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NASA 2016 SBIR Phase II Solicitation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 A1.01-8122
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CL59P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Structural Efficiency - Aeroelasticity and Aeroservoelastic Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Dynamic Flight Simulation Utilizing High Fidelity CFD-Based Nonlinear Reduced Order Model

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ZONA Technology, Inc.
9489 East Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale, AZ
85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zhicun Wang
zhicun@zonatech.com
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale,  AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Nonlinear Dynamic Flight Simulation (NL-DFS) system will be developed in the Phase II project by combining the classical nonlinear rigid-body flight dynamics model with an add-on nonlinear aeroelastic solver to compute the airframe response due to pilot input command and to identify the key aeroelastic coupling mechanisms between the structural dynamics and unsteady aerodynamics with classic rigid-body dynamics. The nonlinear aeroelastic solver solves the aeroelastic equation of motion to add the incremental aeroelastic forces to the right hand side of the 6 degree-of-freedom equation in the flight dynamic model to account for the dynamic aeroelastic effects in the flight dynamic simulation. The generalized aerodynamic forces involved in the nonlinear aeroelastic solvers are provided by three nonlinear aerodynamic Reduced Order Models (ROMs); namely the modal, gust and control surface ROMs, that are derived from the Navier-Stokes (N-S) solver of FUN3D. The nonlinear modal ROM is constructed by a neural network model and the nonlinear gust and control surface ROMs are in the form of the first and second order Volterra Kernels. A wrapper around FUN3D, called OVERFUN, will be enhanced to drive FUN3D for generating the training data that leads to the three ROMs. OVERFUN also can directly drive FUN3D to perform a full order aeroelastic analysis including trim, flutter, gust and maneuver loads analyses whose solutions can be used to verify the accuracy of these three ROMs. The NL-DFS system will be validated with the flight test data of F/A-18 Active Aeroelastic Wing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The maneuver and gust loads on transport aircraft usually are two of the critical design loads that dominate the structural design. To avoid the weight penalty by reducing the dynamic loads, modern commercial aircraft usually are equipped with a maneuver and gust load alleviation control system using the aileron and spoiler to provide the control authority. To suppress the body-freedom flutter and limit cycle oscillation problems, several military aircraft are equipped with a flutter suppression control system. To verify the performance of these control systems, it usually requires an enormous amount of wind-tunnel testing and flight testing to tune the control laws. The proposed NL-DFS system can be used as a virtual flight test environment in which control law testing can be performed; thereby reducing the number of wind tunnel and flight tests.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A flight dynamics simulation capability with an add-on nonlinear aeroelastic solver using N-S solver generated ROMs is still not available within NASA. NASA has been working for many years towards achieving a software package that would accurately predict the interaction between flight dynamics considering structural flexibility in closed-loop with flight control laws. NASA is currently working on several N+3 advanced aircraft design concepts such as Truss-Braced Wing, Blended Wing-Body and Supersonic Business Jet. These advanced aircraft design concepts will be more flexible, more slender, and/or sizable where there may be insufficient frequency separation between the rigid body dynamics and the relatively low frequency elastic modes. The flight control law based on the rigid model may result in an unacceptable stability or an undesirable response characteristic due to control input or turbulence. The NL-DFS system will allow these advanced aircraft design concepts to be tested in a cost-effective manner; while increasing performance and confidence in the control law designs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 A1.01-8553
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CD19P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Structural Efficiency - Aeroelasticity and Aeroservoelastic Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Physics-Based Models for Aeroservoelasticity Prediction and Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Clear Science Corporation
663 Owego Hill Road, PO Box 233
Harford, NY
13784-0233
(607) 844-9171

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Henry Carlson
hcarlson@clearsciencecorp.com
663 Owego Hill Road, PO Box 233
Harford,  NY 13784-0233
(607) 844-9171

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Clear Science Corp. proposes to develop and demonstrate computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based, reduced-order aeroservoelasticity modeling and simulation technology for fast and accurate predictions of nonlinear flight dynamics, enabling real-time, piloted and unpiloted flight simulations and providing a tool to design flight controllers for highly flexible, lightweight aircraft. Physics-based, reduced-order models (ROMs) will be developed and demonstrated with data from CFD models of the X-56, an experimental aircraft that NASA and the U. S. Air Force are using to test systems for flutter suppression and gust-load alleviation. Extended range and low fuel consumption through lightweight materials and large wing spans (high lift-to-drag ratios) are the drivers in next-generation aircraft like the X-56, but these attributes create challenges in maintaining flight safety, ride quality, and long-term structural durability. The development of flight controllers that can actively manage aeroservoelastic effects (body-freedom flutter, control reversal, gust loading) without compromising safety and aerodynamic performance is a key objective of both the X-56 Program and the proposed project. Through the proposed technology, nonlinear, aeroservoelastic ROMs can be coupled to other components of a flight simulator (six-degrees-of-freedom flight mechanics models and control software) to improve the fidelity of simulations that support controller design for a wide range of operating conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed project will focus on the experimental X-56 program with much broader potential applications relating to flutter prediction and suppression, gust load prediction and alleviation, and active/adaptive aero-structural control. The modeling technology is an enabler for next-generation fighter aircraft operating over subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flight regimes, commercial launch vehicles, and rotorcraft, all requiring advanced flight control for complex aeroservoelastic environments. Simpler, currently available models based on inviscid flow and panel methods become insufficient with more complex vehicle geometries, higher speeds, and the presence of complex coupling like shock-boundary layer interactions. CFD-based ROMs can be game changers in these applications. The modeling technology is capable of predicting not only six-degrees-of-freedom forces and moments for aeromechanics analyses but also spatially distributed loads, providing close coupling between the disciplines of aerodynamics, aeroservoelasticity, flight control, and structural dynamics during the development of fixed-wing aircraft, launch vehicles, and rotorcraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology and its development using the X-56 as a demonstration platform targets key aspects of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Strategic Thrust 3A (Ultra-Efficient Commercial Vehicles Subsonic Transport). The commercial product to be developed is an engineering tool for modeling aeroservoelastic dynamics in flexible air vehicles. The software will use data generated by high-fidelity aeroservoelastic CFD models to construct efficient ROMs for all phases of the development process from early concept trade studies to flight testing and aircraft certification. Flexible, lightweight vehicles are an emerging market, promising reduced take-off weight, greater range, and lower fuel costs. The ultra-efficient designs present safety challenges (flutter, divergence, control reversal, gust loading, structural failure, fatigue), requiring innovative flight control systems to effectively manage aeroservoelastic instabilities. The proposed technology will enable the design and testing of new controllers for highly flexible aircraft through accurate, low-dimensional aeroservoelastic models capable of real-time predictions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 A1.02-8366
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CC79P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Quiet Performance - Propulsion Noise Reduction Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Continuous-Scan Phased Array Measurement Methods for Turbofan Engine Acoustic Testing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ATA Engineering, Inc.
13290 Evening Creek Drive South, Suite 250
San Diego, CA
92128-4695
(858) 480-2000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Parthiv Shah
pshah@ata-e.com
13290 Evening Creek Drive South, Suite 250
San Diego,  CA 92128-4695
(858) 480-2101

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To allow aviation growth to continue in the face of increasingly stringent noise pollution standards, new aircraft engines must be designed with noise performance as a principal constraint. Technologies to realize future propulsion noise reduction will require detailed experimental characterization and diagnosis of the acoustic mechanisms and sources within an engine system or component. ATA Engineering, Inc. (ATA) proposes an SBIR project to further develop and validate methods for obtaining phased array acoustic data from complex distributed noise sources using continuously moving, or continuous-scan (CS) microphones in conjunction with state-of-the-art phase-referencing techniques. The benefits of the CS method include (1) effectively infinite spatial resolution, as the sound field cross-spectrum may be described between any two locations along the scan trajectory, (2) preservation of phase data for improved source and propagation modeling, including beamforming (BF) and acoustical holography (AH), (3) significant reduction of test data acquisition time (potentially two to ten times faster) per operational point, and consequently either (4) reduced test operational cost, or (5) the opportunity to screen more design concepts within a given budget. The Phase II effort will use subscale aeroacoustic testing to validate the novel continuous-scan beamforming (CSBF) measurement techniques with the aim of eventual implementation in NASA acoustic wind tunnel and free-jet testing facilities. ATA will also formalize a CS software toolkit for data processing and visualization and design a full-scale array concept for a candidate NASA wind tunnel facility.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Community noise exposure continues to be a significant issue near airports, confining growth and impacting quality of life and health of those affected. To counteract growing exposure, ever more stringent noise standards are expected to be implemented by regulatory agencies in the certification of aircraft. These standards are predicated on the discovery of new technologies aimed at reducing aircraft and engine noise. Further noise performance improvements will likely be asymptotic, with incremental improvements resulting in only modest noise reduction. Thus, innovative measurement technologies to better identify and diagnose noise sources within the aircraft and engine are necessary, particularly for the subscale-size test articles and low-SNR environments of wind tunnel testing. ATA believes there is a significant market opportunity for the enhanced CS toolset through adoption at engine manufacturers, airframers, and international aviation authorities. Beyond aviation, CS tools and methods will be applicable to wind turbine, automotive, and industrial noise.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ATA believes that significant benefits could be achieved through implementing the CS acoustic measurement technology in NASA wind tunnel and free-jet facilities. The resulting capability would support noise reduction goals set forth in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate's (ARMD's) Strategic Implementation Plan (SIP). In particular, Strategic Thrust 3: Ultra-Efficient Commercial Vehicles establishes noise improvement margins (relative to the FAA Stage 4 noise limit) of −32 dB, −42 dB, and −52 dB, for N+1, N+2, and N+3 future aircraft technology generations, respectively. ATA's technology will support progress toward all four NASA long-term research themes under the Subsonic Transport portion of the strategic thrust (3A): Ultra-efficient airframes, Ultra-efficient propulsion, Ultra-efficient vehicle system integration, and Modeling, simulation, and test capability research. In the coming decades, progress towards these objectives will be accomplished through research conducted in NASA and commercial experimental facilities. Examples of aeroacoustic measurement facilities that could readily adapt the technology include the 9' x 15' Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT), Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL), and 14' x 22' Subsonic Wind Tunnel.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Acoustic/Vibration
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 A1.03-8523
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CL78P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Emissions/Clean Power - Combustion Technology/Emissions Measurement Techniques
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electrometric Aviation Soot Monitor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerodyne Research, Inc.
45 Manning Road
Billerica, MA
01821-3976
(978) 663-9500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zhenhong Yu
zyu@aerodyne.com
45 Manning Road
Billerica,  MA 01821-3976
(978) 932-0265

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a sensitive PM measurement instrument to determine soot particle mass distribution from aircraft engine exhausts as well as from other IC engine emissions. Fundamental of the proposed technique is to measure particle charge under an electric field. Through extensive experimental and theoretical investigation on soot emissions from IC engines over the past four decades, it has been well-known that engine soot particles are usually charged. Counting particle charge at specific mass could lead to the determination of both total particle count and mass. Currently commercially available electrometric measurements on charged particles suffer from rapid signal drift, which limits its applications on soot emission measurements. In our proposed design, an amplitude modulation scheme is included to eliminate the background signal drift and also improve detection sensitivity. The proposed soot mass distribution monitor will be approximately 50 pounds in weight and consume approximately 300W electrical power. It will also be capable of being remotely controlled and operating under vacuum condition. Total cost of the proposed device could be less than $30,000.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We expect that the soot particle mass monitor developed under this program will significantly benefit the scientific community interested in characterizing soot particle mass from a variety of internal combustion engines. The ability of one instrument to measure particle charge at specific mass will enable continuous measurements of particle mass distribution that can be directly used to determine total particle count and mass. In combination with an electrical aerosol charger, either with a radioactive source like 85Kr or non-radioactive source like corona discharge, this instrument will provide a direct measurement on particle count and mass simultaneously for any particles or aerosols. This measurement technique could be applied to ambient aerosol monitoring, PM emission detection, and particle manufacture process.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA need for this technology is to measure soot particle mass distribution from aircraft engine exhaust. At present, particle mass distribution is calculated from particle size distribution, which is measured by the Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS) and Scanning Mobility particle Sizer (SMPS) techniques. Both techniques provide information on particle count at each electrical mobility diameter. To calculate particle mass distribution, an assumption of particle density becomes necessary. Since engine soot particles are intrinsically fractal aggregates, their densities are complex function of particle size and compositions. Obtaining the particle density information requires sophisticated measurement instrumentation. The proposed soot mass distribution monitor will directly measure particle mass distribution, from which total particle count and mass could be determined. In the past, NASA has funded a number of field measurement programs such as EXCAVATE, APEX, UNA-UNA, and AAFEX that focus on the measurement of black carbon emissions from civilian aircraft engines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Prototyping
Electromagnetic


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 A1.04-8270
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CL76P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamic Efficiency - Active Flow Control Actuation Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cyclotronic Plasma Actuator with Arc-Magnet for Active Flow Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CU Aerospace, LLC
301 North Neil Street, Suite 502
Champaign, IL
61820-3169
(217) 239-1703

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Carroll
carroll@cuaerospace.com
301 North Neil Street, Suite 502
Champaign,  IL 61820-3169
(217) 239-1703

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CU Aerospace and team partner the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign propose to develop a new type of plasma-based flow control actuator, which uses a high-voltage electrode that arcs to a cylindrical grounded electrode within a magnetic field. The result is that an arc plasma can be produced, with a Lorentz force that creates a plasma disc (similar concept to a cyclotron). The thought behind this concept is that the thermal actuator authority provided by the plasma arc is coupled with an induced swirl component into a boundary-layer flow, which will enhance mixing and allow flows to remain attached across strong adverse pressure gradients. Effectively, the proposed actuator would function like vortex generators that one can actively enable or disable on command. This subsystem demonstration will pioneer a family of devices to address a notoriously difficult problem in active flow control. The new capabilities in aerodynamic performance enabled by this innovative actuation approach will be demonstrated in both ground and flight tests. CU Aerospace will design, fabricate, and deliver a flight-ready demonstration plasma actuator to NASA at the end of the Phase II program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The cyclotronic plasma actuator also has potential to significantly reduce drag and fuel burn for commercial aircraft through improved control surface effectiveness and high-lift performance, allowing aerodynamic surface weight and size to be reduced. Operational benefits are also anticipated for the efficiency, maneuverability, and stall prevention of military aircraft in high angle of attack operation. Additionally, potential internal flow applications include plasma assisted combustion, flame stabilization, and flow management inside inlet S-ducts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
CU Aerospace and UIUC anticipate several important benefits from the cyclotronic plasma actuator over other technologies. When compared to traditional dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators, the cyclotronic plasma actuator may add more energy into the plasma to improve actuator authority and improve effectiveness for low-speed and high-speed flows. This technology may also alleviate turbulent separation through 3D mixing mechanisms, similar to passive vortex generators. This mixing mechanism may also improve operational efficiency, or reduce proposed actuator power requirements, as compared to existing technologies. The proposed innovation also provides more benefit than passive devices as control authority can be provided on-demand and it does not produce undesirable parasitic drag during high-speed cruise. Finally, the actuator has no moving parts and does not require the heavy infrastructures and mechanical complexities associated with high-pressure air storage required for most blowing approaches to active flow control.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Command & Control
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Actuators & Motors
Exciters/Igniters
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 A1.05-7521
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CL39P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Physics-Based Computational Tools - Stability and Control/High Lift Design Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robust Prediction of High Lift Using Surface Vorticity

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Research in Flight
1919 North Ashe Court
Auburn, AL
36830-0000
(334) 444-8523

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Burkhalter
john.burkhalter@researchinflight.com
4219 Saugahatchee Hills Court
Opelika,  AL 36801-0000
(334) 559-7453

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 9

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
FlightStream has been developed a fast, accurate, aerodynamic prediction code based on vorticity computations on the surface of an aircraft. The code, though still a surface paneling algorithm, has proven to be significantly more robust and computationally efficient. FlightStream uses CAD or an unstructured surface mesh and is adaptable to subpanels varying in vertex valence from triangles to surface polygons. The focus of the recently completed Phase-I effort preceding this proposal has been to develop the viscous formulation of surface-vorticity to allow the prediction of non-linear aerodynamics and the onset of flow separation through a new approach called the Fluid Strain-based Separation model. This theoretical development and demonstration has laid the foundation for an effective, high-fidelity, physics-based solution for flow separation. In this Phase-II proposal, the focus is to expand the scope of application of these non-linear aerodynamics and flow separation models through robust algorithmic implementation to the FlightStream code base. A part of this focus will also be to validate the conclusions obtained from the strain-based separation model about the nature of fluid flow and to develop fundamental relationships between the proposed Maximum Fluid Strain property and the primary fluid properties with regard to flow separation. Several major performance and fidelity enhancements are also proposed for this effort that are expected to place FlightStream in a very unique position in the aerospace industry. These include the application of the Fast Multipole Method for improving the solver speed and reducing its memory footprint; a higher-order vorticity sheet solver to improve the fidelity of the solutions and improve solver stability in non-linear flow environments and other mutually supporting enhancements. Research in Flight hopes to use this current effort to develop the very first commercially viable viscous, surface-vorticity, flow solver.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is a significant overlap in FlightStream applications between NASA and the aerospace industry at large. Any enhancements made for a NASA effort is directly felt across the ever-growing FlightStream user community across the country. There are, however, additional FlightStream applications that are unique to the aerospace and marine industries. Primary FlightStream applications in addition to those in use at NASA include the modeling and performance of engine inlets, boundary-layer ingestion modeling, marine propellers and a potential future application for solid rocket motors (this is currently under development by Research in Flight). Most of these applications are positively affected by the development of the non-linear aerodynamics and flow separation models described in this document. For example, modeling boundary-layer ingestion is made possible because of the vortex shedding models described in this effort. Similarly, marine propeller analysis is now of higher accuracy as a result of the strain-based separation models developed as part of this NASA effort. These non-NASA applications are expected to increase the commercial appeal of FlightStream to the general aerospace and marine industries. Research in Flight expects to begin initial outreach efforts to industry to increase awareness of these newly forming FlightStream capabilities in early 2017.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
FlightStream is currently used in a variety of different applications by NASA and the industry. These applications can be categorized in the following manner: * Steady-state cruise aerodynamic performance * Propeller-wing interactions * Take-off / landing aerodynamic performance * Engine integration studies * Multi-disciplinary optimizations The impact of the non-linear aerodynamics and flow separation models developed as part of this effort will have a direct impact on the first three application areas listed above. Namely, steady-state lift cruise aerodynamics, propeller-wing interactions and take-off/landing aerodynamics. The implementation of a robust model for predicting maximum lift force coefficients for any arbitrary geometry has obvious implications for the aircraft design groups at Langley as well as industry. Modeling non-linear aerodynamics also has direct impact on the accuracy of the FlightStream results obtained for aircraft in take-off and landing configurations. Further, the analysis of propeller-wing interactions can now be extended to include the effects of flow separation, and Research in Flight hopes to validate these enhancements within the framework of the NASA X-57 design effort in the near future in conjunction with NASA design engineers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Support


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 A1.05-8105
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CL46P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Physics-Based Computational Tools - Stability and Control/High Lift Design Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Defining Handling Qualities of Unmanned Aerial Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Systems Technology, Inc.
13766 Hawthorne Boulevard
Hawthorne, CA
90250-7083
(310) 679-2281

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Klyde
dklyde@systemstech.com
13766 Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne,  CA 90250-7083
(310) 679-2281

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Unmanned Air Systems (UAS) are no longer coming, they are here, and operators from first responders to commercial operators are demanding access to the National Airspace System (NAS) for a wide variety of missions. This includes a proliferation of small UAS that will operate beyond line of sight at altitudes of 500 ft and below. Currently the UAS arena includes traditional airframers, established UAS manufacturers, hobbyists, academic institutions, and many air vehicle newcomers such as Amazon, Google, and Facebook that see UAS as a means to other commercial ends. A myriad of issues continues to slow the development of verification, validation, and certification methods that will enable the safe introduction of UAS to the NAS. These issues include the lack of both a consensus UAS categorization process and quantitative certification requirements including the definition of handling qualities. The how to of safely integrating UAS in the NAS raises many questions, and to date, there have been few answers. Perhaps the problem is too big. Because of a lack of quantitative data, attempts to address core problems thus far have failed to achieve consensus support. This Phase II program does not propose to tame the entire verification, validation, and certification problem, but instead to address the important need to define UAS handling qualities in piloted, pilot monitoring, and autonomous operations via a mission-oriented approach with an end product being the UAS Handling Qualities Assessment software toolbox (UAS-HQ) and corresponding specification that will guide UAS stakeholders through a systematic evaluation process. This process will be validated in Phase II via full flight envelope testing of a fixed wing UAS and low/speed hover flight regime testing of a multi-rotor UAS.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Phase II team sees a strong demand for the advancement of UAS handling qualities capability from the DOD where the Air Force and Navy have long been looking for a path forward in this area. This assertion is supported by the active participation of Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and Naval Air System Command (NAVAIR) personnel in the briefings held in Phase I. The team also sees this demand expanding to the growing commercial market, particularly on the sUAS side, as the FAA continues to open up the NAS to new UAS applications over the coming months and years. To this end, feedback from FAA personnel from the Small Airplanes Directorate was received in Phase I and their continued participation in Phase II will be encouraged. Outside of the government, this work is generating strong interest from traditional airframers and UAS manufacturers. Representatives from several of these companies are discussing possible Phase IIe opportunities to investigate UAS handling qualities in autonomous flight modes. Finally, UAS commercial end users will be engaged in the process to underscore the need for requirements as a means to demonstrate compatibility of their selected vehicle with the identified mission.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This proposal supports the NASA Air Vehicle Technology topic that solicits tools, technologies and capabilities to facilitate assessment of new vehicle designs and their potential performance characteristics and as specifically called out under the Physics-Based Computational Tools - Stability and Control/High Lift Design Tools topic, the definition of handling qualities for unmanned aerial systems. Beyond these specific NASA goals, NASA issued in 2014 a new strategic vision for the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). From this effort came six new strategic thrusts. Of these thrusts, several involve the safe expansion of global air operations and are therefore directly related to the safe integration of UAS into the air space. The specific thrusts include safe, efficient growth in global operations, ?real-time, system-wide safety assurance, and assured autonomy for aviation transformation. This proposal therefore supports NASA's Integrated Aviation Systems Program (IASP) of which the UAS Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project is another direct application. In this arena, the proposed Phase II team has discussed potential post applications with a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) project technical lead. The discussions have focused on the need to define UAS handling qualities under failure or off-nominal conditions, which is beyond scope of the proposed Phase II, but possible as a Phase IIe/III task.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Man-Machine Interaction
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Teleoperation
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 A1.06-7988
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CC51P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vertical Lift - VL Measurement Techniques and Condition-Based Maintenance
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rapid In-Place Composite Rotor Damage Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luna Innovations, Inc.
301 1st Street Southwest, Suite 200
Roanoke, VA
24016-1921
(540) 769-8400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Kominsky
submissions301@lunainc.com
3155 State Street
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-6604
(540) 553-0865

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Luna Innovations is proposing to further develop the Rapid In-Place Composite Rotor Damage Detection (RIPCoRDD) System for determining and tracking the structural health of composite rotorcraft blades and other composite structures. There is a need for accurate, reliable assessments of the condition of composite parts which may have been damaged through impacts, fatigue, or abrasion. This is especially true for cases in which the damage may not be visible from the surface. The RIPCoRDD system is designed such that it will enable composite rotor damage detection in seconds with absolutely no increase in weight, power consumption, or volume of the rotorcraft. The core of the RIPCoRDD device is a unique, distributed, high-definition fiber optic strain sensor (HD-FOS) which provides spatially dense strain measurements (every 1.25-2.5 mm) within the composite structure, coupled with a ground based installation of Luna's proven optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) instrumentation. Commercialization will focus on transitioning the technology first to OEM manufacturers for non-destructive inspection applications, followed by deployment to rotorcraft end users for lifetime monitoring and diagnostics.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Rotorcraft play a key role in numerous areas of modern life, from life-saving medical transports, to enabling access to remote locations, to military use. The performance capabilities of composites (strength to weight, non-catastrophic failure) have driven their use in the weight sensitive designs of rotorcraft. Due to the complex structure of composite materials there is a potential for hidden damage internal to the blade which shortens lifetime while being difficult to detect. By enabling true condition based monitoring of these rotors, the useful lifetime of rotor blades can be extended, lowering total cost of ownership. In addition, this technology can be expanded into a host of non-aeronautical applications, such as wind turbine health monitoring.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Rapid In-Place Composite Rotor Damage Detection (RIPCoRDD) system directly addresses elements of the NASA technology development roadmap (topic 15.5). While the proposed technology is broadly applicable to a range of applications within NASA projects, there are some for which the proposed work is especially relevant. One specific program which has called for rotor health maintenance is the Revolutionary Vertical Lift Technology (RVLT) Project. In addition, the advanced composites project is actively seeking new technologies which can help in the rapid inspection and characterization of composite material health. Likewise, as space programs move more towards the use of composite materials, monitoring those structures for health becomes increasingly critical.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Characterization
Composites
Structures
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Contact/Mechanical
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 A1.06-8494
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CC30P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vertical Lift - VL Measurement Techniques and Condition-Based Maintenance
PROPOSAL TITLE: Distributed Contact Solver for 3D Dynamics Simulation of Drive Systems with Defects

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Numerical Solutions LLC
3554 Mark Twain Court
Hilliard, OH
43026-5729
(614) 771-4861

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sandeep Vijayakar
sandeep@ansol.com
3554 Mark Twain Court
Hilliard,  OH 43026-5729
(614) 771-4861

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 6
End: 9

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose a novel computational method for generating data needed to create decision strategies for condition-based monitoring algorithms that can effectively differentiate between a healthy system and different types of defects in a damaged system. Currently, the only means available to generate this data are physical testing which is time consuming and expensive, and simplified computer models- either lumped parameter models or 2D models. The most advanced current computational model of drive systems with surface and crack damage can only be deployed on stand-alone computers. The existing contact algorithm relies on shared memory between CPUs, and quickly saturates memory bandwidth. We propose innovative modifications to the algorithm so that models may be efficiently deployed on very large clusters of computers connected by high speed networks. These changes will make possible realistic time-domain 3D modeling of drive systems with surface and crack damage.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) Vibration Prediction in Time-Domain: To date, only frequency domain based vibration calculations with linear models have been commercially available. But Time-domain models are necessary to correctly include contact and kinematics induced non-linearities. Having the fast contact solver will allow very realistic drive system dynamic models, to run in the time domain. 2) Impact Dynamics: It will be possible to make predictions for survivability of drive systems subjected to transients caused by short duration events such as a load spikes. This is an important consideration in the wind-turbine and off-highway equipment industries. Modeling these transient dynamics can only be done in the time-domain. A fast contact solver will allow realistic prediction of these effects. 3) Automatic optimization: Access to a very fast solver will make it possible to run fast static analyses inside the optimization loop of a commercial general-purpose optimizer. It will be possible to optimize metrics such as gear contact patterns, transmission error, and stress while automatically varying the surface modifications and other design parameters. 4) Manufacturing Error Studies: Each manufacturing error has a unique probability distribution. A very fast solver will enable Monte Carlo type studies of manufacturing errors with realistic random distributions. The output will be the probability distribution functions of performance and failure metrics for the drive system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) Condition Based Monitoring: The primary application of this work for NASA, is as a tool that can be used for creating, testing, and fine-tuning condition-monitoring strategies for rotor craft drive systems. The distributed contact analysis will enable dynamic analysis of full drive system models, both in a healthy state as well as with various kinds of damage. Both surface damage as well cracks can be studied. 2) Life Estimation: Current component life prediction tools are constrained by the limited accuracy of simplified dynamic stress prediction methods. The proposed work will, make it possible run very accurate simulations under dynamic conditions. 3) Dynamic Factors: The proposed work will enable NASA to compute accurate dynamic factors for use during the design evaluation stage of gear boxes. These dynamic factors can be used to account for steady state dynamics, as well as for transients caused by short duration events.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Structures
Tribology
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 A1.07-7705
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CC83P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Efficiency - Turbomachinery Technology for Reduced Fuel Burn
PROPOSAL TITLE: Injector-Integrated Fuel-Air Heat Exchanger Module

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Micro Cooling Concepts, Inc.
7522 Slater Avenue, #122
Huntington Beach, CA
92647-7738
(714) 847-9945

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Underwood
daveunderwood@microcoolingconcepts.com
7522 Slater Ave, #122
Huntington Beach,  CA 92647-7738
(714) 847-9945

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Modern high efficiency gas turbine engines typically operate with hot section temperatures so high that metal parts in those areas need to be cooled to maintain strength and life properties. A well-established approach to this bleeds a portion of the compressor discharge air to flow through and over turbine parts. As engine compressor pressure ratios continue to increase, the temperature of this compressor discharge air also increases, to the point that the cooling air itself needs to be cooled.?Micro Cooling Concepts is involved in developing a concept for a heat exchanger co-located/integrated near the point of fuel injection in order to provide cooled cooling air. The main advantages of this concept are the minimization of the amount of heated fuel between the heat exchanger and fuel injector tip such that the fire danger from leaking tubing is eliminated, and the ease of delivering cooled cooling air to the secondary air circuit. Additionally, the modular concept distributes the heat exchange function, allowing for easy replacement of an individual heat exchanger module. For this program, high temperature materials will be used for fabrication using Micro Cooling Concepts' laminated foil construction approach. The end goal of the program will be to develop a prototype fuel-air heat exchanger and test its performance at engine relevant conditions. This effort supports the NASA goal of improving aeropropulsive efficiency through reduced fuel burn and increased cycle temperatures, specifically by enabling very high turbine cooling effectiveness.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ability to provide cooled cooling air with minimal fire risk offers a compelling value proposition to turbine manufacturers and their clients. A major engine manufacturer has interest in incorporating the proposed concept into future civil and defense gas turbine engine products that currently show benefits from fuel-cooled cooling air. The designs proposed are inherently compatible with Micro Cooling Concepts' existing production line, enabling arrangements such as building the components under contract or licensing the IP to the engine manufacturer and/or their suppliers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A reduction in the temperature of available cooling air would provide additional heat sink, thereby enabling use of higher combustion temperatures. The benefits of such a concept include reduced fuel burn and the accompanying reduction in CO2 emissions, in alignment with NASA's goals, with accompanying minimal fire risk. This technology would be applicable to any NASA air-breathing fuel-based propulsion systems where available cooling air temperatures are currently too high to reach the desired performance goals.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Atmospheric Propulsion
Fuels/Propellants
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling
Heat Exchange
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 A1.07-8448
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CC31P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Efficiency - Turbomachinery Technology for Reduced Fuel Burn
PROPOSAL TITLE: Design Concepts for Low Aspect Ratio High Pressure Turbines for High Bypass Ratio Turbofans

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
N&R Engineering
6659 Pearl Road, #201
Parma Heights, OH
44130-3821
(440) 845-7020

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Boyle
rbrjboyle760@gmail.com
6659 Pearl Road, #201
Parma Heights,  OH 44130-3821
(440) 845-7020

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The performance gains and weight reductions from using Ceramic Matrix Composite(CMC) turbine blades in both the High Pressure Turbine(HPT) and Low Pressure Turbine(LPT) will be determined. Shrouding HPT rotor blades becomes feasible when low density CMC materials replace current metallic HPT rotor blades. The proposal has two components. The first is to identify stage efficiency improvements and verify structural feasibility of shrouding a low aspect ratio HPT rotor blade designed to use CMC blades. The second is to perform similar analyses for metallic and CMC LPT blades . HPT stage efficiency gains will be determined using CFD analyses for shrouded and unshrouded HPT turbines as a function of clearance and stage reaction. The increase in blade component stresses due to the presence of a shroud, and the stresses in the shroud itself will be determined from structural analyses. Comparing analytic results with available structural data for shrouded metallic LPT blades will increase confidence in the structural predictions of shrouded HPT blades. The reduction in engine weight from using CMC blades in the LPT will be determined. Current metallic LPT blades are shrouded, so that no significant stage aerodynamic efficiency gain is anticipated from replacing metallic LPT blades with CMC blades. In a geared turbine fewer LPT stages, or greater work per stage, may be achieved from using CMC rotor blades.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Gas turbine manufactures, and other government agencies are potential markets for the services provided by N&R Engineering. These services are likely to be used for specific issues associated with the turbine hot section. N&R Engineering has an extensive background in the analysis of CMC materials for high temperature applications. The requirements for military aircraft engines are very sensitive to engine weight. Military agencies and their suppliers are a market for N&R Engineering services. Since gas turbines will provide an increasing share of domestic energy production, the Dept. of Energy is also a potential market for the services provided by N&R Engineering. These services will contribute to the national goal of increased fuel efficiency, and reduced emissions. N&R Engineering intends to provide analysis services to industry and government agencies for the design and analysis of CMC parts, such as vanes, blades, shrouds, and casings for gas turbine applications. Cooled ceramic materials show the promise of significantly improving cycle efficiency for both aircraft and land based gas turbines. Consequently, the market for N&R Engineering services is expected to be large.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This work will contribute to the NASA Aeronautics Program goal of increased gas turbine efficiency. Efficiency improvements contribute to the national goal of reduced CO2 emissions. The commercial application for N&R Engineering is to provide design and analysis services directly to NASA or to companies working with NASA to increase the TRL level for engine components that further the goals of the NASA Aeronautics program. The structural analysis capability of N&R Engineering will contribute to reduced fuel burn. N&R Engineering has extensive experience in the analysis of SiC/SiC CMC composite materials. Because these are light weight and high strength materials, engine weight will be reduced as these materials enter into commercial service. N&R Engineering will provide structural analysis services to NASA and other companies to achieve the reductions in fuel burn per passenger mile enabled by lighter weight engines. N&R Engineering is experienced in the analysis of cooling requirements for turbine hot section components. More efficient cooling approaches further the goal of reduced fuel burn.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Ceramics
Metallics
Atmospheric Propulsion
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 A1.08-8296
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CA27P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeronautics Ground Test and Measurements Technologies - Ground Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Repetition-Rate Interferometric Rayleigh Scattering for Velocity, Density, and Temperature Meas

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street, Suite 301
Dayton, OH
45431-1262
(937) 266-9570

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Naibo Jiang
naiboj@yahoo.com
5100 Springfield Street, Suite 301
Dayton,  OH 45431-1262
(937) 256-7733

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Large ground-test facilities, which simulate real flow conditions from subsonic to hypersonic, are used extensively to generate forces and moments as well as surface measurements of test articles required to validate computational tools used to extrapolate wind tunnel data to realistic flight conditions and hardware. The development of fast instrumentation and measurement capabilities that can readily be integrated into the extreme conditions present under such test conditions is one of several major technological challenges associated with the design, building, and operation of these complex test environments. Spatially and temporally resolved measurements of velocity, density and temperature remain significant yet essential challenges in these facilities. Unfortunately, widely available current suite of flow-field probes exhibit varying degrees of intrusiveness, requiring either the physical placement of probes or seeding of foreign particles or gases. The proposed research program described here expands upon our successful Phase-I results and emphasizes the development and application of optical diagnostic approaches referred to as high-repetition-rate (up to 100 kHz) Interferometric Rayleigh scattering (IRS) and 2-D Filtered Rayleigh scattering (FRS), all-optical techniques that allow non-invasive multi-flow-parameter measurements to be made in any environments containing any kind of gases without the need to seed foreign particles or gases. The concepts and ideas proposed range from proof-of-principle demonstration of novel methodologies using 100-kHz-rate burst-mode laser system to measurements in realistic tunnel conditions expected in the current solicitation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The advanced diagnostic toolkit proposed under the current program will be a significant step forward in using cutting-edge laser technology to address a variety of diagnostics challenges in multiple government and industrial applications. As this noninvasive multi-parameter optical toolkit is optimized, a major beneficiary besides NASA would be DoD test facilities developing advanced weapons systems such as supersonic fighter aircrafts, hypersonic vehicles, rockets and high-Mach number reentry vehicles. In addition, the rapidly developing commercial space industry as well as test facilities at conventional aircraft will significantly benefit by having access to such advanced multi-parameter diagnostic toolkits. Therefore, a wide market potential is expected in defense, industrial, and commercial sectors for the proposed technologies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed research program will expand upon advanced laser-based, high-data-rate, multi-dimensional, multi-parameter, noninvasive optical diagnostic platforms for NASA ground-test facilities. Such diagnostic capabilities will be a major step forward in design and model validation efforts in subsonic to hypersonic ground-test facilities developing next-generation aerospace vehicles and air-breathing propulsion systems. During the proposed program, we will develop these measurement tools into compact, user-friendly, and mobile platforms that enable broad implementation in ground-test facilities. The expertise within this research team in state-of-the-art laser technologies, physics, and chemistry-based diagnostic techniques, and extensive product development and implementation background in defense, propulsion and energy applications will be a critical factor in realizing the proposed diagnostic platform and toolkit.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Image Analysis
Image Processing
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Ultraviolet
Visible


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 A1.09-8166
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CC49P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vehicle Safety - Inflight Icing Hazard MitigationTechnology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Performance Enhancement of Deicing Systems with the Use of an Anti-Ice Nano-Coating

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NEI Corporation
201 Circle Drive North, Suite 102/103
Piscataway, NJ
08854-3723
(732) 868-3141

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jiong Liu
jliu@neicorporation.com
400 Apgar Drive, Suite E
Somerset,  NJ 08873-1154
(732) 868-3141

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed program addresses NASA's need for a new generation of icing mitigation technology for manned and unmanned vehicles. The state of the art active de-icing method on leading edges involves either an electrical, pneumatic or vibration induced debonding of accumulated ice. There is a need for an anti-ice coating that functions synergistically with active de-icing methods. The advantages are reduced power consumption, improved service life of mechanical components, lighter electronics and extra protection in case of failure of active device. The Phase I program has addressed this need and technology gap, and has demonstrated the feasibility of combining a durable anti-ice coating with an active deicing device, thereby creating an integrated de-icing system. Icing tunnel testing results demonstrated that the coating provides improved de-icing efficiency, along with a reduction in power consumption of the active de-icing device. In collaboration with a manufacturer of active de-icing systems and a company developing advanced technologies to enhance aircraft performance and safety, the Phase II effort will refine the coating composition and application characteristics for use on aircraft so as to meet the stringent requirements of the aerospace and aeronautic industry. Further, we will establish a product specification of an anti-ice coating system for use with active de-icing systems and develop protocols for applying the coating at both OEM sites and field applications. The success of the program will lead to prevention of ice buildup on aircraft leading edges, improve aircraft safety, and reduce energy consumption during deicing procedures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other than aerospace, applications that can benefit from the use of anti-ice coatings, either as a standalone coating, or in combination with another active or passive de-icing device, include: (i) wind mills, where ice on the rotor blades can increase wind turbine load, as well as pose a safety hazard when chunks of ice can come loose and be propelled some distance from the turbine; (ii) communication towers, where, the presence of ice can be a safety hazard; (iii) transmission lines, where ice accumulation results in their snapping, and (iv) train cars, where the presence of ice can be a safety hazard.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed integrated deicing system directly supports NASA's continued interest in researching the most effective means for aircraft icing detection, removal, and mitigation. Existing and next generation aircraft (including N+2/N+3 aircraft, as well as vertical lift and unmanned systems) will benefit from the technology as it will help enable all-weather operation, reduce weight and lower power consumption. Success in the proposed effort will advance the capabilities of the active de-icing systems. Apart from using the anti-ice coatings in conjunction with active de-icing systems, these coatings can also be used on the wings of unmanned aerial vehicles operated by NASA; radio telescopes and transmission/receiving dishes located in cold climates where icing can hamper the performance, rocket launch pads and microwave towers operated by NASA or its affiliates. The proposed program can also address the icing problem in both high altitude long endurance UAVs (HALE-UAV) and low altitude high speed UAVs (LAHS-UAV). Icing can occur on the wings of these UAVs during take-off/landing and ascent/descent, which can lead to an increase in drag and reduction in endurance and control, consequently jeopardizing the mission.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Prototyping
Processing Methods
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Actuators & Motors
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 A2.01-7475
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CD12P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Inexpensive, Rugged and Compact Tunable Laser with Simple Tuning Control for Airborne Fiber Optic Sensor (FOS) Interrogators

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Freedom Photonics, LLC
41 Aero Camino
Santa Barbara, CA
93117-3104
(805) 967-4900

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gordon Morrison
info@freedomphotonics.com
41 Aero Camino
Santa Barbara,  CA 93117-3104
(805) 967-4900

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Dryden (Armstrong) Flight Research Center has developed a 4-fiber interrogation system for Fiber Optic Smart Structures (FOSS) sensor networks interrogation. Replacing the expensive, bulky, mechanically tuned swept laser technology used in the FOS system will help reduce the system cost, size and weight, and enable massive deployment. In this program, Freedom Photonics proposes to develop a novel, inexpensive semiconductor based widely tunable laser, which can be tuned using simple tuning algorithms and control.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications include temperature and pressure monitoring for oil and gas drilling, monitoring the strain on blades of wind turbines, sensing liquid levels in vats of chemicals, monitoring temperature and strain along the wings or blades of aerial vehicles, and monitoring the interior and exterior structural strain of all sorts of structures, 3D shape sensing. Spectroscopy, instrumentation for spectroscopic measurements.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The applications for the FOS technology with NASA: stress and strain monitoring in air and space vehicles; temperature monitoring in air and space vehicles. Structural health monitoring in air and space vehicles. Liquid fuel level monitoring in rockets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 A2.01-7500
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CD09P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cloud-Based Electronic Test Procedures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRACLabs, Inc.
100 North East Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio, TX
78216-1234
(281) 461-7886

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Kortenkamp
korten@traclabs.com
100 North East Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio,  TX 78216-1234
(281) 461-7886

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Procedures are critical to experimental tests as they describe the specific steps necessary to efficiently and safely carry out a test in a repeatable fashion. The procedure process includes creating test procedures, validating those procedures, executing the procedures during a test, and then analyzing and auditing the results. Relying on paper-based test procedures hampers data collection and distributed teamwork during test operations In Phase I of this project, TRACLabs prototyped a cloud-based electronic test procedure system that provides procedures via web browsers on tablets or laptops and guides the operator through the procedure step-by-step. TRACLabs also implemented a CAN bus interface between its electronic test procedure system and test hardware. This allows data from the test hardware to be displayed in-line with the procedure and for the procedure to send commands to the test hardware. TRACLabs will extend the electronic test procedure system in Phase II and integrate with NASA's AirVolt aeronautics test facility.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
TRACLabs is already selling the core technology proposed in this project as a commercial product with a large oil field services company as a launch customer. Field-testing at several sites world-wide is currently underway before deployment in actual operations in mid-2017. TRACLabs expects additional customers in the oil and gas industry will deploy PRIDE once it has been proven effective by by our launch customer. Sierra Nevada Corporation has also purchased licenses for use in their Dream Chaser program, which was recently selected to deliver cargo to ISS. TRACLabs is beginning a pilot program with a large chemical manufacturer to explore the usefulness of electronic procedures in their operations. We expect additional manufacturing customers, especially in aerospace, in the future.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our initial application of this technology will be NASA aeronautics research projects such as the Scalable Convergent Electronic Propulsion Technology Operations Research (SCEPTOR) X-57 project and the AirVolt test facility, both at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center. Additional aeronautics research projects would follow. The system is being evaluated for use in ground operations for the Resource Prospector robotic mission to the moon being jointly developed by NASA JSC and ARC. Applications to ISS and Orion mission operations are also envisioned and we are working with NASA Flight Operations Directorate (FOD) personnel at NASA Johnson Space Flight Center. NASA's Space Network Ground Segment Sustainment (SGSS) project that is modernizing the space agency's ground infrastructure systems for their Space Network is evaluating this system as a potential technology for Local Operating Procedures (LOPs).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Command & Control
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Knowledge Management
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 A2.01-7589
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CD23P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Battery Management and Control System using a Universal Reconfigurable Architecture for Extended Health of Batteries in Hybrid and/or All-Electric Propulsion Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
X-wave Innovations, Inc.
555 Quince Orchard Road, Suite 510
Gaithersburg, MD
20878-1437
(301) 948-8351

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dan Xiang
dxiang@x-waveinnovations.com
555 Quince Orchard Road, Suite 510
Gaithersburg,  MD 20878-5238
(301) 200-8128

