and backup systems fail. The SOP only contains 1.2 kilograms of oxygen, enough to sustain an astronaut for approximately thirty minutes. By replenishing the SOP with recycled oxygen, Sustainable Innovations'electrochemical cell design could give astronauts on EVAs additional time to reach the airlock of their orbiter.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H3.03-9928
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Control and Life Support
PROPOSAL TITLE: Regenerable Carbon Filter

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
UMPQUA Research Company
P.O. Box 609
Myrtle Creek, OR
97457-0102
(541) 863-7770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Wheeler
rwheeler@urcmail.net
P.O. Box 609
Myrtle Creek,  OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-2661

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A Regenerable Carbon Filter (RCF) is proposed for the removal of carbonaceous particulate matter produced in Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) processes. Successful development of this technology will result in a device that effectively collects ultrafine carbon particles in a high density, high storage capacity volume which is subsequently regenerated in-situ using self-cleaning techniques. Various reactors considered for use in air revitalization in NASA's exploration life support closed habitat mission concepts result in the generation of solid carbon compounds as byproducts. These include the Carbon Formation Reactor (CFR) within a Bosch-type carbon dioxide reduction system and, what the proposed RCF technology specifically addresses, the methane Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) within a Sabatier-type carbon dioxide reduction system. Capture and disposal of this carbon material in a manner that eliminates crew handling while maximizing equipment operating capacity and lifetime is of paramount importance within manned space habitats that rely upon these processes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Gas filtration is an important step in many industrial processes and as such the proposed RCF technology may find application in such instances where low residual carbon is produced as a problematic byproduct requiring removal. In addition, completely analogous to NASA's application, is the employment of an RCF aboard commercial crewed space platforms.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA application will be as Flight Hardware for deployment in support of future manned missions. Regenerable filtration of carbonaceous particulates from gas steams produced within closed habitation ECLS system hardware is needed to maximize equipment operating capacities and extend mission timelines. Ideally the fully developed technology will be acquired as Flight Hardware by NASA, resulting in enhanced capability during crewed deep space exploration.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Remediation/Purification


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H3.04-8930
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Logistics Reduction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Innovative Laundering and Sanitization System to Extend Duration of Crew Clothing Wear

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zono Services, LLC
401 Indusrtrial Park Drive
Lawrenceville, GA
30046-6746
(770) 212-9201

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Walter Mann
walter@zonoservices.com
401 Indusrtrial Park Dr
Lawrenceville,  GA 30046-6746
(404) 394-2232

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovation will refresh crew clothing to extend the duration of wear. It is a collapsible or portable light-weight cleaning sanitizing and deodorizing system using ozone and water vapor to: (1) remove the combined contamination from perspiration salts, organics, dander, and dust; (2) kill 99.9% of common bacteria and viruses; and (3) reduce or eliminate associated odors. The system will address the issue of using liquid water in microgravity by treating the fabric while it is flat using water vapor which acts like a gas. The vapor which may or may not be steam will be attenuated by using movable nozzles that will allow it to be directed on all areas of the fabric. The movable nozzles will replace the random tumbling of items inside of a conventional washing machine which is state of the art in industry and ensure that all areas of the fabric are treated. The significance of the innovation is that a vapor based portable light-weight cleaning sanitizing and deodorizing system will: (1) allow more available payload capacity by the weight reduction associated with reduced water usage and clothing inventories; (2) reduce laundry based water and consumable usage to less than 200g of water and less than 10g of consumables per kg of clothing washed; (3) reduce the use of power for laundry usage; (4) require no attention from the astronauts during the cycle; (5) decrease or eliminate odor from crew wear by sanitizing (99.9% kill of bacteria); (6) reduce disease transmission and odor of other materials like the TEVIS harness; (7) fight potential infection; (8) and reduce the inventory of garments needed by reducing the need for frequent change.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Disaster remediation (especially in areas with limited access to sanitary water). Medical environment treatment Armed forces and law enforcement support deployed armed forces also have similar concerns about odor, sanitization, infection and the availability of water and cost of transport.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA commercial applications include, sanitization and laundering of clothing and non clothing materials with low use of water and consumable chemicals.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Remediation/Purification


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H3.04-9315
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Logistics Reduction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Vapor Compression Refrigeration System for Cold Storage on Spacecrafts

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Air Squared, Inc.
510 Burbank Street
Broomfield, CO
80020-1604
(513) 200-3787

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kunal Bansal
k.bansal@airsquared.com
510 Burbank St.
Broomfield,  CO 80020-1604
(303) 466-2669

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is looking for a high efficiency long term food storage system for space crafts. Previous refrigerator/freezer systems developed for this application such as ISS RFR, use thermoelectric thermal control system with overall system COP around 0.36 in freezer mode. Terrestrial cold food storage systems however, utilize a much more efficient vapor compression thermal control systems, making the systems lighter and more compact. Currently, these systems do not have provisions for the load and reliability requirements of space applications, and are also not designed for microgravity operation. To achieve NASA's targets, Air Squared is proposing to develop a scroll driven vapor compression refrigerator/freezer system. It's a highly efficient (COP ~ 3.5), lightweight (secondary mass penalty of <0.2 kg) and reliable (oil free & fewer rotating parts) standalone system. Similar to conventional systems, this vapor compression system will include four major components: compressor, condenser, expansion device and evaporator. There are four significant innovations in the vapor compression cycle. For expansion work recovery, a scroll expander will be used to recover power from the expansion process to improve the system performance (Innovation 1). The Air Squared compressor and expander will integrate two stages on either side of the orbiting scroll, to increase the total pressure ratio (Innovation 2), this enhances the performance, without increasing the size or weight of the scroll devices. In order to further reduce the size and weight, both the compressor and expander will be integrated into one hermetic shell with both units driven off a common shaft on either side of the motor (Innovation 3). And last, both the compressor and expander will operate oil-free (Innovation 4). This will remove the cycles operational reliance on gravity while keeping the design compact & lightweight at higher efficiencies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed vapor compression system has the ability to dramatically influence the refrigeration market. Use of a natural refrigerant such as isopentane and high efficiency scroll machinery makes it environmentally friendly and more efficient. Additionally, use of oil free technology reduces the need of oil separation componentry in the vapor compression systems, thereby reducing cost and complexity. Reliable and efficient oil free cooling/heating systems have substantial potential for both terrestrial and aerospace applications where efficiency and operational cost are critical.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed vapor compression cycle has several key innovations which can be applied to thermal systems outside of the proposed cold food storage. The following are potential applications of the innovations: Refrigeration System - The proposed refrigeration system will enable a reliable and efficient cold food refrigerator or freezer for spacecraft application. Waste Heat Rejection Heat Pump - The proposed refrigeration system approach can be modified to enable reliable and efficient heat rejection and therefore precise thermal control for spacecrafts operating at high ambient temperature locations. Environment Control Heat Pump - NASA's crewed spacecrafts also require thermal controls systems for the pressurized cabins in order to provide and maintain a livable environment. While systems developed for cold food storage will most likely yield a smaller system than thermal control of crew accommodations, these systems can be easily scaled for larger heat loads in the case of heat pumping for cabins. Regardless of whether it's for thermal management at an electronics component level, cabin atmosphere level, or food storage level, a compact, lightweight, reliable and efficient vapor compression system for heat refrigeration can be applied in a variety of ways.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Active Systems
Food (Preservation, Packaging, Preparation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H4.01-8870
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Damage Tolerant Lightweight Pressure Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Impact-Resistant, Damage-Tolerant Composites with STF Energy Absorbing Layers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
STF Technologies, LLC
58 Darien Road
Newark, DE
19711-2024
(716) 799-5935

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Dombrowski
rddombrowski@stf-technologies.com
58 Darien Road
Newark,  DE 19711-2024
(716) 799-5935

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose an innovative hybrid composite that combines the smart energy-absorbing shear thickening fluids (STF) with validated hard upper torso composite materials to create new STF composite structures with superior impact and damage resistance and self-healing functionality. The proposed innovation directly addresses the subtopic H04.01 need for thin, lightweight composite materials that can be fabricated in complex geometries. STFs are currently being developed by NASA and STF Technologies LLC for use in enhanced puncture and MMOD protective softgoods to improve astronaut survivability. Here, we propose to exploit the unique energy-absorbing properties of shear thickening fluids and prior work by the team, which developed advanced energy absorbing STF materials for sports and military applications, to meet the challenge metrics of a pressure structure composite capable of withstanding 300J of energy in low velocity impact with a structural density of 1.7 g/cm3 or less and thickness of 0.125" or less. The proposed work will combine experiments and modeling to determine the optimal integration of STF with the current best composite materials in the Z-2 suit prototype. The project will leverage the Z-2 suit specific expertise of our partners at UD's Center for Composite Materials (UD-CCM) to develop and test concepts and advance the TRL of new lightweight, damage-tolerant and potentially self-healing hybrid composites. The conformable nature of the STF is amenable to fabrication of complex curved geometries, while the flowable STF within the hybrid laminate can offer healing and leak mitigation after damage. Rapid prototyping, downselection, and validation will be performed in collaboration with UD-CCM, commercialization partners, and NASA scientists and engineers through a combined computational/experimental program with feedback refinement that exploits the unique expertise of all teams.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The growing market for carbon fiber and fiberglass composites represents a substantial market opportunity for STF composite materials offering improved impact resistance and damage tolerance. The overall glass fiber reinforced panel market is expected to grow to $84 billion globally by 2026 (MarketsAndMarkets, 2015). The carbon fiber reinforced composite market is projected at $20 billion+ in 2024 (Sinha, 2016). Applications include: 1.Automotive: an all composite B-pillar was recently demonstrated by researchers at UD CCM under a collaboration with BMW. Carbon fiber composites are also seeing increased demand in automotive due to the desire for increased fuel economy and growing demand for electric vehicles. 2.Storage tanks for water, chemical process, oil and gas industries 3.Marine 4.Aerospace 5.Consumer sporting goods -a $2.6 billion dollar market (Grand View Research, 2016) for reinforced composites that includes a number of products that can potentially benefit from improved impact and damage tolerance, such as skis, snowboards, surfboards, bicycle frames, tennis rackets, hockey and lacrosse sticks, helmets, and protective equipment 6.Power generation - increasing demand for wind turbine blades is major driver of growth in the fiberglass and carbon fiber reinforced composite market. Composite materials with damage tolerance and tunable damping properties have applications in large- and small-scale generation infrastructure. 7.Construction and building materials

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed advanced hybrid STF composites are of value for a range of space and ground-based applications. NASA commercial applications of the STF composites include use in the hard upper torso (HUT) of advanced exploration suits. Impact-resistant, damage-tolerant STF hybrid composite materials are directly applicable to the development of a planetary exploration suit (Z-2) that can withstand a variety of operational mishaps, including falling onto rocks or other accidental impact. Additional NASA applications could include use as advanced composites to improve the durability and damage tolerance of storage tanks on vehicles or surface habitats, vehicle components, helmets, or other hard components that can benefit from the combination of lightweight, impact-resistance with the potential leak mitigation mode provided by STF.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Fluids
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Structures
Destructive Testing
Simulation & Modeling
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H4.01-8991
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Damage Tolerant Lightweight Pressure Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Damage Tolerant Composite Systems for Spacesuits

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Maher & Associates, LLC
2908 Sylvan Avenue
Baltimore, MD
21214-1248
(410) 591-0162

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Maher
mick@maher-associates.com
2908 Sylvan Avenue
Baltimore,  MD 21214-1248
(410) 591-0162

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The project goal is to increase impact resistance compared to the baseline laminate used in Z-2 test article from 100 J to 300 J. After impact, the laminate has to have an operational loads. It is also desirable to make improvements in the efficiency and quality of the manufacture of suit components. Two high-level approaches are being proposed to inhibit post-impact air leakage: (1) make the laminate more impact resistant, and (2) prevent cracks from traversing thickness of laminate. The first approach, making the laminate more impact resistant, also aims to improve post-impact mechanical properties of the laminate. Maher & Associates LLC proposes to design and develop three new concepts for improving the damage tolerance of the current composite structure concept of the Z-2 spacesuit. In developing these concepts, Maher & Associates LLC will partner with University of Delaware. Our personnel with work with university personnel at their Applications and Technology Transfer Laboratory (ATTL) to fabricate coupons and conduct testing. In addition to characterizing the structural and impact resistance of the concepts, panels will be fabricated that include Z-2 design features to assess the manufacturability of the concept. In reviewing the literature, we noticed that there are subtle differences in the clamping approach in the impact testing that was done as art of the original Z-2 development work and the ASTM D-7136 test called out in the topic. In order to assure that a proper baseline is established, we will also fabricate and test fabricate acceptable leak rate and retain sufficient mechanical properties to sustain a test article representative of the original design.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology will be applicable to any application that is seeking damage tolerant composites. This includes automotive structural components, pressure vessels, aircraft nacelles, fuselage and wing skins, transport flooring, etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The results of this SBIR are directly related to the development of the Z-2 space suit. As a generic technology, the developments can be easily applied to other applications within NASA where damage tolerant composites are sought. This includes pressure vessels, habitation structures and aircraft skins.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H4.01-9146
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Damage Tolerant Lightweight Pressure Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Impact Resistant Composite Structures for Space Suit Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Composites Automation, LLC
9 Adelaide Court
Newark, DE
19702-2068
(302) 584-4184

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Roger Crane
crane@compositesautomationllc.com
9, Adelaide Court
Newark,  DE 19702-2068
(410) 562-2163

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Composites Automation (CA) and partners University of Delaware Center for Composite Materials (UD-CCM) and ILC Dover, propose to evaluate innovative composite material and structure concepts that improve impact performance for space suite hard composite components. A systematic experimental screening methodology in Phase I, followed by detailed design and assessment in Phase II. Material innovations evaluated in this effort include hybrid laminate constructions, interlayers and thin-ply composite laminates; as well as potential synergistic combinations. A Low-Velocity Impact (LVI) protocol will be used in combination with leak resistance checks to evaluate concepts and guide composite design. A two-stage methodology is proposed with initial screening of concepts under equivalent conditions for comparative assessment, followed by performance limit assessment (maximum impact energy with no leak).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Damage tolerant composite structures are used in many applications, including aerospace, automotive and marine composites, and military platforms. Post-impact mechanical performance drives composite design in these applications, such as Compression after Impact or Open-hole Tension/Compression. Mechanical fastening and joining is also common in many of these applications and resistance to damage propagation at fastener holes promotes long-term durability. Concepts/strategies that increase durability, and post-impact performance while retaining lightweight characteristics are of wide-ranging interest in the composites industry.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Increasing damage tolerance of lightweight composite structures to impact loads while maintaining leak resistance under pressure is a key performance metric for space suit hard composite components. Aerospace and satellite structures are also driven by damage tolerant design criteria and proposed concepts may enable higher design allowables and lighter weight solutions. Proposed goals will improve performance 3X the current Z2 composite design and enable lighterweight and more robust and leak resistant composite component designs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Structures
Air Transportation & Safety
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H4.02-9635
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Small, Accurate Oxygen Compatible Gas Flow Meter for Suit Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact, High-Accuracy Oxygen Flow Meter

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, LLC
16 Great Hollow Road
Hanover, NH
03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Izenson
mgi@creare.com
16 Great Hollow Road
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 640-2405

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Life support systems for future space suits will require advanced instrumentation to enable use of the suit for multiple missions. We propose to develop an oxygen flow meter for the space suit ventilation loop that will provide highly accurate flow measurements while meeting challenging requirements for low pressure drop, compact size, and durability. In Phase I, we will prove the feasibility of our approach through analyses and trade-off studies, proof-of-concept demonstrations, and prototype design. In Phase II, we will design and assemble prototype flow meters and measure their performance under conditions that simulate operation in a portable life support system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Small pilot-scale and microreactor chemical plants need a high-accuracy flow meter that is simple to integrate with compact flow systems. The proposed technology will be useful for these systems across a wide range of process applications, including oil and gas, polymers, biofuels, and pharmaceuticals.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The main NASA application will be to measure the flow rate of oxygen in the ventilation loop of future portable life support systems. Scaled-up versions of the flow meter could be used to instrument spacecraft life support systems, where their compact size, high accuracy, and low pressure drop will benefit overall system performance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H4.03-8726
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensors to Measure Space Suit Interactions with the Human Body
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flexible Polymer Sensor for Space Suits

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Somatis Sensor Solutions
525 South Hewitt Street
Los Angeles, CA
90013-2217
(213) 477-0710

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nicholas Wettels
nwettels@perceptionrobotics.com
525 South Hewitt Street
Los Angeles,  CA 90013-2217
(888) 414-1940

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Perception Robotics has developed an innovative new type of compliant tactile sensing solution, a polymeric skin (PolySkinTM) that can be molded into any form factor, supports a variety of mechanical properties, and is inherently inexpensive and durable. This novel tactile sensor surmounts the failures of prior tactile solutions with sophisticated multi-modal sensing capabilities, modeled after human hand sensing specifications, coupled with robust design for industrial and space applications. PolySkin is a perfect choice for measuring space suit interactions with the human body because it was designed for a similar problem: detect contact to allow robots to safely operate in an unstructured environment. PolySkin measures mechanical pressure accurately, has a good resistant to aberrant readings when under moderate bending, shear or torsion, is sufficiently pliant to follow anatomical curves on the human skin without discomfort or lack of mobility, it can be fabricated in thin profiles (~mm) and packaged sufficiently small, free of rigid or sharp points, and it consumes low power. During this project, we will fabricate a flat prototype of our novel tactile sensor and characterize and optimize the elastomer formulation to achieve desired properties: accuracy within 10%, dynamic range: 0.1 to 10N, and high repeatability (<5% error). We will build conditioning electronics to provide serial output signal through a USB port. After passing initial test, calibration, and validation, the conditioning electronics will be used to test in-sleeve embedded sensor. In a final proof-of-concept milestone, we will fabricate a working prototype wearable sleeve embedded with PolySkin to validate the performance. The deliverables include a 4x4 inch pad sensor at the end of 3rd month, and a wearable sleeve with embedded PolySkin sensor combined with conditioning electronics kit at the end of the project.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
While pressure sensitive structures have a wide range of applications, Perception Robotics focuses on industrial automation tasks which can benefit from tactile information. The capabilities of our sensors have been proven across a wide gamut of industries including a brass foundry, automotive part manufacturing and the paper roll cover industry. We extend its application in robotic material handling.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Characterizing human suited performance has continued to be a challenge, partly due to limitations in sensor technology. One concept is to use sensors placed at/on the human body, underneath the pressure garment to obtain knowledge of the human bodies movements. This data could then be compared against the suit motion. Various sensors, sensor technologies, and sensor implementations have been attempted over two decades of efforts, but each has had issues. Much of the work within NASA has improved the integration, comfort, and calibration of these sensors, but the accuracy performance characteristics when in use have not been sufficient to meet requirements. A new sensor technology is needed for use in this application. PolySkin meets NASA need to optimize space suit design for ergonomics, comfort and fit while providing critical pressure measurement with high accuracy, spatial resolution, and reliability on a conformable surface. Taken together, these improvements will enhance EVA performance, reduce overhead, reduce personnel and programmatic risk. In the future, alternative space suit architectures such as mechanical counter pressure may be feasible to further verify that necessary physiological pressure requirements are being met to ensure the health and safety of the crew. Our modular sensing system can be customized to have the dynamic range and sensitivity to meet NASA requirements.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Polymers
Pressure/Vacuum
Perception/Vision
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H4.03-8974
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensors to Measure Space Suit Interactions with the Human Body
PROPOSAL TITLE: Sensor to Measure Space Suit Interactions with the Human Body

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Adv Materials Innovations
10743 Matinal Circle
San Diego, CA
92127-9212
(858) 437-1276

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Carl Edwards
cedwards@advmaterialsinnovations.com
10743 Matinal Circle
San Diego,  CA 92127-9212
(858) 437-1276

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The team has identified and is proposing a single sensor technology that targets the above requirements including readout capability. Our novel technology will utilize a proprietary 3D optical fabrication process and fabric combination for small form factors to achieve the required results. The sensor fabric will be developed so that it is mechanically equivalent with human skin to eliminate interfacial decoupling and allow accurate pressure readings. Multiple sensors will be integrated into a prototype and the flexible packaging will be where multiple sensors are integrated such that that they are compatible with attachment to human skin or the spacesuit comfort garments. By using a nanocomposite sensor approach, the team will maximize spatial resolution and accuracy at the same time minimize weight. A replaceable fabric approach will also be developed to address failure rates with component spares.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The target size and budget of the technology is estimated to be more than $5 million per year. AMI expects to gain licensing opportunities for this product as well as license to manufacture agreements. - NASA Space Suit Sensors comprised in this proposal - Aerospace Boeing has supplied a letter of interest for this work. - Commercial All sensors are part of the rapidly growing Internet of Things (IOT). Haptic sensors are finding their way into many product applications, medical applications for surgery, and artificial limbs, touch pads in cell phones, sports equipment user diagnostics and human robot interfaces.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA - Space Suit Sensors comprised in this proposal Haptic sensors can support a range of Space Applications including Space Medicine, Man - machine interaction, Robot-Human "touch" interface Protective Clothing pressure sensors Intelligent Textiles Pressure monitor on inflatable structures

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Textiles
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Man-Machine Interaction
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Ad-Hoc Networks (see also Sensors)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H5.01-8768
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mars Surface Solar Array Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Self-Deploying Tent Array

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Analytical Mechanics Associates, Inc.
21 Enterprise Parkway, Suite 300
Hampton, VA
23666-1568
(757) 865-0000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Matthew Duchek
m.duchek@ama-inc.com
2460 W. 26th Ave. Suite 440-C
Denver,  CO 80211-0000
(303) 953-1016

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Self-Deploying Tent Array (SDTA) is a modular power system that can be scaled to very large power levels for use on the Martian surface. The tent shape is structurally efficient and packages well with a flexible photovoltaic blanket. The tent array geometry produces a much more constant power output throughout a day than a non-tracking flat array, and provides significant power at sunrise and sunset. This results in efficiencies in the power processing and storage system, to which the array would be integrated, that reduce the total system mass significantly. The tent shape is also inherently resistant to dust buildup due to the slope of the arrays, and is amenable to a number of wind loading mitigations that will be examined in Phase I work. The module self-deploys and can naturally straddle large boulders. It can clear 0.5 m obstacles on the ground via two deployment schemes that will be examined. Phase I work will consist of conceptual design of the module, structural analysis & optimization, performance analysis, module sizing within a large array system, and mechanical design of a module. This will prepare for detail design, manufacture and deployment testing in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SDTA design will be able to deploy in a 1 g environment, and so could be applied to terrestrial applications where a deployable collapsible array is needed. This self-deploying tent array concept can potentially have military and civilian applications. Providing power for remote camps or isolated equipment operation would be one possible application. Due to its ability to be stowed and deployed easily and its modular/scalable output power capability, it could be viable as an emergency or disaster relief power supply. In such a situation, it could power items such as communications towers or water filtration systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SDTA is applicable to any Lunar or Martian NASA surface mission that requires large amounts of power. A first mission for the SDTA might be with an in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) robotic mission, where the array could be deployed on Mars and tested while supplying power for ISRU. A large number of modules could be built up on Mars in preparation for a human landing. The design is also very applicable to the moon, and could be simplified due to the lack of wind loading and the lower gravity.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Deployment
Structures
Simulation & Modeling
Distribution/Management
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H5.01-8842
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mars Surface Solar Array Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Modular Extendable Terrestrial Array

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
LoadPath
2309 Renard Place Southeast, Suite 101
Albuquerque, NM
87108-1862
(866) 411-3131

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sungeun Jeon
sjeon@loadpath.com
2309 Renard Place SE, Ste 101
Albuquerque,  NM 87106-1862
(866) 411-3131

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
For Mars mission program managers, who need a robust, structurally efficient solar array system to autonomously deploy on the Martian surface, the Modular Extendable Terrestrial Array (META) is an extremely high performance and cost-effective deployable solar array system that will enable manned missions. LoadPath's approach adapts a demonstrated, high packaging-efficiency array folding architecture for a Martian surface application delivering robust autonomous deployments over uneven terrain, retractability, modularity, portability, minimal CONOPS, and integrated dust mitigation. LoadPath recently invented and demonstrated the feasibility of an advanced, lightweight solar array system to deliver high power generation capability for small satellite systems with extreme stowed volume constraints. Establishing a functional solar array farm on the Martian surface to support manned missions shares many of the technical challenges and requirements of the small spacecraft, large deployable array problem. LoadPath leveraged the findings of this previous effort with its extensive experience in devising and delivering numerous innovative deployable structural systems in the development of the leading concept for an META autonomous deploying terrestrial array. In this Phase I effort, the conceptual design will be developed through a thorough engineering trade study of the required support components, culminating with a functional deployment demonstration with a fabricated prototype structure.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to Mars terrestrial solar arrays, META has Earth terrestrial applications including austere military operations, remote industrial operations such as mining, disaster relief, and temporary or seasonal dwellings such as yurts. During this SBIR effort we will focus on aerospace and military applications by engaging with Lockheed Martin. LoadPath has an existing working relationship with Lockheed Martin and will continually interact with them during the Phase I and Phase II efforts to assure a clear technology transition path. A Mars surface solar array alone is not a significant market; however, META's extended Earth terrestrial applications including military operations, mining, disaster relief, and portable consumer power products create a sufficient market to warrant the development investment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In 2010, the NASA Authorization Act and the U.S. National Space Policy drafted goals to send humans to Mars in the 2030s. This direction resulted in renewed studies, specifically by the multidisciplinary Collaborative Modeling for Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) at NASA Glenn Research Center, to determine the required systems to support various potential manned mission scenarios. To support manned operations, a large power generation capability, on the order of 40kW, is required with the ability to be modular, autonomous, and reconfigurable to respond to any mission design. The design trade study between solar versus fission power generation technology showed that, depending on the mission, the solar array option could be the more cost effective and mass efficient solution. The proposed META is an innovative deployable solar array technology that clearly responds to the subtopic, NASA missions, and NASA programmatic needs. As concluded in the numerous Mars mission design studies, there is a need to mature the notional concepts to determine if the requirements can be satisfied. Preliminary design efforts indicate that the META approach addresses all stated requirements with a feasible path towards meeting those goals.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Deployment
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Structures
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Generation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H5.01-9246
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mars Surface Solar Array Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: OmniFlex - Modular Power for Mars Surface Missions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Angstrom Designs, Inc.
P.O. Box 2032
Santa Barbara, CA
93120-4914
(805) 876-4138

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Casey Hare
Casey.P.Hare@AngstromDesigns.com
417 Santa Barbara Street, B7
Santa Barbara,  CA 93101-2377
(805) 876-4138

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has a need to deploy an aggregate PV area of 2500 m2 on Mars - a very large area comparable to more than 60 of the largest wings ever deployed in GEO. Heritage large space (0-g) deployables are not applicable on Mars, as they require offloaders. If smaller deployables were used, the number of deployables and mechanisms grows exponentially, as does cost, and mass when sized for 0.4-g and aeolian loads. A robot-erected, power farm from modular components is much more practical, and can have greater performance than any 0-g solar array. The proposed innovation, OmniFlex, a solar array without any deployment mechanism, can be thought of as a pre-deployed UltraFlex that has been perfectly optimized for large area landed PV farm installations. OmniFlex panels are very simple and low cost: Each is a pre-built hexagonal platform composed of a thin composite ribs emanating from a central hub, to which is bonded ultra-light flexible blankets composed of high efficiency PV bonded to a gossamer fabric scrim. The rib design allow stacking at a low (3.3-mm) pitch, enabling 190 panels to stack for launch at only 0.65 m high. OmniFlex is like Ikea for planetary power: Compactly shipped, easily erected, and cost effective. And yet performance is extraordinary, even with respect to the challenging subtopic goals. The technology is extremely light (>300 W/kg) and stacks hyper-efficiently (>100 kW/m3) for transport to Mars. The deployment of the power field will be by pick and place robotics, using modular OmniFlex units. The proposal details and demonstrates the practicality and performance of this approach for construction of a huge array farm on Mars (or the moon, or in-space). Individual units can be re-purposed on rovers, habitats, comm stations, etc. And with viable in-space assembly tech emerging, the potential for OmniFlex panels to be tiled onto robotically-assembled MW-scale truss structures looks extremely promising as an adjunct application.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The entire space community is interested in higher performance and lower cost solar arrays. OmniFlex offers great promise for mass efficiency and compact stowage for launch, and is ideally configured for simplified robotic assembly, enabling practically unlimited scaling of power. Potential applications are equally relevant for NASA as for non-NASA customers such as Air Force and private commercial contractors. In-space assembly and OmniFlex technology may be part of a tipping point, a vital contribution to enable a new approach to fielding space hardware that will be critical to future exploration and commercialization of various opportunities including low earth orbit, moon, Mars, Deimos, and Asteroid Belt destinations for mining, science, hoteling, etc. OmniFlex is part of the first chapter, now being composed at NASA and by an emerging commercial space market, in the story of our nation?s future economic development of the solar system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The path to commercialization is straight-forward, via our proven commercialization partner OAG, who has significant interest in commercializing OmniFlex technology and post-Phase II commercialization would be in the form of sales directly from OAG. The most direct commercialization opportunities may come in the form of a demo-wing for a NASA or Commercial Mars (or Moon) precursor SEP mission or, more likely in the near term, a project enabled by NASA/OA CIRAS activity. Orbital ATK has begun a public-private partnership with NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) to establish a Commercial Infrastructure for Robotic Assembly and Services (CIRAS) in space. Orbital ATK will take the lead in maturing technologies necessary for robotic assembly of large space structures, such as solar-power structures for transport or communications. These capabilities include methods to connect (and disconnect) joints of a truss structure and address precision measuring and alignment and equipment placement via a robotic arm with various end effectors.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Structures
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Generation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H5.01-9421
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mars Surface Solar Array Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Solar Transportable Array Rover for Conformable Deployment Retraction on Mars

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
San Diego Composites, Inc.
9220 Activity Road
San Diego, CA
92126-4407
(858) 751-0450

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Quinn McAllister
qmcallister@sdcomposites.com
9220 Activity Road
San Diego,  CA 92126-4407
(858) 751-0450

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SDC?s Solar Transportable Array Rover (STAR) Power system is an inflatable structure integrated with state-of-the-art solar blanket technology. The inflatable structure and solar blanket are stored in a roll as small as 0.5 m in diameter and 3 m wide for a 2500 m2 array, achieving a 150 kW/m3 packaging efficiency. The bladder membrane thickness will be optimized for the prescribed pressure, realize a rolled packaging volume as low as 5 m3, hold the solar cells more than 1 m off the ground, and weigh as little as 500-750 kg for a 2500 m2 array. The optimized rolled packaging makes the STAR Power system installable across landers, transport vehicles, habitats, and power plant sites, providing a universal power solution for Mars habitation and exploration. In this Phase I SBIR, SDC will design, analyze, manufacture, and demonstrate a sub-scale STAR Power system inflatable structure. The design and analysis of the support inflatable bladders will focus on weight optimization to meet the pressurization requirements. The deployment/retraction demonstration will be conducted over both even and uneven terrain, and enable evaluation of initial packing factor, repacking factor, conformability, reliability, and durability.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Additional applications include private space exploration, Mars and lunar habitation, solar electric propulsion, private space stations, private cubesats and terrestrial applications including deployable, transportable towers and booms, and light weight antenna structures. SDC estimates that a single deployment of the STAR power system versus other state-of-the-art options could achieve an ROI over 50.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary market for the STAR Power system technology is Mars exploration and habitation. The development of the STAR Power system has been tailored to fulfill both stationary and mobile power system requirements. SDC has aligned the company and the technology development with the key players in the next generation of Mars habitation and Mars exploration, the primary markets for the Mars surface solar arrays. Target insertion programs include Orion and NextSTEP. NASA markets other than Mars surface solar arrays include: deployable booms on the ISS or other space vehicles, curved deployable boom structures for optimal packaging, optional packaging scheme for habitats, and solar power systems for SEP vehicles, satellites, and cubesats.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Polymers
Textiles
Deployment
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H5.01-9714
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mars Surface Solar Array Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Concentrically Mounted Wrapped Array with Cable Support

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TentGuild Engineering Company
4740 Table Mesa Drive
Boulder, CO
80305-4505
(866) 666-7761

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gyula Greschik
greschik@teguec.com
4740 Table Mesa Drive
Boulder,  CO 80305-4505
(866) 666-7761

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Proposed is a lightweight PV array module architecture with up to or beyond 2500 m2 surface area autonomously and robustly deployable in a gravitational field from stowage that is eminently streamlined for integration with space transport and surface mission systems. Supported via simple architectural features are highly prioritized Mars application objectives including modular or single large-unit use, self-cleaning and dust abutment, easy operation including tilt, transportability, robust tolerance for thermal and dimensional perturbations, and retractability. Integration with space transport systems is achieved via toroidal storage that can be designed to encircle any, large or small, core equipment such as a lander or habitat unit or a transportable power module, and seamlessly fits into launch vehicle payload envelopes. Similar to the recently developed wrapped array concept, rolled in the belt package are support ribs with the surface sectors folded between them; the PV cells are mounted on the latter. (The ribs concurrently emerge from the package straight and, diverging outward, unfold the sheet sectors.) When deployed, the PV strips, with gentle cross-slopes, are suspended from the ribs with a sagging/slack cable system that renders the design environmentally robust and permits self-cleaning via the wind effects themselves. Rib strength is boosted by cable support, analogous to mature crane jib support technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The concept may mature into spinoff technology for Earth PV array applications with the need for autonomous and rapid deployability, re-deployability, and compact packaging. Scientific and non-scientific, applications including defense and robotic / mobile / vehicular use may also be served.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Large PV power supplies or power supply modules for extraterrestrial surface missions such as those on the Moon and Mars, including but not limited to initial manned Mars missions where PV array modules of up to 2500 m2 total area (or a single array of that size) need to be prepositioned, validated, and operated prior to human landings. The proposed concept's application is technologically robust and operationally flexible. Technological robustness arises from simple mechanics and a "slack" design that is inherently insensitive to environmental and dimensional perturbations (including extreme thermal fluctuation) and offers a self-cleaning mechanism in environments where some atmosphere and winds are present and dust accumulation is a risk. Operational flexibility means applicability both in large units and small, transportable packages.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Deployment
Structures
Teleoperation
Generation
Characterization


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H5.02-9590
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Hot Structure Entry Control Surface Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel, Functionally Graded PIP Coating System for Hot Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Allcomp, Inc.
209 Puente
La Puente, CA
91746-2304
(626) 369-1273

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeremy Thornton
jeremy.thornton@allcomp.net
1014 Orange street
rosamond,  CA 93560-0000
(916) 215-9782

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal addresses some of the most challenging materials issues with respect to Hot Structures, very high temperature, up to 4000 degrees F, applications. The very successful, record breaking, NASA led X-43A hypersonic flight proved the ability to use state of the art (SOTA) material/coating system for short duration, single mission, and very high temperature applications. The issues associated with the leading edges are quite different from the Hot Structures issues where transverse properties are very critical and the longer duration time with much wider temperature distribution can be expected. Also the shear component size makes the application of CVD based coatings impractical. Allcomp proposes an extremely innovative solution to this problem by using functionally graded (FGM) PIP coatings to alleviate interfacial shear stresses and greatly reduce transverse thermal cracking, which historically have plagued ceramic coatings applied to very low thermal expansion coefficient 2-D and 2.5 D C-C composite substrates. The success of this Phase I will totally open new avenues in the area of high temperature materials. That, in turn, will enable NASA designers to implement hot structure solution in lieu of parasitic passive insulation system, resulting in significant weight reduction in future NASA Space Exploration vehicles, as well as a plethora of other applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Several DoD organizations are actively pursuing hypersonic vehicles for both advanced missile systems, as well as sophisticated surveillance vehicles. The novel, low cost technology developed under this program will lead to DoD applications as well.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary focus is initially on new TPS solutions like hot structures for NASA Space Exploration vehicles. In addition, this technology would also have applicability in future hypersonic applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Coatings/Surface Treatments


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H6.01-9055
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Integrated System Health Management for Sustainable Habitats
PROPOSAL TITLE: Operation-Aware ISHM for Environmental Control and Life Support in Deep Space Habitants

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Global Technology Connection, Inc
2839 Paces Ferry Road, Suite 1160
Atlanta, GA
30339-6224
(770) 803-3001

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ash Thakker
athakker@globaltechinc.com
301 Main Street
columbia,  AK 29208-4101
(770) 803-3001

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Global Technology Connection Inc, in collaboration with the University of South Carolina, an academic leader in real time diagnosis and prognosis, proposes to develop a Operation-Aware ISHM for Environmental Control and Life Support in Deep Space Habitants. The core innovations include: 1) Application of advanced fast diagnosis and prognosis algorithms in Lebesgue sampling framework for distributed life support systems; 2) A hierarchical structure that enables to deal with multidimensional FDP in LSS with capabilities of FDP reasoning from the health condition of devices to subsystems, which are grouped devices to realize certain functions in the LSS; and 3) Development and implementation of an automated contingency management model to incorporate the diagnostic and prognostic results from distributed monitoring system to mitigate the fault and find the optimal solution with regard to mission goals and constraints; 4) Case-Based Reasoning Engine to enable incorporation of human feedback on the operational significance;

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The same methodologies could be applied to other commercial fleets of vehicles such as automobile/truck fleets, ship fleets, and armored and unmanned vehicles in order to detect safety issues due to improper process execution between people and automation, between people, and between automated units

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has to address the long communication delays between Mars and Earth, as well as increasingly more complex systems associated with habitants. These systems should be automated, monitored and diagnosed by mission control like any other near-earth mission. The proposed capability will add to the existing portfolio of PHM/SHM by addressing the need for an integrated system capable of considering the mission requirements and potentials for advancement of science in a case-by-case basis. NASA would highly benefit from proposed systems by (a) Concurrently predicting failures before they disrupt the mission or habitantıs safety, (b) Reducing false positives of such prediction and enabling a human-interaction with intelligent reasoning engine (c) identifying the remaining useful capability of the system. This will enable NASA to focus on the mission planning and recovery aspects, and manage the health of the system, rather than being blindsided by unexpected failures

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Analytical Methods
Space Transportation & Safety
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Fusion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H6.01-9516
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Integrated System Health Management for Sustainable Habitats
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flexible Integrated System Health Management for Sustainable Habitats using TEAMS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Qualtech Systems, Inc.
100 Corporate Place Suite 220
Rocky Hill, CT
06067-1803
(860) 257-1803

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Deepak Haste
deepak@teamqsi.com
100 Corporate Place, Suite 220
Rocky Hill,  CT 06067-1803
(860) 761-9351

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
QSI proposes to field a "Flexible" ISHM Solution for Sustainable Habitats utilizing the TEAMS Toolset and concomitant model-based and data-driven diagnostic/prognostic reasoning technologies to enable the habitat crew to obtain crucial alerts that affect the operation of critical habitat subsystems, as well as provide decision support in the selection of appropriate corrective actions. The solution will utilize habitat's real-time system health assessment, anomaly and failure detection, machine learning and active learning techniques to preserve the operational integrity of the habitat system. The proposed effort will result in a novel capability, where the habitat crew will be given clear and concise decision support to improve situational awareness and perform proactive corrective actions. Automated health assessment, crew alerts and future degradation estimates will be generated to facilitate corrective actions in the face of off-nominal and failure conditions. Additionallly, mechanisms to incorporate undiscovered anomalies into the machine learning algorithms will be pursued. The ISHM solution would reduce the cognitive load on the crew given the abundance of information that has to be reasoned upon in a timely fashion. They will be critical for improving mission and system safety. These technologies would reduce the cost and risk of habitat operations, across all its phases: development, flight unit production, launch, and operations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The application of habitats in government, industrial, and commercial applications makes them an obvious commercialization target for this technology. We envisage the proposed technology to be of significant interest inside DoD's Forward Operating Bases (FOBs), FAA, US Air Force, US Navy, and commercial space vendors (e.g., Boeing, SpaceX). The development of the various interacting technology components for health-monitoring enabled anomaly/failure and degradation detection can be easily directed towards mission assurance and will be of direct interest to large-scale military systems (systems of systems) such as NORAD, Space Command ground segments, the Navy shipboard platforms and Submarine Commands. In addition, offshore platform industry, greenhouse industry, bio-domes, nuclear shelters, and extreme weather research stations are potential targets as well. Other examples of use of this technology include manufacturing, transportation (air transport, self-driving vehicles, and electric cars), energy (smart grids), space (on-orbit inspection and repair, mining), agriculture, healthcare (prosthetics, rehabilitation, surgery), marine environments, education (inspiring science, technology, engineering and mathematics education), public safety (emergency response, hazardous material handling, bomb disposal), and consumer products (household robots). This solution can also be marketed to commercial habitat operators and maintainers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's current vision to enhance the level of autonomy in its earth and space missions makes the proposed effort worthy of funding from several branches within it. The proposed technology, aimed at improving the reliability and performance of sustainable habitats through the use of diagnostic and prognostic failure and anomaly detection techniques, active learning and trending capabilities, and the software tool for supporting its implementation will allow NASA to better plan and execute future Science Missions. The technology can be leveraged to facilitate endurance in complex systems, such as NASA's long-duration missions in space science and exploration. It is envisioned that the technology will also be ready to be operated as part of NASA's next generation Mission Control Technology allowing NASA to utilize the continuous health assessment and mission satisfiability information from the tool for improved mission execution while improving safety, mission success probability and the overall operational uptime of the habitat platform. This technology can also be applied to NASA's Earth based green initiatives such as the Sustainable Habitat designed for self-sustainment. The application of this technology in habitat systems will enable the next frontier in exploration by providing greater access to deep space environments and by providing greater operational handling that extends mission capabilities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Verification/Validation Tools
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Fusion
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing
Knowledge Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H6.02-8880
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Resilient Autonomous Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Resiliency Evaluation, Assessment and Contingency Tools

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
VINMA Systems, LLC
647 Greenwood Manor Circle
West Melbourne, FL
32904-1906
(321) 749-5726

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vincent Kovarik
vince.kovarik@vinmasystems.com
647 Greenwood Manor Circle
W Melbourne,  FL 32904-1906
(321) 749-5726

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Resiliency Evaluation, Assessment and Contingency Tools (REACT) Achieving resiliency in any system requires capabilities that are beyond the boundaries of currently available engineering tools and processes. Comprehensive analysis using Use Cases, Activity and Sequence diagrams provide significant benefits over text-based requirements and specifications. However, although these specifications include fault identification and recovery identified as part of the review process, they not consider potential systemic problems that may arise post-deployment in response to unforeseen external influences, unanticipated faults or as a result of cumulative operational anomalies. The REACT project proposed in this Phase I effort will develop a suite of software that will: Integrate research in temporal and hypothetical reasoning with use case and scenario specification. Perform extraction of scenarios described in SysML/UML Activity Diagrams into external tool. Perform initial resiliency evaluation based on extracted scenarios. Perform automated analysis of NASA operational scenarios identifying potential degraded performance or failures. Automated identification of failure recovery options. Generate scenarios leading to potential failures and recovery options for engineering review. Analyze system engineering tool architecture and develop integration plan with COTS SysML/UML modeling tools. Evaluate options for incorporating deep learning to evaluation and assessment phases. Investigate adaptable hardware approaches supporting advanced resiliency through reconfiguration.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Internet of Things - The rapid growth of the IoT market has resulted in a myriad of devices, technologies, protocols and standards. Underlying this burgeoning market is the essential need for a more comprehensive model and analysis of the high-distributed and dynamically interconnected elements of the Internet of Things. The REACT toolset can provide valuable insight to the design and deployment of this dynamic area. Manufacturing and Assembly - Failures in a manufacturing process or assembly line can have catastrophic impacts to a business. REACT can provide more comprehensive monitoring and failure prediction in a manufacturing and assembly process and extended to include supply chain management as a cooperative, semi-independent system. Power Generation and Distribution - The design and management of large-scale power generation and distribution systems are comprised of a wide range of functional elements. REACT can be applied to model these systems as multiple independent systems with key intersection points where the systems interact to assess potential adverse impacts and recovery options.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Autonomous Space Craft - The react toolset provides design analysis assistance to focus on the mission-critical aspects that may arise in different scenarios. Also, the REACT technology will provide an on-board agent improving identification, analysis and response to remedy or work around faults and external events. Intelligent Agent for Manned Space Flights - On-board monitoring, analysis and management of essential systems providing information to crew regarding possible degradation or failure scenarios based on observed data and projected events, identification of potential preemptive remedies. Landers and Surface Exploration Vehicles - Surface exploration vehicles will require more on-board health and status monitoring and recovery to achieve mission objectives. The REACT toolset will assist in the initial system design process and transition to on-board support for these vehicles. Telematics and Robotics - Applications for the monitoring and management of telematics and robotics in response to events or potential system failures that necessitate immediate action due to long delays in communications. Adaptive, self-configurable communications - Applications for the design and management of communications systems to adapt operational parameters based on environmental conditions, interference, equipment failures and mission objectives.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H6.02-9054
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Resilient Autonomous Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Resilient Autonomous Systems: Life-Cycle Design, Metrics and Simulation-Based Assessment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Global Technology Connection, Inc
2839 Paces Ferry Road, Suite 1160
Atlanta, GA
30339-6224
(770) 803-3001

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ash Thakker
athakker@globaltechinc.com
301 Main Street
columbia,  AK 29208-4101
(770) 803-3001

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
With more ambitious space exploration programs, which aggressively push the envelope beyond lunar missions, it is therefore projected that a shift in mission planning and system design is necessary for addressing this new breed of resiliency-oriented challenges An opportunity exists to support the NASA in the development of a framework for the assessment and life-cycle design of more resilient autonomous space habitats. Global Technology Connection, Inc. (GTC), in collaboration with the Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory (ASDL) at the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), seeks to develop a state-of-the-art capability focused on providing an a resilience assessment framework, including a set of application-relevant metrics, analysis algorithms, as well as computational tools, which would demonstrate the modeling and simulation-based approach on design space exploration and optimization for a resilient SoS space habitat application. Overview of the analysis framework that will be leveraged and evolved to realize this opportunity has been discussed in detail in the proposal.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Among other agencies, DoD, US Air Force, US Navy, and commercial aviation (e.g., SpaceX, Bieglow Space) are the most likely potential customers for the resulting technologies. In addition, smart home applications or intelligent hospital and patient-care systems can be of secondary application space. This technology would also be useful for disaster planning, e.g. Federal Emergency Management Agency, fire planning, and urban design. Applications such as Air traffic control, missile guidance system, space and range instrument radar systems, etc also will be pursed by GTC commercialization team

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed effort has significant range of applications across various NASA multi-disciplinary engineering centers that are in charge of System Design where Resilience is an integral part of the System Design process. Quantifying SHM/FM in terms of standard and recognized metrics has been proven in practice in the Space Launch System (SLS), managed by Marshall Space Flight Center. Now itıs time to go futher and address the bigger picture which is Resilience embedded in the design. Likewise, other immediate applications of this technology will be the operations and launch facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida. Other strong users of include Glenn Research Center, Ames Research Center, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The aviation programs at ARC and at Langley Research Center are also likely long-term beneficiaries of this project.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation & Modeling
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Space Transportation & Safety
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Knowledge Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H6.03-8666
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Autonomous Agent Cognitive Architectures for Human Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Cognitive Architecture Using Reinforcement Learning to Enable Autonomous Spacecraft Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Onu Technology, Inc.
7280 Blue Hill Drive, Suite 2
San Jose, CA
95129-3624
(408) 714-9253

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Volkmar Frinken
volkmar@onutechnology.com
7280 Blue Hill Dr., Suite 2
San Jose,  CA 95129-3624
(669) 231-9200

