STTR Phase I Solicitation Abstract Archives

NASA 2016 SBIR Phase I Solicitation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.01-7107
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Structural Efficiency - Aeroelasticity and Aeroservoelastic Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Distributed Sensing, Computing, and Actuation Architecture for Aeroservoelastic Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Prioria Robotics, Inc.
606 Southeast Depot Avenue
Gainesville, FL 32601-5320
(352) 505-2188

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mujahid Abdulrahim
mujahid.abdulrahim@prioria.com
606 SE Depot Ave
Gainesville,  FL 32601-5320
(352) 505-2188

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal introduces an approach to aeroservoelastic control that provides enhanced robustness to unmodeled dynamics. The core of the approach is a processing element, designed by the embedded-systems expertise at Prioria Robotics, that provides measurement and signal processing and even control commands from localized stations throughout a structure. An architecture is formulated that utilizes these distributed elements to provide information about the adverse aeroservoelastic effects, such as frequencies and damping and even mode shapes, to modify control commands and achieve desired performance characteristics. The research team has extensive expertise in the analysis, simulation, and flight testing of aircraft with novel configurations, including flexible wings, morphing aircraft, and reconfigurable designs. The proposed innovation is applicable to a wide range of aerospace applications including stratospheric UAVs and manned transport-category aircraft. The architecture enables closed-loop aeroservoelastic control or open-loop aeroelastic measurements and can be retrofit into an existing airframe and flight controller or integral to the design of a new aircraft. The Phase I objectives of the current proposal include the conceptual and initial design of a novel architecture for aeroelastic control. Initial effort involves requirements generation for the scalable architecture and dynamic simulation of a representative UAV wing. The architecture is implemented in hardware using modifications of existing electronic and airframe components.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ASE control architecture can be licensed to aircraft manufacturers with prototype aircraft at any stage from conceptual design to final certification. Open-loop measurements on early prototype aircraft can help guide decisions on required structural stiffness versus increasing weight and lost endurance. Flight tests can yield improved data which helps prevent over-designing structures at the expense of performance. These tests are facilitated with modular instrumentation and processing that minimizes the burden of mechanical and software integration. Flight tests of unique aircraft configurations such as the high-altitude, long-endurance Global Observer are usually hindered due to structural response uncertainty. That program required extensive instrumentation in the form of individual strain gauges and accelerometers distributed throughout the wing and airframe structure. Wiring for these raw sensor measurements were routed through the wing and resulted in a substantial cable bundle and routing complexity in the conduits near the wing root. Additionally, the number of available sensors was limited by the interface capability and speed of the data acquisition system. A large array of sensors sampled on a single device result in temporal errors due to simultaneous sampling limitations. Large aircraft with numerous sensors may find difficulty identifying structural modes accurately due to the phase misalignment of sensors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A successful outcome of the proposed research would result in a modular hardware system that can be retrofit onto existing NASA manned and unmanned aircraft to provide open-loop structural mode sensing for experimental flight tests or operational flights. The combination of the high-bandwidth distributed aeroservoelastic control elements with the computational capability of the central processor permit on-board modal estimation which could be telemetered to a ground control station to aid in decision-making during envelope expansion flights. In such a use case, the ACEs would be used as sensing and processing elements without an actuator component. Use of low-cost components in the design reduces overall system cost and allows the system to be used on non-recoverable aircraft. In such cases, the onboard aeroservoelastic processing alleviates need for high-bandwidth telemetry or recovery of flight logs from terminated aircraft. Instead, the system can telemeter low-bandwidth structural mode shape information in real-time to both improve situational awareness of the flight crew and for post-flight data analysis. NASA could integrate the distributed ASE control architecture into new aircraft as part of the primary flight control system. Use of the distributed control effectors could leverage the significant control authority benefits without requiring engineers to re-solve the control allocation, sensing, structural mode analysis, and communication bandwidth problems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Man-Machine Interaction
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.01-7111
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Structural Efficiency - Aeroelasticity and Aeroservoelastic Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reduced Order Nonlinear Dynamic Aeroservoelasticity

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
M4 Engineering, Inc.
4020 Long Beach Boulevard
Long Beach, CA 90807-2683
(562) 981-7797