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA seeks intelligent monitoring for hybrid and/or all electric propulsion systems, as well as methods to significantly extend the life of electric aircraft propulsion energy sources. From the available energy sources, Lithium-based batteries play a key role due to their high energy and power volumetric and gravimetric densities. The requirement to evolve towards more fuel efficient and more environmentally friendly aircrafts demands Lithium-based battery systems that can operate for longer periods of time in a safer and more reliable manner. On the battery monitoring and control area, focus has been directed at achieving accurate and stable long-term estimation of cell State of Charge (SOC), State of Health (SOH), and Remaining Useful Life (RUL). These efforts have achieved excellent progress and accuracies below 3% error are common now. Complimentary to these efforts, new approaches are needed that intelligently utilize the estimated and predicted information and turn it into tangible and considerable battery health and life performance improvements. Fuel-based aircrafts also benefit from these advances as they use batteries to power auxiliary loads, which also demand intelligent battery utilization that can translate into longer battery life and safety. Our proposed system answers these needs through the creation of a battery that adapts to the demands of the application and to the changes the battery suffers as it ages.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed system has many market applications in different industries such as exploration, defense, terrestrial hybrid and all-electric vehicles, unmanned vehicles, and energy sectors. Other government agencies, including DOD, DOE, DOT, and commercial sectors will benefit from this technology. Battery technologies are constantly being sought for renewable systems, such as solar, wind, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Besides propulsion systems batteries are used in commercial airplanes for auxiliary load support among others.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has great interest in methods and approaches for intelligent monitoring of electric power and propulsion systems for hybrid and/or all-electric aircrafts. NASA is specifically interested in the areas of intelligent monitoring and battery life and health improvement methods for fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly aircrafts. This includes the development of battery management systems capable to significantly extend the life of batteries while at the same time ensuring safety and performance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Space Transportation & Safety
Intelligence
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Storage
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 A2.01-8005
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CD13P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aircraft Chemical Sensor Arrays for Onboard Engine and Bleed Air Monitoring

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Makel Engineering, Inc.
1585 Marauder Street
Chico, CA
95973-9064
(530) 895-2771

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Susana Carranza
scarranza@makelengineering.com
1585 Marauder Street
Chico,  CA 95973-9064
(512) 589-0718

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 6
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Makel Engineering Inc. (MEI) is developing flight capable chemical microsensor arrays for in situ monitoring of high temperature bleed air and turbine exhaust in jet engines. The proposed chemical sensor probes will be a new class of onboard engine instrumentation for real time monitoring engine and bleed air system operation in flight. Sensor arrays developed by MEI have been demonstrated for ground tests to quantify composition of critical constituents in turbine engine exhaust products, including CO, CO2, NOx, O2, and HC (unburned hydrocarbons). There currently is no flight capable instrumentation for real time measurement of high temperature gas streams from engine bleed air or the turbine exhaust. Ground test demonstrations with high temperature capable (500 to 600oC) solid-state chemical microsensors have shown the potential value for engine health monitoring and detection of engine faults or abnormal operations from ingestion of high moisture levels or particulate from volcanic emissions. The development of flight qualified engine sensors that can measure key chemical species will enable a new level of aeronautical vehicle health management. Phase I of the program demonstrated approaches in sensor miniaturization and robust probe design that enables placement of multiple species in a compact single port. Phase II will develop the next generation prototypes targeting specific engine and bleed air systems for demonstration, validating design choices and proving system performance in a realistic environment for each application.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The air delivered to the cabin of a passenger aircraft is commonly bled from the compressor section of the aircraft?s engines, and conditioned before supplied to the cabin. Under normal conditions, this bleed air is clean and suitable for breathing. However, the bleed air may be contaminated by exhaust ingestion, lubricant leaks, or other potential faults in the system. Aircrew and frequent fliers are exposed to cabin air repeatedly and for extended periods of time, increasing the changes of exposure to contamination events. Recent air contamination events resulted in the emergency landing of a commercial flight. There is currently increased interest from commercial passenger aircraft manufacturers and operators to incorporate sensors to monitoring bleed air quality to avoid exposure of harmful or noxious gases to passengers and crew. MEI is currently in discussions with The Boeing Company looking at sensor approaches for bleed air monitoring. MEI has also been working with Cobham Mission System (CMS) on pilot breathing air quality monitoring for the Air Force for aircraft which use On-board Oxygen Generation System (OBOGS) to supply pilot breathing air.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This proposal targets the improvement of NASA?s ground and flight test aeronautics testing capabilities. Potential end users within NASA include ground test facilities such as Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) and Flight Loads Laboratory (FLL), as well as flight facilities such as AFRC with both piloted and unmanned systems. Real-time, in-flight data regarding combustor condition and emissions species can provide a previously unavailable test capability for NASA. Monitoring of bleed air for contaminants and fuel backflow is also an area of interest.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Process Monitoring & Control
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 A2.02-7076
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CD14P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Windhover Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Software Ecosystem

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Windhover Labs
2115 Castle Drive
League City, TX
77573-4947
(832) 385-3941

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mathew Benson
mbenson@windhoverlabs.com
2115 Castle Drive
League City,  TX 77573-4947
(832) 640-4018

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 6
End: 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The safety of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) flights is currently the responsibility of the pilot who is required to keep the vehicle within their line of sight (LoS). However, many UASs are capable of increasingly autonomous operation. As autonomy pushes against this boundary it is inevitable that the LoS requirement must be replaced with onboard intelligence to sense and avoid trouble without pilot intervention. The software making these decisions must be developed and tested to standards that ensure reliability and safety. Robust development, test, and operations tools will ensure quality development, adequate testing, and insightful operations of UASs. Windhover proposes to build upon their Phase I efforts to create a complete ecosystem of flight and ground software, as well as processes and standards for achieving the levels safety needed for operations of small UASs. The newest UAS operators are solving problems in their respective industries. They need a robust UAS software development tool chain that provides access to vehicle control in a safe manner that their existing IT resources and software personnel are already familiar with. Application developers building on the Windhover infrastructure use the entire tool chain to create robust test campaigns. The onboard test agent and ground automation provide a rich scripting environment that facilitates the efficient creation of multi-level test campaigns for verification and validation. These application test campaigns are built upon the pedigree of the Windhover framework that has been developed and tested with the same tool chain. Our Windhover software ecosystem will enable an exponential rate of innovation in the UAS software market and lead to novel solutions to the problems facing the integration of small UASs into the National Airspace (NAS). The Windhover ecosystem will become the defacto standard for safely developing, testing, deploying, and operating UAS applications in the NAS.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Many potential UAS application developers cannot overcome the barrier to entry that is presented by safety related concerns. With a safety critical flight software (FSW) framework in place, they can focus on their problem space without needing extensive FSW experience. The Windhover ecosystem enables UAS application developers to quickly create application solutions that stand on the shoulders of a rock-solid platform. Java Script / Python user applications and the use of industry standard IT solutions at the heart of operations console brings UAS software development to a huge existing base of IT professionals. The contrast with expensive, proprietary aerospace technologies opens up tremendous commercial potential for 3rd parties to add on and enhance the Windhover ecosystem. The UAS operator can create applications to streamline a workflow, test a variety of simulated scenarios, and ensure their application is robust. Once satisfied, they can sell their application to other operators in the Windhover ecosystem. In contrast to other UAS FSW platforms, the Windhover ecosystem is both certifiable and open, enabling expansion through additional applications by 3rd parties which will energize the commercial market for UAS. Windhover has successfully brought the open NASA CFS platform to the UAS domain, built a solid tool chain, and deployed a scalable operations solution. The Phase II products and certification round out a complete, powerful ecosystem.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
UTM : Unmanned Traffic Management for UAS in low-altitude airspace. This project includes the development and demonstration of a possible future UTM system that could safely enable low-altitude airspace and UAS operations. Robust flight software and integrated ground solutions will be central to this effort. The Windhover ecosystem is quite complimentary to this effort. AOS : Autonomy Operating System, which is building smart drones on top of CFS and Artificial Intelligence reasoning engines. Although AOS is using different computer hardware, it will benefit from the Phase II certification efforts targeting CFS outlined in this proposal. AOS is a feasibility study that will sunset after 2017, though will potentially evolve into another technical challenge. There is also considerable potential for crossover benefit from the human exploration mission directorate, which has embraced CFS in some of its space flight software projects, like the backup flight computer for Orion. NASA is proving to be a major player in the integration of UAS into the national airspace. Many of the current ideas will require that the low altitude airspace be mapped and cataloged. NASA would be a good choice for these multi-sensor data acquisition flights. NASA could use Windhover / Aerotenna powered UAS missions to fly the necessary flights to create the map of low altitude airspace. These maps could then be used by others to safely fly through these areas.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Development Environments
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 A2.02-7580
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CL94P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Autonomous Contingency Detection and Reaction for Unmanned Aircraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Near Earth Autonomy, Inc.
5001 Baum Boulevard, Suite 750
Pittsburgh, PA
15213-1856
(412) 513-6110

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kyle Strabala
strabala@nearearth.aero
5001 Baum Blvd Ste 750
Pittsburgh,  PA 15213-1856
(412) 621-4300

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) operating in the national airspace system (NAS) have the potential to significantly impact modern society. It is now common to consider UAS for difficult and dangerous tasks such as fire fighting and dull tasks such as surveying crops. In addition, the autonomous elements from such UAS are being considered as a means to provide safe personal aviation. Open questions remain, however, about how unmanned autonomous aircraft can be safely incorporated into the NAS. UAS operating in the NAS must (1) sense and avoid other vehicles and follow air traffic commands, (2) avoid the terrain and land safely without operator intervention, (3) react to contingencies such as engine-out and lost-link scenarios, and (4) be reliable (by FAA airworthiness standards) and cost-effective. The current approach for UAS integration relies on radio links and the operator's acuity to direct them safely. Lost links, however, are unavoidable. UAS must have the capability to make their own decisions based on information available via databases and any information discovered by onboard sensors. This is especially the case for rare events such as the failure of propulsion or safety sensing. Near Earth Autonomy proposes to develop technologies and capabilities leading to fully autonomous systems that are able to discover and safely adapt to rare events in their environment with minimal or no human involvement. This proposal focuses on developing an Autonomous Contingency System in the form of sensors and computer software that will enable UAS of the future to be operable safely in the NAS. Additionally, the proposal addresses how the technical challenges can be met and how the technology developed can be shown to be both trustworthy and commercially viable for general aviation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We see a large number of military and commercial applications that could benefit from tools for Contingency Management. Specifically we anticipate a global military market of 57,000 unmanned aircraft--primarily in the reconnaissance and attack configurations, with growing utilization of utility and cargo configurations. On the commercial side, our analysis forecasts a market of 160,000 unmanned aircraft, most of which would be in the public safety and precision agriculture segments. Finally, the recent analysis from Uber points to a compelling market case for "flying taxis" to transport people in small self piloted aircraft in busy urban settings. We expect that our technology will be very relevant to such application.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The initial application for NASA-relevant missions will be to assist with the Mobility on Demand initiative and with the UAS Traffic Management programs resident at Langley and at Ames Research Center. Both of these activities are investigating technologies relevant to incorporation of UAS in the National Air Space. A successful outcome will be very useful concerning roadmaps and policy recommendations to the FAA. Near Earth Autonomy envisions another NASA market to be primarily units for testing and validation at both the system level and at the aircraft level. The autonomous capabilities that Near Earth proposes will contribute to NASA's testing and validation of the technologies and concepts for UAS operations in the NAS especially given the focus on "on demand mobility." Additionally, Near Earth's autonomous technology will provide an enhanced capability, enabling more comprehensive UAS flight testing for NASA's collaborative efforts with the FAA to accommodate UAS operation in the Next Generation Air Transportation System. As the autonomous flight capabilities mature and are integrated into aircraft, they will be of direct use to NASA in their flight testing of ground-based air navigational aids and guidance systems located in remote areas, such as Antarctica. Near Earth's autonomous technology will enable greater utilization of UAS in other NASA areas, particularly for experimentation and testing in NASA's various research centers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 A2.02-7634
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CL88P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Safety Analysis For Evaluating (SAFE) sUAS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 190
Rockville, MD
20855-2814
(301) 294-5221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ankit Tyagi
atyagi@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 190
Rockville,  MD 20855-2814
(301) 294-4639

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The primary goal of Air Traffic Management systems is to ensure safety of operations, in the air and on the ground. While they system have served the National Airspace (NAS) well over the years, the imminent introduction of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) poses a serious challenge. The variety, flexibility and accessibility of UASs ensures high demand for their use. The low-altitude, small-UAS (sUAS) are perhaps the most attractive platforms due to the low cost to own and maintain. These aircraft pose unique safety risks that are very different from other manned and unmanned aircraft. To address these risks Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI) along with its subcontractor Purdue University propose to develop higher fidelity sUAS Trajectory Generator (sUTG) tool for Small UASs. The tool is capable of modeling rotorcraft, fixed wind and hybrid sUAS while accounting for the impacts of winds and sensor uncertainty. The model architecture allows for the use of high fidelity 6-DOF data augmented by flight plan data. The lack of credible trajectory model for sUASs is sorely required for improved mission designs, safety analyses, contingency management and NAS performance estimation. This effort is a step in this direction.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most promising Non- NASA commercial applications are: - Additional enhancement to autopilot system - Standalone safety analysis tool.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our proposed technique can be used for a wide range of remote sensing applications for NASA and other parts of US government including: - Integrating with existing UAS specific tools and ecosystem - NASA can use sUTG as a template to develop similar model to augment trajectory based tools - Integrating with legacy modeling and simulation tools such as ACES and FACET - FAA can also use the performance databased being created under this project as a template to standardize performance specifications - FAA researchers can use sUTG to analyze proposed used of sUAS before issuing a Certificate of Authorization (COA)

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Intelligence
Prototyping
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Processing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 A2.02-8328
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CL84P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact High Power 3D LiDAR System for (UAS) Unmanned Aircraft Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
EOTRON, LLC
3516 Seagate Way, Suite 140
Oceanside, CA
92056-2677
(760) 429-7117

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gerald Kim
gerladkim@eotron.com
3516 Seagate Way, Suite 140
Oceanside,  CA 92056-2677
(760) 429-7117

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Eotron has introduced an improved illumination source for 3D IR Laser Time-of-Flight (ToF) systems based on its patented 3D silicon technology originally developed to improve efficiency and power of solid state lasers. Using proprietary design, fabrication and thermal management techniques, Eotron developed a highly efficient and compact silicon package / assembly for both IR VCSEL and Laser Diode illumination sources that can be modulated in high peak power & high frequency to increase the range and resolution of a 3D IR LiDAR system. Eotron's 3D LiDAR system overcomes the limiting factors found in complex laser based systems while operating at less power consumption due to improved thermal management and a more efficient frequency driving method. In addition to these advantages, the 3D LiDAR system can reduce system size and weight by over 50%, while also lowering cost of manufacturing. Our system is ideal for applications requiring 3D long range, high resolution real time imaging in a light-weight and compact package.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Automotive Collision Avoidance Systems, Autonomous Drone Flight, Robotic Vision, Safety and Security Systems, Precision 3D Imaging, Computer Gesture Control.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Robotic Vision, Security and Safety Systems (Intruder Detection, Facial Recognition), Precision 3D Mapping, Terrain Mapping or Navigation, Computer Control.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Manufacturing Methods
3D Imaging
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Lasers (Guidance & Tracking)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 A3.01-7271
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CA31P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Simulation-Based Tool for Traffic Management Training

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
540 Fort Evans Road, Suite 300
Leesburg, VA
20176-3379
(800) 405-8576

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris Brinton
brinton@mosaicatm.com
540 Fort Evans Road, Suite 300
Leesburg,  VA 20176-3379
(703) 980-3961

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Both the current NAS, as well as NextGen, need successful use of advanced tools. Successful training is required today because more information gathering and decision making must be done manually, which requires training in the fundamental principles and objectives of traffic management. Successful training is required in NextGen due to the increased reliance on automation. Given the multitude of input channels and actors that must be included in an environment for comprehensive training of Traffic Management Coordinators (TMCs), it would be too costly and too complex to attempt a full-scale human-in-the-loop simulation or table-top exercise that includes the direct participation of all of these entities. In Phase I of this research, we studied and prototyped effective techniques and technologies to allow virtual and/or constructive simulation of key components of the TMC's environment to achieve a significant step forward in the state of the art of TMC training. In Phase II, we will conduct further research on Traffic Management (TM) training techniques and create a more comprehensive prototype system for evaluation. The proposed innovation and focus on this research is called the COMprehensive Environment for TM Training by Simulation (COMETTS). NASA's recent research thrust in the Shadow Mode Assessment using Realistic Technologies for the National Airspace System (SMART NAS) Test Bed provides an important step toward, and platform for, research in simulation-based training for the controller and TMC workforce. Such research holds the potential to significantly improve the transition of technologies from NASA to the FAA and onward to fully successful implementation and acceptance by the end users. This proposed effort will leverage SMART NAS to conduct research, development, prototyping and evaluation of advanced simulation-based TMC training.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The simulation-based training concept described in this proposal can also be used by airlines and other Flight Operators for training of their dispatchers and ATC coordinators. Collaborative Decision Making in ATM requires a detailed understanding of terminology, operations, tools and constraints amongst all participants. Through a broad use of the COMETTS concept across both FAA and Flight Operator participants, CDM can be enhanced. The simulation-based training concept has extensive applicability across numerous other fields including military, emergency response, security, power plant operations, process control, and many other areas. The ability to simulate unstructured interaction with virtual/constructive participants is at the cutting edge of current market needs in many of these fields. Through the combination of Artificial Intelligence, Natural Language Processing, Machine Learning and Speech Recognition, Mosaic will leverage this work to significant commercial opportunities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As this innovative concept is directly related to the air transportation system, the most appropriate application of the concept and prototype will be further research on operational improvements in the US ATM system. This concept for simulation-based TM training can be applied by NASA across many concepts and technologies to enhance the technology transfer process and end-user acceptance of NASA-developed capabilities. By considering the training process as a core part of the research on advanced ATM decision support tools and procedures, NASA can optimize concepts and capabilities to facilitate training in the operational environment. NASA can use the COMETTS environment to perform research specifically on ATM training associated with new tools, to further improve the FAA's deployment process of new capabilities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Man-Machine Interaction
Training Concepts & Architectures
Computer System Architectures
Knowledge Management
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 A3.01-7346
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CL41P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Technologies Supporting Seamless Oceanic Transitions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Innovation Laboratory, Inc.
2360 Southwest Chelmsford Avenue
Portland, OR
97201-2265
(503) 242-1761

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jimmy Krozel
Jimmy.Krozel@gmail.com
2360 SW Chelmsford Ave.
Portland,  OR 97201-2265
(503) 242-1761

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this SBIR effort, we integrate existing technologies to create an infrastructure that is ready to leverage emerging technologies to realize an oceanic Trajectory-based Operations (TBO) capability with seamless transitions to/from domestic/oceanic airspace. The system includes the processing of all forms of domestic/oceanic airspace surveillance, including the emergence of space-based Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B), FAA Ocean21 processing and dynamic airspace management, weather information from GOES-R satellites facilitating the Offshore Precipitation Capability (OPC), oceanic conflict probing first established in the Oceanic Conflict Advisory Trial (OCAT), Dynamic Airborne Reroute Procedures (DARP), and the use of Trajectory Options Sets (TOSs) facilitated by the Collaborative Trajectory Options Program (CTOP).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This SBIR effort will improve arrival and departure operations for US-based air carriers that perform international flights out of airports near the US coastline. The effort will additional assist airlines with en route traffic flying over coastal transitions to and from the US Domestic airspace and Oceanic Airspace.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This SBIR effort will produce software that can assist NASAŭs Airspace Operations and Safety Program (AOSP) and NASA's Airspace Technology Demonstrations (ATDs). Furthermore, this SBIR effort will develop software components that can potentially assist a number of NASA research efforts in ATM, including but not limited to: TFM optimization, TBO, Integrated Arrival/Departure/Surface Operations (IADS), Weather Integrated Decision Making (Wx Integration), Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC), Oceanic Tailored Arrivals (OTAs), Network Enabled ATM, and Fully Automated ATM/Airspace Operations System (AutoMax).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Command & Control
Process Monitoring & Control
Sequencing & Scheduling
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
GPS/Radiometric (see also Sensors)
Ranging/Tracking


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 A3.01-7633
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CA58P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Stakeholder Web-Based Interrogable Federated Toolkit (SWIFT)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 190
Rockville, MD
20855-2814
(301) 294-5221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Frederick Wieland
fwieland@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 190
Rockville,  MD 20855-2814
(301) 294-5268

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There are three innovations in this proposed SWIFT project, all of which were identified during earlier effort. The first innovation involves the development of a web-accessible model invocation engine (the "Web-based" part of SWIFT) which was prototyped earlier, demonstrated to NASA/Ames in December 2016, and will be fully developed in the current proposed projectI. This model invocation engine can be used as a front end to SMART-NAS and can potentially transforms NAS simulations into a Software as a Service (SaaS) model. This transformation will make it practical for NAS analyses to be run anywhere, and its design is compatible with the Data Distribution System (DDS) engine inside of SMART-NAS as well as with the Sherlock database system maintained by NASA. The second innovation, which is coupled with the first, is a standard modeling language, which we call the Predictive Query Language, or PQL (the "Interrogable" part of SWIFT). PQL is a powerful language for coordinating model runs across the distributed SMART-NAS environment, or any other model-based infrastructure. The final innovation involves developing applications ("app") that run on both Apple IOS and Google Android smart phones that enable commercial pilots to easily access the status of the NAS (the "Stakeholder" part of SWIFT). This app can access the current state stored in SMART-NAS or any other NAS data repository.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential non-NASA applications are isomorphic to the NASA applications except with a commercial intent. The SWIFT interface and IAI's government off-the-shelf federated toolkit can be used by aviation consultants, industry analysts, and other firms investigating one-off or multiple problems in aviation analysis. Example questions might be "If NextGen is configured to use performance-based navigation (PBN) approaches at [name an airport such as Miami International], what will be the effect on noise for the surrounding population?" Such a question would be formulated as a PQL statement, which would require precise specification of the metrics involved and the configuration of the simulation tools (traffic, weather, PBN routes). The smart phone pilot app can be used to plan a pilot's work day, allowing the pilot to access all available information about the airports of interest.. The PQL statements can be expanded to include non-aviation applications, such as applications in medicine, earthquake prediction, other scientific areas, and sociological projections.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications include the following: As an interface to NASA's SMART-NAS system, SWIFT provides a "Software as a Service" (SaaS) model, the first of its kind, to the aviation community. NASA can offer its various tools (ACES, FACET, Sherlock and others) as a service that is accessible through SWIFT and connected through SMART-NAS. As an engine that connects to a database such as the NASA-developed Sherlock system, SWIFT can access that data to configure fast-time and real-time models that can make future projections. These future projections can be stored back into the database (if needed) and become accessible to other NASA analysts. As a stand-alone analysis engine, SWIFT can be used by NASA and non-NASA government employees to refine a study question (through PQL statements) and to execute the resulting analysis using the federated toolkit attached to the SWIFT web-based interface. As a tool to express analyses in standard format, NASA and other government researchers can use PQL statements, in a stand-alone mode, to specify research questions that can be shared with other researchers in a clear, easy-to-understand language that is compilable to actionable requests for aviation simulations. As a language that transcends aviation applications, PQL can be used for any projection of the future state of any system, including planetary systems, cosmological investigations, projections of the spread of disease, and so forth.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Processing
Programming Languages
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 A3.01-8505
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CL56P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Multi-Mode Automation for Trajectory Based Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Architecture Technology Corporation
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN
55344-3586
(952) 829-5864

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Douglas Sweet
dsweet@atcorp.com
1698 Dell Ave
Campbell,  CA 95008-6901
(408) 618-9803

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Air Traffic Management's lack of support for aircraft with different capabilities is a long standing and persistent issue that can limit the ability of the National Airspace System (NAS) to take full advantage of advanced aircraft capabilities. To fully utilize the variety of Trajectory Based Operations (TBO) concepts planned for the NAS, some of which utilize advanced aircraft capabilities for implementing trajectories, an air traffic controller (ATC) must be able to simultaneously support a variety of TBO concepts using different aircraft automation systems to fly the desired trajectory. To accomplish this, the ATC needs automation support to simplify the inherent complexities of using a variety of different BO concepts and trajectory implementation strategies and provide the controller with the tools needed to execute the desired trajectories, maintain situational awareness at all times, and support off-nominal situations. IMMA (Integrated Multi-Mode Automation) provides the automation to simplify the inherent complexities of using multiple TBO concepts by focusing the controller interactions on common core functions (e.g., the initial clearance, compliance monitoring) that all TBO concepts must support.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
- FAA - Implement IMMA Decision Support Tool (DST) to allow TBFM automation platform to implement multiple TBO technologies currently available but not currently integrated into the National Airspace System (NAS) - Airline Operations Centers - IMMA Decision Support Tool to assist Airline Dispatchers who must now manually integrate many data sources

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Support NASA TBO research using IMMA DST to allow study of how to utilize advanced TBO automation system for future ATC (2030+ timeframe) integrated with current TBO technologies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Ranging/Tracking
Telemetry (see also Control & Monitoring)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 A3.02-7084
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CS59P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace Systems (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hiawatha Aircraft Anti-Collision System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nokomis, Inc.
310 5th Street
Charleroi, PA
15022-1517
(724) 483-3946

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Karen Canne
kcanne@nokomisinc.com
310 5th St.
Charleroi,  PA 15022-1517
(724) 483-3946

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
For Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (SUAVs), the FAA mandate to equip all aircraft with ADS-B Out transmitters by 1 January 2020 to support NextGen goals presents both logistical (due to SWAP constraints) and mission security issues. Aircraft without ADS-B Out capabilities, ranging from commercial or general aviation aircraft with failed transponders to adversarial aircraft deliberately operating without required transponder equipment, will continue to exist within the general airspace and pose navigational hazards and tactical threats to SUAVs. To meet these needs, Nokomis proposes to adapt its ultra-sensitive RF detection, identification, and geo-location (DIG) system, called Hiawatha to provide an unsurpassed trajectory management and anti-collision avoidance capability suitable for integration into SUAV platforms. The Hiawatha system provides flight-tested state-of-the-art ultra-sensitive RF detection, identification and geo-location performance which has been proven to detect UAVs at distances up to 15km. Nokomis will develop the Hiawatha Aircraft Anti-Collision System including software and hardware to aid in trajectory management and safe traffic flow of autonomous UAV operations capable of meeting the SWaP requirements for incorporation into a representative SUAV payload platform. The RF-based traffic management and anti-collision avoidance system will be capable of monitoring the entire spectral range from 30 MHz to 3 GHz, while providing the necessary detection, identification, and locating abilities from all angles while operating in a non-interfering manner with other potential payloads. Specifically, as part of Phase II effort, Nokomis will enhance existing geo-location capabilities and implement Trajectory Prediction and Anti-Collision/Well Clear Modules to protect aircraft and allow for efficient Traffic Flow System for maintaining aircraft spacing. The Phase II effort will build, test, and demonstrate a prototype system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Hiawatha anti-collision system can be applied to a variety of UAV and drone applications in which way-finding or obstacle avoidance is necessary. For drones used in agricultural applications, the system can be adapted to help the aircraft avoid electrical towers and other obstructions near fields. Further applications can use beacons to provide location points for the tracking and way-finding of UAVs on long distance per-mapped routes beyond user control. UAVs operating as part of a swarm or network can use the system to ensure well clear and formation distances are maintained. The system can also be reconfigured as a ground-based detection, identification, and tracking system of UAVs or other platforms, providing information about a region of airspace for space operations such as UAV and balloon launches. UAV tracking is of interest for security concerns of agencies and private corporations including, but not limited to, nuclear power plants, large public venues, sensitive government facilities, and to prevent tampering or corporate espionage, . In addition, the automobile industry is expanding exploration into the development of fully automated vehicles. This technology represents a distinct capability for potential anti-collision avoidance systems that are not reliant upon inter-vehicle communications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to the nearly 102,000 flights in the air across the United States today, UAVs and drones make up increasing segments of the aviation traffic in this country. The need for methods to integrate these aircraft into the transportation system in an efficient and seamless manner which is easily scalable as UAV traffic increases. Aircraft without ADB-D Out capabilities, including malfunctioning and non-cooperative aircraft will continue to exist within the general airspace and pose navigational hazards and tactical threats to SUAVs. The ability for UAVs to detect, identify, and track these aircraft to ensure safe operation and trajectories in traffic will become of increasing importance. The Hiawatha aircraft anti-collision system will provide a tool for trajectory managements and efficient traffic flow, especially for preventing collisions in case of transmitter failure or non-cooperative traffic. In addition, the Hiawatha aircraft anti-collision system can aid in operations during approach or in dense traffic areas by providing range and bearing of nearby aircraft to maintain spacing during approach. The passive nature of the system allows for the detection of non-cooperative or disabled aircraft, while the low cost and small size of the system allow for integration on various platforms.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Characterization
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Transport/Traffic Control
Electromagnetic
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Radio


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 A3.02-8237
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CA49P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace Systems (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Innovation in the Sky

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Higher Ground
2225 East Bayshore Road, Suite 2
Palo Alto, CA
94303-9430
(650) 322-3958

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rob Reis
rob@myhigherground.com
2225 East Bayshore Road, Suite 2
Palo Alto,  CA 94303-9430
(650) 322-3958

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase II proposal presents a scope of work to develop reliable Sense and Avoid for BVLOS Unmanned Aerial Vehicle [UAV] operations. We first analyze a) the requirement for avoidance based on the UAV's ability to get away from danger and b) the suite of candidate technologies needed to detect intruders with ample time to get away. To meet this need we will build a reliable FINE TRACKING sensor for knowing where nearby objects are located and an EARLY WARNING sensor for the region outside the coverage of the Fine Tracker. The first step is to substantially improve the candidate sensor technologies [radar, LiDAR and V2V] for our specific requirements. This is because the individual technologies have typically been designed for other markets and on their own will not solve Sense and Avoid. But the combination of our improvements to these three technologies along with smart data fusion will provide meaningful Early Warning and Fine Tracking of any likely intruders. We will then run experiments to verify that we can reliably detect and then avoid our two most challenging targets; namely power lines and toy drones. We will then report on our results and provide recommendations for commercialization.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The utility inspection problem for oil, gas and electric companies is also a big opportunity for small UAV flight. In this problem, the UAV would fly tens of miles along utility and gas lines looking for places of encroachment and/or maintenance issues. Encroachment occurs when non-suspecting organizations build and/or modify [i.e. dig] the land near these lines which could cause some danger. Maintenance issues are due to the common aging of outdoor elements. In both the Government application and the commercial application, the problem that we are solving is long distance inspection in which the UAV is smart enough to fly autonomously, not hit anything and offer surveillance. Also, in both cases the customer will desire imagery that is then sent back to a command site for human analysis. Our technology, along those developed in this project, will offer the first equipment to achieve this affordably.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many Government applications: The most immediate one is to do work with the Department of Homeland Security to provide UAV border surveillance along the US/Mexico border. This suggested solution will use a fleet of small UAVs flying autonomously back and forth between recharge stations to provide meaningful and accurate intelligence of border intrusion. Then, high resolution photos collected by the smart UAV would be sent via our satellites to DHS agents in a remote command facility who will then decide on the level and type of engagement. In addition to border security, this sense and avoid technology can be used to a) permit safe flight for NOAA surveillance of US waterways and landmass; b) help execute search and rescue missions for the US Coast Guard via UAVs and c) support the Department of Transportation to do long range inspection of the country's infrastructure.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Prototyping
Data Fusion
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
GPS/Radiometric (see also Sensors)
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 A3.03-7397
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CL70P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Future Aviation Systems Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Intelligent Information Processing for Enhanced Safety in the NAS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Metis Technology Solutions, Inc.
2309 Renard Place, Southeast
Albuquerque, NM
87106-4259
(650) 967-3051

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Jessop
Richard.Jessop@metis-tech.com
2101 Executive Drive, Ste 850
Hampton,  VA 23666-2404
(719) 337-0185

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Our Phase I work focused on how improved information flow between actors in a flight deck environment can improve safety performance. An operational prototype was developed demonstrating how the Intelligent Information Processing System (IIPS) will operate in actual accidents/incidents. For Phase II, we propose the following operating environment extensions from the flight deck environment: NextGen scenarios emphasizing interactions with air traffic controllers operating in fast paced, increased volume of manned and autonomous traffic; UAV operations emphasizing introduction of UAVs into the NAS, transition to autonomy and fully autonomous operations; and IIPS in flight training environments both simulated and airborne. We also propose an extension to the manner in which conditions were developed in Phase I. Conditions were developed using post analysis of accidents and incidents. The error chain of events was identified, information necessary to prevent the event was identified, and finally, a condition developed that detected the circumstances for a possible safety failure so that a notification could be transmitted to the actor who would then take the appropriate action to break the error chain. This paradigm of condition development can be characterized as reactive. With the NAS moving into a state of flux with the integration of UAVs and general increased traffic volume, reactive safety may not be acceptable. In order to continue the steadily improving safety record of aviation, a more proactive approach must be considered. We propose the use of a classical rule-based expert system and other artificial intelligence approaches that can make inferences of possible unsafe conditions using a temporal knowledge base populated by propositional statements generated by IIPS information sources.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The IIPS technology contributes to several FAA near-term goals. In order to be of practical use, IIPS must implement conditions that have been identified either as safety enhancements per Commercial Aviation Safety Team Safety Enhancements (CAST SEs), or as accident causes per the Joint Safety Analysis Team Controlled Flight Into Terrain (JSAT CFIT) and Joint Safety Implementation Team Loss of Control (JSIT LOC) documents. The IIPS may be in a special situation where it can implement specific recommendations by the documents not done so to date by the aviation community at large. Notification terminal information and presentation must also be consistent with recommendations and guidelines defined by the same documents. It should be noted that these documents refer to other documents such as the Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) or that there may be additional documents such as Advisory Circular 25.1322-1 Flightcrew Alerting that must be considered while developing conditions and notifications. A critical consideration for the IIPS is that it may implement a redundant check or may monitor other alerts or notifications so that an adaptive and enhanced alert or notification may be issued when the initial and primary alert fails to initiate remedial actions by the intended audience.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Integrating the proposed system with the ATOS/SMART-NAS development effort:It is possible to integrate the IIPS with NASA's Airspace and Traffic Operations Simulation (ATOS) that is currently being integrated into the Shadow Mode Assessment Using Realistic Technologies for the National Airspace System (SMART-NAS) test bed. In this integration effort, large number of ASTORs being run on the Amazon cloud cannot be monitored for correct behavior during runs and can only be verified by post processing. The IIPS can be developed to monitor ASTORs for reasonable flight performance and generate alerts along with additional context when simulated aircraft begin to deviate. Integrating the IIPS with the ATOS may allow subsequent integration with additional simulation platforms as they are integrate into the SMART-NAS test bed. This may allow for seamless systems-level development on a National Airspace System level. It is also possible to use IIPS to support the transition to autonomy as IIPS develops its valued information at the right time (VIRT) concepts. As autonomous UAV systems continue to develop, there will be situations where the autonomy will fail. It may be possible to have a human operator step in and perform a better recovery of the autonomous vehicle. The IIPS VIRT functionality will optimize the time for a human operator to develop a complete and accurate situational assessment and perform the appropriate recovery actions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Man-Machine Interaction
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 A3.03-7631
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CA46P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Future Aviation Systems Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: DAAS: Data Analytics for Assurance of Safety

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 190
Rockville, MD
20855-2814
(301) 294-5221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ankit Tyagi
atyagi@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 190
Rockville,  MD 20855-2814
(301) 294-4639

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
One of the challenges faced by the National Airspace (NAS) stakeholders in general and the Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP) i.e., Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in particular is the effective maintenance of safety in presence increasing demand by manned traffic and with introduction of Unmanned Air System (UAS) in the near future. Since there is going to be more traffic within in the same airspace volume some of the current event based, human centric safety mechanisms that are going to be overwhelmed. DAAS architecture addresses the overall requirement for ensuring safe operations in the NAS while embracing its complexity and leveraging the advancements in machine learning through one simple architecture. The single architecture can spawn tools focused at ensuring safety different areas of operation while being able to share information among them. The tools developed using DAAS will provide invaluable support to NASA and industry researchers in identifying, diagnosing and discovering the impacts of NextGen technologies on NAS safety and efficiency.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most promising Non- NASA commercial applications are: - Safety analytics for future technologies - Real time assessment of airline network for safety and efficiency

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our proposed technique can be used for a wide range of remote sensing applications for NASA and other parts of US government including: - Safety analytics tool for SAMRT-NAS Test Bed - Big data repository for aviation data - Decision support tool for controllers and pilots - Safety analytics plugin for ACES, FACET and other legacy simulation tools - Aviation safety incident discovery tool to search for and prepare use cases

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Intelligence
Prototyping
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Processing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 A3.03-8048
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CA51P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Future Aviation Systems Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Automated Real-Time Clearance Analyzer (ARCA)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Architecture Technology Corporation
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN
55344-3586
(952) 829-5864

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Rinehart
drinehart@atcorp.com
425 3rd St SW
Washington,  DC 20024-3200
(434) 336-3353

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Automated Real-Time Clearance Analyzer (ARCA) automates safety assessment of ATC decisions and can operate orders of magnitude faster (and on a wider range of information) than a human. ARCA's core algorithms mirror human safety assessments so that decision analyses are comprehendible on inspection and can be calibrated with experience and observation. Furthermore, ARCA archives operational data as it operates in the field, giving it increasingly better information from which to learn and make increasingly more accurate safety assessments. ARCA uses a Bayesian network to determine the estimated probabilities of incidents and accidents. ARCA's operational safety assessments are objectively linked to hard data. As in any estimation (human or automated), there are always uncertainties. However, ARCA does not rely on any heuristics or subjective integration algorithms. The assessments it produces are objective and quantitatively defensible based on its growing archive of operational information. This is a highly desirable characteristic of trusted automation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For air carriers ARCA can provide a post-flight approach analysis tool. This tool will allow air carriers to continually analyze the safety of the approaches flown and identify and analyze points during the approach where the risk level was high or unacceptable. ARCA would be complementary to and a cheaper alternative to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA). For the FAA the near-term potential of ARCA is as post operations safety analysis tool similar to the tool that would be sold to the air carriers. The primary difference in capability is that the FAA would not necessarily have access to crew experience unless it was provided through an existing safety program. In addition to a standalone safety analysis tool, ARCA could be a future add-on to the FAA's DVARS program.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ARCA will be well-positioned to integrate with NASA's SMART-NAS Testbed to provide a demonstration system in support of NASA's Real-time System-wide Safety Assurance Strategic Thrust. ARCA technology can serve a centerpiece of future automated ATC research and development. ARCA technology can also be embedded into vehicle control platforms, starting with manned flight decks (as decision support) and large UAS (working toward autonomous decision-making).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Data Processing
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H1.01-8072
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CP31P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In situ Resource Utilization - Production of Feedstock for Manufacturing and Construction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Extraterrestrial Metals Processing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pioneer Astronautics
11111 West 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood, CO
80215-5516
(303) 980-0890

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Berggren
mberggren@pioneerastro.com
11111 W. 8th Ave, Unit A
Lakewood,  CO 80215-5516
(303) 980-0231

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Extraterrestrial Metals Processing (EMP) system produces iron, silicon, and light metals from Mars, Moon, or asteroid resources in support of advanced human space exploration. Refractory oxides and minor constituents such as sulfur, phosphorus, and alkaline earth oxides are also generated as byproducts and can be used for the refining of finished goods, thereby further reducing dependence on Earth-based consumables. Iron is produced via reduction of oxides by hydrogen or carbon monoxide. Silicon, ferrosilicon, and high-purity fumed silicon monoxide are generated via carbothermal reduction of silica-containing resources. Reductants are generated using established ISRU-related technologies including electrolysis, the reverse water gas shift reaction, the Boudouard carbon deposition reaction, and combinations thereof. During Phase I, magnesium metal was successfully produced via silicothermic reduction. Alternative light metal reduction methods will be evaluated and compared to the baseline silicothermic reduction of magnesium oxide for structural applications, replacement parts, and manufacturing hardware on Mars. A high-quality fumed silicon monoxide product can be further oxidized and used for production of clear glass. Upon reduction with carbon, SiO can also be used to make high purity silicon for the production of semiconductor materials using doping agents such as phosphorus. The Phase II effort will expand on the findings of the Phase I work with demonstration of an end-to-end system to produce iron and steel at a rate on the order of one kilogram per day. Example parts will be made using casting, sintering, or advanced manufacturing methods. In parallel with the demonstration of end-to-end iron production during Phase II, light metals manufacturing methods evaluated during Phase I will be further refined. Small-scale production of light metals will be demonstrated during Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
One potential terrestrial EMP application is the production of high-grade silicon metal or ferrosilicon. The hydrogen-enhanced carbon monoxide disproportionation method employed in the EMP system for reductant production enables high rates of carbon deposition onto pure silica in the absence of a metal catalyst. Direct carbon deposition from CO generated during carbothermal reduction integrated with RWGS-electrolysis modules would reduce the purchase of carbon for the process while significantly reducing overall carbon emissions compared to current practice. The carbon deposited by this method would be of very high purity. Such processing would have particular application and potential for manufacturing cost savings if carbon emissions become regulated. In a complete closed-loop system including a reverse water gas shift and electrolysis unit, silicon or ferrosilicon manufacturing could be accomplished with virtually no carbon emissions. The EMP techniques have additional potential for the processing of lower-grade ores and feed stocks including other process residues and wastes. As higher-grade ores on Earth are more-difficult to find and mine, feed costs for existing technologies rise. The EMP can help to reduce overall processing costs by enabling the use of non-conventional feed stocks and the non-conventional metal oxide reduction techniques proposed for the Phase II effort.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary application of EMP is for production of iron, silicon, and light metals as well as refractory metal oxides and byproducts including phosphorus and oxygen from Mars, Moon, or asteroid resources for manufacturing in support of advanced human space exploration. The EMP product suite includes many useful materials that will expand exploration and colonization capabilities while substantially reducing the costs and risks of bringing supplies from Earth. Many EMP product streams are suitable for use in advanced casting or additive manufacturing methods to allow for efficient use of resources.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Prototyping
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Resource Extraction
Ceramics
Metallics
Minerals


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H1.01-8191
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CJ35P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In situ Resource Utilization - Production of Feedstock for Manufacturing and Construction
PROPOSAL TITLE: In-Situ Ethylene and Methane Production from CO2 as Plastic Precursors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Opus 12, Inc.
2342 Shattuck Avenue, #820
Berkeley, CA
94704-1517
(917) 349-3740

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Etosha Cave
cave@opus-12.com
2342 Shattuck Avenue, #820
Berkeley,  CA 94704-1517
(281) 235-2314

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Opus 12 has redesigned the cathode of the commercially available PEM water electrolyzer such that it can support the reduction of carbon dioxide into ethylene and/or methane and suppress the competing hydrogen reaction. Methane and ethylene are well known polymer precursors that can be used as starting material to make plastics in extraterrestrial environments. PEM water electrolyzers have already been proven space worthy and are commercially available at various scales. Our innovation enables the creation of polyethylene and other polymers such as polyhydroxyalkanoates from the most basic starting materials: CO2, water and electricity. In Phase II, Opus 12 will continue to improve performance of the CO2 conversion process and build a working prototype of ethylene and methane production that will serve as the basis for a future commercial device.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Ethylene and methane are two of the most widely available organic compounds. Ethylene has a global market of over $100 billion. Approximately half of all ethylene produced is polymerized to polyethylene. Based on customer interviews, existing producers of ethylene and ethylene-related equipment, e.g., Total Energy, Chart Industries, SABIC, have expressed interest in alternative feedstocks for ethylene production. While the natural gas fracking boom in the U.S. has created a glut of ethane feedstock, in other geographies, the supply of ethane is restricted, and SABIC is seeking new ways to increase its ethylene production at existing facilities. Methane can also be used to produce polymers, such as polyhydroxyalkanoates, which have the added benefit of being biodegradable. Many players see a growing consumer demand for environmentally-friendly plastics, and polymers made from recycled CO2 would be a compelling product to market to consumers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Currently, materials for manufacturing in space have to be shipped from Earth at significant cost. Sending material to Mars costs $20,000 per kilogram, and this cost has poor mass scaling for large payloads, as the amount of fuel required increases exponentially with payload mass. Opus 12 has developed a breakthrough technology that will enable the synthesis of plastics from CO2 and water, which are available in situ in extraterrestrial environments. Our electrochemical device can take water and CO2 from the Martian atmosphere and transform these molecules into polymer precursors (ethylene and/or methane). This opens up a variety of space-based manufacturing applications, including 3D printing to manufacture tools and building materials in space. Producing plastics in space can furnish the building blocks for extraterrestrial built environments and can be a major step in furthering humankind?s ability to explore and survive on Mars and beyond.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Conversion
Storage
In Situ Manufacturing
Polymers
Fuels/Propellants


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H2.02-7555
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CC84P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Joining of Tungsten Cermet Nuclear Fuel

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Plasma Processes, LLC
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville, AL
35811-1558
(256) 851-7653

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John O'Dell
scottodell@plasmapros.com
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville,  AL 35811-1558
(256) 851-7653