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose an architecture to enable the modular development and deployment of autonomous intelligent agents in support of spacecraft operations. This architecture supports both training and application of artificial intelligence models. It particularly enables the use of deep reinforcement learning for each module independently and jointly. Deep reinforcement learning is a technique that enables the automated learning of plans of action and has recently successfully been used, for example, to learn strategies for games like Go. Our proposed architecture provides a "utility" layer for generalized learning and a provides for independent functional modules that can be added, modified, or removed easily. It also accounts for intensive multicore computational needs. Lastly, it allows for desired behavior to be learned independently or in the context of the broader system. In Phase I, we will deliver a preliminary cognitive architecture, a feasibility study, a prototype of an autonomous agent, and a detailed plan to develop a comprehensive cognitive architecture feasibility study.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology can be applied in any setting that would benefit from robust, autonomous management, including airplane piloting, autonomous or semi-autonomous trucking, decision support, and medicine.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology can be deployed as a backup in current spacecraft and can play a foundational role in upcoming deep-space missions, which will require higher levels of autonomy than current missions. The system proposed can autonomously manage many spacecraft operations, including systems health, crew health, maintenance, consumable management, payload management, food production, and recycling.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation & Modeling
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Perception/Vision
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H6.03-8918
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Autonomous Agent Cognitive Architectures for Human Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Holonic Spacecraft Autonomous Agents

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cybernet Systems Corporation
3741 Plaza Drive
Ann Arbor, MI
48108-2217
(734) 668-2567

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Bisson
proposals@cybernet.com
3741 Plaza Drive
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-2217
(734) 668-2567

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this proposal, Cybernet proposes to leverage our distributed Procedure Execution and Projection (PEP) system that focuses on supporting automation of complex spacecraft, subsystem, maintenance, and consumables management procedures while ensuring crew situational awareness and anticipating future problems. The PEP system will provide the capability to: ı Work in a dynamic collaborative manner with crew to execute procedures, ı Dynamically offload and re-assume tasking from automation, ı Autonomously offload tasking from crew based on the systemıs initiative when perceiving that the crew member is overloaded or otherwise requires assistance, ı Project forward in the task execution to look for potential problems and develop contingencies, ı Ensure crew situational awareness even during complete automation handoff, ı Work on multiple procedures at the same time while detecting procedure conflicts (such as for limited resources)

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Similar autonomous management technology could be implemented on Navy vessels, which also seek to reduce manpower while expanding capabilities. Also will support procedure execution of manned/unmanned teaming in autonomous robotics. This will directly support commercial applications of autonomous material handling systems working in coordination with human personnel.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed cognitive architecture can support crews without communication with or support from ground based personnel. Therefore, it will be directly applicable to long duration missions or missions with poor or slow communications (such as dark side of moon, Mars, etc.).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H6.03-9503
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Autonomous Agent Cognitive Architectures for Human Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integration Framework for Building Autonomous Intelligent Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
1650 South Amphlett Boulevard, Suite # 300
San Mateo, CA
94402-2516
(650) 931-2700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Emilio Remolina
remolina@stottlerhenke.com
1650 South Amphlett Boulevard, Suite # 300
San Mateo,  CA 94402-2516
(650) 931-2700

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Among the many challenges of Mars exploration is the creation of autonomous systems that support crew activities without reliance on Earth mission control. These intelligent autonomous systems will have different levels of autonomy and will be designed to effectively communicate with the crew. These autonomous systems will be transparent (able to explain what they are doing) in order for crew members to trust them. It remains still a challenge to build highly intelligent, collaborative and transparent autonomous systems. With the existence of so many algorithms, knowledge representation techniques, and autonomous agents architectures, it is desirable to have a general integration architecture that allows the quickly evaluation of proposed software modules facilitating in turn the evaluation of diverse software configurations. We propose the development of an autonomous agents integration architecture for the definition of goal directed agents exhibiting transparent task execution behavior. The architecture has as goals to (i) facilitate the integration of existing algorithms and systems employed by most autonomous agents architectures, (ii) define how these modules interact and the ontology used to communicate data between these modules, (iii) provide default implementations for the four basic modules in the architecture (goal manager, planner, diagnosis, task executor), and (iv) provide insight on how to build transparent autonomous agents that can effectively communicate with the crew (e.g., explain the rationale behind key decisions during a task execution). During Phase I we will show the utility and feasibility of the integration architecture by (i) developing operational CONOPs describing envisioned tasks done by autonomous agents, (ii) identifying specific technologies that will be integrated during Phase II, and (iii) developing a software prototype illustrating the agents capabilities in scenarios of interest to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The resulting technologies will help Department of Defense personnel evaluate the progress of plan executions by autonomous vehicles and by military forces, compare actual and planned events, and identify possible problem causes and downstream effects. With the DoD-wide development of autonomous unmanned vehicles for land, air or sea operations, future adaptive intelligent interfaces will be needed to support new operator requirements as workloads change from many operators controlling one UV to one operator controlling many UVs (ideally a 1:4 ratio).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
These technologies will increase the ability for crew members to oversee the operations of teams of robots during lunar and Martian missions and, in the nearer term, during analog experiments on Earth. Other NASA applications include the development of intelligent user interfaces for the management of mission operations including problem resolution in the spacecraft, base and science data gathering operations, payload operations, and preventive maintenance and housekeeping activities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Intelligence
Man-Machine Interaction
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H6.03-9534
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Autonomous Agent Cognitive Architectures for Human Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Flexible Cognitive Architecture for Space Exploration Agents

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRACLabs, Inc.
100 North East Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio, TX
78216-1234
(281) 461-7886

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Russell Bonasso
bonasso@traclabs.com
100 North East Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio,  TX 78216-1234
(281) 461-7886

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In space operations, carrying out the activities of mission plans by executing procedures often requires close collaboration between ground controllers who have deep knowledge of the spacecraft's systems and crewmembers who have on-board situation awareness. Because of the light distances involved, this close collaboration will not be practical for inter-planetary exploration. This proposal seeks to develop a software cognitive architecture for space exploration (CASE) that will autonomously carry out exploration operations by using the same knowledge and executing the same plans and procedures as those developed on Earth. Over the past several years, TRACLabs, in support of NASA and other government agencies, has developed a number of components that can be used in such an architecture, and now proposes to design an exploration agent based on that architecture and to show that it is feasible for use in space exploration. These components include a procedure development system known as PRIDE that allows for variably autonomous execution of both crew and robotic procedures, an automated planner that plans and re-plans the execution of procedures to achieve overall mission goals, and an ontology data management system that makes system states available to all the components. In this work we will develop two new but vital elements for the architecture: a process manager that will manage the use of distributed computing resources to support the CASE components, and a natural language dialog system to allow the crew access to any part of the architecture. CASE will provide a feasible approach to agent design for space exploration, provide on-board autonomy in nominal operations and human-computer solutions for off-nominal operations, allow for the interchange of components from external sources and be robust in the face of computational failures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
TRACLabs is already selling PRIDE as a commercial product to oil field services companies and is providing automation assistance to other companies for drilling operations. The companies involved have already expressed interest in licensing the new capabilities being developed in this project. We will work with them to make sure that this project meets their requirements. TRACLabs expects additional customers in the oil and gas industry will deploy PRIDE once it has been proven effective. Sierra Nevada Corporation has also purchased PRIDE licenses for use in their Dream Chaser program, which was recently selected to deliver cargo to ISS. In all of these cases, we will offer the features developed this proposal as an "add-o" to the existing PRIDE software we deliver. Thus, we can immediately move this research out into industry by leveraging our existing PRIDE user base.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
After Phase II the CASE components or the architecture as a whole will be available to be reworked for exploration systems development and testing. While there may not be a planetary base in the near future, Orion and other spacecraft that will combine life support systems and EVA operations can benefit by using an autonomous or semi-autonomous CASE agent. An excellent example is the "Proving Ground" phase asteroid redirect mission (ARM), which will involve EVAs to obtain samples from captured asteroids. A CASE agent could also be used on the ISS to support testing of life support and the SSRMS in an exploration scenarios as precursors to future exploration missions. In the past, at Johnson Space Center (JSC) we have worked with EVA personnel and flight directors in migrating PRIDE and planning technologies into mission control. These are the same people working on EVAs for the potential ARM as well as planetary base operations. We plan to speak with our contacts in the MCC to exploring ways to minimize the number of personnel working the flight control stations using the technologies in this work. This work will also provide a connection to automated planning technology development through NASA ARC's Automation for Operations (A4O) project and its successors. We will work closely with Dr. Jeremy Frank at NASA ARC during Phase 1 to ensure our relevance to the A4O projects.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation & Modeling
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Man-Machine Interaction
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Sequencing & Scheduling
Teleoperation
Prototyping
Knowledge Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H7.01-9552
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Manufacturing of Electronics and Avionics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Software and Tools for Electronics Printing in Space(STEPS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Techshot, Inc.
7200 Highway 150
Greenville, IN
47124-9515
(812) 923-9591

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eugene Boland
gboland@techshot.com
7200 Highway 150
Greenville,  IN 47124-9515
(812) 923-9591

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We are proposing an to develop a direct write electronics and avionics printing capability within the Techshot BioFabrication Facility currently funded and anticipated to be deliver to the International Space Station in late 2018. We are calling this new system Software and Tools for Electronics Printing in Space or STEPS as it will be another step forward to truly having multimodal digital manufacturing ability in space. Throughout this program we will develop the direct write tools, software and platform to test various combinations of conductive and nonconductive materials for antennas, circuit masks and circuit layouts to prepare to move forward to add pick and place capability and substrate printing to build complete circuit boards and eventually complete 3D circuit structures. Although many of the necessary technologies exist, a key feature in out platform will be a unifying open-source software package. We believe that moving to open-source will broaden the potential user base but will also provide the control, training, security and stability that can only occur when the user community is allowed access to the source code. This is a paradigm shift in the commercial controls world but is readily embraced in the 3D printing world. Now as a dual use system, the BioFabrication Facility plus STEPS will not be limited to crew demands or vehicle availability which may limit biological systems. It will be able to print replacement or upgraded electronics or avionics when it?s not printing tissues. Our end goal is to have enough added capability that the facility will never need to sit idle, space on an exploration vehicle is too valuable.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Techshot?s commercial space history traces to co-founder John Vellinger?s 1989 Kentucky Fried Chicken-funded space flight experiment with chicken embryos. Later, throughout the 1990?s, Techshot was a pioneer in commercial space flight research, becoming one of the first companies of its kind to be paid by non-NASA, non-space centric organizations to process materials in space. As an official CASIS Implementation Partner, Techshot has been successfully marketing its hardware and services to a new generation of commercial companies that may not have previously participated in space research and/or materials processing. Companies such as Novartis and Eli Lilly have recently used Techshot on-orbit equipment. The wearable electronics market is expected to break $20 billion this year. The old way of making electronics by laying copper on rigid printed circuit boards is not cutting it anymore. Like everything else in our lives; faster, smaller, cheaper is the driver but softer, tactile and aesthetic are also key. This is where we will shine with what we learn. Multi-material, 3D high tech electronics packaged in new ways to withstand the rigors of space in small packages. These could be game changers in consumer products also. Techshot is partnering with nScrypt, a leading digital manufacturing company, to terrestrially commercialize intellectual property resulting from SBIR contracts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The space services segment is the core of Techshot?s business plan. In the initial stages of our new product introduction, Techshot?s commercialization strategy is largely dependent on infusion into NASA programs. Through its Space Act Agreement and its IDIQ contract, Techshot will offer both the STEPS equipment and the services associated with flight hardware, which are expected to be highly desired by NASA-funded researchers and personnel within NASA?s Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division. AES pioneers new approaches for rapidly developing prototype systems ? demonstrating key capabilities, and validating operational concepts for future human missions beyond low-Earth orbit. AES activities are uniquely related to crew safety and mission operations in deep space, and are strongly coupled to future vehicle development. STEPS could prove to be a key resource that enables human pioneering beyond low Earth orbit.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H7.01-9646
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Manufacturing of Electronics and Avionics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Adaptive Laser Sintering System for In-Space Printed Electronics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optomec Design Co
13170B Central Avenue Southeast, Suite 310
Albuquerque, NM
87109-5841
(505) 761-8250

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Renn
mrenn@optomec.com
2575 University Ave., #135
St. Paul,  MN 55114-1069
(651) 641-2850

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of this project is to enhance the Optomec Aerosol Jet(R) technology for additive manufacturing by introduction of an Adaptive Laser Sintering System (ALSS) module to enable a fully automated system for printed electronics. The Optomec-Harding team seeks to reduce the localized laser sintering concept to practice by developing ALSS with in-situ automated adjustment of laser power and processing time. ALSS will include a laser for sintering with sensors to monitor the process so that any flaws in the printed electronics circuitry can be repaired with minimal human intervention. The benefit will be two-fold: it will enable Optomec, Inc. to expand its commercial applications of the Aerosol Jet technology in printed electronics industry, and to pave the way for the use of this advanced technology in the next generation of human space exploration. The success of this endeavor will be of vital importance to the NASA's in-space, on-demand manufacturing capabilities to support the unique challenges of long-duration human spaceflight. The developed automated adaptive in-line quality control system with ALSS is also applicable to that required for long-duration human space missions with minimal need for astronaut intervention, when printing conformal electronics and sensors onto flexible substrates of various geometrical complexities using the Aerosol Jet technology. The liquid metal nanoparticle (NP) inks as printed are not conductive enough for required circuit functionality; they must be transformed to solid metal path by a sintering at an elevated temperature. To reduce sintering time and exposure of the substrate to damaging temperatures, localized laser sintering has been shown to be promising. The challenge to commercialization of laser sintering is controlling the laser power and processing time required for effective sintering of metal NP inks while avoiding thermal damage to substrate, which will be addressed by the ALSS.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
While the Aerosol Jet(R) technology is changing the way engineers and scientists design and develop electronic, biomedical, and mechanical systems, its applicability in printed electronics is mainly limited by the sintering process when the substrate materials must not be damaged by the elevated temperature, especially when the conventional thermal oven is used. The success of ALSS development will enable sintering printed metal NP inks on many low-temperature substrates that have been impossible with oven sintering, because the transient laser power is applied to a very small spot with a very short duration which minimizes the heat-affected zone. Thus, the Aerosol Jet system with the ALSS enhancement will tremendously increase its production capability and market share in printed electronics industry. On the other hand, the knowledge gained via ALSS development can be utilized in other in-line monitoring and control subsystem development for future system enhancement, which is also aimed at increasing the scopes of Aerosol Jet(R) potential commercial applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
After the successful design, test and implementation of ALSS, the science and technology of laser sintering will be better understood for controllable adaptive operations. It provides a key solution to NASA's challenge of in-space, on-demand manufacturing capabilities to support the unique challenges of long-duration human spaceflight, which requires an automated adaptive in-line quality control system along with the manufacturing process. The reduction in both time and manpower with modularization of the process will allow better integration of a prototype instrument to be installed for demonstration on ISS. NASA can use this ALSS module at NASA research centers to compare and evaluate the advantages of printing electronics using different direct-write technologies, whether it is the Aerosol Jet or inkjet or other metal NP ink dispensing methods or plasma jet printing technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Analytical Methods
Process Monitoring & Control
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
In Situ Manufacturing
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H7.02-8696
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Manufacturing of Precision Parts
PROPOSAL TITLE: The Vulcan Advanced Hybrid Manufacturing System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Made in Space, Inc.
427 North Tatnall Street, #56666
Wilmington, DE
19801-2230
(209) 736-7768

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Snyder
snyder@madeinspace.us
427 North Tatnall Street, #56666
Wilmington,  DE 19801-2230
(419) 271-0602

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Made In Space is developing the The Vulcan Advanced Hybrid Manufacturing System (VULCAN) to address NASAıs requirement to produce high-strength, high-precision components on-orbit with comparable quality to commercially-available, terrestrial machined parts. Such capability enables the in-situ manufacturing of critical parts for human spaceflight and without dependence on terrestrial resupply. Made In Space integrates flight-proven microgravity process controls and payload support systems, such as environmental and master controls, with a modular manufacturing & tool system that generates a near net shape for surface finishing or other industrial processing into the final product. One of the key innovations of Made In Spaceıs VULCAN is the ability to produce finished metal parts with one device, eliminating the need for separate additive manufacturing and subtractive machining facilities. The wire feed architecture of both the thermoplastic extruder and metal manufacturing head allows the hardware to be interchangeable and supported on the same gantry without requiring modification of any of the components. The two manufacturing heads follow the SBM-Spec interface standards for ıplug-and-playı operation. Thus, the manufacturing heads can be exchanged easily by crewmembers with no formal manufacturing training. Using this capability, the VULCAN device produces both non-metallic and metallic replacement parts with a minimum of crew interaction. VULCAN is scalable and supports the open SBM-Spec architecture for the thermoplastic and metal manufacturing heads, resulting in a manufacturing methodology that uses multiple materials and can be upgraded over time.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Department of Defense has a demonstrated need for advanced manufacturing capabilities in locations and on forward-deployed platforms without regular logistical support or available resources for traditional fabrication and finishing technologies. Perhaps the foremost example is the US Navy submarine fleet. While aircraft carriers are commonly referred to as ıcities at seaı because of their size and on-board industrial capacity, the nationıs attack and ballistic missile submarines deploy for months at a time and must function as entirely self-contained units with no physical connection to the outside world. Submarines on patrol duty may only surface during departure from base and upon return. A tactical version of the VULCAN device gives the DoD a modular, common manufacturing system deployable on mobile platforms, such as submarines, destroyers, transport aircraft, and trucks, and in fixed locations with limited external support, such as Forward Operating Bases and advance airfields.Incumbent 3D printing companies generate revenue from four primary sources: new device sales; feedstock sales; on demand printing; and maintenance services. Made In Space plans to adopt a similar revenue model when developing VULCAN units for commercial use. VULCAN units will be developed and sold to the merchant vessel market. Due to its size and importance, Made In Space will initially target the oil tanker vertical.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The VULCAN technology is primarily intended for sustaining human spaceflight operations, first on the ISS and, later, on long-duration missions to the Moon, Mars, or other destinations in the Solar System. Made In Space has built industry alliances with such companies as Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Orbital ATK, Sierra Nevada Corporation, and Bigelow Aerospace to evaluate the optimal concept of operations for in-space manufacturing as an enabling technology for the NextSTEP Cislunar Habitat. Made In Space is also working with UTC Aerospace Systems and Paragon to develop ECLSS design principles for repair and replenishment by in-space manufacturing. Robotic expeditionary missions can also employ the VULCAN technology for autonomous repairs while building the infrastructure preceding human habitation. Local robots may retrieve and install VULCAN-generated parts automatically or via teleoperation. Such capability may be necessary to ensure continuity of operations without direct human intervention and enable human crews to focus on mission objectives.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Metallics
Nonspecified
Polymers
In Situ Manufacturing
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H7.02-9710
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Manufacturing of Precision Parts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Metal Advanced Manufacturing Bot-Assisted Assembly (MAMBA) Process

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tethers Unlimited, Inc.
11711 North Creek Parkway South, Suite D113
Bothell, WA
98011-8808
(425) 486-0100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rachel Muhlbauer
muhlbauer@tethers.com
11711 N. Creek Pkwy S., D113
Bothell,  WA 98011-8808
(425) 486-0100

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Tethers Unlimited, Inc. (TUI) proposes to develop the Metal Advanced Manufacturing Bot-Assisted Assembly (MAMBA) Process, a robotically managed metal press and milling system used to create precision parts on orbit. This manufacturing process provides an alternative to 3D printing metals in space, which is difficult due to space environment or print quality issues. Instead, the MAMBA-Process relies on an ingot forming technology to create a metal ingot. This ingot can then be milled and machined to form a precision part using a standard CNC milling technique. In order to minimize astronaut time and exposure to the process, the MAMBA-Process will be outfitted with a robotic assistant, using robotic assistance to remove the ingot from the press, to place the ingot in the mill, and to perform tool changes on the mill. The MAMBA effort will also develop a novel process for management and recycling of metal chips in a microgravity environment. Testing of the process technologies will lead to a lab demonstration of ingot formation and milling in the Phase I effort, maturing the MAMBA Process to TRL-3. In the Phase II effort, a full scale engineering unit will be built and tested to begin validating this technology for flight.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
he MAMBA-Process technologies can support commercial spaceflight companies with a focus on manned space travel by enabling in-space manufacture of precision metal parts. Its technologies will be critical to TUI's OrbWeaver project to enable in-space manufacturing of large phased array antennas. Additionally, the MAMBA process will have utility aboard submarines and other remote facilities where resupply is limited.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The MAMBA-Process will support long-duration manned missions such as Manned Mars Missions and the ISS by enabling manufacture of precision metal parts on-orbit as needed. Rather than fly a storage room of potential spare parts, the MAMBA-Process can be used to make these components when a need arises, limiting the initial launch volume. In addition, the acceptance of used parts into the Positrusion-Press sub-technology allows for the recycling of used or failed parts, minimizes stored waste, and enables a closed loop ecosystem for metal fabrication. The ability to re-use mass taken on mission, dependent on the mission stage, will greatly increase capability per budgeted mass. In addition, the MAMBA-Process will enable the flexibility to replace critical components when resupply is impossible or improbable.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Metallics
In Situ Manufacturing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H7.02-9767
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Manufacturing of Precision Parts
PROPOSAL TITLE: ISS Multi-Material Fabrication Laboratory using Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing Technology

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ultratech Machinery
297 Ascot Parkway
Cuyahoga Falls, OH
44223-4422
(330) 929-5544

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Hagarty
BHAGARTY@utmachinery.com
297 Ascot Parkway
Cuyahoga Falls,  OH 44223-4422
(330) 929-5544

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of this program is to demonstrate the use of Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM) solid state metal 3D printing to provide in-space, on-demand manufacturing capabilities to support the unique challenges of long-duration human spaceflight. Previous and ongoing work in NASA SBIR programs has demonstrated the ability to 3D print quality metal parts using UAM. The goal of this Phase I program is to demonstrate the feasibility to reduce the size and power consumption of current UAM machine technology to 3D print aerospace grade aluminums for In-Space manufacturing. In fact, for the UAM process, operation in a micro-gravity environment contributes to power reduction goals expressed in recent NASA documents (NASA, 2016).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other applications of this technology could be in defense and on the spot fixes for novel parts in addition to research ventures and commercial space structure programs. This project could enable the high-performance, technology-leading nature of the organizations and their missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications include use on the ISS in addition to any research and development on UAM and metallic consolidation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Structures
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Prototyping
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H8.01-8465
SUBTOPIC TITLE: ISS Utilization and Microgravity Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Evaluation of Multifunctional Radiation Shielding Material Against Long Duration Space Environment - Utilization of MISSE-FF

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Geoplasma, LLC
6703 Odyssey Drive, Northwest Suite 304
Huntsville, AL
35806-3308
(256) 489-4748

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John O'Dell
scottodell@plasmapros.com
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville,  AL 35811-1558
(256) 851-7653

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Radiation shielding is needed to protect personnel and equipment for extended stays beyond low earth orbit. Ideally, the shielding material would be of dual use, i.e., shielding and structural. Recently, a tailorable multifunctional composite with increased structural strength combined with efficient shielding against GCR and secondary neutrons was developed by this team. For these multifunctional composites to be seriously considered for such applications as crew vehicles and habitats, their durability against the overall space environment such as atomic oxygen, UV radiation, and temperature extremes have to be evaluated. During this effort, we aim to further improve the multifunctional radiation shielding material and use the MISSE-FF facility to test our composite against the combined space environment. To further improve the shielding and structural properties of the composite, incorporation of boron nitride as nanophase particles or tubes (BNNT) and enriched boron carbide will be evaluated. Aside from having large cross-section for neutron attenuation, significant enhancements in strength and stiffness can be expected from incorporating these phases in the composite architecture. In addition to radiation and mechanical testing, these advanced composites will ultimately have to be tested against the combined space environment, which will be conducted during Phase 2 and 3 efforts.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA markets, this technology can be leveraged across the broader nuclear market. Both government and commercial entities in the following sectors use radiation shielding. Commercial applications include shielding for particle accelerators, nuclear reactors, radioactive waste containment, satellite hardware shielding, radiation protection for passengers/crew in high-altitude commercial and military airliners, and medical patient shielding.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications for this technology include structural radiation shielding for the protection of humans and electronics in aerospace transportation vehicles, space transportation vehicles, large space structures, such as space stations, orbiters, landing vehicles, rovers, habitats, and nuclear propulsion. Potential customers include Boeing, Orbital-ATK, Lockheed, and other NASA contractors.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Textiles
Isolation/Protection/Radiation Shielding (see also Mechanical Systems)
Prototyping
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H8.01-8809
SUBTOPIC TITLE: ISS Utilization and Microgravity Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Industrial Crystallization Facility for Nonlinear Optical Materials

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Made in Space, Inc.
427 North Tatnall Street, #56666
Wilmington, DE
19801-2230
(209) 736-7768

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eric Joyce
eric@madeinspace.us
153 Dailey Rd
Moffett Field,  CA 94035-0000
(740) 381-6288

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Made In Space, Inc. (MIS) proposes the development of an Industrial Crystal Facility (ICF) for microgravity product manufacturing and applied research. The ICF is focused on advanced materials engineering, rather than biomedical research, and serves a complimentary role to existing NASA-developed hardware, expanding utilization of ISS. Intended applications include nonlinear optical single crystals and other relatively large material formulations. This is a critical next step in the development of Low Earth Orbit as an economic development zone, using the ISS National Lab as a proving ground and following the forthcoming Made In Space Fiber (MIS Fiber) demonstration of manufacturing a product in space with economically-significant intrinsic value on the ground. The ISS National Lab serves as an ideal platform to explore whether industrial crystals can be grown in microgravity to larger sizes and/or improved quality as compared with terrestrial sources. Existing low temperature solution growth methods take days to weeks to complete, so parabolic flights and suborbital vehicles are not suitable for establishing process baselines and making effective comparisons. Microgravity production holds the potential for room-temperature production of NLO materials for high-energy applications with size and quality undiminished by the effects of sedimentation and convection. A new facility is needed to explore the feasibility of microgravity-enabled industrial crystals as a new product market for Low Earth Orbit.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Demand for optical sensors, laser equipment, and optical switches for computing and communications continues to grow. Nonlinear optical materials alone represent a market of more than $1 billion in the optoelectronics sector. Semiorganic NLO materials are being investigated for fiber optic communications components, laser transmitters, computer memory devices, improved LIDAR, ultrafast optical switches, optical waveguides, and image sensors for automotive-safety systems, medical equipment, video security and surveillance networks, human-recognition user interfaces, and other embedded image collection devices. Technical adviser Dr. Gregory Wurtz assesses that the benign production environment and flexibility in designing their nonlinear optical properties lends microgravity-enabled optical crystals towards applications in deep UV lasers for medical devices and the development of thin film materials for active nanoscale devices that are not currently easily fabricated.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proliferation of photonic sensors and optoelectronic devices for both military and civil applications has no end in sight. From the warfighter on deployment to the commanding officers in the Pentagon, the Department of Defense wants more eyes on the battlefield. Operational needs range from troop-level LIDAR devices to optical and infrared sensors that feed tactical battlefield management systems to early-warning and detection of missile threats from space. Defense researchers are increasingly studying optical computing and other integrated photonic devices to reduce the vulnerability of traditional military electronic devices to jamming and electronic attack. In the civil sector, including NASA, photonic device applications include laser rangefinding, photonic gyroscopes, spectroscopy, and optical communications. For example, the upcoming Laser Communications Relay Demonstration on the ISS, called ILLUMA, relies on a first-of-its-kind integrated photonics circuit to transmit and encode data at orders of magnitude higher rates than traditional digital systems. Future integrated photonics circuits can be lithographically printed on large single optical crystals, much as integrated microelectronic circuits are lithographically printed on semiconductor crystals today.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Nonspecified
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H8.01-8903
SUBTOPIC TITLE: ISS Utilization and Microgravity Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Space Flight of Ultra-Low Noise Quad Photoreceivers for Laser Interferometric Gravity Wave Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Discovery Semiconductors, Inc.
119 Silvia Street
Ewing, NJ
08628-3200
(609) 434-1311

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Abhay Joshi
amjoshi@discoverysemi.com
119 Silvia Street
Ewing,  NJ 08628-3200
(609) 434-1311

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Ultra-low capacitance quadrant InGaAs photoreceivers have been developed as part of the following successful NASA SBIR contracts by Discovery Semiconductors (DSC): (1) Phase I SBIR Contract # NNX09CD48P (01/22/09 to 07/21/09); and (2) Phase II SBIR Contract # NNX10CA59C (02/25/10 to 02/24/12). The photoreceivers are based on low capacitance per unit area photodiodes, combined with a commercial operational amplifier, and have achieved low cross talk, low capacitance, and low noise. With the successful completion of the design goals of the Quad Photoreceivers, the LISA community worldwide is eager to have these devices space-flight ready. Thus, the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) FF is a perfect vehicle to launch these quad receivers in space, and operate them for 12 to 18 months in harsh conditions. This view is strongly supported by Dr. Jeff Livas, Chief, Gravitational Astrophysics Laboratory, at NASA GSFC. Based on our prior experience with launching LIDAR InGaAs Photoreceivers on a MISSE 7 Flight, it is unrealistic to expect a MISSE FF launch in the 6 months short duration of this Phase I SBIR. Thus, our Phase I objective will be to perform the five key MIL-STD Tests, on the LISA Gravity Wave InGaAs Quad Photoreceivers. These tests will serve as a foundation for a potential MISSE FF Space Flight in Phase II SBIR of this program. MIL-STD reliability tests to be carried out in this Phase I SBIR are : (1) Mechanical Shock; (2) Vibration; (3) Thermal Shock; (4) Temperature Cycling; and (5) Damp Heat (humididty).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Infrared sensing including biomedical imaging & spectroscopy. Quad photodiodes with high sensitivity and bandwidth are desirable for human tissue scanning. The resulting technology will allow safer human tissue scanning. Detection in this spectral band has specific utility in differentiating between cysts and tumors. The resulting technology could allow easier scanning and early detection of life-threatening diseases.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Space-based laser interferometry over very long baseline to detect gravity waves. The noise performance of our quad photoreceiver has been designed for a baseline of up to 5 million kilometers and a Doppler shift of 20 MHz. It is noteworthy that the capacitance of the 1 mm diameter quad photodiode (2.5 pF per quadrant) allows a 3 dB bandwidth of ~1 GHz. Therefore, the TIA circuit of the quad photoreceiver can be potentially redesigned for ultra-low noise performance at a Doppler shift of several hundred megahertz.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Infrared
Lifetime Testing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H8.01-9296
SUBTOPIC TITLE: ISS Utilization and Microgravity Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Utilization of the International Space Station to Verify Photonic Devices for Enhanced Space-Based Atmospheric Profiling

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ADVR, Inc.
2310 University Way, Building 1-1
Bozeman, MT
59715-6504
(406) 522-0388

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shirley McNeil
mcneil@advr-inc.com
2310 University Way, Building #1-1
Bozeman,  MT 59715-6504
(406) 522-0388

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The overall goal of the SBIR effort is completion of Technical Readiness Level (TRL) 5, component validation in a relevant environment, of the key photonics devices for a diode-based, locked wavelength, seed laser system currently being developed for space-based, High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) measurements. To achieve this goal, AdvR is proposing to the utilize the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE-FF) Flight Facility for accelerated and accurate testing of the key materials and components of the seed laser system, all of which have been successfully integrated into NASA High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) flight missions, but none of which have been in a space environment. Exposure and successful operation of AdvR developed materials and devices in a relevant space environment will complete the TRL 5 requirements for this technology and allow advancement to TRL 6 for the system, thus directly addressing the need for space technologies already developed under the NASA Langley SBIR Program that would mature in TRL due to successful demonstration in the space environment, as described in the NASA SBIR topic H8.01 ISS Utilization and Microgravity Research.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Laser source stabilization Commercial lidar systems Environmental and pollution monitoring Fiber and free-space communications

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aerosols/Clouds/Ecosystems Mission (ACE); NASA LaRC (Hostetler, Cook, et al.) High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL); Nasa LaRC (Hostetler, Cook, et al.) Monitoring the Evolving State of Clouds and Aerosols (MESCAL); lidar mission concept under development by NASA LaRC and CNES Ocean Profiling Atmospheric Lidar (OPAL) Wind Lidar, NASA/GSFC (Gentry, et al.) DIAL Lidar, NASA/GSFC (Riris, et al.)

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Infrared
Active Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H8.01-9395
SUBTOPIC TITLE: ISS Utilization and Microgravity Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Crystal Growth of New Radiation Detector Materials in Microgravity

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA
02472-4699
(617) 668-6801

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alexei Churilov
AChurilov@rmdinc.com
44 Hunt Street
Watertown,  MA 02472-4699
(617) 668-6801

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
RMD proposes to conduct a series of crystal growth experiments on the International Space Station in the SUBSA furnace inside the MSG glovebox to grow crystals of new materials that have shown a good radiation detector response and present a commercial interest. There is a great demand for spectroscopic gamma-ray detectors capable of not only detecting presence and intensity of radiation, but also distinguishing the energy of an emitting isotope with high resolution. Another market is for solid-state neutron detection and dosimetry, where crystals can replace the difficult to obtain 3He gas. RMD is currently researching several detector crystals that have been developed to that stage: TlBr, SrI2:Eu, and 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA). These are detector materials of different types for specific applications: TlBr is a semiconductor for gamma-ray detection, SrI2:Eu is a scintillator for gamma-ray detection, and DPA is an organic scintillator for neutron detection. Crystal growth of these materials presents a number of challenges which limit the yield of high quality crystals or degrade their detector properties. The proposed microgravity research project will focus on developing a better understanding of the mechanisms that govern defect formation during crystal growth of these materials, and correlating those mechanisms to detector properties. RMD assembled a strong team of experts with significant experience in crystal growth and materials research in microgravity, who are very familiar with the equipment to be utilized for this project. Despite whether our hypotheses are confirmed or disproven, this series of crystal growth experiments in microgravity would allow us to determine which process parameters have the largest impact on quality and yield without interference from convection, in order to focus on optimization of those parameters, for improved production on Earth.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. (RMD) proposes to conduct a series of crystal growth experiments on the International Space Station in the SUBSA furnace inside the MSG glovebox to grow crystals of new materials that have shown a good radiation detector response and present a commercial potential. There is a large demand for spectroscopic gamma-ray detectors capable of not only detecting the presence and intensity of radiation, but also distinguishing the energy of an emitting isotope with high resolution. An additional market is for solid-state neutron detection and dosimetry, where crystals can replace the difficult to obtain 3He gas. RMD is currently performing research on several detector crystals, including TlBr, SrI2:Eu, and 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA). TlBr is a semiconductor for gamma-ray detection, SrI2:Eu is a scintillator for gamma-ray detection, and DPA is an organic scintillator for neutron detection. All three of these scintillators will be an excellent fit for personal Radiation Detectors (PRD), Spectroscopic Radiation Detectors (SPRD), and in Radioisotope Identification Devices (RIIDs). N-tech Research estimates that the revenue generated by PRD/SPRDs was approximately $329 million in 2013 and should grow at a CAGR of 4 percent to reach $437 million by 2020. They also estimate that the market for RIIDs was $591 million in 2013 and will grow at a CAGR of 5 percent to $836 million in 2020.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In the area of Space Sciences, SrI2 crystals are advantageous because of their unique combination of sensitivity, energy resolution, and radio-purity. SrI2 detectors are currently under development for a next-generation &#947;-ray telescope and have been proposed for future planetary science missions. 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA) crystals are being applied for space weather monitoring because of their ability to effectively discriminate between different high energy particles, such as protons and electrons. Neutron dosimetry is another area of application for DPA because it can measure neutron energy and discriminate it from other types of radiation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ionizing Radiation
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
X-rays/Gamma Rays
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H8.01-9415
SUBTOPIC TITLE: ISS Utilization and Microgravity Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Portable Spectroscopic Scanning Electron Microscope on ISS: In-Situ Nanostructural/Chemical Analysis for Critical Vehicle Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mochii, Inc., D/B/A Voxa
1001 26th Avenue East
Seattle, WA
98112-3645
(206) 288-3230

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher Own
csown@voxa.co
1001 26th Ave E
Seattle,  WA 98112-3645
(206) 288-3230

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We will construct a novel field-portable miniature analytical electron microscope (EM+EDS) called Mochii "S" for in situ sensing in harsh/remote environments such as orbital and deep space flight. This lightweight, ISS-ready nano-analyzer will provide direct observation and chemical identification of the fine structure and correlated function of materials, contaminants, and biological agents down to the nanoscale. Nanostructural and spectrostropic analyses -- key ground capabilities -- can for the first time be launched with exploration vehicles and operated in-situ by virtue of unprecedented (10-100x) volume and weight reduction over traditional ground-based advanced analytical tools. Benefits include zero-latency nanoscale diagnosis and evolution tracking of previously invisible mission threats (i.e., presenting at the microstructural level and below) facilitating rapid mission team response and novel science. Phase I will demonstrate a system capable of imaging structures well below the diffraction limit of visible light (below 350 nm) concurrent with chemical identification of species via X-ray spectroscopy, at orders of magnitude lower cost, size, and weight than any existing EM system. Native tablet-based wireless control enables remote and concurrent multi-node use, mirroring current orbital mission control systems. The system will achieve TRL 6 and be subsequently improved to be flight-ready (TRL 8+) in Phase II enabling in situ sensing and observation for life support systems, engineering systems, and new science on ISS and Orion spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Forecasted applications of Mochii S relative to other government agencies - DOE: energy development, nuclear materials, metallurgy, failure analysis - DOD: battlefield metallurgy and materials including failure analysis, explosives/hazardous materials detection, ballistics - EPA and NOAA: remote monitoring, contamination and pollution stream tracking - FDA: Food inspection for mold and other pathogens, contamination tracking - CDC: pathogen tracking, human tissue morphology and disease evolution Forecasted applications of Mochii S relative to commercial markets. - Metallurgy and failure analysis in manufacturing - Mineral analysis in oil, gas, and natural resource exploration - Nanotechnology/STEM education and outreach, citizen science - democratization of EM technology Potential Non-NASA customers: - Other Government agencies: DOE, DOD, EPA, NOAA, Homeland Security, FDA, Dept of Agriculture, CDC, NSF, NIH, local and federal and all others funding or conducting research or field work where high-resolution imaging can be of benefit - Commercial markets: aeronautical and automotive manufacturers, semiconductor manufacturers, oil and gas and natural resource exploration, research groups sending samples to service facilities, research groups that send samples back (field analysis), smaller educational institutions currently unable to access EM technology

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Mochii S will analyze small processes and structures on-orbit such as life support filtration system integrity and cleanliness, fracture and fatigue failure mechanisms, pitting from micrometeoroid impacts, in-vehicle biological contaminants, and chemical and physical phase changes in structural and propulsion systems, accelerating investigation and problem resolution in ISS and Orion in the future. - In situ characterization of materials and biological agents on-orbit, at small length scales previously impossible to monitor. - Versatile built-in sample preparation greatly expands possible in-situ analyses - Early domestic and foreign object debris identification, reducing critical system downtime by accelerating investigations and reducing crew risk - Reduces deep space exploration risks where sample return is not an option - Versatile platform for novel on-orbit experimental science. - Novel sensitivities: nanoscale structure, composition, surface sensitivity, high contrast, large relative depth of focus, magnetization - Mission team collaboration: vastly reduced training and service requirements eliminate field specialization; native wireless datalink between remote and ground teams - Ground crew use including earth-based field crews, analysis at NASA and launch sites - Swarm sensor arrays: small volume envelope: 210mm x 210mm x 265mm, <12 kg, <85W - Native distributed datalink and imaging facilitates public and educational outreach

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Biological Signature (i.e., Signs Of Life)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
X-rays/Gamma Rays
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Teleoperation
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Input/Output Devices (Displays, Storage)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H8.01-9521
SUBTOPIC TITLE: ISS Utilization and Microgravity Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microgravity Granular Material Research (MGMR) Facility for ISS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Trans Astronautica Corporation
11404 Camaloa Avenue
Lake View Terrace, CA
91342-6810
(818) 422-0514

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joel Sercel
sercel@transastracorp.com
11404 Camaloa Avenue
Lake View Terrace,  CA 91342-6810
(818) 422-0514

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
TransAstra Corporation in collaboration with Grainflow Dynamics Inc. and the Colorado School of Mines proposes to develop a general purpose Micro-g Granular Material Research (MGMR) facility for use on the ISS. This facility will include a test section into which third party experimenters can place their apparatus and will be suitable for studying steady or variable gas-solid flows over a 2-orders of magnitude range in particle size and 4-orders of magnitude in solids-fraction at gas pressures ranging from atmospheric to vacuum and flow velocities from a 10s of m/s per second down to stationary conditions. This facility will provide a unique opportunity to gain understanding of the fundamental physical behavior of granular solids in microgravity over a range of solids fractions that are unobtainable terrestrially due to gravitationally induced settling. It will also support study of phenomena occurring in static assemblies of solid particulates and in pneumatic transport. MGMR will support exploration of static, transient, and steady-state flow conditions. In micro-gravity, low speed pneumatic transport can cause aggregation of particles resulting in the formation of gel-like structures which grow to fill available volumes. Such fractal-lattice particulate-gels are a potential blocking mechanism that could affect low-velocity pneumatic transport in human habitation systems and/or ISRU operations on asteroids or other small bodies such as the moons of Mars. Understanding what contributes to the strength of such gels and developing the means to avoid or disrupt them will be crucial for the design of solids transport systems in future ISRU facilities. The MGMR will provide a unique environment for advancement of both fundamental science and of technologies important for the advancement of solar system exploration. The MGMR will also serve as a subscale testbed for the fabrication of radiation shields made from asteroid regolith for human deep space habitats.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial space mining is a rapidly ascending industry. Large companies such as Blue Origin and United Launch Alliance are investing in this area and a $200M commercial venture fund has been established for this industry simulating the creation of several rapidly growing small companies. TransAstra Corporation is part of this new resource-recovery industry, which also includes companies such as Deep Space Industries, Planetary Resources, Moon Express, and Shakleton Energy. These companies anticipate excavating, transporting and processing large quantities of regolith to recover water and other volatiles and to process the minerals for fabrication of radiation shielding or structures. Such operations will involve transporting, storing and handling large quantities of granular solids under reduced or micro-gravity. Advancement of the understanding of the fundamental behavior of granular materials under reduced gravity conditions and under reduced gas pressures or vacuum conditions will be critical for them in designing their equipment and processes. The industry will have a strong interest in the science and technological developments that can come from a micro-g granular materials research facility. We are confident that our company, and others will want to sponsor purely commercial directed studies using the facility once it is available on the ISS.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The MGMR facility developed under this effort will address both fundamental science and technology development need of NASA and its commercial partners. There is no terrestrial research facility that can study aggregation of millimeter-scale agglomerates or particles, a fundamental process in the formation of planetesimals and a process that must be understood for future NASA and commercial applications such as asteroid ISRU and air circulation and filtering in long life deep space environmental control systems. Also, no terrestrial test facility exists that can test low-velocity, low-density-gas pneumatic transport concepts suitable for movement of regolith and other granular solids on asteroids or in processing facilities on the moons of Mars. Such equipment might be very beneficial for ISRU applications; however, such equipment will not be considered for deep space missions if we do not know enough about potential failure mechanisms, or about design parameter space to design and construct robust micro-g pneumatic transport systems. The proposed facility will allow appropriate science and engineering tests to be conducted in a readily accessible location and in an appropriate environment. In addition this facility will be well suited as a test environment for third party commercial use on ISS supporting NASA contracts.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Resource Extraction
Fluids
Nonspecified
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Tools/EVA Tools
Outreach
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H8.01-9770
SUBTOPIC TITLE: ISS Utilization and Microgravity Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rodent Centrifuge

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Techshot, Inc.
7200 Highway 150
Greenville, IN
47124-9515
(812) 923-9591

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Vellinger
jvellinger@techshot.com
7200 Highway 150
Greenville,  IN 47124-9515
(812) 923-9591

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
According to the decadal report titled, Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era of Space Exploration, a Report, ??the AHB Panel would be remiss if it did not strongly recommend an animal centrifuge capable of accommodating rats/mice at variable gravity levels.? Furthermore, the panel stated, ??research on animal models will be constrained without the ability to manipulate the gravity variable as a factor modulating the fundamental processes underlying organ system homeostasis.? In response, Techshot has proposed to develop a Rodent Centrifuge Facility (RCF-QL) that utilizes four locker locations (Quad Locker) in the EXPRESS Rack for life science research. The counter-balanced centrifuge is designed to provide a facility to allow rats and mice to live and be observed in simulated gravity between 0-1 g for up to 90 days. The RCF-QL provides up to five cages. Each cage can accommodate at least six 30 gram mice, three 200 gram rats, or two 400 gram rats per cage. Each individual cage has ablib food and water, controllable lighting, and video monitoring. The habitat is temperature controlled with constant airflow throughout the cages. Air flow entraps waste in a filter that also treats the waste for bacteria and odor. Additional air filters will remove odors and ammonium from the animal enclosure. The subsystems design will minimize crew time. Each subsystem requiring change-out during the 90 day experiment will be designed to be simple and intuitive in operations. The RCF-QL will be the only facility capable of providing group housing for rats and mice, with a medium diameter centrifuge (20 in., 0.508 m) and a large rotating cage volume (1000 in3, 16,400 cm3 for the cage). All hardware cage features are designed to meet NIH animal care and use standards.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Techshot sees tremendous potential commercial applications for the Rodent Centrifuge Facility ? Quad Locker (RCF-QL) in biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies where life science research holds promise for cell replacement therapies for bioregenerative diseases. Techshot already has been in talks with U.S. biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies regarding long-term rodent research aboard the ISS. Furthermore, the company has begun to establish international connections with commercial entities in Canada, and most recently Brazil, where strong interest has been expressed in buying microgravity research tools and opportunities. Just as exciting, Techshot expects to commercialize the RCF-QL by incorporating it into the company's spaceflight service program it offers to other Government agencies like NIH, NSF, and DoD. In combination with the long list of other proven flight hardware developed by Techshot, the facility is expected to greatly expand the company's range of services. More importantly, its unique medium radius centrifuge capability should further enhance Techshot's commercial competitive position.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Rodent Centrifuge Facility ? Quad Locker (RCF-QL) offers the largest diameter centrifuge research tool flown on ISS. The RCF-QL is a unique and powerful instrument for novel life and microgravity science research. Techshot?s initial targeted application of the proposed innovation is an offering of both the equipment and services associated with flight hardware and integration activities, which are highly desired by NASA-funded scientists as well as other governmental agencies. The RCF-QL will enhance NASA?s position in exploration research by allowing rodent experiments at, for example, Mars gravity ? a long-standing interest of NASA?s intramural and extramural gravitational physiology users. Its large cage geometry will allow the investigation of a variety of systems, biological and physical, with larger allowed volume than any other ISS centrifugal research device. Obviously the RCF-QL can provide 1-g control conditions for experiments in stationary hardware such as animal and plant habitats. The RCF-QL will have the additional advantage that Techshot is uniquely qualified to provide these space flight services, just as the company has done for PI?s on a variety of flight experiments for the past 27 years, including, for example, our Avian Development Facility (ADF). Techshot is also supporting future ISS experiments for NASA PI?s utilizing the Bone Densitometer flight hardware that Techshot developed and integrated in 2013-14.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Biophysical Utilization
Medical
Physiological/Psychological Countermeasures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H8.01-9852
SUBTOPIC TITLE: ISS Utilization and Microgravity Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Speed Data Capability to Increase the Utilization of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE-FF) Flight Facility

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Solstar
514 Richmond Southeast
Albuquerque, NM
87106-9998
(505) 217-1430

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Barnett
barnett@solstar.net
514 Richmond SE
Albuquerque,  NM 87106-9998
(505) 934-6528

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Solstar's innovation addresses SBIR RFP Subtopic H8.01 ISS Utilization and Microgravity Research, whereby NASA is soliciting "capabilities that will continue to enhance improvements to existing ISS research and support hardware, ...that promote commercial enterprise ventures ...; Specifically, NASA is soliciting mid-TRL space technology experiments to fly on a platform mounted on the outside of the ISS called MISSE-FF (Materials International Space Station Experiment Flight Facility). This project supports NASA's goals the commercialization of LEO spaceflight, by completing one more commercial component - communications - to the chain of commercial capabilities. The proposed communications system can also serve other payloads (at NASA's choice) and is could be a pathfinder for other spacecraft beyond ISS. Solstar's innovation meets the objectives of the subtopic by proposing to provide economical, commercial, high speed data services (up to 60Mb) for MISSE-FF's commercial, NASA, and Non-NASA payload customers. Solstar's innovation meets the objectives of the subtopic by providing a commercial, dedicated short burst data services for MISSE-FF's industrial, NASA, and Non-NASA payload customers. Some MISSE payload customers (especially industrial), want a more efficient way to interact with their payloads than TDRSS (Tracking and Data Relay Satellites). Solstar is teamed with Alpha Space, the owner of MISSE-FF. Alpha Space and NASA have a cooperative agreement to attract more commercial and non-NASA customers for MISSE-FF. Alpha Space and its customers believe Solstar's proposed commercial high speed data services will improve how customers interact with their experiments on MISSE-FF. MISSE's industrial partners are especially interested in being able to interact with their proprietary research through a more direct means, more often and consistently