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Myles Baker
mbaker@m4-engineering.com
4020 Long Beach Blvd
Long Beach,  CA 90807-2683
(562) 981-7797

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
M4 Engineering proposes to develop methods and software to generate reduced order nonlinear models of dynamic aeroserovelastic systems. The reduced order models will be based on a hybrid NARMAX-Wavelet model, in which the basic linear behavior and gentle nonlinearities in the dynamics are captured by a Nonlinear AutoRegressive, Moving Average with eXogenous inputs (NARMAX) model with polynomial behavior, and harsh nonlinearities that result localized discontinuities or transitions are captured with a Wavelet network. This approach will allow the system to capture the range of nonlinear dynamics encountered in complex DASE systems with very efficient models suitable for use early in the design cycle.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology is expected to have commercial applications to aircraft design of subsonic transports, supersonic vehicles, bombers, fighters, UAV's, and general aviation airplanes. As such, it is expected to have significant commercial applications in airplane structural design, primarily with DoD, NASA, and the prime contractors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications will include the use of the developed technology for design of any new generation aircraft or RLV system including complex nonlinear DASE behavior, including HALE vehicles, transonic vehicles, truss-braced wing configurations, low-boom supersonic configurations, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Structures
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.01-7636
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Structural Efficiency - Aeroelasticity and Aeroservoelastic Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reduced Order Modeling for Aeroservoelastic Control and Analysis (RACA)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 190
Rockville, MD 20855-2814
(301) 294-5221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Peter Chen
pchen@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 190
Rockville,  MD 20855-2814
(301) 795-4463

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA and other government agencies have been plagued by aeroelasticity of aircraft structures for a long time. The traditional approach has been to build stiff structures for suppressing aeroelastic effects. However, the increase in computational technology has enabled a careful analysis of aeroelastic effects, and design of lightweight structures. However, a direct CFD-CSD coupling is still too expensive to be used for control simulations and design. To address this critical need, IAI is developing reduced order models to capture the necessary physics, while enabling much more efficient computation. Our RACA approach will systematically study ROM technology and develop the appropriate methods for our particular application of interest ı supersonic low-boom aircraft. We will develop a full-fledged aeroelastic analysis framework as well, to provide simulation-based verification results. The ROMs developed will then be used for control system design and demonstration of adaptive control technologies for advanced flexible aircraft.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other government agencies, such as Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) have also been investigating aeroelastic concepts in collaboration with NASA and industry. The AAW and MUTT programs are specific examples of the above. Moreover, aircraft manufacturers interested in advanced aircraft development are increasingly facing the challenges of high aspect ratio, flexible wing aircraft. To design and reliably develop associated controllers for such aircraft, they need tools to allow rapid analysis of concepts across the entire flight envelope. RACA will provide the industry with such a capability. Moreover, the aeroelastic analysis capability could also be integrated in design frameworks for flexible aircraft design. Lockheed Martin has also been investigating the low-boom supersonic demonstrator, and its aeroelastic properties are yet to be understood. RACA is going to directly address this concern as well.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed body of work addresses a critical need in NASAıs repository of tools and techniques to develop high performance and supersonic civilian aircraft: a reliable physics-based simulation testbed to test different unconventional and advanced aircraft designs. NASA has been extensively investing in aeroelastic research, through programs such as Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW), X-56A Multi-Utility Technology Testbed (MUTT), and Aeroservoelasticity (ASE) project in the High Speed Program. The ASE project in particular, has been focusing on development of aeroelastic modules for supersonic aircraft, and will directly benefit from this research. X-56A has also been looking to augment its controllers to incorporate aeroelastic effects, and will be interested in RACA. Moreover, other programs at NASA that are looking at lightweight aircraft configurations will also be able to use RACA in their design and control simulation efforts.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.01-8122
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Structural Efficiency - Aeroelasticity and Aeroservoelastic Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Dynamic Flight Simulation Utilizing High Fidelity CFD-Based Nonlinear Reduced Order Model