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) has been identified as a critical technology needed for human missions to Mars and beyond due to its increased specific impulse (Isp) as compared to traditional chemical propulsion systems. Recently, the Game Changing Development (GCD) Program, which is a partnership between NASA, DOE, and industry, was initiated to evaluate the feasibility of a low enriched uranium (LEU) NTP system. A critical aspect of NTP is to develop a robust, stable fuel. One of the fuel configurations currently being evaluated is a W-UO2 cermet. Fabrication of full-size cermet elements (>20?) has proven to be difficult. As a result, the use of cermet segments to produce a full-size fuel element is of interest. However, techniques for joining the segments are needed. During Phase I, diffusion bonding techniques were developed for producing fuel elements from cermet segments. Microscopic examination and preliminary properties testing showed excellent joints were formed. For example, quantitative tensile testing of W samples produced at 1500C HIP with a Nb interfacial coating showed the failures were in the bulk W and not at the Nb-W interfaces. Therefore, the strength of the joints were greater than the strength of the bulk W material. Using the most promising fabrication methods, a 6.3' long simulated cermet fuel element comprised of twenty-five 0.25' thick segments was produced to demonstrate proof-of-concept. During the Phase II investigation, the HIP diffusion bonding process will be optimized for making W cermet based fuel elements. This will be accomplished by performing a process parameter-characterization-properties study. The optimized fabrication methods will then be used to make prototype fuel elements with W claddings and subscale fuel elements for delivery to NASA for hot hydrogen testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Both government and commercial entities in the following sectors would benefit from the development refractory metal coatings and diffusion bonding: defense, material R&D, nuclear power, aerospace, propulsion, automotive, electronics, crystal growth, and medical. Targeted commercial applications include high temperature-corrosion resistant claddings for nuclear fuel rods, hot gas path rocket motors, net-shape fabrication of refractory rocket nozzles, crucibles, heat pipes, and propulsion subcomponents; and advanced coating systems for x-ray targets, sputtering targets, turbines, and rocket engines.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications that would benefit from this technology include Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) and Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). For example, the proposed Phase II effort directly supports the goals of NASA's GCD Program. Initial NTP systems will have specific impulses roughly twice that of the best chemical systems, i.e., reduced propellant requirements and/or reduced trip time. During Phase II-X and III, full-size full elements will be fabricated for testing in NTREES. Potential NASA missions include rapid robotic exploration missions throughout the solar system and piloted missions to Mars and beyond, where power from solar panels becomes more difficult to obtain.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Prototyping
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Metallics
Fuels/Propellants
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H2.02-8468
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CS13P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Accident Tolerant Reactor Shutdown for NTP Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ultra Safe Nuclear Corporation
186 Piedra Loop
Los Alamos, NM
87544-3834
(505) 672-9750

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paolo Venneri
p.venneri@usnc.com
186 Piedra Loop
Los Alamos,  NM 87544-3834
(858) 342-4837

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In brief, USNC's accident submersion safe drums are control drums where a small amount of fuel is added opposite to the neutron absorber and the drums impinge on the active core to substantially increase the shutdown criticality margin of the control drums. Phase 1 results indicate that the shutdown criticality margin is more than sufficient to maintain sub-criticality in the worst-case water submersion accidents. Key accidents that the accident submersion safe drums address include submersion in freshwater and sand with a stuck drum in the full-on position and submersion in water and wet sand with reflector loss. This SBIR will develop the submersion safe reactor shutdown system for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) identified in the Phase 1. Remaining subcritical during a during water submersion accident is a design requirement for NTP systems. As of now, all thermal spectrum NTP concepts (including LEU NTP systems) fail to remain subcritical during water submersion and thus are not water submersion safe. USNC's submersion safe control drums enable thermal spectrum NTP systems to remain subcritical during water submersion accidents. Key tasks that will be completed include: 1.Develop a detailed integrated thermal-mechanical and neutronic design of the control drums. 2.Design a power cycle and coolant paths that adequately remove heat from the submersion safe drums while minimizing complexity of the NTP system. 3.Demonstrate the Submersion safe control drum technology in a prototypical reactor experiment and raise the technology's TRL up to 4/5. 4.Deliver a set of NTP system point designs that showcase the full implementation of the drums integrated into a realistic NTP system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The market for NTP systems and their supporting technologies extend beyond NASA with numerous potential customers in private industry and defense field. NTP is a game changing technology and it is difficult to quantify this non-NASA market but it has the potential to be very large. USNC is pursuing earth based mobile reactors and small modular reactors. These reactors are different than traditional reactors as they can be shipped in whole or modular sections. In shipment of these reactors it is essential to ensure that they are subcritical during water submersion (much like space reactors). The technology developed in this SBIR may have application in addressing water submersion in these earth-based reactors. In addition, a number of other companies are trying to bring mobile or small modular reactors to the market and the novel technology developed in this SBIR might find a market here. The market potential for advanced reactors is several billion dollars and approximately 40 U.S. companies are trying to bring advanced nuclear technology to the market backed by total of more than 1.3 billion dollars of private investment. USNC's submersion safe control technology can address the needs of this emerging market.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NTP has great promise in spreading human presence to Mars and other locations beyond low earth orbit. USNC's submersion safe control systems will address key needs in NTP development to make NTP a viable technology to fulfill NASA human exploration needs. USNC's work directly aligns with the NASA Technological Roadmap 2015 "TA 2: In-Space Propulsion Technologies: 2.2.3 Thermal Propulsion" . Currently, NTP and USNC's submersion safe reactor shutdown technology are being investigated for a human Mars Mission in the 2030s time frame, but NTP also has application for many other applications beyond low earth such as lunar exploration architectures and robotic missions into deep space. In the near term USNC's technology will be able to support NTP development efforts by providing the research tools and insight required to understand water submersion accidents in LEU-NTP systems. Before the Phase 1, little work had been conducted on the water submersion in LEU NTP systems and a great deal was learned. After Phase 2, USNC will have a much greater understanding and modeling capabilities that will assist in NASA NTP development efforts. Beyond NTP the technology and expertise that USNC is building has application to small nuclear systems for surface power and science missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H2.04-7766
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CM32P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management for In-Space Transportation
PROPOSAL TITLE: A High Efficiency Cryocooler for In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Storage

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, LLC
16 Great Hollow Road
Hanover, NH
03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Zagarola
mvz@creare.com
16 Great Hollow Road
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is considering multiple missions involving long-term cryogen storage in space. Liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen are the typical cryogens as they provide the highest specific impulse of practical chemical propellants. These cryogens are stored at temperatures of nominally 20 K for hydrogen and 90 K for oxygen. Due to the large size of these tanks, refrigeration loads to maintain zero-boil-off are high, on the order of tens of watts at 20 K and hundreds of watts at 90 K. Space cryocoolers have been developed for cooling space sensors that have modest cooling loads and are not suitable for high capacity applications. On this program, we proposed to develop a high capacity turbo-Brayton cryocooler that provides 150 W of refrigeration at 90 K. On the Phase I project, we developed a preliminary design of the 90 K cryocooler, assessing its size, mass, performance, and maturity. The proposed cryocooler significantly exceeds the performance targets set forth in the solicitation -- the cryocooler specific power is only 8 W/W (solicitation goal of 15 W/W), and the specific mass is 0.4 kg/W (solicitation goal of 12 kg/W). On the Phase II project, we propose to develop and demonstrate the least mature components, the compressor and its inverter drive. On a future Phase III project, we plan to build and demonstrate an engineering model cryocooler. Successful completion of this project fills a clear void in space cryocooler technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Private sector applications for high-capacity turbo-Brayton cryocoolers include cooling for laboratory- and industrial-scale gas separation, liquefaction, cryogen storage and cryogen transportation systems; high-temperature superconducting magnets in motors, generators, transmission lines, and magnetic resonance imaging systems; liquid hydrogen fuel cell storage for the automotive industry; and commercial orbital transfer vehicles and satellites.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Space applications for high-capacity turbo-Brayton cryocoolers include cryogen storage for planetary and extraterrestrial exploration missions, CEVs, extended-life orbital transfer vehicles, long-term geosynchronous missions, in-space propellant depots and extraterrestrial bases, and cooling systems for observation platforms requiring large arrays of infrared and X-ray detectors. Terrestrial applications include cooling for spaceport cryogen storage and transportation systems. The highly reliable and space-proven turbo-Brayton cryocooler is ideal for these missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H2.04-7770
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CC81P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management for In-Space Transportation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Innovative Stirling-Cycle Cryocooler for Long Term In-Space Storage of Cryogenic Liquid Propellants

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Converter Source, LLC
16922 South Canaan Road
Athens, OH
45701-9461
(740) 592-5166

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Laurence Penswick
lpenswick@convertersource.com
121 Carefree Dr.
Stevenson,  WA 98648-6542
(509) 427-9337

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Under this Phase II SBIR project we will build and test a stirling-cycle cryocooler and coolant circulating subsystem for use with broad area cooling (BAC) systems to deliver reduced or zero boil-off propellant storage. We will also refine the design of an innovative linear-reciprocating cold-circulator that resides at the same temperature as the BAC coolant, although we will not have the resources to build this component in Phase II. Compared to conventional reverse turbo-brayton cycle cooling technology our stirling-cycle technology offers higher cooling efficiency and requires no bulky recuperator component. Our double-acting stirling cycle configuration combines a linear motor with a moving piston/regenerator assembly into a self-contained module. A number of such modules can be connected together into several possible cryocooler layouts to scale heat lift capacity, achieve system redundancy and provide flexible integration with the BAC coolant loop. This modular approach provides the system designer with packaging options not available with conventional stirling cryocoolers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Cryocooling - The cryocooler could be used to cool high-temperature superconducting magnetic bearings in industrial spindles and motors. The ability to cool a central load and reject heat at the periphery is ideal for zero boil-off re-condensation of liquid nitrogen, volatile fuels and other substances. Refrigeration and Gas Compression - The core hydrodynamic bearing technology could be applied to linear free-piston compressors for domestic refrigeration. The Department of Energy Office recently issued a new report which prioritized accelerating the commercialization of high-efficiency appliance technologies. This Roadmap ranked the development of advanced compressor technologies for refrigerators and freezers as having the highest overall importance and potential impact.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Space-based Cryocooling - The cryocooler we will build can be used to produce cooling in the temperature range of 75 - 120 K. Lower operating temperatures are possible via staging. Potential applications include direct cooling of space sensors, vapor re-liquefaction for zero boil-off fluid storage or cooling superconducting magnetic bearings in support of flywheel energy storage systems. Space-based Refrigeration and Compression - The core cryocooler and linear motor technology could be applied to build higher-temperature Stirling coolers for in-space scientific experimentation or biological material preservation. The same enabling technology could be used to build linear compressors for refrigerant-based cooling or other working gas compression or fluid pumping.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Fuels/Propellants
Simulation & Modeling
Active Systems
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H2.04-8454
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CJ37P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management for In-Space Transportation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight, High-Flow, Low Connection-Force, In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Coupling

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Altius Space Machines, Inc.
3001 Industrial Lane, Unit #5
Broomfield, CO
80020-7153
(303) 438-7110

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jonathan Goff
jongoff@altius-space.com
3001 Industrial Lane, Unit #5
Broomfield,  CO 80020-7153
(801) 362-2310

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Three of the key abilities needed for making future NASA and commercial launch and in-space transportation systems more affordable and capable are: a) the ability to "live off of the land" via in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), b) the ability to reuse in-space transportation hardware, and c) the ability to leverage continuing advancements in lower-cost earth-to-orbit transportation. All of these abilities require the ability to transfer large quantities of cryogenic liquids (Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Methane) between tanks on separate vehicles. While all cryogenic rocket stages have to have a propellant fill/drain coupling for loading propellant on the ground, existing designs are not capable of in-space refuelability. A dual-purpose coupler that could be used for both ground fill/drain and for in-space refueling would be extremely valuable.In this proposed SBIR Phase II research effort, Altius Space Machines proposes continuing the development of just such a dual-purpose, lightweight, high-flow cryogenic propellant coupling to enable both ground fill/drain and in-space refueling. This coupling incorporates an innovative new cryogenic sealing architecture to enable a coupling with very low insertion/extraction forces, for manual, robotic, and astronaut-connected cryogenic propellant transfer operations. In Phase I, Altius demonstrated the innovative new cryogenic sealing architecture, and performed insertion/extraction and leak tests, demonstrating significant improvements over traditional spring-energized polymer seals, raising the TRL from 2 to 3 at the end of Phase I. In Phase II Altius will continue refinement of the cryogenic sealing architecture, and will design, fabricate, and test a family of couplers based on this architecture, and focused on an industry-provided launch vehicle application. Testing of the ground and in-space couplers during Phase II will raise the system TRL to 6, paving the way for Post-Phase II flight demonstration (yielding TRL 9).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential Non-NASA applications include: 1- A combined T-0 coupling/in-space cryogenic transfer coupling that can be integrated into future upper stage designs, such as the planned ULA ACES or New Glenn cryogenic upper stages. 2- In-flight topoff couplings for air-launched liquid-propellant launch vehicles. 3- Refueling of commercial cryogenic stages in space for distributed lift missions, enabling direct insertion to GEO, or high energy earth departures for science missions. 4- Other terrestrial applications that could benefit from a low-connection force cryogenic coupling, such as automated LH2 fueling for fuel-cell cars. 5- The innovative cryogenic sealing architecture also has elements that could potentially be extrapolated to low insertion force, resettably-self-fusing high-power electrical connectors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications include: 1- An integrated T-0 fill coupling for EUS that enables in-space refueling with the same coupling. This would enable refueling of the EUS upper stage in LEO or other in-space locations, enabling stage reuse, and/or launch of much larger payloads to deep space trajectories. 2- Fueling of Martian or Lunar Ascent Vehicles or future fully-reusable Mars or Lunar landing vehicles from ISRU production facilities. 3- Distributed launch for very high-energy robotic science missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Tools/EVA Tools
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Fasteners/Decouplers
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Fuels/Propellants
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H3.01-7294
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CJ46P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring
PROPOSAL TITLE: Silver Biocide Analysis & Control Device

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Environmental and Life Support Tech.
6600 East Lookout Drive
Parker, CO
80138-8707
(303) 495-2090

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Clifford Jolly
cliff.jolly@elstechnology.com
6600 East Lookout Drive
Parker,  CO 80138-8707
(303) 495-2090

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Rapid, accurate measurement and process control of silver ion biocide concentrations in future space missions is needed. The purpose of the Phase II program is to complete the development of an Smart Electroanalytical Multi-Sensor (SEMS) device for analysis and process control of biocidal silver in potable water, with the option integrating an Ag+ ion generator. The device will automatically provide continuous and on-demand maintenance of Ag+ ion biocide levels in spacecraft water streams and storage tanks, as well as providing output data for silver concentrations and a profile of total silver added to the system over time. Considerable test work is planned under AES programs and, given silver ion's 'elusiveness' in water systems, the data will be far more reliable if the methodology for adding the biocide and measuring its concentration is performed by a reliable and flight-qualifiable design from the beginning. Phase I culminated in a validated analytical methodology and 4 flight preproduction prototype for measurement and control of silver ion at sub-ppb levels in finished waters. The Phase II Technical Objectives and Work Plan are dedicated to fabrication, test & delivery of 3 flight-qualifiable instruments that conform to spacecraft applications and specifications as defined by NASA. The specific objectives will be to 1) develop a complete analytical characterization of the detection method, inclusive of automated autocalibration and QA/QC functions, 2) develop automated machine-learning capability to support agile & reliable operation in long-duration missions, 3) demonstrate the Feedback Control Function to maintain consistent Ag+ ion concentration in active water systems, and 4) demonstrate all operating parameters required to analyze Ag+ in the ranges of 50-5000 ug/l in potable water.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Extensive global applications in environmental monitoring and industrial process control in automotive supply chain, semiconductor, pharmaceutical lighting, mining, energy production and energy storage industries. ELS Technology is already successfully implementing similar technology in industrial environments in Asia, Africa, Middle East, South America and the United States. This program will provide major new updates to the industrial instrument capabilities that have been deployed over the last two decades.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Advanced Exploration Systems using silver as a biocide in water recovery and water supply systems are the primary focus of this effort. Additionally, the analytical platform can be expanded to provide NASA with an entirely new generation of instruments that will enable a level of agility and in-flight analytical capability that currently does not exist. Application of the SEMS analytical platform to a wide range of organic and inorganic analytes will provide a major new capability in biomedical, advanced life support, plant growth and scientific efforts aboard spacecraft. Examples include automated process control of plant-growth and life support systems, quantification and classification of organic contaminants in air and water, methodologies to support in-flight DNA analysis, mold and mycotoxin detection and identification.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Food (Preservation, Packaging, Preparation)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Medical
Remediation/Purification
Waste Storage/Treatment
Process Monitoring & Control
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H3.01-8321
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CK12P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring
PROPOSAL TITLE: Polymer Nanowire-Based Reversible, and Quasi Real-Time, Ethylene Analyzer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innosense, LLC
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance, CA
90505-5245
(310) 530-2011

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anamika Ray
anamika.ray-1@innosense.us
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance,  CA 90505-5245
(310) 530-2011

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As called out in the NASA Technical Roadmap (TA7), in-orbit or deep space-based plant growth systems are of interest to NASA as part of fundamental space research and for ensuring supply of fresh produce to the crew for sustainable human spaceflight. Ethylene gas is a natural plant metabolite and phytohormone. In enclosed spaceship settings, ethylene build-up can be deleterious to plants. Thus, there is a need to monitor ethylene in real-time, sensitively, reversibly and effectively. State of the art technology is limited in terms of portability and ability for in-situ measurements with desired selectivity and sensitivity. To close this technology gap, InnoSense LLC (ISL) will continue developing a space-compatible, Polymer Nanowire based ethylene Monitor or PNet-Mon (TM). In Phase I, ISL fabricated a compact breadboard PNet-Mon device that demonstrated response to ppb levels of ethylene with immunity to interfering metabolites. In Phase II, ISL will optimize fabrication of the reversible sensor, develop prototype hardware having NASA-relevant footprint. The PNet-Mon prototype will be evaluated rigorously first under laboratory conditions. We have teamed with a prime contractor for testing the prototype in Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) system with the goal of integrating PNet-Mon with APH system for delivery to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to supporting human spaceflight missions, PNet-Mon will prove to be a valuable tool for any greenhouse, food processing, storage and distribution facility. The benefits of integrating PNet-Mon into any produce/crop supply chain would be of great interest to the industry as it could improve product quality and marketability generating lower production costs. By monitoring ethylene gas, the optimal harvest time and/or storage time/conditions can be determined. Thus, producers can achieve optimal quality and ripeness. PNet-Mon supply chain integration can help prevent produce spoilage caused by undesired levels of ethylene gas.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
PNet-Mon is intended for use in plant growth systems and chambers in space. Once integrated into NASA systems, PNet-Mon will provide vital quantitative information, in situ, about the ethylene gas levels. The rugged, compact, and portable sensor will detect ethylene at parts per billion levels. This is critical in enclosed space settings. Successful ethylene monitoring will enable efficient crop management and prevent spoilage. PNet-Mon will be compatible with size, power and sensitivity requirements of NASA for long-term human spaceflight missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Biomass Growth
Food (Preservation, Packaging, Preparation)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Crop Production (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Nanomaterials
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H3.02-7349
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CA47P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Control and Life Support for Spacecraft and Habitats
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multipurpose Waste Disposal Bags for Heat Melt Compactor Application

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Modification, Inc.
2809-K Merrilee Drive
Fairfax, VA
22031-4409
(703) 560-1371

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Krishnaswamy Rangan
kris@matmod.com
2809-K Merrilee Dr
Fairfax,  VA 22031-4409
(703) 560-1372

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's crewed spacecraft utilize storage containers for food water, supplies, trash and treated wastes. The trash bags occupy considerable vehicle storage and handling is a challenge to crewmembers. In order to reduce volume of the trash, microbial growth control and water recovery from trash, NASA has developed a heat melt compactor (HMC) device. In the Phase I project, a multipurpose trash bag that is compatible with HMC was demonstrated. The trash bag allowed for the recovery of water from waste and encapsulation of the solid waste after water recovery. In addition, the processed waste was protected against microbial growth for storing during long-term flights. The multifunctional trash bag developed in this Phase I project, benefits NASA in volume reduction, water recovery, radiation shielding and mitigation of contamination release in space.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Proposed trash bags can be used in collecting a variety of waste materials including medical hazards, toxic chemicals and radioactive wastes. These bags can also be used in domestic applications such as trash collection in a recreation vehicle, hospitals and houses.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The multipurpose waste disposal bags developed in this project can be incorporated into NASA's next generation space vehicles such as Orion for Long Duration Space Missions as well as in ISS and all future long duration missions that are difficlut to resupply from earth.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Waste Storage/Treatment
Coatings/Surface Treatments


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H3.02-8508
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CA43P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Control and Life Support for Spacecraft and Habitats
PROPOSAL TITLE: FARADAYIC(R) Electrochemical Peroxide Generation for In-Situ Disinfection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Faraday Technology, Inc.
315 Huls Drive
Englewood, OH
45315-8983
(937) 836-7749

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
E. Jennings Taylor
jenningstaylor@faradaytechnology.com
315 Huls Drive
Englewood,  OH 45315-8983
(937) 836-7749

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Among the numerous technological advances sought in order to facilitate human space travel, solutions are needed for technology that supports energy-efficient maintenance of closed air, water, and waste systems in microgravity spacecraft habitats, like Mars. In particular, a technique for the in-situ generation of cleaning/sanitizing solutions is needed to reduce the demand of earth based materials like cleaning supplies to meet personal hygiene requirement during space missions. Therefore, In this Phase II SBIR program, Faraday will continue the technology development efforts of the Phase I by: (1) demonstrating the potential of the device design by testing under zero gravity; (2) optimizing the GDE catalytics, structure, and wettability, (3) demonstrating the potential to use onboard ISS water utilities, (4) developing an electrochemical peroxide detector, and (5) designing and building an α-scale reactor to produce 1 L/day of 2 w/w% H2O2. This evaluation will enable TRL enhancement and demonstrate a potential path forward for demonstration. This technology has the potential to be an alternative method for synthesis of commercial hydrogen peroxide or in-situ onsite disinfection of process waste streams and could be an integral part of long term life support on NASA's manned space missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed innovation has the potential to be useful in a variety of situations where disinfection of process streams or contact surfaces is of importance. The system would be valuable in a broad range of other settings as well, including disinfection of recycled waste water streams. Some potential installation/sales targets include naval warships and military field hospitals, as well as chemical or biological waste treatment laboratory environments where on-site generation of hydrogen peroxide for experimental or cleanup use may be of value. The primary markets for peroxide use are in the paper-and-pulp and chemicals industries (~36% each), with the balance in wastewater treatment, mining, and other minor areas. Thus, in addition to in situ generation applications, the technology could also be valuable as an alternative method for synthesis of commercial hydrogen peroxide.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
At present, surface disinfection in NASA space vehicles is accomplished through the use of pre-packaged, disposable, wetted wipes, which represent an appreciable carry-along mass and disposal burden. The proposed hydrogen peroxide generation system offers a more economical and practical alternative that can use onboard utilities of water and oxygen to produce a disinfectant solution that can be applied to reusable cloths, reducing both the carried and disposed mass associated with the disinfection process. The anticipated benefits of this program will be the implementation of high efficiency in-situ FARADAYIC Peroxide Generation technology that will eliminate the need for disinfecting wipes to be intermittently flow to the International Space Station, thus reducing cost and improving efficiency.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Medical
Remediation/Purification
Waste Storage/Treatment
In Situ Manufacturing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H4.02-7354
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CJ28P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Trace Contaminant Control for Advanced Spacesuit Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fiber-Based Adsorbents Tailored for PLSS Ammonia and Formaldehyde Removal

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Serionix
60 Hazelwood Drive
Champaign, IL
61820-7460
(651) 503-3930

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Langer
jlanger@serionix.com
60 Hazelwood Drive
Champaign,  IL 61820-7460
(651) 503-3930

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Development of advanced lightweight Trace Contaminant Control (TCC) filters plays an important role in removing ammonia and formaldehyde contaminants?both those produced by crew metabolism and material/equipment off-gassing into the space suit system for future space and planetary systems. Serionix Inc. has developed proprietary adsorptive coatings which can be applied on porous and nonporous substrates to yield functional composite media capable of rapid, efficient?adsorption of trace ammonia and formaldehyde. In Phase I, research was conducted which demonstrated technical feasibility and excellent performance capacity of Serionix single-pass and regenerable adsorbents for targeted components under simulated PLSS operating environment. During phase II, we will tailor our sorbents and design a prototype directly compatible with PLSS requirements, for filter assembly which can be incorporated into a TCC system or synergistically integrated with the existing RCA unit. In addition, we will perform extensive robustness testing to evaluate media under operational and hazard scenario conditions. Successful implementation of our technology will increase efficiency while reducing mass, volume, and pressure drop of the?TCC system to protect the crew in all mission environments and address a wide range of current and future NASA requirements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As a result of the exceptional product performance, low cost, and attractive color-change feature, we intend to continue developing our core technology in an effort to ultimately license the product and brand into a broad range of markets including HVAC, cleanroom air filters, automotive cabin air, and specialty gas-phase filtration.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary focus of this research effort is demonstrating feasibility of the underlying technology while developing our media for the filter in TCC unit or incorporating our media in RCA unit to remove trace levels of ammonia and formaldehyde from a space suit ventilation loop; whether through the use of ultra-high capacity single-use media, or easily regenerated multi-use media, the system is fully expected to be capable of protecting the crew in all environments for future space and interplanetary missions. Ammonia, formaldehyde and other VOCs pose a great risk to the health of astronauts and integrity of equipment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), and such this technology could be of great value to broader NASA missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Textiles


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H4.02-8157
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CJ41P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Trace Contaminant Control for Advanced Spacesuit Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel, Vacuum-Regenerable Trace Contaminant Control System for Advanced Spacesuit Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Precision Combustion, Inc.
410 Sackett Point Road
North Haven, CT
06473-3106
(203) 287-3700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christian Junaedi
cjunaedi@precision-combustion.com
410 Sackett Point Road
North Haven,  CT 06473-3106
(203) 287-3700

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes a new material paradigm for the Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS) based upon its novel adsorbent nanomaterials that have high surface area and can be designed to achieve uniquely-targeted sorbent properties, including increasing affinity to remove specific contaminants, minimizing competitive sorption with water and CO2, and achieving vacuum regeneration without heating. This breakthrough enables a compact, low pressure drop, and vacuum-regenerable TCC device for efficient removal of NH3 and CH2O, thus offering the potential for real-time, on-the-suit sorbent regeneration, reduced logistical burden associated with bed replacement or thermal regeneration, and further volume and weight reduction of the TCCS module. In Phase I, all objectives and proposed tasks were successfully completed to demonstrate proof-of-concept of vacuum-regenerable sorbent materials to permit a compact, efficient TCCS. In Phase II, we will build on Phase I success to develop, fabricate, and demonstrate a compact, low pressure drop, vacuum-regenerable TCCS hardware prototypes for efficient removal of NH3 and CH2O to meet NASA requirements. This effort would be valuable to NASA as it would significantly reduce the current PLSS technical risks and increase mission capability/durability/efficiency while at the same time increasing the TRL of the novel vacuum regenerable TCCS.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A significant non-NASA application for this technology is in indoor air quality improvement in buildings. Primary applications will be for buildings where Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) or other gaseous air contaminants control is desired, with particular emphasis on new buildings, buildings where occupants claim to suffer from sick building syndrome, and green buildings where HVAC energy costs are a large concern. A primary economic driver of interest will be the ability to reduce and minimize HVAC operating costs for building air in reducing the amount of make-up conditioned outdoor air required. Additional targeted spin-off applications relate to commercial aircraft air purification, where the compact size, low weight, durability, and increased operating time of the sub-systems can bring value, or for military vehicle cabins, such as in aircraft, ships, and submarines.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Targeted NASA applications will be in advanced spacesuit PLSS with key potential customers include Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Marshall Space Flight Center. This TCCS device will have additional applications in other NASA projects such as spacecraft and ISS atmosphere revitalization or future ISRU concepts for Lunar or Martian bases.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Tools/EVA Tools
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Remediation/Purification
Nanomaterials
Smart/Multifunctional Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H5.01-7616
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CL52P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Large Deployable Structures for Smallsats
PROPOSAL TITLE: 200W Deep Space CubeSat Composite Beam Roll-Up Solar Array (COBRA)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Composite Technology Development, Inc.
2600 Campus Drive, Suite D
Lafayette, CO
80026-3359
(303) 664-0394

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alexi Rakow
alexi.rakow@ctd-materials.com
2600 Campus Drive, Suite D
Lafayette,  CO 80026-3359
(303) 664-0392

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Solar arrays that have very high specific power (W/kg) and compact stowed volume (W/m3), while still providing shielding to the solar cell, are an enabling technology for Deep Space CubeSat missions. Current CubeSat and small satellite solar arrays employ either fixed panels mounted directly to the Satellite side-wall(s) or small hinged rigid panels. These arrays generate very low power (4-20W) due to the limited area available for solar cell installation, thereby constraining CubeSat payload capacity, capability and mission applications. Composite Technology Development, Inc. (CTD) proposes to develop an approach for a high-power, flexible and compact deployable solar array for Deep Space CubeSat Applications. The Composite Beam Roll-up Array (COBRA) is a very high specific power solar array that combines the Photovoltaic Assembly with the deployable boom structure into a unified integrated laminated assembly that can achieve >265 W/kg at the array level, including the deployable structure. The integrated structure will also shield the solar cells from the harsh space environment. The objective of this SBIR is to develop a COBRA for a 6U Spacecraft that generates at least 200W for Deep Space Applications. The unique design is also inherently low cost due to the design simplicity and very low part count. Furthermore, the COBRA technology is highly modular and scale-able, and could be easily scaled to provide in excess of 600W for a small satellite.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
CubeSats are already demonstrating commercial Earth Imaging capabilities. This market will continue to grow as other customers and agencies such as the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency realize the benefits offered from these CubeSat operators. Other applications in asset tracking and surveillance around the globe can also be performed using CubeSat constellations. In addition, today?s armed services are looking for faster / cheaper ways to gain eyes, ears and crosslink communication for the dynamic battlefield. Several CubeSat subsystems are being developed that will drastically improve functionality. However, higher power will be necessary to realize the full capability of these small satellites.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
CubeSats? fast time to market and modular architectures open up a new paradigm for NASA scientists and mission planners to consider more cost effective ways to perform a greater variety of science or exploration space missions. Multipoint scientific investigations have been presented in the most recent NASA Roadmap and it is likely that these and other science objectives will be expanded upon in future decadal studies. The high cost of access to space makes deploying constellations of traditional satellites impractical. It is therefore desirable to develop much smaller and lower-cost sensor/satellite systems such that the largest number of distributed measurements can be economically made in the space environment. However, meaningful science investigations will require highly capable CubeSats with attitude determination and control systems, communications systems, data handling subsystems, and scientific payloads, all of which require high levels of power which will be enabled by the proposed technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Generation
Prototyping
Composites
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Deployment
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H5.02-7447
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CM39P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme Temperature Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel, Functionally Graded Coating System for Reusable, Very High Temperature Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Allcomp, Inc.
209 Puente
La Puente, CA
91746-2304
(626) 369-1273

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steve Jones
steve.jones@allcomp.net
209 Puente
La Puente,  CA 91746-2304
(661) 917-3834

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There is a clear need to advance the state-of-the-art carbon-carbon coated Nozzle Extensions (NE) beyond the engine/mission performance currently established by Herakles technology, which is intrinsically limited to about 3000 F. The well-established SiC-based (CVD, pack cementation) technologies currently available also have upper temperature limits around 3000 F, imposing stringent limitations on increased performance and system level changes (i.e. hotter propellant) for future NASA missions. In addition, the intrinsic CTE mismatch between C-C substrate and refractory carbides/oxides further limits the use of many other classical coating technologies. The successful Phase I results established the feasibility of overcoming these limitations through the use of a novel, functionally graded (FGM) coating technology. The proposed Phase II builds on the success of the Phase I program and clearly increases its TRL by offering subscale component testing at representative engine conditions. A successful Phase II program will clearly offer a new dimension in the nozzle extensions by offering different coating systems for multi-cycle capability at temperatures from 3000 F up to 4000 F. The expected ability of the coating to survive such an aggressive testing combined with the sufficient retention of mechanical properties offers a direct path for a Phase III with many of the commercial space payload companies. The overall approach is based upon a multi-piece C-C NE concept, which focuses the requirements for high temperature oxidation protection to smaller diameters of the nozzle extension (e.g. A cone), allowing the CVD coating technology to remain within current SOTA CVD capabilities. Larger diameter segments, which are exposed to lower temperatures, will utilize non-CVD lower cost technology which is well suited for large diameter components. The direct benefit to NASA is undisputed with direct applicability to several planned future missions, including the very challeng

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many potential non-NASA applications, but the primary applications for military applications would be 1) coating systems on leading edges for hypersonic vehicles and 2) nozzle extensions for various military programs, such as USAF Delta IV & Atlas V EELVs. In addition, there are opportunities to insert this technology into nozzle extensions for commercial rocket companies, such as Space X, Blue Origin and Sierra Nevada, and others. While the CVD based higher temperature coating system can provide higher temperature performance, it is however more expensive and is constrained by SOTA of CVD capability. Our non-CVD lower cost coating technology can be adapted to the commercial markets quickly with less facility constraints. Finally, this technology may also be inserted directly into commercial semiconductor applications (MoCVD), where current CVD SiC technology is the norm.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High performance domestically produced C-C Nozzle Extensions with reliable higher temperature capable anti-oxidation coating are one of the most critical and enabling technologies for future US launch systems. Potential applications are identified below: NASA Space Launch System (SLS) Exploration Upper Stage (EUS) - Upper stage with four RL10C engines is leading candidate (RL10C-1, RL10C-2). Other engine possibilities: J-2X, ESA Vinci (w/ C-SiC NE), commercial engines. NASA Robotic Missions - Example: Solar Probe Plus Mission - Orbital ATK Space Systems Star 48GXV solid motor with mid-size C-C exit cone. NASA Advanced Exploration Systems and In-Space Propulsion - Nuclear propulsion systems. Lunar and Mars lander descent and ascent stages.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Atmospheric Propulsion
Launch Engine/Booster


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H5.03-7999
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CJ43P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Multifunctional Materials and Structures: Integrated Structural Health Monitoring for Long Duration Habitats
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Structural Health Sensors for Inflatable Space Habitats

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luna Innovations, Inc.
301 1st Street Southwest, Suite 200
Roanoke, VA
24016-1921
(540) 769-8400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Ohanian
submissions301@lunainc.com
301 1st Street Southwest, Suite 200
Roanoke,  VA 24016-1921
(540) 443-3872

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Luna proposes to continue development of integrated high-definition fiber optic sensors (HD-FOS) and carbon nanotube (CNT)-graphene piezoresistive sensors for inflatable space habitat materials to enable full coverage structural health monitoring (SHM) and impact detection. Inflatable habitats are key to reducing the weight of space structures, enabling future long term missions and planetary habitation. There is a need for monitoring the structural health of these habitats, as many of the methods used on earth are not applicable to the space environment or the materials used. To accomplish this goal, Luna has teamed with Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU) who is a leader in the development of CNT sensor technology. Luna is teaming with an established manufacturer to fabricate a sub-scale inflatable structure with integrated SHM sensors which will enable thorough characterization of the approach. During Phase I, the team successfully demonstrated damage detection in an inflatable prototype as well as dynamic impact detection of soft goods layers with the technologies. Phase II will focus on increasing the TRL of the sensing technologies and preparing for transition into future NASA missions. Phase III will focus on commercializing the technology with NASA and NASA affiliates.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A multi-functional structural health monitoring technology would provide an innovative and revolutionary solution for many commercial applications. The aerospace and automotive industries are increasingly shifting towards the use of composites in design of future commercial vehicles in efforts to achieve significant weight savings to lower fuel consumption. This innovation will provide the ability to embed or surface mount lightweight fiber optic and piezoelectric sensors to a variety of composite structures and provide an unrivaled level of detail about the structure's performance for increased safety. The solution could be adapted to a variety of applications, from in-flight monitoring of composite fuselages and wings for aircrafts to in-vehicle monitoring of composite panels and springs in ground vehicles. Embedded sensors can initiate a movement towards the use of "smart materials" that provide information about their structural health and can detect the onset of defects or delamination prior to any visible surface damage.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lightweight composites can provide not only significant mass and size savings, but also allow for more efficient and complex designs for future space vehicles and habitable structures. Use of new lightweight materials also raises a critical need to assess and monitor their structural performance. Lightweight and minimally invasive fiber optic sensors can be embedded in composites during their manufacturing process and utilized afterwards for structural health monitoring. This applies to flexible inflatable structures as well as rigid cured composite lightweight structures. High Definition Fiber Optic Sensing (HD-FOS) technology will provide NASA with a measurement technique that can report hundreds of strain or temperature measurement points along the fiber optic cable, allowing for a detailed understanding of the composite's structural reliability. Combined with piezo resistive surface sensors for impact detection, this multi-functional solution enables a wider coverage area of the structure and can improve sustainability of future crewed missions to Mars.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Composites
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Deployment
Structures
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Lifetime Testing
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H5.04-7952
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CL72P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Structural Assembly
PROPOSAL TITLE: Strut Attachment System for In-Space Robotic Assembly

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics, Ltd.
Building 3, Suite 1005 63 Flushing Avenue Unit 150
Brooklyn, NY
11205-1070
(212) 966-0661

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Herman
herman@honeybeerobotics.com
63 Flushing Ave. Unit 150; Bldg. 128, Suite 121
Brooklyn,  NY 11205-1070
(646) 459-7819

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The size of space systems is currently limited to payload envelopes of existing launch vehicles. Due to this and the customized nature of satellites, existing space systems are very costly to stand up. Nor are they designed for repair, upgrade, or reuse to amortize the cost over multiple missions. As missions get further from low-earth orbit (LEO), the dangers of human extra-vehicular activity (EVA) for manual on-orbit assembly or repair increases, making robotic assembly of large structures very desirable. Honeybee Robotics (Honeybee) proposes to continue development of the Strut Attachment System (SAS) that provides a common electromechanical connection architecture for robotic on-orbit structures assembly. The SAS enables the creation of networked space frame structures with a strut/node architecture; enable payload docking to those structures for power and data transfer; and enable the creation of reusable, serviceable, and upgradable vehicle systems in support of lower cost space exploration. The proposed Phase 2 work plan is to develop the Strut Attachment System to TRL 4 with a robotic assembly demonstration of a networked structure showing power and data network connectivity. The SAS will consist of the Strut Attachment Mechanism, Strut Receptacle, Strut, and Node. Phase 2 will include furthering the development of the Strut Attachment Mechanism and Strut Receptacle, as well as beginning development of the Strut and embedded systems that enable a self-healing power and communications network across an assembled structure. The Phase 1 project resulted in a Strut Attachment Mechanism and Strut Receptacle at TRL 3 at the end of Phase 1 and Phase 2 plans will bring the SAS (Strut Attachment Mechanism, Strut Receptacle, Strut, and embedded systems) to TRL 4 at the end of Phase 2.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There exist multiple defense and commercial applications for the SAS including: - Large deployable aperture arrays to address the exponential increase in global mobile data consumption - GEO hosted payload platform to provide less expensive access to space for science, defense, and commercial customers DARPA is interested in the development of a persistent platform in GEO that would provide common resources (e.g. power, communications, attitude control) to a large number of hosted payloads. Scientists, commercial entities, or defense customers many times desire an on-orbit capability, but the required investment to develop and launch the asset simply outweigh the benefits or do not mesh with budgetary constraints. What if on the payload needed to be developed and there was inexpensive access to GEO via commercial payload delivery systems such as DARPA's Payload Orbital Delivery (POD) architecture. A GEO hosted payload platform could provide significant value to numerous payloads. This GEO platform is likely to be a networked space frame structure and the proposed SAS is key to realizing that architecture. This concept has significant scientific, defense, and commercial value both for payload providers (customers) as well as the GEO host provider from a revenue perspective.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SAS will be an enabling technology for future exploration missions by providing a core technology for in-space robotic assembly of: - Extended operation space exploration vehicles - Planetary exploration surface habitats - In-space transportation hubs Future exploration missions either in Earth orbit or to other planets will require large space vehicles. The optimal architecture for in-space operations may not look like a traditional space vehicle like the Space Shuttle or Apollo-era vehicles, and will be too large to assemble on the ground and launch into space directly in-space assembly will be necessary. In fact, the International Space Station is a perfect example of such a space asset. Combining the enabling capabilities of robotically assembled, networked space frame structures, with other in-space robotic technologies being developed such as the in-space refueling work going on at NASA Goddard and the Phoenix robotic servicer/tender going on at DARPA, leads to the capability to assembled large structures on-orbit, connect multiple modules to a common structure, and create very large space systems that are not possible with today's methodology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H5.04-8148
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CL67P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Structural Assembly
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reclaimable Thermally Reversible Polymers for AM Feedstock

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cornerstone Research Group, Inc.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH
45440-3638
(937) 320-1877

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Henslee
hensleeb@crgrp.com
2750 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton,  OH 45440-3638
(937) 320-1877

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CRG proposes to continue efforts from the 2016 NASA SBIR Phase I topic H5.04 Reclaimable Thermally Reversible Polymers for AM Feedstock. In Phase II, CRG will refine the thermally-reversible polymeric materials for function as reprocessable thermosetting matrixes, and evaluate improved reclamation and additive manufacturing (AM) related processing methods for prototype demonstrations. These materials and processes enable reclamation and repurposing of structural fiber-reinforced composites into new configurations during extraterrestrial missions, such as conversion to Additive Manufacturing (AM) feedstocks or direct fabrication into multipart constructs. The thermally-reversible thermosets also present the opportunity to generate volumes of AM feedstock through function as a binder matrix, allowing compounding and impregnation/infusion of in-situ resources such as environmentally sourced metallic, mineralogical (i.e. regolith), and desized/milled non-reprocessable composites. This approach will provide NASA with a means to support in-situ resource utilization with a reduced reliance on pristine raw material payloads. CRG has already demonstrated the efficacy of thermally-reversible polymer structures in commercial adhesive applications, as well as in previous NASA technical efforts for modifying waste packaging plastics to provide improved compatibility to AM processing (NASA SBIR H14.03-9603), and in the feasibility demonstration of the Phase I effort of this project. The proposed concept not only has the potential to enable resource reclamation and AM capability, but also to advance the state-of-the-art in AM materials technology. CRG's proposed approach to develop thermally-reversible polymer materials for thermoset polymer reprocessing, and demonstration of reclamation and manufacturing compatibility evaluation, will provide NASA with a material and processing technology readiness level (TRL) of 5 at the conclusion of the Phase II effort.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project's technologies, developed for NASA systems, would directly apply to systems operated by other government and commercial enterprises. Potential customers would be oriented toward emerging composite recycling markets and enhanced additive manufacturing feedstocks. Example systems include rapid prototyping and additive manufacturing of complex, low-run number, and advanced design parts for systems operated by the Department of Defense. Prime defense contractors could find use of an enabling technology allowing 3-D printing of new and exotic polymeric materials or polymeric composites previously thought incompatible to additive manufacturing processes, including thermosetting systems. This technology's attributes for improving the compatibility of polymers to AM systems would yield a high potential for private sector commercialization for AM and 3D printer manufactures, increasing the materials properties available in the feedstock. Companies could dramatically expand the properties of raw materials available to consumers, create new product lines based on thermosetting material designs, and potentially be able to produce materials with custom thermal-mechanical performance on-demand. The technology also enables businesses to additively manufacture components and systems previously impossible due to material limitations, and allows processes for the recycling and repair of composite materials previously incompatible to reuse after fabrication to first form.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Supporting NASA's Human Exploration Destination Systems Technology Area and LaRC, this project's technologies directly address requirements for reducing launch mass by reclaiming launched structural components into recyclable manufacturing feedstock and providing polymeric technology for utilizing in-situ resources as composite AM raw materials. Recyclable composite materials would find potential in transport, colonization, habitat, and exploration systems. Future NASA space exploration and colonization missions will be planned to maximize available resources to enable mission success. Recyclable composites could play a significant role as an in-situ resource for those missions. This project's technologies offer the ability to manufacture components and structures on-site as needed through reclaiming structural composites that are no longer needed, allowing for reconfiguration of those same composites to new geometries, production of AM feedstock from the desized composites, and/or application of the reclaimable composite polymer matrix as a binder resin for larger volumes of environmental sourced particulate materials. This serves to reduce overall launch cost, and provides deep space exploration with additional tools to fabricate components and structures at mission destinations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H6.01-7532
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CA17P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Robotic Systems - Mobility, Manipulation, and Human-System Interaction
PROPOSAL TITLE: The Stinger: A Geotechnical Sensing Package for Robotic Scouting on a Small Planetary Rover

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics, Ltd.
Building 3, Suite 1005 63 Flushing Avenue Unit 150
Brooklyn, NY
11205-1070
(212) 966-0661