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Economical, secure, High-Speed data service for MISSE-FF commercial customers. Commercial data services for private manuf. facilities in LEO; sending print commands to commercial 3-D printers in LEO and future commercial space stations and hotels. Secure, commercial data link for security/defense agency satellites; Commercial high speed data services on-board commercial orbiting spacecraft. STEM.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
- Fulfill NASA's goal to enhance improvements to existing ISS research and support hardware, in this case with the MISSE-FF (Materials International Space Station Experiment Flight Facility). - Dedicated, on-demand, uplink and downlink to NASA MISSE-FF experiments that could be more efficient than current methods. - Potential Acquisition of Signal coverage for MISSEE-FF payload operators during Loss of Signal periods on ISS. Economical, high-speed data service for future LEO NASA free-flying Smallsats, and cubesats.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry (see also Control & Monitoring)
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Antennas
Transmitters/Receivers
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H9.01-8624
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Optical Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Power (50W) WDM Space Lasercom 1.5um Fiber Laser Transmitter

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fibertek, Inc.
13605 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon, VA
20171-4603
(703) 471-7671

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Doruk Engin
dengin@fibertek.com
13605 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon,  VA 20171-4603
(703) 471-7671

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Fibertek proposes to develop and demonstrate a spaceflight prototype of a wideband, high power (up to 50W), polarization maintaining (PM), 1.5-um fiber laser transmitter, supporting high data rate wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) operation for space optical communication links. The proposed 1.5-um fiber laser transmitter will support up to 8x WDM channels at 4W/channel, with 256-ary pulse-position-modulation (PPM) format, operating at ~10-kW peak power per channel, with >20-nm gain-flat bandwidth, and with 20% power conversion efficiency. The proposed 1.5-um fiber laser transmitter also supports 20x WDM channels at 2.5W/channel, operating at 10 GHz data rate (for 200GHz total) in burst-mode RZ-DPSK modulation. The proposed 10x scaling of the average and peak power performance for such a space-qualifiable WDM 1.5-um transmitter enables >100x data-rate scaling of current space laser communication links. The successful outcome of Phase I and II will be to develop a prototype, space-qualifiable, high-efficiency, high-power (50W), 1.5-um WDM space lasercom transmitter. This advances the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) from 3 to 5 and supports TRL-6 environmental testing in subsequent phases.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
- High data-rate, low SWaP, laser transmitters for optical communication from LEO/GEO satellites - High data-rate real-time feed from multiple UAVs via LEO/GEO crosslinks

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
- Space laser communication transmitter for ISS/LEO/GEO platforms, similar to NASA technology demonstrator missions, such as LLCD and the upcoming NASA ILLUMA and NASA LCRD mission. - High-data rate, multi-channel laser transmitters, as an adjunct high-volume data link for Earth Science missions, such as for hyper-spectral imaging. - Support NASA SCaN roadmap to enable large science data volume returns from deep space missions. - The fiber amplifier/laser design, packaging and technology maturation will support related laser transmitter developments for Earth Science missions, including NASA ASCENDS, CO2 lidar, CH4/H2O, and also for Wind Lidar.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Lasers (Communication)
Multiplexers/Demultiplexers
Transmitters/Receivers
Waveguides/Optical Fiber (see also Optics)
Prototyping


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H9.01-8737
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Optical Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultra-Narrow Bandpass Filters for Long Range Optical Telecommunications at 1064nm and 1550nm

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Omega Optical, Inc.
21 Omega Drive
Brattleboro, VT
05301-4444
(802) 251-7300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Thomas Rahmlow
trahmlow@omegafilters.com
21 Omega Drive
Brattleboro,  VT 05301-4444
(802) 251-7300

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Ultra-narrow bandpass filters with high off-band rejection are needed to maximize signal to noise for free space communications. Omega Optical is developing NIR filters with less than 1 nm bandwidths, which are thermally stable, and provide high rejection of adjacent communication channels. This program will address advancing these filters from a technology readiness level (TRL) of 3 to TRL 5. Development focus will address the manufacturing, materials, and characterization issues needed for space qualification.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
LIDAR, Autonomous Vehicles (Self-driving cars), AUVIS Applications, Drones, and Earth-to-balloon free-space laser communication.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
LIDAR, Free Space Laser Communications, DWDM, Emission Line Filters

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Filtering
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Lasers (Communication)
Optical
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Ultraviolet
Visible
Infrared
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Transmitters/Receivers


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H9.01-8808
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Optical Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Kilowatt Level Uplinks for Deep Space Optical Communications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optical Engines, Inc.
842 South Sierra Madre Street, Suite D
Colorado Springs, CO
80903-4100
(815) 383-8303

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Donald Sipes
don.sipes@opticalenginesinc.com
842 S. Sierra Madre St STE D
Colorado Springs,  CO 80903-4100
(815) 383-8303

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In a prior program, Optical Engines was able to achieve 300 W average CW power in a Packaged Deep Space uplink transmitter delivered to JPL. In order to meet the stated JPL goal of 500W of average power with a 20% duty factor in a low data rate configuration, over 3kW of pump power will be required. In order to operate with the nested high data rate option, mj level pulse energies at high average powers will need to be achieved. These performance requirements call for novel and unique designs in order to navigate a potential system around fiber non linearities and thermal modal instabilities. Optical Engines proposes to develop a 1030nm counter pumped composite microstructured fiber based transmitter system. To accomplish this a counter pumped fiber combiner and a specific double mode adapter will be developed and demonstrated, with the 500W average power 2500 W peak power low data rate configuration being developed and demonstrated along with designs for the nested high data rate configuration being completed.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lasers of this type have numerous applications in industrial markets from micro machining to enhanced material processing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The transmitter envisioned in this proposal will be able to operate with a number of different seed input sources from ps to ns pulse durations. In addition to deep space communications, applications such as LADAR, LIDAR, and other remote sensing applications are accessible with this technology. This very high average power would extend the range and coverage of NASA's current remote sensing technology

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Communication)
Lasers (Cutting & Welding)
Lasers (Guidance & Tracking)
Lasers (Ignition)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Lasers (Machining/Materials Processing)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Lasers (Medical Imaging)
Lasers (Surgical)
Lasers (Weapons)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H9.01-8838
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Optical Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Geiger-Mode SiGe Receiver for Long-Range Optical Communications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Freedom Photonics, LLC
41 Aero Camino
Goleta, CA
93117-3104
(805) 967-4900

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Renner
drenner@freedomphotonics.com
41 Aero Camino
Goleta,  CA 93117-3104
(805) 967-4900

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of this program is to develop, demonstrate and implement a photon-counting detector array sensitive in the wavelength range from 1000 nm to 1600 nm, with monolithically integrated time-tagging electronics, suitable for free-space optical communications, where high data volume returns from space missions are critical, such as in the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) and other future NASA missions. Conventional photon counting detector arrays are implemented in either Silicon (Si) or Mecury Cadmium Telluride (HgCdTe), negating detection at wavelengths longer than about 1000 nm in the case of Si or incurring high cost and complexity for HgCdTe. In this program, Freedom Photonics will develop a novel Geiger-mode Silicon Germanium (SiGe) receiver for photon counting applications with increased sensitivity for wavelengths in the range of 1000 nm to 1600 nm, which utilizes standard BiCMOS process, resulting in a low-cost, high-sensitivity, high-speed and radiation hard receiver for long-range optical communications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial and military applications for: Satellite-to-satellite and ground-to-satellite communications Aircraft-to-aircraft and ground-to-aircraft communications Range-finding and LADAR Medical Imaging

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Free-Space-Optical (FSO) Communications over long distances at high data rates (multi-Gigabit per second) for NASA planetary missions, lunar missions, satellite-to-satellite on earth orbit, aircraft-to-aircraft. For example: > 100 Gbps cis-lunar (Earth or lunar orbit to ground) > 10 Gbps Earth-sun L1 and L2 orbits > 1 Gbps per Astronomical Unit (AU) squared, deep space > 100 Mbps planetary lander to orbit

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Optical
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Infrared
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Ad-Hoc Networks (see also Sensors)
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Network Integration
Transmitters/Receivers
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H9.01-8966
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Optical Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: InGaAs Photomultiplier Chip Photon Counting Array for 1550 nm Operation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
LightSpin Technologies, Inc.
P.O. Box 7140
Endicott, NY
13761-7140
(301) 656-7600

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eric Harmon
harmon@lightspintech.com
314 Main Street
Norfolk,  MA 02056-1352
(508) 930-4198

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The development of a robust approach for Deep Space Optical Communications is critical to future space missions as communication bandwidth requirements are expected to dramatically increase due to continuing improvements in sensor spectral coverage and resolution. Current solutions do not meet NASAs goals for sensitivity, timing resolution, and data rate. Furthermore, many of the current solutions require cryocooling, which significantly impacts size, weight, and power, as well as reliability. LightSpin Technologies proposes the development of a new generation of single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array devices to fulfill NASA requirements. The innovation includes a new planar processing technology, enabling tight pitch SPAD arrays to be built, mitigating after pulsing and dead time limitations. Furthermore, we propose to use InAlAs gain regions, which have significant advantages due to its avalanche breakdown characteristics and wider band gap compared to InP. The net result at the end of Phase II will be a Photomultiplier Chip SPAD array device incorporating thousands of small area SPAD devices in parallel, enabling precision detection of single photons with sub 100 picosecond timing resolution and maximum count rates in excess of 10 Gcps.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Beyond NASA specific commercial applications, a wide range of commercial applications are directly enabled. These include free space optical communications, including satellite data links and military communications applications, as well as quantum secure communications and quantum computing. Remote sensing is a particularly attractive commercial application, given the compatibility with eye-safe lasers. Autonomous vehicles are expected to rapidly gain market share, due in large part to the availability of sensors such as lidar. Currently, many of these lidar systems operate at wavelengths of 800 -- 1100 nm, which are not considered eye-safe. This means that these systems must use attenuated laser beams to prevent eye damage, and therefore have range, spatial resolution, and frame rate limitations. Extending these systems to eyes-safe wavelengths has the potential to greatly improve range, spatial resolution and frame rate. While the barrier to entry into the automobile market is significant, military and aviation markets will have a lower barrier to entry and are likely to favor the price/performance ratio for long range, eye-safe lidar sensors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful completion of this SBIR project will result in the development of a InAlAs-InGaAs Photomultiplier Chip with performance that far exceeds the state-of-the-art, particularly with respect to single photon sensitivity, dark count rate, timing resolution, and dynamic range. Furthermore, this will be achievable using only modest cooling (200 K operation anticipated), greatly reducing size, weight, and power. We envision a quadrant detector module suitable for both tracking and long range optical communications at 1550 nm. This receiver can be used for both ground based and space based platforms, enabling a broad network of optical communications links to be developed. In addition to deep space optical communications, the technology has immediate application to a range of NASA applications, including laser ranging (ladar, altimetry, mapping) and remote sensing (lidar).] Beyond the immediate scope of the proposed Phase I-Phase II project include imaging applications using either a single SPAD element per imaging pixel as well as a small SPAD array (array-of-arrays) per imaging pixel. Imaging arrays can greatly enhance remote sensing applications, including flash ladar for hazard warning, navigation, and docking.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Transmitters/Receivers
Waveguides/Optical Fiber (see also Optics)
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H9.03-8573
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Dynamics and Navigation Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Spacecraft Rendezvous Guidance in Cluttered Dynamical Environments via Extreme Learning Machines

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
DeepAnalytX
7057 E Townsend Pl
Tucson, AZ
85750-0819
(520) 870-5567

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Gaudet
briangaudet@mac.com
7057 E Townsend Pl
Tucson,  AZ 85750-0819
(520) 870-5567

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
DeepAnalytX, Inc. proposes to investigate a new approach to perform real-time, closed-loop optimal and robust rendezvous guidance in space environments comprising a potentially large number of spacecraft. More specifically, we propose to research and develop an advanced guidance system that is able to learn and track a fuel-efficient, collision-avoidance velocity vector field thus enabling safe, robust and effective relative motion guidance for autonomous rendezvous in space dynamical environments cluttered with cooperative and non-cooperative resident space objects. The guidance approach implements the next generation of Artificial Potential Functions Guidance (APFG) using an innovative combination of optimal control methods and Extreme Learning Machines (ELMs). Phase I of this proposal seeks to develop and demonstrate software for autonomous rendezvous guidance using a combination of optimal control theory and new machine learning approaches. The key critical innovation is to use ELM algorithms that enable a dramatic training speed-up of many order of magnitude. Phase I development will directly support NASA mission needs for autonomous guidance algorithms in relative motion that execute in real-time autonomous collision avoidance in a fuel efficient fashion with the goal of reducing operational risks (i.e.. increase safety) and operational costs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Advanced guidance and control technologies for relative motion in space will support continuity of operations and autonomy for multiple tactical and/or strategic DoD and Commercial missions. The latter include 1) In-Orbit Spacecraft Servicing and 2) In-Orbit Space Situational Awareness.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
- Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking for Earth-based and Deep-Space Missions: The proposed FOCA-ELM algorithm may enable safe and accurate guidance for relative motion in space environments that are potentially cluttered with cooperative and non-cooperative RSOs. Thus, such algorithms can be employed for applications involving rendezvous and docking operations. - Asteroid and Comet exploration: Solution architectures that address growing capabilities and capacity for precise and safe close-proximity operations (e.g. landing, hovering Touach-And-Go) for robotic and crewed missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Space Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H9.03-8954
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Dynamics and Navigation Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: CUA OpenMP Nonlinear Optimization Tool

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CU Aerospace, LLC
301 North Neil Street, Suite 502
Champaign, IL
61820-3169
(217) 239-1703

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alex Ghosh
ghosh@cuaerospace.com
301 North Neil Street, Suite 502
Champaign,  IL 61820-3169
(217) 721-2875

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Nonlinear programming (NLP) allows for the solution of complex engineering problems, however, none of the currently available solvers capitalizes on parallel computing. Many NASA trajectory design packages (OTIS, EMTG, MALTO) have already had their own code streamlined, and it is now the serial execution of existing NLP solvers that represents the largest bottleneck. CU Aerospace has an existing prototype of this kind of solver, the Nonlinear Parallel Optimization Tool (NLPAROPT), which has already demonstrated speed superiority over comparable serial algorithms and shown that there remains significant potential for improvements. Currently, NLPAROPT is restricted to run on distributed memory systems. It is the goal of this Phase I effort to create a sister program to NLPAROPT, the CUA OpenMP Nonlinear Optimization Tool (COMPNOT), which will be compatible with shared memory systems. As large-scale shared memory parallel systems, such as Intel's Xeon Phi family, become more commercially available, COMPNOT will greatly expand the market for this NLP solver, even enabling most modern desktop computers to effectively run it. Additionally, Phase I will entail developing hardware-specific optimization, focusing on the Intel Math Kernel Library (MKL), but other platforms will be explored as well. At the end of Phase I, can begin integration into NASA trajectory design packages, significantly reducing the time-to-solution.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Government agencies other than NASA, as well as commercial markets, would benefit from the improvements inherent in COMPNOT, especially given the widespread use of nonlinear programming techniques as a primary method for solving some of the most difficult technical computing problems. For example, in economics the product-mix with price elasticity problem can be formulated as a nonlinear program and solved with a tool like COMPNOT. Another field that depends heavily on efficient and robust NLP solvers is operations research, with the facility location problem and network optimization problems being archetypal examples of operation research challenges that may be cast as nonlinear programs. Furthermore, industries dealing with problems such as power grid design, weather prediction, and crop planting optimization could benefit from COMPNOT's speed enhancements.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA currently utilizes SNOPT, IPOPT, and WORHP software packages for astrodynamics applications such as the design of complex spacecraft trajectories and other optimal control problems, but could greatly benefit from the introduction of a parallel large-scale, nonlinear, sparse optimization solution - one which does not have its speed bottlenecked by a single processor. The core NLP algorithm proposed to be used in COMPNOT has already been shown to result in a reduction in execution time, thereby reducing the optimization's turn-around time and improve communications between both designers and scientists. COMPNOT would take this effort, and refocus it to multi-core machines so that individual NASA scientists could perform advanced optimizations on a desktop. Our solver would act as a significant force multiplier for existing NASA tools such as GMAT's collocation-based low-thrust transcription and EMTG's inner loop solver. Additionally, COMPNOT could improve run-times across all forms of problem optimizations, including trajectory design, resource management, attitude determination and control, and vehicle design.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H9.03-9749
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Dynamics and Navigation Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Spacecraft Position Estimation in Interplanetary Trajectories Using Star Trackers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South
College Station, TX
77845-6023
(979) 764-2219

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christian Bruccoleri
christian.bruccoleri@lynntech.com
2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South
College Station,  TX 77845-6023
(979) 764-2200

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Lynntech proposes a novel spacecraft position estimation method that leverages existing star trackers on board of a vehicle in an interplanetary trajectory for exploration missions. The method is based on observing visible planets in the solar system with Star Trackers and being able to discriminate between planets and fixed stars. Thus the proposed method is autonomous and does not require assistance from ground facilities. Space vehicle autonomy is particularly important to enable long term human exploration of space. Star Trackers are ubiquitous in space vehicles, having the function of estimating the vehicle attitude with respect to the inertial reference frame. This is accomplished by observing the fixed stars and comparing them with the on-board star catalog. Planets may also be observed, but the Star Tracker typically ignores such observations. It is possible to discriminate between stars and other bright objects in the image, thus the direction of observed planets in the camera reference frame can be evaluated, and the planet identified combining a number of heuristics, including time. The proposed method is based on a closed-form least-squares solution obtained by minimizing the sum of the expected object-space squared distance errors. A weighted least-squares solution is provided by an iterative procedure. The weights are evaluated using the distances to the planets estimated by the least-squares solution. Such novel weighted approach only requires one iteration to converge and results in significant accuracy gains compared to the simple least squares approach. The light-time correction is also taken into account. The proposed work includes the development of a library of algorithms to augment star tracker capabilities by providing the interplanetary position estimation function. This can be used in new Star Tracker development or to augment existing capabilities, at no additional requirement of weight or size for the spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The problem of autonomous position estimation is general to all spacecraft manufacturers and therefore is also of great commercial interest also outside NASA. In the future, private entities will also be involved in long distance missions; asteroid mining, for instance, has been proposed as a potentially important application of interplanetary travel. In this case, commercial entities will have the same autonomy requirements that NASA exploration missions already face. In addition, there is great interest in the Department of Defense (e.g. Air Force Space Command), to increase the resilience of their space assets to a deliberate attack to the GPS satellites by a hostile power. Increased autonomy of DOD space assets requires accurate position estimation. The proposed method could be extended to satellites orbiting Earth in GEO, thus providing important redundancy in position estimation in a GPS-denied environment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Autonomous Position estimation is a key enabling capability for all kinds of spacecraft. Existing methods rely mostly on telemetry from the ground (e.g. RADAR, or other form of active tracking) or global navigation system (e.g. GPS). Long term exploration missions, such as human mission to Mars or asteroids, including asteroid mining, will require the ability to perform navigation autonomously, without assistance from Earth (which also involves significant delays due to the immense distances of space travel). This additional robustness is a must for NASA human exploration missions. Other classes of space vehicles would also benefit from having this capability because of the additional robustness granted to space-vehicle operations. Increased vehicle autonomy is a key requirement for the NASA technology development roadmap. The proposed technology favors dual-use of existing assets, the star trackers, and therefore does not burden the system engineers with additional weight, size, and significant power requirements, leaving more options for experiment and support payloads. In addition, the increased accuracy of the autonomous position estimation enables the vehicle to monitor and adjust its own orbit in the critical phases of orbit entry or aero-braking, when the spacecraft is obscured from Earth or the delay in communication proves critical.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H9.04-8331
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced RF Communications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electrionically Steered Antenna for Advanced RF Communications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
nGimat Co.
1824 Willow Trail Parkway
Norcross, GA
30093-2608
(404) 213-7208

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yongdong Jiang
yjiang@ngimat.com
1824 Willow Trail Parkway
Norcross,  GA 30093-2608
(678) 287-2477

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future robotic and human space exploration vehicles will be producing large quantities of data that needs transmitted between vehicles and to the ground stations. However, these vehicles will be tightly constrained in size, weight, and power sources. Traditional methods of using single function elements will not be able to meet these requirements. Therefore, advanced technologies that utilize state-of-the-art materials, packaging, and devices and components are urgently needed to minimize the size, weight, and power usage of the RF communication systems. nGimat proposes to develop high performance Ka-band electrically steered antenna with phased array architectures using nGimat's proprietary BST based tunable dielectric materials. BST's unique voltage tunable characteristics make them promising candidates for critical microwave components in phased array communications and radar systems such as varactors, tunable filters, and phase shifters. The ability to efficiently change the RF complex impedance with low electrical loss could significantly impact future communication systems for both government and civilian applications. Successful maturation of tunable materials together with associated microwave and component circuit design techniques resulting from this effort could reduce the cost while simultaneously improving the performance of future RF communication systems. The resultant antenna will be capable of simultaneous full-duplex multiple beam operations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The high performance small, low weight, and low power consumption electronically steered antenna developed in this project will also find wide commercial and military applications including cell phones and commercial communication systems, etc. It has been realized that unlike government applications, the commercial applications epitomize a high volume, low margin opportunity. Therefore, lowering the film and processing costs is one of the key objectives to be addressed in this project, but secondary to meeting NASA's needs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology could find direct use in NASA's RF communication system for future robotic and human exploration vehicles and space platforms. The developed antenna will bring down the size, weight, and power consumption (SWAP) while retaining the capabilities including beam agility, high power handling capability, and high data transfer rate. The antennas will be reconfigurable in frequency and radiation pattern that will reduce the number of antennas needed to meet the desired communication requirements of NASA's missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Antennas
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H9.04-8557
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced RF Communications
PROPOSAL TITLE: GaN MMIC Ka-Band Power Amplifier

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Custom MMIC Design Services, Inc.
300 Apollo Drive
Chelmsford, MA
01824-3629
(978) 467-4290

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Moniz
moniz@custommmic.com
300 Apollo Drive
Chelmsford,  MA 01824-3629
(978) 467-4290

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is seeking innovative Advanced RF Platform technologies at the physical level, specifically Ka-Band high efficiency high linearity microwave 10 to 20 Watt solid state power amplifiers (SSPAs), to meet the needs of future space missions utilizing complex modulation for communications and sensor applications. Space missions require the smallest size, lowest power, space qualifiable hardware components leading to the choice of monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) technology. In Phase I of this SBIR, Custom MMIC Design Services, Inc. (CMDS) will analyze the GaN MMIC technologies from the available domestic foundries (NGST, Qorvo, HRL) and select best GaN HEMT foundry and process technology to achieve Ka-Band high efficiency high linearity microwave 10 to 20 Watt SSPA. CMDS, utilizing the appropriate CAD tools, will thoroughly design and develop the required MMIC PA. We will also prepare all necessary design rule check (DRC) and layout versus schematic (LVS) documentation during Phase I to assure clean layouts ready for fabrication submission to facilitate the first pass of GaN MMIC fabrication on the first day of a follow-on Phase II contract. By being completely ready for submission on the first day of phase II, we assure the time necessary for two complete GaAs MMIC LNA iterations during Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Gallium Nitride standard components are in short supply even from the major MMIC suppliers. As a proven entity that can create a significant number of products in a short space of time, Custom MMIC with this contract can establish itself very quickly as a significant contributor of high efficiency linear GaN PAs to the RF block diagrams of both commercial and military systems. The development of Ka-band components in a GaN material system will provide commercial systems with similar components. As stated above the techniques will allow us to create designs for the commercial bands (27-29 GHz) along with military bands. By utilizing the design techniques developed under this and other contracts Custom MMIC will create both linear and saturated high efficiency PAs, along with the respective control components. By using semi-production masks we will be able to limit our up front production transition costs and drive up our volume of wafers such that high volume deliveries can be leveraged.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The success of this GaN linear PA process and devices selection, and the new 10-20 Watt PA MMIC and circuit topologies developed in this SBIR will allow us to develop other key linear high efficiency PAs for NASA and NASA subcontractors. We have done this before having been the recipient of derivative 5 W linear PA contracts from NASA Goddard for ı25 to 27 GHz Power Amplifierı and NASA JPL for ı35 GHz Power Amplifier for Radar Applicationsı. During marketing of our existing PA product line, we have come across other NASA projects (highlighted above). More of this work will take place at different frequencies and different power levels with the success of this project.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Radiometric
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Radio
Ad-Hoc Networks (see also Sensors)
Amplifiers/Repeaters/Translators
Antennas
Transmitters/Receivers
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H9.04-8956
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced RF Communications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Optically Assisted Analog-to-Digital Converter for Next Generation "Software Defined" Radios

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MaXentric Technologies, LLC
2071 Lemoine Avenue, Suite 302
Fort Lee, NJ
07024-6006
(201) 242-9800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris Thomas
cthomas@maxentric.com
2071 Lemoine Avenue, Suite 302
Fort Lee,  NJ 07024-6006
(858) 218-6345

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Next generation commercial and DoD communication systems must meet the demand for higher data rates and the growing number of users in an increasingly over-taxed spectrum. Reconfigurable digital phased arrays that implement high speed ADCs promise to help provide a solution; however, creating broadband high speed high ENOB DACs remains a challenging bottleneck of the system. MaXentric's solution will be to create a Universal ADC capable of interfacing with purely electrical systems for moderate speed applications or optically assisted systems for high speed applications requiring precision timing with order of magnitude improvement in timing jitter. With the Universal ADC using optical assistance, it is anticipated that performance can approach 100 Gs/sec with greater than 8 bits ENOB allowing for truly multi-standard high performance "software defined" receivers such as applications of digital phased arrays.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The anticipated benefit of a Universal ADC proposed by MaXentric is a clear path toward 5G performance. Another, specific, market in which the technology may be advantageous is ground vehicle navigation in which high resolution imaging may be a key component requiring fast, reconfigurable phased arrays. Consumer spending on self-driving cars has received over $3B in research funding from established private-sector organizations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The optically assisted ADC will be an enabling technology allowing for high speed and high resolution signal processing. The applications for high performance ADCs range from imaging to digital phased arrays in high data-rate communication systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Lasers (Communication)
Transmitters/Receivers
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H9.04-9007
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced RF Communications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Row Column Phased Array Architecture for Low Cost, Low Profile Millimeter Wave Phased Array Antennas

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Agile RF Systems, LLC
4316 Beverly Drive
Berthoud, CO
80513-7953
(970) 344-6556

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Philip Kelly
kimkelly@agilerfsystems.com
4316 Beverly Dr
Berthoud,  CO 80513-7953
(303) 522-0303

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There is high demand for electronically steered antennas particularly at millimeter wavelengths. However, the cost to develop and procure this type of antenna prohibits this technology from widespread use. The proposed innovation substantially reduces the control complexity of phased arrays by reducing the control set from MxN phase controls to M+N phase controls where M and N represent the number of rows and columns in the phased array. By reducing the control complexity, not only are the phased array devices simplified, but the control distribution network is substantially reduced. This simplification ripples across the entire phased array to improve physical integration and thermal management which often cost as much as the phased array components. This is particularly important for high frequency antennas where unit cell sizes become a significant impediment to system implementation. Another limitation in state of the art phased arrays are the conventional planar radiators that are easily integrated. A three-dimensional radiator and manufacturing technology is baselined to enhance the bandwidth and performance of millimeter wave phased array antennas. This combination enables significant opportunities to support multifunction operation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed beamforming architecture can enable phased array application to mobile communication markets where spatial diversification is required for high capacity and frequency re-use. The innovation proposed substantially reduces control and physical complexity which will result in widespread use of phased arrays. For example, the Satellite Communications (SATCOM) market continues to grow in users as low cost, low drag antenna terminal products are realized. The proposed technology is a great fit for communications on the move applications such as SATCOM but is also expected to make a positive impact to the 5G wireless market.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is a growing list of small satellite and cube satellite missions enabled by industry advances in very capable, low power and miniature digital signal processing hardware. Because the proposed phased array development is expected to result in significantly lower system costs, this phased array technology should be considered for small satellite payload and data transfer subsystems. By providing a communication solution that can be electronically steered, spacecraft attitude management is simplified allowing the payload to point at the primary target longer without interruption for data off-loading. Furthermore, by lowering antenna system costs, larger apertures can be deployed to significantly improve EIRP and G/T metrics essential for long range, high throughput capacity links. A high gain, electronically steered antenna at millimeter waves in Low Earth Orbit can reduce ground station antenna sizes enabling the deployment of small ground stations to avoid scarce resource conflicts. There is also the possibility of making the Ka band antenna compatible with K/Ka band SATCOM links to provide an additional means of transporting data or command and control messaging. The proposed phased array technology not only reduces the cost of millimeter wave phased arrays but enables significant bandwidths (20% or greater) to support commercial, military and NASA spectrum.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Electromagnetic
Antennas


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H9.05-8528
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Transformational/Over-the-Horizon Communications Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Polarization Entangled Photon Pair Source for Space-Based Quantum Communication

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ADVR, Inc.
2310 University Way, Building 1-1
Bozeman, MT
59715-6504
(406) 522-0388

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tony Roberts
roberts@advr-inc.com
2310 University Way, Building #1-1
Bozeman,  MT 59715-6504
(406) 522-0388

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The overall goal of this NASA effort is to develop and deliver efficient, single-pass quantum optical waveguide sources generating high purity hyper-entangled photon pairs for use in high-rate long-distance links. The new devices will produce hyper-entangled photon pairs with high efficiency, pure spectral properties, and low attenuation, providing the key technology required for deployment of ground-to-space links and future construction of a global quantum network. The waveguide-based technology is compact, robust, and power efficient for deployment on space-based platforms such as the International Space Station.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Quantum-based communication is of prime interest to corporations and government agencies with high security requirements. In cases where classical schemes are not considered trustworthy, key distribution by courier is typically used. Unlike human courier networks, quantum cryptography has the ability to detect interception of the key, has greater reliability and operating costs, and is automatic and instantaneous. For long distance quantum communication to be practical, ground-to-space links are a necessity due to the current limitations of optical fiber and photon detectors in ground-to-ground links. Additionally, the path to creating entangled photon sources that are as ubiquitous as diode lasers are today has implications in whole new arenas of economic development in addition to national security.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
To provide reliably secure communications, development of practical quantum optical devices for ground-to-space quantum key distribution is a necessity. The proposed technology offers a path to provably, unconditionally secure quantum encryption meeting future NASA security requirements. A space-based implementation of the technology may also answer important questions in fundamental physics by testing the properties of quantum entanglements over much greater distances than ever before, and due to earth's gravitational curvature may provide an insight to the relationship between gravity and quantum physics.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Emitters
Lasers (Communication)
Transmitters/Receivers
Waveguides/Optical Fiber (see also Optics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H9.05-9443
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Transformational/Over-the-Horizon Communications Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Quantum Effect Materials and Devices for Future Communication Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanosonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke, VA
24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Claus
roclaus@nanosonic.com
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke,  VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NanoSonic proposes to design, fabricate and demonstrate the performance of optical detectors that use multiple quantum material effects to overcome fundamental microelectronic device limits. Through prior research, NanoSonic has fabricated single-element optical detectors and theoretically and investigated several quantum material behaviors separately. Here we would combine these technologies into a single device to serve as a "pathfinder" for future quantum materials research and product development. NanoSonic would work with researchers in the Department of Physics at Virginia Tech, and microelectronics scientists at a major US electronics company to analyze and build the devices, and demonstrate the quantum principals on which they are based. Our proposed prototype detectors will incorporate the following quantum effects. - Sub-quantum electron transport associated with ballistic electron transport leading to decreased conductor resistances and thermal losses, and in part overcomes Moore's Law - Resonant sub-optical wavelength antennas that treat incoming optical signals as waves instead of photons - Metal nanocluster surface plasmon resonance effects to increase detector efficiency - Tunable bandgap quantum dot detectors that exhibit Multiple Electron Generation effects and quantum efficiencies QE>1 NanoSonic has investigated and published observations of the basic physics of some of these effects. During Phase I we would design, fabricate, test and deliver first-generation materials and devices to NASA, and work with electronics company device engineers to consider how these technologies may be transitioned to future communication system hardware.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The quantum material technologies demonstrated through this program have multiple potential applications of importance outside of future NASA missions and programs. Perhaps most important is the transition of sub-quantum conductance and ballistic electron transport effects at room temperature from theory, to NanoSonic's recent experimental demonstration and publication, to practical materials and devices. Ballistic electron transport could lead to electrical wires and cables that exhibit resistance lower than that of copper and silver at room temperature, so without the need for cooling. Lower resistance wire and cable could improve the efficiency of the electrical power distribution grid, all-electric operations and weapons systems on military platforms, and electric motors and generators. Additionally, such materials could reduce heat generation in microelectronic devices and memories, allow smaller size, increased gate density, and reduced cooling requirements. This is to massive computer systems to personal communication devices. Finally, improved optoelectronic components have applications ranging from fiber optic communication networks to large area displays to cell phone cameras.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The quantum effects to be demonstrated in photodetector prototypes through this SBIR program have multiple long-term applications for NASA. First, photodetectors employing these effects to achieve increased transduction efficiency allow optical communication over longer distances and with increased signal-to-noise ratio and bit error rate. Second, sub-quantum conductance in self-assembled graphene-based materials has multiple potential long-term uses. These include 1) electrical wire and cable with room temperature conductivities greater than copper or silver, 2) microelectronic devices based on sub-electron levels, so reduced gate current, power loss and generated heat, so the ability to increase gate density, 3) increased efficiency in motors and generators due to decreased wire resistance and thermal loss, and 4) the possibility of microelectronic devices and storage based on sub-electron levels. Third, photodetectors that exhibit multiple exciton generation (MEG) and quantum efficiencies >1 will improve the performance of optical communication systems, optical imaging systems, and optics-based instrumentation. In a broader sense, this program will allow the investigation of quantum device effects themselves, and the integration of such effects into microelectronic and optoelectronic products.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Nanomaterials
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Ultraviolet
Visible
Cables/Fittings
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H10.01-8389
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Propulsion Systems Ground Test Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Innovative Ultra-High Efficiency Cryogenic Actuators for Rocket Test Facilities

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
PolyK Technologies, LLC
2124 Old Gatesburg Road
State College, PA
16803-2200
(518) 605-6897

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shihai Zhang
energy@polyktech.com
2124 Old Gatesburg Rd
State College,  PA 16803-2200
(518) 605-6897

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The SBIR Phase I project will develop advanced ultra-high efficiency cryogenic actuators for NASA cryogenic fluid transfer application. The actuator will have low driving voltage, large stroke, high driving force, low profile and light weight, low thermal mass, broad operation temperature down to cryogenic temperature, and high reliability. The excellent performance is achieved by using a patented technology that combines (1) d33 mode piezoelectric operation that is at least 100% stronger than d31 mode, (2) piezoelectric single crystal with high piezoelectric response at cryogenic temperature, (3) multilayer design to reduce driving voltage, (4) force amplified design to increase stroke and reliability, and (5) multi stack design to reduce the mechanical impedance. The Phase I will develop demo device for the NASA application.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
While these piezoelectric actuators are mainly for NASA applications as they are designed with expensive piezoelectric materials, they can also be used in commercial applications by using the same design but with lower cost piezoelectric materials.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
These advanced piezo actuators have immediate applications in NASA Constellation Program, such as adaptive optics structures for NASA Science and communications applications including coronagraphic instruments, interferometric telescopes, and space-based observatories. They are also promising for many future NASA missions such as JWST, SIM, SAFIR, TPF and others.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Surface Propulsion
Aerodynamics
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Space Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H10.01-9546
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Propulsion Systems Ground Test Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Affordable Autonomous Hydrogen Flame Detection System for Rocket Propulsion

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Imaging and Research Corporation
Building 1103, Suite 140C
Stennis Space Center, MS
39529-0001
(228) 688-2452

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mary Pagnutti
mpagnutti@i2rcorp.com
Building 1103, Suite 140C
Stennis Space Center,  MS 39529-0001
(228) 688-2452

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has long used liquid hydrogen as a fuel and plans to continue using it in association with their advanced nuclear thermal propulsion technology. Hydrogen fire detection is critical for rocket propulsion safety and maintenance. A significant fire at a rocket test or launch facility could be catastrophic to infrastructure or even worse, to human life. Detection monitoring is problematic as hydrogen flames can be nearly invisible during the day. Non-imaging, non-visible fire detection technology has limited range and can suffer from false alarms from sources outside the region of interest. Low-cost visible imagers, commonly used for wide-scale routine surveillance, have limited utility detecting hydrogen fires. Although it has been known for decades that multispectral imaging outside the visible range can be used to detect fires with low false alarm rates, the price of such systems and the lack of processing algorithms and the ability to implement them in real-time has largely prohibited their use. During this project we will develop a low-cost imaging capability that fuses data collected from sensors operating in the (1) solar blind ultra-violet, (2) thermal infrared and (3) visible spectrum, using advanced spectral, spatial and temporal processing techniques optimized to detect and generate alerts associated with hydrogen fires in real-time. This multi-sensor, multi-processing approach will enable us to automate flame detection with extremely low false alarm rates. In addition to control room alerts, we will make use of the wireless communication capabilities found within smart phones and other mobile devices to build an App to alert key decision makers and first responders of a fire detected in real-time. This multi-sensor imaging research could also support NASA's important cool flame microgravity research occurring on the International Space Station.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Government facilities managed by the Rocket Propulsion Test Program Office, including Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC), Redstone Test Center (RTC), the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) as well as commercial facilities including SpaceX, Blue Origin, Sierra Nevada Corporation and Orbital ATK could all enhance their safety and facilitate their maintenance efforts by employing this technology to monitor hydrogen and other flames. There are several established markets and applications that incorporate significant amounts of hydrogen gas in their processes that would benefit from our flame detection technology. These markets primarily include petrochemical facilities, heat treating facilities for aerospace and automotive applications, fuel cell production facilities, and potentially thermonuclear power plants. An emerging application is hydrogen station monitoring. With the advent of fuel cell powered vehicles, hydrogen stations will be required along roadways and at people's homes as a way of storing and refilling hydrogen fuel cells. Another potential application is auto race car monitoring. There have been a number of horrific events involving either race car drivers or pit crew members engulfed by alcohol flames, detectable with our technology. These flames are difficult to detect and extinguish because, like hydrogen, they are essentially invisible to the eye.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology has near term direct application for monitoring hydrogen fires within several NASA propulsion test and launch facilities. This capability will enhance the safety of these facilities and potentially facilitate required maintenance procedures. NASA rocket motor testing centers that would benefit from this include SSC, MSFC, GRC-PBS and WSTF. KSC, responsible for the SLS and Orion launches that continue human spaceflight within NASA, and the Launch Services Program that provides launch operations oversight at several locations including Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Vandenberg AFB would also realize safety and maintenance benefits from this technology. NASA is currently conducting experiments on flame interaction and extinguishment on-board the ISS. Fire burns differently in microgravity and although our technology is optimized for hydrogen flame phenomenology, it has wider potential use in NASA's cool flame research portfolio and could, for example, be used to support follow-on Saffire and FLEX experiments. FLEX experiments have shown low-frequency flicker that our temporal algorithms could exploit for terrestrial fire detection and discrimination.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fuels/Propellants
Radiometric
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Ultraviolet
Visible
Infrared
Multispectral/Hyperspectral
Display
Image Analysis
Image Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H10.01-9576
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Propulsion Systems Ground Test Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Propulsion Systems Ground Test Technology

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation
2363 Calle Del Mundo
Santa Clara, CA
95054-1008
(408) 565-9004

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Black
bm@ifos.com
2363 Calle Del Mundo
Santa Clara,  CA 95054-1008
(408) 565-8530

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
IFOS proposes to develop a test rig sensor suite to measure pressures/acoustics, static and dynamic strains and tempersures for advanced propulsion systems such as that used for NASAıs Space Launch System (SLS) and SpaceXıs proposed Interplanetary Transport System (ITS). IFOS will leverage off its experience in the turbine engine industry and harsh environment sensors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed work will significantly benefit the commercial space launch industry through the development of advanced fiber optic sensor based ground test systems that enhance chemical and advanced propulsion technology development and certification. Example application focus will be SpaceXıs proposed ITS.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed test rig sensor suite will assist rigorous ground testing to mitigate the propulsion system risks that are inherent in spaceflight. This technology also has the potential to provide solutions to NASAıs challenges in developing lighter weight, higher performance structural materials, miniaturized instrumentation, improved measurement capability, and enhanced platform safety over extended operational lifetimes. The technology will readily extend to any NASA vehicle application where Strucural Health Monitoring (SHM) is desired, including extra-planetary exploration, robotic missions, and human space operations

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Structures
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Launch Engine/Booster
Acoustic/Vibration
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H10.02-8588
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Improved Operations via Interface Design
PROPOSAL TITLE: Inflatable Capsule Recovery Raft using OTS Pontoons and Other Components

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ASRC Federal System Solutions, LLC (AFSS)
7000 Muirkirk Meadows Drive, Suite100
Beltsville, DE
20705-6351
(301) 837-5500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gary Rohrkaste
gary.rohrkaste@asrcfederal.com
813 N Atlantic Ave
Cocoa Beach,  FL 32931-2429
(321) 266-2738

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of the proposed innovation is to research and study the feasibility of using pontoons (based on Off the Shelf (OTS) equipment) to make an inflatable raft that will support a water-landed space capsule. The advantages of this approach over traditional methods are: 1) Provides stable platform to open hatch for Flight Crew access/egress in less than 1 hour from the time the recovery vessel reaches the capsule, 2) Does not drive an increase in flight weight of capsule, 3) Protects the capsule during handling and loading operations, 4) Can be deployed from different types of vessels, 5) Allows for launch and recovery from support vessels with Combat Rubber Raiding Craft (CRRC) or Rigid-hull Inflatable Boat (RHIBs), 6) Minimizes operations in turbulent wake zone of ship, 7) Raft draws very little water, 8)Transports on standard commercial carriers in deflated and stowed condition, 9) Minimal pre-op set-up time on recovery vessel, 10) Based on existing technologies resulting in low technical and operational risks.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial Capsule using commercial assets for the recovery. Recovery of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential customers are NASA Ground Operations, NASA Flight Crew Office, DoD groups supporting contingency landing zones

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Material Handing & Packaging


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H10.03-9107
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Purge Gas Recovery and Reclamation
PROPOSAL TITLE: H2/He Separation System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 West 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge, CO
80033-1916
(303) 940-2347

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gokhan Alptekin
galptekin@tda.com
12345 West 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge,  CO 80033-1916
(303) 940-2349

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA uses an estimated 75 million standard cubic feet of helium (approximately $5M worth) each year for safely purging hydrogen systems before filling and after discharging, and while leak checking, pressurizing lines and blanketing liquid hydrogen storage tanks. Despite its expense, there is no substitute for helium in most of these applications because of its extremely low boiling point and unique chemical inertness. The price of helium is expected to increase as reserves are drawn down. In addition to helium, the high supply costs and limited availability of hydrogen fuel also requires its conservation. While it is not as expensive as helium and is more abundant, the transport of hydrogen is still costly and poses a great environmental risk due its flammability and highly reactive nature. Therefore, an efficient way to separate the He/H2 from NASAıs purge streams and recover both the helium and hydrogen in a pure form is critical to reduce cost of operations and to reduce risks. In Phase I we will synthesize and optimize a new sorbent and develop a process and cycle scheme that will allow us to achieve the target helium and hydrogen purities with low energy consumption.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is a real and far larger commercial opportunity for our technology in the chemical and energy industries. There is worldwide interest in storage and pressurization systems for hydrogen as an efficient and clean energy carrier. Air Liquide and Linde are already exploring hydrogen compression using solid-state compressors. Hence, the primary customers would include these technology developers. TDA's technology can be used to recover and purify hydrogen from streams that are currently vented or flared in the oil refining, chemical, ammonia, methanol, chlor-alkali, metallurgical, glass and electronics industries. The technological readiness level (TRL) will be elevated from 2 to 3 at the end of Phase I. In Phase II we will design, build and test a sub-scale prototype system to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept, thereby elevating the TRL to 4.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The main attraction of our research to NASA is to ensure the long-term sustainability of programs that rely on helium gas for system purging, leak checking, and as a blanket gas for liquid H2 tanks. The cost of a single recovery unit that is conservatively capable of reclaiming $950,000 of high-purity helium per year is expected to be less than $2.5 million. Depending on the amount of hydrogen that is mixed with the helium, the hydrogen recovered from purge gases (and boiloff) could be of similar value. NASAıs future launch systems are built around hydrogen-oxygen rockets, and the need for large quantities of helium will therefore continue for decades. TDAıs He-H2 recovery system can be used to capture large and small He-H2 purge and boil-off streams at their source to save money, conserve resources, and improve the environmental sustainability of NASAıs operations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fluids
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Prototyping


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H10.03-9438
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Purge Gas Recovery and Reclamation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Helium and Hydrogen Mixed Gas Separator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Reactive Innovations, LLC
2 Park Drive, Unit 4
Westford, MA
01886-3525
(978) 692-4664

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Kimble
mkimble@reactive-innovations.com
2 Park Drive, Unit 4
Westford,  MA 01886-3525
(978) 692-4664

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This product innovation is directed toward separating hydrogen from helium gas mixtures using a micro-channel separation unit with thin walls of a palladium-silver alloy. The micro-channels are produced in a size range of 100-200 microns such that the boundary layer thickness inside is drastically reduced when mixtures of helium and hydrogen gas flow through the channels. This thin boundary layer enhances the thermal and mass transport fluxes to the channel walls increasing the separation rate. With this micro-channel approach, the membrane surface area to volume ratio is maximized reducing the operating costs and capital costs for the unit.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Beyond NASA's use, helium is an important irreplaceable inert gas used in a variety of scientific and industrial fields such as oil and gas detectors, the nuclear industry, medical applications, cryogenics, and welding. However, due to the growing demand for He, the market supply is becoming tighter and costs are increasing. Currently, cryogenic distillation and pressure-swing adsorption are the prevalent methods widely used for He separation, especially in natural gas feedstocks. The cryogenic distillation and pressure-swing separation methods involve complicated operations and require considerable energy consumption. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop simple, low-energy, and low-cost methods for separating He from other gases. Other potential uses for this separator unit include removing hydrogen from natural gas processing plants, and separating helium-hydrogen mixtures used in medical MRI imaging, semiconductor processing, welding, and nuclear processes.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA uses a large amount of helium gas to purge hydrogen from fuel lines during launches. A typical shuttle launch used about a million cubic feet of helium where six times this amount is expected for the space launch system and multipurpose crew vehicle launches. This helium gas contaminated with hydrogen is expensive and energy intensive to purify and recover. Because of helium shortages and rising prices, cost effective recovery and reclamation of helium from hydrogen-helium gas mixture is of great economic significance to NASA and to the nation. The present cryogenic separation process for this gas mixture is energy intensive, and newer demonstrations using proton-exchange membrane based separation processes are difficult and costly to scale to the size needed to process this large quantity of gas. Accordingly, Reactive Innovations is developing a metal membrane based micro-channel separation unit that is readily scalable and inexpensive to produce and operate. The micro-channel separation technology maximizes the separation area per unit volume giving enhanced thermal and mass fluxes to separate hydrogen from the helium mixture.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Resource Extraction
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Fuels/Propellants
Airship/Lighter-than-Air Craft
Inventory Management/Warehousing
Material Handing & Packaging
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H11.01-8533
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Shielding Technologies for Human Protection
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultra-Lightweight Multifunctional Magnesium Alloy Shielding Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Space Technologies, LLC
424 East Central Boulevard, #647
Orlando, FL
32801-1923
(321) 591-9638

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Keith Rhodes
Keith.Rhodes@ist-fl.com
6612 Bowie Drive
Springfield,  VA 22150-1525
(703) 774-5426

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Radiation from GCRs and Solar Flares provide a hostile ionizing environment for personnel and vital electronic systems. The effects of this environment has been a topic of research for many years. Issues include the exposure for humans under acute and continuous exposures and the radiogenic cancer risk that rises with total dose and is a limiting constraint on long-duration missions. The proposed metal alloy development produces a material that is multi-functional and light-weight for deep space missions. The target material has a significant reduction in mass and potentially volume for protective performance such as radiation and debris shielding applications as well as potential performance thermally and acoustically. Development of these new Mg alloys will improve the margin and overall risk associated with each of these scenarios by improving the shielding performance and provides a reduction in the likelihood of electronic component failure occurrence as well as a reduction in consequence. Equally important, this will reduce the risk of cancer to personnel from radiation exposure. With respect to electronic systems, the systems that provide life support and are considered critical systems are vulnerable to the ionizing radiation effects as well. Once the "heavy" particles penetrate the electronic components, shorts are created in worst case conditions and provide temporary upsets in the best conditions. Similarly, those electronic systems that are considered non-critical, similar effects are seen but have consequences that effect the mission assurance aspects. By replacing existing metallic components with appropriate Mg alloys, such as the ones from this project, both vehicle weight and crew dose rate can be reduced. The operational benefits of such a change are manifold. For example, weight can be replaced with fuel to achieve greater vehicle velocity. Alternatively, mission duration could be extended while operating within equivalent dose limits.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project models and developed multi-functional lightweight Mg alloys, with optimal thickness and chemistry for increasing strength and absorbing neutrons. With the recent approval by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for Mg use in commercial airliner seats (i.e., nonstructural applications), widespread adoption of Mg would allow for high-efficiency aircraft, which could be transformational for the transportation sector. The doped Mg materials that were investigated in this project could be used for reducing the atmospheric radiation exposure of commercial flight crews and passengers on terrestrial polar flights where exposure to radiation has been shown to be significantly higher than on other routes.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project provides a better alternative to continue along the path for improved multi-functional light-weight Mg alloys. The new metal alloy will improve both NASA Safety and Mission Assurance by offering better protection for the astronauts as well as improving shielding effectiveness of both critical and non-critical electronic systems. For both human and electronic scenarios, the new Mg alloy will improve the margin and overall risk associated with each of these scenarios by improving the shielding performance and provides a reduction in the likelihood of occurrence as well as respective consequence. Specific NASA deployment includes deep space mobile (as well as ISS) habitats, crew spacecraft (Organically and Commercial Crew developed), Mars/Moon fixed habitats, unmanned spacecraft, and launch vehicle/propulsion systems. Such changes may make a manned mission to Mars more feasible. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) study showed that in interplanetary space the time to a 3% risk of exposure-induced death (REID), the NASA career cancer risk limit would be reached in under 400 days for a 30-year old male and under 300 days for a 30-year old female. The LRO study assumed a thin aluminum alloy layer under the shielding that was tested. If the aluminum were changed to Mg alloys used in this project, it is possible that those calculations could be extended.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Air Transportation & Safety
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H11.01-9190
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Shielding Technologies for Human Protection
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Radiation Shielding Composite Structural Materials for Deep Space Human Protection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brimrose Technology Corporation
P.O. Box 616, 19 Loveton Circle
Sparks, MD
21152-9201
(410) 472-2600

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sudhir Trivedi
strivedi@brimrosetechnology.com
P.O. Box 616, 19 Loveton Circle
Sparks,  MD 21152-9201
(410) 472-2600

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advances in radiation shielding systems technologies are needed to protect humans and electronic components from all threats of space radiation. This is especially important as NASA continues to develop plans for long duration missions, where exposure to harmful radiation is greater than ever before. Brimrose Technology Corporation, in collaboration with Penn State University, proposes to develop a novel integrated radiation shielding material based on aluminum and UHMWPE and Field Assisted Sintering Technology (FAST) will be used to fabricate the prototypes of these materials. Beside radiation shielding capabilities, such materials would also have desirable thermal and mechanical properties suitable for forming protective structures that are strong, durable, thermally manageable, and hermetic.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed materials have potential military applications as well as commercial applications such as in the medical industry and for the nuclear energy industry. Along with NASA, potential customers include DoD and DOE as well as first responders, nuclear energy providers and medical personnel.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lightweight innovative radiation shielding materials are needed to safeguard humans in next generation exploration. Furthermore, the energetic particles encountered in space can destroy or cause malfunctions in spacecraft electronics. The targeted application for the proposed materials that will be developed during this SBIR work is radiation shielding to shield humans in aerospace transport vehicles, large space structures such as space stations, orbiters, landers, rovers, habitats, and spacesuits. The material is expected to be multi-functional by also providing structural support while still maintaining weight requirements. The materials will also provide radiation shielding to the electronic components on board the space vehicle.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
Isolation/Protection/Radiation Shielding (see also Mechanical Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H11.01-9532
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Shielding Technologies for Human Protection
PROPOSAL TITLE: RSim: A Simulation Tool Integrating Radiation Codes and CAD.