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ZONA Technology, Inc.
9489 East Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale, AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zhicun Wang
zhicun@zonatech.com
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale,  AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The overall technical objective of the Phase I effort is to develop a nonlinear aeroelastic solver utilizing the FUN3D generated nonlinear aerodynamic Reduced Order Model (ROM). Two types of aerodynamic reduced order models will be developed; the first is the Neural Network nonlinear ROM that can provide the aerodynamic feedback forces due to structural deformation and the second is a nonlinear Volterra-kernels-based gust ROM that provides the aerodynamic forces due to gust excitation. Once developed, this nonlinear aeroelastic solver will be integrated into the Nonlinear Dynamic Flight Simulation (NL-DFS) system in Phase II to perform flight dynamic simulation including nonlinear aeroelastic and nonlinear rigid body interaction effects, which can be used to predict the gust loads, ride quality, flight dynamic stability, and aero-structural control issues. In addition, the nonlinear aeroelastic solver developed can be a standalone code for rapid static/dynamic aeroelastic analysis. With the utilization of the FUN3D generated nonlinear aerodynamic (ROM), this nonlinear aeroelastic solver will be computational efficient for accurate flutter analysis, gust loads analysis and limit cycle oscillation analysis.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The capabilities developed in NL-DFS will strengthen ZONA's market position in the aerospace industry. NL-DFS will be marketed towards flight test applications on a wide class of aerospace vehicles such as: (a) USAF's F-22 and F-35 aircrafts at Edwards AFB; (b) UASF's long range supersonic strike bomber as well as stealth UAV/UCAV; (c) DARPA's advanced design concept; (d) Boeing 787; and (e) future executive jet designs of Cessna, Raytheon, etc. The proposed NL-DFS can also be applied to validate health management strategies specifically designed for aircraft designs with prominent aeroelastic characteristics.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A flight dynamics simulation capability with an added nonlinear aeroelastic solver is still unavailable. NASA has been working for many years towards achieving a software package that would accurately predict the interaction between flight dynamics considering airframe structural flexibility in closed-loop with flight control laws. The proposed NL-DFS is aimed at providing an expedient multidisciplinary nonlinear flight simulation tool to perform an efficient flaw debugging for advanced control laws as well as to promote a physical understanding of the in-flight observed dynamic behaviors due to evolutionary designs. It also will assist in the prediction of the instabilities onset prior to envelop expansion programs. NL-DFS will be especially valuable during NASA's current and next generation flying quantities and envelope expansion programs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.01-8553
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Structural Efficiency - Aeroelasticity and Aeroservoelastic Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Physics-based Models for Aeroservoelasticity Prediction and Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Clear Science Corporation
663 Owego Hill Road, PO Box 233
Harford, NY 13784-0233
(607) 844-9171

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Henry Carlson
hcarlson@clearsciencecorp.com
663 Owego Hill Road, PO Box 233
Harford,  NY 13784-0233
(607) 844-9171

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Clear Science Corp. proposes to develop and demonstrate computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based, reduced-order aeroservoelasticity modeling and simulation technology for fast and accurate predictions of nonlinear flight dynamics, enabling real-time, piloted and unpiloted flight simulations and providing a tool to design flight controllers for highly flexible, lightweight aircraft. Physics-based, reduced-order models (ROMs) will be developed and demonstrated with data from CFD models of the X-56, an experimental aircraft that NASA and the U. S. Air Force are using to test systems for flutter suppression and gust-load alleviation. Extended range and low fuel consumption through lightweight materials and large wing spans (high lift-to-drag ratios) are the drivers in next-generation aircraft like the X-56, but these attributes create challenges in maintaining flight safety, ride quality, and long-term structural durability. The development of flight controllers that can actively manage aeroservoelastic effects (body-freedom flutter, control reversal, gust loading) without compromising safety and aerodynamic performance is a key objective of both the X-56 Program and the proposed project. Through the proposed technology, nonlinear, aeroservoelastic ROMs can be coupled to other components of a flight simulator (six-degrees-of-freedom flight mechanics models and control software) to improve the fidelity of simulations that support controller design for a wide range of operating conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed project will focus on the experimental X-56 program with much broader potential applications relating to flutter prediction and suppression, gust load prediction and alleviation, and active/adaptive aero-structural control. The modeling technology will enable advanced flight control required in highly flexible, lightweight aircraft. These new types of extended-range air vehicles have numerous civilian and military applications including drones for reconnaissance and law enforcement. NASA's Advanced Air Transport Technologies (AATT) Project explores and develops technologies and concepts for improved energy efficiency and environmental compatibility of fixed wing, subsonic transports, applicable to a host of future, commercial aircraft operating in the Next Gen airspace. Using high-fidelity, low-overhead aeroservoelastic models to design flight controllers for the types of aircraft envisioned will enable vehicles that fly farther and cleaner with much lower fuel consumption while maintaining required flight safety margins.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial product to be developed is an engineering tool for modeling aeroservoelastic dynamics in highly flexible air vehicles. The software will use data generated by high-fidelity aeroelastic CFD models to construct computationally efficient ROMs for all phases of the development process from early concept trade studies to flight testing and aircraft certification. Flexible, lightweight vehicles with high lift-to-drag ratios are an emerging market, promising reduced take-off weight, greater range, and lower fuel costs. However, lightweight, flexible designs present safety challenges (flutter, divergence, control reversal, high gust loading, structural failure, fatigue), requiring innovative flight control systems to effectively manage aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic instabilities. The proposed technology will enable the design and testing of new controllers for highly flexible aircraft through accurate, low-dimensional aeroservoelastic models capable of real-time predictions. The project is directly applicable to NASA's X-56 program and to related, follow-on programs initiated by the agency.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Support
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.02-7568
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Quiet Performance - Propulsion Noise Reduction Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Profile, Low Frequency, Adaptively-Tuned Acoustic Liner