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kris Zacny
Zacny@Honeybeerobotics.com
398 W Washington Blvd. #200
Pasadena,  CA 91103-2000
(646) 508-9807

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The first lunar soft lander was Surveyor 1, in 1966. It had three tasks, one of which was to determine lunar surface bearing strength. Knowing the strength of the lunar surface was the single most important parameter - this essentially dictated whether landing on the Moon with significant mass like that of the Lunar Module was in fact feasible. During the Apollo program, astronauts used a Self-Recording Penetrometer (SRP) to measure geotechnical properties of lunar soil. One of the instruments of the 1970 and 1976 Soviet Lunokhold rovers included a shear vane geotechnical tool. Since 1976, there have been no geotechnical instruments deployed on any planetary body. Our intent is to provide a geotechnical tool that will allow us to begin exploration again. The Apollo penetrometer approach was excellent for greater depths, while the Soviet approach worked well for the near-surface. We combine the two approaches into what we call the Stinger, a percussive shear vane penetrometer capable of measuring near-surface and subsurface soil properties to a depth of 50 cm or greater. The objectives of Phase I were to design and build a simplified breadboard Stinger GeoTool and test it in lunar and Martian soil simulants to determine its applicability for robotic and human missions. The results of Phase I show not only accuracy and precision in determining soil properties, but also flawless execution of the breadboard design. This paves the way for the Phase II effort. The primary objective of the proposed Phase II effort is to develop a compact impact shear vane penetrometer - the Stinger - up to TRL5/6 to determine soil physical properties near the surface and down to 50 cm depth. In conjunction with the instrument development, a soil mechanics model will be formulated based on laboratory tests with the instruments, in soil simulants, and in vacuum conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The tool can be used by DoD to perform soil strength assessment before landing planes and establishing camps (we are already commercializing a prior SBIR tool with DoD). Market also includes agriculture, road construction, mining (e.g. stability of tailings), and soil remediation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Surface rover or ISRU missions: Mars2020 rover, Venus Mobile Explorer (VME), Lunar Resource Prospector. In addition, the tool could be deployed on landers such as Venus In Situ Explorer, Lunar Geophysical Network etc. Stinger could be adapted for Astronaut deployment as well. NASA ISRU and excavation mission would also need to determine soil properties.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Project Management
Prototyping
Actuators & Motors
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Structures
Tribology
Contact/Mechanical
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H6.01-7743
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CJ50P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Robotic Systems - Mobility, Manipulation, and Human-System Interaction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Modular Advanced Networked Telerobotic Interface System (MANTIS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tethers Unlimited, Inc.
11711 North Creek Parkway South, Suite D113
Bothell, WA
98011-8808
(425) 486-0100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Blaine Levedahl
blevedah@tethers.com
11711 N. Creek Pkwy S., D113
Bothell,  WA 98011-8804
(425) 486-0100

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
With the goal to reduce astronaut time required to operate experiments on the ISS and advance automated and telerobotic technology, TUI proposes to collaborate with NanoRacks to develop a "Modular Advanced Networked Telerobotic Interface System" (MANTIS) that will integrate TUI?s existing KRAKEN robotic arm in a payload on the ISS. The MANTIS payload will reduce crew member burden to operate experiments by enabling automated and/or supervised teleoperation of the Plate Reader, MixStix, and other systems. MANTIS will also give researchers an open software framework based on the Robot Operating System (ROS) environment. MANTIS can also be used in STEM outreach through NASA sponsored competitions. The Phase I effort developed a detailed design for MANTIS payload. The Phase II effort will build an engineering unit of the MANTIS payload, design a unit ready for flight-qualification, and build an integrated test environment to enable NASA and NanoRacks to develop and test procedures for using the MANTIS payload. The Phase III effort will mature the MANTIS payload to TRL-6 by performing experiments on NanoRacks hardware aboard the ISS. NanoRacks will collaborate with us in these efforts to enable integration with their experiment platform, and will be our transition partner for Phase III commercialization.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
TUI intends to transition the MANTIS technology to our commercialization partner NanoRacks, who will use the MANTIS system to dramatically increase experimental throughput on their NanoLabs systems on the ISS. In addition, the MANTIS platform will give researchers in NASA, academia, and commercial companies the ability to perform experiments with supervised telerobotic operation on the ISS as well as provide the community with development and integration tools, open software, and accessible hardware. The strong potential for successful commercial transition is evidenced by NanoRacks in-kind contributions to the MANTIS effort.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The MANTIS effort will deliver to NASA the development and integration tools and open software to enable researchers to develop and validate plans for using the MANTIS system to conduct experiments on the ISS using the MANTIS hardware planned for integration into the NanoRacks NanoLab facility. These tools will enable NASA and other entities to develop, validate, and then test on-orbit new methods for teleoperation and autonomy in the microgravity environment.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Man-Machine Interaction
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Teleoperation
In Situ Manufacturing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H6.01-7882
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CJ40P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Robotic Systems - Mobility, Manipulation, and Human-System Interaction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Retractable Robotic Anchor for Hard Rock and Granular Soils

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ProtoInnovations, LLC
5453 Albemarle Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA
15217-1132
(412) 916-8807

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
DIMITRIOS APOSTOLOPOULOS
da1v@protoinnovations.com
5453 Albemarle Avenue
Pittsburgh,  PA 15217-1132
(412) 916-8807

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ProtoInnovations, LLC, is developing an innovative retractable robotic anchor that works in hard rock and granular soils permitting anchoring and subsequent repositioning of a lander, rover, or other equipment. Our primary goal is to support a number of mission targets to Mars, the Moon, and asteroids. This technology would be particularly useful for missions involving extreme terrain mobility, small body/microgravity mobility, and forceful interaction between a planetary surface system and its environment (e.g. drilling, digging, etc.) These missions are all ranked as High Priorities in NASA's Robotics, Tele-robotics, and Autonomous Systems Roadmap Technology Area 04 (April 2012).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A highly promising spectrum of uses are in securing mechanized systems, positioning transient equipment, emplacing temporary infrastructure, etc., for a variety of applications in the mining, construction, inspection, and utility industries.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A reliable solution to recurring anchoring would benefit various robotic mission concepts that are being developed at NASA. We will work with scientists and technical leads at NASA Centers to promote the proposed innovative robotic anchoring for future NASA missions, including for example exploring the South Pole of the Moon, steep terrain exploration on Mars, sampling missions on asteroids, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Actuators & Motors
Deployment
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H6.03-7501
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CA59P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Autonomy and Space Mission Automation for Consumables
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrating Standard Operating Procedures with Spacecraft Automation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRACLabs, Inc.
100 North East Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio, TX
78216-1234
(281) 461-7886

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Kortenkamp
korten@traclabs.com
100 North East Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio,  TX 78216-1234
(281) 461-7886

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Spacecraft automation can be used to greatly reduce the demands on crew member and flight controllers time and attention. Automation can monitor critical resources, perform routine tasks, respond to unexpected events, and manage the overall operation of on-board systems. Crew members and flight controllers also use standard operating procedures to manage the tasks necessary to operate complex space missions. These procedures document both manual, non-automatable tasks and the interaction with automated space systems. In current NASA operations, however, automation systems and procedures are completely divorced from each other. Thus, procedures cannot start automation processes, monitor automation systems, or respond to state changes in automated systems. TRACLabs has developed an integrated development environment for electronic procedures called PRIDE. Our subcontractor, The Hammers Company, has developed an automation system called Galaxy and its Spacecraft Test and Operations Language (STOL) interpreter. In Phase I of this research, TRACLabs and The Hammers Company integrated PRIDE with Galaxy as a proof-of-concept example of the capabilities provided by a link between standard operating procedures and automation systems. Phase II of this research will focus on a much tighter interaction between PRIDE and Galaxy and application to NASA?s Resource Prospector mission.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
TRACLabs is already selling the core technology proposed in this project as a commercial product with a large oil field services company as a launch customer. Field-testing at several sites world-wide is currently underway before deployment in actual operations in mid-2017. TRACLabs expects additional customers in the oil and gas industry will deploy PRIDE once it has been proven effective by by our launch customer. Sierra Nevada Corporation has also purchased licenses for use in their Dream Chaser program, which was recently selected to deliver cargo to ISS. TRACLabs is beginning a pilot program with a large chemical manufacturer to explore the usefulness of electronic procedures in their operations. By partnering with the Hammers Company and integrating with Galaxy we expect to acquire customers in satellite operations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
PRIDE is being evaluated for use in ground control operations for the Resource Prospector (RP) robot being developed by NASA JSC and ARC for lunar surface operations. Galaxy is already being used by RP ground operators. The results of this research are expected to have immediate applicability to RP and we anticipate RP using PRIDE for their ground operations. This work is also applicable to human spaceflight including ISS and Orion operations. This includes EVA, VVO, and ROBO, all of whom have seen demonstrations of this research. We are working with researchers at Armstrong Flight Research Center to use PRIDE to automate their AirVolt test stand operations in advance of testing for the SCEPTOR X-57 project. The new automation features developed in this project will be directly applicable to AirVolt and SCEPTOR X-57. NASA's Space Network Ground Segment Sustainment (SGSS) project that is modernizing the space agency's ground infrastructure systems for their Space Network is evaluating PRIDE as a potential technology for Local Operating Procedures (LOPs).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Man-Machine Interaction
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Sequencing & Scheduling
Knowledge Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H6.04-8219
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CA57P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Integrating ISHM with Flight Avionics Architectures for Cyber-Physical Space Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrating ISHM with Flight Avionics Architectures for Cyber-Physical Space Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Qualtech Systems, Inc.
100 Corporate Place Suite 220
Rocky Hill, CT
06067-1803
(860) 257-1803

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sudipto Ghoshal
sudipto@teamqsi.com
100 Corporate Place, Ste 220
Rocky Hill,  CT 06067-1803
(860) 761-9341

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Substantial progress has been made by NASA in integrating flight avionics and ISHM with well-defined caution and warning system, however, the scope of ACAW alerting and response systems is still limited to a single failure response mapping. While the approach of single Caution And Warning (CW) message mapped to a single response procedure may be sufficient for simple cases, for a well-connected system with inter-dependencies among the components a single component failure will likely negatively impact other components functions downstream that are dependent on the failed component. This may lead to the generation of multiple CW messages and hence the potential invocation of multiple conflicting malfunction and response and recovery procedures. QSI is proposing, with significant feedback from the NASA COR and other NASA stakeholders, on a more proactive approach that improves the CW message generation itself and produces a more appropriate, prioritized and actionable set of CW messages through the identification of the root cause failures, impact or consequence analysis of those failures and the associated risk assessment all of which are critical to the choice for the appropriate response/recovery procedure(s). The proposed solution will provide real-time capability to assess the health and its impact on the capability of a spacecraft, and utilize it to identify suitable recovery options to ensure crew safety and mission success. It will enable smarter crew displays that tie together System Health, Advanced Caution Advisory and Warning System (ACAWS) messages and recommended recovery procedures, thereby improving the decision-making ability of the crew for deep space missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Among non-NASA agencies, DoD, US Air Force, US Navy, and commercial aviation (e.g., SpaceX) are the most potential customers for the resulting technologies. Large scale military systems (systems of systems) such as NORAD, Space Command ground segments, the Joint Strike Fighter fleet, the Navy shipboard platforms, Submarine Commands and ballistic missile defense (BMD) systems can be potential areas to field the proposed technology. One such strong candidate for potential non-NASA application is the Navy's Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) program. Both variants of LCS (Freedom-class and Independence-class) are extremely hi-tech, complex and have highly interconnected systems and subsystems. However, with a lightly manned ship as planned, the burden on the crew for ship maintenance is enormous. Currently, the shipboard crew and the shore-site experts all face enormous challenges especially during unscheduled failures. A failure identification and impact assessment system as being developed through this effort will be of immediate value to the LCS program and its system integrators, namely Lockheed Martin and General Dynamics. Both these corporations as well as NAVSEA are strong candidates for a near-term non-NASA application of this technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The product resulting from this effort will be ready for transition to current and planned NASA crewed as well as robotic missions, both near Earth as well as deep space missions. At the end of Phase II, we expect to demonstrate the solution on NASA systems relevant for the EM-1 and EM-2 missions such as the AMPS (Advanced Modular Power System) or the CDS (Cascade Distillation System) for water purification and reuse and for possible Phase III user evaluation and field trials. Hence one such immediate application is the Orion Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program, managed by Johnson Space Center. The product resulting from this effort will be ready for transition to current and planned NASA crewed as well as robotic missions, both near Earth as well as deep space missions. At the end of Phase II, we expect to demonstrate the developed solution on target NASA systems that are relevant for the EM-1 and EM-2 missions such as the AMPS (Advanced Modular Power System) or the CDS (Cascade Distillation System) for water purification and reuse and for possible Phase III user evaluation and field trials. Hence one such immediate application is the Orion Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program, managed by Johnson Space Center. The NASA COR, Gordon Aaseng of ARC is stationed at JSC and works closely with the operations groups at JSC. In addition, the Space Launch System (SLS), managed by Marshall Space Flight Center is another immediate viable NASA application.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Man-Machine Interaction
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Knowledge Management
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H6.04-8395
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CA38P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Integrating ISHM with Flight Avionics Architectures for Cyber-Physical Space Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multiple Failure Response Procedure System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
1650 South Amphlett Boulevard, Suite 300
San Mateo, CA
94402-2516
(650) 931-2700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Ong
ong@stottlerhenke.com
1650 South Amphlett Blvd, Suite # 300
San Mateo,  CA 94402-2516
(650) 931-2700

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Currently, flight controllers are often tasked with generating responses to multiple failures when they occur. However, during future space missions, flight controllers may be less available for this task, due to long communication delays during deep space missions, task overload as flight controllers manage many missions simultaneously, or reduced flight controller staffing per mission. To reduce the workload on the crew and/or flight controllers, it would be highly desirable to generate response procedures for multiple failures automatically or semi-automatically. When multiple failures occur, it seems attractive to use the procedures that were developed in advance to handle each of the individual failures. However, simply combining procedures in just any order might not work due to interactions among the faults, procedure goals, conditions, and effects. During Phase I, we began to develop the Multiple Failure Response Procedure (MFRP) System, which will automatically generate and present procedures for responding to multiple failures and ambiguity groups. The central idea of MFRP is to encode each the rationale of each procedure in a machine-readable way and to use this knowledge at run-time system to handle multiple problems and situations which may not have been specifically anticipated during procedure development. During Phase I, we developed a domain model and software prototype which generated valid responses for eight multiple failure scenarios for which naive application of single failure procedures was invalid or suboptimal, thus demonstrating the feasibility of our approach to multi-failure plan generation. For Phase II, we propose to extend MFRP flexibility, robustness, and ease of use. We will develop or enhance processes, models, algorithms, and software applications and tools to demonstrate the ability to handle complex domains, display multi-failure responses to users effectively, and reduce the cost and difficulty of applying MFRP to each domain.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology can be used to enhance the range of adverse situations that can be supported by response procedures in other types of critical systems such as commercial aircraft, nuclear power plants and chemical plants, power distribution systems, and emergency response systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology resulting from this research will generate multi-failure response procedures from single-failure procedures in real-time when multiple failures occur or when ambiguous diagnoses are returned by automated diagnostic systems. This capability will extend the range of adverse situations for which procedures can be provided to support crew members and ground-based flight controllers. These multi-failure procedures can be used to respond to failures in air vehicles, space vehicles (manned and unmanned), and space habitats. Candidate applications to be explored during Phase II include, but are not limited to, the International Space Station, the Mars Transfer Vehicle simulation operated during NEEMO exercises, future mission systems architectures, and the proposed Macho Mengi (M2) Observatory System.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Man-Machine Interaction
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H7.01-8243
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CC87P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ablative Thermal Protection Systems Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flexible, High Char Yield Hybridsil Adhesive Materials for Next Generation Ablative Thermal Protecti

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanosonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke, VA
24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vince Baranauskas
vince@nanosonic.com
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke,  VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A Phase II SBIR transition of NanoSonic's HybridSil poly(imide siloxane) ablative adhesive technology will provide a pivotal funding bridge toward its Phase III integration within next-generation EDL thermal protection materials. Based on highly encouraging Phase I results indicating HybridSil poly(imide siloxane) adhesives afford an increase in adhesive strength up to 659% to phenolic thermosets and 756% to cyanate thermosets when tested at 125 C while also integrating low Tg (-98 C) polysiloxane domains necessary for desirable low temperature flexibility and impact resistance, NanoSonic envisions significant Phase III transition potential into next-generation aeroshell designs. During the proposed Phase II effort, NanoSonic will rigorously optimize the high temperature adhesive strength of HybridSil poly(imide siloxane) adhesives to a broader spectrum of aeroshell materials up to 400 C, supply promising adhesives to team partner Lockheed Martin Space Systems for construction and mechanical testing of prototype ablative thermal protective samples, complete a comprehensive analysis of the physical and mechanical properties of down-selected adhesives properties for TPS design engineers, and transition Phase II optimized adhesive resins to 55-gallon batch manufacturing quantities for distribution to NASA and Lockheed Martin groups. Upon completion of the Phase II program, NanoSonic's high temperature HybridSil adhesives will facilitate future reductions in total aeroshell mass for increased payload opportunities by enabling the use less adhesive and reduced thickness TPS.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Broad secondary non-NASA applications exist for NanoSonic's HybridSil TPS tile adhesives. Immediate Phase III transition potential will exist within an array of aerospace heat shield systems, as well as fire protective materials within the aerospace, marine, and automotive industries.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Primary NASA applications will include entry, descent and landing ablative thermal protection systems for future planetary entry vehicles while immediate secondary applications will include spacecraft aerocapture systems. Additional NASA applications will include utility within a broad spectrum of reentry body heat shield systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Processing Methods
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Nanomaterials
Organics/Biomaterials/Hybrids
Polymers


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H7.02-8111
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CA18P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Diagnostic Tools for High Velocity Testing and Analysis
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Sensitivity, High Frequency Sensors for Hypervelocity Testing and Analysis

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanosonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke, VA
24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hang Ruan
hruan@nanosonic.com
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke,  VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This NASA Phase II SBIR program would develop high sensitivity, high frequency nanomembrane based surface sensors for hypervelocity testing and analysis on wind tunnel and shock tube models, using SOI (Silicon on Insulator) NM techniques in combination with our pioneering nanocomposite materials. Such low-modulus, conformal nanomembrane sensors with integrated interconnected elements and electronic devices can be applied to new or existing wind tunnel models for high frequency pressure analysis, as well as for detection of the shock front edge arrival in shock tube facilities. NanoSonic has demonstrated the feasibility of NM transducer materials in such sensors for the measurement of dynamic normal pressure using shock tube facility. Semiconductor NM sensors are thin, mechanically and chemically robust materials that may be patterned in two dimensions to create multi-sensor element arrays that can be embedded into small probe tips.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Primary customers would be university, government laboratory and aerospace industry researchers. Distributed pressure mapping on air vehicles as well as in biomedical devices and other systems may have merit. Further, the thin film sensor elements may be used as air flow or water flow devices in systems where either low weight, low surface profile, lack of need for space below the flow surface, or high sensitivity at a low cost are needed.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The anticipated initial market of the NM sensors is for shock front arrival testing in hypervelocity testing facilities. Testing with NASA centers would allow improvements in sensor materials, electronics and packaging, and potentially allow the transition of related products to operational vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Pressure/Vacuum


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H8.01-7513
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CP57P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Energy Conversion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Membrane-Supported Thermoelectric Generator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanohmics, Inc.
6201 East Oltorf Street, Suite 400
Austin, TX
78741-7509
(512) 389-9990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steve Savoy
ssavoy@nanohmics.com
6201 East Oltorf Street, Suite 400
Austin,  TX 78741-7509
(512) 389-9990

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Solid-state thermoelectric (TE) devices provide many advantages in refrigeration (TE coolers) and power generation (TE generators). These highly reliable devices have no moving parts, operate over a large range of temperatures, and do not emit toxic or environmentally-unfriendly gases. These devices can be easily integrated into thermal energy conversion systems that meet NASA needs for innovative space power generation on orbiting platforms, extraterrestrial surfaces, and space transportation vehicles. To date, the adoption of TE generator (TEG) devices in energy scavenging/power recovery applications has been hampered by a lack of TE material compositions, no high throughput production methods for large-area conformable TEG devices, and high cost-per-unit area for tiling rigid plate TE devices. Production of large-area sheets of high-ZT TEG devices that conform to space vehicle and other relevant thermal gradient surfaces would be highly beneficial. This effort develops membrane-supported thermoelectric device manufacturing technology with in-situ sintering of high-ZT thermoelectric powders dispersed across a fiberglass sheet matrix serving as a mechanical support. The method provides intrinsic densification of the TE powders between the two faces of the fiberglass sheet and allows for large-scale conformable thermoelectric sheets to be produced with high performance at low cost.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Unrecovered waste heat from energy-consuming industrial processes is estimated by the DOE at > 10 quads/yr (1 quad = 1015 BTU). Assuming a conservative 9 quads, 6% efficiency for TE devices constructed with our approach, 50% losses due to parasitic heat transfer losses and integration, and penetrating 10% of the waste heat market, we estimate an economically viable TE device could enable recovery of ~20 trillion BTU of waste heat/year. Additionally, the incorporation of TE devices in automobiles can improve the efficiency of their power system by up to 5%. This level of waste heat energy recovery would lower the average consumer gas consumption ~15-20 gallons with a cost savings on the order of $70?$100/year. A low-cost manufacturing solution would pay back in the first year, passing the savings onto the lifetime of the device, which based on non-moving parts, should be relatively long. The developed technology will lead to quasi-renewable energy recovery, or energy that would otherwise be radiated as waste environmental heat, resulting in a far-reaching impact on the world's energy consumption, including lowering the U.S. dependence on foreign oil. Next to solar energy, waste heat recovery is the most available secondary power source.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Space power engineers can use these devices to produce custom fit power generation systems directly on surfaces with high temperature differences such as the hull of a space vehicle, satellite thermal busses, and extraterrestrial shelter materials. These large-area, integrated thermoelectric sheets will provide a means to maximize the extraction of otherwise wasted heat for both NASA and commercial applications such as automotive/aerospace exhaust systems, effluent piping, and petrochemical refining equipment. The proposed device embodiment is the only significant concept amendable to attachment to the contours and surfaces of space vehicles and as such will have a significant impact on generate power during space missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Conversion
Generation
Processing Methods
Nanomaterials
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Textiles
Thermal
Active Systems
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H8.01-7759
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CC76P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Energy Conversion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Liquid Interface Diffusion Bonding of FPS Heat Pipes to Core

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Peregrine Falcon Corporation
1051 Serpentine Lane, Suite 100
Pleasanton, CA
94566-8451
(925) 461-6800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Hardesty
rhardesty@peregrinecorp.com
1051 Serpentine Lane, Suite 100
Pleasanton,  CA 94566-8451
(925) 461-6800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A key challenge to producing 10kWe Fission Power Systems (FPS) is embedding and joining heat pipes internally to the U-7Mo core. A successful Phase I effort has demonstrated the feasibility of applying the technology of Liquid Interface Diffusion (LID) Bonding to embed and join heat pipes (Haynes 230) to the core. An added bonus is that this LID Bonding technology will simultaneously eliminate the seams and voids created from a core made from pieces of U-7Mo thereby providing an integrated heat pipe / U-7Mo core sub-assembly with no internal voids or separations between core pieces or from the core to the heat pipes. LID Bonding will even allow for the core to be built up by various horizontal and asymmetric pieces such as split heat pipe channels to easily receive heat pipes, consolidating the core material around the heat pipes during the LID Bonding process. Phase II will allow NASA to produce FPS up to 10 kWe and beyond to meet the power requirements for landing astronauts on Mars, and also to provide power to a host of other programs, including programs such as Neptune Systems Explorer, Kuiper Belt Optic, Trojan Tour, and Jupiter Europa Orbiter.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications include power supplies for commercial space applications like those listed for NASA and then remote and emergency power supplies for critical requirements for those in the Artic, Antarctic and isolated regions between.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Fission Power Systems of the following levels: 1 - 10 kWe Stirling FPS. 10 - 40 kWe Stirling FPS. 40 - 100 kWe FPS. Potential missions include FPS for the Jupiter Europa Orbiter, Neptune Systems Explorer, Kuiper Belt Object Orbiter, and Trojan Tour along with manned Mars missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Generation
Processing Methods
Active Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H8.02-8130
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CC67P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Anode Electrocatalysis Concept for Direct Methane SOFCs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South
College Station, TX
77845-6023
(979) 764-2219

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mahesh Waje
mahesh.waje@lynntech.com
2501 Earl Rudder Fwy S
College Station,  TX 77845-6023
(979) 764-2200

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Lunar, Mars and deep space exploration missions require enhanced mission flexibility (i.e., using whatever resources available at the destination) in order to reduce logistics burden and overall mission cost. Power generation technologies that are fuel-flexible, multi-use (e.g., Moon or Mars), and cross-platform (lander use, rover use or stationary) are critical for mission flexibility. Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is the most suitable technology for electricity generation from hydrocarbons (including methane) and other fuels. State-of-the-art SOFCs are based on internal or external fuel reforming cannot function without large volumes of water (such as >300 kg of water consumption per 100 kg of methane) and have low efficiency. During the Phase I, Lynntech studied five different electrocatalysis concepts with more than 30 different electrocatalysts and identified a class of anode materials that provided direct electrochemical oxidation with high power densities using dry methane (320 mW/cm2) and humidified methane (408 mW/cm2). During Phase II, Lynntech will further optimize the anode composition and electrode structure, conduct the electrochemical characterization in single cell and short stacks, design and built a 1 kW stack with a hot box module, and show the operational performance for 500 hr using dry methane.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Solid oxide fuel cell technology demonstrated the highest achievable energy efficiency for electric power generation from hydrocarbon fuels such as natural gas, methane, syngas, and other similar fuels. Carbon coking issue has been very detrimental on the long term durability (which has also affected their commercialization) and a major hurdle to overcome without the use of additional water or oxygen in the fuel stream. Lynntech?s SOFC technology employs an advanced and cheap direct electrochemical oxidation electrocatalyst, utilizes dry fuels without water, has no carbon coking issues, and most importantly provides very high power densities with high efficiency. Potential non-NASA commercial applications for this technology would be: commercial and military unmanned underwater vehicles, military tactical gen-sets, auxiliary power units for silent-watch vehicles, commercial and military unmanned aerial vehicles, and residential micro-combined heat and power systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future space missions will require a significant degree of mission flexibility (meaning utilize the resources available at the destination). Power generation devices are one of the critical components that determine the mission flexibility parameter. Generation of electricity via solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology maximizes the mission flexibility and such systems can be used for the following NASA commercial applications: Mars landers, rovers, and other exploration vehicles, sun-independent electrical power generation for crew transportation systems and surface systems, power generation for surface mobility systems, Lunar landers, and other similar applications. Lynntech?s SOFC technology utilizes an advanced electrochemical oxidation catalyst for direct electrochemical oxidation to get the highest efficiency and provides very high power densities with dry fuels without the complexity of conventional SOFCs with reformers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Generation
Ceramics
Nanomaterials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H8.03-8031
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CC68P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Photovoltaic Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Affordable, Lightweight, Compactly Stowable, High Strength / Stiffness Lander Solar Array

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Deployable Space Systems, Inc.
460 Ward Drive, Suite F
Santa Barbara, CA
93111-2356
(805) 722-8090

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Spence
Brian.Spence@DSS-Space.com
460 Ward Drive, Suite F
Santa Barbara,  CA 93111-2356
(805) 722-8090

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS) has developed a next-generation high performance solar array system specifically for NASA's future Lander and sample return missions. The proposed Lander solar array has game-changing performance metrics in terms of extremely high specific power, ultra-compact stowage volume, affordability, low risk, high environmental survivability/operability, high power and growth capability, high deployed strength and high strength during deployment (for mission environments that have high gravity and wind loading from atmospheres such as Mars), high deployed stiffness, high reliability, retraction and re-deployment capability, and broad modularity / adaptability to many missions. The proposed innovation is a tensioned membrane blanket solar array that stows very compactly with no auxiliary components extending beyond the stowed volume envelope of the stowed flexible blanket assembly, and when deployed becomes structurally pre-tensioned to create a deployed rigid body 'tensegrity-like' configuration that exhibits very high deployed strength and stiffness. The proposed technology innovation significantly enhances Lander and sample return vehicle capabilities through its enabling performance and by providing a low cost alternative renewable power generating system in place of the very expensive standard RTG systems currently being used. The proposed innovation greatly increases performance and autonomy/mobility, decreases risk, and ultimately enables missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA space applications are comprised of practically all missions that require affordable high-efficiency photovoltaic power production through deployment of an ultra-lightweight, ultra-compact stowage, high strength and stiffness, affordable, and highly-modular solar array system. Potential non-NASA commercial and DoD applications span a broad range of applications that demand ultra-compact stowage and very high strength and stiffness. The technology is suitable for non-NASA LEO, MEO & GEO missions. The technology is particularly suited for reconnaissance missions that require game-changing performance in terms of affordability, ultra-lightweight, compact stowage volume, and high deployed strength and stiffness.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA space applications are comprised of practically all Exploration, Space Science, Earth Science, Planetary Surface, and other missions that require affordable high-efficiency photovoltaic power production through of an ultra-lightweight, ultra-compact stowage, high strength and stiffness, and highly-modular solar array system. The technology is particularly suited for Lander and sample return missions that require game-changing performance in terms of affordability, high power, compact stowed packaging, high deployed strength and stiffness, unsupported deployment in 1G, and lightweight. The technology is suitable for NASA LEO, MEO & GEO, and interplanetary missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Generation
Prototyping
Composites
Deployment
Structures
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H8.04-8147
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CC66P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Next Generation Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Lithium Sulfur Battery

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cornerstone Research Group, Inc.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH
45440-3638
(937) 320-1877

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Henslee
hensleeb@crgrp.com
2750 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton,  OH 45440-3638
(937) 320-1877

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CRG proposes to develop an Advanced Lithium Sulfur Battery (LSB) based on combining a novel super ion conducting ceramic electrolyte, entrapped sulfur cathode, and a lithium metal anode necessary to meet NASA's needs for high energy density, rechargeable, and safe energy storage. These new materials for LSBs will build upon a proven ceramic electrolyte for rechargeable lithium metal batteries. A composition of a metallic lithium anode, ceramic electrolyte, and a novel sulfur cathode will be optimized to achieve program goals for energy density, operational temperatures, storage, and cycle life. Supporting the Human Exploration and Operations Directorate, this project's technologies directly address requirements for high energy density space batteries for space exploration systems including rovers, landers, ascent vehicle space craft. This project's technologies offer high energy density (>450 Whr/kg), long storage life, and long operational life batteries. These advancements will enable space power supplies to keep pace with increasing electricity demands, and reduce battery weight by 50% while advancing the state of the art battery technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project's technologies, developed for NASA systems, would directly apply to systems operated by other government and commercial enterprises. Advanced battery chemistries have been gaining interest for electric vehicles, UAVs, portable devices, and multifunctional structural materials. The technology is also generally applicable for a variety of other energy storage applications of interest to the DoE. Lithium metal battery systems enable significantly higher energy density at safe operating conditions that would be considered revolutionary for a variety of applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Supporting the Human Exploration and Operations Directorate, this project's technologies directly address requirements for high energy density space batteries for space exploration systems including rovers, landers, ascent vehicle space craft. This project's technologies offer high energy density (>450 Whr/kg), long storage life, and long operational life batteries. These advancements will enable space power supplies to keep pace with increasing electricity demands, and reduce battery weight by 50% while advancing the state of the art battery technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Space Transportation & Safety
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Storage
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Composites
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H9.01-7254
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CP36P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Optical Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Power-Consumption Integrated PPM Laser Transmitter

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
RAM Photonics
4901 Morena Boulevard, Suite 128
San Diego, CA
92117-3557
(858) 490-1030

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Marciante
john.marciante@ramphotonics.com
4901 Morena Boulevard, Suite 128
San Diego,  CA 92117-3557
(585) 771-7311

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Conventional PPM laser transmitters, a CW laser followed by a modulator, are inherently inefficient since the data must be carved from the laser's steady output. 95% of the optical power is discarded in a standard telecom RZ format, with another 8x efficiency reduction using a PPM scheme. An alternative is to form the pulse train with a mode-locked laser. However, since the resultant MLL pulse train is periodic, it must produce pulses in every symbol slot, not just once per symbol. This means that for a 32-ary PPM scheme, the MLL optical efficiency is reduced by a factor of at least 32 by discarding the un-needed pulses. In both cases, the electro-optic modulator itself induces an additional 60% optical loss, and requires nearly 0.5W of power to drive. An alternative is to use a low-repetition-rate MLL in combination with a switch fabric to delay each output pulse into the correct PPM slot. However, the use of photonic integrated circuits (e.g., silicon) is prohibitive due to the high intrinsic loss. A 100-MHz PPM data rate scheme requires ~5ns pulse delay. This represents 43-cm propagation in silicon, inducing a power loss over 10 dB. Adding the loss due to spiraled delay lines, switch junctions, and coupling on/off chip, the aggregate loss of the switch fabric is 18 to 24 dB, representing a significant efficiency loss. RAM Photonics proposes the development of a qualitatively novel approach to high-efficiency, low-bit-rate laser transmitters compatible with space-borne missions. Specifically, we propose to develop a laser transmitter that attains highly efficiency optical data generation by (1) generating only one optical pulse per symbol at arbitrary temporal location, (2) eliminating all electro-optic modulators, and (3) exploiting new advances in fiver optic and opto-electronic packaging. The new transmitter device has low dissipation (< 0.5 W total) and low SWaP footprint, and can operate at arbitrary data rates and generate any symbol formats.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The clear first application is as a seed for long-range, high-performance LIDAR laser systems. One specific LIDAR application is differential absorption LIDAR, which require laser sources operating at 1.57um for sensing CO2. The technology developed in this program, although focusing on 1.5um for the particular communication application, is not specifically dependent on the wavelength of the light. By using alternate laser diodes and fiber amplifiers (doped with Yb, Tm, or Ho instead of Er), the 1-um window can be reached as well as the 2.05-um CO2 line, which is immediately applicable to environmental and pollution monitoring. A multitude of other photon-starved applications require format-flexible PPM transmitters, such as deep-sea sensing, aircraft-to-submarine communications, secure long-range optical links, and optical wireless. Further, we expect that the new seed source, combined with our commercial product line of fiber amplifiers (www.ramphotonics.com/products/spa-fiber-amplifier) that are currently targeted to low-noise amplification of single (solitary) pulses to high pulse energies, will generate a new flexible-format pulsed laser source that can enable new opportunities in sensing, laser accelerator drivers, medical laser therapies and surgery, and ultrafast laser material processing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
PPM laser transmitters, particularly with ultra-low electrical power consumption and arbitrary data format, are of significant interest for many NASA programs. The direct NASA application is a PPM laser transmitter with the following characteristics: 10-100-MHz symbol data rate; 250-ps symbol slot width, 16-128 PPM M-ary, 1540-1560 nm wavelength, 50mW average power, 25-ps pulse width, and total average power consumption less than 500 mW. Further, the PPM transmitter developed in this program could be directly applied to small systems in near-earth orbit, such as Cubesats, and in proximity-length applications, such as orbiter-to-lander communications. They can also be used to seed a high-power fiber amplifier for interplanetary and deep-space optical communications systems. The transmitter can also be used as the seed for LIDAR transmitters. In conjunction with a low-jitter clock generator, the PPM pulses can be applied to mm-scale ranging for use in identifying objects and mapping contoured structures. The technology in our commercial Cavityless pulse source results in ultra-low-loss optical pulse generation with less than 25-fs jitter, and an optical engine that adds less than 5-fs of additive jitter.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Transmitters/Receivers
Prototyping
Lasers (Communication)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H9.01-8402
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CP76P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Optical Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Superconducting Magnesium Diboride Thin Films for Ground Receiver Detectors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
STAR Cryoelectronics, LLC
25-A Bisbee Court
Santa Fe, NM
87508-1338
(505) 424-6454

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Moeckly
moeckly@gmail.com
1225 E Cota St
Santa Barbara,  CA 93103-2502
(805) 705-0344

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Superconducting films of magnesium diboride (MgB2) are very attractive for a range of detector and telecommunications applications owing to the high critical temperature of these films, ~40 K, which greatly simplifies the cooling requirements. We propose to develop a reactive evaporation technique for the deposition of MgB2 thick films on wafers up to at least 4" diameter, and an etch back and passivation process to produce high-quality thin films that are needed for the development of superconducting single photon detectors (SNSPDs) and THz hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixers. Currently there is no domestic commercial source for MgB2 films; the only commercial source we are aware of is an overseas vendor that can supply films only on very small (<1 cm2) chips. In Phase I, we demonstrated the feasibility of the etch back and passivation process, and completed designs for the reactive evaporation system that we will build in Phase II and develop a wafer-scale process for the deposition and production of MgB2 films.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High-quality MgB2 films are attractive for a number of superconducting electronics applications, and the availability of internal MgB2 deposition capabilities would enable the company to broaden the range of services and products currently offered. Potential non-NASA commercial applications include custom fabrication of microwave devices that can take advantage of the low surface resistance of MgB2 films; the development of SQUID sensors to augment the company's existing LTS and HTS SQUID product line for applications in biomedical imaging, non-destructive testing of materials and geophysical exploration; and the fabrication of flexible cryogenic interconnects for LTS computing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
All NASA space missions are supported by Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) technologies that provide the command, telemetry, science data transfer, and navigation support required for these missions. In view of NASA's commitment that "communications shall enable and not constrain missions," there is a recognized need for new and innovative technologies for free-space, long-range optical communications that will enhance downlink and uplink data transfer rates for space missions and provide increased security for future manned missions that could be jeopardized through cyberattacks. There has been significant interest in single photon detectors based on MgB2 films to meet these needs, and in THz HEB mixers based on MgB2 films for future astrophysics applications, such as for the Far-IR Surveyor mission or for SOFIA heterodyne instruments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Detectors (see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H9.02-7583
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CC62P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Space Communication Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: OpenSWIFT-SDR for STRS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tethers Unlimited, Inc.
11711 North Creek Parkway South, Suite D113
Bothell, WA
98011-8808
(425) 486-0100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tyrel Newton
newton@tethers.com
11711 N. Creek Pkwy S., D113
Bothell,  WA 98011-8804
(425) 486-0100

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The OpenSWIFT-SDR Phase II effort will build upon our highly successful Phase I effort by extending the capabilities of the SWIFT-SDR platform and develop technologies needed for NASA?s next generation satellite communication architecture. The SWIFT software defined radio is a proven, SWaP-C (size, weight, power, and cost) efficient RF communications, signal processing, and general computing platform delivering on-orbit reprogrammability and flexibility for space missions. TUI plans to investigate and implement cognitive radio technologies on the SWIFT platform that will reduce mission planning and mission implementation costs by providing a standardized, robust, hardware and software platform that can dynamically adjust to a rapidly changing space communications environment. By using the mature SWIFT radio as a basis for integrating these solutions, and implementing NASA's STRS standard for radio software, TUI is in a strong position to continue research and develop cognitive radio solutions that benefit a wide variety of NASA science missions and future radio customers through tested, reusable, and portable software and firmware.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As the radio frequency spectrum continues to be more congested, the need to more efficiently use spectrum, sense channel characteristics, respond to dynamic channels, and mitigate interference is critical. We will reach out to DoD customers, such as the US Army, and US Air Force where the cognitive capabilities could benefit them as they look to improve upon their current communication systems, and develop future small satellite systems. Additionally, the OpenSWIFT cognitive solutions will benefit the many commercial small satellite customers who are using the SWIFT-SDRs as Telemetry, Tracking and Command (TT&C) and mission data delivery subsystems by enabling unprecedented efficiency, quantity and reliability in data return and commanding.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The OpenSWIFT technology has multiple opportunities for NASA small satellite missions. TUI has previously delivered flight and development S-Band and X-Band units to NASA Marshall to support CubeSat missions, and successfully completed compatibility testing with NASA's Near Earth Network (NEN). With the achievements made in the Phase I, we have implemented a HAL that has made SWIFT-SDR Space Telecommunication Radio System (STRS) compatible. STRS has also influenced the architecture decisions of our next generation Baseband Processor currently under development to support several commercial . Having a reliable STRS-compatible platform, NASA missions can utilize the SWIFT-SDR as a proven user terminal, capitalizing on cognitive research performed, or as an accessible development platform to rapidly develop and test new technologies. TUI has already secured funding for and is developing a Ka-Band Radio Frequency (RF) transmitter frontend, which will cover the NEN and TDRS Ka frequency bands.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Antennas
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Transmitters/Receivers
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Sequencing & Scheduling
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H9.02-7669
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CG44P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Space Communication Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ka-Band Electronically Steered CubeSat Antenna

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kymeta Government Solutions
12277 134th Court Northeast
Redmond, WA
98052-8713
(425) 896-3700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Margo Godon
mgodon@kymetagov.com
12277 134th Court Northeast
Redmond,  WA 98052-8713
(425) 658-8721

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Kymeta Government Solutions (KGS) designed, analyzed, built, tested, and delivered a small, lightweight, low-cost, low-power electronically steered Ka-band prototype antenna subsystem module (ASM) intended for use on 3U or larger CubeSats. This antenna uses a tunable dielectric material and an array of radiating elements to create an interference pattern that steers the beam in the desired direction. This method provides moderate gain without the use of mechanical steering and similar functional performance to a traditional phased array at a fraction of the size, weight, power, and cost (SWAP-C). The Ka band ASM is specifically designed to be a flexible component in the communications chain. All of the interfaces to the ASM are simple, non-proprietary interfaces, and the KGS ASM is agnostic to radio, waveform, and network selections. A receiver can be readily integrated with the ASM to enable closed loop tracking, and the simple command interface of the ASM provides the communication system with the ability to easily and rapidly refine the beam position to maximize gain and ultimately improve link margins and data throughput without incurring additional power draw or mechanical stability effects. Modifications to the aperture to better integrate, survive launch, and operate in space were designed during Phase I; during Phase II, KGS plans to update the control electronics and software that drive the antenna and then build and perform RF test on the overall system to verify compliance with requirements. To date, a low-SWAP Ka-band steerable antenna for small satellites has not been successfully demonstrated in space. At the conclusion of this Phase II contract, the KGS ASM will be ready to go to space qualification testing and then a demonstration launch, where KGS will have the opportunity to prove the ASM's capability in the target environment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This antenna is appropriate for a variety of applications that require high data rate communications but do not have the funding or the weight budget to allow a phased array antenna, including university CubeSat teams, commercial companies, and government entities. This antenna is an especially good fit for entities that have low weight and power requirements, as these are areas where it performs exceptionally well compared to traditional mechanically-steered antennas as well as phased-array antennas. A variety of space-based ventures or early demonstrations that are expected to require high data rate communications have been announced recently, including Earth observation projects where the satellite itself captures large amounts of data that needs to be transferred back to the ground quickly and efficiently for analysis, as well as communications projects where a satellite acts as a node in a larger communications system and needs to be in a position to receive and transmit large amounts of data for as much of its orbit as possible.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This Ka-band ASM is a small, lightweight antenna which provides moderate gain without the use of mechanical steering or power-hungry phase shifters. This technology provides a high data rate communications solution for small satellites which, when paired with sensors, would provide NASA with the ability to transfer high volumes of sensor data from LEO satellites directly to the Earth via the Near Earth Network. In addition, because the frequency range of this antenna supports communication with NASA's Tracking Data Relay Satellite (TDRS), it could allow transfer of data from LEO satellites to other satellites in LEO or GEO orbits as defined in the Space Network User Guide. This technology is generally not expected to form the basis of the primary science activity on a satellite, but its ability to support the transfer of large amounts of data for relatively little size, weight, power, and cost means that it has the ability to enhance or enable a variety of NASA programs, ranging from earth observation activities to science experiments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Antennas


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H9.03-7387
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CG39P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Dynamics and Navigation Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Time Inter-Comparison Using Transportable Optical Combs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AOSense, Inc.
929 East Arques Avenue
Sunnyvale, CA
94085-4521
(408) 735-9500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arman Cingoz
acingoz@aosense.com
929 East Arques Avenue
Sunnyvale,  CA 94085-4521
(408) 636-2612