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tech-X Corporation
5621 Arapahoe Avenue, Suite A
Boulder, CO
80303-1379
(303) 448-0727

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Svetlana Shasharina
sveta@txcorp.com
5621 Arapahoe Ave Ste A
Boulder,  CO 80303-1379
(720) 563-0322

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
It is important to NASA engineers to be able to model radiation effects through very complex vehicle structures. This requires (1) integration of modeling tools with Computer Aided Design (CAD); (2) easy and uniform setup of materials, particles sources and tallies; (3) ability to analyze and validate the results across multiple radiation codes. Tech-X will deliver RSim, a across-platform standalone application for radiation modeling. RSim will have a Graphical User Interface that will allow users to perform setup, run and do post-processing for several radiation modeling tools. The setup will include Constructive Solid Geometry creation and CAD import, materials annotation, particles sources setup and choosing tallies. RSim will be able to run several radiation codes to facilitate Validation and Verification. Post-processing in RSim will allow for 3D visualization, 2D plots and histograms. Phase I will concentrate on CAD import and material annotation for MCNP6 and PHITS codes and develop RSim prototype. In Phase II we will fully implement RSim and consider integrating with more codes, for example Geant4.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications of RSim include satellite industry, global radiation detection,monitoring and safety industry, radiation-hardened electronics and radiation therapy.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future NASA missions will benefit from RSim, as it will allow NASA engineers to streamline the design of adequate shielding and ensure human safety and proper functioning of space instruments. An example is the upcoming Europa Mission.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Ionizing Radiation
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling
Isolation/Protection/Radiation Shielding (see also Mechanical Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H12.01-8754
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radioprotectors and Mitigators of Space Radiation-induced Health Risks
PROPOSAL TITLE: LGM2605 as a Mitigator of Space Radiation-Induced Vascular Damage

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
LignaMed, LLC
3711 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA
19104-5501
(215) 206-2754

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Thais Sielecki
thais.sielecki@lignamed.com
3711 Market Street
Philadelphia,  PA 19104-5501
(610) 299-7482

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
LignaMed, LLC is a drug development company with a fast track strategy to approval of LGM2605, an oral small molecule for use as a radiation mitigating agent that reduces harmful effects of radiation exposure of normal tissues. LignaMed aims to evaluate LGM2605 as a mitigator of space-radiation induced vascular damage. NASA missions to Mars will expose astronauts to solar and galactic cosmic mixed radiation including low dose &#947; and proton radiation, but data is lacking on the biological and physiological effects in humans of this mixed source radiation. Research on space radiation effects on cellular systems, molecular targets and ultimately organ systems has identified potential harmful short and long-term effects on the health of astronauts. Work at the University of Pennsylvania identified damage to lungs years after a single exposure to low-dose gamma, 56Fe, 28Si and proton radiation exposure in mice. Acute and chronic radiation effects in organs are closely associated with vascular damage and dysfunction. Multiple studies have confirmed single source radiation side effects associated with significant loss of vascular integrity: increased vascular leakiness (edema), an activated inflammatory phenotype and extensive oxidative damage. However, damage to the vascular network under multiple radiation types simultaneously is not understood. LignaMed will employ gene knockout technology in vascular models exposed to space-relevant mixed radiation regimens to investigate the injury to the vasculature. We hypothesize that LGM2605 will mitigate space radiation-induced vascular damage by inhibiting early events that cause inflammation. This study will confirm that 1) space radiation drives endovascular damage via activation of the endothelial inflammatory phenotype resulting in increased permeability and 2) will validate LGM2605 as an effective mitigator of space radiation-induced vascular damage by inhibiting early events that drive long term adverse sequellae.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lignamed LLC is a biopharmaceutical company developing LGM-2605 as adjunct therapy to reduce side effects and improve cure rates of radiation treatment of chest cancers. The market size is $5 billion. Chest cancers are a deadly and costly disease. They include breast cancer, lung cancer, sarcomas, lymphomas and esophageal cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, more than 500,000 new chest cancer cases will be diagnosed in the United States in 2014 and they project the number to increase in the years ahead. About 50 to 60 percent of cancer patients are treated with radiation at some time during their disease. Combinations of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation treatments are the standard for modern cancer therapy. Success is often determined by the ability of patients to tolerate the most aggressive regimen. The ability to deliver effective radiation therapy is limited by toxic side effects to healthy normal lung tissues. These side effects often cause breaks in treatment or dose-limiting toxicity after treatment, and, therefore, limit the amount of radiation that can be delivered to the tumor. No current therapies are effective to protect healthy normal lung tissue from the damaging effects of radiotherapy. A significant unmet need exists for a safe radioprotection agent that will ameliorate radiation side effects to normal tissue without "protecting" the tumor. The US market opportunity is estimated at $5 billion per year.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
LignaMed, LLC is a drug development company with a fast track strategy to approval of LGM2605, an oral small molecule for use as a radiation mitigating agent that reduces harmful effects of radiation exposure of normal tissues. LignaMed, in collaboration with researchers at University of Pennsylvania, plans to identify the detrimental biochemical signals activated with space radiation and evaluate their mitigation by LGM2605. Manned missions to Mars will expose astronauts to solar and galactic cosmic radiation in the form of low dose &#947; radiation as well as high dose protons from solar particle events (2-4). A mixed radiation environment is unique to space and does not exist on earth and there is a lack of data on space radiation induced biological effects and thus inadequate resources of countermeasures (5). We propose to identify the pathways that lead to injury and damage from space radiation. Inflammation is one of the earliest triggers for tissue damage and an underlying cause of several pathologies including radiation induced diseases. The vasculature is an initiating and converging site of inflammation which is followed by extravasation into tissue and tissue injury. Although radiation-induced damage is largely in the form of circulatory problems, vascular damage in response to space radiation in particular, has never been investigated and due to its unique mechanism, LGM2605 has the potential to mitigate these negative effects of space travel related radiation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Physiological/Psychological Countermeasures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H12.01-9189
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radioprotectors and Mitigators of Space Radiation-induced Health Risks
PROPOSAL TITLE: Protecting Cardiomyocytes from Mixed Fields of Radiation by BIO 300

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Humanetics Corporation
7650 Edinborough Way, Suite 620
Edina, MN
55435-6012
(952) 937-7660

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Kaytor
mkaytor@humaneticscorp.com
7650 Edinborough Way, Suite 620
Edina,  MN 55435-6012
(952) 400-0406

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The cumulative dose of radiation exposure to our astronauts remains one of the limiting roadblocks to longer duration missions in space. Humanetics Corporation (Humanetics) is developing a novel radioprotectant, BIO 300, for use in both clinical radiotherapy and as a radiation countermeasure. BIO 300 is a safe, shelf-stable pharmaceutical which has been shown to mitigate both the acute and delayed effects of radiation exposure. BIO 300 is in advanced stages of clinical development, and is currently being evaluated as a radioprotectant of healthy lung tissue during radiotherapy treatment for non-small cell lung cancer in a Phase I/II trial. One component of developing radioprotectants for space is understanding if the therapy can protect against broad-spectrums of ionizing radiation, rather than just man-made X-Rays. Thus, the objective of this proposal is to examine BIO 300's radioprotective capabilities against mission-relevant doses of neutron/gamma mixed-fields of radiation. Another component of the work proposed here, is to utilize a novel cellular platform of terminally differentiated human cardiomyocytes to investigate degenerative consequences of radiation exposure in a functional human tissue model. Together, these studies will validate the utility of BIO 300 as a countermeasure for extraterrestrial radiation exposures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Humanetics is aggressively pursuing multiple modes of radioprotection interests for Earth applications. Our interest in the protection of normal tissue during clinical radiotherapy has manifested itself into a clinical trial in lung cancer patients receiving fractionated radiotherapy. Secondly, in preclinical studies, BIO 300 has been shown to mitigate radiation-induced erectile dysfunction following prostate radiation. Hence, a clinical trial in prostate cancer patients is planned to evaluate BIO 300?s ability to prevent radiation-induced erectile dysfunction. Finally, BIO 300 is being developed as a low-dose radioprotectant. For example, there is significant evidence that medical imaging techniques (e.g. CT Scans) which rely on ionizing radiation can pose significant risks, especially in younger patients and those subjected to multiple scans. For example, some traumatic brain injury patients will receive 20 to 50 brain CTs in a single year. Other applications of BIO 300 development include Department of Defense interests in countermeasures for radiation exposure.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
BIO 300 is intended as a broadly utilized radioprotectant therapy to mitigate the cellular and biological consequences of radiation exposure. In our Phase I/II clinical trial, 7 patients have taken BIO 300 daily for 8 weeks, while undergoing daily fractionated radiation doses of 2Gy, for a total cumulative dose of 60 Gy. Thus, we suggest that BIO 300 could be taken daily for the entire duration of a mission. Yet as chronic dosing for multiple astronauts may become weight limiting (with respect to amount of drug required to be put on a rocket) we also have data suggesting that BIO 300 can be taken acutely (in 1-3 doses) to mitigate larger radiation events, such as Solar Particle Events. As these events can constitute a large percentage of the total radiation dose over the mission, BIO 300 could be administered intermittently to mitigate these larger exposure radiological events.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Physiological/Psychological Countermeasures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H12.02-9281
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Model-based Adaptive Interfaces and Augmented Reality
PROPOSAL TITLE: Augmented Reality

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
METECS
1030 Hercules Avenue
Houston, TX
77058-2722
(832) 476-8651

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jesse Berger
jesse.berger@metecs.com
1030 Hercules Ave
Houston,  TX 77058-2722
(281) 476-8651

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Augmented Reality systems come with many benefits derived by co-locating information with a user's environment through the use of one or more output modalities such as visual, auditory and tactile. In the case of future human spaceflight programs involving deep space missions, the ground operations infrastructure currently utilized for support of LEO missions will be less accessible or unavailable. This will place far higher emphasis on the importance of automated and intelligent tools for tasking, advising, and monitoring autonomous crew activity. Augmented Reality systems will play a key role in achieving crew autonomy. With this fusion of real and virtual perception, however, comes challenges to ensure that the information is presented in a way that the user can effective consume it meet the goals of the situation. The proposed innovation is a configurable and extensible Augmented Reality Adaptable Information Manager (AR-AIM) that provides an infrastructure for integration of disparate sensor inputs, task definitions, consideration factors, prioritization algorithms, and output modalities to achieve adaptive augmented reality. Specifically, it will include a diverse combination of capabilities needed to make user interfaces that dynamically change to increase user precision and reduce stress on the user caused by the system. By being implemented as a reusable library, the AR-AIM controller suite can be leveraged across many systems, use cases, and domains. Features will include: - FOV Management - Occlusion Engine - Optimal Text Placement - Complexity Scaling - Multiple Modality Support - Data Interfaces - User Contextual Adaptations - Stress predictor - Multi-user Integration

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
An immediate application of this technology will be to support our ongoing VR and AR based initiatives in the construction and agricultural industries. We have already been incorporating augmented reality technologies into our commercial projects, however, we desire a better infrastructure for addressing the issues described in this proposal. Our aim will be to infuse this technology into our commercial efforts as soon as possible which we believe will result in a positive impact on our revenue growth.We believe that an infrastructure such as the one we propose will contribute to future development of new capabilities by: o Improving the quality of the AR experience through incorporation of adaptive AR capabilities o Reduce development time by decreasing time spent adjusting AR modalities and displays in ad-hoc ways to accommodate sometimes conflicting requirements o Promote reuse of common infrastructure code base across a wider variety of AR applications. Specific projects that will be early candidates for this technology will include: - Our Human-in-the-loop simulators for operation of agricultural and construction equipment - Augmented technology within virtual environment simulators - OEM development of AR applications for field operation of underground construction equipment

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
METECS sees opportunity to infuse this technology into existing and new projects within NASA. Model-based Simulations - The simulation and graphics branch of SRSD at Johnson Space Center develops a variety of analytical and human-in-the-loop model-based simulations for training, analysis and mission development purposes. Additionally, METECS sees benefit in applying the techniques used in our commercial simulation projects to NASA simulation projects and the development of the adaptive AR capability described in this SBIR would support that. Avionics Integration Facilities and mREST - METECS is involved in orchestration of several avionics integration facilities. One of our main contributions in that area is the orchestration infrastructure mREST. This software collects data from disparate test equipment and model-based simulations to enable data fusion and incorporation of data from multiple sources for integrated control and display. Because the underlying technology of the software is web-services based, this information is typically (but not always) displayed in a web-browser on fixed desktop computers or laptops. Logistics Management - METECS is a member of the RFID-Enabled Autonomous Logistics Management (REALM) team. We believe there are both short and long term opportunities for METECS to infuse this technology into our work in those areas.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Man-Machine Interaction
Perception/Vision
Physiological/Psychological Countermeasures
Process Monitoring & Control
Mission Training
Data Input/Output Devices (Displays, Storage)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H12.02-9628
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Model-based Adaptive Interfaces and Augmented Reality
PROPOSAL TITLE: Adaptive Augmented Reality Eabled Electronic Procedure Toolset

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tietronix Software, Inc.
1331 Gemini Avenue, Suite 300
Houston, TX
77058-2794
(281) 461-9300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michel Izygon
mizygon@tietronix.com
1331 Gemini Avenue, Suite 300
Houston,  TX 77058-2711
(281) 404-7256

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed research is aimed at investigating the feasibility to provide an integrated tool suite for development of Adaptive user interfaces for Augmented Reality (AR) enabled electronic Procedures. Human Space program has relied on procedures to operate efficiently and safely any spacecraft systems since its inception. Over the past few years, efforts to enhance these procedures using Augmented Reality has demonstrated the possibility to increase crew autonomy from ground support by providing improved guidance and just in time training. Many challenges persist in the following areas: difficult and time consuming development of the AR material, a range of potential AR hardware devices and software platforms to deploy on, and limited flexibility of the User Interface causing underwhelming user experience. Tietronix proposes to develop a toolset that will support the development of robust and adaptive user interface for the electronic procedures that leverages the power of AR technology. The envisioned toolset combines an authoring environment that enables the user to create electronic procedures with adaptive user interfaces which are dependent on their context of-use defined in terms of the user, platform, and environment. The UI can adapt to multiple elements such as the context in which the procedure is executed (workload, stressful conditions), the user skill level, the deployment platform (AR headset type, VR environment, tablet, phone), the type of cues to be provided. The use of this toolset will enable procedure developers to provide to operators enhanced situational awareness during the execution of the procedures by overlaying additional information such as instructions or graphical cues on top of the target system views, and auditory or tactile inputs. The proposed integrated suite of tools will provide critical technologies needed to develop adaptive UI for AR enabled electronic procedures, and execute these within the context of NASA space program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Complex Assembly and Maintenance tasks in industrial environments are excellent target domains for Augmented Reality electronic Procedures. The AUI/AR-eProc toolset has the potential to be adopted by a large number of organizations across many industries. Wherever there are complex and expensive maintenance tasks, which need to be performed safely with high accuracy, the proposed toolset can be effective at supporting the need to improve the development of advanced maintenance operating procedures. Such industries include the Aerospace maintenance services, the Oil and Gas industry as well as the automobile and heavy machinery industry. Additionally, Medical procedures are also perfect target for this technology. As Tietronix is already working with multiple large medical institutions, there is a solid potential for infusion of this technology in healthcare applications such as ultrasound guidance, dental procedure or even surgery.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed AUI/AR-eProc toolset can be applied to a large set of NASA programs and tasks. NASA's vision to support human spaceflight missions beyond Low Earth Orbit will require game changing operational toolsets for training and assistance for maintenance operations. With time delays and potentially sparse communications back to earth, astronauts will face the daunting task of operating and maintaining numerous systems that might unexpectedly fail or may even be required to perform life-saving surgery without support from the earth based operators. Currently, complex assembly and maintenance tasks on-board the International Space Station are good targets for the AR-enabled electronic procedures that our proposed toolset will help create. The Autonomous Mission Operations project is interested in the use of Augmented Reality technology. The Cis-Lunar NextSTEP program is exploring the potential use of multiple advanced technologies. Our working relationship with these programs will enable us to assess the infusion of our proposed concept within these projects.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Development Environments
Man-Machine Interaction
Perception/Vision
Mission Training


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 H12.02-9775
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Model-based Adaptive Interfaces and Augmented Reality
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Display Interface Technology

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creative MicroSystems Corporation
49 Fiddlers Green
Waitsfield, VT
05673-6009
(802) 496-6620

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Strauss
mstrauss@creativemicro.com
49 Fiddlers Green
Waitsfield,  VT 05673-6009
(802) 496-6620

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CMC proposes, along with our collaborator, Dr. Mica Endlsey of SA Technologies, to produce a framework from which an Adaptive User Interface (AUI) can be modeled and ultimately developed that utilizes Augmented Reality (AR) to improve Situational Awareness (SA) for spaceflight users in a high-workload scenario. This effort includes a thorough literature review related to the effects of modality and format on workload, as these are key factors informing our framework. Additionally, we will develop a display philosophy to guide how information is presented to the user. The effort includes a survey, assessment and technical summary of currently available and developing hardware and software technologies related to AR. Finally, we will develop a proof-of-concept prototype to demonstrate our AUI model framework and display philosophy targeted at a specifically defined task.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Adaptive User Interface (AUI) principles, model and proof-of-concept prototype developed in Phase I of this proposal will have value for any technological application involving human-computer interaction, especially when Augmented Reality (AR) is incorporated, because the work builds upon best practices, as they are currently known and being developed, in user-interface design and human-computer interaction. AUIs enable an application to best meet a user's needs based on workload, mental state and experience; AR coupled with effective AUIs, as developed in the work of this proposal, will improve Situational Awareness (SA), while simultaneously reducing cognitive workload, thus improving user experience and effectiveness. Specific consumer applications include navigation, remote collaboration, training and entertainment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Spaceflight personnel are required to perform a broad range of tasks, interact with myriad situationally relevant information streams, operate under conditions of widely ranging cognitive workload, and potentially make essentially autonomous, yet highly consequential, decisions. The utilization of AR and AUIs in the technological tools available to assist and guide human operators will reduce their cognitive workload and improve their SA. By seeking out the latest technology and tools related to AR, NASA engineers and partnering entities have a unique opportunity to develop the associated user interfaces essentially from the ground up using best practices, as are currently known and being developed, in user-interface design and human-computer interaction. CMC is eager to combine its hardware and design experience with the human-computer interface and SA expertise of its collaborator, Dr. Mica Endlsey, to realize this goal.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation & Modeling
Navigation & Guidance
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Man-Machine Interaction
Perception/Vision
Mission Training
Display
Data Input/Output Devices (Displays, Storage)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.01-8484
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: 1.57 Micron High Pulse Energy Single Frequency Fiber Laser

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AdValue Photonics, Inc.
3440 East Britannia Drive, Suite 190
Tucson, AZ
85706-5285
(520) 790-5468

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shibin Jiang
sjiang@advaluephotonics.com
3440 East Britannia Drive, Suite 190
Tucson,  AZ 85706-5285
(520) 790-5468

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to demonstrate and build a 1.572 micron single frequency high pulse energy and high peak power fiber laser by using an innovative Er-doped gain fiber with large core diameter and high gain per unit length. 1.572 micron single frequency high energy and high peak power fiber laser is needed for accurately measuring column CO2 concentrations . In Phase I, we will design and fabricate the large core diameter fiber, demonstrate high gain per unit length at 1.572 micron, and demonstrate high pulse energy and high peak power fiber laser with a short piece of gain fiber. Successful demonstration of such a fiber laser will enable many new NASA and commercial applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This eye-safe high pulse energy and high peak power single frequency fiber lasers can be used to build commercial lidar for ranging and gas monitoring applications, for optical sensing, fast scanning biomedical imaging, and scientific research.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA plans to launch ASCENDS in 2023 in according to the US National Research Councilıs 2007 Decadal Survey recommendation to accurately measure column CO2 concentrations using the IPDA technique. For ASCENDS mission NASA would need a pulsed singe frequency polarization maintaining (PM) laser system with >3.2mJ pulse energy, 3.2 kW peak power, repetition rate of 7.5kHz, and beam quality (M2) of <1.5. This proposed laser can be used for ASCENDS.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.01-8514
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Coherent Lidar Receiver

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Coherent Applications, Inc.
20 Research Drive, Suite 500
Hampton, VA
23666-1325
(757) 766-1002

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Diego Pierrottet
d.f.pierrottet@cailabs.net
20 Research Drive, Suite 500
Hampton,  VA 23666-1325
(757) 927-5556

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An advanced wide bandwidth coherent lidar receiver is proposed that will enhance sensitivity, and reduce support hardware complexity. With built in signal processing, the receiver will provide high resolution spectral estimates for Doppler frequency extraction of weak signals in noise. If successful, the innovation will increase lidar system efficiency, reduce cost, size, weight and power.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
An advanced CLR applications are not limited to NASA missions. Coherent lidar is used by many government organizations such as NOAA, DoD, DoE to name just a few. Simplifying coherent Lidar at the receiver will reduce cost and support hardware needed for typical coherent lidar applications. Such a device can be integrated into the growing number of self-driving cars, by providing inexpensive solution to situational awareness. The increased sensitivity from this receiver coupled with the short operational distances needed for these vehicles would make it possible to develop low power, high accuracy velocity mapping of the vehicles surroundings. This is a significant improvement over time-of-flight situational awareness laser sensors currently employed in driverless cars. In addition, the cost of the sensor becomes significantly more affordable, which is one of the hurdles facing driverless car manufacturers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Phase I effort paves the way for a very important component that is key to most coherent lidar system. Of immediate interest, the proposed advanced coherent lidar receiver (CLR) performs real-time signal processing that is common to any Doppler frequency measurement instrument. The proposed advanced CLR has the potential to enhance the sensitivity of an aircraft wind velocity measurement lidar by two orders of magnitude. Other NASA instrument that will immediately benefit from the proposed advanced CLR is the Navigation Doppler Lidar which uses a powerful data acquisition and processing system custom built at NASA Langley Research Center. The CLR can potentially provide the same capability at a fraction of the cost, with less power consumption, and enhanced signal acquisition sensitivity.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Lasers (Communication)
Lasers (Guidance & Tracking)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
Optical
Navigation & Guidance
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Data Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.01-8776
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Speed Frequency Locking Module for Lidar Based Remote Sensing Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fibertek, Inc.
13605 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon, VA
20171-4603
(703) 471-7671

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeremy Young
jyoung@fibertek.com
13605 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon,  VA 20171-4603
(703) 471-7671

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A fundamental requirement for all Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) systems is wavelength switching of the probe laser on and off of an absorption line of the species of interest. For most trace gas species it is also required that the accuracy of the switching be on the order of 10 MHz. Further complications for many DIAL measurements are that the platform for the system moves, such as an airplane or spacecraft, and that the lasers used are often high peak power, pulsed lasers. The combination of a moving platform, pulsed laser, and the requirement that the online and offline measurements be made in essentially the same volume implies that the switching time between online and off line measurements be less than ~ 1 ms, and many cases even shorter. To date, most lasers used in DIAL systems rely on piezo-electric (PZT) mechanisms to perform the cavity length changes needed for the frequency switching. In practice, this limits wavelength switching speeds to a few hundred Hz. This relatively slow frequency switching prevents researchers from fully exploiting DIAL systems utilizing the high efficiency, multi-kHz lasers or the lower repetition rate, dual pulse lasers systems that are now available. In order to improve the wavelength switching speeds needed to fully exploit the capabilities of airborne and space-based DIAL systems, Fibertek is proposing to develop a high speed, non-mechanical frequency locking module that allows shot to shot frequency switching of single-frequency lasers at up to 3 kHz with a spectral resolution of <10 MHz. Our approach to the proposed locking module is an innovative synthesis of all electro-optic (EO) based switching and locking, a compact and efficient EO driver design that reduces voltage requirements by 4x over conventional designs, a novel EO voltage that's profile that eliminates electrochromic darkening, and a larger off-set locking capability that eliminates the requirement for an additional phase shifter in the cavity.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1. Single-frequency blue lasers for use in ocean monitoring and underwater communications - Since the early 1970's the U.S. Navy has made major investments (>$100M) in attempts to develop single-frequency blue lidar systems for underwater communications. Fibertek has supported these development efforts and anticipates that the successful development of the proposed technology would enhance our chances of winning future business in this area. 2. Doppler wind lidar (DWL) systems for precision air drop - An unmet need for the Army is a compact and robust DWL system that could be used to quantify the vector wind fields in the vicinity of a region where supplies will be dropped from medium to high altitude aircraft. The technology proposed here would enhance Fibertek's ability to respond and compete in this business area.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1. Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems (ACE) - This mission will be an expanded scope follow-on to the highly successful CALIPSO cloud and aerosol lidar mission. Researchers at NASA Langley and NASA GSFC have been developing three wavelength (1064 nm, 532 nm, and 355 nm) High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) systems as candidate technologies for the ACE mission. 2. 3-D Winds - Space-based measurement of tropospheric winds with global coverage has been identified as a critical mission for enhancing both weather and climate modeling. 355 nm airborne demonstrators for this mission include a direct detection wind lidar that was built at GSFC and an Optical Auto-Covariance Wind Lidar (OAWL) being developed at Ball Aerospace. 3. Global Atmospheric Composition Mission (GACM) - A scaled up version of the 355 nm pumped Ozone DIAL system being developed at NASA Langley is a strong contender for the GACM mission requirements for global ozone measurements. 4. The NASA Langley High Altitude Lidar Observatory (HALO) - This is an in progress lidar development program for airborne measurements of methane and water vapor. Our proposed high speed locking and switching technology are critical for achieving the desired performance for both the 1 kHz, 1064 nm pump lasers and the optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) that will be used to generate the 1.65 ?m and 1.57 ?m beams needed to measure methane and water vapor.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Emitters
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Multispectral/Hyperspectral
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Prototyping


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.01-8884
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Speed Beam Steering Components for Lidar

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Boulder Nonlinear Systems, Inc.
450 Courtney Way, Unit 107
Lafayette, CO
80026-8878
(303) 604-0077

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jay Stockley
jstockley@bnonlinear.com
450 Courtney Way, Unit 107
Lafayette,  CO 80026-8878
(303) 604-0077

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Boulder Nonlinear Systems (BNS) will develop a high speed (sub-15 micro-second response time) low size, weight, and power (SWaP) beam scanner for application to space-based Lidar. BNS will employ their current liquid crystal polarization grating (LCPG) technology and ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) switches to meet the discrete scanner speed and resolution requirements called for in the solicitation. Advantages of applying BNS LCPG and switch component technology specific to the space-based Lidar application will include accuracy, reliability, and improved SWaP as well as high rate (at least 8 kHz ) scanning. In addition, BNS will develop an environmental test and or mitigation plan for our components tailored to the space-based Lidar application. The Phase I analysis will result in the design of a scanner prototype which will be built in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Possible commercial applications include the use of this technology for agricultural and meteorological information gathering as well as search and rescue.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to the remote sensing application, a fast, low-SWaP beam scanner could be used in NASAs hazard avoidance applications (Docking, Entry, Descent and Landing). The result of the Phase I effort will be a design for a prototype fast, low SWaP beam scanner. The Phase II prototype implementation will serve to demonstrate the beam scanning capability, environmental survivability, as well as optimize SWaP. The resultant beam control system will be transitioned to the Lidar systems integrator and eventually a commercial product.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Polymers
Gratings
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Optical
Ranging/Tracking
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Infrared
Characterization
3D Imaging


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.01-8897
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Autonomous Alignment Advancements for Eye-Safe Coherent Lidar

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Beyond Photonics, LLC
6205 Lookout Road, Suite B
Boulder, CO
80301-3334
(303) 475-2088

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sammy Henderson
sammy@beyondphotonics.com
6205 Lookout Road, Ste. B
Boulder,  CO 80301-3334
(303) 396-8536

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Eye-safe coherent lidar technology holds increasing promise of meeting NASA's demanding remote 3D space winds goal near term. Highly autonomous, long-range coherent lidar systems may suffer significant SNR loss due to environment-induced component misalignment. Although systems can be engineered with the required alignment stability, the overall size, mass, and cost to produce coherent lidar systems will benefit from incorporating technology into the design that allows alignment to be optimized automatically while the system is in the field. This will especially benefit autonomous airborne and space based lidar systems where maintaining peak performance is critical without regular human intervention. Auto-alignment technologies will result in lower-cost sensors with greater autonomy and less-exotic mechanical engineering, resulting in high commercial potential due to the rapid introduction of lidar systems into the commercial marketplace for various applications. The technology aimed at maintaining laser and lidar alignment also has potential to correct for receiver lag angle in scanning lidar systems, which will facilitate faster scan rates, larger apertures, and greater area coverage rate capability. Beyond Photonics has a strong interest in solving these technological problems for relevant ground-based, airborne, and space-based unattended lidar systems. This Phase I effort will investigate auto-alignment designs exhibiting a high level of synergy between NASA's and other commercial vendorıs requirements for laser auto-alignment, transmit/receive transceiver auto-alignment, and lag angle compensation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA, commercial applications for the lower-cost, higher reliability autonomous coherent laser radar sensors that would be realized from the proposed work include, use of such systems in wind energy management and site location applications; at airports for detection of hazardous aircraft wake vortices and wind shear, increasing airport operating efficiency; hard-target sensing, identification, and imaging applications. The auto-alignment concept will find many commercial applications wherever two or more beams need to be aligned to each other, such as is often required in non-linear optics, IR spectroscopy applications, and single-mode fiber beam combination and management.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications for the lower-cost, higher-reliability autonomous laser and lidar alignment technology include the existing NASA LaRC DAWN lidar system (which currently suffers from thermally-induced environmental system misalignment that would readily be addressed by this technology with very low impact on existing architecture) and future generations of this wind measurement lidar system. The technology can be easily extended to other wavelengths (e.g. 1.55-1.6 um), which could directly benefit NASA programs aimed at atmospheric CO2 or CH4 measurement using lidar systems and other laser remote sensing efforts where long-duration unattended operation is key. Space-based applications are of particular interest.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.01-9091
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: AGILE Etalon Filter for Differential Absorption LIDAR

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michigan Aerospace Corporation
1777 Highland Drive, Suite B
Ann Arbor, MI
48108-2285
(734) 975-8777

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Will Johnson
wjohnson@michaero.com
1777 Highland Drive, Suite B
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-2285
(734) 975-8777

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Modern sensing systems often are required to pick out a very specific wavelength in a sea of other light (such as in daylight), making precise optical filtering a vital part of many sensing systems. Michigan Aerospace Corporation (MAC) plans to design, build and test an agile, frequency-tunable Fabry-Perot interferometer (etalon) for use as an optical filter of background light as part of a Differential Absorption LIDAR (DIAL) system. MAC's extensive history with designing and building rugged etalons for NASA and other customers will be key to this effort. Phase I will involve the design of this specific etalon and the testing of a faster method for precisely tuning it. Phase II will then involve the construction and test of the etalon.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications will be similar to NASA applications for precise, rapidly-tunable optical filters for sensing systems of all kinds, including those in rugged environments (airborne, shipborne, etc).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This new, faster-tuning etalon technology will be appropriate not only for NASA DIAL and Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA)-type LIDAR systems, but also for other NASA remote sensing tasks requiring rapidly-tunable wavelength discrimination. The ruggedness of the design will ensure the ability to use such etalons in airborne and space applications, as well as with ground systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Actuators & Motors
Filtering
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Interferometric (see also Analysis)
Ultraviolet
Visible
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.01-9205
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact Integrated DBR Laser Source for Absorption Lidar Instruments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Photodigm, Inc.
1155 East Collins Boulevard, #200
Richardson, TX
75081-2304
(972) 235-7584

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Annie Xiang
axiang@photodigm.com
1155 East Collins Blvd. #200
Richardson,  TX 75081-2304
(972) 235-7584

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to demonstrate a compact integrated laser module that addresses the requirements of the laser source in a water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system at the 935nm absorption wavelength. Our approach, with the development of the high performance DBR laser diode and the engineering of compact integration technology, will provide narrow linewidth and high power laser modules for numerous Lidar applications with the advantages of reduced size, weight and power (SWaP). Under this Phase I SBIR we propose to design and fabrication the EPI material and the DBR lasers with a high gain compressive-strained single quantum well (QW) structure, based on Photodigm's proprietary single growth epi, precision gain ridges, and monolithic grating process. We would develop an integrated module that is optically isolated and fiber coupled by investigating the custom build optical isolators of the operating wavelength and designing a compact, hermetic package to achieve high reliability and manufacturability. Continuing device engineering such as extended mode hop mounting, micro lens beam shaping and package space qualification are expected to be incorporated with this device family under Phase II of this SBIR program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed integrated laser module would be the most compact and high power DBR laser with embedded optics available in the market. The optical integration concept complements the Photodigm family of DBR laser packages in the 850 to 1000nm range with isolated fiber coupled solution. It is also a high power package alternative to the broader 760 to 1100nm wavelength range devices. In addition to NASA's use in a number of LIDAR systems, a narrow linewidth and high power laser module finds applications in various areas of spectroscopy, atomic physics, non-linear optics, and fiber amplifiers. The high spectral stability is desirable in applications resolving hyperfine structures and applications demanding long coherent length. The size and weight reduction and fiber connection is suitable for handheld instrumentations. Photodigm recognizes the fastest commercial growth lies in gas sensing, aerospace metrology and medical tomography.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
With the development of high precision 935nm DBR laser diode and matching isolator, NASA's primary application for the proposed compact integration laser module would be the deployment in the air-borne DIAL sensor networks to map atmospheric water vapor with high spatial and temporal resolution. This application is well aligned with the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) instrument development program objective through the implement of smaller and more affordable DIAL transmitters. The compact integration technology applies to the full spectrum of the GaAs material based DBR lasers that Photodigm offers, leading to potential applications in sensing of ozone and other trace gasses.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.01-9266
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: All Fiber Gas Reference Cell

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TIPD, LLC
1430 North 6th Avenue
Tucson, AZ
85705-6644
(520) 250-4405

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Valery Temyanko
vtemyanko@optics.arizona.edu
1430 N 6th Ave.
Tucson,  AZ 85705-6644
(520) 626-7934

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
TIPD proposed to build a stable, robust, rugged, compact, fiber coupled gas reference cell (GRC) with tens of meters of interaction length that is required in atmospheric constituent and trace gas analysis sensors as well as LIDAR instruments in the near and shortwave infrared supporting NASA's future planetary science missions. Specifically, this proposal addresses the need for a water vapor reference cell that is required for differential absorption LIDAR (DIAL) systems for water sensing in 820nm and 940nm bands.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
One of the most promising markets for commercializing the GRC technology proposed by TIPD beyond direct NASA applications is in the area of molecular spectroscopy including biological sensing, quality control in manufacturing processes, and environmental sensing and monitoring.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The TIPD's all fiber gas reference cell is directly applicable to future NASA goals in Earth and planetary science as well as missions requiring remote spectroscopic sensing of key atmospheric species at near and shortwave infrared wavelengths where robust, compact, and long interaction length reference gas cells are required. Specifically, our GRC could be used in water vapor, CO2, and CH4 DIAL systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.01-9278
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fast Electro-Optic Switch for Pulsed Space-Based Lidar Beam Steering

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ADVR, Inc.
2310 University Way, Building 1-1
Bozeman, MT
59715-6504
(406) 522-0388

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pushkar Pandit
pushkarp@advr-inc.com
2310 University Way, Building #1-1
Bozeman,  MT 59715-6504
(406) 522-0388

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Lidar is a core technology in NASA's arsenal for science measurements from ground, air-borne and space based platforms. AdvR is proposing a beam steering mechanism for space-based Lidar based on AdvR's electro-optic deflector technology with no moving parts, making it favorable for space-based operation. The system operates on the principle of electro-optically controlled prisms engineered into a ferroelectric substrate, and is designed to have low loss, fast switching speed and settling time, good isolation and operation from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared. AdvR has previously built and tested electro-optic switches and scanners and the demonstrated performance shows promising potential for use in discrete angle beam steering for Lidar. This Phase I SBIR will investigate the use of the EO deflector technology for a fast beam steering mechanism to improve the sampling density, coverage and signal to noise ratio of NASA's Space-based Lidar systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A compact, fast electro-optic beam steering mechanism for Lidar proposed in this Phase I can help advance the state-of-the-art in Lidar beam scanning across the civilian and defense industry. It has applications in self-driving car industry that relies mostly on scanning Lidar for navigation and guidance as well as in geophysical mapping for scientific research and commercial applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A fast electro-optic beam steering mechanism can improve the sampling density and coverage in all four of NASA's primary Lidar instrument types: backscatter, ranging, Doppler and differential absorption. The electro-optic deflector technology is also used in building electro-optic switches and scanners that find applications in quantum information processing and long range optical communications pursued by NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Communication)
Lasers (Guidance & Tracking)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Optical
Ranging/Tracking
Infrared
Routers, Switches
3D Imaging


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.01-9826
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: 2 Micron Wavelength Coherent Universal LIDAR With Adjustable Resolution and Sensitivity

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Discovery Semiconductors, Inc.
119 Silvia Street
Ewing, NJ
08628-3200
(609) 434-1311

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shubhashish Datta
sdatta@discoverysemi.com
119 Silvia Street
Ewing,  NJ 08628-3200
(609) 434-1311

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Discovery Semiconductors and Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories have teamed together to design a Universal LIDAR system that will work for NASA's diverse range of applications. We propose a fiber-based, self-heterodyne LIDAR, at 2050 nm wavelength, whose transmitted optical signal is modulated by a 10 Gbps programmable pseudo-random (PRN) sequence. The LIDAR's resolution and sensitivity will be tuned by choosing the appropriate PRN sequence. A PRN length of 1 will provide the finest resolution of 1.5 cm with 1 uW sensitivity. Increasing the PRN length to 100,000 will improve the sensitivity to 10 pW for 1.5 km resolution. Several NASA applications will be covered by the new innovation including: 1) Thermometry and spectroscopy of rocket plumes and jet engine flames with cm scale resolution, 2) Laser Doppler Velocimetry in Hypersonic wind tunnels up to Mach 20, 3) Navigational LIDARs for planetary landing mission that need velocity and altitude measurements with sub-meter accuracy, 4) Clear air turbulence measurements having 10 m or higher resolution, and 5) Space based wind LIDAR for environmental sensing having 1 km resolution. Our Phase I work will result in detailed LIDAR design, which will be corroborated by experimental demonstration of resolution-sensitivity trade.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
(1)Wind profilers for wind farms, (2)On-board clear air turbulence sensing in aircrafts, (3)Airport wind monitoring for wind shear, turbulence, and vortex wake currents for improved air safety, (4)Terrain profiling, corridor mapping, and active monitoring of civil engineering projects, (5)Navigation for commercial unmanned aerial vehicles, and (6)Mobile mapping systems for high-resolution geospatial data.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
(1)Global 3D profiling of wind velocity with improved sensitivity in clear air, (2)Cloud mapping, formation, frequency, and altitude data for climate model, (3)Navigational Lidars for planetary missions, (4)Rocket engine development, and (5)Wind tunnel measurements.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
Ranging/Tracking
Aerodynamics
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.02-8426
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Active Microwave Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: A High Efficiency 400W GaN Amplifier for X-Band Radar Remote Sensing Using >50 VDC FETs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Integra Technologies, Inc.
321 Coral Circle
El Segundo, CA
90245-4620
(310) 606-0855

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gabriele Formicone
gformicone@integratech.com
321 Coral Circle
El Segundo,  CA 90245-4620
(480) 940-1036

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An efficient 400W amplifier for pulse spaceborne radar active remote sensing applications at X-Band will be investigated. Current X-band radar transmitters use TWT devices requiring kV bulky power supplies, or 0.25 um GaN solid-state devices operating at 28 V or 50 V at most, with 40 V typical upper limit. Solid-state technology is desirable for its better SWaP figure of merit. However, achieving 400 W at X-band with 28 V or 50 V GaN technology requires power combining of several low-power MMIC or internally-matched 50 Ohm devices. Combiners require space and introduce losses. Integra Technologies proposes a new 400 W X-band GaN amplifier that operates using 0.25 um GaN FETs at 75 V and possibly at 100 VDC with 30% duty cycle and >50 MHz bandwidth and achieves >40% power-added efficiency. The preliminary effort will investigate Integra's 0.25 um GaN devices operating at 50 V and 75 V for a ~50 W output power to determine gain and efficiency at X-band using Class J matching techniques for enhanced drain efficiency. Longer term device investigation will include geometry and epi modifications to optimize the chip size and cell dimensions for 100 VDC operation at X-band; a 2-stage module will target 400 W peak power and an appropriate driver device. The final amplifier module will include bias modulation techniques for efficiency. The amplifier will include material selections and layout techniques for reliability under high RF energy signal levels and low pressure environments

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The use of higher efficiency and higher power X-band GaN pulsed amplifiers will allow for improved power management for commercial, weather and military radar applications. Integra Technologies will continue to push the "state of the art" for GaN devices and amplifier modules that advance radar technologies for C-Band, X-Band and potentially Ku-Band, all of which will be enabled by the present technology research.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A target application for this pulsed power amplifier can be RADAR for active remote sensing of Earth or potentially other non-terrestrial objects. The use of a very high efficiency power amplifier will allow for higher power levels in an energy limited environment such as in space operations. The high power ratings of this proposal will allow for greater standoff distances and improved signal to noise for the receivers used for remote sensing application. If operation at 100 VDC in X-band is achieved, the transmitter could operate directly from the DC voltage bus of the spacecraft with minimal or un-necessary DC-DC converter. The successful development of this high efficiency X-band amplifier concept can be leveraged by NASA for other RADAR applications at other wavelengths, as Integra's 100 VDC X-band GaN devices can be used at C-Band and potentially extended to Ku-band.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Electromagnetic
Amplifiers/Repeaters/Translators
Power Combiners/Splitters
Transmitters/Receivers
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.02-9097
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Active Microwave Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Deployable Microwave Antennas for CubeSats, NanoSats, and SmallSats

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Boulder Environmental Sciences and Technology
5171 Eldorado Springs Drive, Suite A
Boulder, CO
80303-9672
(303) 532-1198

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tristen Hohman
tristen.hohman@boulderest.com
5171 Eldorado Springs Drive, Suite A
Boulder,  CO 80303-9672
(303) 532-1198

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A small deployable antenna is proposed with an offset-fed paraboloidal reflector for use between 8 and 100 GHz in CubeSat, NanoSat, and SmallSat applications. Apertures vary from 0.5 to 2 meters. For a 0.5 m aperture, the approximate dimensions of the stowed reflector are 6 cm in diameter and 8.86 cm in length, with an approximate mass of 0.25 kg. For a 1.2 m aperture, the approximate dimensions of the stowed reflector are 14.4 cm in diameter and 21.26 cm in length, with an approximate mass of 0.6 kg. For a 2 m aperture, the approximate dimensions of the stowed reflector are 24 cm in diameter and 35.4 cm in length, with an approximate mass of 1 kg. This antenna design builds off the proven mission success of similar designs while remaining competitive in performance with smaller deployable antennas. The stowed volume of this antenna is comparable to the volume of the KaDPA antenna developed by JPL, while providing a potential increase in the antenna efficiency due to the advantages of an offset-fed design compared to its center-fed counterpart. During Phase I, a preliminary design of this antenna system will be developed, as well as its deployment and testing procedures will proposed.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Private markets are investing in Earth observations and many smaller nations are looking to develop their EO small satellite constellations with remote sensors. The primary market for these deployable antennas is weather forecasting systems. Over the next decade, 419 Earth observing satellites are expected to be launched generating $35.5 billion in manufacturing revenues. Significant growth in the number of commercial satellites launched in constellation is expected. The successful demonstration of the antenna prototype operation and its characterization in laboratory conditions, will open the door to rapidly developing markets of small satellites for active or passive microwave remote sensing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA spaceborne instruments will benefit from the development of this new antenna technology. The demonstration of the prototype built during the Phase II of the project will prove the deployable antenna concept and open new possibilities in design for space remote sensors, either active or passive. The technological trend is moving towards the smaller and less expensive satellites and this project is one of many significant steps towards making such systems economical and competitive.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Electromagnetic
Radiometric