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Interdisciplinary Consulting Corporation
5745 Southwest 75th Street, #364
Gainesville, FL 32608-5504
(352) 359-7796

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stephen Horowitz
shorowitz@thinkIC2.com
5745 Southwest 75th St, 364
Gainesville,  FL 32608-5504
(256) 698-6175

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Conventional approaches to aircraft engine noise reduction via passive acoustic liners are limited in performance, particularly at lower frequencies, where improvements are gained through increased liner depth. Typical engine nacelle installation clearances, however, limit liner depth and prevent further improvements in low frequency noise reduction using these conventional approaches. The proposed innovation addresses these limitations via a low-profile, tunable acoustic liner for modern aircraft engines capable of significant noise attenuation at lower frequencies than currently achievable. The innovative approach lowers the resonant frequency and enables significant reductions in cavity size and volume. Significant net weight savings is achieved due to the large reductions in cavity volume (via corresponding decreases in cavity wall surface area). The end result is lower frequency noise attenuation with simultaneous reductions in liner depth and weight. The proposed innovations provide the following benefits for acoustic noise reduction: ? Optimum absorption of sound at frequencies half of those achievable with currently available technologies ? Decreased liner depth ? Decreased liner weight ? In-situ, automatic tunability for optimum absorption under different engines and engine conditions. ? Broadband operation through MDOF performance and individual impedance tuning

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial aircraft engine market is a prime target for the proposed technology. Due to the adaptive nature of the innovation, it can be applied to a wide variety of aircraft, requiring only minimal redesign, and will adapt in-situ for optimal noise suppression. With continually more stringent regulations on noise emissions from aircraft, engine and aircraft manufacturers are constantly seeking ways to reduce noise emissions while maintaining flight and fuel efficiency performance. The proposed technology provides a relatively low-cost, adaptive approach to achieving those noise reduction goals without negatively impacting weight, fuel efficiency or engine performance.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In February of 2010, the Aeronautics Science and Technology Subcommittee of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) released their biennial update on the National Aeronautics Research and Development Plan. In this report, the Energy and Environment R&D Goal #3 was stated to "Advance development of technologies and operational procedures to decrease the significant environmental impacts of the aviation system". A key element of reaching this goal was identified as the reduction of aircraft noise. Specifically, the report identifies a 32 dB target cumulative reduction in aircraft noise for the next generation aircraft (N+1), a 43 dB reduction for N+2 aircraft and a 25 year goal of 62 dB cumulative reduction for N+3 aircraft. In the NASA SBIR 2016 Phase 1 Solicitation ? Subtopic A1.02 Quiet Performance - Propulsion Noise Reduction Technology, "To reduce noise emissions from aircraft, tools and technologies are needed..." including "low-frequency liners (i.e., liners with optimum absorption frequencies half of the current ones but without increasing the liner depth)" and ?adaptive flow and noise-control technologies including smart structures for inlets, nozzles, and low-drag liners.? The proposed innovations directly address this stated need by providing the ability to absorb sound at the targeted lower frequencies, while maintaining or even decreasing the liner depth. They furthermore enable adaptive noise-control through a tunable acoustic liner impedance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Isolation/Protection/Radiation Shielding (see also Mechanical Systems)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.02-7604
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Quiet Performance - Propulsion Noise Reduction Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Analytical Tools for the Characterization of Fundamental Jet Noise Sources and Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street, Suite 301
Dayton, OH 45431-1262
(937) 266-9570