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
AOSense proposes a free-space, two-way optical time transfer system compatible with global-scale synchronization of current-generation optical atomic clocks. In Phase I, we have demonstrated the requisite performance using existing hardware coupled with off-the-shelf control electronics. Based on our results, we have designed a fully-integrated module capable of disseminating timing signals with sub-femtosecond error from 1-10,000 s. In Phase II, we will package the device and deliver it for external testing. Our system is expected to improve ground-to-satellite synchronization a million-fold over current RF-based time transfer systems, enabling applications including clock-based geodesy, very long baseline interferometry, coherent LIDAR arrays, and tests of general relativity. The Phase I breadboard demonstration performance is consistent with a timing jitter of 3 fs @ 1s and integrates down to 700 as at 30 seconds. The corresponding fractional timing instability is 3 x 10^-15 @ 1 second, which flickers at 2.7 x 10^-17 out to 2000 seconds. We have identified the systematic effects that limit both short and long term stability and incorporated the improvements into the Phase II design. With these improvements, we expect a 10x improvement in both short and long terms stability of the system. In addition, we reviewed and formalized the laser driver and control electronics specifications. The initial schematic capture for critical analog sub sections was completed and a suitable FPGA/microprocessor combination was chosen to control the system and process the timing information. Based on these designs, power and size estimates were used to complete the mechanical enclosure model for the time-transfer system. For maximum flexibility in the final architecture of the overall free-space time transfer system, each frequency comb sub-unit that includes the laser and control electronics will be housed in a 1U rack mount enclosure.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Ultra low-phase noise microwave generation; High resolution coherent radar; communication systems insensitive to jamming; extended mission duration in GPS-denied environments

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Optical atomic clocks; clock based geodesy; very long baseline interferometry; test of general relativity; deep-space navigation; coherent LIDAR

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Transmitters/Receivers
Waveguides/Optical Fiber (see also Optics)
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Lasers (Communication)
Lasers (Guidance & Tracking)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H9.03-8310
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CG36P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Dynamics and Navigation Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: NonLinear Parallel OPtimization Tool

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CU Aerospace, LLC
301 North Neil Street, Suite 502
Champaign, IL
61820-3169
(217) 239-1703

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alexander Ghosh
ghosh@cuaerospace.com
301 North Neil Street, Suite 502
Champaign,  IL 61820-3169
(217) 721-2875

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The technological advancement proposed is a novel large-scale Noninear Parallel OPtimization Tool (NLPAROPT). This software package will eliminate the computational bottleneck suffered by many standard NASA-utilized analysis tools such as GMAT, EMTG and NASTRAN. Currently these programs rely on serial nonlinear programming solvers such as the Sparse Nonlinear OPTimizer (SNOPT), despite the fact that their own codebases support full parallelization. The same is true for tools used in other industries for applications such as electric power grid optimization, nuclear reactor control and stock market analysis. The NLPAROPT algorithm can be quickly incorporated into these existing software solutions via a user-friendly interface and will offer an instant runtime reduction for very large-scale optimization problems. Irrespective of runtime gains, Phase I analysis has shown that the NLPAROPT algorithm is capable of outperforming industry standard serial solvers such as SNOPT for tested problems, including complex trajectory design problems. The Phase I effort has also identified several potential computational research avenues that, once completed in Phase II, will result in massive execution speed increases, further improving the attractiveness of this new parallel algorithm.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Government agencies other than NASA, as well as commercial markets, would benefit from the improvements inherent in NLPAROPT, especially given the widespread use of nonlinear programming techniques as a primary method for solving some of the most difficult technical computing problems. For example, in economics the product-mix with price elasticity problem can be formulated as a nonlinear program and solved with a tool like NLPAROPT. Another field that depends heavily on efficient and robust NLP solvers is operations research, with the facility location problem and network optimization problems being archetypal examples of operation research challenges that may be cast as nonlinear programs. Furthermore, industries dealing with problems such as power grid design, weather prediction, and crop planting optimization could benefit from NLPAROPT?s speed enhancements.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA currently utilizes SNOPT, IPOPT, and WORHP software packages for astrodynamics applications such as the design of complex spacecraft trajectories and other optimal control problems, but could greatly benefit from the introduction of a parallel large-scale, nonlinear, sparse optimization solution, one which does not have its speed bottlenecked by a single processor. The new parallelized NLP technique implemented in NLPAROPT has already been shown to result in a reduction in execution time, thereby reducing the optimization's turn-around time and improve communications between both designers and scientists. Our solver would act as a significant force multiplier for existing NASA tools such as GMATs collocation-based low-thrust transcription and EMTGs inner loop solver. Additionally, NLPAROPT could improve run-times across all forms of problem optimizations, including trajectory design, resource management, attitude determination and control, and vehicle design.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H10.02-7667
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CS14P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Propulsion Systems Ground Test Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robust Cryogenic Cavitation Modeling for Propulsion Systems Ground Test Facilities

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tetra Research Corporation
420 Park Avenue West
Princeton, IL
61356-1934
(815) 872-0702

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rex Chamberlain
rex@tetraresearch.com
420 Park Avenue West
Princeton,  IL 61356-1934
(815) 872-0702

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Rigorous ground testing mitigates space propulsion system risk by enabling advanced component and system level rocket propulsion development and by demonstrating that designs reliably meet the specified requirements over the operational envelope before the first flight. The development of advanced ground test technology components and systems that are capable of enhancing environment simulation, minimizing program test time, cost and risk and meeting environmental and safety regulations is focused on near-term products that augment existing state-of-the-art propulsion system test facilities. Thus improved capabilities to model and predict component behavior in harsh ground test environments are needed for enhanced facility design. In particular, components such as pumps, turbines, valves and chokes may experience vibration and damage due to cavitation in the flowing liquid, and any reduction in the severity of the operating conditions would provide expanded test and performance benefits. The proposed innovation is to develop an unsteady cavitation model based on a tabular equation of state and a representation of cavitation bubble dynamics that together describe the growth and collapse of nucleated bubbles in a liquid cryogen. Important nonequilibrium mechanical and thermal effects will be considered by using a drift-flux model and adding an additional energy equation for the liquid temperature. Validation of the advanced cavitation models will be accomplished for both steady and unsteady flows by comparing surface pressure and temperature data and computing power spectra from frequency domain analyses. The final analysis tool will be used to demonstrate the significant nonequilibrium flow behavior for both the validation cases and actual production analysis problems of interest to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The growing trend toward coupled multi-physics analyses is opening significant new markets as more difficult problems can be addressed using advanced computational techniques. The ability to robustly model complex cryogenic flows with cavitation will allow the commercial aerospace and defense industries to improve design and development of new products and streamline ground testing. Our analysis software can also be applied in the fields of medicine (magnetic resonance imaging), food processing (ultrasonic freezing) and semiconductor processing (plasma etching and vacuum pumping of gas contaminants). The basic architecture of the modeling framework can remain the same while new plug-in modules are developed to address different physics and design requirements.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology will provide NASA with an efficient, robust cryogenic cavitation simulation tool suitable for use in propulsion systems ground test facility component design and analysis as well as other in advanced applications. The research product will provide enabling engineering and scientific technologies to predict complex cryogenic flow problems with nonequilibrium cavitation, resulting in reduced ground test facility costs and system risk by increasing test productivity. Potential enhancements include modified treatment of evaporation and condensation rates, turbulence/cavitation interaction modeling, detailed liquid/vapor thermal interface effects, variable transport properties, expanded thermodynamic databases and extended model validation. The proposed cavitation modeling tool is also applicable to hydrogen inducers, impellers and pumps operating at high vapor fraction.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster
Simulation & Modeling
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H10.02-8292
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CS08P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Propulsion Systems Ground Test Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Plume Velocimetry Diagnostic for Large Rocket Engines

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MetroLaser, Inc.
22941 Mill Creek Drive
Laguna Hills, CA
92653-1215
(949) 553-0688

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Thomas Jenkins
tjenkins@metrolaserinc.com
22941 Mill Creek Drive
Laguna Hills,  CA 92653-1215
(949) 553-0688

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A technique for measuring velocity in rocket plumes called hydroxyl tagging velocimetry (HTV), which was developed previously and demonstrated on a small rocket engine, is proposed for use on a full scale engine. Specific goals of the program include producing a measurement system that can withstand the high acoustic levels of a relevant full scale rocket engine, development of efficient user-friendly software for processing the raw images to produce velocity data, verifying the performance of the prototype at relevant temperatures and H2O concentrations, and demonstrating it on a full scale rocket engine. The work plan includes tasks to design and construct a rugged prototype HTV system, including supporting analyses required to properly select the laser, camera, and optical components, test the prototype in a laboratory scale flame, and produce acoustic suppression covers and damping systems to enable a demonstration on a large engine.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications include the measurement of velocity to obtain performance data in engine development programs in the commercial space transportation industry, rockets, missiles, scramjets, and turbine engines, new concepts in propulsion, pulse detonation engines, etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications include the measurement of rocket performance on SLS engines, such as the Launch Abort engine of the CST-100 crew capsule, and on other NASA programs requiring the direct measurement of velocity from rocket plumes. Also, validation of computer models for rocket engine performance, leading to improvements in efficiency and reduction in cost of hardware development programs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Launch Engine/Booster
Spacecraft Main Engine
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Ultraviolet


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H10.02-8302
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CS06P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Propulsion Systems Ground Test Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Color-XHDR - A Compact High-Speed Color Extreme High Dynamic Range Video Capability for Rocket Engine Testing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Imaging and Research Corporation
Building 1103, Suite 140C
Stennis Space Center, MS
39529-0001
(228) 688-2452

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Ryan
rryan@i2rcorp.com
Building 1103, Suite 140C
Stennis Space Center,  MS 39529-0001
(228) 688-2276

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Innovative Imaging and Research proposes to develop a 21st Century color, high-speed extreme high dynamic range (Color-XHDR) video recording technology that will produce engineering-grade video to accurately document rocket motor firings at close range within a test cell without image saturation. This novel imaging system will include a compact, single focal plane array camera and end-to-end image processing software to produce, high quality, low noise, high-speed video not currently possible with today's technology. The compact camera will be compatible with existing SSC camera housing and acquired imagery will be stored off-camera to prevent loss of information in the event of a mishap. The system will be able to record entire test sequences at >250 fps lasting up to 45 minutes. Most importantly, the system will produce XHDR (>120 dB dynamic range) HD format (1080p or larger) imagery so that relatively dark test cell infrastructure and test article hardware will be visible alongside exhaust plumes that may also contain ultrabright molten material. The imagery will be calibrated to provide engineering information such as radiance, color temperature and particle trajectories. Stereo calibration will enable multiple cameras to provide accurate 3-D XHDR image products. Rocket engine certification ground testing requires clear visual high-speed video recording that can capture essential information for NASA during rocket engine certification ground testing. This need is particularly true in the event of a mishap, when investigations into the underlying cause ensue. This technology can avoid common limitations of typical cameras such as image saturation, rolling shutter image wobble, camera geometric distortion, and no off-board storage, which makes it nearly impossible to obtain critical information in catastrophic situations that result in the loss of a camera.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Compact, color, high-speed extreme high dynamic range (Color-XHDR) video recordings that can produce engineering-grade information to accurately record high energy events at close range without image saturation will have significant value to defense-based facilities that actively test propulsion systems and perform launches. These include the USAF Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) and the Air Force Research Laboratory at Edwards Air Force Base, as well as Vandenberg Air Force Base. Commercial propulsion test and development entities, such as Orbital ATK, SpaceX and Blue Origin, would also benefit by our technology. In addition to rocket propulsion, other application areas that would benefit from our imaging technology including robotic welding and 3-D printing where bright-dark contrast becomes extreme. Another potential application is small area UAV remote sensing and mobile mapping. Our compact technology approach will enable our imaging systems to be flown on small UAVs. We have spoken to imaging and mapping companies developing technology for strip mining where deep shadows produce extreme contrast. Routinely mapping mining areas is important for managing a site and to maintain safety. Mobile mapping from moving ground vehicles is limited by the dark shadows produced in many landscapes. Compact HDR imaging could increase the utility of the images taken by these systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Compact, color, high-speed extreme high dynamic range (Color-XHDR) video recording that can produce engineering-grade video to accurately record high energy events, such as rocket motor firings, at close range, without image saturation will have significant value to NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC). After a successful Phase II, I2R will be in a position to provide their state-of-the-art system to NASA SSC for incorporation directly onto the test stands. In addition to the facility at SSC, other NASA Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) and NASA launch facilities namely Kennedy Space Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station and White Sands Test Facility, will benefit by using this technology. The Color-XHDR technology can also be incorporated into other NASA missions including both terrestrial and planetary exploration. For example, there is relatively no atmosphere on Mars, so there is limited diffuse scattering and dark shadows become visually darker. This effect increases the dynamic range of the scene making it an ideal target application for our technology. Also, Color-XHDR technology could be used to directly monitor launch vehicles during launch, both from a distance and mounted on the rockets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
3D Imaging
Display
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Image Processing
Radiometric
Visible


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H11.01-7730
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CL81P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Shielding Technologies - Transport Codes
PROPOSAL TITLE: Process and Tool Innovation for CAD Integration with OLTARIS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
XL Scientific, LLC
6100 Uptown Boulevard Northeast, Suite 260
Albuquerque,&nbsnbsp;NM
87110-4193
(505) 244-8502

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Thelen
paul.thelen@xlscientific.com
6100 Uptown Boulevard Northeast, Suite 260
Albuquerque,  NM 87110-4193
(505) 222-4915

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA uses computer aided design (CAD) capabilities to produce space vehicle designs. One aspect of the vehicle design is utilizing enough shielding to minimize dose on personnel. NASA CAD models inherit errors and issues during their inception that prevent them from being used with NASA?s radiation transport code, High Z and Energy Transport (HZETRN). XL Scientific developed a ray tracing tool to generate inputs for HZETRN, called the CAD Radiation Integration Tool (CRIT). This tool maintains material density and type, unlike any other existing capability. XL Scientific also developed methods of identifying and correcting common CAD errors. In phase II, XL Scientific will expand both CRIT and the CAD repair tools developed in Phase I. Functions will be added to CRIT to read STEP and DICOM file types. We will add interfaces for both HZETRN2015 as well as industry standard radiation transport code, Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP). MCNP is widely used in the nuclear community for radiation transport calculations and adding it to CRIT will expand commercialization options to the nuclear and healthcare industry. We will also automate the CAD repair tools developed in Phase I. Automation will allow users to correct common errors quickly and reduce the overall time spent repairing models. Furthermore, XL Scientific will add a sensitivity analysis option to investigate what effect model simplification has on radiation transport results. At the end of the Phase II effort, XL Scientific will have a tool to diagnose and repair CAD model quickly and provide robust radiation transport calculations. This innovation is anticipated to be of interest to government and commercial entities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
XL Scientific has found several organizations interested in CRIT. The Air Force Research Labs (AFRL) space vehicles directorate is interested in this tool to calculate radiation dose on critical components of their vehicles. Similar to NASA, AFRL has numerous CAD models that require repair before they can be simulated. CRIT will reduce the time spent on these repairs. AFRL is interested in calculating dose on electronics. Varian Medical Systems (VMS) is also interested in CRIT. VMS is a major company in nuclear medicine and develops the radiation transport code Attila. CRIT could be run or integrated with Attila to better support this business sector. Our team is in discussions with VMS for the potential of using them as a transition partner. Presbyterian MD Anderson cancer center could benefit from the dose calculations provided by CRIT. Outside of the government, the private space industry is a much larger group of customers that have a need for radiation calculations on payloads.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA Durability, Damage Tolerance, & Reliability Branch has expressed a need for CRIT. One technical mission of this branch is in calculating the minimum shielding required for humans inside of spacecraft. CAD models used for these calculations can have numerous errors and require extensive time to repair. CRIT will allow users to rapidly repair models and run radiation transport calculations. The NASA Ames group has also expressed interest in using CRIT for their BioSentinel program. This mission will send a spacecraft past the ionization belt into an intense radiation environment. To meet the goals of this mission, the BioSentinel CubeSat must maximize radiation dose on a biomass payload while providing enough shielding to sensitive onboard electronics to complete the mission. Use of CRIT throughout the design process will aid in rapid design optimization. NASA Ames has mentioned that other missions in AES can benefit from our technology development as well.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Isolation/Protection/Radiation Shielding (see also Mechanical Systems)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H12.01-7824
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CJ45P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Task Analysis Visualization and Data Management Tool
PROPOSAL TITLE: 5D Task Analysis Visualization Tool Phase II

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Control Point Corporation
110 Castilian Drive, Suite 200
Goleta, CA
93117-3028
(805) 882-1884

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jonathan Dorny
jonathan.dorny@control-pt.com
110 Castilian Dr., Suite 200
Goleta,  CA 93117-3028
(805) 882-1884

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 6
End: 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The creation of a five-dimensional task analysis visualization (5D-TAV) software tool for Task Analysis and Workload Planning using multi-dimensional visualization will have significant positive impacts on the optimization of human-centered design at NASA. Recent research identified a 40% improvement in task analysis accuracy and efficiency using 3D visualization. Employing enterprise data management innovation, configuration management, and loosely-coupled reusable libraries provides a unified data-driven 5D model portraying total complexity (risk, resources, workload, and duration) and process flow including conditional paths. Critical path and conflicts are accentuated with user controlled sensitivity thresholds for filters, indicators, notifications. The software tool promises increased awareness for human factors, project management, operations personnel, and system designers improving efficiency, accuracy, and understanding. Robotic activity developers and small spacecraft swarming coordinators are provided with an intuitive 3D design representation. These improvements will lead directly to improved system design, optimization of human and system allocations and conservation of resources for long-duration missions including sustainable habitats. The 5D-TAV tool's open architecture integrates open source software to provide the 2D rendering and 3D model views, filters, rotations, and controls necessary for successful task analysis optimization to ensure mission success.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Existing CPC projects with Army and Navy can all take advantage of the 5D-TAV capabilities for workforce planning, supply chain management, obsolescence control, and condition-based maintenance (CBM) optimization. There are additional opportunities with the Army and Navy to develop service-wide applications to support complex system planning, management, and support requirements. Applications include but are not limited to: - Development of training solutions and measure effectiveness - Remote / Autonomous control of equipment and systems - Emergency response planning and training - Integrated workforce planning and program management - Optimization of field service and sustainment support across enterprises - Code development performance metrics - Task allocation for coordinated autonomous vehicle interaction For many of our existing government customers, marketing of this tool is a logical extension to work we are now performing. Acceptance by key stakeholders such as PEO-GCS, CERDEC and CECOM will provide us with the opportunity to broaden its usage across those organizations. The tool will also become an available component of our commercial Business Management System (BMS) portal software sold to the Army. We have successfully marketed components of the BMS to other government and commercial customers. CPC is moving into the business of providing software as a service (SAAS) and the 5D-TAV is a strong addition to our developing software product line.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Five-Dimensional Task Analysis Visualization (5D-TAV) will prove valuable for use in NASA Human Factors analysis for long duration missions that include self-sustaining environments with limited resources. The tool can be applied to any complex system development effort that incorporates complex human operations or system design in a collaborative engineering environment. Integration of sensor data will enable mission control be alerted to off-nominal conditions during mission execution and to quickly determine a recovery plan. Robotics will benefit from the tool to design complex routines such as autonomous robots for unassisted maintenance or checking of personnel health, equipment health, and consumable status with automatic assessment of risk, error handling, and resource optimization. New researchers for small spacecraft can utilize the tool for defining and controlling tasks allocated to different spacecraft for coordinated swarming. Additional applications include: - Development of training solutions for high stress environments - Remote / Autonomous control of equipment and systems - Emergency preparedness and emergency response - Integrated workforce planning and program management - Optimization of field service and sustainment support across enterprises - Code development performance metrics

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Mission Training
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Project Management
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Fusion
Knowledge Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H12.03-7975
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CC52P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Novel Imaging Technologies for Space Medicine
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Methods for the Flexible Ultrasound System Utilizing Augmented Reality Just-In-Time Procedural Guidance

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tietronix Software, Inc.
1331 Gemini Avenue, Suite 300
Houston, TX
77058-2794
(281) 461-9300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Buras
william.buras@tietronix.com
1331 Gemini Avenue, Suite 300
Houston,  TX 77058-2711
(281) 404-7248

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's future manned spaceflight missions will require medical diagnosis and treatment capabilities that address both the anticipated health risks and perform well in austere, remote operational environments. Spaceflight- ready medical devices will need to be capable of an increased degree of autonomous operation, acquiring clinically relevant and diagnosable data by every astronaut, not just select physician crew members credentialed in spaceflight medicine. Ultrasound is a diagnostic and treatment technology that currently fulfills mission medical capability support on ISS and is planned to accompany future deep-space missions. The Flexible Ultrasound System (FUS) is a new platform that is currently being developed by NASA and research partners to support this mission role. We propose three specific aims for this project proposal for methodological development utilizing the FUS platform: 1.) Define a list of highest priority/yield ultrasound methods to develop and implement using the FUS and our guidance prototype through careful review of the HRP roadmap and direct discussion with ExMC Physicians. 2.) Expand an Augmented Reality (AR) user interface for these ultrasound methods that provides procedural guidance in acquiring and initially diagnosing sonographic data for ultrasound procedures to enhanced degree of procedural competency. 3.) Develop and test the integration of magnetic-based Volume Navigation, and complementary dimensional referencing technologies, on the FUS platform to allow for 3-dimensional ultrasound procedural guidance through the Head Mounted Display. 4.) Integrate the current system with procedural guidance resources such as Electronic Procedures (eProc) and existing ultrasound training materials. 5.) Develop deep machine learning capabilities on the FUS platform to enable image recognition and analysis that can aid in not only quality image acquisition, but also analysis in austere, and remote operational environments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Tietronix has already initiated work with Methodist Houston and an NSF sponsored Cyber-systems of the future Operating Room that is an academic/industry consortium (with membership such as Medtronic, Boston Scientific and Karl Storz) on developing this technology for terrestrial medicine.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project maintains the spirit of the goals emphasized in the NASA strategy to revitalize and expand our investments in technology, commercial spaceflight, and robotic exploration precursors. NASA's multi-destination human space exploration strategy as well as its ambitious program of innovative robotics missions will challenge engineers to develop these new and complex systems with advanced capabilities. The agency is exploring multiple destinations. It plans to conduct increasingly complex missions to a range of destinations beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), including cis-lunar space, near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), the moon, and Mars and its moons. VULCAN will be one of the medical tools for the Journey to Mars in the 2030s.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Medical
Knowledge Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H12.03-8207
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CC37P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Novel Imaging Technologies for Space Medicine
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multi-Purpose X-ray System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stellarray, Inc.
9210 Cameron Road, Suite 300
Austin, TX
78754-3971
(512) 997-7781

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ronald Hellmer
hellmer@stellar-micro.com
9210 Cameron Road, Suite 300
Austin,  TX 78754-3971
(512) 997-7781

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed Multi-Purpose X-ray Source and System (MPXS) can be used on flight missions, space stations, planetary excursions and planetary or asteroid bases, to meet nearly all NASA imaging needs in the Exploration Medical Condition List (EMCL). This includes a range of radiographic imaging modalities - 2D, digital tomosynthesis and half or full CT to cover routine and emergency imaging needs. The MPXS source is comprised of sections, each designed for a specific range of x-ray imaging conditions. The source is currently designed as a rectangular box made primarily of aluminum nitride (AlN) sheets. Each AlN sidewall has a window that allows x-ray flux to exit. The window can be a hollow section of the sidewall or a thin strip of low Z material over a window aperture in the sidewall. Thin strips of metal can be placed over the windows for beam filtration. Each window will output flux from one or more rows of spots (x-ray pixels, or xels) on the metal anode inside, for example a 1 x 30 xel row. These xels are digitally addressed with separate electron beams from field emission cold cathodes in the cathode array. The system will comprise one or more sources, paired with one or more digital x-ray detectors, controlled by software loaded on a laptop or mission systems. Each pair will weigh less than 0.1% of a current tomographic imaging system in less than 0.1% of the volume. Extensions to the source design can reduce these figures even further. The programmability of the x-ray flux sequences/patterns from the sources will enable the range of imaging modalities, and make MPXS well suited to use with emerging AI capabilities in radiographic diagnosis.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many commercial applications of the core technology being developed in this project, including a wide range of pre-clinical, clinical and industrial imaging systems. Stellarray's smart x-ray sources, which MPXS will lead, can be used in various x-ray medical imaging systems, especially portable tomographic imaging (tomosynthesis or CT) for breast imaging, emergency medicine and systems for emerging markets. A major mobile radiography and tomographic systems integrator is now discussing with Stellarray the use of simpler versions of MPXS sources for its mobile radiography solutions. Stellarray will develop some systems on its own but more often sell sources and IP for applications where larger companies are better suited to clinical trials and market entry. MPXS sources will also be sold to other developers, particularly at universities and medical schools, a number of which have asked for our resources as they are developed. They could be sold at $75K range to these developers for a good business line. By the time NASA is testing MPXS systems for its missions there should be a reasonably sized installed base at universities generating research and tests results for an even wider range of medical conditions, including new application designs and reconstruction algorithms.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project will produce a versatile multi-beam x-ray source and configurable imaging systems for human subject imaging on space stations, planetary excursions and planetary or asteroid bases. MPXS will meet the imaging needs for the dental and musculoskeletal (MSK) imaging conditions of current interest to NASA. MPXS systems will go beyond the capabilities currently planned by enabling 3D/tomographic imaging, which will be particularly useful in MSK imaging and in some dental imaging. MPXS can then be used for a much greater number of medical conditions of interest to NASA, particularly head and neck injuries, several conditions requiring imaging of the chest area and dual energy X-ray osteoporosis imaging. The specific gaps the proposed work addresses are 4.02 (We do not have the capability to provide non-invasive medical imaging during exploration missions) and 3.03 (We do not know which emerging technologies are suitable for in-flight screening, diagnosis, and treatment during exploration missions). Although not a focus in Phase I, MPXS could also be used for applications such as 4.27 (We do not have the capability to sterilize medical equipment during exploration missions). Other applications could include sources for a range of instruments NASA uses on space missions, including XRF and XRD. The sources carried on board for imaging applications could be used for sample analysis both on spacecraft and bases and perhaps during excursions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Medical
Radiography


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H13.01-7712
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CL92P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NDE Simulation and Analysis
PROPOSAL TITLE: Algorithms for Structural Dynamics Based Fiber Optic Strain Gage Health Monitoring

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
San Diego Composites, Inc.
9220 Activity Road
San Diego, CA
92126-4407
(858) 751-0450

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeremy Senne
jsenne@sdcomposites.com
9220 Activity Road
San Diego,  CA 92126-4407
(858) 751-0450

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
By the completion of Phase II, San Diego Composites, Inc. (SDC) will establish a closed-loop system and software for the structural health monitoring (SHM) and manufacturing quality control (MQC) of composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) at TRL 6, and with Phase III funding at TRL 8. The program will focus the use of measured performance of the structure to update finite element models to determine remaining life and damaged/aged behavior.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Reusable spacecraft components, especially COPVs for companies such as Virgin Galactic, SpaceX, and Blue Origin Long-term refillable COPVs for long-term habitats

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NextSTEP-2 Next generation space habitat missions with a focus on integration with COPVs Retro-fitting for long-term health monitoring on the NORS-RFS on the ISS COPV monitoring for deep space and long-term missions such as ARM components

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Process Monitoring & Control
Processing Methods
Composites
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H13.02-7099
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CL61P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NDE Sensors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Differential Terahertz Imaging Methods for Enhanced Detection of Subsurface Features, Flaws, and Damage

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Picometrix, LLC
2925 Boardwalk Drive
Ann Arbor, MI
48104-6765
(734) 864-5600

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shirley Evans
evanss@lunainc.com
2925 Boardwalk Drive
Ann Arbor,  MI 48104-6765
(540) 961-6724

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Phase II, Picometrix proposes to design, construct, test, characterize, and deliver a prototype differential time domain terahertz shearographic imaging system. The differential imaging methods developed in Phase I will be improved and the methods implemented in turn-key software and hardware. In Phase I the feasibility of using differential time domain THz imaging methods to enhance the contrast and detectability of features such as disbonds was demonstrated. Kissing disbonds and cracks may only weakly reflect the THz pulses in conventional THz imaging. The Phase I project developed the methods of shearographic loading of the samples, and used penetrating THz pulses to detect the subsurface deformation of the defects with better contrast than traditional THz imaging. In a disbond there is a region where the two sides of the material are not adhered, and the space between the two sides are essentially so close that THz interface reflection pulses from the non-adhered region may be partially cancelled out.. The defect signature may be only weakly detectable compared to when the spacing is greater than the minimum THz wavelength. The differential images null background clutter and highlight the subsurface distortion of the defects under loading.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
THz gages are used in industry to measure the thickness of multi-layer sheet materials: plastic film, insulation, foam sheets, roofing, paper, and other products that are extruded in presses. THz gauges are used to measure the thickness of aerospace coatings. The differential imaging method will improve the detectability of interfaces and delaminations in the manufacturing of these materials.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
THz reflection imaging is a proven NDE technology for imaging sub-surface features, flaws, and defects within space flight structures such as thermal protection systems (ablative resin honeycomb, TUFI, SOFI), inflatable space habitats, composite overwrap pressure vessels, and radomes. THz NDE can detect voids, disbonds, and damage such as tearing and micro-meteorite impact. Material include Kevlar, Zylon, and other non-conductive composites. Differential THz imaging should improve the detectability of defects in each of these applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Quality/Reliability
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H14.01-7508
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CA40P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: International Space Station (ISS) Utilization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Space Facility for Orbital Remote Manufacturing (SPACEFORM)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
FOMS, Inc.
3525 Del Mar Heights Road, #236
San Diego, CA
92130-9213
(858) 342-0993

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dmitry Starodubov
dstarodubov@fomsinc.com
3525 Del Mar Heights Road, #236
San Diego,  CA 92130-9213
(805) 501-9399

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 6
End: 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The sustainable orbital manufacturing with commercially viable and profitable operation has tremendous potential for driving the space exploration industry and human expansion into outer space. This highly challenging task has never been accomplished before. The current relatively high delivery cost of materials represents the business challenge of value proposition for making products on orbit. FOMS Inc. team identified an opportunity of revolutionary optical fiber manufacturing in space that can lead to the first commercial production on orbit. To address NASA mission of expansion humanity across solar system while providing continued cost-effective ISS operations FOMS Inc. proposes to develop Space Facility for Orbital Remote Manufacturing (SpaceFORM) with strong commercial potential for manufacturing operations on board the ISS.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The promise to decrease the insertion loss by an order of magnitude compared to currently installed optical fibers will have revolutionary impact on internet expansion, optical communications and data storage. The defense and security industry will benefit from improved detection of harmful substances and airplane protection from proliferating heat seeking missiles. The new applications that utilize the "fingerprint" spectral range would allow to specifically target the desired chemical compositions in both surveillance and chemical processing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The key value of the volume manufacturing capability on the orbital platform of ISS through the proposed effort is the unique opportunity to kick start the commercially driven expansion of the humanity in space through the profit based utilization of the abundant resource of microgravity for material processing. The developed logistics, infrastructure, and operational experience of remote orbital manufacturing will be critically important for sustainable orbital presence and further expansion of in-space science and technology. The approach will leverage existing ISS facilities to extend NASA leadership in facilitating commercial space exploration.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Processing Methods
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Active Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H14.01-7565
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CM34P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: International Space Station (ISS) Utilization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Sintered Inductive Metal Printer with Laser Exposure

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Techshot, Inc.
7200 Highway 150
Greenville, IN
47124-9515
(812) 923-9591

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eugene Boland
gboland@techshot.com
7200 Highway 150
Greenville,  IN 47124-9515
(812) 923-9591

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Techshot's innovative 3D metal printer offers the unique ability to fabricate metal components and tools in space which can be utilized for sustainability, maintenance and research. The proposed system will accomplish this task through the utilization of a two-stage filament melting process whereby a metallic filament is first heated to Curie temperature through induction and then deposited on a build platform where it is fused to the previous layer by exposure to a low energy laser. This new unique process is known as Sintered Metal Printing with Laser Exposure (SIMPLE). Induction heating is not entirely new to Fused Deposition Manufacturing (FDM). There has been recent research into the integration of an induction coil into the "hot end" of a plastic filament FDM printer. The induction coil surrounds the metal nozzle, known as the "hot end" and inductively heats the nozzle when an AC current is applied. The nozzle then heats and melts the plastic filament allowing it to be extruded onto a platform where a part is formed. The use of induction heating, when printing with a metal filament, is similar but the induction coil heats the wire filament directly as it passes through its center. This system offers faster melt times resulting in faster feed rates, lower mass resulting in quicker more accurate printer head movements and lower overall power consumption. Conceptually, the wire filament will not be heated to melting but heated to the Curie temperature and laid as a hot filament on the build platform. To gain adherence between deposited layers, a low energy laser is used simultaneous to the layering process to heat and fuse adjacent filament layers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Currently there is a high cost barrier to entry for 3D metal printing with no low cost options available. Techshot's SIMPLE metal printer will fill that void and be marketed as a low-end metal printer. Techshot has successfully commercialized technology derived from SBIR contracts. For example, spinoff company Techshot Lighting, LLC successfully manufactures an LED tent lighting system to military customers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Government customers will initially be from NASA, where it should be of keen interest to the Advanced Exploration Systems division and to scientists seeking to take advantage of Techshot's metal printer through NASA Research Announcements. Most beneficial for Exploration is the ability to print spare parts, logistics support and adaptive repair. Through its Space Act Agreement, its IDIQ contract and its role as a CASIS implementation partner, Techshot will offer both the SIMPLE equipment and the associated services required to conduct materials research and processing in microgravity aboard any NASA vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Metallics
Structures
Lasers (Machining/Materials Processing)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 H14.01-8013
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CM23P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: International Space Station (ISS) Utilization
PROPOSAL TITLE: ERASMUS: Food Contact Safe Plastics Recycler and 3D Printer System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tethers Unlimited, Inc.
11711 North Creek Parkway South, Suite D113
Bothell, WA
98011-8808
(425) 486-0100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rachel Muhlbauer
muhlbauer@tethers.com
11711 N. Creek Pkwy S., D113
Bothell,  WA 98011-8804
(425) 486-0100

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A key goal of the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) from 2012 is to utilize the ISS for developing the systems and protocols necessary to humans to venture beyond low Earth orbit for extended durations, and with the push from Congress in 2015 to build a deep space habitat for a Mars mission by 2018, the goals of HEOMD are increasingly important to meet. The ERASMUS technology integrates a plastics recycler, dry heat sterilizer, and 3D printer to create a system that accepts previously-used plastic waste and parts, sterilizes these pre-used materials, recycles them into food-grade and medical-grade 3D printer filament, and 3D prints new utensils and implements. This effort intends to minimize the requirements for initial supply as well as providing a method to make new parts on-demand as-needed. The ERASMUS Phase II effort focuses on the research and development of the ERASMUS process, sterilizing, recycling, and printing, as well as on a design and print effort, developing medical and food-contact devices.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
TUI expects that the ability to create food contract safe sterilized materials will be ideal for the DoD to support soldiers in remote locations where resupply is limited. We also anticipate this technology to be a game-changer for medical service providers with limited access to water. In the Phase II, we plan to explore the possibility to extend the technology to medical grade 3D printing which will have an even more widespread impact across the globe and in space. Medical facilities using the ERASMUS technology will be able to print sterile implants and surgical tools on demand, rather than requiring storage or waiting for the delivery of these devices.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ERASMUS process has multiple NASA applications that will enhance capabilities on the ISS and other long duration missions. The ability to sterilize plastic materials will enable the re-use of plastic materials without worry of bacterial contamination. Sterilization will also allow for the development 3D printer feedstock that can be made from packaging waste and can be used to 3D print new food-contact, skin-contact, and medical devices.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Food (Preservation, Packaging, Preparation)
Medical
Waste Storage/Treatment
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Organics/Biomaterials/Hybrids
Polymers


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S1.01-7246
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CL71P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact 2-Micron Transmitter for Remote Sensing Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Beyond Photonics, LLC
6205 Lookout Road, Suite B
Boulder, CO
80301-3334
(303) 475-2088

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sammy Henderson
sammy@beyondphotonics.com
1650 Coal Creek Drive, Unit B
Lafayette,  CO 80026-8868
(303) 396-8536

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this Phase II effort we propose to work with NASA to extend the Phase I achievements, which focused on design and development of very compact master and long-pulse slave oscillator lasers operating near 2.05 um wavelength. Beyond Photonics LLC's "SWIFT" laser was matured and largely productized, with an initial unit delivered in Phase I. In parallel, conceptual and preliminary design and risk-reduction of a very compact short-cavity Tm,Ho:YLF Q-switched laser was achieved, which will be extended significantly in Phase II and result in a robust injection-seeded, actively pulse-stretched prototype. The compact transmitter will include a "nano-SWIFT" that will have size and weight comparable to a butterfly-packaged DFB diode laser but with far better frequency stability and higher power. In Phase II we will demonstrate output characteristics of 32 mJ, 100 Hz PRF, and 300-500 ns pulse durations from this compact robust injection-seeded transmitter. This moderate-PRF moderate-energy transmitter will be immediately suitable for 3D winds from ground and airborne platforms and with continued TRL advancement eventually space platforms. The transmitter will be capable of efficient operation at >4 W average power at lower pulse energies and higher PRFs (e.g.. 1 -4 kHz) which is suitable for IPDA spectroscopy and hard target measurement lidar systems operating from space (following an appropriate engineering and qualification effort) using either coherent or direct detection with state-of-the-art low-noise direct detectors. The overarching objective of the proposed effort is to develop compact, efficient, and reliable pulsed and cw lasers and lidar transmitters for future NASA missions. Specifically, we address needs described for 3D winds, atmospheric CO2 and H20 concentration sensing in the 2.05 um region; but we also recognize that such innovations can be readily applied to transmitter laser operation at other IR and SWIR wavelengths and associated instruments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications of the proposed single-frequency 2-micron long-pulse, Fourier-transform-limited Q-switched transmitter laser technologies begun in Phase I and further matured in Phase II include eye-safe wind energy management lidar (winds forecasting, wind farm energy extraction optimization, and gust-front prediction), aircraft wakes detection and analysis, drone-based remote sensing applications, greenhouse gas flux remote spectroscopy, and numerous Doppler winds applications. As noted above, the high-power and compacted SWIFT cw master oscillator sources would be made available commercially for numerous remotes sensing and spectroscopic applications. Actively pulse-stretched laser technology has potentially quite broad application across many commercial, industrial, scientific, and research fields, where very robust, very compact transform-limited laser energy is required; no commercially-available such lasers exist on the market at present.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications of the proposed compact single-frequency 2-micron laser transmitter include airborne demonstration systems for 3D winds and ASCENDS atmospheric CO2 measurement missions, as well as other NASA atmospheric spectroscopy efforts focused on the SWIR spectral region. The compact pulse-stretched transmitter developed in Phase II will match the wind measurement potential of the current NASA DAWN wind lidar operating at 100 mJ and 10 Hz, but in a much smaller and more reliable package. The fully-functional high-power SWIFT cw laser delivered at the end of Phase I will be immediately applicable to several 2.05 um NASA remote-sensing programs, and will be available as a product from BP soon after completion of the initial Phase I effort; similarly, the "nano-SWIFT" will reach product maturity by the end of Phase II. The innovations developed in this Phase I effort can inform ongoing and future NASA remote sensing programs, including 3D Winds, ASCENDS CO2 remote spectroscopy, and other programs requiring very compact, robust 2-micron lasers and associated photonic technology. We also see this technology benefitting systems for identifying and tracking orbital space debris and other hazards from space.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Lasers (Guidance & Tracking)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Ranging/Tracking
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S1.01-7292
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CG20P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact High Pulse Energy Single Frequency Fiber Amplifier

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AdValue Photonics, Inc.
3440 East Britannia Drive, Suite 190
Tucson, AZ
85706-5285
(520) 790-5468

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shibin Jiang
sjiang@advaluephotonics.com
3440 East Britannia Drive, Suite 190
Tucson,  AZ 85706-5285
(520) 790-5468

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Atmospheric methane is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. The overtone lines of methane at 1.65 micron are well suited for remote sensing of atmospheric methane in the Earth?s atmosphere. NASA have already demonstrated ground-based and airborne methane detection using Optical Parametric Amplifiers at 1651 nm using a laser with a narrow linewidth. In this setup a single frequency pulsed laser near 1 micron wavelength with several mJ pulse energy is needed. We propose to develop a compact pulsed single frequency fiber laser with greater than 3mJ pulse energy and 30ns pulse width using our innovative Yb-doping fiber. Highly efficient Yb doped glasses will be developed, double cladding fibers will be designed and fabricated, the amplifier performance will be characterized. In Phase II we will build a deliverable prototype high energy and high peak power fiber laser system for NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a number of potential non-NASA commercial applications for high energy and high peak power fiber lasers and amplifiers. This laser source can be used to build commercial lidar for ranging and gas monitoring applications, and as the light source for optical sensing and scientific research. This laser can be used to build single frequency green laser.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This proposed single frequency high energy and high peak power fiber laser can be used as innovative lidar component for measurements of the atmosphere and gas contents of the Earth, Mars, the Moon, and other planetary bodies. This laser can also be used for other wavelength generation. Because it is fiber based, this single frequency high energy and high peak power amplifier is compact, efficient, and extremely reliable.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S1.01-7662
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CG22P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Power, Thermally Optimized Blue Laser for Lidar

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bridger Photonics, Inc.
2310 University Way, Building, 4-4
Bozeman, MT
59715-6504
(406) 585-2774

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Brasseur
jason.brasseur@bridgerphotonics.com
2310 University Way, Building, 4-4
Bozeman,  MT 59715-6504
(406) 585-2774

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To enable widespread and rapid airborne bathymetric lidar to adequate depths in many ocean regions a low-cost, rugged, and high energy pulsed laser source must be developed in the ocean water transmittance spectrum of 450 - 490 nm. The ideal laser source will be high performance for lidar (high pulse energy, high rep rate, short pulse duration) with specific targeted emission spectrum to meet ocean water transmittance and filtering requirements. It will also feature low SWaP and a rugged form factor with high reliability for continual use on mobile platforms. No existing laser source can meet these demanding requirements. To address this challenge and meet NASA's lidar source needs, Bridger Photonics, Inc. (Bridger) proposes creating a high power Q-switched, off-line Nd:YAG source at 946 nm, which, when frequency doubled to 473 nm, will provide high transmittance through ocean waters. Bridger's design will leverage three key innovations proven out in its Phase I effort: efficient, end-pumped, low-quantum-defect architecture; gain crystal design for optimal heat removal; and robust monolithic, alignment-free fabrication. The proposed design would allow for widespread deployment of mobile ocean-penetrating lidar transmitters. Successful completion of this Phase II effort will allow Bridger to demonstrate >10 W of average blue power in a compact, turn-key package. Bridger has modeled and constructed similar lasers through SBIR efforts previously and will apply the innovations developed there towards this new system for NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed laser would be the most compact, high-power, solid-state blue laser source currently available. The primary market for this laser will be as an ideal lidar source for both bathymetric and aerosol lidar. Within the lidar market there are many organizations that would be potential customers for an ocean penetrating blue lidar transmitter for bathymetry and underwater object detection: the Navy, NOAA, the EPA, the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency, and the Coast Guard for instance. The delivered lidar system would provide the Navy with the capability to conduct rapid and widespread object detection beneath the ocean surface from an airborne platform. Bridger envisions a wide variety of applications for this laser including gas sensing lidar, hard-target ranging, ablation applications including mass spectrometry, nonlinear spectroscopy and as general purpose OPO pump. The proposed transmitter could easily be adapted to detect a host of gasses, most of which are detected in the short wave infrared and mid-infrared spectral regions and are well suited to a seeded OPO pumped either with the 946 or 473 nm beam.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's primary application for the proposed transmitter would be ocean bathymetry and underwater object detection. The compact size, rugged design, and efficient electrical-to-optical conversion of Bridger's proposed laser would make it ideally suited for a mobile ship, airborne, or even satellite platform. Due to larger scattering at shorter wavelengths, the 473 nm source would be favored over the traditional 532 nm source for most cloud and aerosol lidar applications. The 473 nm beam would also work well as a general purpose OPO pump beam especially for generating green to near-IR signal waves or into the SWIR spectral band. The former is an intermediate step towards generating the UV wavelengths used for measuring tropospheric ozone via differential absorption lidar, while the latter is useful for profiling other important greenhouse gases and pollutants such as CH4, CO2, H2O, CO, NO2, and many others. Finally the 946 nm fundamental source would be useful for water vapor lidar.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S1.01-7855
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CS61P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Space-Hardened Seed Laser for Use in High Spectral Resolution Lidar Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ADVR, Inc.
2310 University Way, Building 1-1
Bozeman, MT
59715-6504
(406) 522-0388

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shirley McNeil
mcneil@advr-inc.com
2310 University Way, Building #1-1
Bozeman,  MT 59715-6504
(406) 522-0388

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The overall goal of the SBIR effort to develop a fully packaged, environmentally hardened, diode-based, locked wavelength, seed laser for seeding next generation Nd:YAG lasers currently being developed for future space-based, high spectral resolution Lidar (HSRL) measurements. The Phase I effort successfully demonstrated that a diode-based, wavelength-locked seed laser can provide the spectral purity required for HSRL systems, and as part of the effort developed a baseline design for a seed laser module with a defined footprint that will integrate into NASAs High Energy UV Demonstrator. A direct diode, wavelength locked seed laser will reduce the overall size weight and power (SWaP) requirements of the HSRL laser transmitter, and accelerates the establishment of a US manufacturer of compact, robust, space-qualifiable diode-based seed lasers for use in future HSRL missions being developed at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), thus directly addressing the need for developing compact, efficient, lidar component technologies for use in space-based environments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Laser source stabilization Commercial lidar systems Environmental and pollution monitoring Fiber and free-space communications

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Cloud and Aerosol Lidar Mission (ACE), NASA LaRC (Hostetler, Cook, et al.) MESCAL Lidar Mission (French-EU/EECLAT and US/ACE) Ocean Profiling Atmospheric Lidar (OPAL) Wind Lidar, NASA/GSFC (Gentry, et al.) DIAL Lidar, NASA/GSFC (Riris, et al.)