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.02-9156
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Active Microwave Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Improved Microwave Photonic Links via Receive-Side Nonlinear Signal Processing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NuCrypt, LLC
1840 Oak Avenue, Suite 212-S
Evanston, IL
60201-3697
(847) 733-8750

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gregory Kanter
kanterg@nucrypt.net
1840 Oak Avenue Suite 212-S
Evanston,  IL 60201-3697
(847) 733-8750

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to significantly enhance the state-of-the-art of photonically-assisted microwave measurement and distribution systems by incorporating a highly efficient nonlinear optical process into the system design. The use of a nonlinearity can improve the dynamic range of the system without causing a reduction in the inherent noise-figure, thus eliminating a trade-off currently encountered when designing microwave-photonic systems. The photonic system will optically down-convert the microwave signal of interest thereby eliminating electronic mixers that can otherwise add loss, reduce dynamic range, and constrain the operating frequency range. Furthermore, we propose to exploit an emerging highly efficient modulator technology which is well suited to photonic integration. The expected net result is a high performance measurement of microwave signals over large frequency ranges (e.g. 10 - 100+ GHz) with low size, weight, and power. The systems will be well suited for integration into spacecraft as only a simple phase modulator is required at the antenna since almost all of the measurement apparatus can be connected to the modulator via low loss, low weight, and electro-magnetic interference free optical fiber.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology is applicable to both civilian and military aviation needs. As is the case for NASA applications, a plethora of microwave systems are onboard such aircraft and these applications also benefit from low SWAP, low part count, reconfigurable measurement bands, and flexible component locations. Electronic countermeasures are also widely deployed in military aircraft and represent an additional application. The growth of unmanned aerial vehicles and their use in surveillance and remote sensing represents another attractive market. Additional applications include microwave signal remoting from cellular towers (back-haul), radar-based process monitoring in industrial tanks, and portable RF instrumentation. In terms of communication systems an optical front end offers the ultimate in re-programmability as could be used in a universal software defined radio or for specialty applications like secure communication via frequency hop spread spectrum techniques.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology can be applied to microwave measurements in a wide variety of contexts including space vehicles. Common uses would be in radar, communications, and passive and active electromagnetic sensors. Such applications are commonly found in satellites and are used extensively by NASA for navigation, data transfer, remote sensing and atmospheric/climate science. The simplicity and low part count of the designs are useful for reducing the expense of part sparing and system repair. The low SWAP and highly flexible measurement system is also well suited for portable microwave instrumentation, such as for wideband RF network analyzers, and for incorporating into built-in-self-test systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Microwave
Amplifiers/Repeaters/Translators
Transmitters/Receivers


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.02-9250
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Active Microwave Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Enabling Larger Deployable Ka-Band Antenna Apertures with Novel Rib

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tendeg, LLC
686 South Taylor Avenue, Suite 108
Louisville, CO
80027-3000
(303) 929-4466

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gregg Freebury
gregg@tendeg.com
686 South Taylor Avenue, Suite 108
Louisville,  CO 80027-3000
(303) 929-4466

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The significance and relevance of the proposed innovation is to design and develop a novel rib that will enable larger aperture parabolic reflectors and antennas. The gain and performance of any reflector is a function of the diameter. Higher communication data rates, longer transmission distances, increased sensor capacity for active radar and radiometers are all directly related to aperture size. The challenge is being able to achieve these larger apertures and still have the packaging efficiency to enable more cost effective small satellites. Tendeg has designed, fabricated and surface tested a 1m aperture Ka-band reflector that is able to package into a 3U cubesat volume. The unique design allows 100:1 area compaction ratios yet the deployed antenna is achieving the surface precision needed for Ka-band operations. Scaling to larger apertures will require a new rib design. Trade studies will consider multiple cross sections, materials and fabrication methods. One configuration is the mini-CTM under development at Langley Research Center. Detailed design will be completed to optimize the integration of each potential rib configuration. Finite element analysis will determine stiffness during deployment and deployed buckling capacity. Testing of a mini-CTM will be done to determine packaging and buckling performance. At the completion of the program a down selected design will be proposed for a Phase II prototype program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is strong market potential in CubeSat up to smallsat size satellites in the commercial arena. There are numerous communication and data transfer constellations on-orbit and under construction. There are also numerous commercial Earth observation constellations under development. Billions of dollars are being invested in these constellations. Most of these commercial networks are small to nano sized satellites. Many of them would benefit from the lightweight, small packaged volume and high gain antenna performance for either high speed RF communications or weather and ground looking radar. In the terrestrial market, the U.S. Military is actively seeking man-packable high gain antennas for forward operating Warfighters.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA commercial applications include any Ka-Band 2-4m aperture antennas used for Earth observing science missions (RainCube radar), deep space communications, and any mission needing high data rate downlinks.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Metallics
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Structures
Analytical Methods
Antennas
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.02-9973
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Active Microwave Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Deployable Ka/W Dual Band Cylindrical Parabolic Antenna Including Feed Support Structure

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MMA Design, LLC
P.O. Box 7804
Loveland, CO
80537-0804
(970) 290-6426

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher Pelzmann
capelzmann@mmadesignllc.com
2555 55th St Suite 104
Boulder,  CO 80301-5729
(773) 677-4767

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The need for large radio frequency (RF) apertures in space has long driven technology developments that enable aperture sizes that exceed the allowable volume within a launch vehicle fairing. As the operating wavelength of these systems increases, the difficulty and cost grow exponentially. Large aperture high frequency antennas are of significant interest for science instruments and commercial communications. NASA weather and precipitation monitoring efforts utilize RF sensing instruments operating at Ka and W band frequencies. The proposed deployable high frequency antenna, will enable future satellite missions with one-dimensional parabolic dual frequency RF apertures operating at 35 GHz and 94 GHz in sizes ranging from <2 to 32 square meters (4 meters x 8 meters) and larger. This antenna will be adaptable to other government and commercial applications across a broad range of frequencies. The ~1 meter x 2 meter "module" can satisfy the needs of the following subtopics: - Deployable Cylindrical Parabolic Antenna including Feed Support Structure o Supports dual frequency at 35 GHz and 96 GHz o Stows in 20 x 20 x 100 cm - Deployable Cylindrical antenna o Supports 36 GHz - Deployable W-band (94 GHz) antenna suitable for CubeSats and SmallSats o Supports SmallSats o Scalable to smaller apertures for CubeSats

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a wide variety of military, civil, and commercial users with significant interest Ka/V/W band frequency spectrum. All of these are influenced by the same trend to use deployable antenna technologies to fit their needs onto smaller satellites that are more rapidly developed and launched within smaller budgets while preserving the maximum data output/throughput value.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High frequency antennas support next generation weather satellites monitoring precipitation, hurricanes, and other atmospheric phenomena. Deployable antennas will support larger apertures and/or smaller, more affordable launch systems for these missions. High frequencies are also targeted for next generation communications requirements offering dramatic increases in data transfer rates for RF systems that can also be supported by this technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Deployment
Structures
Microwave
Antennas
Characterization


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.03-8764
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Passive Microwave Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Power Radiation Tolerant 4GHz Bandwidth 16k Channel Spectrometer ASIC

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pacific Microchip Corporation
3916 Sepulveda Boulevard, #108
Culver City, CA
90230-4650
(310) 683-2628

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aliaksandr Zhankevich
alex.zh@pacificmicrochip.com
3916 Sepulveda Blvd. Ste 108
Culver City,  CA 90230-4650
(310) 683-2628

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Spectrometers currently employed or under development by NASA are based on a printed circuit board (PCB) including field programmable arrays (FPGAs) and a number of other discrete components. An application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) based spectrometer offers a great reduction in weight, volume and power consumption compared to the FPGA/PCB based implementation. This proposal aims to develop a radiation-hardened (RH) low-power (LP) poly-phase spectrometer (PPS) ASIC. The proposed RH LP PPS ASIC aims to achieve a 4GHz bandwidth and 214 (16384) frequency bins. In order to implement the required functionality and meet the specifications while consuming below 2.5W of power, the proposed ASIC will include a state-of-the-art ADC, a demultiplexer, a poly-phase filter bank, a windowing function, a fast-Fourier-transform core, a fast-Fourier-data analysis block, a data readout, a digital control unit and testing features. Tolerance to at least 4Mrads of total ionizing dose (TID) radiation and immunity to the single event effects (SEEs) will be achieved by employing radiation hardening by design, by layout, and by system techniques and also by applying an ultra-thin gate oxide technology for implementation. Low power consumption will be achieved by employing special multiplier-less-accumulators and multiplier-less-"butterflies". The power consumption will be further reduced by switching off the unused ASIC's blocks, down rating the clock frequency, eliminating unnecessary buffering and applying the 28nm CMOS technology. Phase I work will provide the proof of feasibility of implementing the proposed spectrometer ASIC. Phase II will result in the silicon proven ASIC's prototypes ready for commercialization in Phase III.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to its primary application in the NASA's spectrometer systems, the proposed ASIC will be targeting applications in commercial, military and other scientific exploration systems which require small size, low power, radiation hardened spectrometers. Commercial and military applications include spectrometers employed on satellites, aircraft and air balloons for remote sensing and surveillance to process the data from synthetic aperture radars, sonars, or visible light/infrared/UV image detectors. For applications of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), space, airborne and ground based remote sensing instruments require high precision spectrometers for temperature, water vapor, pollutant, ozone and other exploration.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed spectrometer ASIC will greatly reduce the size, complexity, power consumption and increase reliability of spectrometer instruments. These spectrometers are required for current and future space borne and airborne NASA's passive remote sensing instruments for exploration of the cosmic microwave background, the Earth's atmosphere and its surface. Specific missions include: A-SLMS, CAMEO, GACM, GeoSTAR, HyspIRI and GEO-CAPE. In addition, the proposed ASIC can find application in Earth based radio telescopes used for radio astronomy.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Microwave
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.03-9385
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Passive Microwave Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Correlation Radiometer ASIC

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pacific Microchip Corporation
3916 Sepulveda Boulevard, #108
Culver City, CA
90230-4650
(310) 683-2628

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anton Karnitski
anton@pacificmicrochip.com
3916 Sepulveda Blvd. Ste 108
Culver City,  AK 90230-4650
(310) 683-2628

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed project aims to develop an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for the NASA's microwave correlation radiometers required for space and airborne Earth sensing applications. The radiometer instrumentation installed on CubeSats and SmallSats is required to have small volume, low weight and consume low power. Currently used correlating radiometers rely on analog signal processing, thus are bulky, power hungry and cannot be reprogrammed. Analog filter parameters tend to be unstable over temperature, power supply voltage, may degrade over time and need tuning. The proposed low-power, rad-hard ASIC will operate with microwave correlation radiometer front ends down-converting the RF to up to 10GHz IF quadrature signals. The ASIC will include digitizers, bandpass filters, cross-correlators, totalizers, serializers, an output data interface and an I2C interface for the ASIC's programming. Bandpass filters will split up the digitized quadrature IF input signals into bands (up to 16), will cross-correlate the signals within each band and will ship out the resultant data in a convenient format. Instead of analog signal processing performing a strictly defined function, the ASIC will employ a digital signal processing which can be reprogrammed to adopt specific parameters of the filter block such as the number of bands, each filter's corner frequency, bandwidth and filter's order. A number of innovations will be introduced to the ASIC in order to combine programmability, low power consumption and radiation tolerance. The project's Phase I will provide the proof of feasibility of implementing the proposed ASIC. Phase II will include finishing the design, chip fabrication, testing and delivering the ADC prototypes which will be ready for commercialization in Phase III.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to its primary application in the NASA's correlation radiometry systems, the proposed ASIC will be targeting other commercial and military related systems which require small size, low power, radiation hardened radiometers. Commercial applications include radiometers employed on communication, remote sensing and navigation satellites. With the deployment of small size satellites compact radiometer based positioning is essential as well as it is crucial for swarms of satellites that have to maintain certain formation. Possible military applications include satellites used for communication and surveillance. Another area of application includes synthetic aperture radar receiver modules. In case of Environmental protection agency (EPA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), both space and ground based remote sensing instruments require high precision radiometers for temperature, water vapor, pollutant, ozone and other exploration. Radiometers used for thermal imaging in security systems is yet another area for application of the proposed ASIC.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed correlation radiometer back end ASIC combining signal normalization, digitizing, programmable digital band-pass filtering and cross-correlation functions will greatly reduce the size, complexity, power consumption and reliability of radiometer instruments. These radiometers are required for current and future NASA's passive remote sensing instruments within Earth, planet and sun exploration missions. In addition, the proposed ASIC can find application in radiometers required for radio astronomy for measurements of the properties of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Distributed Spacecraft Missions (DSM) including Constellations, Formation Flying missions, or Fractionated missions using CubeSats or SmallSats require precise position synchronization between satellites which can be implemented by using correlation radiometers tracking a common radiation source.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Radiometric
Infrared
Terahertz (Sub-millimeter)
Microwave
Radio
Multispectral/Hyperspectral
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.03-9822
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Passive Microwave Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microwave Photonic Imaging Radiometer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Phase Sensitive Innovations Inc.
51 East Main Street, Suite 201
Newark, DE
19711-4676
(302) 456-9003

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Thomas Dillon
dillon@phasesensitiveinc.com
51 East Main Street
Newark,  DE 19711-4676
(302) 456-9003

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Passive Microwave Remote Sensing is currently utilized by NASA, NOAA, and USGIS to conduct Earth Science missions, including weather forecasting, early warning systems, and climate studies. Due to budgetary constraints and lack of reliable access to medium-lift vehicles, the current trend in the space industry is towards smaller, cheaper, and more frequent missions. Nano-satellites, such as CubeSats, are gaining in popularity due to their low cost and ease of deployment. These miniaturized platforms impose severe constraints on the size, weight, and power (SWaP) of the payload. However, relatively large apertures are required to achieve desired spatial resolution. In this NASA SBIR effort, Phase Sensitive Innovations (PSI) will dramatically reduce the SWaP of our microwave photonic imaging radiometer technology, thus making it amenable to deployment on spaceborne platforms. Our innovative approach employs distributed aperture imaging (DAI) with optical upconversion of the incoming microwave radiation and subsequent coherent optical reconstruction of the microwave scene. The sensor features a flexible, two-dimensional form factor that allows the antenna array to be stowed for launch and deployed once in orbit using space inflatables, which enables a large RF aperture to be realized on a small platform. Besides easing implementation on small satellites, PSI?s imaging radiometer provides capabilities beyond those currently available on conventional microwave sensors, most notably the ability to generate real-time, two-dimensional radiometric imagery with no mechanical scanning. The end result of our effort will not only greatly reduce the SWaP of our instrument commensurate with deployment on emerging platforms, but also reduce the cost and complexity while increasing reliability and performance. These improvements in turn will open up new market segments for the technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The applications for PSI?s microwave and millimeter wave imaging technology and its capabilities are numerous and could have an appreciable impact in many commercial and military areas. Millimeter wave radiation is attenuated millions of times less in clouds, fog, smoke, snow, and sandstorms than visual or IR radiation, which enables millimeter wavelength imaging systems to ?see-through? obscurants in day or night conditions. A partial list of applications includes: 1. Marine navigation in dense fog and inversion layers with passive imaging systems 2. Navigational aids for landing aircraft in adverse weather, operating emergency response vehicles in poor weather or smoke, piloting ships in poor-visibility conditions, and monitoring highways for traffic safety 3. Military surveillance and target acquisition in inclement weather with potential use on unmanned autonomous vehicles (UAVs) 4. Enhanced visualization in smoke and fog, providing superior performance over infrared systems for locating victims and navigating within a fire zone 5. Non-intrusive portal security whose use would proliferate in airports, embassies, government and landmark buildings, schools, sports arenas, etc. 6. Scanners at the more than 300 ports of entry into the U.S. to look simultaneously for weapons and contraband without the need for multiple sensors 7. Stand-off frisking, providing police and security guards with the ability to detect concealed objects without the need for physical search

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The distributed aperture array technology utilized in PSIıs microwave imaging radiometer can be leveraged in a number of applications of interest to NASA. Besides passive sensing of microwave radiation from earth and other celestial bodies for weather related data, active operation is a straightforward extension for radar applications where range data is useful. High gain beam forming is readily achieved by the phased array, which is advantageous for communications and telemetry applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Interferometric (see also Analysis)
Radiometric
Microwave
Antennas
Transmitters/Receivers


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.04-8477
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: VLWIR Sensors for Detecting and Tracking Near-Earth Asteroids

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
QmagiQ
22 Cotton Road, Unit H, Suite 180
Nashua, NH
03063-4219
(603) 821-3092

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mani Sundaram
msundaram@qmagiq.com
22 Cotton Road, Unit H, Suite 180
Nashua,  NH 03063-4219
(603) 821-3092

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An important NASA mission is to detect, count and track near-earth asteroids for a variety of reasons including the hazards of collisions with our planet. Such asteroids are mostly dark, small and cold (~ 200K); so they are best detected in the very longwave infrared (VLWIR) wavelength of ~ 16 microns where they glow brightest. To accomplish this, we propose a new cooled VLWIR focal plane array (FPA) of antimony-based strained layer superlattices (SLS) that will leverage the significant advances in quantum efficiency (QE) and dark current recently achieved by QmagiQ in SLS FPAs with cutoff wavelengths upto 12 microns. Compared to the incumbent mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) technology, SLS promises comparable QE, lower dark current, and much higher array uniformity and operability. Most importantly, it offers superb image stability - which will eliminate the need for frequent non-uniformity correction when using MCT. In Phase I, we will develop and deliver a prototype FPA with 16 micron cutoff. In Phase II, we will increase FPA format and deliver a camera to NASA for evaluation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) Gas imaging (e.g. for the petrochemical industry) 2) Security and surveillance 3) Thermography 4) Medical imaging 5) Missile defense 6) Space-based situational awareness

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) NASA's LANDSAT Data Continuity Mission - Thermal Infrared Sensor (LDCM-TIRS) 2) NASA's HyspIRI Mission - Multispectral thermal infrared (TIR)imager 3) Space- and ground-based astronomy and astrophysics 4) Chemical/spectral mapping of forests, vegetation, crops, and landmasses 5) Temperature mapping of oceans and landmasses 6) Atmospheric mapping 7) Pollution monitoring

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Thermal
Infrared
Multispectral/Hyperspectral
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Thermal Imaging (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.04-8720
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wafer level Integration on PolyStrata(R) Interposer (WIPI) (17013)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nuvotronics, Inc.
7586 Old Peppers Ferry Loop
Radford, VA
24141-8846
(800) 341-2333

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jean-Marc Rollin
contracts@nuvotronics.com
2305 Presidential Drive
Durham,  NC 27703-0000
(800) 341-2333

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Nuvotronics will develop a robust wafer-level integration technology using our proprietary PolyStrata interposer to enable high-frequency interconnects and routing between two dis-similar substrates: silicon, SiGe, GaAs, GaN, InP wafers. The PolyStrata passives grown on the wafers will consist of high performance interconnects capable of aligning and soldering the two wafers using copper pillars to create a Ball Grid Array (BGA). Establishing novel wafer-to-wafer push fit technologies will demonstrate sub 5psec interconnection delay between technologies. With integration of low loss routing between the technologies, our proposed interposer can monolithically integrate passives such as high Q inductors, filters, resonators directly between the two wafers. The PS interposer offers an excellent structure to improve the CTE mismatch between wafers and enable thermal heat piping to direct the heat away from the different stack. In Ph I, Nuvotronics will demonstrate the integration of GaAs on Silicon using the PS interposer technology. The goal: to integrate a 1"x1" GaAs and Silicon die, demonstrating interface loss < 0.3dB and sub 5psec interconnection delay. The design will integrate CTE compensation structure to enable over 100C of temperature variation. Nuvotronics will design and optimize the interface between PolyStrata and silicon, and between GaAs and PolyStrata, to minimize stress and improve mm-wave RF performance. Next, Nuvotronics will fabricate a surrogate silicon and surrogate GaAs wafer with PolyStrata interface. A solder ball back-end process will be applied to both wafer technology and integration of solder balls. The 4" wafers will be diced in 1"x1" dies before being integrated. DC and RF measurements will demonstrate electrical performance. Preliminary temp. cycling will be performed to demonstrate reliability of the interface. In Ph II, Nuvotronics will demonstrate 4-inch wafer level integration and performance under temp. cycling.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology developed can be leveraged in commercial phased array for the next generation 5G network. In this new mm-wave domain, the challenges of creating microwave circuits become exponentially harder. PolyStrata technology offers a revolutionary solution by compartmentalizing all of the microwave "challenges" into a single integrated component, placed on a standard printed circuit board.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Nuvotronics is committed to transitioning the proposed technology to NASA applications for future phased arrays and more integrated RF systems. Our involvement in 3 NASA IIP awards and 2 Phase IIE projects in combination with 2 additional prime contractor/government sponsored efforts for space borne instruments (totaling over $12M) will help reduce risk in transitioning the proposed technology to NASA space platforms.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Amplifiers/Repeaters/Translators
Antennas
Manufacturing Methods
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.04-8763
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Low Power Rad-Hard ADC for the KID Readout Electronics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pacific Microchip Corporation
3916 Sepulveda Boulevard, #108
Culver City, CA
90230-4650
(310) 683-2628

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aliaksandr Zhankevich
alex.zh@pacificmicrochip.com
3916 Sepulveda Blvd. Ste 108
Culver City,  CA 90230-4650
(310) 683-2628

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposal aims to develop a radiation hardened analog-to-digital converter (ADC) required for the Kinetic Inductance Detector (KID) readout electronics. KIDs are developed for photometers and spectrometers for astrophysics focal planes, and earth or planetary remote sensing instruments. ADCs employed in space based KIDs are required to combine several features: radiation hardness, low power consumption, high resolution and high-sampling rate to facilitate increase in the number of the readout tones and to reduce the size of the electronics. The proposed SAR ADC aims to achieve a 12-bit resolution and the lowest to date reported figure of merit (FOM) at the 1GSps rate. A number of innovations will be introduced to the ADC in order to combine low power consumption (below 100mW) with the signal to noise and distortion ratio (SINAD) of at least 65dB. Tolerance to at least 4Mrads of total ionizing dose (TID) radiation and immunity to the single event effects (SEEs) will be achieved by employing radiation hardening techniques such as RHBD, RHBL and RHBS. A novel calibration technique for the capacitor mismatch will be introduced to improve linearity and increase the sampling rate. The proposed calibration technique introduced to the sub-ranging architecture with application of the asynchronous SAR logic will facilitate reduction of switching power. Phase I work will provide the proof of feasibility of implementing the proposed ADC. Phase II will result in the silicon proven ADC prototypes being ready for commercialization in Phase III.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential commercial applications for the proposed low power ADC include electronic systems employed in communication and scientific satellites, high-energy physics instruments, and medical X-ray imaging equipment. The proposed ADC can also find application in instruments and devices which require low power consumption, such as portable devices employing wireless data transmission based on WiFi, WiMAX and WiGig specifications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed ADC is primarily targeted for application in the Kinetic Inductance Detector and will meet the NASA's expectations for the radiation hardened low power ADC required for the detector's readout electronics. The ADC will also be applicable for other NASA missions since it offers a flexible solution for meeting the stringent radiation tolerance and power consumption requirements that are essential in L-band and P-band radars, an advanced synthetic aperture radar (SAR), an interferometer for surface monitoring, ice topography, hydrology, oceanography. The proposed ADC can be used in digital beam forming (DBM) systems of the future radars.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.04-9289
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Type-II Superlattice Based Low Dark Current Short-Wavelength Infrared Photodetectors With Optical Response From 0.4 to 2.5um

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NOUR, LLC
1500 Sheridan Road, Unit 8A
Wilmette, IL
60091-1880
(847) 491-7251

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Abbas Haddadi
ahaddadi1984@gmail.com
1500 Sheridan Rd. - 8A
Wilmette,  IL 60091-1880
(847) 467-4093

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In recent years, Type-II superlattices have experienced significant development. However, the full potential of Type-II superlattice has not been fully explored and alternate superlattice architectures hold great promise. Despite demonstration of SWIR photodetectors based on this material system, there has been no report about Type-II superlattice-based photodetectors that have been sensitive to visible light. We propose to develop Type-II superlattice-based photodetectors and focal plane arrays for NASA's imaging and spectroscopy applications in the spectral band from visible to extended short-wavelength infrared (0.4 - 2.5 um) with a very low dark current density. In mid- and long-wavelength infrared spectral bands, Type-II superlattice-based photodetectors already offers performance comparable to the state-of-the-art mercury cadmium telluride but at a fraction of the cost due to the leveraging of commercial growth and process equipment. Our goal is to extend that benefit into the short-wavelength infrared. Using the best material currently available and a novel bandgap-engineering design and process, we will fabricate photodetectors and, ultimately, focal plane arrays. In Phase I, we are going to demonstrate photodetector designs based on Type-II superlattices, which can cover spectral range between 0.4 to 2.5 um with a very low dark current density (<10^-11 A/cm2) at temperatures below 100 K.. In Phase II, we are going to continue reduction of the dark current density to <10^-13 A/cm^2 -level at temperatures below 100K. Then, we will use the optimized device design to develop and deliver 1Kx1K imagers to NASA for planetary sciences.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The key applications of visible-SWIR imaging are listed below: * Mineral exploration, resource management, and environmental monitoring. * In agriculture for monitoring the development and health of crops. * In geology for rapidly mapping nearly all minerals of commercial interest * For ecology, surveillance, and historical manuscript research * For research in areas such as nano-drug delivery and nano-toxicology * For use in many research areas, such as vegetation research, forensics, life sciences, food analysis, and mineral research. * FTIR imaging microscopy * Gas imaging (e.g. for the petrochemical industry) * Security and surveillance (day and night) * Missile defense * Space-based situational awareness

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Visible-SWIR photodetectors are of special interest to NASA for planetary observation missions. The Visible-SWIR imagers can be used to study the world's ecosystems and provide critical information on natural disasters such as volcanoes, wildfires and drought. Visible-SWIR imaging will be able to identify the type of vegetation that is present and whether the vegetation is healthy. It can provide a benchmark on the state of the worlds ecosystems against which future changes can be assessed. Moreover this imaging method can assess the pre-eruptive behavior of volcanoes and the likelihood of future eruptions as well as the carbon and other gases released from wildfires. The data from Visible-SWIR imagers can be used for a wide variety of studies primarily in the Carbon Cycle and Ecosystem and Earth Surface and Interior focus areas. The large-format Visible-SWIR cameras, with ultra-low dark current, we will be developing and delivering in Phase II of this program will be able to provide high resolution mapping of planetary bodies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Infrared
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Thermal Imaging (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.04-9669
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Tunable, High-Power Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Local Oscillator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
LongWave Photonics
958 San Leandro Avenue
Mountain View, CA
94043-1996
(617) 399-6405

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tsungyu Kao
wilt_kao@longwavephotonics.com
958 San Leandro Avenue, Suite 300
Mountain View,  CA 94043-1996
(617) 399-6405

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA and NASA funded missions/instruments such as Aura/MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder), SOFIA/GREAT and STO/STO-2 have demonstrated the need for local oscillator (LO) sources between 30 and 300 um (1 and 10 THz). For observations >2 THz, technologically mature microwave sources typically have microwatt power levels which are insufficient to act as LOs for a heterodyne receivers. LongWave Photonics is proposing to develop a high power, frequency tunable, phase/frequency-locked, single mode, External Cavity THz quantum cascade laser (ECT-QCL) system with >2 mW average power output and a clear path to increase the power to >10 mW. The system includes a THz QC gain chip based on SISP or metal-meal waveguide with integrated horn or lens structure to reduce facet reflectivity. Frequency selective external feedback will be frequency tunable over 100's of GHz, with center frequencies ranging from 2 to 5 THz. The gain chip will be packaged in a high-reliability Stirling cycle cooler. The source will be phase/frequency locked to a stable microwave reference synthesizer with <100 kHz line width.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Initial applications for this technology are mainly research markets for low pressure gas spectroscopy. The narrow line width and the ability to provide real-time frequency information and freqeuncy tunability of THz radiation also has great appeal. Another potential application is to replace THz gas laser used for THz detector power calibration. Long-term applications include industrial uses for trace gas detection. For industrial applications, the use of high-reliability, compact Stirling cycle coolers would greatly increase the usability of these QCL devices, which have traditionally required liquid nitrogen cooling or larger cryocooling systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications include the use of the QCL as an LO for >2 THz receivers for future missions. Here the narrow line width (<100 kHz) of the QCLs can be used to resolve Doppler-limited low pressure gasses (~MHz linewidth). The exterval cavity QCL LO will be a frequency tunable, compact replacement for any gas-laser LO. The resulting source will be a compact, reliable, table-top sized THz high power with stabilized frequency. It will be an easy-to-use platform for NASA researchers to study the performance of other key components in the receiver such as Schottky or HEB mixers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Electromagnetic
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Radiometric
Terahertz (Sub-millimeter)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.05-8877
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detector Technologies for UV, X-Ray, Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Design and Development of High Gain AlGaN Avalanche Photodiode Arrays

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Magnolia Optical Technologies, Inc.
52 B Cummings Park, #314
Woburn, MA
01801-2123
(781) 503-1200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ashok Sood
aksood@magnoliaoptical.com
52 B Cummings Park, #314
Woburn,  MA 01801-2123
(781) 503-1200

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future NASA missions that include Explorers, Discovery, Cosmic Origins, Vision Missions and Earth Sciences, and Planetary Science Missions will benefit from development of High Gain AlGaN UV APD Arrays. High resolution imaging in Ultraviolet (UV) band has a lot of potential applications for various NASA systems. UV band offers exciting opportunities for NASA systems as one can use short wavelength and various solar blind regions for high spatial resolution. As part of the proposed NASA Phase I SBIR program, Magnolia working with Professor Russell Dupuis of Georgia Tech will model, design and develop high performance with high gain GaN/AlGaN UVAPD's that can be implemented in future NASA missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
UV Detectors and Sensors are useful in a wide variety of industrial, military, and scientific applications where detection of UV radiation plays a key role. Most of these applications for detection and/or measurement require high performance UV Sensors Systems.. Ultraviolet high gain APD arrays capture unique target signatures, which provide critical information for several applications that include machine vision, solar blind imaging, and chemical and biological applications for detection of surface residues and biological agents. The market for AlGaN based UVAPD Sensors is expected to grow rapidly over the next 10 years

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future NASA missions will require UV APD detector arrays that also have very high gain. AlGaN based UVAPD's offers wide choices for fine-tuning the bands of interest in UV band. This will allow precise detection of UV signatures. With AlGaN UVAPD, the wavelength can be tuned to the band of interest in UV band. The objective of the Proposed NASA Phase I SBIR is to model, design and develop the necessary technology for high performance GaN/AlGaN small pixel size UVAPD's that can be implemented in future NASA System Applications. As part of the Phase I SBIR effort, Magnolia will work with the NASA Program Manager to define the system applications of interest and use the technology development effort to support the NASA mission. Magnolia has an excellent team to carry out the proposed Phase I technical effort. Dr. Ashok Sood will be the Principal Investigator at Magnolia for the technical effort. The team includes Professor Russell Dupuis of Georgia Tech, a world renowned expert in development of GaN/AlGaN materials for APD's and related devices.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Nanomaterials
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Radiometric
Ultraviolet
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Characterization
Prototyping


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.05-9394
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detector Technologies for UV, X-Ray, Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: SiC 10um-Pitch UV Imaging Array and APD with Active Pixel Readout

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CoolCAD Electronics, LLC
7101 Poplar Avenue
Takoma Park, MD
20912-4671
(301) 405-3363

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zeynep Dilli
zeynep.dilli@coolcadelectronics.com
7101 POPLAR AVE
TAKOMA PARK,  MD 20912-4671
(301) 405-3363

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CoolCAD Electronics, LLC, proposes to design and fabricate a SiC UV detector array with a 10&#956;m pixel pitch, sensitive to EUV, VUV and Deep UV. SiC is a visible-blind material with very low intrinsic dark current, able to operate at >350C. Expanding from our past successful demonstration of UV sensors and MOSFET circuits on the same substrate, we will develop fabrication processes and capabilities to design and integrate SiC pn-junction photodiodes and low-voltage MOSFET devices with the required small dimensions. To our knowledge, this represents the first program to scale SiC optoelectronic circuits to such feature size restrictions; particularly, a 1&#956;m MOSFET gate length and submicron margins for layer overlaps. Scaling monolithically-integrated sensors and transistors to submicron feature sizes advances the SiC technology state-of-the-art. We plan to extend our process flow and device designs to use a semiconductor reduction stepper during fabrication to enable submicron features. We will demonstrate single pn-junction photodiodes, photodiodes with MOSFETs in the 3-transistor pixel architecture, and arrays of both these structures. We will deliver a 32 x 32 passive array and a 4 x 4 active array that contains SiC MOSFETs as well as photodiodes. This effort lays the groundwork for developing a megapixel array in a future Phase II or related program. We will further design planar SiC avalanche photodiodes and planar APD arrays, as the initial step to monolithically integrating APDs with their readout electronics and therefore obtain a high-temperature-operation-capable detector, sensitive to extremely low illumination levels. The entire design and fabrication will be performed in the United States, and using CoolCAD's patent pending fabrication processes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
One of the largest extant markets for UV detection is sanitation and water filtration. UV water purification systems are in increasingly wide use. The target wavelength is 260nm, which denatures bacteria proteins. Such systems, which currently have a market size of $750 million, require sensors to monitor the efficacy of the system over time. CoolCAD Electronics is currently collaborating with several UV filtration companies to test SiC photodetector parts fabricated in-house. The shorter UV wavelength allows for higher imaging resolution, leading to commercial applications in manufacturing and quality control, for defect monitoring and material fatigue inspection, and in monitoring weld quality in industrial welding applications. In addition, SiC UV detectors have application for oil and gas exploration where they can replace expensive photomultiplier tubes. A military and government application area of UV sensors with high sensitivity in the EUV, VUV and Deep UV regions is early warning systems, since rocket and jet engine plumes emit UV radiation. There are also emergent non-line-of-sight communication systems using UV signals, which will significantly benefit from monolithic integration of UV photodetectors and communication electronics.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We propose to design and fabricate, SiC intrinsically visible-blind, 10&#956;m pitch, small-pixel-size UV and EUV detectors and active pixels. We also plan to design monolithic Geiger mode avalanche photodetectors, which can replace large and expensive multiplier tubes. These devices and optoelectronic integrated circuits have immediate applications in high-resolution imagers, and sensor and spectroscopy instrument components. Such components are usable for missions such as the successors to the Solar Orbiter, missions of the Living with a Star program, and other solar and terrestrial probes such as DYNAMIC and MEDICI, as well as in future instruments such as JEM-EUSO and OWL ultra-high energy cosmic ray instruments. The work described here also represents significant steps forward in SiC technology in general, and in monolithic integration of SiC sensors with their readout circuitry in particular. Low-power, high-sensitivity, extreme-environment-capable sensor technology is facilitated as SiC technology matures, with significant implications for the fabrication of low-weight, robust, efficient payloads, meeting the needs of future programs such as GEO-CAPE, the next-generation GOES and SOHO, and planetary science missions. The design and fabrication performed totally in the United States, and in close proximity to the NASA GSFC, which will be able to take advantage of CoolCAD's capability to fabricate application specific optoelectronic integrated circuits.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Optical
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
X-rays/Gamma Rays
Ultraviolet
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.06-8959
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Particles and Field Sensors and Instrument Enabling Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: CubeSat Magnetometer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Southwest Sciences, Inc.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM
87505-3993
(505) 984-1322

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Hovde
dchovde@swsciences.com
6837 Main Street
Cincinnati,  OH 45244-3470
(513) 272-1323

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Sensitive magnetometers play a key role in exploring the near-Earth environment, other planets and moons. Measurements using a constellation of spacecraft can provide a rich data set, but this approach requires magnetometers that have stable calibration as well as low size, weight and power. This proposal will develop an all-optical atomic magnetometer whose calibration can be traced to quantum properties of the atoms. It has already demonstrated high sensitivity in the laboratory. The Phase I work will show that it can be flown on a CubeSat by demonstrating that the form factor, weight, and electrical power can be made compatible with requirements for microsatellites. In Phase II we plan to build a version that could fly on balloons or aircraft.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The instrument will be of use to the Navy for anti-submarine applications and the Army for detecting hidden tanks, reinforced bunkers, etc, as the large steel content of these targets generates a magnetic signature on top of the Earthıs field. The civilian market for magnetometers includes applications in oil and mineral exploration, mining, buried object detection, and the recovery of objects lost at sea.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Heliosphere Explorer missions and missions to other planets/moons will benefit from compact and stable magnetometers. Vector magnetometers are also used aboard high altitude balloons as a back-up to differential GPS for pointing telescopes and other scientific payloads. The small size and weight would be a good match for such platforms, and the absence of radio frequency emissions means the magnetometer will not interfere with the science package.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Electromagnetic


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.06-9292
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Particles and Field Sensors and Instrument Enabling Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Simplified High-Performance Roll Out Composite Magnetometer Boom

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ROCCOR, LLC
2602 Clover Basin Drive, Suite D
Longmont, CO
80503-7555
(720) 200-0068

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dana Turse
dana.turse@roccor.com
2602 Clover Basin Drive, suite D
Longmont,  CO 80503-7555
(303) 908-7649

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In response to NASA's need for compact, low-cost deployable magnetometer booms for CubeSats, Roccor proposes to develop a Simple High-performance Roll-Out Composite (SHROC) Magnetometer Boom. The boom is capable of motor-less self-deployment and lock-out through a unique combination of bi-stable composite laminate design and features that increase torsional rigidity and deployed precision at the end of deployment. The boom can be built to diameters ranging between 1.6 cm (5/8 in) and 2.5 cm (1 in) and fully deployed lengths ranging from 0.5 m to 10 m while being packaged in less than 1/2-U volume (10 cm x 10 cm x 5 cm). A launch-retention mechanism is provided to lock the tip-mounted instrument package for launch. For deployment, this launch retention mechanism is released and the strain energy stored within the high-strain composite boom drives the deployment with predictable and nearly constant motive force. The overarching Phase I objective is to conduct a preliminary design-analysis-fabrication-test loop for a SHROC Magnetometer Boom capable of meeting requirements for a variety of future NASA Heliophysics science missions. During Phase II Roccor will address the key engineering development risks, mature the system design to a CDR level of development, and validate performance objectives through a series of ground-based qualification tests on engineering development units. Overall, the anticipated outcome of the combined Phase I/II program is development and proto-flight validation of a SHROC Boom system for a wide range of future Heliophysics missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Deployable RF apertures for communication satellites (e.g., MILSTAR) CubeSat-class high-power solar arrays for commercial constellation missions Portable and man-packable deployable antennas for military ground troops

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Deployable magnetometers for Heliophysics research Deployable E-field sensors and Langmuir probes for Heliophysics research Deployable mono-pole and di-pole antennas for CubeSats High-gain mesh deployable antennas for constellation missions CubeSat-class high-power solar arrays for constellation missions

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Polymers
Actuators & Motors
Deployment
Structures
Radiometric
Simulation & Modeling
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Characterization
Prototyping


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.07-8853
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Instruments/Technologies for Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Coded Aperture Techniques for High-Throughput Imaging Spectroscopy

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nova Photonics, Inc.
One Oak Place
Princeton, NJ
08540-4701
(609) 258-5631

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yancey Sechrest
ysechrest@novaphotonics.com
200 Forrestal Road
Princeton,  NJ 08540-6605
(609) 258-5642

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose the use of programmable, two-dimensional (2D) coded apertures for high-throughput imaging spectroscopy. Spatially-varying, 2D, transmissive or reflective encoded mask, such as a hadamard or bernoulli random matrix, can be leveraged to realize high-throughput variants of many standard imaging spectroscopy techniques with throughput enhancements surpassing 50-100x compared to slit-based systems. In addition, recent advances in fast-switching spatial light modulators enable the reprogramming of mask encoding on the millisecond timescale. The combination these two technologies enables a wide array of potential innovations for hyperspectral imaging systems offering high-throughput, compressive measurement, with significant operational-flexibility. In this proposal, we target the application of these techniques to the development of a high-throughput, pushbroom imaging spectrometer for planetary science applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Remote sensing platform for scientific, defense, or industrial applications. Precision agriculture (or site specific crop management), and land and forest management (e.g. sustainable forest management). Industrial imaging for quality assurance/quality control (e.g. food safety inspection) and automation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Airborne/orbital imaging spectroscopy for terrestrial, lunar, martian, or planetoid orbiter missions. Hyperspectral imaging camera for lander missions. Imaging and integral field spectroscopy for astrophysical observations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Multispectral/Hyperspectral


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.07-9695
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Instruments/Technologies for Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rugged Multigas Sensor for Planetary Missions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mesa Photonics, LLC
1550 Pacheco Street
Santa Fe, NM
87505-3914
(505) 216-5015

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Bomse
dbomse@mesaphotonics.com
1550 Pacheco Street
Santa Fe,  NM 87505-3914
(216) 505-5015

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Mesa Photonics proposes an optical gas analyzers suitable for planetary and lunar missions that will be smaller, more rugged, and more reliable than existing technology. These are point sensors for measurements within planetary atmospheres or for analysis of gases collected during lunar activities. Target gases include CH4, CO2, CO, NH3, O2, C2H2, C2H4, H2S, and H2O. The innovation uses optical absorption spectroscopy at near-infrared wavelengths. Sensitivities will range from 2 ppm for H2S (in a 101 kPa mixture) to less than 1 ppb for HF. Instruments will weigh less than 3kg, be under 1 liter in volume, and draw less than 10W. Power consumption could be as low as 3W depending on platform temperature stabilization. The Phase I project will test the new technique by (1)assembling and testing instrumentation electronics, (2)measuring detection sensitivity, precision, drift, linearity and dynamic range using CH4 as a representative gas, (3)develop a numerical model of the technique, and (4)determine the expected physical and performance specifications for instruments that could used on planetary missions and lunar deployment. Based on the most recent decadal survey, possible planetary missions include a dropsonde for studying the atmosphere of Venus, analysis of trace gases in the Martian atmosphere, characterization of atmospheric composition of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn, and a dropsonde into the atmosphere of Uranus.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Hydrogen sulfide monitoring is the largest addressable commercial market with most customers in the oil and gas industry. The proposed technology has significant advantages over existing H2S detection methods (electrochemical cells, lead-acetate tape, ultraviolet spectroscopy, resistive gold films, and non-dispersive mid-infrared detectors). Portable, hand-held implementations are possible that would be particularly useful for monitoring upstream oil and gas installations. Mesa Photonics anticipates operating as an OEM supplier to a larger company that is well established (making the technology acceptable to potential customers) who can also provide worldwide sales and service.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications include gas analysis for planetary missions including studies of the atmospheres of Venus, Mars, the moons of Jupiter and Saturn, and Uranus. The technology can also be deployed for lunar measurements of emitted gases and regolith composition, and for on-line monitoring of regolith processing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Infrared
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.07-9843
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Instruments/Technologies for Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Monolithic Chip-Integrated Absorption Spectrometer from 3-5 microns

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Omega Optics, Inc.
8500 Shoal Creek Boulevard, Building 4, Suite 200
Austin, TX
78757-7591
(512) 996-8833

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Swapnajit Chakravarty
swapnajit.chakravarty@omegaoptics.com
8500 Shoal Creek Boulevard, Building 4, Suite 200
Austin,  TX 78757-6856
(734) 255-4519

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A monolithically integrated indium phosphide (InP) to silicon-on-sapphire (SoS) platform is being proposed for a monolithic portable or handheld spectrometer between 3-5microns. SoS provides the necessary refractive index contrast to fabricate slotted photonic crystal waveguide (PCW) structures for lab-on-chip sensing. Monolithic integration of quantum cascade laser (QCL) and quantum cascade detector (QCD) has been previously demonstrated by us at 9.5 micron wavelength on a solely InP platform in which PCWs cannot be fabricated without significant fabrication complexities. At 3.4 micron wavelength, we have also demonstrated 1ppm gas sensing by slow light and intensity enhancements of slotted PCWs in SoS. The Phase 1 proposal takes the crucial step of wafer bonding to integrate the best capabilities of the individual platforms and integrate into a full-fledged monolithic absorption spectrometer. The work plan is thus to demonstrate the technical objectives which are: 1) Design and fabricate slotted PCWs at 4.55 micron 2) Demonstrate feasibility for sub 10ppb detection sensitivity in our slotted PCW at 4.55 micron in SoS for carbon monoxide 3) Demonstrate monolithic integration of quantum cascade laser, quantum cascade detector and silicon-on-sapphire waveguide at 4.55 micron and 4) Design simultaneous QCL-QCD structures for operation around the selected wavelengths at 3.3 micron (CH4), 4.2 micron (CO2) and 4.55 micron (CO) for fabrication in Phase 2.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) light-weight platform ideal for air-borne platforms such as aircrafts, ballonsondes etc. for environmental monitoring and fire detection. 2) scalable to any mid-infrared wavelength for gases such as NH3, N2, SO2, CO, CO2, CH4 etc, with less than 10ppb sensitivity. 3) in-situ process and quality control. 4) hazardous /toxic gas detection for military.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) Identification of gases in near and distant planets and moons to determine potential of life and mineral resources unavailable on earth 2) light-weight platform ideal for mounting on air-borne platforms such as aircrafts, ballonsondes etc. for environmental monitoring and fire detection 3) Platform fully scalable to other mid-infrared wavelengths. 4) Monolithic integration achieves size, weight, power advantage over any other spectroscopy instrument.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.08-8821
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface & Sub-surface Measurement Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Luminescent Sensors for Ocean Water Monitoring

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 West 237th Street
Torrance, CA
90505-5217
(424) 263-6300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jesus Delgado Alonso
jesusda@intopsys.com
2520 West 237th Street
Torrance,  CA 90505-5217
(424) 263-6321

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Space-based global measurements of atmospheric CO2 must be complemented with ocean water analysis. Monitoring ocean acidification, which results from the accumulation of CO2, is of critical interest, since progressive acidification is already affecting oceans and coastal estuaries and waterways. To that end, NASA and NOAA are seeking in-situ monitoring devices for oceanic and coastal water monitoring, including a pH sensor for seawater, to support space-based monitoring programs. Monitoring ocean pH accurately over large areas has proved to be extremely difficult, and classic sensor technology, based on potentiometric measurements (pH electrodes), have shown significant limitations: current instruments are expensive, do not monitor pH directly, and therefore need complex signal compensation to yield accurate measurements, and require frequent calibration. Intelligent Optical Systems proposes to develop a novel luminescent sensor for pH, taking advantage of novel materials developed to monitor pH and other parameters of interest in high salinity and elevated pressure environments; it will exhibit high selectivity (direct pH measurements) and stability. A novel antifouling technology with no mechanical parts will prevent sensor degradation in seawater. To contain the cost of the electronics while maintaining high performance in detecting the luminescent signal, we will use Circuit Seed circuits, which process analog signals on 100% digital components. This enables them to reduce size and parts count, simplifying quality control and power requirements, and will enable us to produce high-performance, low-cost optoelectronic units.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Robust sensors for monitoring pH in seawater will enter the oceanography market for NASA programs and beyond. Combined sensing of pH and dissolved oxygen will find application not only in ocean studies but in the growing aquaculture market. According to a study by Grand View Research, Inc., the global aquaculture market is expected to exceed $200 billion by 2020; 40% of that aquaculture takes place in marine and brackish water, where water quality plays a critical role in production. A low-cost, robust water quality monitor will be an important enabling technology, helping this industry collect massive amounts of data to accelerate the development of underutilized marine resources in a responsible manner. Finally, sensors developed for seawater will also find application in the water quality monitoring market, which is projected to reach $3.6 billion by 2020.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A low-cost, high-performance sensor for seawater pH, and multiparameter devices for monitoring dissolved CO2 and dissolved oxygen in-situ, are essential to current and future NASA space missions such as Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS), Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2), and Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.08-8940
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface & Sub-surface Measurement Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact CO2 Instrumentation for Small Aerial Platforms