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sivaram Gogineni
goginesp@gmail.com
5100 Springfield Street, Suite 301
Dayton,  OH 45431-1262
(937) 266-9570

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There is a need for innovative technologies and methods for noise reduction, noise prediction, and noise diagnostics. A comprehensive approach to reducing noise from any flow is predicated on a clear understanding of noise sources, i.e., the turbulent flow itself. Although much has been discovered in the last several decades about the connection between turbulence and noise, the heuristic element of the analysis has prevented the development of breakthrough noise mitigation technologies. For example, it is known that larger structures are responsible for shallow-angle noise, and the formation of shocks at supersonic speeds results in a new mechanism of noise production due to the passage of turbulent structures, However, the precise mechanism by which this transformation occurs is not known. High-fidelity datasets that capture the above phenomena whether from simulation or experiment are increasingly accessible, and need to be harnessed in better ways. With this in mind, analytical tools must be used and developed to extract the most useful information from the data. Tool such as Proper Orthogonal Decomposition, Stochastic estimation, Wavelet decomposition, Empirical Mode Decomposition, Dynamical Mode Decomposition and Doak?s decomposition have been shown to be useful for extracting such information. At present however, different practitioners use these tools differently, which makes the task of assimilating the data very difficult. The goal of the present effort is to develop a user-friendly software suite that unifies these advanced techniques to provide a standard approach. The development will be integrated with testing by exploring noise sources in ongoing experimental and computational rectangular and an axisymmetric multi-stream jet campaigns.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The knowledge gained from this study will additionally impact the DOD and engine makers such as General Electric and Pratt and Whitney. These organizations when doing nozzle design can use the information leading to design guidelines for quieter performance. Aircraft manufacturing companies such as Lockheed Martin and Northrop Grumman also may use guidelines from this work to help develop nozzle for embedded propulsion systems. In addition, the tools used and developed as part of this research have a much broader application then just jet noise. The tools can be used in must turbulence related studies to help identify important flow features. As such, the tools can be distributed to universities, industry, and the DOD.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Technical Objectives presented in this proposal are directly addressing the A1.02 Quiet Performance subtopic description by characterizing fundamental noise sources for subsonic and supersonic three-stream engine nozzle. The understanding of these fundamental source can then be exploited to help designers develop quieter propulsion systems. We particularly address the need for innovative source identification techniques for noise sources including turbulence details related to flow-induced noise typical of jets, shocks, vortices, shear layers, etc. In addition, the developed toolkit could be used by NASA to help process their data. This would allow NASA to perform the analyses on their data and characterized noise source from any new new nozzle design. The analyses are also broader that noise, they can be applied to other fluid dynamic data sets in an attempt to extract information.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.02-8281
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Quiet Performance - Propulsion Noise Reduction Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Validation of Standing Wave Liner Impedance Measurement Method

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hersh Acoustical Engineering, Inc.
22305 Cairnloch Street
Calabasas, CA 91302-5875
(818) 224-4699

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
alan hersh
haeash@charter.net
22305 Cairnloch Street
Calabasas,  CA 91302-5875
(818) 224-4699