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Waveguides/Optical Fiber (see also Optics)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Visible
Infrared
Active Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S1.01-8414
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CL58P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Spaceflight 1.94 Micron Tm Fiber Laser Transmitter

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fibertek, Inc.
13605 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon, VA
20171-4603
(703) 471-7671

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Doruk Engin
dengin@fibertek.com
13605 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon,  VA 20171-4603
(703) 471-7671

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Fibertek will develop a spaceflight prototype 1940 nm, 100 W thulium (Tm) laser suitable for NASA spaceflight and long-duration unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) missions. The proposal is innovative because it demonstrates 100 W of polarization maintaining (PM) performance at 1940 nm. We expect a 2x to 3x improvement in efficiency compared to available commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) unpolarized Tm fiber lasers, and the laser will be packaged for high reliability for spaceflight operation. This SBIR leverages commercial Tm laser technology, published scientific test data, available optical components, and Fibertek's validated Tm fiber laser model. A spaceflight 100 W PM Tm laser is enabling and provides a path to space for a pulsed, Q-switched 2 um Ho:YLF laser with up to 80 mJ/pulse at 100-200 Hz. Lidar performance design studies from a low earth orbit (LEO) satellite indicate that 80 mJ of pulsed 2 um energy enables the simultaneous measurements of CO2 and water vapor using Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) and global wind light detection and ranging (lidar). NASA laser experiments have shown the 100 W of 1940 nm peak pump power is needed to generate 80 mJ/pulse.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Coherent lidar for wind or hard-target velocity detection Infrared countermeasures (IRCM) DoD market Coherent 3D imaging lidar

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Satellite, ISS, UAS, Aircraft-Based Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, and Methane Lidar Coherent Lidar, Clouds, and 3D Wind Lidar

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Gratings
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
Optical
Ranging/Tracking
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S1.02-7221
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CP34P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Microwave Technologies for Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Bulk GaN Schottky Diodes for Millimeter Wave Frequency Multipliers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
White Light Power, Inc.
149 Cuesta Drive
Los Altos, CA
94022-9402
(650) 492-0657

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ozgur Aktas
oaktas@whitelightpower.com
149 Cuesta Drive
Los Altos,  CA 94022-9402
(925) 400-8359

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Within the context of this project, White Light Power Inc. (WLPI) will demonstrate prototype vertical GaN Schottky diodes for high-power rectification at W-band. To achieve this goal, WLPI will utilize it's experience of fabricating power rectifier diodes to enable highly cost-efficient selection of a wafer. The same experience will also be utilized in selecting and working with an epi-supplier to ensure demonstration of the requisite 1000 cm2/Vs mobility. WLPI will design, manufacture and test the diodes to ensure that the device characteristics such as breakdown voltage, C-V characteristics, leakage and ideality factor are consistent with the target 200 mW power handling capacity. WLPI will provide data and documentation supporting and detailing the wafer selection, epi qualification, manufacturing and testing of the devices. WLPI will dice and deliver devices to NASA for further testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
One of the most important non-NASA applications of the multiplier diodes is in the terahertz imaging radars for home-land security applications. The high power GaN diodes that we are proposing to develop with this project will enable higher transmitter power and, thus, higher stand-off distance and higher sensitivity. Potential Non-NASA applications will center around remote-sensing and imaging for security or industrial control applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Terahertz radiometry-spectrometry is an important technique for remote sensing of terrestrial, planatery, and interstellar trace constituents and physical properties. Numerous NASA missions with sub-millimeter wave instruments have been deployed with a wide-range of mission targets. Further expansion of the capabilities requires increased local oscillator power. A first GaN stage that can provide increased power-handling capability will extend the sub-millimeter wave power that can be supplied for radiometry-spectrometry instruments. Potential NASA commercial applications will likely center around terrestrial sensing for various industries.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Electromagnetic
Radiometric
Terahertz (Sub-millimeter)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S1.02-7322
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CP24P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Microwave Technologies for Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Frequency Reflective Mesh for Small Aperture Antennas

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tendeg, LLC
686 South Taylor Avenue, Suite 108
Louisville, CO
80027-3000
(303) 929-4466

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gregg Freebury
gregg@tendeg.com
686 South Taylor Avenue, Suite 108
Louisville,  CO 80027-3000
(303) 929-4466

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed Phase II program would develop and prototype a high frequency, high performance reflective mesh that is well suited to the emerging small aperture antenna designs. The program will build on the testing knowledge of the Phase I prototyped mesh. 40 OPI gold mesh will be prototyped and integrated to a cubesat Ka-band reflector. Carbon nanotube yarn will also be knitted into a 30 OPI mesh and tested on a similar antenna. The Phase II program will move the mesh to TRL 6. The goal is to make cost effective and robust mesh for the small aperture antenna community. RF test samples and a complete deployable Ka-band antenna will be delivered to NASA JPL for RF testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is strong market potential in CubeSat up to smallsat size satellites in the commercial arena. There are numerous communication and data transfer constellations on-orbit and under construction. There are also numerous commercial Earth observation constellations under development. Billions of dollars are being invested in these constellations. Most of these commercial networks are small to nano sized satellites. Many of them would benefit from the lightweight, small packaged volume and high gain antenna performance for either high speed RF communications or weather and ground looking radar. In the terrestrial market, the U.S. Military is actively seeking man-packable high gain antennas for forward operating Warfighters.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA commercial applications include any Ka-Band small aperture antennas used for Earth observing science missions (RainCube radar), deep space communications, and any mission needing high data rate downlinks. The mesh technology can be expanded to larger apertures as well for any high gain mission needs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Antennas
Characterization
Metallics
Nanomaterials
Textiles
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S1.02-7333
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CP67P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Microwave Technologies for Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: 20GSps 6-bit Low-Power Rad-Tolerant ADC

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pacific Microchip Corporation
3916 Sepulveda Boulevard, #108
Culver City, CA
90230-4650
(310) 683-2628

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Denis Zelenin
denis@pacificmicrochip.com
3916 Sepulveda Blvd. Ste 108
Culver City,  CA 90230-4650
(310) 683-2628

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed project aims to develop a 20GSps 6-bit ADC required for microwave radiometers being developed for space and airborne earth sensing applications and radio telescopes. Aiming to improve performance and to reduce the size of the electronics, high resolution, high-sampling rate, power efficiency and low spur energy are required for ADCs employed for direct digitization. The proposed 20GS/s 6-bit time-interleaved successive approximation (SAR) ADC is intended to achieve >5 ENOB and 20GHz input bandwidth. A number of innovations will be introduced to the ADC in order to combine low power consumption with high signal to noise and distortion (SINAD), and spurious free dynamic range (SFDR). The proposed ADC will employ a novel timing calibration and interleave randomizing techniques which permit minimizing the peak energy of the spurs and increasing linearity. The proposed ADC chip will include a frequency synthesizer and a standard compliant configurable JESD204B interface for data exchange with an FPGA. The ADC will be implemented using a deep submicron CMOS technology. The project's Phase I confirmed the feasibility of implementing the proposed ADC. Phase II will include finishing design, fabrication, testing and delivering the ADC prototypes which will be ready for commercialization in Phase III.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to its primary application in spectral radiometry systems, the proposed wideband 20GS/s ADC and its building blocks will be targeting other commercial and military related markets which require high speed capture and digitization of wideband signals. Commercial applications include wireless (WiMAX, 3G, 4G) and fiber optic communication (10G Ethernet). The projected ramp-up of 100G Ethernet technologies will raise the industry demand for capable test equipment. High sampling rate provides the flexibility needed for such equipment. Therefore, it has great commercialization potential in this market segment. Potential military applications include high speed, secure communication and data transmission systems, and millimeter-resolution radars. Radiation hardness will secure a great demand for the proposed ADC in high energy and nuclear physics instruments, commercial communication and military satellites and nuclear power facilities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The low-power radiation hardened 20GSps 6-bit ADC with a novel calibration technique capable of suppressing the peak energy of the spurs has great potential in current and future NASA microwave radiometers. In addition to its primary application, the proposed ADC ASIC is directly applicable to systems that require direct digitization of wide bandwidth RF signals, such as deep space communication radios and reconfigurable radios for SDR applications. NASA missions using Ku band, such as OIB (airborne program for precise sea and ice elevation monitoring) will also benefit from the proposed high-speed ADC optimized to be used for direct digitizing purposes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Data Input/Output Devices (Displays, Storage)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S1.02-8137
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CP41P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Microwave Technologies for Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ka-Band Klystron Amplifier for CUBESATs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
e beam, Inc.
21070 Southwest Tile Flat Road
Beaverton, OR
97007-8739
(503) 628-0703

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bernard Vancil
bernie@ebeaminc.com
21070 Southwest Tile Flat Road
Beaverton,  OR 97007-8739
(503) 628-0703

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We offer an ultra-compact klystron amplifier for remote sensing on CubeSats. It will operate at 35.7 GHz, have 400 MHz bandwidth, and output greater than 32 watts with 35 dB gain. It employs a two-stage depressed collector, allowing prime efficiency of 50%. Comparable solid state power amplifiers have 15% efficiency and output only 7 W. klystrons are the only amplifier technology that can be miniaturized to this degree. Volume with power conditioner and driver is less than 0.500 cm3, half the allowed space. It uses a breakthrough ultra-miniature scandate cathode capable of 100A/cm2 at 1000 degrees C and 5A/cm2 at less than 800 degrees C. At this temperature, life is more than 100,000 hours. The klystron uses cathode ray tube construction, which lowers weight, size and cost (two to five times less than standard brazed ceramic-metal construction). Parts are fastened via glass rods or mechanical capture or by spot welding. Most parts are standard off-the-shelf, which further lowers cost. It uses a glass vacuum envelope, glass feedthroughs, combination RF window-coupler and barium getters to maintain vacuum. In Phase I we successfully built two beam testers. In Phase II we construct an entire amplifier package in CubeSat volume. E beam, inc. is a leader in innovative miniature cathodes, electron guns and vacuum electron devices generally. It has long promoted cathode ray tube construction as a way to mass produce medium power microwave tubes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
CubeSats are the enabling technology for space research by universities. This device will provide them with remote sensing capability of clouds, the ionosphere, other satellites, and earth features. The larger commercial application is its potential for communications. Not only klystrons but broadband TWTs can be fabricated at a fraction of the cost of standard TWTs using this construction technology. There is an important market between 100 and 1000 watts not adequately addressed. These are powers too high for solid state to address efficiently. The power is too low for standard ceramic-metal tube construction to address cost effectively. The dollars/watt is too high. Glass electrostatically focused TWTs and klystrons with glass rod fastening can be manufactured at one-fifth the cost of ceramic-metal tubes. There are 300,000 cell towers in the U.S. Frequency and power need to go up. This technology provides a way forward.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A major objective of NASA's Science Mission Directorate is to use smaller, more affordable spacecraft. Another goal is multiple experiments on the same launch. This lowers cost and risk. The rapid deployment of small, low-cost remote sensing instruments is essential in meeting these objectives. It has an explicit mission to reduce the risk, cost, size and development time of SMD observing instruments. This invention meets all those requirements and will find a ready market in NASA earth satellite missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Amplifiers/Repeaters/Translators
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Processing Methods
Nanomaterials
Microwave


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S1.02-8474
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CG48P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Microwave Technologies for Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: 640 GHz Heterodyne Polarimeter

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Virginia Diodes, Inc.
979 Second Street, Southeast
Charlottesville, VA
22902-6172
(434) 297-3257

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffey Hesler
Hesler@VADiodes.com
979 Second Street SE
CHarlottesville,  VA 22902-6172
(434) 297-3257

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal is responsive to NASA SBIR Subtopic S1.02: Microwave Technologies for Remote Sensing, specifically the interest in the development of a 640 GHz Heterodyne Polarimeter with I, Q, U Channels. Suitably compact, light-weight and power efficient heterodyne instruments are required to enable polarimetric measurements for microphysical parameterization of ice clouds applicable to NASA's planned Aerosol, Cloud and Ecosystems (ACE) mission. Through the Phase 1 effort, VDI demonstrated the feasibility of an integrated 640 GHz polarimetric receiver. This included the demonstration of a 670 GHz LNA module and an OMT, each being compatible with full integration with the mixer diode based down-convertor. Goals of the Phase II include optimization of the OMT, development and evaluation of a fully integrated 670 GHz polarimeter, development of evaluation procedures to ensure the polarimeter meets NASA requirements, and development of a second prototype at 325 GHz to demonstrate the scaling of the technology. The estimated specifications of the 670 GHz prototype include receiver noise temperature ~6,000K (SSB at the horn aperture), power requirement 6W, volume ~1.5ŭ x 1.5ŭ x 0.75ŭ. The goal isolation between polarizations is 20 ŭ 25 dB. Both integrated polarimeters will be delivered to NASA GSFC. Through Phase III, VDI will ensure that the technology is extended throughout the frequency range of interest for NASAŭs atmospheric missions, roughly 100 GHz through about 1 THz.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to scientific applications such as atmospheric studies, plasma diagnostics and molecular spectroscopy; commercial test and measurement systems will benefit from this project. VDI presently markets a product line of frequency extenders for vector network analyzers (VNAs) and spectrum analyzers (SAs) for all frequency bands from 50 GHz through 1.5 THz. The technology developed through this project will allow VDI to develop more compact, cost effective and reliable frequency extenders. The reduced size will make the extenders more useful for a variety of applications, such as antenna test ranges and on-wafer probing. Antenna testing, in particular, will benefit from the availability of polarimetric receivers. Other applications include imaging systems for portal security and industrial process control. Finally, integration will not only reduce system size, but will also increase reliability, and, over the long term, reduce costs. Thus, integration is an important step in fostering the future development the entire field of terahertz technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The result of the Phase 2 effort will include the delivery of two sensitive and highly integrated receiver systems with polarimetric measurement capabilities, operating at ~670 GHz and ~325 GHz. Their compact size and excellent sensitivity will demonstrate the value of innovative integration technologies that are described throughout the proposal. Additionally, Phase III efforts VDI will extend this technology throughout the frequency range of interest for atmospheric studies, roughly 50 GHz to 1 THz. The integrated receivers that will become available through this research will greatly improve the performance and reliability of airborne radiometers such as CoSSIR, while also enabling the development of more compact satellite receiver systems for programs such as ACE and CAPPM. CubeSats that are playing an expanding role in NASAŭs future atmospheric missions will be enabled by the compact size and low power requirements. Deep space probes that study the atmospheres of planets and their satellites will also be enabled.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Terahertz (Sub-millimeter)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S1.03-7310
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CG57P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Read-Out Integrated Circuit with Individual Pixel Programmability for Astronomy Infrared Focal Plane Arrays

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sensor Creations, Inc.
5251 Verdugo Way, Suite I
Camarillo, CA
93012-8658
(805) 479-4608

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stefan Lauxtermann
stefan@sensorcreations.com
5251 Verdugo Way, Suite I
Camarillo,  CA 93012-8658
(805) 484-0444

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
One of the key components in many NASA missions is a large-format focal plane Focal Plane Array (FPA) to capture images or two-dimensional, hyperspectral information, especially in the Infra-Red (IR) domain. Apart from the detector, the performance of these FPAs is determined by the Read-Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC) that amplifies and multiplexes photo generated charge for signal processing by peripheral circuitry. In this project, we propose to develop a new ROIC for low background applications, specifically designed to overcome present limitations of image persistence and inter-pixel capacitance (IPC). The main innovation in this project is an adaptive unit cell that can be individually and randomly programmed via on-chip logic to control bias state and reset duration of any pixel in the array while the integration of science data is on-going. In Phase I we conducted a pixel trade study and performance evaluation for a Capacitive Trans-Impedance Amplifier (CTIA) and a source follower per detector (SFD) type pixel using analog circuit simulations. Then we generated the optimum unit cell layout, defined the overall architecture and created the top-level schematic. By the end of Phase I we have completed the blue prints for the design. The completion of the top-level schematics, verified through simulation, is a critical milestone in the development. It substantially reduces the risk associated with creating new ROIC technology and will allow us to efficiently fabricate and test the device in Phase II. All results from Phase I are documented in a preliminary Interface Control Document (ICD) so that the new ROIC can be considered for future missions. In Phase II we will produce the layout of the entire chip for fabrication using stitching lithography in a state of the art CMOS foundry and demonstrate its functionality on packaged prototypes. By the end of Phase II, wafers of a known functioning ROIC design will be available for hybridization.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many applications for FPAs made using this innovative ROIC, mostly in the 1-2.5 m region (low backgrounds). It is useful for low noise apps and the larger formats appropriate for astronomy will be relatively expensive. Smaller formats, larger volumes including linear arrays can be built using the same circuitry. Potential apps are - Emission detection due to hot e-'s, leaky junctions, defects, latchup. Systems exist in the commercial markets that detect emissions from semiconductors requiring very low noise/large format FPAs. Spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging in industrial applications such as machine vision and process control: The incoming radiation is separated into several wavelengths and from the characteristics of the spectra, problems can be observed, identified, processes controlled. Medical - reflected near-IR/Short Wave-IR wavelengths can provide information on skin/tissue conditions and pathology. - Applications in Biotechnology - small signal fluorescence spectroscopy is used for information capture, e.g. genome sequencing.- Agricultural inspection - e.g. looking at relative moisture content or reflected sunlight for the health of the crops. Our device would be needed in low background apps where the existing systems would not be sensitive enough.- Solar cell inspection - The FPA here would bring more sensitivity compared to existing systems. Potentially looking at glucose levels in the blood due to absorbance at specific short wave IR bands.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Infrared Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) fabricated using this SBIR proposal's high performance, large format, and flexible ROIC will be a key sensor for nearly all NASA space missions which require high resolution infrared imaging and low read noise for low background applications. The specific applications include: - Space based observations particularly where low noise is a requirement (for example deep space). - Ground based space observations - All missions that require infrared spectroscopy (and hence typically low backgrounds and low noise), including remote sensing. - Space and ground based adaptive optics applications where low noise is key. These devices are used to correct for the turbulent media between the detector and the target of observation. It is assumed that either a small portion of the large array can be used for this purpose (engineering grade array potentially) or a new design performed using the building blocks developed on this program. It is expected that leading IR FPA vendors such as Teledyne, Raytheon, DRS, United Technologies will be interested in this device for various applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Thermal
Infrared
Multispectral/Hyperspectral


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S1.03-8513
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CG35P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Megapixel Longwave Infrared SLS FPAs for High Spatial Resolution Earth Observing Missions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
QmagiQ
22 Cotton Road, Unit H, Suite 180
Nashua, NH
03063-4219
(603) 821-3092

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mani Sundaram
msundaram@qmagiq.com
22 Cotton Road, Unit H, Suite 180
Nashua,  NH 03063-4219
(603) 821-3092

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Earth observing missions like NASA's LANDSAT Data Continuity Mission - Thermal Infrared Sensor (LDCM-TIRS) require greater spatial resolution of the earth than the ~ 100m provided by the current instrument. Improving resolution to the desired ~ 30m requires increasing the number of pixels on target from the current 640x3 to ~ 2048x3. The TIRS instrument contains 640x512 longwave infrared quantum well infrared photodetector focal plane arrays (LWIR QWIP FPAs) jointly developed by NASA/GSFC and QmagiQ. QmagiQ proposes to achieve the higher pixel resolution while simultaneously improving quantum efficiency and operating temperature by using antimony-based strained layer superlattice (SLS) detectors. A key challenge is dealing with the effects of reducing pixel pitch from 25 microns down to ~ 10 microns, viz. optical fill-factor, optical crosstalk, processing difficulties, pixel operability, etc. As a stepping stone in Phase I, we developed and delivered an SLS FPA with 1280x1024 format on 12 micron pitch that achieved record performance, viz. > 40% quantum efficiency and dark current half of MCT Rule07 for FPAs with cutoff wavelength > 11 microns. In Phase II, we will increase FPA format to 2048x2048 and push cutoff wavelength to 12-13 microns while still hitting desired quantum efficiency and operating temperature targets in consultation with NASA/GSFC. Several FPAs will be delivered to NASA for evaluation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) Gas imaging (e.g. for the petrochemical industry) 2) Security and surveillance 3) Thermography 4) Medical imaging 5) Missile defense 6) Space-based situational awareness

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) NASA's LANDSAT Data Continuity Mission - Thermal Infrared Sensor (LDCM-TIRS) 2) NASA's HyspIRI Mission - Multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) imager 3) Space- and ground-based astronomy and astrophysics 4) Chemical/spectral mapping of forests, vegetation, crops, and landmasses 5) Temperature mapping of oceans and landmasses 6) Atmospheric mapping 7) Pollution monitoring

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Thermal Imaging (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Thermal
Infrared
Multispectral/Hyperspectral


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S1.03-8518
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CL82P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lunar Spectral Irradiance Monitor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Resonon, Inc.
123 Commercial Drive
Bozeman, MT
59715-2217
(406) 586-3356

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rand Swanson
swanson@resonon.com
123 Commercial Drive
Bozeman,  MT 59715-2217
(406) 586-3356

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The purpose of this effort is to develop an instrument to accurately calibrate (1% k=2) the lunar spectral reflectance (350 to 2,300 nm) at relatively low expense from a small satellite. Assuming the TSIS missions are successful and the solar irradiance is known, the lunar spectral reflectance can be used to provide known lunar irradiance, thereby providing a stable exo-atmospheric calibration source for earth-viewing instruments on low earth orbit satellites. The proposed instrument has been designed specifically for calibrating the lunar irradiance. It is compact, simple in concept, and the data product is nearly immune to long-term degradation because it collects solar and lunar signals using the same optics in the same way. During this effort a prototype instrument will be developed, tested, and evaluated. Design reviews will be conducted and a plan will be made for a next-generation instrument. &#8195;

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The system has been designed specifically for NASA needs and thus has few non-NASA applications. Possible non-NASA applications may be for other Government agencies in need of better calibration for earth-viewing instruments on low earth orbit satellites.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed ARCSTONE instrument has been designed specifically for the purpose of calibrating the lunar spectral irradiance so it can be used as an exo-atmospheric calibration source for earth-viewing instruments on low earth orbit satellites.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Radiometric
Multispectral/Hyperspectral


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S1.04-7518
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CG51P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detector Technologies for UV, X-Ray, Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Silicon Carbide Foundry for NASA's UV and High Temperature CMOS Electronics Needs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CoolCAD Electronics, LLC
7101 Poplar Avenue
Takoma Park, MD
20912-4671
(301) 405-3363

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zeynep Dilli
zeynep.dilli@coolcadelectronics.com
7101 POPLAR AVE
TAKOMA PARK,  MD 20912-4671
(301) 405-3363

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CoolCAD Electronics has developed a patent-pending technology to design and fabricate Silicon Carbide (SiC) MOSFET opto-electronic integrated circuits (ICs). We both fully design and fabricate these SiC Opto-Electronic ICs in the U.S. using our own design methodologies, SiC process recipes and in-house fabrication facility. We will design, fabricate and test SiC Extreme, Vacuum and Deep Ultraviolet photodetectors. We will prototype PN Junction and Schottky barrier linear photodiodes, as well as low dark count avalanche photodiodes. We will design and fabricate a two-dimensional 256 by 256 passive UV SiC focal plane array. Array elements will be fabricated in-house, out of both PN junction and Schottky barrier detectors, using CoolCAD's process and facilities. We will design and fabricate opto-electronic integrated circuits, where we will integrate various types of detectors with a MOS operational amplifier into a single IC to actively convert the photo current to usable voltage levels. We will also design and fabricate an integrated photodetector and 3-Transistor pixel for active readout. Multiple active pixel readout 3-T circuits will be an array to form a SiC active pixel MOS Deep UV imager. Our in-house fabrication process will also be upgraded. We will automate optical alignment to improve our microfabrication resolution and reduce minimum feature size. We will perform gate oxide anneals to improve carrier mobility. Improving mobility and reducing the minimum feature size will increase MOSFET performance and increase speed of opto-integrated circuits. Furthermore, SiC allows for optoelectronic operation at high temperatures. We will test our circuits up to 500C and utilize special metal contact stacks to enhance high temperature reliability. Finally, we will make our in-house process available to NASA and provide a process development kit for use of our fabrication facility to prototype new application specific SiC integrated circuits.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are numerous Non-NASA commercial applications to the SiC based Deep UV integrated technology that we are developing, with significant market value. These applications include: -Water and Air Purification: Our detectors operate in the region used to kill harmful bacteria and viruses to ensure UV filtration of drinking water is operating properly. -Oil and Gas Logging: High temperature hostile environment used with a scintillator for gamma ray detection to characterize shale formation. -Geo Thermal Energy: High temperature environment used to explore rock information. -Military - Missile Detection: Rocket plumes for early warning systems that will not get confused by visible light since our UV detectors are mainly transparent to wavelengths greater than 400nm. -Food Contamination: Many contaminants can emit in the deep UV after excitation thus exposing possible pathogens and contaminants. -Non Line of Sight Communication since UV is diffusive so it will move around obstacles, and can be modulated to transmit information beyond obstructions. -Fire Detection: Most fires emit IR and deep UV; detectors that can sense both are safer to use. -Semiconductor Instrumentation and Advanced Spectrometers: Semiconductor lithography typically uses 193nm in fabrication, UV sensors can help guide this process. -High Temperature Electronics: Monitoring automobile exhaust, jet and rocket engines, furnaces and ovens.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The work proposed is to develop optoelectronic hardware that is enabled by the nascent Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Silicon Carbide (SiC). The integration of electronics and UV photodiodes enhances detection capability. The applications are as follows: Spectroscopy: EUV, VUV, and Deep UV; UV Imaging that is blind to visible; and High Temperature electronics. We both design and fabricate our integrated optoelectronics in-house in the U.S. We will be offering fabrication facilities for NASA to prototype new SiC application specific circuits, which could meet many of the needs for SiC circuit fabrication. The results of the proposed R&D on integrated EUV, VUV, deep UV detectors and imagers should be helpful in numerous NASA endeavors especially those in: Heliophysics, Planetary and Earth science, as well as monitoring ozone and atmospheric gases, and could find substantial application in hyperspectral sensing. The Jupiter-Europa Orbiter is expected to have sensing requirements in the 70 to 330nm region, which could utilize the integrated optoelectonics produced by the proposed program. This multi-band capability may find application in numerous NASA programs including the: Large UV/Visible/IR Surveyor Mission; Exoplanet Direct Imaging Mission; Living with a Star: Geospace Dynamics Constellation; Explorer Missions; Small and Light payload systems like CubeSats, and the Venus Mission since our SiC based sensors and electronics are expected to withstand temperatures as high as 500C.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Optical
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
X-rays/Gamma Rays
Ultraviolet


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S1.05-8269
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CG33P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Particles and Field Sensors and Instrument Enabling Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: LENA Conversion Foils Using Single-Layer Graphene

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luxel Corporation
60 Saltspring Drive, PO Box 1879
Friday Harbor, WA
98250-8040
(360) 378-4137

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Grove
david.grove@luxel.com
60 Saltspring Dr
Friday Harbor,  WA 98250-8040
(360) 378-4137

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Implementing graphene foils in existing neutral atom detector designs will increase their angular and energy resolution, and also improve their mass discrimination and usable energy range. Graphene atomic uniformity and low mass density offer natural advantages over amorphous carbon foils in time-of-flight instruments. We expect that Phase II will yield flight-ready prototype foils available for rocket or pathfinder missions with substantial improvements in instrument performance. Graphene foils can also enable improved designs, for instance with lower mass or lower power consumption. Graphene is potentially useful in very low energy neutral atom detection, e.g. E<10eV. Graphene has advantages over amorphous carbon such as 3X higher optical absorption than amorphous carbon, high infrared crystalline uniformity. Phase I achieved a number of technical "firsts" for graphene and nanohole arrays, including: -the world's largest grid-supported single-layer graphene(>4cm2) -SLG on nanohole arrays with hole coverage of >99% -a method for attaching single-layer graphene to mesh without adhesive -bilayer graphene membranes with >95% coverage on commercial mesh -Lyman alpha blocking of 99.8% using aluminum nanohole arrays Our Phase II effort will continue to improve microgrids, nanogrids and graphene for LENA detectors. In particular, we will 1. Fabricate bilayer graphene (BLG) on microgrids as a better-performing foil for existing LENA instrument designs. 2. Fabricate pristine SLG on nanogrids, extending TOF detectors to <200eV. 3. Investigate surface modification of graphene to enable detection of <10eV neutral atoms. 4. Make prototype samples for other NASA and non-NASA applications. Compared with existing foils, our proposed SLG structure reduces scattering, improves low energy signal, and improves energy resolution. The structure reduces the serial losses and increases the effective collection area.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Nanohole arrays for EUV filters and High-Harmonic-Laser Order Selectors Presently the wavelength range 50-120nm has no viable transmission filters except for broad-band elemental In and Sn foils. Detection of spectral lines, and generation of laser lines, needs wavelength-selectable bandpass filters in this wavelength range. Synchrotrons and Free-electron lasers rely on the elemental properties of foils for harmonic rejection, greatly limiting the utility of synchrotrons in the 50-120nm wavelength range. The proposed nanohole arrays can improve the selectability and performance of spectral filters in this range of wavelengths. Miscellaneous Instrument Graphene Foils Instruments such as X-ray microcalorimeters and electron beam systems, require a membrane to separate environmental contaminants without otherwise affecting detection or beam optics. For example, cryogenic detectors, such as X-ray microcalorimeters, require contamination blocking elements to prevent UHV or spacecraft background contaminants from adsorbing onto the detector and causing soft X-ray opacity. Currently, these barrier foils are 50nm-100nm in thickness, and are highly absorbing for X-rays <300eV. Graphene is a promising low mass contamination barrier, since is less than 1nm thick.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Neutral atom detector foils and particle detector foils The graphene foils we report in Phase I have excellent energy resolution and low energy signal compared with existing foils.We have shown prototype grids which appear suitable for supporting bilayer graphene in an instrument-usable configuration. Graphene antistatic and emissive coatings on particle beam and EUV filters Present antistatic coatings and contamination blocking filter coatings are made from >5nm thick amorphous carbon. Graphene has higher conductivity than amorphous carbon, but is only 0.3nm thick. This represents a considerable improvement in electron scattering cross section, thermal emissivity, and mass density. Nanohole arrays for EUV filters Presently the wavelength range 50-120nm has no viable narrow-band filter. Imaging of EUV spectral lines needs wavelength-selectable bandpass filters. Availability of solar-blind bandpass EUV filters will enable imaging of, for instance, elemental plasma processes in planetary atmospheres. Miscellaneous Instrument Graphene Foils Cooled instruments require a membrane to separate environmental contaminants without otherwise affecting detection or beam optics. For example, cryodetectors, such as X-ray microcalorimeters, require contamination blocking elements to prevent UHV or spacecraft contaminants from adsorbing onto the detector and causing soft X-ray opacity. Currently, these barrier foils are 50nm-100nm thick.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Nanomaterials
Filtering
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Lasers (Medical Imaging)
Ionizing Radiation
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Ultraviolet


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S1.06-7136
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CA22P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Lunar and Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Compact Fluorescence Lifetime Excitation-Emission Spectrometer (FLEXEMS) for Detecting Trace Organics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Leiden Measurement Technology, LLC
1240 Mountain View-Alviso Road, Suite E
Sunnyvale, CA
94089-2239
(650) 691-8573

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nathan Bramall
N.Bramall@LeidenTechnology.com
1240 Mountain View-Alviso Rd. Ste E
Sunnyvale,  CA 94089-2919
(650) 605-3046

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) effort, Leiden Measurement Technology (LMT) proposes to design and build the Fluorescence Lifetime Excitation Emission Spectrometer (FLEXEMS), a stand-off fluorescence spectrometer that uses multiple light-emitting diodes to excite fluorescence in samples from the deep-ultraviolet through the visible and employs time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) and steady-state photon-counting techniques to quantify the fluorescence properties of the target in order to detect and identify trace levels of organics in-situ. The addition of fluorescence lifetime measurements distinguishes it from other compact, field-portable instruments available. For typical use, the instrument will require no reagents or consumables and by simply placing the instrument on a sample of rock, soil, or ice, or other material it will be able to detect a wide range of organics (at or below the 10-100 ppb-level) including free aromatic amino acids; biomarkers including F420 (specific to methanogens), NADH, and proteins; PAHs; and porphyrins (e.g. chlorophyll). It will be designed with flight in mind so that mass, volume, and power-usage will be minimized as much as possible.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
FLEXEMS has many uses outside of NASA. Due to its sensitivity, specificity, and portability, it would be very useful for (1) environmental research of terrestrial and marine waters (e.g., DOM, humic and fulvic acid studies, aromatic pollutants), (2) process control and monitoring of closed and recycled water systems (e.g., Naval or cruise shipboard water monitoring, water treatment, municipal water recycling plants), (3) pollution monitoring of water, soils and sediments (e.g., BTEX, PAHs, pesticides, and fuels), (5) the detection of biological weapons (e.g., Anthrax). Considering only (1) and (2), it is anticipated that total 5- year revenue may be as high as $20M.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A flight version of FLEXEMS could be used on nearly any NASA mission that has Life Detection or the more general detection and identification of organics as one of its goals. Because FLEXEMS is inherently a stand-off instrument requiring no consumables, it requires no complicated sample-handling under most situations and can take a variety of different form-factors to suit the mission architecture: flow-through measurements of extraterrestrial water or melted ices implemented in microfluidic packaging; surface measurements of ices or minerals; integrated into optical microscopes; etc. Because FLEXEMS requires no consumables, it could be used indefinitely making it especially well-suited for long-duration missions where it could serve as both a primary instrument or a triage instrument for other instruments that may have a limited number of uses. Target extraterrestrial bodies FLEXEMS would be ideal to explore include Europa, Enceladus, comets and asteroids, Mars, and the permanently-shadowed craters of Moon. Additionally, its miniature size makes it suitable for Small- Sat missions to study organics such as O/OREOS. For terrestrial use, it will allow researchers in NASA's Space Science and Astrobiology Division to quantify the presence of different minerals and organics during analog field research and laboratory research and can integrate well into the NASA Ames Astrochemistry Facility.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Biological Signature (i.e., Signs Of Life)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Ultraviolet
Visible


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S1.06-8099
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CM14P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Lunar and Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Radiation Tolerant Temperature-Invariant Scintillation Modules

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA
02472-4699
(617) 668-6801

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Erik Johnson
ejohnson@rmdinc.com
44 Hunt Street
Watertown,  MA 02472-4699
(617) 668-6886

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Radiation detectors are an invaluable tool for space applications spanning planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, space weather, and dosimetry for human exploration. Scintillators are materials that generate a light flash with an intensity that is proportional to the ionizing energy deposited. However, scintillator efficiency gradually decays with increased exposure to radiation. For exploration missions to hostile environments, such as those around Jupiter, Venus or Mercury, large ionizing doses are expected for the scintillation material, rendering them useless. A common practice to mitigate dose effects is to anneal the scintillation materials. In addition, sensitivity, dictated by detector volume, is critical for science missions, such mapping H2O concentration over a planetary surface. This project will develop a scintillator module using advanced materials, such as Cs2LiYCl6(CLYC), LiSr2I5 (LSI), or Tl2LiYCl6 (TLYC), that provide both high-performance gamma ray and neutron spectroscopy within a single volume. Si photomultipliers (SiPM) will maximize the active volume relative to the total volume. The project will result in a large-volume, high-performance detector module, rigorously tested for flight, with protocols for annealing and science operation

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The robust testing required for space flight leads to a high-quality terrestrial instrument that will have uses for military and homeland security applications. Scintillation detectors are used in security applications where temperature conditions fluctuate and handling is rough, which is also valid for oil-well logging. For other applications, such as radiation monitors at nuclear reactors, the radiation tolerance must be high as the instruments can be exposed to low-doses for multiple years. Our technology will be an excellent fit for Personal Radiation Detectors (PRD), Spectroscopic Radiation Detectors (SPRD), in Radioisotope Identification Devices (RIIDs), Area Monitors, and in Stand-off detectors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of this technology will serve instruments for planetary science missions. In the latest planetary science Decadal Survey (DS), gamma ray and neutron spectrometers are explicitly slated for a potential New Frontiers mission to complete a Trojan Tour and Rendezvous. The DS also highlights the need for increased sensitivity and reduction of mass for neutron/gamma spectrometers, which are both directly addressed by the small form factor for scintillation detectors, and the sensitivity improvements outlined above. These detectors could also be used to examine the surface of comets, the moon, and/or Venus in support of other DS recommended New Frontier Missions: Comet Surface Sample Return, Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample Return, Lunar Geophysical Network, and Venus In Situ Explorer. These potential missions could be proposed later in 2016 and onward. As a case in point, RMD is participating in the development of a neutron detector using CLYC for the LunaH Map mission for mapping out the lunar southern pole hydrogen content, particularly within permanently shadowed regions. RMD, as a subcontract to Arizona State University, is a part of the RAMA (volatile Resources, neutron Albedo, and MApping of hydrogen) proposal, and if awarded, will start early 2017. Though both of these missions are planned with photomultiplier tubes (as opposed to the SiPMs proposed here), advances in this project may be directly translated to these missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Ionizing Radiation
X-rays/Gamma Rays


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S1.07-7358
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CG31P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Airborne Measurement Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Widely Tunable Semiconductor Laser at 1650nm for Greenhouse Gas LIDAR Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Freedom Photonics, LLC
41 Aero Camino
Santa Barbara, CA
93117-3104
(805) 967-4900

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Milan Mashanovitch
mashan@freedomphotonics.com
41 Aero Camino
Santa Barbara,  CA 93117-3104
(805) 967-4900

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this program, Freedom Photonics is developing a low cost, semiconductor based widely tunable laser for multiple green gas detection. This laser source can be used in different LIDAR applications, or in any gas sensing scheme using spectroscopy.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
LIDAR systems for gas sensing Greenhouse gas instrumentation

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
LIDAR systems for gas sensing Greenhouse gas instrumentation

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Thermal
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S1.08-7139
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CG52P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface & Sub-surface Measurement Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Investigating an Instrument for Measurement of Hyperspectral Backscattering in Natural Waters

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sequoia Scientific, Inc.
2700 Richards Road
Bellevue, WA
98005-4200
(425) 641-0944

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Wayne Slade
wslade@sequoiasci.com
2700 Richards Road
Bellevue,  WA 98005-4200
(425) 641-0944

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The remote sensing reflectance signal measured by an ocean color satellite is to first order proportional to the ratio of backscattered to absorbed light. Therefore in situ measurements of absorption and backscattering, as functions of wavelength, along with in situ and satellite radiometery, are key to refinement and calibration of legacy ocean color algorithms, as well as development of next generation ocean color products such as phytoplankton functional type. Currently, commercial instruments exist for in situ measurement of the hyperspectral absorption coefficient, but no instrument exists for measurement of the hyperspectral backscattering coefficient. We propose to develop an active sensor for in situ measurement of the hyperspectral backscattering coefficient. The proposed instrument will use a broadband halogen lamp source, servo-controlled linear variable filters as spectral bandpass elements in transmit and receive optics, and a photomultiplier tube detector with integrated low-noise amplifier and variable gain. The proposed instrument addresses a critical gap in the field of currently available systems for measuring hyperspectral IOPs in situ, in support of hyperspectral ocean color missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Similar to the NASA applications, the target market for the proposed instrument is broad. Government scientists and agency-funded researchers (many federal agencies including NSF, NRL, ONR, NOAA, and foreign space and environmental agencies) in ocean science routinely measure IOPs for ocean color cal/val.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed novel sensor for measuring hyperspectral backscattering has wide applicability in the field of ocean optics and ocean biology and biogeochemistry. There are currently no instruments available that make this measurement. NASA scientists and NASA-funded researchers,especially those working on risk reduction and optical IOP-radiometric closure studies as well as phytoplankton functional group algorithms, and increasingly complex biogeochemical and ecosystem models are currently hindered by a lack of ground truth hyperspectral backscattering data. Given the current push within NASA programs in preparation for launch of the PACE ocean color mission and EXPORTS field campaign, development of this system is very timely.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Biological Signature (i.e., Signs Of Life)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Visible
Multispectral/Hyperspectral


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S1.09-7871
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CG42P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Systems for Sensors and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: A 10 K Multistage Cryocooler with Very Low Vibration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, LLC
16 Great Hollow Road
Hanover, NH
03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Zagarola
mvz@creare.com
16 Great Hollow Road
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced space borne instruments require cooling at temperatures of 10 K and below. Potential missions include the Origin Space Telescope and the Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer. Cooling loads for these detectors will range from 50 mW to 500 mW at the primary load site, with additional loads at higher temperatures for other subsystems. Due to jitter requirements, a cryocooler with very low vibration is required for many missions. In addition, a multi-stage cooler, capable of providing refrigeration at more than one temperature simultaneously, can provide the greatest system efficiency with the lowest mass. To address this need, we plan to develop and demonstrate a two stage turbo-Brayton cryocooler that provides refrigeration at 10 K, with additional cooling at 50 to 70 K. On the Phase I project, we optimized the performance of an existing cryocooler and measured its performance. During the proposed Phase II project, we plan to optimize key cryocooler components for operation in a 10 K cryocooler, and demonstrate the performance of the advanced technology through demonstrations at cold load temperatures of 10 K and below. We will use these test results to develop a design for a fully optimized, flight cryocooler for a particular NASA mission class.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications for this technology include cooling for communication satellites; superconducting instruments, digital filters, and magnets; low temperature gas separation systems; hypercomputers; and Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful completion of this program will result in the demonstration of an extremely efficient low temperature cryocooler with negligible vibration. This type of cryocooler is ideal as the upper-stage cryocooler or primary cooler for cooling advanced, low-temperature space instruments. Potential NASA missions include the Origin Space Telescope and the Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer. A secondary military market for the technology is for cooling hyperspectral imaging systems on space based observation, surveillance and missile defense systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S1.09-7978
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CP62P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Systems for Sensors and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Deep Space Cryocooler System (DSCS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Iris Technology Corporation
PO Box 15115
Irvine, CA
92623-5115
(949) 975-8410

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Marguerite Slater
jlwold@iristechnology.com
2811 McGaw Ave
Irvine,  CA 92614-0101
(949) 975-8410

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Iris Technology and Lockheed Martin team has developed a cryocooler system design which meets the S1.09 SBIR topic goals at twice the desired cooling capacity (0.4W at 35K) delivering Engineering Model hardware under DSCS Phase II for both the cryocooler and its optimized control electronics. The DSCS Program builds off the previous successes of the USAF "MicroSat Cryocooler System (MCS)" Program (FA9453-14-C-0294). The DSCS extends the Miniature Low Cost Cryocooler Electronics (mLCCE) performance reducing size, weight and power of the deep-space rad-hard integrated circuits. The DSCS enhances the thermo-mechanical unit with a new inertance tube and regenerator packing to optimize the cryocooler design for 35K cold-tip and 150K heat rejection temperatures. To achieve this higher performance, the DSCS cryocooler is based on the Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) TRL-6 High Power Microcryocooler. LMSSC's initial trade study shows the predicted performance of the High Power coldhead is significantly better than the standard coldhead. This is largely due to a greater regenerator volume, and thus greater regenerator heat capacity. The High Power coldhead heat exchangers are slightly larger, increasing their effectiveness and improving performance. In addition, Iris proposes the Phase I electronics design will be reviewed against sample planetary mission parts lists in Phase II. The uLCCE provides a mission-critical, radiation tolerant system solution, easily extendible to a radiation hardened flight platform.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The recently announced GeoCARB mission by NASA is a prime example of how the advances of a NASA-sponsored development can lead directly to a commercialization success. Our Iris Technology/Lockheed Martin team is a selected GeoCARB Mission Partner and we expect DSCS Phase II to offer a similar path to commercialization. In NASA's own words; "By demonstrating GeoCARB can be flown as a hosted payload on a commercial satellite, the mission will strengthen NASA's partnerships with the commercial satellite industry and provide a model that can be adopted by NASA's international partners to expand these observations to other parts of the world." Our advancements in size, mass and power reductions in DSCS Phase II will make the payload even more attractive for commercial partnerships. Other non-NASA applications include: cryo-pumps for semiconductor manufacturing, radio astronomy, SQUID magnetometers for heart and brain studies, HTS filters for the communication industry, liquefaction of industrial gases, superconducting magnets for MRI systems, superconducting magnets for power generation and energy storage, and superconducting electronics.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are currently very few cryocooler applications utilizing a cryogenic heat rejection temperature, mainly because, until recently, there have been no long-life cryocooler compressors capable of operating at cryogenic temperatures. However, the recent demonstration of extended operation of Lockheed Martin's microcryocooler compressor at temperatures as low as 130 K has opened up new deep space cryocooler applications utilizing the capability of rejecting heat at very low temperature; for example, cooling JPL's MISE spectrometer for the Europa mission. Having a proven cryocooler technology will very likely generate interest in designing cryogenic missions utilizing very low heat rejection temperatures to improve cooler efficiency, reduce the required electrical power and rejected heat, reduce the cryocooler size and mass, and enable cooling at lower cold tip temperatures. It is also very likely that cryocooler systems will be developed that make use of this proposed cooler in new cooling configurations. For example, the proposed cooler could be mated to more traditional second cooler which would provide the 150K or lower heat rejection temperature, potentially leading to greater system efficiency, since both coolers could be independently optimized.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S2.01-7911
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CP56P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Proximity Glare Suppression for Astronomical Coronagraphy
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robust Optical Edge for a Starshade Petal