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Southwest Sciences, Inc.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM
87505-3993
(505) 984-1322

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anthony Gomez
algomez@swsciences.com
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe,  NM 87505-3993
(505) 984-1322

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Over the past decade, the importance of understanding the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases has been recognized. A variety of research studies funded by NASA, DOE and NOAA to measure the fluxes of CO2 from average conditions have been performed. In particular, flux measurements of CO2 in the boundary layer are critical toward understanding the carbon budget for this important greenhouse gas. The World Meteorological Organization has met its goal of 0.1 ppm CO2 accuracy for land based field sensors with gas chromatography and non-dispersive infrared instruments. However, these instruments are poorly suited for small aerial platforms because of their high power requirements, large size and/or weight specifications. This proposal directly addresses NASA's need for high accuracy, small aerial platform, CO2 instrumentation for their Sierra and Dragon Eye UAVs, other unmanned aircraft such as launched and tethered balloons, and remote, unattended ground platforms where low power, compactness and self calibration are important. This instruments fits in with NASA's Technology Roadmap for satellite validation under the ASCENDS program and the OCO-2 mission, as well as independent high resolution, non-integrated CO2 profiles. To address this instrumentation need, Southwest Sciences proposes to develop a compact (< 1 L), low power (< 2 watts), light weight (~1kg) diode laser based instrument designed to achieve dry-air corrected, high accuracy measurements of CO2. We will target NASA's desired accuracy of 1 ppm CO2 (~1 part in 400) or better in 1 second or less using wavelength modulation spectroscopy in the 2.7 micron CO2 absorption band.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A direct commercial application of this project is the sale of research and environmental monitoring instrumentation to academic researchers, government agencies for large research and monitoring programs, and commercial entities for regulatory monitoring applications. Although this proposal specifically targets small aerial platforms, the final product will be appropriate after minor adaptation, as a rack mount and even as a hand held ultra portable instrument. Broader commercial application areas for this sensor include gas leak sensing of pipelines, fire detectors for commercial and private aircraft, combustor feedback control sensors, and process control sensors for energy and chemical production industries.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High accuracy CO2 instruments for small aerial platform use would bridge the gap between current land based and satellite platforms. NASA would have a new tool to make high accuracy mixing ratio measurements in challenging environments where manned airborne observations are risky (i.e. North Slope of Alaska).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Infrared
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.08-9622
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface & Sub-surface Measurement Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: A total Ammonium Reactor (NHxR) for In-Situ Mobile Measurements: A Critical Tool to Understand Aerosol Formation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bubbleology Research International
1642 Elm Avenue
Solvang, CA
93463-2613
(683) 683-3333

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ira Leifer
ira.leifer@bubbleology.com
1642 Elm Ave
Solvang,  CA 93463-2613
(805) 683-3333

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We will develop, demonstrate, and optimize a front-end ammonium reactor (NHxR) for the fast, precise, and accurate measurement of gas-phase ammonia (NH3) and particle-phase ammonium ion (NH4+) by fast, high-flow Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (CEAS). We address Focus Area 9, Sub Topic S1.08 Value Proposition: There is a need to measure the total atmospheric NHX load (NH3+NH4+), with significant ecosystem implications including eutrophication, air quality, and indirectly on atmospheric radiative balance. Current NH3 analyzers miss most of the atmospheric NH3 load, present as fine aerosols. The Innovation: The front-end NH4+ reactor cycles between a line that passes gas phase NH3 to the CEAS analyzer, and then a line where NH4+ aerosols are converted to NH3. A key innovation is flow path material, for which the literature is confused, with significant differences between Teflon formulations (factor of 10 difference in adsorption for PFA versus PTFE by one study). This fast, in situ, analyzers, will enable measurements at dramatically lower per sample cost and far greater data density than aerosol samplers. The ability to measure both NH3 and NH4+ sufficiently rapidly will allow characterization of the strong heterogeneity exhibited by these short-lived species with localized emissions. The NHxR is developed in collaboration with Los Gatos Research, a major manufacturer of state-of-the-art trace gas analyzers with extensive market awareness and well-established clients. BRI retains intellectual property to the NHxR and will license the NHxR for manufacture, potentially by LGR. LGR partnership provides significant commercialization advantages. Dr. Leifer (BRI - Team leader), has led multi-institution, multiple-aircraft NASA campaigns. BRI conducts numerous field studies to solve real-world problems, field expertise that aids in solution-development to meet NASA and market needs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A number of NASA satellite platforms are focused on aerosols for which the NHxR can help understand formation mechanisms as well as improving our understanding of the relationship between space-based NH3 retrievals from satellites like AIRS and IASI to total atmospheric ammonia (NHx) load, which is the parameter that impacts ecosystems. Current NASA orbital instruments measuring aerosol products include MODIS, VIIRS, CALIPSO, etc., which will be added to by future missions such as PACE and candidate missions like HySpIRI. In all cases, better understanding of aerosol formation mechanisms and size distributions will improve interpretation of satellite-derived aerosol optical depth, the relationship between environmental controls and aerosol formation (which impacts all other satellite products via atmospheric radiative transfer corrections) and ecosystem impacts. Additionally, there could be future planetary applications. For example, future Titan atmospheric explorer missions where NH3 plays an important role in aerosol formation or even Jupiter's Great Red Spot where NH3 also is proposed to form aerosols. After miniaturization of the NHxR design, it could play a role in future space missions as a front end to a CEAS or other planetary science analyzer.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NHxR will interest research labs (academic, industry, agency labs), regulatory agencies (local, state, national agencies), and agriculture, specifically intensive husbandry and poultry operations. The NHxR will be commercially accessible (pricing comparable to typical air quality analyzers) requiring low technical expertise and minimal maintenance and calibration time. The envisioned applications are stationary air monitoring and mobile monitoring on automobiles and/or small airplanes. Commercial agricultural interests include stationary applications in enclosed cow and poultry sheds where concentrations can be far higher than outside ambient - with just the NH3 load (neglecting NH4+) reaching 8 ppm in cattle houses, to 18 ppm in pig houses and to 30 ppm in poultry houses in Northern Europe. Human exposure limits are 25 ppm. Industry trends are for greater agricultural animal density, intensifying these problems. Although workers can wear masks, animals inhale the full atmospheric NHX load. Current analyzers are negatively biased, missing the NH4+ load. An NHxR-CEAS could actively modulate exhaust fans, thus improving worker conditions and livestock health and productivity. Other NHxR opportunities include industrial stack emission monitoring (power plants, refineries) where ammonia is a waste product, but are not a first focus. Other opportunities exist by extension to other sticky gases, such as nitrogen dioxide / nitric acid and sulfur dioxide / sulfuric acid.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.08-9678
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface & Sub-surface Measurement Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Portable Atmosphere Scanning LIDAR

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Optics Corporation
1845 West 205th Street
Torrance, CA
90501-1510
(310) 320-3088

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sivanesan Ponniah
PSProposals@poc.com
1845 West 205th Street
Torrance,  CA 90501-1510
(310) 320-3088

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To address the NASA need for innovative instrumentation to support its current and future missions related to the investigation of Earth's ecosystem, Physical Optics Corporation proposes to adapt its portable, robust, ground-based light detection and ranging (LIDAR) weather system to measure winds, temperature, and humidity in a 3D volume with the ability to scan horizontally and vertically with a range of up to 10 km. The proposed Portable Atmospheric Scanning LIDAR (PASL) system will include POC's recent developments in coherent LIDAR for wind sensing, Differential Absorption LIDAR (DIAL) for measurements of water vapor content distribution, and Rotational Raman LIDAR for temperature measurements. POC's existing and proposed innovations in the integrated LIDAR designs will provide NASA with a system with very low size, weight, and power consumption, which will make the PASL easily deployable to any place on the globe and capable of long-term autonomous operation in support of NASA's research missions. In Phase I, POC will refine its existing non-scanning system and modify its design to facilitate 3D scanning, extend its functional range of operation to 10 km, further develop software for fast data processing, and fabricate a prototype of the wind LIDAR (TRL-4). In Phase II, the operational prototype of the entire scanning PASL system will be fabricated and tested (TRL-6).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The PASL will be used by government weather forecasting agencies (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)) and weather services at all military branches for improving weather forecasts by collecting atmospheric data more frequently than with currently used weather balloons that are typically launched twice a day. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) can use this relatively inexpensive and compact device for weather monitoring around airports and for detection of air vortices created by large aircraft to avoid dangerous conditions on runways. Universities and non-government research institutions will use the PASL for environmental research, including investigations of atmospheric processes and their influence on climate change. PASL can also be used for monitoring the propagation of natural and industrial aerosols and environmental pollutions around the globe and their interaction with clouds.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The availability of a compact, easily-deployable PASL system will facilitate validation of results of measurements of atmospheric parameters with new satellite devices that NASA is developing for its current and future missions, such as Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM), Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE), Hyperspectral InfraRed Imager (HyspIRI), and Aerosol, Cloud, and Ecosystems (ACE, including Pre-ACE/PACE). The PASL may be delivered to any place on Earth and used almost autonomously for long periods of time to collect data about the atmospheric parameters at a range over 10 km over prescribed directions in the entire hemisphere, including both vertical and horizontal paths. During the course of the project, POC will work together with NASA personnel at the Ames Research Center, Langley Research Center, and other centers to identify the immediate and follow-on applications for PASL, and identify any auxiliary sensors and equipment needed to operate in conjunction with the PASL system.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.09-9255
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Systems for Sensors and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cryomechanical Preconcentration System for Trace Gas Analysis

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerodyne Research, Inc.
45 Manning Road
Billerica, MA
01821-3976
(978) 663-9500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Lerner
blerner@aerodyne.com
45 Manning Road
Billerica,  MA 01821-3976
(978) 932-0220

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced cryogenic cooling systems are required to enable high-precision measurements of trace atmospheric gases and isotopes present at very low concentrations in order to evaluate anthropogenic impacts on climate and stratospheric ozone and to assess compliance with international regulations. This SBIR Phase I project will develop a robust cryogen-free preconcentrator based on a Stirling cryocooler and a novel sample trap design. A high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer will be coupled with gas chromatographic separation for selective and sensitive detection of greenhouse gases and ozone depleting substances. Data acquisition and analysis software will be developed to allow for automated operation of the instrument and data archiving. Combining these three elements will provide a new system capable of rapid automated analysis for field and laboratory measurements. In addition to these applications, the preconcentrator will be useful for enhancing the sensitivity of optical-based isotopic measurements for greenhouse gases.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Atmospheric research and climate change programs sponsored by other federal agencies, such as the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE), as well as a wide range of international collaborators, will benefit from the technology developed by this project.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is the head US agency for monitoring ozone depleting substances, and plays a leading role in US Global Climate Change Research Program (USGCRP). The system developed in this SBIR project will provide a significant advancement in capability for measuring ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases. It will be a desirable upgrade to the stations in the NASA-sponsored Advanced Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) and will provide new technology for other NASA-sponsored atmospheric research programs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.09-9725
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Systems for Sensors and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Cost Cryocooler Control Electronics for Small Space Platforms

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, LLC
16 Great Hollow Road
Hanover, NH
03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bruce Pilvelait
brp@creare.com
16 Great Hollow Road
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 640-2316

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future NASA space science missions will utilize small satellites. Many of these missions will require cryocoolers for cooling detectors, sensors, shields, and telescopes. For Class C and D missions, the cryocooler technical requirements for performance, size, and mass, coupled with the programmatic requirements for minimal cost and development time, are extremely challenging. Flight ready cryocoolers and associated control electronics that have been developed for traditional satellites do not meet technical, cost, or schedule requirements for future small space platforms. Creare proposes to develop low cost cryocooler control electronics that leverage technologies and capabilities previously demonstrated on prior programs. During Phase I, we will develop a set of requirements, design low cost electronics to meet these requirements, and assess production cost. We will also work closely with a leading developer of low cost infrared space subsystems to ensure compatibility and readiness for upcoming missions. During Phase II, we will work closely with our partners to fabricate and qualify protoflight electronics with representative cryocoolers. Successful completion of this program will enable advanced sensor systems for space-borne science, surveillance, and reconnaissance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed cryocooler control electronics are ideal for small, cost-constrained satellite missions. Military space applications include space based surveillance for Operationally Responsive Space missions and unmanned aerial vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful completion of this program will provide mission planners with high performance and low cost cryocooler control electronics that are compatible with miniature cryocoolers suitable for a variety of small platform missions. Primary emphasis will be on achieving low cost, small size, and high performance for cost constrained, small space platform missions. The primary NASA application will be for cooling detectors, sensors, shields, and telescopes for planetary science missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.09-9809
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Systems for Sensors and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: SmallSat Stirling Cryocooler for Earth Science and Interplanetary Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Wecoso, LLC
6741 Brentwood Drive
Huntington Beach, CA
92648-6654
(714) 222-0424

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Carl Kirkconnell
carlk@wecoso.com
6741 Brentwood DR
Huntington Beach,  CA 92648-6654
(714) 222-0424

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
West Coast Solutions (WCS) and the Georgia Institute of Technology, in collaboration with Creare and Micro Cooling Concepts, proposes the development a SmallSat Stirling Cryocooler (SSC). In Phase I WCS will develop and mature the concept design of a Stirling cryocooler and control electronics, with extreme miniaturization enabled through very high frequency (nominally 300 Hz) operation. Building off previous research conducted by the principles, leveraging recent advances in manufacturing and digital technologies, and supported by analyses and proof of concept experiments, WCS will develop a complete cryocooler system design encompassing both the thermo mechanical unit (TMU) and the cryocooler control electronics (CCE). In Phase II the detailed design for a SSC System will be completed and a high fidelity brassboard system will be built, tested to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 5, and delivered to NASA. Immediate commercialization in support of NASA, Department of Defense, and commercial low Earth orbit (LEO) missions will follow.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
West Coast Solutions envisions tremendous commercial potential for the SmallSat Cryocooler as it will be the first such device of its kind. Competing designs fail to take into account the inherent deleterious vibration and power bus impacts, making the SSC a far more attractive, more easily integrated option. Based on the deployment of traditional macro scale space cryocoolers, the expected production opportunities for the SSC on non-NASA USG and foreign government orbital missions is limited to just a few a year, but we do not believe this is the right perspective. The interest in this cryocooler is based upon the emergence of a new class of substantially lower cost low earth orbit satellites, such as CubeSats of various sizes from 1U up to 6U (20 cm x 30 cm x 10 cm), which can be affordably deployed in large numbers, and indeed for which the mission is only satisfied by such a constellation. For example, in February 2014 Planet Labs deployed 28 CubeSats comprising Flock 1 to image the Earth in the visible band. For a comparable infrared constellation, each satellite would require a SSC. Envisioning three such missions per year by 2019, the production opportunity for the cryocooler subsystem is on the order of 28 x 3 x $20,000 = $1.68M in government sales alone.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed SSC has direct applicability to the cooling of small, infrared sensors requiring a focal plane operating temperature between 70K and 180K. This encompasses a wide range of low earth orbit (LEO) imaging sensors, interplanetary orbiters, and on surface interplanetary explorers. Extended applicability to lower temperatures, say to 30K, is enabled with the addition of a second cooling stage. More broadly, the advanced electronics technology being developed is readily scaled up, extending the applicability to the electronics to encompass virtually any linear (Stirling or pulse tube) type cryocooler.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Infrared
Long
Multispectral/Hyperspectral
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.09-9887
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Systems for Sensors and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Regenerators for 10 Kelvin Cryocoolers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Atlas Scientific
1367 Camino Robles Way
San Jose, CA
95120-4925
(408) 507-0906

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ali Kashani
akashani@atlasscientific.com
1367 Camino Robles Way
San Jose,  CA 95120-4925
(408) 507-0906

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future NASA astrophysics and exploration missions will require various enhancements in multi-stage cryocoolers. These include increased efficiency, reduced vibration and reductions in overall system mass and power consumption. For the coolers required, Stirling and pulse tube coolers offer the best opportunities. At present, the efficiency of these coolers is limited by the effectiveness of low-temperature-stage regenerators. Below about 60 K, two factors play key roles in reducing the effectiveness of regenerators. The heat capacity of most materials falls rapidly with decreasing temperature, thus, reducing the efficiency. Also, materials commonly used are only available in powder form, a form known to raise reliability issues. In the proposed effort, we will address both the aspect of high-efficiency and regenerator durability. First, a Rare Earth alloy, that below 60 K has a heat capacity higher than that of commonly used materials, will be configured in a well-defined intricate porous matrix; Secondly, both the void fraction and the ratio of surface area to solid fraction of the regenerator matrix will be tailored using a new approach, addressing that both form and thermal characteristics are essential to achieving a high efficiency.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a number of commercial applications which require cryocoolers that will benefit from high efficiency low-temperature regenerators. A partial list includes: - Superconducting electronics - Superconducting magnets for MRI systems - Superconducting magnets for power generation and energy storage - SQUID magnetometers for heart and brain studies - HTS filters for the communication industry - Liquefaction of industrial gases - Cryopumps for semiconductor manufacturing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Astrophysical, astrobiology and exploration missions planned by NASA depend on the availability of reliable and efficient multi-stage cryocoolers. Advanced astrophysics missions such as the James Web Space Telescope (JWST) require low temperature cooling for detectors and their associated optics directly. Missions requiring a large cooled telescope mirror would be impossible without efficient low temperature closed-cycle cryocoolers. Further, the long-term storage of cryogenic propellants, in particular liquid hydrogen is of interest. The conservation of propellant on long-term space flight will be an enabling technology for exploration and planetary missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.10-8423
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Atomic Interferometry
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cold Atom Laser Module (CALM)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AOSense, Inc.
929 East Arques Avenue
Sunnyvale, CA
94085-4521
(408) 735-9500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joshua Zirbel
jzirbel@aosense.com
929 East Arques Avenue
Sunnyvale,  CA 94085-4521
(408) 636-2620

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Precision Navigation and Timing (PNT) is a critical resource for government and commercial aerospace. Given the high launch cost and shift toward smaller payloads, reducing the size, weight, and power (SWaP) of space-based navigation systems is a critical need. Atom-interferometric inertial sensors have demonstrated superior performance over conventional inertial devices owing to the intrinsic stability of atomic systems. Central to making cold atom sensors practical is their ability to reliably operate for extended periods without user intervention. Current laser diodes, which are at the heart of atomic sensors, suffer from power degradation and mode hops on timescales incompatible with long term deployment. Because these properties are inherent to the diodes, it is prudent to circumvent these problems with diagnostic protocols aimed at early detection and action. Diodes close to mode hopping can be temporarily taken offline to tune away the mode hop via current and temperature. Diodes with degraded power can be taken offline entirely in favor of a healthy diode. This approach will provide a robust, wavelength-agnostic technique to deliver reliable, long-lived laser sources at atom sensor-relevant wavelengths. AOSense proposes to develop a cold atom laser module (CALM) capable of supporting a broad range of atomic sensors. Phase I will focus on addressing laser source reliability. We will identify and test and candidate laser diodes to identify optimal sources. In parallel, AOSense will develop protocols to identify potential diode failure and seamlessly switch to a healthy diode. Development of the CALM laser module will result in a ruggedized and reliable laser source capable of autonomously driving an atom-based sensor within the space environment. Such an effort would enable space-based applications for atomic sensors such as IMUs, clocks, and magnetometers, opening up significant market opportunities in the defense and commercial sectors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Robust frequency stabilized lasers will also benefit the development of atomic sensors for non-NASA applications. Atom interferometric sensors can be configured as accelerometers, gyroscopes, gravity sensors, magnetometers or precision time keeping devices and therefore can be applied to a wide range of military platforms in addition to commercial applications. Precision navigation systems based on atom interferometric inertial sensors have the potential to provide precision positioning in environments where GPS signals are not available. Atomic gravimeters and gravity gradient sensors can be used for geophysical exploration and homeland security applications. Cold atom based frequency standards will ultimately replace the current generation of commercial cesium beam clocks that are widely used for timekeeping in a variety of systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Frequency stabilized lasers are at the heart of atomic sensors and their robust operation will be required for any future NASA mission that relies upon an atomic sensor. Atom interferometric sensors can be configured as accelerometers, gyroscopes, gravity sensors, magnetometers or precision time keeping devices. In each case they are best-in-class sensors and have the potential to enable new missions and applications of interest to NASA. Atom interferometers configured for gravity sensing can be used to map the earth's gravity gradient from orbit or to characterize the mass distribution of an asteroid for redirect missions. Atomic magnetometers offer the potential for improved remote sensing of magnetic fields and magnetic field gradients and could be used for precise characterization and monitoring of magnetic fields from orbit. Gyroscopes and accelerometers based on atom interferometry can provide orders of magnitude increases in inertial sensitivity which could lead to dramatic improvements in navigation and guidance systems. Ultra-precise atomic based gravity sensors and optical clocks could provide new methods for detection of gravity waves and tests of general relativity. Finally, robust frequency stabilized lasers are useful for non-atomic applications such as LiDAR and coherent laser communications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Communication)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Inertial (see also Sensors)
Inertial
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Attitude Determination & Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.10-8457
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Atomic Interferometry
PROPOSAL TITLE: Long Term Ultrastable Laser System at 780 nm for Atomic Clocks

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gener8, Inc.
500 Mercury Drive
Sunnyvale, CA
94085-4018
(650) 940-9898

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Bischel
bbischel@gener8.net
500 Mercury Dr.
Sunnyvale,  CA 94085-4018
(650) 940-9898

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Gener8 and AOSense team together to propose a novel new architecture for a low-phase noise, single-frequency electronically tunable laser at 780 nm. This laser concept has a demonstrated electronic tuning coefficient 2.37 GHz/Volt and will meet all the demanding requirements for atomic clock applications. The compact laser technology is based on previously developed hybrid integration technology that enables the direct optical coupling of active and passive waveguide chips. The integrated design proposed reduces system complexity, lowers cost and lends itself readily to array scaling. A rugged packaging solution is proposed to package the laser head in a volume of 3.0 cubic cm.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The single-frequency tunable laser developed in this project will be of great benefit to the scientific and R&D community. The availability of the tunable laser will allow new optical sensors and instrumentation to be quickly prototyped. These lasers can also be used for coherent optical communications. Since the technology is inherently array scalable, there would be a significant reduction in per-port cost for a 4 or 8 port tunable single-frequency laser module.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed laser system is the key enabling component for all applications that require the optical excitation of atomic systems. The availability of this laser system will significantly reduce the development time for these new applications. The laser system developed by the end of Phase II design will take advantage of the hybrid integration technology to minimize the foot print, to increase the ruggedness and to reduce the power consumption and weight. This laser will also be of general benefit to the scientific and R&D community since the availability of the tunable laser will allow new concepts that require the optical excitation of Rb and Cs atoms to be prototyped quickly.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Communication)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Waveguides/Optical Fiber (see also Optics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.10-8993
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Atomic Interferometry
PROPOSAL TITLE: Optical Flywheel for Yb+ Ion Clock

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
OEwaves, Inc.
465 North Halstead Street, Suite #140
Pasadena, CA
91107-6016
(626) 351-4200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrey Matsko
andrey.matsko@oewaves.com
465 N Halstead St., Ste. 140
Pasadena,  CA 91107-6016
(626) 351-4200

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
OEwaves Inc. offers to develop and demonstrate an extended cavity ultra-stable 436 nm diode laser system that features the properties required for long duration space applications. The system will be based on a semiconductor laser locked to a monolithic microcavity using self injection locking technique. This technique results in a complete suppression of mode hops in the laser during its operational lifetime. The microcavity will not only stabilize the frequency of the laser, but will also be used to measure and stabilize the power of the laser. Furthermore, the microcavity provides a modulatable laser that features exceptionally low residual amplitude modulation, allowing a robust lock to the clock transition of interest. The laser is intended as an optical local oscillator (LO) suitable for Yb+ ion clock. The LO will include a semiconductor diode laser stabilized to a millimeter scale monolithic reference resonator. The reference resonator is a high quality factor (Q) and narrow-linewidth dielectric whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator that is thermally compensated to produce a vanishingly small temperature coefficient. The LO will deliver the same performance as the best existing high-end laboratory Fabry-Perot resonator-based LOs--which are large, expensive, and fragile table-mounted instruments--but in a robust, 100 cc volume module that is inexpensive and consumes small power.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The laser source will be the best product available for applications requiring tunable ultra-high spectral purity in the C- and L-band ranges and beyond. The laser source's combination of high agility, small size, robust packaging, superior spectral noise characteristics, and lower cost of production will beat the foreseeable competition across all performance specifications. Potential customers include not only the oil and gas giants (Exxon/Mobile, Chevron, Halliburton, Anadarko, British Petroleum, Schlumberger, Royal Dutch Shell, etc.) and fiber optic sensor system integrators and emerging adopters (Sensa, Atlas, Ocean Optics, Honeywell, Xarion, Weatherford, Google, etc.), but also the equivalent of fiber optic communication system corporations (Cisco Systems, Juniper Networks, Ciena, etc.), LIDAR developers (LGS Innovations, Raytheon, Zephir, Bridger Photonics, etc.), and possibly medical laser system players (Syneron-Candela, Novadaq Technologies Inc., AngioDynamics Inc., PhotMedex Inc., Lumenis Ltd., BIOLASE Inc., etc.)

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The laser has commercial value as a part of optical Yb+ clock system. Timekeeping in commercial GPS satellites, national time references, and national power grids may benefit significantly from the clocks created using the laser. In addition, critical enhancements for advanced synchronous wireline and wireless communication smart networks from the core to the edges may be realized. Among others are academic research, test and measurement, and metrology applications. For example, high performance atomic frequency standards and clocks have been always an integral part of the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN), responsible for communication, navigation, tracking, as well as related sciences. The performance attributes of atomic frequency references and clocks are stability and accuracy. For most applications, particularly in a two-way link architecture, only stability is required. For greater autonomy and strict one-way navigation system, an accurate clock (i.e. one with a precisely known rate) will be beneficial, as it does not need calibration. Aside from DSN applications, precision frequency standards are used for a wide spectrum of NASA space-based science experiments in astrophysics, planetary physics, space science, Earth science, and tests of fundamental physics.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
GPS/Radiometric (see also Sensors)
Ranging/Tracking
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.11-8294
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Instruments/Technologies for Ocean Worlds Life Detection
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact UV Laser

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Q-Peak, Inc.
135 South Road
Bedford, MA
01730-2307
(781) 275-9535

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bhabana Pati
pati@qpeak.com
135 South Road
Bedford,  MA 01730-2307
(781) 275-9535

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In response to the development of components to advance the maturity of science instruments focused on the detection of evidence of life in the Ocean Worlds, Q-Peak proposes to develop a compact, robust, efficient, and radiation hardened UV laser capable of detecting organic molecules by means of the laser desorption technique. When slightly modified, the laser can be used to advance the development of instruments suitable for deployment on in-situ planetary and lunar missions such as ExoMars and Mars 2020 to analyze mineral composition of rock samples by performing imaging/Laser-Raman/Laser-Induced-Breakdown spectroscopies. The advantage in using these techniques for planetary science is the ability to rapidly collect a wealth of chemical information, by directing a laser beam on target of interest. In Phase I, Q-Peak proposes the development of an ultra-compact, passively Q-switched laser, < 10 cm3 in volume that will produce 0.1-0.3 mJ energy, < 2 ns, 266-nm pulses at 5 kHz repetition rates. This laser will be designed to survive shock, vibration, thermal cycling, and radiation. In order to make a very compact laser, Q Peak will use diode pumped solid state laser technology to produce 1-2 mJ of energy at 1064 nm using a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber as the passive Q-switch to eliminate the need for a high voltage supply which is required for actively Q-switched lasers. The output of the laser will be frequency converted in two stages to produce 266 nm via nonlinear crystals specifically selected to survive a high radiation environment. Compact electronics will also be designed from radiation hardened components. In Phase II program, specially designed optical components will be procured to make the laser very compact and alignment insensitive; for example, bonded nonlinear crystals to minimize wavelength walk-off and maximize nonlinear conversion efficiency. The laser will be subjected to representative environmental condition to bring the TRL to 6.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
When a nonlinear crystal that generates UV light is removed, the ultra-compact laser source can produce wavelengths of 1 um or 0.5 um which find applications in lidar to map and image objects; a narrow laser-beam can map physical features with very high resolution. It can target a wide range of materials, including non-metallic objects, rocks, rain, chemical compounds, aerosols, clouds, and even single molecules. In particular, the 0.5-um wavelength penetrates water easily and is useful for bathymetry measurements in shallow water. The proposed laser can be used in the automotive safety and navigation, geography, law enforcement, meteorology, mining, robotics, and wind farm markets. The proposed UV source at 266nm would have applications for the military for imaging through smoke, dust, smog, and brownouts. Very small form-factor UV source designs may also offer opportunity for free space communication. Other applications are in mass and Raman spectroscopy, the food and drug industry, material processing, ultraviolet curing, photolithography, medical services, spectral analysis, scientific research, disinfection, decontamination of surfaces and water, protein analysis, DNA sequencing, (DNA absorption has a peak at 260nm), forensic analysis and more. With slight modification the laser can generate eye safe wavelengths. The Department of Defense has a constant need to advance the state of the art in the soldier-carried range finders that operate in eye safe wavelengths.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Besides being useful for detecting present and past life in extra-terrestrial environments, the laser can be used, especially with its small foot print, on the lander/orbiter to provide ranging and imaging for autonomous landing and precision rendezvous to other satellites. NASA remote sensing and LiDAR applications require compact, efficient, reliable, moderate-energy, nanosecond-pulsed lasers. These missions require improved precision technology compared with previously flown LiDAR technologies as well as greatly reduced size, weight, and power (SWaP) given the resource-constrained class of missions likely to use this capability. Missions to solar system bodies must meet increasingly ambitious objectives requiring highly reliable soft and precision landing, hazard avoidance, topography mapping, autonomous rendezvous to other satellites, etc. Robotic missions to the Moon and Mars demand landing at pre-designated sites of high scientific value near hazardous terrain features, such as escarpments, craters, slopes, and rocks. Given the high sensitivity of launch requirements to SWaP considerations and to reliability, we feel that the proposed laser source is uniquely positioned for elemental analysis as well as LiDAR remote sensing and autonomous landing based missions. Other NASA mission profiles or applications that would benefit from generically small, light-weight, low power laser sources would be equally well served.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Minerals
Lasers (Machining/Materials Processing)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Ultraviolet
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Characterization
Prototyping


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.11-8595
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Instruments/Technologies for Ocean Worlds Life Detection
PROPOSAL TITLE: WOLFEChip: Wholly-Integrated Optofluidic Laser-Induced Fluorescence Electrophoresis Chip

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Leiden Measurement Technology
1240 Mountain View Alviso Road, Suite E
Sunnyvale, CA
94089-9408
(650) 605-3046

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nathan Bramall
N.Bramall@LeidenTechnology.com
1240 Mountain View Alviso Rd., Suite E
Sunnyvale,  CA 94089-9408
(510) 301-8980

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) effort, Leiden Measurement Technology LLC (LMT) proposes to design and build the Wholly-integrated Optofluidic Laser-induced Fluorescence Electrophoresis Chip (WOLFEChip), a microchip capillary electrophoresis (MCE) system using a miniaturized optofluidic approach for packaging all optical elements necessary for laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) on-chip. WOLFEChip uses cutting-edge laser micromachining to fabricate fully-three-dimensional optical elements that focus excitation laser light into a MCE microchannel to excite fluorescence. The fluorescence emission is collected using a heat-bonded lens on the backing layer. This improves on current and past implementations of MCE-LIF by (1) greatly miniaturizing the optical elements which comprise a significant amount of space in MCE-LIF systems; (2) making the entire LIF optical system monolithic and immune to misalignment which greatly enhances the vibration-resistance of the entire system; (3) making the system immune to operator-to-operator variations caused by the periodic need to carefully align traditional MCE-LIF systems; and (4) greatly reducing measured stray light and thereby potentially increasing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the MCE-LIF system by employing right-angle excitation/emission optical geometries and through the use of high-quality fluorescence-free fused silica.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
WOFLEChip has many uses outside of NASA. Due to its sensitivity, specificity, portability (both in terms of mass and ruggedness), and flexibility it can be used in many different situations including (1) environmental research of terrestrial and marine waters (e.g., detecting important biomarkers or nutrient sources); (2) process control and monitoring of closed water systems (e.g., Naval shipboard water monitoring, water treatment centers); (3) pharmaceutical research; (4) monitoring and identification of organic pollution in water, soils, and sediments (e.g., pesticides, fuels, drugs); (5) the detection of biological and chemical weapons. Advantages of WOLFEChip over existing electrophoresis technologies are its portability (enabled by its size and its rugged optofluidic implementation of LIF), resolution (MCE-LIF is inherently higher-resolution than CE due to the injected plug size), and operator-to-operator invariance (other MCE-LIF systems require an operator to manually align optics into a MCE chip, leading to LIF efficiencies varying based on the skill of the operator; WOLFEChip uses integrated optics to avoid this). In Phase III, LMT will seek to establish commercial relationships with vendors of MCE-LIF systems for marketing commercial-implementations of WOLFEChip to environmental scientists, water-quality monitoring authorities, and the United States Navy.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As NASA looks forward to the coming decades, the Ocean Worlds of the outer solar system (e.g., Europa, Titan, Enceladus) as well as other smaller bodies (e.g., asteroids, comets) and rocky planets (e.g., Mars) will be primary targets for NASA exploration. For the detection of life, an unambiguous, highly-sensitive, definitive approach is required. MCE-LIF is an ideal technique for detecting life through by measuring the relative abundance and chirality of amino acids and other important biomarkers. Key benefits of MCE-LIF for space exploration include: (1) its levels of detection are orders-of-magnitude lower than more traditional high-TRL gas chromatography approaches; (2) the technique uses minute volumes of reagents; (3) the instrumentation inherently requires very little power and mass; and (4) MCE-LIF is highly-suitable for dealing with liquid samples. WOLFEChip will be a great stride towards further miniaturizing and ruggedizing MCE-LIF hardware for upcoming mission opportunities by fully integrating the LIF optics on-chip thereby reducing mass, size, and the need for mechanical stability/alignment of external optical systems to micro-scale features.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Lenses
Biological Signature (i.e., Signs Of Life)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.11-9800
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Instruments/Technologies for Ocean Worlds Life Detection
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electro-Kinetic Ice Gun for Frozen Ice Plume Simulations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Connecticut Analytical Corporation
696 Amity Road
Bethany, CT
06524-3006
(203) 393-9666

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joseph Bango
jbango@ctanalytical.com
696 Amity Road
Bethany,  CT 06524-3006
(203) 393-9666

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal evolved as a result of a conversation with a NASA scientist regarding plans for a mission to Europa to seek signs of life based on observed water plume emissions. With Jupiter as a bright light behind the moon, NASA was able to observe Europa in silhouette, and with ultraviolet light saw what appeared to be evidence of the plumes. If plumes exist, this is an exciting find, lead researcher William Sparks said. It means we may be able to explore that ocean, that ocean of Europa, and for organic chemicals, he added. It would allow us to search for signs of life without having to drill through miles of ice. The apparent plumes seem to be mostly around the south pole, Sparks said, although one appears farther north and may be a likelier candidate for a mission. "We presume it to be water vapor or ice particles because that's what Europa's made of, and those molecules do appear at the wavelengths we observed. In preparation for such a mission, spacecraft will have to pass through dense clouds of ice particulates, which could damage vital instruments. Accordingly, NASA has indicated there is a need for simulating the production of ice in the size range of 50nm up through 2 microns. The NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range was designed to sent solid projectiles for studying the effects of meteorite impacts on celestial bodies and potential micro-meteoroid damage to spacecraft. At the far end of the barrel, a gunpowder explosion is used to compress hydrogen gas to as much as 1 million times atmospheric pressure. The compressed gas gets released and sent down the launch tube, firing a projectile pellet at speeds between 7,000 and 15,000 mph. No ice particulate could survive being subjected to such massive transitory input of kinetic energy. The Ames gun was not designed for accelerating ice projectiles, so a new technology is required. Here is proposed an electrospray ice plume generator, with electrostatic acceleration.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications might include semiconductor cleaning or other high vacuum particulate ablation methods.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Europa is one of the most active bodies in the solar system: about the size of Earth's moon, and at its warmest only about -260F (-160C), and covered in an icy shell. But the moon also has rarer qualities: evidence of abundant liquid water, a rocky core that would have a range of chemicals, and energy generated by tidal heating the moon is tidally locked to Jupiter, with one face always toward the gas giant. Should the moon have water, energy and organic chemicals, it could have the basic building blocks that developed into life on Earth. For a long time humanity has been wondering whether there is life beyond Earth, NASA astrophysicist Paul Hertz said. "We're lucky enough to live in an era where we can address questions like that scientifically. We have a special interest in any place that might possess those characteristics. Europa might be such a place. The finding, NASA's Hertz continued, increases our confidence that water and other materials in Europa's ocean, Europa's hidden ocean, might be available for us to study without us landing and digging on those unknown miles of ice". In order for NASA to probe water plumes that produce ice particulates, a source for creating such high speed particles is required to see whether a spacecraft will survive passing through a plume, and to test the sampling technologies for these plumes. The proposed technology offers a means to create a bolt-on "ice-gun" source for NASA-JPL or NASA-Ames.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biological Signature (i.e., Signs Of Life)
Lifetime Testing
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S1.11-9802
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Instruments/Technologies for Ocean Worlds Life Detection
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ocean Life Detection on Alien Worlds

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Connecticut Analytical Corporation
696 Amity Road
Bethany, CT
06524-3006
(203) 393-9666

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joseph Bango
jbango@ctanalytical.com
696 Amity Road
Bethany,  CT 06524-3006
(203) 393-9666

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal is in response to NASA's request for technologies that can enhance the detection of life in alien oceans. As stated in the call, the Technologies for Detection of Extant Life subtopic seeks instruments and component technologies that will enable unambiguous determination of whether extant life is present in target environments on other solar system bodies. Because there is no single measurable signature of life, this will require advances in a variety of areas, from those involving sample processing to the detailed components of chemical and optical instruments. Searches for extant life can take place in a variety of environments, including ocean depths, ice sheets, dry deserts, seasonal flows, or even dense atmospheres; technologies are required for handling samples obtained from any or all of these environments. Preprocessing technologies required for those samples may include separation, concentration, dilution, drying, staining, mixing, and many other common processes for laboratory analysis, but which must be done in a remote, autonomous environment. Tests of whether a given sample contains or indicates the presence of extant life include the full range of microbiological and chemical techniques, but those that do not require the addition of potential biomarkers (e.g., complex organics) as part of the test are preferred. We have spent he past 5 years developing a novel means of capturing and concentrating organic molecules onto specialized graphene surfaces, available for later detailed analysis. The adaptation of this technology could offer a new avenue for the detection of key organic elements in ocean environments that contain many background elemental noise sources.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our work over the past 5 years developing a novel means of capturing and concentrating organic molecules onto specialized graphene surfaces, under DARPA support for medical diagnostics. There is substantial market potential for new graphene technologies that can help quantify the presence and concentration of biomolecules for the healthcare industry.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Soon after our work began with graphene sheets and the ability to adsorb biomolecules, we began to wonder whether there would be a means of no just adsorbing the species, but identifying key factors about target analytes of interest without have to resort to complicated platforms such as mass spectrometry. While immunoassays provide high sensitivity to many target species, they must be constructed with some prior knowledge of the target. Such is likely not to be the case for alien organic molecules, although some basic assumptions can be made. As indicated by Dr. Willis at JPL, amino acids are a good start for the search for life. Consequently we wanted to find additional ways in which graphene could assist the search for life in alien oceans. One possibility may be using graphene nanopores to attract, sequence, and retain organic molecules of interest. Nanopore based analysis is currently an area of great interest in many disciplines with the potential for incredibly versatile applications. These include sensing small molecules such as ions, nucleotides, enantiomers, and drugs, as well as larger polymers such as PEG, RNA, DNA, amino acids, and polypeptides. Single pore sensing is a label-free single molecule recognition approach requiring very low sample volumes without sample preparations or amplifications. The detection of organic molecules using graphene in several ways is therefore a versatile method for a number of NASA life detection missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biological Signature (i.e., Signs Of Life)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S2.01-8266
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Proximity Glare Suppression for Astronomical Coronagraphy
PROPOSAL TITLE: Proximity Glare Suppression using Carbon Nanotubes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lambda Consulting/Advanced Nanophotonics
4437 Windsor Farm Road
Harwood, MD
20776-2200
(240) 678-9475

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Hagopian
J_Hagopian@comcast.net
4437 Windsor Farm Rd
Harwood,  MD 20776-2200
(240) 678-9475

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are the darkest material known to man and are an enabling technology for scientific instrumentation of interest to NASA. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of carbon nanotubes directly onto high quality mirrors for diffraction suppression and stray light control is critical for use reflective nulling coronagraphs. The development of an integrated optical stack for these applications is new technology that has never been demonstrated. Sub-micron controlled patterning of carbon nanotubes for extreme stray light control must be made to be compatible with high reflectivity coatings without degrading the near diffraction limited surface figure on the underlying substrate. The entire optical stack; substrate, reflective coating and carbon nanotube forest, must be able to withstand high power laser pulses without damage and be robust to launch environments. This is critical to missions that require extreme nulling of bright sources adjacent to dim companions. The second component required for a nulling coronagraph is a sharp edge low scatter Lyot stop to block light. Etched silicon has been used as an entrance slit for instruments and have been successfully fabricated and coated with ultra dark nanotubes by proposal team members. The Principal Investigator at Lamba Consulting is a recognized expert in the development of carbon nanotubes, novel mirror substrates and coating technologies for space flight applications and has formulated a plan for fabricating and qualifying demonstration optics including for both a reflected apodization mirror and Lyot stop selectively coated with carbon nanotubes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Optimization of the optical stack outlined in this SBIR proposal addresses a host of challenges that have created a barrier to the use of carbon nanotubes in commercial stray light control applications. Phase I of this SBIR will confront many of these challenges and a successful Phase II will constitute closure of many of the issues that have been problematic to commercialization. Laser communications and autonomous vehicle control can benefit from stray light control for optical systems used in duplex; this is a direct application of this technology. Beyond the need for on-board calibration systems, laboratories across the world would benefit from a near zero reflectance calibration standard for spectrophotometers and other scientific and military equipment. Lamba Consulting is actively investigating the use of alternate adhesion materials to make nanotube formulations more robust for these applications. The use of gold black on thermopile detectors for scientific and military instruments has been problematic due to the fragility of the coating and difficulty of patterning. We are actively seeking industry partners to develop thermopile arrays. The PI has been working with well-known artists Frederik de Wilde and Diemut Stebe to create black art using carbon nanotubes. Representatives of Louis Vuitton, Tesla and Swatch have been in communication and await further adhesion optimization to utilize carbon nanotubes in a variety of design and fashion applications

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Stray-light and diffraction suppression is critical to NASA instrumentation because it improves signal to noise and observational efficiency in high contrast regions present in Earth, solar and coronagraphic applications. The PI and Lambda Consulting have delivered a large variety of instrument components including, baffles, stops, tubes and beam dumps. Development of a process compatible with reflective coatings and high quality optics for this SBIR, will enable an entirely new class of components and instrumentation for scientific observations. NASA requires calibrators for all manner of instruments to allow scientific data to be of the highest accuracy. On-mirror diffraction suppression is enabling for e-LISA as the telescope is used in duplex and requires extreme suppression of the the high power transmitted beam. This is also a challenge in Laser Communications and of great interest to NASA that will be addressed by this SBIR. Carbon nanotubes have the highest emissivity ever measured and are nearly ideal in this respect. We expect that further enhancement of the robustness of carbon nanotube coatings demonstrated in this SBIR will result in the use of this technology on more NASA instruments. The PI has built and tested carbon nanotube absorber thermal detectors with superconducting transition edge detectors; a modified CVD process will make the use of carbon nanotube absorbers compatible with more detector technologies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Nanomaterials
Filtering
Mirrors
Optical
Radiometric
Multispectral/Hyperspectral


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S2.01-8536
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Proximity Glare Suppression for Astronomical Coronagraphy
PROPOSAL TITLE: Proximity Glare Suppression for Astronomical Coronagraphy

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanohmics, Inc.
6201 East Oltorf Street, Suite 400
Austin, TX
78741-7509
(512) 389-9990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Karun Vijayraghavan
kvijayraghavan@nanohmics.com
6201 East Oltorf Street, Suite 400
Austin,  TX 78741-7509
(512) 389-9990

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There is a critical need for stray light suppression in advanced astronomical telescopes and imaging systems. For optical instruments that are required to view objects with brightness dynamic ranges on the order of 1010, precise control of diffraction and scattering from occulting apertures, Lyot stops, shields, and baffles is critical. Super-black broadband absorbers can help control stray light, and work by absorbing light across the ultra-violet, visible, and infrared spectral regions. No stray-light control application is more stressing than space-based astronomical telescopes because the stray light characteristics of the instrument itself typically limits the ultimate contrast of the imagery. Ultimately, the reflection or scattering of light from an absorber will be limited by the effective "impedance mismatch" of the electromagnetic wave as it transits the interface from the incident medium (i.e. vacuum) to the absorber medium. Recent developments in the patterning of nanostructures have opened great opportunities for the fabrication of nanostructured films which exhibit gradual transitions in refractive index, leading to high performance broadband antireflection coatings and enhancement of black-body absorption. Surface nanostructures that have sub-wavelength dimensions can greatly reduce light reflection, and are biomimetic to moth's eyes, which are designed to minimize reflection in the VIS and NIR spectral bands. Nanohmics proposes to use its "Thermodot" technology to produce a sub-wavelength structured surface that effectively couples incoming electromagnetic waves into a material with vanishingly small reflectance. Nanohmics proposes to extend the Thermodot technology to absorbing substrates to produce non-reflecting super-black absorbing materials with performance characteristics compatible with space-based telescopes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Industrial applications of the super-black absorber technology include remote sensing in arc furnaces and plasma jets, and other applications where imagery or optical measurements are required in the proximity of very bright sources of light. Military applications are centered on reconnaissance and surveillance imaging of on-orbit vehicles and terrestrial objects.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Immediate NASA applications include space and terrestrial telescopes where precision control of stray light and maximum suppression of bright-object glare is required. The ultimate image contrast achieved by space-based telescopes is limited by stray light, and precise mitigation of diffracted, scattered, and reflected light is paramount.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Nanomaterials
Filtering
Lenses
Visible
Infrared
Multispectral/Hyperspectral
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S2.01-9655
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Proximity Glare Suppression for Astronomical Coronagraphy
PROPOSAL TITLE: Next-Generation Deformable Mirrors for Astronomical Coronagraphy by Utilizing PMN-PT Single Crystal Stack Actuators in integration with Driver ASIC

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Microscale, Inc.
800 West Cummings Park, Suite 3350
Woburn, MA
01801-6377
(781) 995-2245

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Xingtao Wu
xwu@microscaleinc.com
800 West Cummings Park, Suite 3350
Woburn,  MA 01801-6377
(339) 927-1996

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase I project aims to develop a new manufacturing approach for deformable mirrors (DMs) by batch fabricating the stack actuator array. The innovation leverages on our experience in developing stack actuator DM system with integrated ASIC driver electronics, enabling the next-generation DM-ASIC systems that are featured with: electro-mechanical performance exceeding traditional piezoelectric DMs by about 5 times, reduced number of wires from thousands to several tens, reduction of the power dissipation by two (2) orders of magnitude, shrinking of the form factor (weight/size) of the DM driver electronics by up to two (2) orders of magnitude, and reducing the DM cost by about 5 times. With both DM and the driver ASIC scalable by mosaicking to 96x96, 128x128 or larger format, the innovation holds promise of filling the NASA Technology Gap on DM and associating driver electronics connectors/cables as listed in the recently released Exoplanet Exploration Program Technology Plan Appendix 2017.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications include laser beam shaping, ophthalmology and other microscope applications. In particular, for the Department of Defense, if needed, the prototype adaptive optical systems based on the Phase II results can be applied to military seekers, FLIRs, optical communications, and other adaptive optics systems for military operations. For optical computing, the VLSI circuit could be combined with piston-only micromirror structure for a phase-only spatial light modulator. Commercial markets for these systems also include retinal imaging, supernormal human vision, and amateur telescopes. In addition to production of new stack actuators of various specifications, the research is also expected to lead to a family of compact, low-cost, high performance spatial light modulators for direct retinal display, hologram, head mount display, and large-screen projection display applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In general, future high-performance systems for: (1) correction of aberrations in large-aperture, space-deployed optical interferometers and telescopes, (2) high-resolution imaging and communication through atmospheric turbulence, (3) laser beam steering, and (4) optical path alignment, (5) propagation of directed laser energy through atmospheric turbulence, will require deformable mirror (DM) wavefront correctors with several hundred to millions of elements. More specifically, NASA missions and instruments that would benefit from the proposed DM manufacturing/packaging technology are Visible Nulling Coronagraph (VNC), single aperture far-infrared observatory (SAFIR), Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC), and the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF). Other NASA projects that would benefit from the proposed DM-ASIC technology include the Submillimeter Probe of the Evolutionary Cosmic Structure (SPECS), the Stellar Imager (SI) and the Earth Atmospheric Solar occultation Imager (EASI).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Adaptive Optics
Mirrors
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S2.01-9865
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Proximity Glare Suppression for Astronomical Coronagraphy
PROPOSAL TITLE: Technology Development for High-Actuator-Count MEMS DM Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Boston Micromachines Corporation
30 Spinelli Place
Cambridge, MA
02138-1070
(617) 868-4178

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Peter Ryan
pjr@bostonmicromachines.com
30 Spinelli Place
Cambridge,  MA 02138-1070
(617) 868-4178

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a design and manufacturing approach for a small-stroke, high-precision deformable mirror scalable to 10,000 actuators, that promises inherent advantages in scalability, yield, and reliability in comparison to current generation microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) DMs, to address a technology gap for next-generation planet finding instruments. Our proposed design aims to ensure high yield while maintaining a superb optical quality and retain the proven aspects of BMC?s commercial MEMS DM design and core manufacturing processes. Our objective in the Phase I project is to complete a design study for an innovative approach to scaling up our MEMS DM technology. We will develop new approaches to design and fabrication of routing lines by replacing the single wiring layer by interconnected, stacked wiring layers, and replacing wirebond technology with a flip-chip architecture for the device-to-package integration to overcome two key challenges that currently limit MEMS DM scalability to higher actuator counts. The outcome of the Phase I work will be the design and mask layout of the 10,000 actuator DM, the design and layout of the 10,000 channel PCB subassembly, and the development of a flip-chip bonding process that will enable the fabrication of this DM in a Phase II effort.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Small-stroke, high precision deformable mirrors (DMs) and associated driving electronics scalable to 10,000 or more actuators have a few commercial applications. The following applications apply to products produced by Boston Micromachines that benefit from manufacturing processes developed which increase yield and reliability. Space surveillance: BMC has success developing arrays up to 4096 elements for astronomy which can be used for space-based systems. These programs are funded by Department of Defense administrations with classified agendas. Optical communication: Lasercomm systems would benefit from this new architecture for long-range secure communication. Also, fiber optic communications can take advantage of our devices in an optical switching capacity. Microscopy: By increasing reliability and yield, the component cost for DMs will enable users to purchase high-resolution equipment for improvement of various microscopy modalities. Modalities affected include multi-photon excitation fluorescence (MPEF), second- and/or third-harmonic generation (SHG/THG), and coherent anti-stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and super-resolution localization microscopy techniques. Pulse-Shaping: Laser science strives to create a better shaped pulse for applications such as laser marking and machining, and material ablation and characterization. The use of a high-actuator count array for these purposes will enable new science and more refined techniques.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Small-stroke, high precision deformable mirrors and associated driving electronics scalable to 10,000 or more actuators have a few astronomical NASA commercial applications. The following applications apply to all Boston Micromachines mirrors that benefit from new manufacturing processes developed which increase yield and reliability. Astronomy: Post applications in this sub-category can be broken into two categories: space telescopes and ground-based telescopes. In the case of space telescopes, there are a number of mission/mission concepts that require the wavefront control provided by the proposed high actuator count deformable mirrors. These include the Large UV/Optical/Infrared Surveyor (LUVIOR), Alpha Centauri Exoplanet Satellite (ACESat), Exoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer (EXCEDE) and the Centaur pathfinder mission. For ground-based telescopes, BMC has already had success developing arrays up to 4096 elements for the Gemini Planet Imager and multiple high-yield smaller devices to high contrast imaging testbeds at the Space Telescope Science Institute and the University of Nice. BMC can achieve similar results for larger arrays requiring high-density electronic equipment for other new and existing installations such as the planned Extremely Large Telescopes (Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) and the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT)).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Adaptive Optics
Mirrors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S2.01-9936
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Proximity Glare Suppression for Astronomical Coronagraphy
PROPOSAL TITLE: Polymer Coating-Based Contaminant Control/Elimination for Exo-S Starshade Probe

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Photonic Cleaning Technologies, LLC
1895 Short Lane
Platteville, WI
53818-8977
(608) 770-0565

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Hamilton
hamiltonj@photoniccleaning.com
1895 Short Lane
Platteville,  WI 53818-8977
(608) 770-0565

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Our past success in developing what has proven to be a revolution in contamination control ı that of residue free, strippable polymer coatings for surface protection and cleaning has, so far, been limited use on substrates such as glass, fused silica and aluminum. These are the types of surfaces found on flagship projects such as the LIGO Gravitational Wave Observatory, the 10 meter class WM Keck and the GTC Gran Canarias Telescopes and the optical and mirror surfaces of the National Rocket and Missile test program exemplified by programs at Vandenberg Air Force Base where extensive data has proven our technology. However, significant hurdles exist in applying our stripcoat technology to other technologically important surfaces that are also important to NASA Programs. Anomalous adhesion of our polymer films is seen on iron, steel, copper and nickel surfaces as well as numerous other materials. Since the Starshade edges may be made of sharpened amorphous alloy or anodized black surfaces, the First Contact Polymer coatings that worked so well on JWST gold mirror surfaces and the projects above cannot be applied. Further, application and removal procedures and proof of principle metrology must be developed, verified and tested before use in the critical launch path of the Starshade. Telescope and use in Proximity Glare Suppression for Astronomical Coronagraphy.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercialization efforts in Phase III would revolve around the successful technological demonstration of either maintaining surface sterility or radiation cleanup or both. Clear use and impacts in the medical, food and scientific and biotechnological communities are evident with creating and maintaining sterility. Similarly, radiation cleanup will have applications with NASA, DOE, DOD and commercial operators in the nuclear industry.Successful demonstration of the utility of our application optimized polym

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We will develop a fast and easy method to make surfaces contamination free and ready for space across a platform of space mission, instruments and vehicles. At the end of Phase I, we will have demonstrated a polymer blend/solvent formulation with reduced adhesion on Nickel Iron Amorphous Alloy sheets and have a draft SOP for application and removal of the polymer formulations for the razor sharp Starshade edges. Such results will set the stage for Phase II optimization and minimization of the adhesion on the amorphous alloy as well as on a variety of surfaces technologically important to NASA including stainless steel. In phase II, effort will put into investigating the feasibility of strip coating removal upon deployment in space. Further, we will begin investigations of application of the polymer system to 1) Developing optimized CNT Based ESD free and conductive films; 2) Use of the strip coatings we developed for maintaining and creating sterile and biological contamination free surfaces and 3) Proof of concept to procedural steps involved in cleaning up, sequestering and disposing of radioactive surface contamination.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Polymers
Gratings
Lenses
Mirrors
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Outreach
Manufacturing Methods
Material Handing & Packaging


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S2.02-8520
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Precision Deployable Optical Structures and Metrology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Redundant StarShade Truss Deployment Motor/Cable Assembly

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tendeg, LLC
686 South Taylor Avenue, Suite 108
Louisville, CO
80027-3000
(303) 929-4466

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Neal Beidleman
neal@tendeg.com
686 S. Taylor Ave, Ste 108
Louisville,  CO 80027-3000
(970) 948-0663

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovations are as follows: 1) A fully redundant electrical and mechanical motor/cable deployment assembly 2) A redundant motor/cable deployment assembly that is integrated and deploys a perimeter truss for a starshade The significance and relevance of the proposed innovations is to meet the technical challenges of deploying a large scale perimeter truss (10-30m diameter) for a starshade. The STDT's "Exo-S Final Report" identified an open issue to "Mature perimeter truss technology readiness." This is part of a defined starshade technology gap S-5 that is titled "Demonstrate inner disk deployment with optical shield." In the NASA JPL starshade design the petals are placed into their precise position by the deploying truss. The truss also deploys the spiral wrapped inner disk and at the end tensions the precision spokes. If the truss was not able to fully deploy or meet the on-orbit load (deployment and deployed) and positioning requirements then the mission would fail. Obviously the truss deployment mechanism needs to be a robust and reliable system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Large scale deployable perimeter trusses could also be used for large solar arrays for SEP applications or planetary surface operations that would need a robust architecture that can withstand high accelerations. In addition, the technology developed through this SBIR would apply to any cable driven deployment that would benefit from the reliability of a fully redundant electrical and mechanical system. Cable spoolers are used for deploying articulating booms, trusses, thermal blankets, solar arrays as well as deploying and controlling guys and stays.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Technology developed during this SBIR program will be directly applied to any NASA telescope program involved with exoplanet discovery and characterization that needs an external occulter, or Starshade. NASA has identified a potential rendezvous mission with WFIRST/AFTA because it is a large astrophysics telescope capable of supporting direct imaging with a starshade. Beyond starshades, the technology developed through this SBIR would apply to any cable driven deployment that would benefit from the reliability of a fully redundant electrical and mechanical system. Cable spoolers are used for deploying articulating booms, trusses, thermal blankets, solar arrays as well as deploying and controlling guys and stays.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Actuators & Motors
Deployment
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Structures
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Command & Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S2.03-8565
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Optical Systems and Fabrication/Testing/Control Technologies for EUV/Optical and IR Telescope
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rapid Fabrication of High Stability Optical Mirror Blanks

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Soter Technology, LLC
20130 Lakeview Center Plaza, Suite 400
Ashburn, VA
20147-5905
(571) 748-4016

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Strafford
David.Strafford.Lists@SoterTechnology.com
20130 Lakeview Center Plaza, Suite 400
Ashburn,  VA 20147-5905
(571) 748-4016

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Soter Technology is pleased to offer NASA a new technology for manufacturing diffraction limited visible telescope mirror blanks. This technology can support both symmetric primary mirrors and off-axis segments for segmented telescopes. The recurring fabrication cost and cycle time for these mirrors is quite low, once nonrecurring equipment (e.g. the optical test set) has been completed. For example, a 0.25 m diameter mirror with >2 KHz first mode and 19.5 kg/m2 would be fabricated in < 30 days. A 0.75 m diameter mirror with >350 Hz first mode at 21 kg/m2 would be completed in <60 days. The cost of these mirrors (especially at sizes > 1 m) depends strongly on the stiffness requirements, because stiffness drives overall mirror volume. Fabrication costs for the blank and polishing are expected to be between $0.3M/m2 and $0.4 M/m2 for sizes up to 1 m, and <$0.6 M/m2 for sizes up to 2 m. Initial FEA indicates that these mirror blanks will be more thermally stable than ULE mirrors. The goal of these technology is to produce aspheric mirror blanks which can support: - 10 nm RMS global surface figure - 5 nm RMS mid-spatial frequency errors - 1 nm RMS surface roughness This Phase I SBIR will produce and thermo optically test a 100 mm mirror, while applying heat loads representative of those seen by a mirror in a reasonable telescope shroud. In Phase II, this technology will be demonstrated by making a 0.2 m diameter diffraction limited telescope flat field telescope with a 0.2 m diameter primary mirror that is ~20 kg/m2, >400 Hz first mode, 10 nm RMS surface, and has <5 nm RMS midspatial frequency errors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Mirrors for commercial remote sensing satellites have requirements that are very similar to NASA UVO telescope mirrors. This applies to larger systems, such as those flown by DigitalGlobe, as well as to smaller systems, such as those flown by SkyBox. For systems like these, current technology imposes costs beyond just the telescope costs. The long lead time of mirrors for telescopes leads to spiraling costs. To protect a long lead, critical path item programs add quality oversight, which can add 60% to the cost. This makes the telescope even more expensive and demands additional reliability and quality oversight. The telescope costs are particularly painful for commercial ventures that must turn a profit in order to attract investment. For example, Planetary Labs requires lightweight telescopes for asteroid surveys. These systems need to be diffraction limited and they are both cost and launch mass sensitive, since they are trying to do surveys at a significant standoff and on a limited budget.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In the 2010 Decadal Survey, NASA identified several needs for next generation space telescopes under TA08. Of the top technical challenges, rapid time scale development was identified as the first need, both in order to explore innovative ideas and to fit the exploration within an Explorer or a Discovery class mission. The number two need was high performance, stable, low areal density optics normal incidence optics that could be manufactured at lower cost. These three technologies allow diffraction limited visible wavelength telescope mirrors at a cost and schedule that is an order of magnitude lower than current technologies. The lower cost makes large segmented telescopes affordable. The lower cost and schedule allow a significant expansion of what can be addressed within the cost caps for Explorer and Discovery class missions. The ability to rapidly fabricate these mirrors takes a fragile, expensive, and long lead item off of the critical path and allows a significant reduction in the quality oversight associated with protecting items that have a multi-year lead time. NASA clearly needs a better solution. The goal of this program is to reduce both cost and schedule by an order of magnitude by changing the technologies used to build lightweight mirrors.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Mirrors
Telescope Arrays
Ultraviolet
Visible
Multispectral/Hyperspectral


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S2.03-8716
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Optical Systems and Fabrication/Testing/Control Technologies for EUV/Optical and IR Telescope
PROPOSAL TITLE: Silica-Silica Mirror Substrate Fabrication Technology

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mentis Sciences, Inc.
215 Canal Street
Manchester, NH
03101-2315
(603) 624-9197

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Lumpkins
rlumpkins@mentissciences.com
215 Canal Street
Manchester,  NH 03101-2315
(603) 624-9197

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Mentis Sciences, Inc. Proposes to develop a thin walled Silica-Silica composite that can be used as part of a honeycomb core sandwich panel that will form a mirror substrate that has a low coefficient of thermal expansion that is matched in all directions. The sandwich panel will be manufactured as a quartz polysiloxane composite. Following the cure, organics will be burned out and the system will be backfilled using Tetraethyl orthosilicate as a silica precursor. Following conversion, the resulting silica-silica composite will be suitable for use as a mirror substrate. The resulting product will be an ideal solution for reducing the areal cost of ultraviolet and optical mirror systems while meeting the stringent performance requirements of these systems. The novel manufacturing process used by Mentis will allow for thinner walls than have been used on mirrors in the past, resulting in a lightweight materials solution. During Phase I, Mentis will develop the Silica-Silica manufacturing process, and obtain preliminary modulus, cte and thermal conductivity data. In addition, a top-level feasibility study will be conducted and a small-scale piece of silica-silica honeycomb sandwich panel will be manufactured.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Within the Department of Defense there are several applications for affordable mirror structures that are lightweight and have a low cte. Two potential applications would be integration into the optics train on a missile interceptor or use as part of the Gun-launched Tactical Satellite System (GLTSS). Performance optics with a low weight are critical to both applications and the unique ability to affordably manufacture sandwich panels from the silica-silica material make this material a true contender for insertion on these systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Silica-Silica composites, can be fabricated into low cte, lightweight, and affordable sandwich panels using unique manufacturing techniques developed at Mentis. The resulting structures would be suitable for use as mirror substrates. These mirror substrates have potential applications as components on NASA UV/Optical Telescopes. The technology is suitable for monolithic mirrors up to 8 meters and segmented mirrors that are even larger. Missions that meet these requirements would be Large UV/Optical and Habitable Exoplanet missions. The predicted light weight of the system also make the technology suitable for use as a mirror for Ultra-Stable Balloon Telescopes and Exoplanet balloon telescopes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Polymers
Textiles
Mirrors
Navigation & Guidance
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Project Management
Prototyping


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S2.03-8723
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Optical Systems and Fabrication/Testing/Control Technologies for EUV/Optical and IR Telescope
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Athermal Telescopes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Peregrine Falcon Corporation
1051 Serpentine Lane, Suite 100
Pleasanton, CA
94566-8451
(925) 461-6800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Hardesty
rhardesty@peregrinecorp.com
1051 Serpentine Lane, Suite 100
Pleasanton,  CA 94566-8451
(925) 461-6800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposed innovative athermal telescope design uses advanced lightweight and high-stiffness material of Beryllium-Aluminum (Be-38Al). Peregrine's expertise with Be-38Al, Electroless Nickel and Liquid Interfaced Diffusion (LID) Bonding leveraged by Rochester Institute of Technology's experience with Optical Systems for sounding rocket instruments will provide synergy in this visionary development. Be-38Al seamlessly joined through our proficiency in LID Bonding will produce an athermal telescope that can fully operate in any in-situ environment whether in the laboratory or on-orbit while maintaining alignment. This innovative design and application of advanced fabrication processes like LID Bonding will allow athermal telescopes to be aligned at room temperature and then maintain that alignment and performance as they reach low operating temperatures. A "monolithic" metering structure of Beryllium-Aluminum used within an athermal telescope design would give sounding rocket applications and in-situ telescopes for high altitude balloons and space the ability to align telescopes at ambient temperatures and also have those positional alignments maintained through launches and their entire mission life.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications for this technology would include: * Optical instruments for industrial measurements * Improve and maintain ground based telescopes * Improve precision of robotic arms by maintaining alignment over wide temperature ranges

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential applications currently under consideration are for NASA's science missions for. * Space based observatories * High altitude balloon telescopes * Sounding rocket telescopes

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Structures
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Ultraviolet
Visible
Infrared
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S2.03-8837
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Optical Systems and Fabrication/Testing/Control Technologies for EUV/Optical and IR Telescope
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight, Stable Optical Benches in Silicon Carbide and Beryllium

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFE Services
5147 Pacifica Drive
San Diego, CA
92109-1505
(858) 204-6299

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Catanzaro
cfespie@pacbell.net
5147 Pacifica Dr
San Diego,  CA 92109-1505
(858) 204-6299

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As the world community, has become aware that exoplanets exist in abundance, it has inspired new observatories in search of Earth-like worlds. Technology development studies have highlighted the need for structures with extraordinary dimensional stability. Advanced materials such as silicon carbide and beryllium are costly and time consuming to manufacture. Using methods pioneered in carbon fiber composites, sandwich panels from silicon carbide and beryllium are proposed for lightweight, stiff, ultra-stable optical benches for instruments on new observatories such as LUVOIR and WFIRST. Assembled from flat stock and waterjet machined, the panels are extremely lightweight. A prototype panel is shown whose stiffness is a close match to the FEA. Fittings machined from Invar 39 for silicon carbide and AlBeMet for beryllium can be bonded to the panels to provide interfaces to optical mounts and optical components.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA applications include: ı Military systems with similar requirements. ı Commercial robotic systems that require high speed operation (e.g. gantry, assembly, pick-and-place, wafer handling).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications include the use of this technology for lightweight and ultra-stable optical benches for spaceflight or balloon borne instruments include those for LUVOIR and WFIRST.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ceramics
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Metallics
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S2.03-9674
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Optical Systems and Fabrication/Testing/Control Technologies for EUV/Optical and IR Telescope
PROPOSAL TITLE: Additive Manufactured Very Light Weight Diamond Turned Aspheric Mirror

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dallas Optical Systems, Inc.
1790 Connie Lane
Rockwall, TX
75032-6708
(972) 564-1156

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Casstevens
c0029156@netportusa.com
1790 Connie Lane
Rockwall,  TX 75032-6708
(972) 564-1156

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovation proposed is a method for the fabrication of a very low cost, very light weight large aperture Al10SiMg aluminum alloy mirror by the combination of three manufacturing processes. 1. Additively manufactured mirror substrates as demonstrated in previous Phase 1 NASA SBIR S2.03-9125 with 0.2 mm contour accuracy. 2. Precision robotic welding of hexagonal on-axis and hexagonal off-axis segments to produce a larger mirror. 3. Large capacity diamond turning can produce any desired mirror aspheric contour to visible tolerances on the monolithic large mirror.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Defense applications requiring mirror optical components for satellites and aerospace vehicles. Non-military applications such as weather satellite optical mirrors and commercial telescope optics. Commercial applications requiring light weight stiff optical components such as semiconductor manufacturing equipment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Extremely light weight medium aperture off-axis three mirror anastigmat (TMA) mirror optical components, collimator and telescope optical instruments. Extremely lightweight large off-axis mirrors for unobscured optical collimators and telescopes. On-axis hexagonal segments and off-axis hexagonal aspheric optical mirrors can be assembled to enable very large telescopes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Adaptive Optics
Gratings
Mirrors
Telescope Arrays
Lasers (Guidance & Tracking)
Optical
Ranging/Tracking
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Infrared
Long


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S2.03-9933
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Optical Systems and Fabrication/Testing/Control Technologies for EUV/Optical and IR Telescope
PROPOSAL TITLE: 3D Printed Silicon Carbide Scalable to Meter-Class Segments for Far-Infrared Surveyor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Goodman Technologies, LLC
9551 Giddings Avenue Northeast
Albuquerque, NM
87109-6412
(400) 400-8169

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Goodman
bgoodman@goodmantechnologies.com
9551 Giddings Av NE
Albuquerque,  NM 87109-6412
(505) 400-8169

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Using technology spun out from Sandia National Laboratories, Goodman Technologies LLC with our Small Business and Minority Institution partners (Team GTL) has demonstrated the feasibility of 3D printed metals and ceramics for low areal cost, ultra-lightweight mirrors and structures. Our technology development roadmap shows production of the first meter-class mirror segments in time for the 2020 Decadal Survey. Our 1.5-meter hexagonal silicon carbide segments will meet or exceed all NASA requirements for the primary mirror of a FIR Surveyor such as the Origins Space Telescope (OST), and may also provide a solution for the LUVOIR Surveyor. Our analysis and internal research and development show that we will achieve an areal density of 7.75 kg/m2, a cost to print of $60K/segment, and an optical surface that has nanometer-scale tolerances. Our encapsulated lattice construction provides a uniform CTE throughout the part for dimensional stability, incredible specific stiffness, and the added benefit of cryo-damping. Our process will also allow for direct embedding of electronics for active structures and segments, and the potential for actively cooling with helium for unprecedented low emissivity and thermal control. Finally, the particulate paste extrusion process may be very suitable for printing mirrors in the zero gravity of space.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Low cost, lightweight, dimensionally stable mirrors have use in complex telescopes for Astronomy, Imaging and Remote Sensing applications, including optical instruments/telescopes which enable imaging, surveillance, and reconnaissance missions for police and paramilitary units, fire fighters, power and pipeline monitoring, search and rescue, atmospheric and ocean monitoring, imagery and mapping for resource management, and disaster relief and communications. The dual-use nature of complex telescopes will bring affordability to national defense missions such as airborne, shipborne and land-based lasers as well.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ultimate goal of the proposed Phase I and Phase II SBIR projects is to demonstrate manufacturing processes for 3D printing low areal cost, ultra-lightweight mirrors and structures, and then sell these products to the Government and Systems Integrators in Phase III. The NASA Astrophysics Division Roadmap Enduring Quests - Daring Visions builds on the 2010 Decadal Survey and includes near-term, formative (10-20 years - notional Surveyor missions) and visionary (20+ years - notional Mapper missions). Assuming a 20-m aperture Far-Infrared Surveyor (Origins Space Telescope), a 16-m aperture LUVOIR Surveyor, and 500 m2 collection area for the ExoEarth Mapper, then at least 1015 m2 of mirrors are required by NASA in the next 30 years. At the NASA target price of $100K/m2 this represents a marketplace totaling over $101M.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ceramics
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Structures
Mirrors
Ultraviolet
Infrared
Active Systems
Passive Systems
In Situ Manufacturing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S2.03-9958
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Optical Systems and Fabrication/Testing/Control Technologies for EUV/Optical and IR Telescope
PROPOSAL TITLE: Additively Manufactured, Thermally Stable Telescope Mirror Substrates

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arctic Slope Technical Services, Inc.
289 Dunlop Boulevard, Building 300
Huntsville, AL
35824-1126
(256) 562-2191

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tony Harrison
robert.harrison@asrcfederal.com
289 Dunlop Blvd, Bldg 300
Huntsville,  AL 35824-1126
(256) 232-0797

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of using selective laser melting (SLM) to develop the material composition and the additive manufacturing fabrication process of silicon carbide (SiC) reinforced AlSi10Mg matrix composite (SiC-AMC). ASTS will also demonstrate feasibility that we can customize the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) in the substrate material based upon increasing the percent SiC by weight in the AlSi10Mg base substrate. As we are able to select a specific SiC-to-AlSi10Mg ratio that has a CTE closest to an electrolytic nickel-plating CTE, we can reduce the risk of mirror degradation over time due to CTE mismatch-based stresses. For both beryllium and pure silicon carbide as a mirror substrate, the cost factor and risk is quite high from a schedule perspective due to both these materials being very hard and brittle. Therefore, machining anomalies is a much higher risk than other metal mirror substrate materials. Our additive manufacturing development of SiC-AMC could be a game changer in reducing the fabrication cost and schedule risk for a mirror substrate. Another key technical risk to address is the problem of smoothly and consistently applying the metal powderbed over the SLM build plate. We will demonstrate that we can eliminate practically all voids and porosity in the SiC-AMC by teaming with Plasma Processes, Inc. to create a spheroid SiC powder. By this company developing the technique to produce a SiC-AMC powder product, which will allow ASTS to manage the SiC-to-AlSi10Mg ratio, we can assure a uniform SiC distribution within the aluminum base. Through this demonstration, great confidence can be obtained to continue material development in Phase II, establish additional SiC-AMC material properties at higher ratios of SiC, and develop weight efficient mirror substrate designs that meet NASA?s mission requirements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ASTS plans to develop processes and techniques using SLM on materials such as SS316L, Inconel 718, Ti6Al4V, and copper-based materials such as GrCop84 for use in rocket combustion devices. In addition, we see the potential in the use of aluminum silicon based alloys, to be used as a structural casing/jacket over a combustion device. By developing this material to have a near zero coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) or target a CTE to further augment the structural bond with a copper based combustion chamber operating at very high temperatures, we will also revolutionize the development of rocket engine technology to reduce cost for not only NASA, but also the DOD. Not only that, but applications for optical in infrared mirrors could be developed as a low cost solution for utilization in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for a variety of functions such as in the agriculture industry for climate and soil moisture monitoring, and in the transportation industry for delivery products or packages to residential addresses. Technological advances in mirror integration have developed in performance over traditional optical camera lenses. Our development in SLM for mirror substrate fabrication should reduce the cost in mirror fabrication for such applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We recognize that NASA, even as leaders in the application of AM across the aerospace industry, is likely to take a conservative approach to adopting flight-rated SLM components. However, we do believe there are several near-term applications. For example, additive manufactured mirrors using the techniques we will develop in Phase 1, can be directly applied to relatively small aperture mirrors that are launched on sounding rockets or on balloon missions. Our current capabilities using the Concept Laser M2 are a direct fit for further development of mirror substrates to be used in infrared, ultraviolet, or optical applications. A good example is the optical lens associated with missions in NASA?s Medium Class Explorers (MIDEX) TESS mission or the Gondola for High Altitude Planetary Science (GHAPS). In addition, continued mirror development and mounting schemes, we can see the development of larger segmented mirror development for launch on the future Space Launch System.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Mirrors
Ablative Propulsion
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S2.04-8407
SUBTOPIC TITLE: X-Ray Mirror Systems Technology, Coating Technology for X-Ray-UV-OIR, and Free-Form Optics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Freeform Optics for Optical Payloads with Reduced Size and Weight

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Voxtel, Inc.
15985 Northwest Schendel Avenue, Suite 200
Beaverton, OR
97006-6703
(971) 223-5646

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Harmon
paul@voxtel-inc.com
15985 NW Schendel Avenue, Suite 200
Beaverton,  OR 97006-6703
(971) 223-5646

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future optical systems for NASA's low-cost missions such as CubeSat and other small-scale payloads are constrained by the traditional spherical form of optics. As such, there is a movement away from traditional spherical optics to nonspherical optical lenses or mirror surfaces. Freeform optics are anticipated to enable benefits like fast wide-field and distortion-free cameras. Although various techniques to create complex optical surfaces are under investigation, the design and use of conformal and freeform shapes are currently costly due to fabrication and metrology of these parts. To address the need for lower-cost smaller-sized lighter-weight optics, freeform-surfaced 3D gradient-index optics will be developed that allow complex gradient-index profiles to be fabricated directly into the optical materials, allowing for optical power to be realized and for geometric and chromatic aberrations to be corrected, while reducing the tolerance requirements of freeform-surface machining. In Phase I, the 3D freeform optical-index materials will be demonstrated in planar, spherically figured, and 3D-freeform surface implementations. The 3D freeform GRIN materials will be shown to relax the requirements and lower the cost of optical design and manufacturing, while offering superior performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The innovation addresses the need for low-cost, high-performance optical elements that are smaller and lighter than currently available and allows turnkey fabrication of optical assemblies on demand. The printed and 3D-GRIN lens technology allows complex optical assemblies to be implemented in thin planar optical films with a minimal number of components. The value of the innovation is best realized in: high-performance optical systems, where the size, weight, and cost of the systems are necessarily dominated by the optics; and in miniature optical assemblies, where performance is constrained by size and weight restrictions. Applications include smaller, more efficient optics for high-power industrial lasers, lower-mass solar concentrators, 3D displays, head-mounted displays, CMOS imager lens arrays, and camera lenses.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As size, weight, power, and cost specifications are vital to NASA missions, a wide variety of optical systems would benefit from the innovation. The technology is particularly suited for size- and weight-constrained platforms, such as CubeSat, unmanned air vehicles, and other small-scale payloads.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Nanomaterials
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
3D Imaging
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S2.04-8778
SUBTOPIC TITLE: X-Ray Mirror Systems Technology, Coating Technology for X-Ray-UV-OIR, and Free-Form Optics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Pyramid Nanostructured Coatings for Stray Light Suppression

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied Sciences, Inc.
141 West Xenia Avenue
Cedarville, OH
45314-0579
(937) 766-2020

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Carla Lake
cleer@apsci.com
141 West Xenia Avenue
Cedarville,  OH 45314-0579
(937) 766-2020

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
State of the Art In-Space Telescopic imagery suffers from deleterious effects of image quality due to radiation, in the form of stray visible light. While treatments to reduce the impact of stray light exist, the effectiveness of these treatments have limitations thereby limiting the range and reliability of astrophysical telescopic imagery. NASA is seeking a scalable, highly effective solution to reduce and/or eliminate the impact of stray light. Applied Sciences, Inc. (ASI) proposes Applied Sciences proposes a unique solution for stray light suppression in space flight instruments. The innovation utilizes non-reflective/ nano-structured polymer coatings combined with a proven and scalable process that yields a light trapping nano-textured surface. Stacked-cup carbon nanotubes will provide additional absorptive properties to a currently-used aerospace qualified resin system (legacy material). A non-reflecting surface will be fabricated by plasma etching and replication into pyramidal nanostructures for broadband absorption with efficiency at or better than 99.9%. This new approach comes at a much lower cost, is readily scalable and safer than the competing technology. ASI has previous success formulating spray-able room temperature cured coatings with tailored reflectivity and is working with U.S. Air Force to scale-up the nanomaterial enhanced coatings manufacturing capability. That separate effort, and the use of a (modified/enhanced-) legacy material, will benefit the proposed effort as it will enable rapid verification, qualification, and transition of the technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed innovation comes at a much lower cost than the current state of the art, and is readily scalable. Commercial applications include optical apertures, binoculars, night vison goggles, analytical instrumentation and other devices that benefit from stray light suppression.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology is aimed for stray light suppression in spaceflight instruments. The non-reflective nano-pyramid shaped carbon nanotube coating is designed for application on components such as baffles, entrance aperture, tubes and stops. Black-body masks and terrestrial telescopes could also benefit from the proposed technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Filtering
Mirrors
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S2.04-9520
SUBTOPIC TITLE: X-Ray Mirror Systems Technology, Coating Technology for X-Ray-UV-OIR, and Free-Form Optics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Battery-Powered Process for Coating Telescope Mirrors in Space

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ZeCoat Corporation
23510 Telo Avenue, Suite 3
Torrance, CA
90505-4053
(424) 254-6002

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Sheikh
dsheikh@zecoat.com
23510 Telo Avenue, Suite 3
Torrance,  CA 90505-4053
(424) 254-6002

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ZeCoat Corporation will develop a battery-powered, aluminum deposition process for making broadband reflective coatings in space (wavelength range: 30-nm to 2500-nm). The process uses an array of evaporation filaments powered by batteries contained in pressurized vessels placed in the vacuum of space. The vacuum coating process is scalable for large mirrors several meters in diameter, but is applicable to any size mirror. By simultaneously discharging batteries through individual evaporation filaments, a tremendous amount of energy may be released rapidly. By placing iridium (or a multi-layer interference coating) on the mirror initially (coated on earth), followed by a fresh coat of aluminum in space, the broadband response of the telescope could be extended down to 30-nm. Current coating technologies limit the reflectance response to 90-nm because of the absorbing fluoride coating which protects the aluminum from oxidation on earth. The ability to coat optics in space offers a tremendous potential benefit to astronomy because the 30-nm to 90-nm region is rich in spectral lines. Since molten metals such as aluminum are held onto a hot tungsten filament by surface tension, the proposed evaporation process will work in zero-gravity. A high aluminum evaporation rate has been shown to produce the least scattering and most highly reflecting aluminum coatings, particularly in the vacuum UV spectral region. To achieve future wavefront requirements over a large primary mirror, it is likely that many evaporation sources will be required. By placing the power supply (the battery) very near each evaporation filament, electrical losses are minimized. In Phase I, we will demonstrate feasibility using prototype battery-powered deposition (BPD) units previously manufactured at ZeCoat Corporation. In Phase II, miniaturized battery-powered unit will be designed and manufactured, and the coating process will be developed and tested in a simulated space environment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ZeCoat will commercialize the battery-powered coating technology developed in this research for other ground-based applications such as large mirrors for ground-based astronomy. Large mirrors for aircraft simulators are also a candidate commercial application for the new technology. We will also market the technology to prime contractors such as Northrup Grumman for applications such as coating repair in space.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary focus for this research is a space-based coating process for future space telescopes, however, additional commercialization potential lies in coating mirrors on the ground with a battery powered process, for use in space, or, for use on the ground. Creating a EUV-quality aluminum coating with minimal impact on WFE, over a large area, is not a trivial task (and currently the state-of-the-art is far short of requirements). ZeCoat will commercialize the new technology by offering coating services, through licensing agreements, and by selling or leasing the individual BPD sources. We will advance this coating technology for broadband, UVOIR telescopes to TRL-6 by 2019 (end of Phase II) and we expect sales to begin at the end of Phase II. It is likely that future large monolithic mirrors will require new coatings facilities to coat them. Even if the final bare aluminum coating is applied in space, either an iridium coating, a multi-layer EUV coating, or a fluoride-protected aluminum coating, will be applied prior to launch. A battery-powered coating technology offers the possibility of building a coating facility on earth to make UV-quality aluminum coatings over-coated with the traditional metal-fluorides. ZeCoat is prepared to install larger coating facilities to meet the government's needs, when these technologies are mature. The marketability of the new coating technology depends primarily on the optical performance of the coating.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Metallics
Mirrors
Optical
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Ultraviolet
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S2.04-9989
SUBTOPIC TITLE: X-Ray Mirror Systems Technology, Coating Technology for X-Ray-UV-OIR, and Free-Form Optics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Pre-Collimator Chemical Milling for X-ray Telescopes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mindrum Precision, Inc.
10000 4th Street
Rancho Cucamonga, CA
91730-5723
(909) 989-1728

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anthony Pinder
Tony@mindrum.com
10000 4th Street
Rancho Cucamongo,  CA 91730-5723
(909) 989-1728

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Combining Chemical Milling with wire Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM), Mindrum Precision will build a precollimator (PC) faster and more cost effective than current methods. Space-based x-ray telescopes currently involve the use of a PC to shield the optics from stray light. Each PC requires extensive build time from highly skilled technicians. The PC cylindrical aluminum ribs (or blades) are individually attached to alignment frames. This hands-on "place/weld/measure and repeat" process is ineffective for the thousands of ribs. Build times have exceeded a year, and sometimes the PC still failed to perform. Some telescopes scrap the PC early to avoid these complications and accept the limitations in performance. Eliminating the hands-on time with CNC unattended wire EDM automates the build, but can't reach the thin walls required. Chemical milling of this large, complex structure is an innovation which will bring fast and affordable PC to market. Current chemical milling uses HF and HNO3 acids to etch thin films of Titanium. However, etching is traditionally done on thin sheets. Mindrum Precision process will investigate etching of this complex material. New concentration levels, etch times, and agitation methods will be explored to achieve a uniform etch along the entire length of the numerous 3" slots. Mindrum Precision will combine wire EDM with Chemical Milling to rapidly make affordable precollimators for future telescopes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is a chronic need for precollimators for all space-based x-ray telescopes and thus this innovation would potentially support all of them with an entirely new way of manufacturing the stray-light shielding structure. Non-NASA missions that would be positively affected would be ones like ESA's Athena and JAXA's ASTRO-EII, ASTROH, DIOS and FFAST, all of which are XRT missions that utilize a precollimator.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Some telescopes are unable to afford a precollimator due to budget or weight constraints. This limitation handicaps the telescopes' ability to see farther with greater clarity. Decreasing the build time from 12 months down to 1-2 months will greatly reduce cost and time constraints for future telescopes. Chemical milling has the potential to also reduce the overall weight of titanium or aluminum precollimators. All future XRT missions that utilize a PC would all benefit, samples of these NASA missions include NuSTAR, WHIMEX and SMART-X.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Metallics
Filtering
Telescope Arrays
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
X-rays/Gamma Rays
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S3.01-8886
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Generation and Conversion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Mission-Enabling Photovoltaic Flexible Blanket Solar Array with SNC/SJ Surface Mount Technology

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Deployable Space Systems, Inc.
460 Ward Drive, Suite F
Santa Barbara, CA
93111-2356
(805) 722-8090

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Spence
Brian.Spence@DeployableSpaceSystems.com
460 Ward Drive, Suite F
Santa Barbara,  CA 93111-2356
(805) 722-8090

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS) in collaboration with Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) has developed a modular multi-junction photovoltaic flexible blanket technology that uses innovative Surface Mount Technology (SMT) photovoltaic SPM's that enable/enhance the ability to provide ultra-low cost, low mass, modularity, and reliable operation for high power arrays to support solar future NASA Human Exploration and Space Science missions. The proposed multi-junction flexible blanket assembly with the innovative SNC SMT SPM technology, when coupled to an optimized structural platform (such as DSS's ROSA / IMBA solar array, and/or other optimized flexible blanket solar array structures) will produce revolutionary array-system-level performance in terms of high specific power, lightweight, rapid assembly and re-configurability, compact stowage volume, reliability, unparalleled modularity, adaptability, affordability, high voltage operability, adaptability to all flexible solar arrays, and rapid commercial infusion. Once successfully validated through the proposed Phase 1 and Phase 2 programs, the innovative lightweight and modular multi-junction flexible blanket technology will provide incredible performance improvements over current state-of-the-art, and will be mission-enabling for future NASA and non-NASA applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA space applications are comprised of practically all missions that require affordable high-efficiency photovoltaic power production through deployment of an ultra-lightweight, ultra-compact stowage, and highly-modular solar arrays. Potential non-NASA commercial and DoD applications span a broad range of high voltage/power applications that demand ultra-affordability. The technology is suitable for non-NASA LEO, MEO & GEO missions. The technology is particularly suited for missions that require game-changing performance in terms of affordability, ultra-lightweight and compact stowage volume.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA space applications are comprised of practically all Exploration, Space Science, Earth Science, Planetary Surface, and other missions that require affordable high-efficiency photovoltaic power production through of an ultra-lightweight, ultra-compact stowage, and highly-modular solar array. The technology is particularly suited for advanced spacecraft that require game-changing ultra-affordability. The technology is suitable for NASA LEO, MEO & GEO, and interplanetary missions. The technology is also well suited for applications requiring scalability/modularity, operability within high radiation environments, and operation in LILT and HIHT environments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Deployment
Lifetime Testing
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Conversion
Generation
Project Management
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S3.01-9023
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Generation and Conversion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Game-Changing Photovoltaic Flexible Blanket Solar Array Technology with Spectrolab Flexsheets

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Deployable Space Systems, Inc.
460 Ward Drive, Suite F
Santa Barbara, CA
93111-2356
(805) 722-8090

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Spence
Brian.Spence@DSS-Space.com
460 Ward Drive, Suite F
Santa Barbara,  CA 93111-2356
(805) 722-8090

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS) in collaboration with Spectrolab, Inc. has developed a modular multi-junction photovoltaic flexible blanket technology that uses innovative Spectrolab flexsheet SPM's that enable/enhance the ability to provide ultra-low cost, low mass, modularity, and high voltage operability for high power arrays to support solar electric propulsion (SEP) Human Exploration and Space Science missions. The proposed multi-junction flexible blanket assembly with the innovative Spectrolab flexsheet SPM technology, when coupled to an optimized structural platform (such as DSS's ROSA / IMBA solar array, and/or other optimized flexible blanket solar array structures) will produce revolutionary array-system-level performance in terms of high specific power, lightweight, rapid assembly and re-configurability, compact stowage volume, reliability, unparalleled modularity, adaptability, affordability, reliable high voltage operability, adaptability to all flexible solar arrays, and rapid commercial infusion. The proposed flexible blanket technology accommodates all space photovoltaics (PV) including standard XTJ PV and emerging IMM PV technologies. Once successfully validated through the proposed Phase 1 and Phase 2 programs, the innovative lightweight and modular multi-junction flexible blanket technology will provide incredible performance improvements over current state-of-the-art, and will be mission-enabling for future NASA and non-NASA applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA space applications are comprised of practically all missions that require affordable high-efficiency photovoltaic power production through deployment of an ultra-lightweight, ultra-compact stowage, and highly-modular solar array. Potential non-NASA commercial and DoD applications span a broad range of high voltage/power applications that demand ultra-affordability. The technology is suitable for non-NASA LEO, MEO & GEO missions. The technology is particularly suited for missions that require game-changing performance in terms of affordability, ultra-lightweight and compact stowage volume.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA space applications are comprised of practically all Exploration, Space Science, Earth Science, Planetary Surface, and other missions that require affordable high-efficiency photovoltaic power production through of an ultra-lightweight, ultra-compact stowage, and highly-modular solar array. The technology is particularly suited for advanced spacecraft that require high power / high voltage solar array arrays that require game-changing ultra-affordability. The technology is suitable for NASA LEO, MEO & GEO, and interplanetary missions. The technology is also well suited for applications requiring scalability/modularity, operability within high radiation environments, high voltage operation, and operation in LILT and HIHT environments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Polymers
Deployment
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Lifetime Testing
Passive Systems
Conversion
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S3.01-9061
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Generation and Conversion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Radiation Tolerant 35% Efficient Phosphide-Based 4-Junction Solar Cell with Epitaxial Lift-Off

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MicroLink Devices, Inc.
6457 Howard Street
Niles, IL
60714-3301
(847) 588-3001

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Drew Cardwell
dcardwell@mldevices.com
6457 Howard Street
Niles,  IL 60714-3301
(847) 588-3001

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
MicroLink proposes to develop a phosphide-based ELO-IMM four-junction (4J) solar cell that will enhance the performance and capabilities of solar photovoltaic arrays for a variety of future NASA missions. Relative to state-of-the-art incumbent GaInP/GaInAs/Ge 3J space solar cells, the proposed phosphide-based 4J solar cell has superior radiation tolerance, higher beginning-of-life (BOL) and end-of-life (EOL) efficiencies, lower areal mass density, higher specific power, and lower cost. The improved radiation tolerance is enabled by eliminating arsenide-based subcells in favor of only phosphide-based subcells. A reduction in the mass of the solar cell relative to incumbent technology is enabled by removal of the thick GaAs substrate. Cost savings compared to incumbent technology are enabled by the recovery and reuse of the substrate via the ELO process. The superior radiation tolerance can also relax the requirements for radiation shielding, enabling further reductions in array mass and stowed volume.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Manufacturers of commercial satellites and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are interested in MicroLink's low mass and power dense ELO solar cell technology for the potential to reduce costs while improving the efficiency compared to commercially available Ge-based cells. Attractive military and civilian applications include the ability to recharge batteries in remote locations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed phosphide-based 4J solar cells are ideally suited for high efficiency multi-junction solar cell arrays for NASA applications requiring superior radiation tolerance, higher BOL and EOL efficiencies, lower areal mass density, higher specific power, or lower cost relative to incumbent Ge-based 3J space solar cells. Potential applications include solar electric propulsion programs and missions involving extreme radiation environments. Arrays based on the proposed solar cells will be suitable for NASA missions ranging from near-Earth to deep space. Lockheed Martin, Space Systems Loral, and Boeing have shown great interest in MicroLink?s work and in future applications of low mass, flexible photovoltaic module technologies that can support NASA's SEP program as a replacement for the solar cells in existing spacecraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Manufacturing Methods
Conversion
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S3.01-9222
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Generation and Conversion
PROPOSAL TITLE: 3D Nano-Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth (nano-ELOG) of Large Area, Highly Efficient, and Flexible Multijunction Solar Cells for Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MicroLink Devices, Inc.
6457 Howard Street
Niles, IL
60714-3301
(847) 588-3001

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kamran Forghani
kforghani@mldevices.com
6457 Howard Street
Niles,  IL 60714-3301
(847) 588-3001

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
By Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth (ELOG) and Selective Area Growth (SAG) in nanometer scales, MicroLink Devices will develop the next generation of multijunction solar cells for Space applications. The proposed innovation is the first attempt to use advanced surface nano-engineering technologies to control the formation, propagation and annihilation mechanism of extended defects including dislocations in multijunction solar cells. There is significant gap between the theoretically calculated efficiency of multijunction solar cells and the experimental results. That efficiency gap increases with the increase of number of junctions/subcells. Misfit dislocations created due to high lattice mismatch between subcells play a major role in hampering the efficiency and reliability of such devices. A successful implementation of nano-ELOG in solar cells will results in 3J solar cells with significantly reduced dislocation density, resulting in an improved Voc and Isc and conversation efficiencies of the cells. Therefore, MLD can utilize this method to grow devices with increased number of junctions to reach practical efficiencies close to 40% (6J) from the current 30% (in commercially available 3J cells) in AM0 and 1sun conditions. It is important to explore, and consequently, take advantage of the latest nano-patterning developments for NASA's photovoltaic devices.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other applications from this work include arrays for powering UAVs, (unmanned aerial vehicles) and high altitude long endurance (HALE) aircraft. MicroLink's high-efficiency, lightweight, and high specific power solar cells are a critical and enabling technology that will increase the flight endurance and uninterrupted flight time of the current HALE platforms. These solar cell can be used as a power source for "wearables", "internet of things (IOT)" devices as well as the next generation of electric cars. For these markets using flexible and highly efficient solar cells is an enabling technology. Moreover, introduction of solar cells with efficiencies beyond 40% will be a game-changer for the struggling Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV) market.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
An application for this technology is in building low-cost, high-efficiency, highly reliable and lightweight solar cell arrays for use in solar-powered spacecraft. The resulting lightweight flexible solar cell arrays with improved record-efficiencies will be an attractive replacement for the existing stiff, heavy carbon fiber panel-based arrays. For NASA, this will be an enabling technology for solar electric propulsion or any mission that requires electrical power. Inner Space and outer Space missions including NASA's Mars program can benefit from the developed technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Manufacturing Methods
Conversion
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S3.01-9761
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Generation and Conversion
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Ferroelectric Semiconductor Absorber for Surpassing the Shockley-Queisser Limit