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tendeg, LLC
686 South Taylor Avenue, Suite 108
Louisville, CO
80027-3000
(303) 929-4466

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gregg Freebury
gregg@tendeg.com
686 South Taylor Avenue, Suite 108
Louisville,  CO 80027-3000
(303) 929-4466

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed Phase II program will refine and mature the design of the optical edge, optical shield and snubber assemblies within a Starshade petal. Prototypes of each sub-assembly will be built and tested after a rigorous trade study. The final sub-assembly designs will be built and integrated to a complete petal assembly that utilizes flight-like materials and fabrication processes. The full petal assembly will be tested to demonstrate survival to launch packaging and temperature extremes. A segment of a petal will be delivered to NASA JPL for thermal distortion and stability tests. More specifically, the optical edge assembly efforts will address the integration of a micro-thin metal alloy to a low CTE composite substrate and the alignment and handling procedures required to accurately position each segment to the petal structure. The optical shield effort will address opacity, thermal expansion, micrometeoroid mitigation and venting. The snubber effort will address preload, alignment and support for the petals in the furled and launch configuration.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Technology developed during this Phase II SBIR would apply to any structure requiring a precise edge for light suppression. More specifically it would apply to precision joining methods between dissimilar materials like thin metals to carbon fiber composites. Other applications would include blanketing for thermal and light mitigation that is typically needed for space based telescopes. Methods of packaging large scale gossamer-like structures to fit within standard launch vehicle fairings and survive the launch environment can be applied to future large space deployables.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Technology developed during this SBIR program will be directly applied to any NASA telescope program involved with exoplanet discovery and characterization that needs an external occulter, or Starshade. NASA has identified a potential rendezvous mission with WFIRST/AFTA because it is a large astrophysics telescope capable of supporting direct imaging with a starshade.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Metallics
Polymers
Deployment
Structures
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S2.02-7091
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CP25P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Precision Deployable Optical Structures and Metrology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Solar Array for a Starshade Inner Disk

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tendeg, LLC
686 South Taylor Avenue, Suite 108
Louisville, CO
80027-3000
(303) 929-4466

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Neal Beidleman
neal@tendeg.com
686 S. Taylor Ave, Ste 108
Louisville,  CO 80027-3000
(970) 948-0663

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This PhaseII program will focus on integrating viable solar cell blanket assemblies onto the inner disk of a starshade needed for potential exoplanet discovery missions. The Phase II will design and analyze structural interfaces, harness requirements, harness routing, survival and durability for packaging, launch and on-orbit environmental requirements. The program will involve numerous hardware demonstration units and testing and culminate in a full scale demonstration unit with a portion of active solar cells. This will move the inner disk with solar cells to TRL 5. The inner disk of the baseline starshade is approximately 10 m in diameter. This large surface area is an ideal location for solar arrays which will allow for solar electric propulsion. SEP will allow the starshade to transition to new orbit positions relative to the telescope more efficiently which will expand the exoplanet science during the mission lifetime.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This solar array system would apply to any commercial or DOD application where a high stiffness, high strength solar array is needed. The design is scalable up to 20 to 30 m diameters which could achieve up to 300 KW. Arrays of this size can power solar electric propulsion systems. The strength and stiffness will allow high acceleration and maneuver loads.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Technology developed during this SBIR program will be directly applied to any NASA telescope program involved with exoplanet discovery and characterization that needs an external occulter, or Starshade. The Exo-S STDT Final Report identified a potential rendezvous mission with WFIRST/AFTA because it is a large astrophysics telescope capable of supporting direct imaging with a starshade, and the current timing of its development fits with a potential starshade development and launch.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Generation
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Polymers
Deployment
Structures
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S2.03-8014
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CM17P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Optical Systems and Fabrication/Testing/Control Technologies for EUV/Optical and IR Telescope
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultra-Stable Zero-CTE HoneySiC and H2CMN Mirror Support Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fantom Materials, Inc.
3038 Aukele Street
Lihue, HI
96766-1464
(808) 245-6465

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Fischer
bill.fischer@fantommaterials.com
3038 Aukele Street
Lihue,  HI 96766-1464
(808) 245-6465

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA MSFC, GSFC and JPL are interested in Ultra-Stable Mirror Support Structures for Exoplanet Missions. Telescopes with Apertures of 4-meters or larger and using an internal coronagraph require a telescope wavefront stability that is on the order of 10 pico-meters RMS per 10 minutes. Interest is also for IR/FIR missions requiring 8-meter or larger diameter mirrors with cryogenic deformations <100 nm RMS. Fantom Materials is specifically responding to the need for ultra-stable mirror support structure traceable to the needs of Cosmic Origins for UVOIR, Exo and FIR telescopes, including mirror support structures, whiffle plates, delta frames and strongbacks. HoneySiC material has multiple features that make it very attractive as a potential future deployment hinge and latching material: 1) It's an additively manufactured Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) with no Coefficient of Moisture Expansion (CME). Individually molded parts become a monolithic construct, thus it is possible to manufacture an entire telescope using HoneySiC, 2) It's extremely light weight (HoneySiC panels have about 1/5 the density of beryllium, 3) It's extremely dimensionally stable due to a zero-CTE across a temperature range of -196C to RT. The thermal conductivity can be supercharged by addition of carbon nanotubes. The overarching program objective is to demonstrate HoneySiC as an ultra-stable structural telescope material. In Phase I, Fantom measured CTE and mechanical properties for HoneySiC HCMC and H2CMN to bring the basic material properties measurements closer to completion. In Phase II Fantom intends to is to continue collaboration with NASA MSFC, GSFC, JPL and Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems in the design of a prototype whiffle plate, delta frame, tube structure or other optical structure that could be used to support mirror-class, space-based telescope applications, like the JWST Composite Backplane.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Low cost, lightweight, dimensionally stable HoneySiC material has use in complex telescopes for Astronomy, Imaging and Remote Sensing applications, including optical instruments/telescopes which enable imaging, surveillance, and reconnaissance missions for police and paramilitary units, fire fighters, power and pipeline monitoring, search and rescue, atmospheric and ocean monitoring, imagery and mapping for resource management, and disaster relief and communications. The dual-use nature of complex telescopes will bring affordability to national defense missions as well.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
From the present state-of-the-art it will take an 8 order-of-magnitude improvement in materials stability to achieve future picometer requirements. This project is the point of departure for ultra-stable mirror support structures made using first-generation zero CTE HoneySiC (circa 2014), and 2nd generation Hierarchical Hybrid Ceramic Matrix Nano-composite (H2CMN, circa 2016). These extremely promising engineered ceramic matrix composite materials will replace the status quo, moisture-absorbing, organic matrix composites used in the present state-of-the-art composites, as well as to directly replace beryllium. 1st and 2nd generation HoneySiC will provide the low areal cost, low areal density, low cost and ultra-stability that is required for future EUV, UV/O and Far-IR mission telescopes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Distribution/Management
Ceramics
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Deployment
Telescope Arrays
Ultraviolet
Visible


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S2.04-7976
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CG60P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: X-Ray Mirror Systems Technology, Coating Technology for X-Ray-UV-OIR, and Free-Form Optics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Coherence Wavefront Probe for Nanometer Level Free-Form Metrology

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Apre Instruments, LLC
2440 West Ruthrauff Road, Suite 100
Tucson, AZ
85745-1950
(860) 398-5764

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Artur Olszak
aolszak@apre-inst.com
2440 West Ruthrauff Road, Suite 100
Tucson,  AZ 85705-1950
(520) 639-8195

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose an innovative, low coherence probe for rapid measurement of free-form optical surfaces based on a novel method of spectrally controlled interferometry. The key innovations are the use of a new interferometric modality and a novel non-contact optical probe that together measure high surface slope acceptance angles to nanometer sensitivity. When the probe is integrated with a precision motion, x, y, & z metrology frame, it will meet NASA's need to measure free-form optical surfaces from 0.5 cm to 6 cm diameter ranging from F/2 to F/20, including slopes up to 20 degrees (with potential for 60 degrees), with an uncertainty targeted at 2 nm RMS. The probe operation does not require tilting to measure slopes. This results in this simplified cartesian metrology frame, also critical to achieve 2 nanometer measurement uncertainty. These features: nanometer resolution and 20 degree slope acceptance angle, have up to this time not been found in a single probe or sensor, non-contact or contact. This Phase II proposal takes the probe and its innovative spectrally controlled light source into a production prototype level capable of meeting NASA metrology goals.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The use of free-form optics in commercial applications is potentially massive, yet limited by the availability of high performance metrology. Cell phones, tablets, computers and remote mounted cameras utilize axially symmetric free-forms. Improved metrology means improved performance and higher manufacturing yields, and potentially lower manufacturing costs. Further, machine vision, security and defense related applications could benefit from free-form optics. New telescope designs at MIT Lincoln Laboratory promise wider fields of view with higher lateral resolution. Again metrology is lacking to produce these optics in the surface accuracy, data density and speed required to be commercially viable. Regarding illumination, higher efficiency lighting will bring more pleasant work environments and lower energy usage. Even for apparently mundane applications such as automotive headlamp lenses metrology is a limiting factor due to the extreme shapes. This technology promises to make free-form optics commercially viable.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Free-form optics, both axially and non-axially symmetric, enable small and lightweight imaging and projection optical systems required by NASA. "Future NASA missions with alternative low-cost science and small-sized payloads are constrained by the traditional spherical form optics. These could benefit greatly by the free-form optics as they provide non-spherical optics with better aerodynamic characteristics for spacecraft with lightweight components to meet the mission requirements". This application aims to enable those optics to be manufactured to the required tolerances to enable free-form optics to be used as envisioned. As of today there are no metrology tools available to meet the 2 nm RMS measurement uncertainty required to meet these mission requirements. Thus the primary road block to manufacturing high performance free form optics is metrology. The PROBE developed in the previous Phase I projects and to be implemented in this Phase II is a unique approach that combines non-contact interferometric sensitivity with high surface slope acceptance. Thus the accuracy, speed and data density required for free form optics will be achieved. This combination will enable optical manufacturers to meet NASA's need to acquire nanometer level free-form optics.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lenses
Mirrors
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Interferometric (see also Analysis)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S3.01-7259
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CC86P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Generation and Conversion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Thermoacoustic Radioisotope Generator (TRG)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nirvana Energy Systems, Inc.
3130 Alpine Road, Suite 288 Post Mail Box 6
Portola Valley, CA
94028-7541
(216) 898-9990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Geoffrey Bruder
geoff.bruder@nirvana-es.com
8150 Dow Circle Suite 100
Strongsville,  OH 44136-8847
(216) 898-9990

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Nirvana Energy Systems (NES) has pioneered and is commercializing an innovative ThermoAcoustic Power Stick (TAPS) partially based on technology developed by Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) and NASA. NES has demonstrated and is building a 1kWe TAPS for use in remote power applications where reliability for 20+ years is of paramount importance. The novel TAPS technology has no hot moving parts and incorporates well proven, reliable linear motors and alternators in an engine based on the Stirling cycle. NES has designed, optimized, built and tested all sub-systems for reliability, ease of manufacturing and cost reduction over currently available Stirling engines. The 1kWe TAPS formed the starting design for scaling down to a ~300 W tunable power thermoacoustic device. The system is insensitive to radioisotope heat degradation, capable of 10+ years continuous operation, inexpensive to manufacture using well established methods, and yields greater than 25% thermal to electrical efficiency all while being designed for a specific power greater than 30 W/kg. The NES Thermoacoustic Radioisotope Generator (TRG) represents the ultimate in remote power devices and is the next step toward reliable dynamic power conversion for space. The technical objectives of the NES TRG Phase II effort are to produce a prototype TRG convertor, build a test cell, and validate the designed system performance with a minimum of 500 hours of steady state operation. During this 18 month effort, the TRG design will undergo any final modifications based on NASA review. Test support hardware will be selected and designed. The prototype and test cell will be manufactured to exact specifications. A risk assessment will be conducted for the convertor. Subsystem and materials coupon tests will be conducted. The TRG system will be assembled and tested for a minimum of 500 hours.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Nirvana Energy Systems is currently working to commercialize the NASA technology through an exclusive patent license granted for the Alpha-STREAM technology that the TAPS technology is partially based on. The NES TAPS technology could be easily adapted to home use where high efficiencies are possible and the unit would function as a micro-Combined Heating and Power system. In an installation such as this, the TAPS unit could be natural gas fed where to achieve overall high system efficiencies the unit would utilize excess heat to provide heated water for potable needs or for hydroponic heating. Excess electrical energy production would be sent to the grid. Similar to application for home power generation, other applications include commercial businesses, military uses (manned/unmanned vehicles and domesticated areas), and the transportation industry. In particular, these industries desire higher electrical outputs and the validity of the TAPS architecture afforded by this Phase I effort would offer strong evidence in the scale-ability of the technology. Moreover, the reverse cycle of the TAPS system can be used for cooling in many cases, including as a refrigerant free domestic cooling system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary goal of the proposed project is to develop a thermal-to-electrical power conversion system that achieves 100-500 W of net electrical output, has >25% efficiency, and durability for life greater than 10 years in response to the SBIR S3.01 call from NASA. Due to the significant manufacturing and assembly cost reductions afforded by the TAPS architecture over traditional Free Piston Stirling (FPS) systems, the TAPS solution could be used as a direct replacement over traditional thermoelectric or other Stirling based systems in space missions. Furthermore, the TAPS technology enables architectures that are difficult, or impossible, with other systems. Specifically, TAPS can easily be utilized for a combined power and cooling duplex, and some preliminary designs have been created. Such systems would enable a sustained presence in extreme planetary environments such as the surface of Venus. This can be achieved using radioisotope heating for long term missions or chemical heating for shorter duration missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Generation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S3.02-7888
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CC70P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems for Robotic Science Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Monofilament Vaporization Propulsion (MVP) System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CU Aerospace, LLC
301 North Neil Street, Suite 502
Champaign, IL
61820-3169
(217) 239-1703

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Curtis Woodruff
woodruff@cuaerospace.com
301 N. Neil St. - Suite 502
Champaign,  IL 61820-3169
(217) 239-1701

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Monofilament Vaporization Propulsion (MVP) is an innovative new propulsion technology targeted at secondary payload applications. The approach with MVP, rather than using exotic propellants to achieve maximum specific impulse and system performance, is to use an inexpensive, inert, solid propellant. This enables the use of a propulsion system on lower budget missions by lowering the unit cost (no valves or pressure vessels), and minimizes range safety expenses. By using a commercially available, space rated polymer as propellant, MVP overcomes potential issues associated with liquid propellants such as freezing, over-pressurization, degradation (of tank wall and/or propellant itself), and cg perturbations due to sloshing. As a result, MVP's standalone risk to the primary payload is no greater than that of a CubeSat not equipped with propulsion. MVP harnesses technology used in 3D printing applications to feed propellant into proven electrothermal propulsion technology developed by CU Aerospace. To date, MVP has demonstrated a continuous 105 seconds specific impulse with 20 W input power, with 107 seconds peak. Phase II performance is expected to exceed 130 seconds. This should provide 900 N-s total impulse with a 1U (10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm) system, attributable to the high storage density and permissible thin walled construction. A 4 kg, 3U CubeSat equipped with MVP could achieve 250 m/s Delta-V while expending less than 25 W during operation. CU Aerospace will design, fabricate, and deliver a 1U MVP system to NASA at the end of the Phase II program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The MVP thruster will provide a compact, light-weight, non-hazardous, propulsion technology solution that will be made available in a family of sizes that can meet the differing needs of users in DOD, industry, and academia for CubeSat and small-satellite missions. MVP will require no safety equipment for storage, transportation, integration, and testing, and place no demanding requirements on the launch provider, making it an ideal low-cost solution for industry, research, and academic small-satellite propulsion needs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The MVP thruster system supports the NASA Roadmap for In-Space Propulsion Systems, nonchemical propulsion. MVP offers CubeSats and other small satellites a propulsion capability sufficient for various orbital maneuvers with several millinewtons of thrust requiring minimal thrust-control ACS and a minimal volume and system integration cost. The baseline MVP, occupying a 1U volume, has minimal impact on the CubeSat bus and payload. The solid propellant has no handling, storage, or operational restrictions beyond those of the CubeSat. The ease of handling and storage for the solid propellant can extend operation to planetary missions with no additional monitoring or controls.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Fuels/Propellants
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S3.02-8312
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CM30P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems for Robotic Science Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Green Monopropellant Propulsion for Small Spacecrafts

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Plasma Processes, LLC
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville, AL
35811-1558
(256) 851-7653

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anatoliy Shchetkovskiy
ashchetkovskiy@plasmapros.com
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville,  AL 35811-1558
(256) 851-7653

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
One of the biggest obstacles preventing the widespread implementation of small satellites is the process of actually getting them into space. Current methods include hitching rides as secondary payloads. Although this initiative has provided significant new launch capacity for CubeSat-class spacecraft, it is not without issues, most specifically limited orbits and orbital lifetime. Many missions need higher orbits to perform their missions; and lower orbits are subject to atmospheric drag that may cause premature reentry. Safe and affordable miniaturized propulsion can overcome these limiting factors and is a high-visibility capability sought by the CubeSat community. Even basic capabilities to push in one direction will allow nanosats to remain in orbit longer, or allow a satellite placed into low-Earth orbit to propel itself to a higher or more circular orbit. In Phase I, Plasma Processes designed, fabricated and delivered to NASA a miniaturized propulsion system compatible with non-toxic HAN- and ADN-based green monopropellants for small spacecraft propulsion. In Phase II, the green propellant thrusters will be tested will both monopropellants for pressure fed and pump fed 1U propulsion modules. The use of advanced, non-toxic propellants will increase mission capabilities including longer mission durations, additional maneuverability, increased scientific payload space, and simplified launch processing. Adding propulsion will also enable de-orbiting of the satellite after completion of the mission.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial application of the technology will provide safe and affordable miniaturized propulsion to support the emerging small, micro- and nano- satellite community; and small satellite constellations to provide global internet and mapping by joint ventures including SpaceX/Google, TerraBella (Skybox), Planet Labs and One Web LLC. The technology will also benefit low cost launch providers, Space-X, Virgin Galactic, Firefly, ULA, and Orbital ATK, with an increase in secondary payload demand.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA Applications include small spacecraft and satellite missions requiring Orbit change & Attitude Control, Precision Propulsion, Formation Flying and Target Reentry. Examples of future mission implementation are next-generation Fast, Affordable, Science and Technology Satellite (FASTSAT); Lunar Flashlight; NEA Scout; and SLS secondary payloads.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Processing Methods
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Metallics
Fuels/Propellants
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S3.03-7399
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CC74P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Electronics and Management, and Energy Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight CNT Shielded Cables for Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dexmat, Inc.
2429 Bissonnet Street
Houston, TX
77005-1451
(805) 895-8628

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alberto Goenaga
alberto@dexmat.com
2429 Bissonnet Street
Houston,  TX 77005-1451
(805) 895-8628

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The effects of electromagnetic interactions in electrical systems are of growing concern due to the increasing susceptibility of system components to electromagnetic interference (EMI), use of automated electronic systems, and pollution of the electromagnetic environment with electromagnetic emissions. The effects of EMI can be detrimental to electronic systems utilized in space missions; even small EMI issues can lead to total mission failure, resulting in significant mission delays and economic loss. Additionally, NASA is challenged to find ways of effectively shielding sensitive electronic equipment from EMI without adding significant weight to space flight vehicles and satellites in order to manage fuel costs. The solution for both issues resides in the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which offer the most promising solution for reducing spacecraft wire weight. CNTs are an alluring alternative to conventional conductors used in coaxial data cables because they combine mechanical strength, electrical conductivity, and low density. DexMat has developed a novel CNT deposition process for directly applying CNTs onto dielectric materials to produce an electrically conductive EMI shield. By placing a premium on the quality of raw CNTs, DexMat has created a product with increased potential to reduce cable weight while minimizing insertion losses when incorporated into wire. In the proposed research, DexMat seeks to develop a small-scale CNT Tape production process and continue the development of the CNT separation processes. The need for CNT Tape was discovered while obtaining feedback from potential customers that noted the desire for a product format that allows for quick and easy integration into existing manufacturing processes without the need for outsourcing processes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial and military aerospace companies are seeking opportunities to reduce weight on their aviation and space platforms to improve range and lower operating costs. Fuel costs are one of the biggest concerns among commercial airlines. Reducing exposure to fuel costs is a significant priority for all operators of aircraft and space systems. A large commercial aircraft such as the Boeing 747 uses approximately 135 miles of wire, weighing over 4,000 pounds, about half of this weight comes from wire shielding components. Significant weight reductions could save millions of dollars per plane over its operating lifetime. DexMat technology is extremely versatile and may be applied in a variety of industries and lead to enhancements of numerous products. After showing successful integration into the aviation manufacturing industry, DexMat plans to expand CNTs into the textile, sensors and medical devices, electronics, energy storage and structural industries. CNTs offer significant improvements to existing technologies in these industries and could outperform current state-of-the-art products on the market.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lightweight CNT shielded cables would provide a significant cost-effectiveness by reducing weight in space applications. DexMat technology offers a significant weight reduction, up to 80%, in these wires resulting in a noteworthy cost savings for launched vehicles. Given the tremendous costs associated with satellite launches, the NASA will see significant savings from our CNT-based wire.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cables/Fittings
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Nanomaterials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S3.03-7420
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CC56P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Electronics and Management, and Energy Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultracapacitor Based Power Supply for CubeSats

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
FastCAP Systems Corporation
21 Drydock Avenue
Boston, MA
02210-2384
(857) 239-7500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joseph Lane
joe@fastcapsystems.com
21 Drydock Avenue
Boston,  MA 02210-2384
(857) 239-7500

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Traditionally, the relatively small surface area and volume of a cube satellite has restricted the practical power limit of cube satellites. To the extent that the power will be generated by solar panels, cube satellites have a limited round trip energy budget. Increasing solar panel efficiency and complexity alleviates the energy issue to some degree. Both however, occur at the expense of the original cube satellite advantages of being inexpensive, small, and reliable. As such, the objective of high power capabilities must also assume fairly short time scales in order to preserve the energy budget. It's this mode of operation, maximum energy and short high power events, where hybrid system designs typically make practical sense. In all cases, the energy storage requirements will depend on the payloads power profile and mission requirements. Cube satellite payloads are becoming more sophisticated and, in many cases, power hungry. Interesting high power payloads currently in development for small satellites include Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and mechanical actuators for performing larger satellite maintenance. In order to continue the trend of increasing cube satellite capabilities, it's important to be ready with energy storage that is both capable of supplying high power and flexible to suit the range of payload possibilities. The hybrid ultracapacitor module proposed is a flexible, high efficiency, novel design that will enable satellite engineers to quickly and easily realize benefits such as extended battery lifetime, high peak power, and smaller size and weight that may be possible through a hybrid energy storage system. Additionally, the technology will translate to additional multifunctional, structural applications such as microsatellites, light aircraft, ordinance, and many more.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The cube satellite platform is a fast growing market both in academia and industry. Many companies are also growing to develop larger microsatellites as the technology and business is proven on cube satellites. This technology is easily translated to all cube satellite and microsatellite developers. Beyond satellites, the multifunctional structural technology has garnered a significant amount of interest by other government groups and companies for a wide range of application. The structural technology is able to conform to custom shapes to provide high efficiency, long life cycle energy storage in areas where it was impractical to do so previously. For example, the cell may be shaped to conform to void spaces in small aircraft such as drones and ordinance missiles. With FastCap's high temperature electrode and electrolyte, the same technology can be used as heat sinks for power loss back up supplies on memory and computation boards. With the progression of light aircraft and electric automobiles, the structural cell is being considered to drastically improve system level energy and power density. Additionally, long lifetime and ultra-high reliability system such as smart weaponry and land mines are beginning to realize the benefits of a ruggedized structural cell for pulse communication, actuation, and ignition. FastCap is aggressively pursuing all of these opportunities with Phase II funding a critical element in achieving their technological goals.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Hybrid ultracapacitor power supplies enable high power density well beyond traditional capabilities of bulk Li-Ion battery storage. The targeted application that this proposal will focus on is a high power (> 100W) HPS for integration into CubeSats. The CubeSat platform was chosen for its inherent size and weight restrictions and as a relatively low cost and standardized platform for this new technology. Future development of ultracapacitor based HPS systems will leverage the size, weight, and performance benefits demonstrated on the CubeSat platform for expansion into larger more powerful systems. Beyond cube satellites, hybrid power systems have applications in which there are high peak power but relatively low average power demands. Such systems include microsatellites, motor actuation, stage separation, burst radar and communication systems, and pulsed laser systems. The multifunctional structural technology included in the ultracapacitor cell and module design have numerous NASA applications. Multifunctional energy storage design seeks to improve overall energy and power density by incorporating energy storage into devices that traditionally serve a different function. The cell under development is a structural cell that may be incorporated into structures such as airplane housings for light electric aircraft, satellite frames, actuator casings, and many more. With a high temperature chemistry, the cell may also be used for heat sinking and back-up power storage.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Conversion
Distribution/Management
Storage
Nanomaterials
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Actuators & Motors
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S3.03-7534
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CG38P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Electronics and Management, and Energy Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development of Diamond Vacuum Differential Amplifier for Harsh Environment Power Electronics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scientic, Inc.
6700 Odyssey Drive, Suite 105
Huntsville, AL
35806-3304
(256) 319-0858

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steven Renfrow
steve.renfrow@scientic.com
6700 Odyssey Drive, Suite 105
Huntsville,  AL 35806-3304
(256) 319-0865

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this proposed Phase II, Scientic and Vanderbilt University will develop a novel vacuum field emission differential amplifier (VFEDA) using low electron affinity nanodiamond (ND) material as electron emitters for high-power electronic application in harsh environments. The ND-VFEDA is a fundamental circuit building block for vacuum integrated circuits (VICs) ideally suited for high radiation and space applications. The proposed high-power ND-VFEDA will be capable of operating over a wide-temperature range (-125&#730;C to 450&#730;C), possess tolerance to extreme doses of ionizing radiation and deliver the long-term reliability and stability needed to successfully execute environmentally stressful space science missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Previous experience and research has demonstrated a requirement for extreme temperature and radiation hardened amplifiers for defense and space applications. Scientic believes multiple programs run by the Air Force Research laboratory and the Air Force Space and Missile Center would benefit from technology utilizing ND-VFEDA devices.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The anticipated exceptional radiation hardness, temperature intensity, and performance parameters of the diamond-based vacuum differential amplifiers make them well suited to all space-based applications. Scientic market research has found a need for high power amplifiers in satellite operations for both NASA and DOD applications. Low to no impedance high power switching is required in many research areas within NASA, such as electrostatic analyzers (ESA) used in Heliophysics experiments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S3.03-7942
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CC95P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Electronics and Management, and Energy Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Monolithically Integrated Rad-Hard SiC Gate Driver for 1200 V DMOSFETs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
GeneSiC Semiconductor, Inc.
43670 Trade Center Place, Suite 155
Dulles, VA
20166-2123
(703) 996-8200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ranbir Singh
ranbir.singh@genesicsemi.com
43670 Trade Center Place, Suite 155
Dulles,  VA 20166-2123
(703) 996-8200

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This two-phase SBIR program targets the need for highly integrated SiC-based electronics systems by developing gate drive circuitry that can be fully integrated with 4H-SiC power switching devices, enabling eventual realization of a monolithic power switching platform. Specifically, the final goal of this program is to develop and demonstrate a fully integrated, isolated gate driver architecture, having an integrated SiC power MOSFET. In addition to integrated resistors and capacitors, development of SiC CMOS technology will entail the demonstration of lateral SiC NMOSFETs and the more challenging SiC PMOSFET devices with adequate performance and radiation hardness. During Phase I, an NMOS-only gate drive buffer circuit was designed and implemented on the same host substrate used for fabricating 1200 V SiC DMOSFETs. Phase II will focus on integrating the gate drive buffer IC fabricated during Phase I with a 1200 V rated power SiC DMOSFET. Process and device development of a SiC PMOS technology will be conducted during Phase II, in pursuit of a SiC CMOS gate drive circuit. The fabricated power and lateral SiC devices will be subjected to extensive radiation testing to investigate the degradation pathways of this monolithic power switching device, when exposed to high radiation environments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Air-Force propulsion system externals like actuators, pumps, and starters, weapons ejection, fuel transfer, lighting, avionics, RADAR, landing gears & breaks, steering, powered doors and ramps, gun drives, anti-icing, environmental control and auxiliary emergency power systems. The realization of a high power density switchmode power supplies and DC-DC conversion circuits will benefit Army's Future Combat System (FCS) by offering it an important part of the subsystem. An integrated electric power system made using SiC high power devices will increase component placement flexibility within vehicles, double fuel economy by continuously operating smaller engines under optimum conditions, and reduce armor protected volume. It will also enable an increased acceleration and maneuverability due to immediate torque to the wheels or tracks, reduce vehicle thermal and acoustic signatures and reduce system cost and logistics requirements. Commercial switch-mode power supplies will also benefit from the development of such components.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SiC RHBD power ICs developed during this SBIR program is fundamental to a wide range of NASA PMAD and motor control applications. For DC-DC converters, the SiC power ICs will connect power sources in a wide variety of NASA mission with various loads like electric propulsion, communications systems, instruments and actuators. The radiation-hardness, high-temperature capability, fast switching speeds, compact form factor and low mass offered by the proposed SiC SJT based power converters will be invaluable for future NASA science missions. Switch-mode power supplies improved by high frequency, high temperature power switches developed in this program are critical for NASA synthetic aperture RADAR's (SAR) antenna array T/R modules. T/R modules typically operate in a pulsed mode, drawing current pulses from a power supply on a periodic basis determined by the operation of the overall RADAR system.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Power Combiners/Splitters
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Conversion
Distribution/Management
Prototyping
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Nanomaterials
Actuators & Motors
Ionizing Radiation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S3.04-7657
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CA53P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft and Sounding Rocket Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Swift Ultra Long Endurance (SULE) Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Swift Engineering, Inc.
1141 Via Callejon
San Clemente, CA
92673-6230
(949) 492-6608

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrew Streett
astreett@swiftengineering.com
1141-A Via Callejon
San Clemente,  CA 92673-6230
(949) 492-6608

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Swift proposes to design, fabricate, and fly a Swift Ultra Long Endurance (SULE) 30-day mission HALE UAS with flight tests including: 24-hrs, 48-hrs, and 7-days during the Phase 2 timeline. All operations, ground control, safety, reviews, and payload will be included in these test flights and within the proposed 2 year timeframe. Zephyr is the only platform that has achieved HALE flights for over a week (14 days), however, it is based in the UK. No US company has a HALE platform that can confidently sell to the US government/NASA with a confirmed multi-week endurance. Without investment, the US will have to rely on the European-based Airbus/Qinetiq Zephyr solution. Swift's innovation is a UAV designed for at least 30-day endurance (nothing exists like this) mission capabilities; the functionality to station-keep at altitude (50-60 knot cruise speed), the ability to take-off and get to altitude in 1-2 hours, a fully electric system, the ability to store and transport in a 40 ft shipping container, the ease of use (2-3 persons), and a cost and schedule that is aggressive but within Swift's experience and capabilities. Swift will design, fabricate and fly a UAS capable of 30-day endurance with the possibility to exponentially decrease costs and increase data provided to industries. System testing will include multiple subsystem and system on-the-ground tests and flights for 24-hrs, 48-hrs and 7-days will be completed at Yuma Proving Grounds and/or NASA Armstrong. Swift will leverage 15 years of UAV and project management experience with multiple large (50+ ft) structural builds to reduce programmatic risk and meet the aggressive milestones within 2 years.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Emergency Response: Events such as active volcano plume assessment, forest fire damage assessment, forest fire communications, pirate/coastal patrol, emergency on-demand communications, disaster assessment, and search and rescue. This technology can outpace satellites because it can be launched in a matter of hours to stare and manage large disaster/emergency response areas. Conservation, Agriculture, and Marine Applications: wildlife census and animal tracking, land resource management, crop disease tracking, mapping, agriculture yield maximization, and invasive plant assessment. Currently right now the US is spending time creating marine protected areas (MPAs). There are currently no cost-effective technologies that can monitor them. Agricultural fields need almost 4-in resolution on the ground and current public data (LandSat) can't provide that resolution. This technology can easily outpace satellite NRE company costs. Border Patrol: It takes $12,255/hr to operate drones on the border. This technology is targeting $1000/hr cost; an order of magnitude decrease for border patrol. High Resolution Imagery: Google recently (2014) acquired Skybox for $500M to launch $10M satellites using $50M-$90M rockets to get near real-time HD imagery of the earth; similar results for orders for magnitude less cost. Swift has discussed with 2 Tier 1 ($5B+) aerospace companies and 1 commercial ($10B+ revenues) company. Swift has also received interest from the DOE, DHS, and NAVY.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
10 mission cases with direct support from NASA focals: (1) FluidCam mission, (2) Hurricane intensity development, (3) Cubesat testing platform, (4) Cosmic Dust Collection, (5) Profile missions from 90,000 ft to 30,000 ft, (6) Chemical/Air sensing, (7) Lightning Package, (8) Cloud thermal data collection, (9) Volcano plume monitoring, (10) Urban/city diurnal thermal data. In addition other NASA Earth Science missions that would benefit from this technology are: Oceanographic Research, Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) Surveillance, Tornado Monitoring, Cloud and Aerosol Measurements, Stratospheric Ozone Chemistry, Tropospheric Pollution/Air Quality, Water Vapor Measurements, O2 and CO2 Flux Measurements, Vegetation Composition, Aerosol and Precipitation Distribution, Glacier and Ice Sheet Dynamics, Antarctic Exploration Surveyor, Imaging Spectroscopy, Topographic LIDAR Mapping, Magnetic Fields Measurement, Surface Deformation Interferometry. There are so many NASA missions, that this is a small indication of the NASA market. Space Act Agreement - NASA JPL/NASA Ames/Swift Engineering Inc: A Space Act Agreement (SAA) has been started by Lance Christensen (NASA JPL) during Phase 1 due to the support of a platform like this (30-day UAV) that would benefit air quality sensing in the stratosphere. Swift Engineering expects that Phase II will utilize this SAA to define a mission use case for future NASA work.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Attitude Determination & Control
Command & Control
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Storage
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Structures
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S3.04-8077
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CP42P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft and Sounding Rocket Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Ruggedized UAS for Scientific Data Gathering in Harsh Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Black Swift Technologies, LLC
2100 Central Avenue, Suite 102
Boulder, CO
80301-2887
(720) 638-9656

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jack Elston
elstonj@blackswifttech.com
2100 Central Avenue, Suite 102
Boulder,  CO 80301-2887
(720) 638-9656

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Black Swift Technologies proposes the development of the SuperSwift XT, a novel small Unmanned Aircraft System that meets the sensing needs required for responding to or monitoring volcanic ash clouds. This tightly integrated system will consist of an airframe, avionics, and sensors specifically designed to measure selected gases and atmospheric properties. It is based on the commercial SuperSwift airframe and SwiftCore Flight Management System, which have been proven in the field to provide a cost-effective, powerful, and easy-to-operate solution to meet the demanding requirements of nomadic scientific field campaigns. The airframe capabilities will be expanded to achieve high altitude flights through strong winds and damaging airborne particulates. The SuperSwift's well-documented power and data interfaces will be employed to integrate the sensors required for the measurement of atmospheric volcanic phenomenon that will have broader applications for atmospheric research. The atmospheric models that are employed by dispersion studies provide information that can affect human safety. Examples not only include volcanic ash aviation hazards, but pollution alerts, toxic releases, dust storms and wildfire smoke hazards that often depend on the accuracy of these models. Accurate data input from the location as well model validation are needed for these important safety systems. Even basic atmospheric conditions such as wind and temperature are estimated or modeled from nearest weather stations that could be far from the location of interest and at limited elevations. Ground systems, manned aircraft, balloons and even dropsondes supply this data but have limitations. Satellites such as ASTER, MODIS, AIRS and OMI are invaluable but can still suffer from infrequent coverage, cloud masking and limits in resolution. The SuperSwift XT will be designed to collect data in harsh environments and will enhance the performance and utility of NASA's Airborne Science fleet

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Key potential customers in other government agencies include NOAA, DOE and NSF. Public entities funded by these government agencies such as UCAR and NCAR are also important customers. Black Swift Technologies has engaged with multiple researchers at these organizations who are prepared to purchase commercial systems for atmospheric monitoring upon the successful completion of the Phase II work. For operational weather forecasting and monitoring the National Weather Service is expected to be a key potential partner and customer. Also, the capability of this system to operate in the hazardous environment of a volcanic plume can be utilized in wildfire monitoring and support, where particulates and severe turbulence are a regular occurrence. There is also a commercial market for the multi-hole probe sensor developed as part of this work. BST has been working with another commercial company to add it as part of their offering of atmospheric sensors for UAS. The key advantage of this new sensor is much lower cost at similar performance to existing commercial systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In terms of addressable NASA markets, the SuperSwift XT with the custom sensor suite has several unique benefits and fulfils multiple needs of the agency. Key potential customers within the NASA Earth Science program include the Tropospheric Chemistry Program (TCP), the Applied Sciences Air Quality Program, the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) mission, the Aura mission, the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS), the Orbital Carbon Observatory (OCO-2/3) programs, and the Earth Ventures program for airborne field campaigns. These key potential customers would all benefit from the measurements provided by this system in various atmospheric conditions using different sensor payloads which, by design, are easily interchangeable. These key customers represent strategic activities within NASA including the Atmospheric Composition Focus Area, the Carbon Cycle & Ecosystems focus area, and the Weather focus area.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Fire Protection
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S3.05-7207
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CG24P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Guidance, Navigation and Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: RF Crosslink for Relative Navigation and Time/Frequency Distribution

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
M42 Technologies, LLC
8043 Ashworth Avenue North
Seattle, WA
98103-4432
(206) 792-5852

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nestor Voronka
NVoronka@M42Tech.com
8043 Ashworth Avenue North
Seattle,  WA 98103-4432
(206) 792-5852

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
M42 Technologies is proposing to continue development of a RF based crosslink with relative navigation and time transfer capabilities to enable autonomous precision formation flying (PFF) of spacecraft as small as nanosatellites (1 to 10 kg). The solution consists of a multi-channel software defined radio (SDR), and innovative signaling and processing to enable CubeSat scaled spacecraft to measure positions with centimeter to sub-millimeter-level precision positioning (Technical Area (TA) 5.4.4) thereby providing new capabilities such as autonomous rendezvous and docking (AR&D), and precision formation flying (PFF) both for human and robotic exploration missions. In addition, this proposed solution provides for inter-satellite nanosecond-level time transfer capability (TA 5.4.1) improving absolute navigation. This proposed effort will build on the demonstrated results of the Phase I SBIR, and will focus on improving performance, developing and delivering a prototype CubeSat-scaled radiometric SDR-based navigation solution that with autonomous position, navigation and time (PNT) capabilities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed solution also has great potential in a variety of military and pure commercial applications and in particular for cluster and fractionated spacecraft. Potential commercial applications may include: 1. multi-static synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system for all-weather Earth observing remote sensing,2. Multi-ball spectrum utilization and geolocation constellations to map out spectrum use and interference sources, 3. Small satellite constellations that provice global communication (voice, data, internet, etc.) that use crosslinks for network connectivity to enable todays advanced modulations such as LTE that require that all network nodes have accurate time and frequency knowledge. 4. Constellations that use MIMO communication and/or distributed RF beamforming to increase range and or communication data throughput.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Improvements in position, navigation and timing (PNT) can benefit both human and robotic spacecraft as they will facilitate higher quality data return from science instruments and enable mission operation concepts such as precise landing and deep-space formation flying. The proposed technology provides multi-platform relative navigation and timing that directly supports cooperative and collaborative space platform operations and will advance autonomous navigation thereby by reducing reliance on Earth-based systems and reducing overall cost. The solution also supports coordinated nanosatellite formation and swarm operations to enable radio frequency (RF) and electro-optical (EO) distributed aperture operations. Two design reference missions were identified during the Phase I effort that represent currently science and exploration needs and potential infusion points into future NASA programs. The multipurpose SDR can also change its function with mission phase and requirements, and will be able to sense and adapt to its RF environment to improve communications all within CubeSat compatible size, weight, and power (SWaP) constraints. For example, the SDR-based can also be configured and program to receive and process signals from external sources such as the TDRSS Augmentation System for Satellites (TASS) (also known as Next Generation Broadcast Service or NGBS) which is a global, space-based, communications and navigation service for users in low-Earth orbit.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Ad-Hoc Networks (see also Sensors)
Transmitters/Receivers
GPS/Radiometric (see also Sensors)
Ranging/Tracking
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)
Radiometric


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S3.05-8104
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CG27P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Guidance, Navigation and Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: DRG-Based CubeSat Inertial Reference Unit (DCIRU)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied Technology Associates
1300 Britt Street Southeast
Albuquerque, NM
87123-3353
(505) 767-1214

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Darren Laughlin
darren.laughlin@atacorp.com
1300 Britt Street Southeast
Albuquerque,  NM 87123-3353
(505) 767-1224

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CubeSats currently lack adequate inertial attitude knowledge and control required for future sophisticated science missions. Boeingŭs Disc Resonator Gyro (DRG) integrated into the ATA DRG-based CubeSat Inertial Reference Unit (DCIRU) in conjunction with a star tracker or sun sensor would provide the Inertial Attitude Knowledge (IAK) and position measurements needed for precision acquisition, pointing, and tracking (APT) control. Accurate attitude and position measurements provided by the DCIRU would also be required for future CubeSat constellation or formation flying missions, and for laser communication between other CubeSats, other satellites or Earth. There are currently no small Inertial Reference Units (IRUs) suitable for CubeSats that exist due to size, weight, and power constraints. The ATA/Boeing Team is proposing the development of the DRG for potential integration into the DCIRU in Phase II. The highly symmetrical and scalable DRG disc standing wave design was selected by DARPA and NVESD as the only MEMS design capable of navigation grade performance. The DRG consists of a MEMS disk resonator that provides rotation sensing capable of both tactical and navigation grade precision.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ATA is working to insert our DCIRU technology into many air and space markets. Potential applications include missions having stringent line-of-sight stabilization (LOSS) and IAK requirements. OIRUs are used in airborne HEL and Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) applications along with space-based Laser Communications (Lasercomm). ATA anticipates capturing significant market share, as OIRUs are a very specialized product niche in which we own most of the Intellectual Property (IP). We continually work to enhance and improve our OIRU designs and technology to maintain our competitive edge while reaching out to competitors to supply their specific mission needs. Our goal is to be the Number One supplier of DCIRUs worldwide.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ATA has successfully developed and transitioned SBIR innovations into government and commercial programs. One example is our recent success transitioning technologies first developed on the NASA Phase I SBIR, MIRU I. The DRG-based CubeSat Inertial Reference Unit, or DCIRU, will be integrated into an original design that will directly benefit NASAŭs future GNC systems for future CubeSat missions, i.e., NASAŭs CubeSat Launch Initiative (CLI) that actively solicits CubeSat opportunities for low cost space exploration. ATAŭs DCIRU specifically addresses NASAŭs desire for advanced autonomous navigation and attitude control that would facilitate significant advances in independence from Earth supervision by enabling high bandwidth CubeSat inertial attitude knowledge (IAK) and control required for future sophisticated science missions. There are currently no precision space-qualified IRUs available for CubeSats today due to SWaP limitations. The proposed DRG/DCIRU developments will ultimately fulfill the crucial need for a CubeSat compatible IRU.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Attitude Determination & Control
Inertial (see also Sensors)
Inertial