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Sciences, Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA
01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Polking
mpolking@psicorp.com
20 New England Business Center
Andover,  MA 01810-1077
(978) 738-8152

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop new solar cells based on a ferroelectric semiconductor absorber material that can yield a 30% increase in efficiency and a 20% increase in specific power compared with current triple-junction III-V cells. These gains will be realized by exploiting a unique charge separation mechanism in ferroelectrics that enables open-circuit voltages many times the band gap, leading to maximum power conversion efficiencies exceeding the conventional Shockley-Queisser limit (33%). PSI and team members will create photovoltaic cells based on Earth-abundant SnS stabilized in a ferroelectric state by epitaxial strain engineering. By combining above-gap cell voltages with the high absorption coefficient (<1 x 105 cm-1 at 500 nm), low density (5.22 g/cm3), and ideal band gap (1.1 eV) of SnS, a mass-specific power density of 120 kW/kg (mass of absorber material, 1 um absorber thickness) is projected. In addition, a maximum cell efficiency of >45% is anticipated to be achievable. Importantly, these cells will also offer improved radiation resistance due to the reduced carrier diffusion lengths required by the unique ferroelectric charge separation mechanism. During Phase I, PSI, guided by first-principles calculations conducted by the PARADIM Center at Cornell University, will demonstrate room-temperature ferroelectric ordering in SnS through epitaxial strain engineering. During Phase II, PSI and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory will demonstrate the potential of the proposed absorber by achieving above-band gap open-circuit voltages in prototype cells. During a Phase III effort, the efficiency of these cells will be increased to a target value of 45% through reduction of intrinsic defects, leading to substantial improvements in cell size, weight, and power output.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed photovoltaic cells will have commercial applications in small-scale power generation. This technology could provide high-efficiency modules for rooftop power generation, where the available surface area for cell installation is very limited. Compelling applications also exist in the commercial aerospace market, particularly for power generation on commercial satellites. In addition, creation of a robust ferroelectric semiconductor may also provide a platform for quantum computing through a giant Rashba effect predicted to occur in ferroelectric semiconductors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed device will fulfill NASA's need for photovoltaic cells with a high specific power output with respect to both area and mass. These cells can be installed on NASA spacecraft, satellites, and other space vehicles for which size and weight are paramount concerns. These devices may also have applications in lightweight, compact cells for small portable electronic devices to be used by NASA astronauts.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Conversion
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S3.01-9909
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Generation and Conversion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Meso-Scale Ericsson Power Generation System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Inventherm
8000 Innovation Park Drive
Baton Rouge, LA
70820-7400
(225) 247-3555

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Hugenroth
jason.hugenroth@inventherm.com
8000 G S R I, Ave., Bldg 3000
Baton Rouge,  LA 70820-7400
(225) 247-3555

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Inventherm's patented meso-scale Ericsson power generation system (MEPS) will be used as the enabling technology for radioisotope generators that exceed the performance of existing Stirling power conversion systems. The system will meet or exceed the solicitation specifications including operating at efficiencies greater than 25%, with a life greater than 10 years while being compact and light weight. It is anticipated that the conversion efficiency will exceed 40% with a power density over 100 We/kg.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Suitable for supplementing or replacing batteries in many industrial, consumer and military devices. The energy density of the system is over ten times that of rechargeable lithium ion batteries when liquid fuels are used as the fuel source. Potential applications include power for portable respiratory devices, wearable cooling garments, portable soldier power. The device can use solar thermal energy, biomass and waste heat as an energy source as well.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Radioisotope power conversion for satellites and extraterrestrial rovers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Conversion
Generation
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S3.02-8986
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems for Robotic Science Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Long Life, Catalytic Advanced Green Monopropellant Thrusters

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sienna Technologies, Inc.
19501 144th Avenue Northeast, Suite F-500
Woodinville, WA
98072-4423
(425) 485-7272

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ender Savrun
ender.savrun@siennatech.com
19501 144th Ave NE, Suite F-500
Woodinville,  WA 98072-4423
(425) 485-7272

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Sienna Technologies, Inc, proposes to develop a robust, long life, catalytically ignited thruster that can perform multiple cold starts at low preheat temperatures (<<425&#730;C) using high performance green AF-M315E monopropellant that can provide a range of mission specific thrust levels for NASA SMD's sample return missions. In Phase I we will improve upon Sienna's industry leading SSC-111 catalyst and demonstrate its multiple cold start capability at low preheat temperatures (well below state-of-the-art 425&#730;C) in sea-level laboratory tests.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The nontoxic, easy to fuel propulsion subsystems would have widespread application for U.S. commercial satellite payloads, such as worldwide cellular phone communication satellites, TV direct broadcast satellites, weather observation satellites and environmental monitoring satellites to name just a few.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of a long life AF-M315E advanced green monopropellant propulsion system with multiple low temperature cold start capability could have significant benefits to a wide range of NASA space exploration programs including Mars cargo delivery, robotic sample return, and asteroid redirect missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ceramics
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S3.02-9166
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems for Robotic Science Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid Propulsion Technology for Robotic Science Missions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Streamline Automation, LLC
3100 Fresh Way Southwest
Huntsville, AL
35805-6720
(256) 713-1220

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Chew
william.chew@streamlineautomation.biz
3100 Fresh Way SW
Huntsville,  AL 35805-6720
(256) 713-1220

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
C3 Propulsion's Hybrid Propulsion Technology will be applied to a NASA selected Sample Return Mission. Phase I will demonstrate Proof-of-Principle and Phase II will design, fabricate, and demonstrate a flight-like propulsion system for that application. HPT is non-toxic, safe, and has energy management (throttleable or pulse width modulated) capabilities. It is expected to be able to operate in the cold temperature of Mars and outer planet moons. Its simple design decreases risk, reduces size, and mass, and increases reliability. It has high volume and density specific impulses and is expected to increase performance and lower costs. It has been developed under MDA SBIR programs and is currently at a TRL level of 3.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
C3 Propulsion's Hybrid Propulsion Technology can be used for any missile or satellite station keeping application when more than simple ballistic trajectories are desired. Such applications would be small tactical Army and Marine missiles such as TOW, Javelin, and Hellfire, Air Force and Navy air-to-air and air-to ground missiles such as AIM-9 Sidewinder and AGM-65 Maverick, and third stage booster ACS and Divert and Attitude Control Systems for MDA ballistic missile defense applications. Civilian missile manufacturers would be interested in the ACS for their boosters and even for the smaller boost applications. Satellite manufacturers would be interested in their position and station keeping abilities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
C3 Propulsion's Hybrid Propulsion Technology systems are applicable for any NASA propulsion needs other than space launch boosters. It is non-toxic, has the ability to pulse or throttle for complex maneuvering, perform ascent operations from planets, moons, and asteroids, perform ACS and station keeping operations, is applicable to both manned and robotic missions and can operate at cold temperatures. The thrust is scalable from a few to millions of Newtons. It has high density impulse like solid propulsion systems, has the versatility of liquid propulsion systems, and is safer and more environmentally friendly than either.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Surface Propulsion
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S3.02-9225
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems for Robotic Science Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultra-Compact Center-Mounted Hollow Cathodes for Hall Effect Thrusters

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Busek Company, Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA
01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zachary Taillefer
ztaillefer@busek.com
11 Tech Circle
Natick,  MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovation is a long lifetime, compact hollow cathode that can be mounted along the axis of a 600 W-class Hall effect thruster. Testing at kilowatt power levels and above has shown that the thruster axis is the optimal position for thruster throttling and plume divergence. It also minimizes the impact of background conditions upon ground based performance measurements, reducing programmatic and technical risk to the end user. The proposed compact cathode will extend these benefits to low power Hall thrusters. The cathode will be compatible with iodine as well as with noble gases. Hollow cathodes are a critical, life-limiting component for Hall effect thrusters and gridded ion engines. Failure mechanisms include degradation, poisoning and evaporation of the electron emitter, keeper and emitter tube orifice erosion, and heater failure. To achieve >10,000 hr lifetime, compact cathode will use a hexaboride (LaB6 or CeB6) electron emitter. Hexaborides degrade more slowly than state-of-the-art barium oxide impregnated tungsten emitters at equivalent current densities. Hexaborides are also resistant to contamination from oxygen and other impurities. The cathode also includes a new, high temperature heater. To minimize keeper and orifice erosion, the design will be optimized through testing and plasma measurements. In Phase I, Busek shall design, built and test the compact cathode. The plasma plume will be interrogated with an emissive probe to determine spot and plume mode operating regimes on xenon and iodine. An integrated cathode-thruster test will also be performed to determine the cathode's performance with a thruster. The Phase II test program will include duration testing of the cathode and thruster-cathode system with a fully modified BHT-600, thermal cycling and plasma modeling. At the end of Phase II a cathode will be delivered to NASA for testing with a 600W-class Hall thruster.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Hollow cathodes are used in Hall effect thrusters, a type of electric propulsion that is attractive for military and commercial missions due to high performance, small size, low mass, and relatively low cost. Low power all thrusters can accomplish all required in-space propulsion functions including orbit raising, orbit circularization, inclination changes, station-keeping, repositioning, and end-of-life de-orbiting. The design will specifically support small spacecraft with power levels up to 1 kW. The next stage for commercial users is the all-electric satellite, where apogee insertion and on-orbit functions are both handled by electric thrusters. The low plume divergence enabled by an axial cathode of the type being developed minimizes spacecraft interactions, which is critical for geosynchronous spacecraft with operational lifetimes of 10-15 years. The thruster and cathode would be also very well sized for an ESPA-class (180 kg) spacecraft flown as a secondary payload on an Air Force Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Topic S3.02 seeks to mature and demonstrate in-space electric propulsion technologies, specifically calling for long-lifetime hollow cathodes for use with iodine propellant and high specific impulse thrusters. Hollow cathodes are used in Hall Effect Thrusters (HETs) and ion engines, two types of high specific impulse electrostatic spacecraft propulsion that can be used for unmanned planetary exploration and support secondary payload options. The compact cathode directly supports several Hall effect thrusters currently being developed at Busek and NASA, including the xenon fueled Busek BHT-600, an iodine compatible version of the BHT-600 and JPL's experimental MaSMi thruster. These thrusters may propel NASA Discovery, New Frontiers and Explorers Class science missions. Traditionally, these mission classes would use xenon propellant; however, iodine propellant would expand the mission envelope without increasing the mission cost. Iodine yields performance comparable to xenon but provides many additional benefits at the system level. In addition, a fully fueled, non-active system may be stored on the ground or on orbit for long periods of time, which facilitates spacecraft spares and minimizes down-times in the event of a failure. This program will ultimately lead to flight hardware to support iodine-fueled missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ceramics
Fuels/Propellants
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine
Lifetime Testing
Simulation & Modeling
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S3.02-9418
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems for Robotic Science Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Trussed TRAC Boom for Solar Sails

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ROCCOR, LLC
2602 Clover Basin Drive, Suite D
Longmont, CO
80503-7555
(720) 200-0068

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tom Murphey
tom.murphey@roccor.com
2602 Clover Basin Drive, suite D
Longmont,  CO 80503-7555
(505) 250-3006

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In response to NASA's need for low-cost deployable solar sail booms for mid-size (~1,000m2) solar sails, Roccor proposes to develop the composite Trussed TRAC (T-TRAC) Boom system. Like the original TRAC boom, T-TRAC has a triangular cross section that flattens and rolls around a spool for packaging. Unlike TRAC, T-TRAC is applicable to much larger scale boom designs. The proposed design will advance TRAC technology through: 1) scaling up the cross-section size and length of the boom, 2) light weighting the boom through material re-distribution and removal, and 3) cross-section modification for enhanced strength. Preliminary analyses indicate these steps will achieve more than a 5X increase in TRAC Boom structural mass efficiency over recently developed high performance composite TRAC Booms, while maintaining an extremely compact roll stowed configuration that maintains heritage with NASA's solar sail mechanical architecture lineage. The overarching Phase I objective is to conduct a preliminary design-analysis-fabrication-test loop for a T-TRAC boom capable of meeting requirements for NASA's future mid-sized solar sail mission. Multi-scale micro-mechanics, laminate, cross-section, and full section analyses will be performed to quickly narrow the laminates and boom designs to a few candidates. These efforts will necessarily be performed in close communication with material vendors to select a few laminates for short coupon testing prior to building proof-of-concept booms. During Phase II, a four-boom T-TRAC solar sail system will be developed, and prototype units will be built and tested to establish performance for missions of interest to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
* Commercial roll-out solar arrays (e.g., RAPDAR and ROSA)

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
* Mid-scale (~1,000m2) solar sails * Large-scale (>100kW) solar arrays for solar electric propulsion

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Polymers
Actuators & Motors
Deployment
Structures
Simulation & Modeling
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Characterization
Prototyping


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S3.02-9525
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems for Robotic Science Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cathode for Electric Space Propulsion Utilizing Iodine as Propellant

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
e beam, Inc.
21070 Southwest Tile Flat Road
Beaverton, OR
97007-8739
(503) 628-0703

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bernard Vancil
bernie@ebeaminc.com
21070 Southwest Tile Flat Road
Beaverton,  OR 97007-8739
(503) 628-0703

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose a hollow reservoir cathode suitable for use in ion or Hall thrusters which utilizes iodine as a propellant. Reservoir cathodes have several unique features which will allow them to resist the corrosive effects of iodine. Chief amongst these is that the barium-emission-material-containing reservoir is isolated from the iodine flow. This allows free barium to be produced in an environment free of iodine. Furthermore, barium production rates in reservoir cathodes can be adjusted to very high levels -- high enough to overcome the deleterious effects of iodine at the cathode's emitting surface. Reservoir cathodes carry a barium supply that is 100 times that of conventional cathodes. Furthermore, the reservoir cathode inserts can be made of materials other than tungsten. This is not possible with impregnated cathodes. These materials can be selected for their resistance to iodine attack. They include osmium, rhodium, and iridium. NASA is pursuing iodine EP because of iodine's advantages over xenon, especially for small satellite propulsion. Most important are its low cost and its high storage density. Also, it requires no high-pressure, large and heavy pressure vessels.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Busek Co. is the main non-NASA producer of iodine thrusters. We have been in communication with it to supply cathodes if this project is successful. CubeSats are the largest non-NASA market. They are the mainstay of university and private space science projects.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's primary interest is for iodine thrusters of less than 1 KW. It is also interested in powers over 10 KW. Nanosats are the biggest market with iodine supply between 1 and 10 kg and power at about 200 watts. A 12U Cubesat sponsored by NASA Glenn Research Center will employ an iodine ion thruster. It has a crucial need for reliable cathodes, both for discharge and neutralization. NASA Glenn and the Marshall Space Flight Center are co-sponsoring the iSat (iodine satellite) project. It, too, needs reliable cathodes. 2,000 to 2,750 small satellites are planned for this project.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fuels/Propellants
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Prototyping


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S3.02-9632
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems for Robotic Science Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Adaptive Venturi for Monopropellant Feed Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Sciences, Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA
01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffrey Wegener
jwegener@psicorp.com
20 New England Business Center
Andover,  MA 01810-1077
(978) 738-8164

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Physical Sciences Inc. proposes to develop a unique venturi for future monopropellant feed systems that uses a passively controlled throat area to adjust propellant flow rate. The adaptive venturi eliminates water hammer in monopropellant thruster manifolds by rapidly adjusting flow area to prevent pressure surges. These benefits are achieved with a one-to-one replacement of existing cavitating venturis without added weight, volume, or power requirements. Furthermore, the total lifetime impulse of the propulsion system will increase due to increased flow area during nominal flow conditions. In Phase I, we will optimize the venturi design and measure key performance metrics in full-scale flow tests. The Phase I will conclude with a miniaturized adaptive venturi design accompanied by performance analysis results. In Phase II, a set of geometric models will be created to meet the range of flow conditions required for attitude and reaction control thrusters, as well as divert/insert thrusters up to 100 lbf. Upon successful technology development under the SBIR program, protoflight components and venturis for ground testing will be developed in technology transition programs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The adaptive venturi can simplify propellant loading and priming operations for liquid propulsion systems in Air Force satellites and missile defense systems employed by the MDA, Army, and Navy. In addition to DoD monopropellant propulsion applications, the adaptive venturi will provide a simple solution for all high-pressure plumbing systems subject to rapid pressurization and water hammer. The adaptive venturi provides a compact in-line solution superior to valves and pipe extensions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful demonstration of the adaptive venturi will have applications in any cost and weight saving efforts ranging from expendable and reusable launch vehicles to small spacecraft. Extending the lifetime and total impulse of DACS and RCS is a critical technology requirement for lengthening the duration of spacecraft missions. The adaptive venturi will provide for an advanced blowdown propellant feed system with lower pressure drop and increased useable lifetime, providing for longer missions that require orbit raising or station keeping.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Surface Propulsion
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S3.02-9837
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems for Robotic Science Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Iodine Hollow Cathode

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Plasma Controls, LLC
1180 La Eda Lane
Fort Collins, CO
80526-4415
(970) 581-2239

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Casey Farnell
casey.farnell@plasmacontrols.com
1180 La Eda Lane
Fort Collins,  CO 80526-4415
(970) 581-2239

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Plasma Controls, LLC will develop an iodine compatible hollow cathode for use in Hall-effect thrusters. Materials in current state-of-the-art electron emitters, and many of the materials used in mounting hardware, are not compatible in a high-temperature iodine environment. This includes cathodes that use inserts made from porous tungsten impregnated with ceramics containing barium oxide, which can be susceptible to rapid decomposition of the ceramic by iodine, and lanthanum hexaboride-based inserts, which are subject to rapid surface decomposition by iodine. The work function of both types of inserts increases in the presence of iodine, and the temperature of the cathode increases, which further exacerbates the decomposition processes. We will use a materials science based approach to evaluate the chemical interactions between iodine and a range of potential materials at elevated temperature. We will construct and experimentally test candidate cathodes in relevant iodine environments to identify robust, safe-to-handle, chemically-stable material systems. In follow-on work, we will (1) perform long duration wear tests to demonstrate adequately long lifetime capability and (2) integrate the cathodes into iodine storage, feed, and thruster systems through industry and government partnerships.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Hollow cathode electron sources are commonly used as components of ion and plasma sources in ground-based, materials processing applications. This includes ion etching of surfaces, ion-assisted film deposition, ion implantation, and chemical vapor deposition; processes which can present similarly challenging chemical environments to that of iodine. Robust and long life hollow cathodes developed through this work are anticipated to be highly commercially attractive as they would reduce maintenance expenses and process downtime. However, their attractiveness grows exponentially if they could be used in applications that were previously off limits due to the presence of highly reactive gases and plasmas. Hollow cathode technologies are also advantageous as electron sources in high current, electron-beam melting applications and in gas/liquid/solid material analysis equipment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA aims to mature and demonstrate iodine electric propulsion technologies. Of particular interest are hollow cathodes with lifetimes greater than 10,000 hours. Hollow cathodes are used in electric propulsion devices, including Hall effect and ion thrusters, to sustain discharge plasmas and neutralize ion beams, and in plasma contacting devices to neutralize spacecraft charge. Ultra-long-life, high-power, and wide-operating-current-range cathodes are needed for the Science Mission Directorate's ambitious deep space missions; and low-power, high-efficiency cathodes for secondary payload cube-sat missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Metallics
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S3.02-9845
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems for Robotic Science Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: I-Sail: 2500-Square-Meter Solar Sail Prototype Demonstrator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CU Aerospace, LLC
301 North Neil Street, Suite 502
Champaign, IL
61820-3169
(217) 239-1703

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Carroll
carroll@cuaerospace.com
301 North Neil Street, Suite 502
Champaign,  IL 61820-3169
(217) 239-1703

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A team of CU Aerospace and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign proposes the Phase I design and development of a 25 kg spacecraft for initial flight test of a 2,500 m^2 UltraSail demonstrator, called I-Sail. This technology represents a next-generation high-risk, high-payoff solar sail system for the launch, deployment, stabilization and control of very large (km^2 class) solar sails, enabling very high payload mass fractions for interplanetary and deep space spacecraft. UltraSail is an innovative, non-traditional approach to propulsion technology achieved by combining propulsion and control systems developed for formation-flying microsatellites with an innovative solar sail architecture to achieve controllable sail areas approaching 1 km^2, sail subsystem area densities less than 5 g/m^2, and thrust levels many times those of ion thrusters used for comparable deep space missions. Phase I effort will focus on the design of this next generation I-Sail demonstrator, a two-order of magnitude scale up from the prior subscale 20 m^2 CubeSail hardware, along with potential mission selection with requirements. I-Sail represents the next stage of risk reduction for the UltraSail technology prior to full scale deep space development in the next decade.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A number of science mission concepts have been identified that make optimum use of solar sails as the next phase in the development of solar sail propulsion as the go-to technology for high C3 missions. UltraSail has military applications for earth-observing missions at high orbit where stationary observing is useful, e.g. pole-sitting missions. Also, NOAA and NSF have strong interests in the science that can be returned using sails in non-Keplerian orbits and at Lagrange points. Mission concepts enabled by solar sails include: Solar Polar Imager, GeoSail, and Heliostorm (NOAA Geostorm). Each of these mission concepts have been envisaged assuming the successful development of the relevant technological capability, and they are not generally achievable without access to reliable solar sail propulsion and control.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA Technology Roadmap calls for an in-space demonstration of a 2500 m2 sail to Earth escape in the 2019-2022 timeframe; the proposed I-Sail can meet this NASA goal. Examples of solar sail missions include: pole sitter, Earth-Moon Lagrange point, Earth-Sun Lagrange point, deep space science, outer planet rendezvous, and solar polar. UltraSail is potentially useful for a range of robotic NASA missions of relevance to NASA's science and exploration goals ranging from Near-Earth to Sun-Earth Lagrange point L1 to Mars to the Kuiper Belt, an interstellar probe, and multiple NEO rendezvous missions. The very high payload mass fraction potential for the UltraSail concept (~60%) coupled with highly efficient packaging and high thrust from large sail area results in economical, high-performance missions. The use of micro-satellites coupled with UltraSail techniques permits low-cost mission development before committing to much larger systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Deployment
Structures
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Photon Sails (Solar; Laser)
Spacecraft Main Engine
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Attitude Determination & Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S3.03-8373
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Electronics and Management, and Energy Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: GaN-Based High Power High Frequency Wide Range LLC Resonant Converter

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SET Group, LLC
46 Overlook Drive
Norristown, PA
19403-3781
(321) 228-0832

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Raul Chinga Alvarado
ralvarado@setgroup.us
46 Overlook Drive
Norristown,  PA 19403-3781
(321) 228-0832

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SET Group will design, build and demonstrate a Gallium Nitride (GaN) based High Power High Frequency Wide Range LLC Resonant Converter capable of handling high power and high frequency operation. The GaN LLC Converter will operate at 1 MHz with an input voltage of 80V - 300V and output of 300V - 2kV, capable of handling up to 1 kW. The GaN LLC Converter will have an approximate size of 4in x 2in x 0.5in. Current technology utilizes silicon-based solutions for power conversion and distribution. GaN can fundamentally perform well beyond current silicon based hardware. GaN has direct benefits such as higher power density, reduced footprint, increased power capacity, and improved power efficiency. Increasing frequency of operation results in smaller components but it also creates a challenge for thermal management and magnetic component design. The proposed work will include a matrix transformer which offers: low profile, high power density, robust and flexible for shock and vibration handling, and superior electrical characteristics. In addition, the wide range capability will be handled thanks to the LLC topology which offers: wide input range, ZVS operation, low turn-off current. Finally, the GaN-LLC Converter will make use of additive manufacturing for its thermal management. The marriage of GaN, LLC, matrix transformer design, and additive manufacturing results in a design that is smaller, more efficient and more cost-effective than Si-based products. SET Group will design the GaN-LLC Converter to be used in PPUs, but the outcome of this work will help as a platform for other power conversion products utilizing GaN technology to be developed.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Demand for broadband internet access in remote areas, airplanes and higher data capability (i.e. 4K TV, 360o video, etc), have pushed satellite manufacturers to provide more powerful RF transponders. These transponders require higher power, increasing satellite size and launching costs, which results in more expensive satellite services for end consumers. SET Group's proposed GaN-LLC can provide satellite manufacturers a competitive edge by increasing power capabilities while reducing size, weight, and cost. In recent years, GEO satellite service providers, such as DirecTV, have been requesting more powerful satellites to handle the wider bandwidth needed to keep up with the data demand (DirecTV now offers 4K video). To meet broadband internet demand, companies have turned to LEO satellites, which due to their closer proximity to Earth, have a lower delay of signal (latency) over a GEO satellite. This is important for broadband internet given it is a two-way communication. Oneweb, a satellite manufacturer startup, will provide developing countries affordable access to internet by deploying a large constellation of LEO satellites (750 satellites) by 2020. SpaceX has also announced their own 4000 LEO satellite constellation. These satellites are small, thus reducing launching costs. A GaN-based EPS and PPU fits the equivalent capabilities of a much larger satellite into a much smaller and cost-effective one.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The greatest advantage of the technology proposed by SET Group is its ability to be used across a wide range of applications. An immediate application of our technology is for NASA's Solar Electric Propulsion systems. The PPUs in their system convert the 300V solar array output to the 700V - 2000V input level of an electric thruster. The proposed Wide Range GaN LLC Power Converter is a great candidate for that mission. In addition, the proposed work will serve as a platform to demonstrate GaN-based power conversion technology as a viable and better alternative than the current Si-based power conversion products. SET Group's goal is to develop other units using the same technology, and thanks to its wide voltage capability, it can be retrofitted for various applications with different voltage and power requirements without major redesign efforts.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation & Modeling
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Conversion
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S3.03-8430
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Electronics and Management, and Energy Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultra-High Energy Density, High Power and High Efficiency Nanocomposite Capacitor for Aerospace Power System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Powdermet, Inc.
24112 Rockwell Drive
Euclid, OH
44117-1252
(216) 404-0053

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Haixiong Tang
htang@powdermetinc.com
24112 Rockwell Drive
Euclid,  OH 44117-1252
(216) 404-0053

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA requires high energy density, high voltage, high power and high efficiency capacitor that can be integrated into the system to decrease the mass and space at the system architecture level and increase the efficiency. The current state-of-the-art of the capacitor has low energy, low power density and low energy storage efficiency, making them bulky and costly for the applied system. For the NASA application, in order to maintain the energy or power system work property, onboard cooling systems has been installed, which in turn increase the mass and space. Therefore, it is important to develop improved capacitors in energy density, speed, efficiency to minimize the size and mass of future powr system. In this proposal, Powdermet proposed to develop another type advanced nanocomposite capacitor with ultra-high energy density, high voltage, high power and high energy storage efficiency. This novel capacitor will feature ultra-high energy density (>40 J/cc), high operating voltage (>kilovolt), high powder density (> MW/cc), especially high energy storage efficiency (>95%).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed advanced capacitors can directly benefit pulse power device, absorbing and delivering large amounts of energy in short periods of time. Current and future military systems will continue to rely on the high-energy density capacitor pulse power supply systems for radar, laser, rail gun, high power microwaves, high frequency power conversion and switching devices, and jamming systems, as well as for medical applications such as pacemakers and defibrillators. The high energy density capacitors also have huge potential in other areas, such as energy conversion in photovoltaics and integrated circuits, downhole power electronics in oil and gas industry, transportation applications like hybrid buses and micro-hybrids.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This advanced nanocomposite capacitor can be widely used in advanced power electronic and energy storage devices required by NASA for aerospace exploration, such as missions using electric propulsion, robotic missions. The high energy density, high power and high efficiency energy storage capacitor can minimize the size and mass of future power system where tradition power and energy storage device cannot be applied in, making the launch more efficiency and reliability. Other NASA mission can also benefit for this advanced capacitors, for example, high power density/high efficiency power electronics and associated drivers for switching elements, NASA solar power system backups and NASA systems ion thruster propulsion power supply

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Storage
Characterization


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S3.03-8712
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Electronics and Management, and Energy Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight Electrical Power Cable Production

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Structured Materials Industries, Inc.
201 Circle Drive North, Suite 102/103
Piscataway, NJ
08854-3723
(732) 302-9274

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gary Tompa
GSTompa@aol.com
201 Circle Drive North, Suite 102/103
Piscataway,  NJ 08854-3723
(732) 302-9274

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this SBIR Program, Structured Materials Industries, Inc. www.structuredmaterials.com (SMI), working with the University of Colorado Colorado Springs (UCCS) will develop graphene wire, as a lightweight higher conductivity superior electrical power transmission cable to present copper (or aluminum) wire. Replacing metal wiring with graphene wire will result in significant weight savings for space, military, and commercial craft; translating directly to reduced fuel consumption, extended operational parameters, and increased payload. The technology developed in this SBIR will ultimately be extended to many other systems with electrical or electronic subcomponents. In prior wire work, SMI demonstrated the concept of producing lightweight, highly conductive wire based on multiple layers of graphene. Calculations based on that work showed that a greater than 50% weight reduction is possible by replacing copper wires with graphene wires. The weight savings increased with higher amperage wires. We will build upon the prior work and demonstrate technology for manufacturable production of graphene wire to NASA performance specifications. We will also produce and deliver samples of lightweight graphene wire for evaluation by our NASA sponsors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology can potentially be used on a number of power transmission applications. The light weight of the wires will offer advantages from all transportation power distribution harnesses, as well as industrial, consumer, and scientific instruments with power distribution harnesses. It will be particularly useful for aerospace transportation in reducing weight, leading to fuel savings and the reduction of pollution byproducts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Graphene wire technology has potential application on all NASA missions where power is transferred electrically, including satellite and space probe power distribution harnesses, manned space missions, aerospace transportation, service/scientific instruments, and instruments in general.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Tethers
Cables/Fittings
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S3.03-8745
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Electronics and Management, and Energy Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Silicon Carbide Gate Driver

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
United Silicon Carbide, Inc.
7 Deer Park Drive, Suite E
Monmouth Junction, NJ
08852-1921
(732) 355-0550

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Matthew O'Grady
mogrady@unitedsic.com
7 Deer Park Drive, Suite E
Monmouth Junction,  NJ 08852-1921
(732) 355-0550

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA needs efficient, low mass, low volume power electronics for a wide variety of applications and missions. Silicon carbide (SiC) switches provide fast, low loss switching, low on-resistance and high breakdown voltage to potentially meet this need. Gate drivers are a key component to fully realize the system level advantages that SiC power switches can provide. By implementing gate drivers in SiC, they can tolerate extreme temperatures (500 deg. C) allowing them to be collocated with the power switches they control. This reduces parasitic inductance and circuit area improving the performance of the power switch and converter. The SiC gate driver will have direct near term application in power processing units and other NASA power conversion systems and also be suitable for future exploration missions in extreme environments. In Phase I, we will design and simulate the gate driver to show its feasibility. In Phase II, we will fabricate the gate drivers and demonstrate them operating at high temperature in a practical circuit such as a high voltage boost converter. We will also perform radiation testing on the gate driver to evaluate its radiation hardness as need for extended space operation. Following Phase II, we will integrate the gate driver with co-packaged SiC switches for NASA and commercial applications. Additionally, the advancement in TRL demonstrated by Phase II testing will help accelerate commercial availability of USCi's SiC integrated circuit fabrication service.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SiC gate driver and SiC integrated circuits in general will also have applications in the areas of defense, aerospace, scientific research, energy exploration, and industrial controls. DoD needs high temperature and radiation tolerant power electronics for space and missile defense applications. The automotive industry could utilize SiC gate drivers in their efforts to operate SiC switches at temperatures higher than 175 deg. C. Scientific applications include instrumentation and power devices for physics research facilities which place extreme demands on power electronics technology. High temperature electronics, including power electronics, are needed for improved downhole tools for geothermal energy exploration, development, and production as future super critical wells will require electronics operating at junction temperatures over 400 deg. C for long periods of time.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
SiC gate drivers can be used with existing discrete SiC power devices to implement scalable, high operating temperature, radiation hard power management and distribution systems and power processing units for satellites and other spacecraft. In these applications, the gate drivers will enable low mass power electronics for space by fully enabling the performance advantages of SiC switches. The extreme temperature capability and radiation tolerance will make them useful for even the most demanding space applications such as the exploration of Venus and long duration Jupiter/Europa missions. Earth based applications for SiC gate drivers include electrically driven actuators on more electric aircraft and gate drivers for switches in aircraft circuit protection applications. In these applications the gate drivers are co-located with power switches which see high temperatures due to close location with the power switches and due to heating during electrical overstress events.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Conversion
Distribution/Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S3.03-8929
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Electronics and Management, and Energy Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Single-Chip DC-DC Converter for Harsh Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alphacore, Inc.
398 South Mill Avenue, Suite 302
Tempe, AZ
85281-8528
(520) 647-4445

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yu Long
yu.long@alphacoreinc.com
398 S. Mill Avenue, Suite 304
Tempe,  AZ 85281-2840
(480) 494-5816

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Alphacore Inc. will develop a digitally controlled, high switching rate, digital hysteresis based DCDC converter suitable for space and harsh environment applications. Alphacore will collaborate with ASU scientists to develop a RHBD, digital intensive, single-chip hysteretic DC-DC converter module to achieve: - Utilizing 180nm digital CMOS process, supporting up to 4.5V input supply, and up to 4A of load current utilizing a stacked power stage. - First all-digital hysteretic converter, achieving 10MHz switching rate, with reduced output component sizing - A digital slow-start (SS) option to sequence and daisy chain and sequence power supplies - Digitally controlled regulation loop parameters, including switching speed, hysteresis window, settling time The switching regulator will be fully digitally controlled, enabling portability across various process technologies. Alphacore's design provides a very fast transient response and high efficiency operation across the full load range of operation using digital. Having a fast-transient design is critical when operating a digital ASIC or FPGA that typically require a large amount of decoupling capacitance (lots of area on the board) to be able to respond to dynamic load change within their core. The main characteristics of this design are: 1 to 5 V input voltage, 0.8 - 4.5 V regulated output voltage, fully integrated, load current scalable power train, high efficiency (peak efficiency at 94%) digital hysteretic converter. The main deliverable of this research will be a single chip, all digitally hysteretic controlled solution, where a fully integrated all digital DC-DC point-of-load regulator with programmable hysteresis window will deliver a load current of 0.1A to 2A. Due to its fully integrated solution, the controller design will be 2.5x2.5 mm2 on a 0.13um 18um CMOS process. The converter will utilize drain extended power devices to achieve high voltage compliance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This rad-hard DC-DC converter has applications in high-energy physics particle detection, nuclear weapon proliferation monitoring bio-threat detection and Space-based sensors, and medical imaging technologies. Alphacore has interest in this technology from developers of Time-of-Flight (ToF) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanner and other MRI equipment developers, e.g., Siemens Healthcare, Mediso, NuCare Medical Systems, and MD Anderson Cancer Center. This IC improves available technologies in Space exploration and Earth orbiting satellites, such as the military/intelligence satellites. Boeing and Cobham provide support for this work. Other large defense, aerospace, and unmanned systems companies have radiation hard power management concerns. Alphacore has been in contact with Raytheon, ViaSat, Ball Aerospace, Orbital ATK, L-3 Communications, United Technologies, SSL (Space Systems), Loral, General Dynamics, Sierra Nevada Space Systems, and Dynetics Space Systems. Commercial LEO and GEO telecommunication satellites, such as Intelsat, Direct TV, XM radio, Orbcomm and Iridium can also benefit. Cobham is a particularly good fit for this technology because they are both systems integrators and IC vendors, and their current portfolio already includes rad-hard DC-DC converters. Cobham is extremely interested in this program, as seen in their attached letter of support. Other companies like DDC, Microsemi, and Intersil also develop and sell components of this type.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) provides "nuclear battery" electricity and heat to enable spacecraft to scientific missions beyond the capabilities of solar power, chemical batteries and fuel cells. RPS, as well as other NASA Earth Independent programs, has a need for Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) technologies with intelligent power management and fault-tolerant electrical components to operate efficiently and survive in such hostile environments. Other anticipated NASA missions for science and exploration of the universe are expected to challenge current power management specifications. Alphacore's DC-DC converter can aid in supporting infrastructure that accommodates the ever-growing power requirements for NASA's science and exploration missions. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) - scheduled launch mid 2020's - has critical power needs. Other Earth-observing missions planned for 2021 and later are expected to have increased power management demands, including ECOSTRESS, GeoCARB, HyspIRI, MAII, InSAR, NISAR, Pre-ACE, TEMPO, and TROPICS, and are thus excellent potential applications for the technology from this program. Other applications include solar system exploration missions such as Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Conversion
Distribution/Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S3.03-9009
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Electronics and Management, and Energy Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight High Energy Density Capacitors for NASA AMPS and PPUs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sigma Technologies International, Inc.
10960 North Stallard Place
Tucson, AZ
85737-9527
(520) 575-8013

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Angelo Yializis
ayializis@sigmalabs.com
10960 N Stallard Pl
Tucson,  AZ 85737-9527
(520) 575-8013

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This NASA Phase I SBIR proposal addresses the development of lightweight, high energy density DC-link capacitors that are a key component of inverters used power processing units (PPUs). DC-link capacitors used in IGBT and MOSFET switching circuits are one of the largest and least reliable components in DC-DC and DC-AC inverter circuits. Tantalum capacitors used currently by NASA in such circuits, have significant parametric limitations in the temperature range of -125oC to >200oC. This development proposes the replacement of electrolytic capacitors with high temperature, solid state, Polymer Multilayer (PML) capacitors that have been recently developed for automotive inverter applications. PML polymer dielectrics can be used to produce capacitors with voltages in the range of 25V to 1000V. The high temperature PML polymers are amorphous with very high breakdown strength and can operate in a temperature range of -196oC to >200oC. PML capacitors are smaller than tantalums, they have 10X lower weight, lower leakage current, lower dissipation factor, lower inductance and lower equivalent series resistance (ESR). The Phase I development will focus in producing and evaluating PML capacitors designed for PPUs utilized in Hall thrusters and roll-out PV arrays for solar electric propulsion.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Capacitors are used in most all electrical and electronic systems ranging from consumer electronics, to industrial electronics, medical instrumentation, transportation, communications and defense. DC-Link capacitors are needed to absorb ripple currents and transient voltage pulses created by switching devices such as IGBT, IGCT and MOSFETs used to convert lower DC voltage to higher DC and AC voltages. The proposed PML DC-link capacitors, have applications in inverter circuits used in renewable energy power generation systems, including photovoltaics and wind power generation, hybrid and electric vehicles and modular energy storage systems tied to the smart grid. PML capacitors are smaller, they have lower cost and higher performance, which will improve life and reliability of power converters. Hybrid and electric automotive drives will particularly benefit from the higher temperature and lower volume and weight of PML capacitors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Radioisotope power systems (RPS), Advanced Modular Power Systems (AMPS) and Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) are programs that will directly benefit from this development. Hall thruster PPUs voltage requirements include a 120V input for a 300V direct drive, a 300V input unit and a discharge module with a wide input voltage range of 300V-600V. Also, roll-out photovoltaic arrays are tailored to 120V and 300V for SEP applications. These are voltage ratings that are ideally suited to PML capacitors. One PML capacitor can replace multiple tantalum capacitors that are often used in parallel-series configuration.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Propulsion
Surface Propulsion
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Space Transportation & Safety
Power Combiners/Splitters
Conversion
Distribution/Management
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Quality/Reliability


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S3.03-9426
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Electronics and Management, and Energy Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Universal High Efficiency Modular Discharge Over a Wide Input/Output Voltage Range for Hall Thruster Power Processing Unit

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Busek Company, Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA
01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Xiaohu Liu
xliu@busek.com
11 Tech Circle
Natick,  MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Busek proposes a novel, universal, modular, 2.5kW discharge converter for Hall Effect thruster (HET) Power Processing Unit (PPU). The unique advantages of the proposed system include:(1) a wide input voltage range (28V to 100V) with a wide output voltage (150V to 400V) while maintaining high efficiency operation. Therefore, it provides a universal solution for aerospace systems with different bus voltages. (2) this modular converter will be capable of input-parallel output-series (IPOS) operation to support higher output voltage (800V-1200V or higher) and input-parallel output-parallel (IPOP) operation to support higher output power (20kW or higher). An intelligent "plug-n-play" power sharing and voltage balancing control is proposed to support the IPOS and IPOP operations. (3) the proposed converter adopts a soft-switching DC/DC topology using the advanced GaN power MOSFETs to enable high efficiency with high switching frequency operation, which leads to significant size reduction of magnetics and other passive components to push for high power density design. The targeting power density for single module is more than 1kW/kg. The Phase I effort includes design and analysis of modular discharge converter with the GaN power MOSFETs and the "plug-n-play" power sharing and voltage balancing control system to support IPOS and IPOP operation. The bread board will use COTS EEE parts. Its testing will validate the performance over the wide input/output voltage range. Two modules will verify IPOS and IPOP operation. The initial system integration test with Busek HET will also be conducted. In Phase II we will fully characterize the breadboard discharge converter with a thruster and develop a proto-flight brass-board level unit with multiple discharger modules using GaN devices. At the conclusion of Phase II we will build and deliver several discharger modules to NASA for additional characterization testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Electric propulsion systems have been identified as a key technology for transportation of DoD space assets. The AFRL IHPRPT Program continues to invest in the development of HET systems. Hall Effect thruster propulsion systems can serve DoD space needs by the in-space transportation of DoD space assets and commercial communication satellites for both orbit transfer and station keeping. The PPU for such a thruster system could enhance many missions for satellite orbit maintenance, orbit changes, and repositioning. The PPU is also compatible with Hall thruster operating on alternate propellants such as krypton and/or iodine. High power density EP systems are also identified in the IHPRPT RP21 goals for spacecraft propulsion. For commercial applications dominated by communications GEOsats, the proposed universal, rugged converter could significantly reduce the cost of current PPU. Because of its wide input voltage range and IPOS and IPOP operation such converter could capture significant fraction of the commercial market further reducing cost and delivery time. A high power density modular PPU could also find near term application on an all-electric upper stage derived from Busek/ULA ESPA orbit maneuvering system (OMS), a free flying S/C based on the ESPA ring. The low power ESPA system presently utilizes four BHT-1500 Xe Hall effect thrusters and is capable of delivering up to five secondary payloads to diverse earth orbits.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
HET systems are well suited for interplanetary transfers, supporting exploration and science missions. Throttling ability is important for a thruster that might be called upon to propel a spacecraft from Earth to Mars, which orbits at 1.52 AU and reduces the solar constant to 43% of the value at Earth. The Outer Planet Assessment Group has called out high power density/high efficiency power electronics as needs for the Titan/Enceladus Flagship and planetary exploration missions. These types of missions, including Mars Sample Return using Hall thrusters and PPUs, require advancements in power electronics to improve efficiency, reduce mass and volume, and to develop systems beyond the state-of-the-art. A HET system that provides efficient and affordable transportation to, from and around space destinations is one of NASA Grand Challenges. NASA has identified 30kW-class SEP systems as a high-value intermediate step toward higher power systems due to broad cross-cutting capability. The proposed modular discharger is easily scalable, providing NASA with greater mission flexibility over any target SEP power level.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Command & Control
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Superconductance/Magnetics
Conversion
Distribution/Management
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S3.03-9828
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Electronics and Management, and Energy Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Liquefied Gas Catholytes for UItra-Low Temperature Lithium Primary Batteries

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
South 8 Technologies, Inc.
3184 1/2 Adams Avenue, Unit B
San Diego, CA
92116-1641
(805) 509-0648

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cyrus Rustomji
crustomji@south8technologies.com
3184 1/2 Adams Ave., Unit B
San Diego,  CA 92116-1641
(805) 509-0648

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's Ocean Worlds exploration missions require batteries which operate as low as -100 C (defined here are "Ultra-Low Temperatures") and lower, a critically difficult challenge using current state-of-art materials. Conventional lithium primary batteries utilize a liquid catholyte with a low melting point which allows operation as low as -80 C. However, these conventional materials will be unable to push the low-temperature operation limit to meet NASA's requirements for Ocean Worlds missions. South 8 Technologies proposes the use of "Liquefied Gas Catholytes for Ultra-Low Temperature Lithium Primary Batteries". These catholytes are gaseous under standard conditions, but may be liquefied under mild pressures, showing exceptionally low melting points, very low viscosities and relatively high dielectric constants, allowing for ultra-low temperature operation of Lithium Primary Batteries. South 8 Technologies believes the technology proposed will enable energy storage at temperatures as low as -140 C, whereas the state-of-art allows operation is limited to -80 C. High temperature operation will be similar with operation limited to about +60 C. Further, the energy density of the active cathode material may be increased by as much as 30%, as will be shown. Voltage delay, a reoccurring issue in lithium primary batteries, may be reduced as well. These items will be discussed throughout the proposal.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Currently, Lithium Primary batteries operate adequately down to -80 C for the majority of applications where used. While there is not a large market for primary batteries with ultra-low temperature operation below -80 C, an increased energy density and/or cell with higher power capabilities with enhanced low temperature capability may find use in military applications where a long shelf life and high power, high energy density are required. Further, development of high-atmosphere drones and balloons are increasingly more common for telecommunications. Google's Loon program and Facebook's Aquilla are two prime examples where high atmosphere telecommunications are being developed. These devices get very cold in the high atmosphere, reaching temperatures as low as -70 C. Thermal insulation is often required to keep the batteries warm, adding to the mass and engineering requirements of the devices. A battery with high gravimetric energy density that operates very well at such temperatures would be ideal in such applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This SBIR proposal will focus on demonstration of the feasibility of developing Liquefied Gas Catholytes for Ultra-Low Lithium Primary Batteries. Electrochemical energy storage devices are critical to many of NASAs mission requirements. Low temperature energy storage is particularly critical in Ocean Worlds explorations, including Europa, Enceladus, Titan, Ganymede, Callisto, Ceres. Particularly, topic S3.03 of the solicitation calls for "advanced primary and secondary battery systems capable of operating at temperature extremes from -100 C for Titan missions". Further, topics S4.04 (Extreme Environment Technology) and Z1.02 (Surface Energy Storage) can benefit from the Ultra-Low Temperature Battery Technology proposed here for a number of other NASA missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER:17-1 S3.04-8406
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Guidance, Navigation and Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Strain Actuated Solar Arrays (SASA)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CU Aerospace, LLC
301 North Neil Street, Suite 502
Champaign, IL
61820-3169
(217) 239-1703

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alexander Ghosh
ghosh@cuaerospace.com
301 N. Neil St. - Suite 502
Champaign,  IL 61820-3169
(217) 721-2875

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The team of CU Aerospace and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign propose multifunctional solar arrays, which can be used for attitude control of a spacecraft. The solar arrays are actuated using PZT panels which produce strain. The proposed platform is called Strain Actuated Solar Array (SASA). SASA is intended to be a modular package that can be added to any satellite to provide sub-milli-arcsecond pointing and active jitter dampening. Due to the actuating mechanism and modular design, SASA will be able to scale to be used in a variety of satellite bus (regular satellites to smallsats). This study aims to develop different control algorithms and a high fidelity hardware in the loop platform to test the control algorithms for a scaled SASA prototype. The study would conclude with testing and verifying the control response for the prototype, thereby increasing reliability of the SASA platform promoting it to TRL 4. Subsequent Phases of this project would test the SASA platform in vomit comets and culminate with a test flight on a CubeSat platform to prove flight worthiness (CAPSat).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The study of SASA platform can be used for the development of soft low power robotics, especially in areas where compliant structures are required (most Human Machine interaction robots). A reengineered concept could use a long SASA panel in the wind to generate electrical energy using wing flutter and other oscillatory forces (places where wind speed is not favorable for wind turbines). Other applications of SASA include usage of the actuation mechanism to produce fast reaction aerodynamic control surfaces (servo-aero-elasticity) for high speed aircrafts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The full segmented SASA platform will be ideal for several classes of satellites. A scalable and modular system would help in providing precise and accurate ACS for any sensitive platform. These include space astrometry, interferometry based applications. Due to the mechanical simplicity of SASA (fewer failure modes), low power budget and insensitivity to space environment, it can be a favorable solution for deep space satellite missions. Ranging from applications to new frontier missions to small satellites for deep space exploration. In addition, SASA can