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S3.07-7413
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CP51P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Efficient, Reliable, Vibration-Free Refrigerant Pump for Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, LLC
16 Great Hollow Road
Hanover, NH
03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Weibo Chen
wbc@creare.com
16 Great Hollow Road
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's future remote sensing science missions require advanced thermal management technologies to maintain multiple instruments at very stable temperatures and utilize waste heat to keep other critical subsystems above minimum operational temperatures. Two-phase pumped loops are an ideal solution for these applications. A critical need for these pumped loops is a refrigerant pump that reliably circulates very slightly subcooled liquid refrigerant in the loop. Creare proposes to develop a reliable, vibration-free pump that has innovative features to prevent cavitation in the pumping chamber and in the hydrodynamic fluid bearings, enhancing the overall pumped loop reliability. The development of the refrigerant pump is built on Creare's proven pump technologies for space applications. In Phase I, we designed and built a proof-of-concept refrigerant pump and demonstrated its ability to reliably achieve the target flow rate and pressure rise, with a minimum required Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) less than 0.5 psi. In Phase II, we will optimize the pump rotor, bearing and motor designs; assemble a pump prototype; demonstrate its reliability and its steady state and transient performance under prototypical inlet conditions; and deliver it to NASA JPL for further performance evaluation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The reliable refrigerant circulation pump technology also has applications for advanced two-phase thermal control systems for high power electronics systems in commercial and military satellites and aircraft, as well as circulating pumps for chemicals, fuels, and cryogenic fluids.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed refrigerant pump will enable reliable two-phase pumped loops for efficient and precision thermal control of critical instruments in remote sensing science satellites and exploration vehicles, including a future mission to Saturn?s moon Enceladus and the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. The pump technology also has applications in circulating condensate in water recovery systems, and in mixing and transferring cryogens and propellants in space propellant depots.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Active Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S3.07-8563
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CM46P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Loop Heat Pipe Manufacturing via DMLS for CubeSAT Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc.
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster, PA
17601-5688
(717) 295-6061

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Anderson
Bill.Anderson@1-act.com
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster,  PA 17601-5688
(717) 295-6104

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) proposes to develop a low-cost Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) evaporator using a technique known as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS), otherwise known as 3D printing, to produce low-cost LHPs to be used in CubeSat and SmallSat applications. The wick structure in an LHP assumes the role of a pump in a standard loop, pumping liquid from the lower pressure condenser to the higher pressure evaporator by capillary forces. The overall thermal performance of the system is therefore highly dependent on the in-situ characteristics of the wick structure. Current LHP wick manufacturing and installation processes are cumbersome, labor intensive, and suffer from a low yield rate. It is estimated that the cost to produce an LHP evaporator, including the attachment of the bayonet, secondary wick and compensation chamber, accounts for approximately 75% of the total systemŭs manufacturing cost. By 3D printing an evaporator envelope with an integral porous primary wick structure, the overall complexity and cost of the design can be significantly reduced. The Phase I program was fully successful. In Phase I, an LHP with a DMLS evaporator was built using ammonia as the fluid, and carried the predicted 45 W. The overall technical objective of the Phase II program will be to design, build, and test a complete LHP thermal management system for a CubeSat. Phase II work will include further optimization of the LHP manufacturing parameters, and the development of advanced wick structures such as a graded wick design. The deliverables at the end of the Phase II will include an LHP that has been thermal vacuum tested, and a second LHP flight unit with ethanol working fluid, that can be tested at NASAŭs option on the ISS.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ACT is one of only two companies in the United States that sells heat pipes, Variable Conductance Heat Pipes (VCHPs), and LHPs to the government and commercial customers for spacecraft thermal control. The benefits for the Air Force are similar to the benefits for NASA, both for today?s spacecraft, and for smaller satellites in the future. The commercial communications satellite market is the current primary market for LHPs. For example, one prime uses 5 to 6 LHPs on each satellite, and would also benefit from reduced costs. Finally, Universities are able to fabricate their own CubeSats for research in space; however, their budgets are much too limited to allow them to use LHPs as a thermal control tool. In addition, these SmallSats have no need for the high powers and long lengths of current LHPs. They could benefit from small size LHPs, if the cost can be significantly reduced. ACT plans to explore this market, after satisfying the higher end government and commercial markets.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Ammonia and propylene LHPs are currently used in most NASA and commercial satellites. In comparison with Constant Conductance Heat Pipes (CCHPs), they carry much higher powers (1 kW vs. 100 W) over longer distances (10 m vs. 2-3 m). They also are better suited for ground testability. An LHP can operate with the evaporator 2 meters above the condenser, versus 2.5 mm for a CCHP. Their main drawback is that they are two orders of magnitude more expensive to fabricate and test than CCHPs. Fabricating, machining, and inserting the primary and secondary wicks into the pump is the bulk of the fabrication expense (The remainder of the LHP is just plumbing). The first benefit of the proposed evaporator/wick fabrication will be a significant reduction in cost of LHPs supplied to NASA. A second benefit of reduced costs it that LHPs will be much more attractive for the smaller satellites, such as SmallSat and CubeSat, that NASA is now considering for future missions. The overall budget for these satellites is severely constrained when compared to the larger satellites that NASA has fabricated in the past. LHPs have not been considered in the past for these small satellites, partially due to their high cost. The reduced fabrication costs will allow ACT to fabricate smaller LHPs for these smaller satellites, at a price that is acceptable with their smaller budgets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S3.08-7829
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CM15P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Slow and Fast Light
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fast-Light Enhanced Fiber Gyroscope

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MagiQ Technologies, Inc.
11 Ward Street
Somerville, MA
02143-4214
(617) 661-8300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Caleb Christensen
caleb@magiqtech.com
11 Ward Street
Somerville,  MA 02143-4214
(617) 661-8300

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Current state-of-the-art navigation systems incorporate optical gyroscopes and optical accelerometers as inertial sensors. These devices contain no moving parts and can sense rotations and accelerations with high bandwidth. However, there is a fundamental tradeoff between the size of an optical gyroscope and its sensitivity. Highly sensitive gyroscopes are needed to meet navigation goals, but Size, Weight and Power (SWaP) are extremely precious resources in spacecraft or UAVs. Enhancing the sensitivity of existing devices, reducing their size, or both can allow the use of inertial navigation in smaller airframes, or free up room to include larger mission payloads for scientific or military purposes. Using fast-light effects generated in fiber with Stimulated Brillouin Scattering, we will enhance rotation sensitivity of conventional Ring Laser Gyroscope, to develop IMUs that will deliver higher performance and/or lower SWaP than a traditional navigation system. In Phase I we built, tested, and analyzed an SBS RLG test bed with automated control and data collection, both under quiet conditions and under rotations. We also established requirements on system stability to produce an interesting RLG using the technology, and determined it is technically feasible to achieve in Phase II. In the proposed Phase II work, we will demonstrate fast-light enhancement of an RLG in the lab and produce a prototype to characterize the potential performance of a fast-light enhanced IMU product.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Self-guided ordinance and unmanned aerial vehicles, where traditional high sensitivity optical INS systems are too large to use. Stabilizing weapons platforms or communications devices mounted on ground and naval vehicles of all sizes. Commercial aircraft and marine vessels commonly use optical inertial measurement devices for navigation, stabilization, and tracking. Accurate navigation and gyrocompasses in a small form factor in the oil and gas industry for well-drilling.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The improvement of inertial sensor components is essential to support navigation and attitude control systems for future NASA satellite missions. The proposed technology will have significantly reduced size and weight with ruggedized components designed to meet stringent dynamic, mechanical, thermal and radiation specifications for operation in space. A robust, high performance, and cost effective gyroscope suitable for space based operations will also have significant impact on demanding NASA applications that require stabilized platforms for long term space applications in smaller and smaller satellites. In particular, the technology can allow: Tracking and control of launch vehicles for placing payloads into orbital or sub-orbital trajectories. Precision inertial feedback during orbital maneuvers or stationkeeping operations on manned or unmanned spacecraft. Actively stabilize instrument platforms during sensitive astronomical observations or scientific measurements.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Attitude Determination & Control
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Lasers (Guidance & Tracking)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Inertial (see also Sensors)
Inertial


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S3.09-7277
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CP53P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Command, Data Handling, and Electronics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Bringing 3D Memory Cubes to Space: a "Rad-Hard by Design Study" with an Open Architecture

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Irvine Sensors Corporation
3001 Red Hill Avenue, B3-108
Costa Mesa, CA
92626-4506
(714) 444-8700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Yamaguchi
jyamaguchi@irvine-sensors.com
3001 Red Hill Avenue, B3-108
Costa Mesa,  CA 92626-4506
(714) 444-8785

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The computing capabilities of onboard spacecraft are a major limiting factor for accomplishing many classes of future missions. Although technology development efforts are underway that will provide improvements to spacecraft CPUs, they do not address the limitations of current onboard memory systems. In addition to CPU upgrades, effective execution of data-intensive operations such as terrain relative navigation, hazard detection and avoidance, autonomous planning and scheduling, and onboard science data processing and analysis require high-bandwidth, low-latency memory systems to maximize processor usage (the ?memory wall?) and provide rapid access to observational data captured by high-data-rate instruments (e.g., Hyperspectral Infrared Imager, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar). 3D ICs, after a long wait, is now a reality. The first mainstream product is 3D memory cubes, where multiple memory tiers (4 DRAM tiers as of 2015) are vertically integrated to offer manifold improvement in size, capacity, speed, and power consumption compared with 2D counterparts. Indeed, these are the memory parts that will truly enable aforementioned missions. Unfortunately, none of these are ready for space. The purpose of this research is to investigate the challenges and opportunities in deploying 3D memory cubes into space missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Optimization of the logic base of any memory cube type has not been available for any application. Development of the design tools to achieve better optimization of these logic bases will in turn lead to a broader application base which will benefit not only the users for space applications, but will benefit terrestrial users to help improve the efficiency of their electronics by addressing SWaP issues.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In order to effectively address the SWaP constraints of space hardware, it is desired to compact the electronics to as small a size as possible. Advances in the arena of 3D stacking and 3D ICs have opened a window of opportunity to integrate these types of packaging for space applications. Very high density, high bandwidth, RAD-hard reliable memory cubes would address some of the immediate needs for space applications. The one drawback is the ready availability of this type of space qualified 3D hardware. The proposed 3D RAD-hard memory stack will be directly applicable to space electronics requiring memory intensive applications. The technology derived from this study will allow NASA to utilize this on a broader range of capabilities that can be brought to space.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Processing Methods
Metallics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S4.01-7330
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CP68P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Planetary Entry, Descent and Landing and Small Body Proximity Operation Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robust, Low SWAP Planetary Entry, Descent and Landing System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Voxtel, Inc.
15985 Northwest Schendel Avenue, Suite 200
Beaverton, OR
97006-6703
(971) 223-5646

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
George Williams
georgew@voxtel-inc.com
15985 NW Schendel Avenue, Suite 200
Beaverton,  OR 97006-6703
(971) 223-5646

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A lander mission to EuropaŭEuropa clipper missionŭis planned to launch in the mid-2020s by NASA JPL. The mission presents multiple challenges, such as: ubiquitous presence of hazards at all scales, including craters, crevasses, boulders, etc.; ultra-high radiation environments due to proximity to Jupiter; and extremely limited lander resources for mass and volume and, hence, the amount of shielding that can be carried. Therefore, the critical phases of this mission require the ability to perform terrain-relative navigation (TRN) and surface-hazard detection in short time. To satisfy these requirements, a dual-functionality (altimetry and hazard mapping), large-format, monolithic, low-noise, highly sensitive, silicon single-photon avalanche photodiode (SPAD) lidar imager will be developed. The SPAD imager will be robust, radiation-hardened, and low in size, weight, and power, and it will provide altitude measurements to the ground beginning at an altitude of 8 km and all the way to touchdown (10 m altitude). At an altitude of 500 meters, it will provide a dense 3D terrain map covering a 100 m x 100 m landing area with 5 cm ground sample distance and range errors of less than 5 cm (3-sigma) in less than 1 second. The developed SPAD imager will be demonstrated in a benchtop lidar testbed.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This innovation is also suited for emerging lidar systems being developed by commercial companies for guidance systems in autonomous vehicles. Other markets include forestry management and planning, urban planning, visualization and gaming, and most other 3D imaging applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The innovation satisfies the general need for a large-format, monolithic, highly sensitive detector focal plane array for 3D time-of-flight applications such as lidar autonomous navigation systems, docking and landing, space-based laser altimetry for studying the surface height of Earth and other planets from orbit, lidar instruments for atmospheric sciences, large-scale surveying / surveillance, bathymetry, and forestry.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Perception/Vision
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
3D Imaging
Transport/Traffic Control
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Ranging/Tracking


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S4.01-7996
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CL93P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Planetary Entry, Descent and Landing and Small Body Proximity Operation Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Speed Sensor for Planetary EDL: "SPRY"

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michigan Aerospace Corporation
1777 Highland Drive, Suite B
Ann Arbor, MI
48108-2285
(734) 975-8777

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dominique Fourguette
dfourguette@michaero.com
1777 Highland Drive, Suite B
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-2285
(734) 975-8777

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of these Phase I and Phase II efforts is to develop a micro atmospheric data sensor suitable for planetary entry, descent, and landing (EDL) maneuvers, in response to NASA?s SBIR topic S4.01, Planetary Entry Descent and Landing. Michigan Aerospace Corporation (MAC) is proposing to develop a compact, rugged optical atmospheric data sensor capable of measuring free stream velocity during EDL; this sensor will use a novel microresonator approach as part of its light processing path, allowing unprecedented compactness and ruggedness. Phase I entailed the design and preliminary demonstration of the concept. A prototype atmospheric data sensor will be fabricated in Phase II and tested using a calibrated flow field.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial applications for this compact air/atmospheric data sensor are widespread. Such a small sensor will be usable on UAVs, commercial aircraft, and also hypersonic vehicles where protrusion into the free stream is not an option. Michigan Aerospace Corporation has extensive ground- and air-based LIDAR and optical air data systems programs, which will profit from a smaller, more rugged sensing element.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's planetary exploration program will benefit from this effort by having a new, compact method to sense airspeed and atmospheric conditions during atmospheric entry for navigation and scientific purposes. In addition, this compact air data sensor will be applicable to small, unmanned UAVs and aeronautics high-speed programs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Navigation & Guidance
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
Optical
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S4.01-8277
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CP35P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Planetary Entry, Descent and Landing and Small Body Proximity Operation Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultra Compact Laser for 3D Imaging LIDAR

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Q-Peak, Inc.
135 South Road
Bedford, MA
01730-2307
(781) 275-9535

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bhabana Pati
pati@qpeak.com
135 South Road
Bedford,  MA 01730-2307
(781) 275-9535

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In response to NASA's solicitation for light-weight, power-efficient and radiation-hardened instruments that enable robotic exploration of the Solar System, especially Europa, Q Peak in partnership with Sigma Space proposes to develop a compact and robust LiDAR instrument to assist in the landing/sampling site selection process. Q-Peak's low SWaP and higher energy laser will extend the dynamic range of Sigma Space's LiDAR instrument to > 10 km. For NASA JPL, Sigma Space completed a design study of potential LiDAR solutions for a lander. It was concluded that the challenging LiDAR requirements could be met with a laser of about 1W average power, using short pulses in the green at a PRF of ~30 kHz. The biggest challenge to this application is the limited mass and the high radiation environment. Q-Peak proposes to develop a 1-W laser that has a volume < 8 c.c and a weight < 20 g. The SWaP is at least an order of magnitude lower compared to the commercially available laser source. The modular form factor allows the laser to be easily modified to produce different wavelengths by frequency up conversion. The ultra-compact laser along with the single photon LiDAR will find direct and immediate application on at least two more NASA missions - Restore-L and ARRM. Restore-L is an ambitious endeavor to launch a robotic spacecraft in 2020 to refuel a live satellite in low-Earth orbit and demonstrate a suite of satellite-servicing technologies, potentially including a satellite laser rangefinder using the same laser. The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) is designed to send astronauts to visit a large near-Earth asteroid, explore it and return with samples in the 2020s. This is part of NASA's plan to advance new technologies and spaceflight experience in preparation for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
An ultra-compact laser source can be used at 1 or 0.5 micron wavelength for LiDAR applications to map and image objects; a narrow laser-beam can map physical features with very high resolution. It can target a wide range of materials, including non-metallic objects, rocks, rain, chemical compounds, aerosols, clouds, and even single molecules. 0.5 mm wavelength penetrates water easily and is useful for bathymetry measurements in shallow water. The proposed laser can be used in the Automotive Safety and Navigation, Geography, Law Enforcement, Meteorology, Mining, Robotics, and Wind Farms markets. Military lasers have reached size and energy criteria but always at the cost of poor beam quality and consequent difficulties in atmospheric propagation for their intended applications. Q-Peak's advantage would be in having developed an ultra-compact, simple, and rugged technology for generation of single mode laser pulses in the green, near-IR, or eyesafe regions. This laser device will be much better suited for fieldable systems than present products with respect to both SWaP and mode profile. When converted to eyesafe wavelength present Department of Defense procurement of eyesafe rangefinder exceeds 2,500 units per annum with a constant need to advance the state of the art and reduce soldier carry-weight and workload. The laser architecture proposed here would have great promise in fulfilling an Urgent Needs Requirement for all branches of the DOD interested in precision targeting.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA remote sensing and LiDAR applications require compact, efficient, reliable, moderate-energy, nanosecond-pulsed lasers. These missions require improved and precision technology from previously flown LiDAR technologies as well as much reduced size, weight, and power (SWaP) given the resource-constrained class of missions likely to use this capability. Missions to solar system bodies must meet increasingly ambitious objectives requiring highly reliable "soft and precision landing", "hazard avoidance", "topography mapping" and "autonomous rendezvous to other satellites" etc. Robotic missions to the Moon and Mars demand landing at pre-designated sites of high scientific value near hazardous terrain features, such as escarpments, craters, slopes, and rocks. Given the high sensitivity of launch requirements to SWaP considerations and to reliability, we feel that the proposed laser source is uniquely positioned for LiDAR remote sensing and autonomous landing based missions. Other NASA mission profiles or applications that would benefit from generically small, light- weight, low power laser sources would be equally well served.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Navigation & Guidance
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
3D Imaging
Image Analysis
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S4.02-7665
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CP78P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Robotic Mobility, Manipulation and Sampling
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniature 70-W Brushless Motor-Controller for Compact Extraterrestrial-Based Actuation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Barrett Technology, LLC
73 Chapel Street
Newton, MA
02458-1088
(617) 252-9000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Townsend
wt@barrett.com
73 Chapel Street
Newton,  MA 02458-1088
(617) 252-9000

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR will support rover locomotion and manipulation with a system of newly-developed penny-sized 70-W brushless servomotor controllers that are networked on a bus-topology (CANopen DS-402 protocol). Each "P3" controller is small enough to be mounted in the tiny volume normally reserved for the encoder; and, indeed, each P3 carries the entire active electronics of the encoder function by measuring the magnetic field of a 6x2.5-mm radially-polarized button magnet bonded to the tail of the spinning motor shaft. A Kalman filter enables the encoder to read down to 12-bits-absolute at commutated speeds up to 14,000 RPM. The controller has the functions expected of conventional controllers. However, based on three patents of international scope and a fourth PCT application, the part count has been substantially reduced, with subsequent reduced size, fewer sensitivities to radiation, fewer parts that otherwise generate quiescent power, and reduced cost. Phase I demonstrated successful integration with NASA-selected motors and stress-testing of P3 in adverse environments including temperature extremes, vibration, and vacuum, resulting in a TRL-advance from 3 to 4. Phase-II efforts will focus on design-modifications relevant to space-qualification, performance characterization, and further environmental testing including radiation testing. Phase II is expected to result in a TRL of 6. Phase-III commercialization efforts will create a system of motor controllers that not only support NASA rover missions with a TRL of 7, but also support other space-based non-terrestrial applications, such as servomotor actuation on satellites for precision antennae and laser pointing and the deployment of articulated structures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As machines become more intelligent through embedded processing and sensor fusion we expect them to do more too, improving not only industrial productivity but our quality of life as society ages. While embedded processors and MEMS-based sensors have become tiny, highly effective, and affordable; similar improvements in servomotors have evolved more slowly. At fractional-horsepower levels the power electronics contribute significantly to total bulk and complexity. Providing smaller and more efficient servo electronics enable OEMs to increase the competitiveness of their products. For example, robots can become more agile with additional degrees of freedom and less mass to accelerate. New fuel-cell designs combined with ultra-high motor efficiency will enable affordable prostheses with true dexterity instead of 0 or 1 degree of freedom; and orthotics will begin to assist human motions intelligently, rather than passively bracing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Brushless servomotors are essential in NASA applications such as mobile manipulation on rovers and for satellite navigation, control, and positioning. Unlike brushed motors, brushless servomotors have high torque density, add no brush friction, do not generate contaminating dust, and have lifetimes measured in years instead of days. The use of brushless motors however, requires custom, expensive electronics that are often larger than the motors they control. This is especially true for small motors that operate below 100 watts. The proposed snap-in P3 module will support a wide array of these smaller motors.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Attitude Determination & Control
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Teleoperation
Actuators & Motors
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S4.03-7586
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CP64P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Technology for Sample Return Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Hybrid Propulsion System for Sample Return Missions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Parabilis Space Technologies, Inc.
1145 Linda Vista Drive, Suite #111
San Marcos, CA
92078-3820
(855) 727-2245

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher Grainger
chris@parabilis-space.com
1145 Linda Vista Drive
San Marcos,  CA 92078-3820
(855) 727-2245

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Parabilis Space Technologies is pleased to propose continued development of an innovative hybrid motor propulsion solution utilizing a novel bi-axial grain design in response to solicitation S4.03 Phase II, Spacecraft Technology for Sample Return Missions. Due to the innovative motor design, the proposed system is significantly shorter than a conventional hybrid motor system but maintains safety, reduced complexity, and storability advantages of hybrid motor systems. The system leverages additive manufacturing for the rocket nozzle and injector system in order to decrease both weight and part count. This innovation is an ideal propulsion technology for a variety of sample return missions from Mars or other bodies with significant gravity wells.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Numerous sample return missions from various bodies are either currently underway or in development, with the trend expected to grow as exploration continues. Hayabusa 2 is an asteroid sample return mission operated by the Japanese space agency and is currently en route to a 2018 rendezvous with asteroid Ryugu. ESA is contemplating its own version of a Mars Sample Return mission in the next decade, possibly including samples from Deimos or Phobos. Russia has similar plans, based on heritage from its prior Deimos attempt using the Grunt spacecraft. China has also announced plans to return a sample from Mars by 2030. China is currently constructing the Chang'e 5 mission to return lunar samples. ESA had also contemplated the MarcoPolo-R asteroid sample return mission in 2014 but ultimately downselected a competing mission, however, the mission's high ranking at the time might lead to a future funding opportunity with the agency. The strong international interest in sample return missions comprises a potential first market equal in size to the NASA market.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
With the wide variety of NASA objectives for sample return, one clear common thread is that high-performance, reliable propulsion systems for small vehicles will be essential to keeping the missions affordable. Parabilis' proposed bi-axial hybrid propulsion technology addresses this common need and enables mission designers to realize a panoply of new high-value science missions that use low-cost small vehicles. In addition to the sample return missions, a propulsion solution to these challenging problems would also be useful across a range of other demanding propulsion applications where high-performance and compact size are critical. These additional uses include entry, descent, and landing operations, launch vehicle upper stages, kick stages, and spacecraft main engines. Every NASA exploration mission utilizes these components to greater or lesser degree, therefore, advancing the state of the art in sample return propulsion is bound to have payoffs throughout the exploration enterprise.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Ablative Propulsion
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S4.04-7385
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CP52P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme Environments Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Bidirectional Dual Active Bridge Power Converter for Spacecraft Power Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mainstream Engineering Corporation
200 Yellow Place
Rockledge, FL
32955-5327
(321) 631-3550

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Troy Beechner
tbeechner@mainstream-engr.com
200 Yellow Place
Rockledge,  FL 32955-5327
(321) 631-3550

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A bidirectional dual active bridge (DAB) dc-dc converter for electrical power systems (EPS) is proposed. The converter operates as a charger, upconverter, and downconverter using a single transformer. The converter uses smart technology to interleave DAB converter stages for ripple current reduction and optimized load sharing of stages to extend the high efficiency load range of the converter to 6.25% of full load. By using smart technology, the load condition of each DAB converter stage is monitored and its load sharing controlled depending on the converters total load condition. In this way, each converter stage is kept at or above 25% load. Therefore the minimum load of the new DAB converter with four interleaved stages is one fourth of 25% or 6.25%. The design employs radiation-resistant and cryogenic-temperature-capable GaN HEMT devices to process 2 kW of power per stage. Mainstream has tested GaN HEMT devices to -225 C. GS66508T GaN HEMT devices are rated for 650 VDC maximum drain-to-source maximum voltage stress allowing for a maximum steady-operating voltage of 400 VDC at 60% derating.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Military vehicle, and helicopter starter-generator power systems also necessitate the use of small, compact, dc-dc converters. These applications also operate in extremely low temperature conditions of less than -55 C in artic, high elevation, and cold, high-altitude, environments. Therefore the DAB converter is an optimal solution for these applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Many NASA applications can benefit from incorporating the DAB converter into their electrical power systems. Spacecraft power systems can manage power sources with fewer power supplies. To charge on-board batteries and provide the high-voltage DC bus for motor inverters, the power systems of NASA electric vehicles, such as the Modular Robotic Vehicle and unmanned aerial vehicles, such as the Predator B, need compact, low-volume, low-mass dc-dc converters. The converter must also be bidirectional and multifunctional.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Conversion
Distribution/Management
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S4.04-7816
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CC43P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme Environments Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Temperature, Radiation Hard Electronics Architecture for a Chemical Sensor Suite for Venus Atmospheric Measurements

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Makel Engineering, Inc.
1585 Marauder Street
Chico, CA
95973-9064
(530) 895-2771

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Darby Makel
dmakel@makelengineering.com
1585 Marauder Street
Chico,  CA 95973-9064
(530) 895-2771

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) working with Ozark Integrated Circuits, Inc (OzIC) and United Silicon Carbide, Inc. (USCI) will develop a high temperature SiC electronics to support chemical microsensors for measuring the atmosphere of Venus at the surface for extended durations (100's of days). The chemical sensor array for measuring species at the surface of Venus has been developed by MEI. The Venus Microsensor Chemical Array can operate in a 500 C environment, but currently relies on silicon based electronics for signal acquisition, control, and data transmission. These electronics require cooling for a Venus mission. Our Phase I program defined approaches for the use SiC electronics to perform the control and signal transduction functions. A Venus In-situ Atmospheric Measurement Instrument Package (VIAMIP) was defined based on SiC ASICs. In Phase II, MEI and OzIC will develop ASIC designs compatible with the NASA's SiC process flow. In parallel, MEI and USCI will undertake design and fabrication of designs adapted for USCI?s SiC process to establish a commercial source for SiC ASICs for the VIAMIP and to expanded the uses of high temperature microsensors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications are related to the use of instrumentation in high temperature applications such as mining, deep oil drilling, jet engine instrumentation and controls, solid oxide fuel cells, monitoring of geothermal wells, and deep underground mining. The use of high temperature, electronics which do not require active cooling can enable operation in environments which exceed the 250 C limit of commercial high temperature electronics.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA application of the specific technology will be for instrument development for Venus exploration. Future missions in the atmosphere and surface of Venus as defined by the Venus Flagship Mission Science and Technology Definition Team will require high temperature electronics. The proposed development of high temperature electronics for a chemical measurement instrument supports the Decadal Survey finding that the Venus In-situ Explorer mission to be a New Frontiers high priority mission. The high temperature electronics also have direct applications to on-engine instruments, such as pressure transducers, chemical sensors, and actuators for jet engines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Processing Methods
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 S5.03-7927
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CG43P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Enabling NASA Science through Large-Scale Data Processing and Analysis
PROPOSAL TITLE: Open Source Parallel Image Analysis and Machine Learning Pipeline

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Continuum Analytics, Inc.
221 West 6th Street, Suite 1550
Austin, TX
78701-7870
(240) 446-4888

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Peter Steinberg
psteinberg@continuum.io
1223 NE 94th Street
Seattle,  WA 98115-7870
(206) 715-4492

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Today, NASA researchers must create, debug, and tune custom workflows for each analysis. Creation and modification of custom workflows is fragile, non-portable and consumes time that could be better spent on advancing scientific discovery. The Phase I open source software Ensemble Learning Models (ELM) provides composable, portable, reproducible, and extensible machine learning pipelines with easy-to-configure parallelization, with tools specifically for satellite data processing, weather and climate data processing, and machine learning and prediction. This is a major advancement over the current state-of-the-art because of reduced workflow creation time, parallelization, portability of deployment and use, extensibility, and robustness. Phase II will extend the Phase I work with more options useful to NASA missions, such as advanced ensemble fitting and prediction tools, feature engineering options for 3-D and 4-D arrays, and a web-based map user interface. Phase II will also harden and extend ELM to make ELM's easy-to-use large data ensemble methods accessible to industry outside of NASA, increasing the potential user base in a variety of domains.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The team sees direct usage application of the image analysis and machine learning pipeline outside of NASA, such as: - NOAA mission-related research to predict changes in climate, weather, oceans and coast, and conserving and managing coasting and marine ecosystems and resources. - DOD/IC - foreign defense and homeland security applications - Commercial infrastructure and engineering, disaster management and mitigation analysis, natural resource monitoring, energy-related exploration and operational management. - Flood and floodplain mapping for insurance adjustments, bridge construction projects, FEMA floodplain definitions, river habitat and restoration projects, and emergency planning at local, state, and federal agencies - Forest disease and insect damage density identification for large commercial forest owners - Snow and ice cover and recession analysis useful in climate change and water management planning at federal, state, and local agencies - Developing spectral identifiers of agricultural crops in healthy versus water and nutrient stressed conditions - Classifying parking lots and roads based on the number of vehicles evidently in the image, an indicator of economic activity and also potentially useful in federal security applications - Mapping ecologically sensitive and geotechnically unstable areas, such as wetlands and mass wasting events, useful for reducing the cost of development review in local, state, and federal environmental agencies, remote asset trackin

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Continuum Analytics sees direct usage applications in any NASA project deriving analytical value from multidimensional climate data arrays and hyper- or multispectral remote sensing data, such as climate reanalysis, landscape change analysis, land cover mapping, or drought or vegetation indices. In Phase I the team provided a number of scientific data loading tools for formats common in NASA remote sensing and climate science missions. Phase I work also created parallel ensemble fitting and prediction methods for a variety of unsupervised and supervised machine learning models. Phase II will provide tools for NASA data formats, additional tools for feature engineering in multidimensional climate data arrays, and advanced options for ensemble fitting and prediction, like hierarchical modeling and vote count ensemble averaging. Phase II will also include work on a web-based map interface and demonstrations of how ELM MLT may be useful in NASA missions like climate reanalysis and land cover classification.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Image Analysis
Data Fusion
Data Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 Z1.01-8436
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CG55P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: High Power/Voltage Electronics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Characterization and Mitigation of Radiation and High Temperature Effects in SiC Power Electronics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
701 McMillian Way Northwest, Suite D
Huntsville, AL
35806-2923
(256) 726-4800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ashok Raman
ashok.raman@cfdrc.com
701 McMillian Way, NW, Ste. D
Huntsville,  AL 35806-2923
(256) 726-4829

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future NASA science and exploration missions require significant performance improvements over the state-of-the-art in Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) systems. Space qualified, high voltage power electronics can lead to higher efficiency and reduced mass at the spacecraft system architecture level, and serve as an enabling technology for operational concepts such as solar electric propulsion. Silicon carbide (SiC) is a robust technology with superior electronic properties for power applications. SiC devices offer higher temperature operation, lower on-resistance, higher breakdown voltages, and higher power conversion efficiency than silicon devices. However, high vulnerability to heavy-ion induced degradation and catastrophic failure has precluded this technology from space PMAD applications. Importantly, physical mechanisms for this vulnerability are not well understood, resulting in the inability to develop radiation hardened SiC devices. CFDRC, in collaboration with Vanderbilt University and Wolfspeed, is applying a coupled experimental and physics-based modeling approach to address this challenge. In Phase I, we performed electrical and heavy ion tests on 1200V Wolfspeed SiC JBS diodes to generate response data, and performed TCAD simulations to investigate diode sensitivity to design parameters and analyze electro-thermal mechanisms behind measured response. In Phase II, we will develop further insight into physical mechanisms in the diodes via development and application of advanced physics models. We will parametrically analyze design features to identify promising hardness solutions, which will then be fabricated and experimentally characterized. We will also perform heavy-ion testing of 1200V SiC MOSFETs and apply simulations for insights into governing mechanisms (to be further developed in follow on work). Direct participation by Wolfspeed in Phase II and beyond will ensure space-qualified, SiC power devices for NASA applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Space qualified SiC power electronics will find application in power systems in all space-based platforms, including DoD space systems (communication, surveillance, missile defense), and commercial satellites. High voltage SiC power devices, through applications in inverters, high-voltage converters, motor drives, and switch mode power supplies, also offer significant performance benefits to power systems in other market sectors. These include national defense systems such as unmanned underwater vehicles (AUVs) and soldier portable power systems. Applications in the terrestrial energy sector include PMAD systems in all-electric and hybrid cars, grid-scale energy storage systems, smart grid, green energy systems (wind/solar systems), solid-state lighting, and remote, off-grid power systems (crewed vehicles and habitats). Other commercial applications of SiC include high temperature power and control systems for extreme environments such as geothermal drill sites and sensor systems in engines of aircraft and hybrid vehicles. For all the applications listed above, physics-based predictive and accurate modeling and design tools reduce the amount of required radiation/temperature testing, thus decreasing their cost, and time to market or field application.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Space qualified, high voltage/high temperature power electronics is directly aligned, per the NASA Space Power and Energy Storage Roadmap - Technology Area (TA) 03, with science and exploration missions such as: missions using electric propulsion, robotic missions, lunar exploration missions to Near Earth Orbit, robotic surface missions to Venus and Europa, polar Mars missions and Moon missions, and others. A higher operating voltage can yield a lower distribution system weight for the same power level and is highly desirable across many areas of PMAD. SiC devices offer higher breakdown voltage, lower switching losses, and increased temperature tolerance, all crucial features for NASA space power applications. The radiation tolerant SiC designs from this project will add to the NASA components library. The TA 03 roadmap identifies the development of analytical models and predictive tools to model and characterize power and energy storage systems as a Cross-Cutting Technology which will provide capability to all NASA missions that require power electronics. Specifically highlighted is the need for physics-based models of power-related components. The modeling and analysis tools developed here directly address this need, and will help NASA better evaluate device performance under radiation and high temperature at an early stage, and design space qualified power electronics with better understanding and control of design margins, thereby reducing development time and cost.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Conversion
Distribution/Management
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 Z2.01-8287
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CJ48P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Thermal Control Systems for Space Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Modified Ionic Liquid-Based Phase Change Materials as Effective Heat Exchangers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innosense, LLC
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance, CA
90505-5245
(310) 530-2011

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kevin Yu
kevin.yu-1@innosense.us
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance,  CA 90505-5245
(310) 530-2011

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future manned mission venturing into deep space will require sophisticated thermal control systems to protect against extreme environments ranging from direct illumination by solar radiation to complete darkness. To manage these extremes, heat exchangers composed of phase change materials that can expand and contract without causing structural damage, will be essential. This project will further-engineer ionic liquid-based phase change materials (PCMs) to: (1) tune the melting point for ORION platform heat exchanger applications, (2) further-elevate thermal conductivity for both solid and liquid, and (3) evenly-regulate heat transfer among components. In Phase I, InnoSense LLC (ISL) developed effective PCM formulations and tested their thermal properties. These materials exhibited high heat of fusion (254-272 kJ/kg) with low volume expansion (4-6%) compared with the current standard, pentadecane (~6-7%). We demonstrated IonoTherm to have higher thermal conductivity, heat storage, thermal diffusivity and thermal inertia over pentadecane. Further, tests indicated that IonoTherm did not corrode metallic substrates, phase-separate or degrade. In Phase II, ISL will fine-tune the PCM formulation and evaluate it in a flight level prototype heat exchanger. A NASA prime contractor has teamed with ISL to transition ISL's IonoTherm, and perform independent testing during Phase II and beyond under simulated field conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed heat transfer fluids will find a wide variety of commercial applications. They include the temperature regulation for polar shelters and vehicles. The wide operating range and high heat capacity will aid in the size and weight reduction of existing heat exchangers. Therefore, it will be possible to optimize workable space. Other applications can include the use of the fluid for high powered telescopes, cryogenic fuel utilization sources, and energy generation applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future missions will require manned spacecraft to travel further from the earth more than ever before. A major requirement for these spacecrafts is to maintain comfortable living conditions for the crew members. External temperatures and operating environments vary widely as the craft travels through space. In order to successfully-regulate cabin temperatures, heat exchangers requiring minimal volume and weight must be employed. ISL's phase change material will provide a nontoxic system that will operate effectively in a wide temperature range to maintain cabin temperatures. ISL will tailor IonoTherm for insertion into a heat exchanger that will offer excellent thermal behavior with low volume expansion. By reducing heat exchanger bulk, working space will be maximized. ISL's IonoTherm shows promise for long-term reliability, which will ensure its effectiveness for long duration space missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Space Transportation & Safety
Material Handing & Packaging
Fluids
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Heat Exchange
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 Z3.01-7393
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CL98P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Metallic Materials and Processes Innovation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Metal Matrix Composite Enchanced Aluminum Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Touchstone Research Laboratory, Ltd.
The Millennium Centre, 1142 Middle Creek Road
Triadelphia, WV
26059-1139
(304) 547-5800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Gordon
blg@trl.com
Touchstone Research Laboratory, Ltd., The Millennium Centre
Triadelphia,  WV 26059-1139
(304) 547-5800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed research pursues a path for reducing structural weight, increasing structural performance, and reducing fabrication cost while also minimizing maintainability. The approach, which is based on selective reinforcement, is a change in the basic design philosophy and will result in the development of a hybrid material form. The selective reinforcement approach allows the structural design requirements to define the material form. This method is the reverse of the typical development flow path used for building structures. This backward path results in more efficient material forms that are of greater value to structural engineers. Specifically, the proposed effort will combine a metal matrix composite (MMC) prepreg tape with an ultrasonic additive manufacturing process. The combination of these technologies will lead to enhanced lightweight, cost-effective metallic structures with shielding and thermal management built in.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications include aircraft such as the F-35, CH53-K, V-22, ground combat vehicles, and aluminum ship designs. Commercial aircraft such as the Boeing 777, Airbus A-380, and Airbus A340-600 could also benefit by adding MMC SR concepts. Applications in the automotive market include aluminum and magnesium castings, flywheels for hybrid vehicles, liners for lightweight composite tanks used on alternative fuel vehicles, and other types of storage tanks. Incorporation into golf club shafts, tennis rackets, and bicycle frames for the sporting goods market are also possible.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed effort has broad applications across many NASA missions. Stiffened structures exist in launch vehicles, especially in their tank structures. Tanks have to withstand high stress during launch, and provide stability at cryogenic temperatures. Essentially, any structure that is part of a NASA mission could benefit from new, lightweight structural components. These include: future launch vehicle, crew vehicle, surface habitats, robotic explorers or cryogenic tank structures.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Metallics
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 Z4.01-7700
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CL55P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Joining for Large-Scale Polymer Matrix Composite (PMC) Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Bonding and Analysis of Composite TRAC Booms for NASA Science Missions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ROCCOR, LLC
2602 Clover Basin Drive, Suite D
Longmont, CO
80503-7555
(720) 200-0068

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tom Murphey
tom.murphey@roccor.com
2602 Clover Basin Drive, suite D
Longmont,  CO 80503-7555
(505) 250-3006

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A new deployable spacecraft boom technology called the Triangular Rollable And Collapsible Boom (TRACTM Boom), invented by the Air Force Research Laboratory and exclusively licensed by Roccor, is being considered by NASA for numerous missions including the Comet Rendezvous, Sample Acquisition, Isolation, and Return (CORSAIR) mission being developed by NASA Goddard. For CORSAIR, NASA has baselined a rather robust high strain composite (HSC) TRAC Boom to tether a comet Sample Acquisition and Retrieving Projectile (SARP) to the spacecraft and prevent the harpoon-like penetrator from recoiling back and impacting the spacecraft during retrieval. However, questions remain as to how to design and build a composite TRAC Boom with sufficient strength so as to tolerate the relatively long storage time (several years in-transit to the comet) and relatively high deployment speeds (~30-150 f/s) necessary for the CORSAIR harpoon system. To address this challenge during Phase II, Roccor proposes to improve the performance of the bondline in composite TRAC Booms by reinforcing the adhesive joint and developing mechanical end fittings that allow higher packaging strains while minimizing creep. We also propose to validate a relatively low cost, out-of-autoclave process for affecting the bond, and validate analytical models to simulate the time- and temperature-dependent viscoelastic behavior of composite TRAC bonded joint, and guide engineering qualification of the joints for future NASA missions, including CORSAIR. Moreover, Roccor will also further optimize the system design, including proximal and distall end fittings that connect TRAC Boom into the CORSAIR storage canister and sample return projectile to validate strength and creep performance to mission requirements, and to incorporate load-limiting features that prevent catastrophic failure of the TRAC boom during operation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Deployable solar sails Deployable mono-pole and di-pole antennas for CubeSats Deployable CubeSat decelerators

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
CORSAIR comet sample return "harpoon" Deployable solar sails (NEA Scout) Deployable mono-pole and di-pole antennas for CubeSats Deployable CubeSat decelerators

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Characterization
Prototyping
Composites
Polymers
Actuators & Motors
Deployment
Structures
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-2 Z5.01-7920
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX16CJ39P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Augmented Reality
PROPOSAL TITLE: Context-Sensitive Augmented Reality for Mission Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRACLabs, Inc.
100 North East Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio, TX
78216-1234
(281) 461-7886

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Kortenkamp
korten@traclabs.com
100 North East Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio,  TX 78216-1234
(281) 461-7886

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Current NASA missions to the International Space Station (ISS) are heavily dependent upon ground controllers to assist crew members in performing routine operations and maintenance as well as responses to off-nominal situations. Performing these procedures often requires close collaboration between ground controllers who have deep knowledge of the spacecraft's systems. This collaboration becomes more difficult in extended missions and crew members will need to have more autonomy. Augmented and virtual reality technology can help replace some of the guidance that ground controllers offer to crew members during procedure execution. Our proposed approach focuses on integrating augmented and virtual reality technologies into the same tools that mission operations uses today, allowing for augmented and virtual reality assistance to be built and updated by flight controllers and other mission specialists just as they do for their other work products. In Phase I, TRACLabs integrated its PRIDE electronic procedure platform with augmented and virtual reality systems such as the HTC Vive. In Phase II we will extend the PRIDE platform to augmented reality devices such as the Microsoft HoloLens. TRACLabs is also partnered with the Georgia Institute of Technology's Augmented Environments Laboratory who will develop algorithms that dynamically adjust the augmented reality cues (both their position, orientation, and scale, along with the specific graphical elements used) such that they align with the necessary parts of the world without obscuring important parts of the world.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
TRACLabs is already selling PRIDE as a commercial product with a major oil field services company as a launch customer. PRIDE is being field-tested at several sites world-wide before deployment in actual operations in mid-2017. Augmented reality would immediately increase the effectiveness of the PRIDE software by providing hands-free assistance in performing complex and dangerous procedures. TRACLabs expects additional customers in the oil and gas industry will deploy PRIDE once it has been proven effective. A major chemical manufacturer is also performing a pilot project in their plants using PRIDE for complex operations. In these cases, a heads-up display like the HoloLens or the DAQRI could be very useful in field environments In all of these cases, we will offer augmented reality systems as an ``add-on'' to the existing PRIDE software we deliver. Thus, we can immediately move this research out into industry by leveraging our existing PRIDE user base.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This research will be immediately useful to the NASA JSC Hybrid Reality Laboratory (HRL), which will use our software to guide users through their ISS models and train users on interacting with these models. There are also applications for augmented reality on-board ISS, including applications of the HoloLens and tablet browser to procedure execution. This research can have immediate application to ISS operations because there are several iPads already on ISS and a Microsoft HoloLens. We are also integrating with NASA?s Dynamic On-board Ubiquitous Graphics (DOUG) system to assist in training for EVA and ROBO operations. PRIDE is being evaluated for use by ground operators for the Resource Prospector robotic mission to the moon being jointly developed by NASA JSC and ARC. Finally, we will work with NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) to identify applications for this work including analog test environments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Man-Machine Interaction
Process Monitoring & Control
Data Input/Output Devices (Displays, Storage)
Knowledge Management