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Hersh Acoustical Engineering, Inc. proposes to establish the feasibility and practicality of using the Standing Wave Method (SWM) to measure the impedance of perforate-over-honeycomb liners exposed to both grazing and orifice bias flow. By measuring liner generated reflected sound in a duct, the SWM calculates the impedance of one or more rows of resonator liners, providing the liner axial length is small relative to the wavelengths of the incident sound and the sound frequencies are sufficiently low that the effects of acoustic refraction by mean flow velocity gradients are negligible. Work Plan. Tasks are separated into test preparation, test execution, and analysis and reporting. Tests will be conducted in the University of Cincinnati Grazing Flow Test Facility and most preparation work will be focused on modifying the facility to permit the enabling of bias flow in the facility. The facility design will be such to enable measurements of resonator impedance without grazing flow, with grazing flow and with grazing and bias flow. The following tasks are proposed. Task 1, Design of test resonator, Task 2, Quote, manufacture, and installation of test resonators, Task 3, Modification of test setup and data processing codes, Task 4, Impedance measurements with no grazing or bias flow, Task 5, Impedance measurement with grazing flow and no bias flow, Task 6,Impedance measurement with grazing flow and bias flow, Task 7, Measurement of resonator impedance in the UC acoustic wave tube, and Task 8, Final Report.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Assuming the Standing Wave Method of the measurement of resonator liner impedance in the presence of grazing flow has been validated, it offers the potential to improve flow duct resonator design and sound absorption performance. The software and hardware technology developed under the Phase I program could also be used to assist commercial and military manufactures of (1) aircraft nacelle manufacturers, (2) HVAC duct noise suppressors, (3) space heaters and (4) air conditioner manufactures in the development of efficient sound absorbing resonator liners. In addition, the University of Cincinnati intends to provide to the aircraft and duct acoustics commercial communities, the use of its Standing Wave Test Facility to measure the effect of grazing flow and bias flow on the impedance of potential commercial sound absorbing liners.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Standing Wave Method of measuring resonator liner impedance method offers the potential to (1) replace the current Dean Two-Microphone liner impedance method, (2) assess the importance of leading and trailing edge effects on resonator impedance, and hence design and performance, in the presence of steady-state grazing flow and (3) complement the single mode, grazing flow impedance eduction research conducted by Watson, et.al, presented at the June, 2014 AIAA Aeroacoustics conference held in Atlanta, GA and (4) improve the acoustic performance of manufacturers of aircraft nacelles and HVAC ducts. Finally, if successful, the SWM could also be used to conduct extensive resonator liner impedance measurements of the effects of grazing and orifice bias flow on both tonal and broadband sound in a follow-on Phase 2 research program (if awarded), the importance of which was noted in Section A1.02 of the RFP.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Acoustic/Vibration


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.02-8366
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Quiet Performance - Propulsion Noise Reduction Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Continuous-Scan Phased Array Measurement Methods for Turbofan Engine Acoustic Testing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ATA Engineering, Inc.
13290 Evening Creek Drive South, Suite 250
San Diego, CA 92128-4695
(858) 480-2000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Parthiv Shah
pshah@ata-e.com
13290 Evening Creek Drive South, Suite 250
San Diego,  CA 92128-4695
(858) 480-2101

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ATA Engineering, Inc., (ATA) proposes an SBIR project to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of a method for measuring phased array acoustic data for complex distributed noise sources using continuously moving (referred to here as continuous-scan, or CS) microphones in conjunction with state-of-the-art phase-referencing techniques. The proposed project aims to develop two novel modules to the existing suite of tools for CS acoustic measurements: (1) A continuous-scan beamforming (CSBF) tool for arrays located in the mid to far field to perform source diagnostics in low-SNR wind tunnel environments., and (2) An azimuthal modal decomposition tool for near-field arrays having partial azimuthal coverage, enabling acoustical holography without full source enclosure. The first module will enable small-aperture beamforming (BF) arrays to adopt the CS method, resulting in reduced maximum sidelobe levels and higher-quality BF images that approach the theoretical limits associated with the theory. The second module will enable CS near-field arrays that avoid the requirement for full coverage, greatly simplifying the array coverage requirements and making acoustical holography systems more practical in testing facilities. In Phase I, ATA will demonstrate feasibility of the methods through application to existing acoustic measurement data sets. In Phase II, the methods will be optimized and rigorously validated through experiments using small-scale turbofan engine models. Ultimately, we will transition these methods to NASA and industry stakeholders for adoption in relevant facilities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Community noise exposure continues to be a significant issue near airports, confining growth and impacting quality of life and health of those affected. To counteract growing exposure, ever more stringent noise standards are expected to be implemented by regulatory agencies in the certification of aircraft. These standards are predicated on the discovery of new technologies aimed at reducing aircraft and engine noise. Further noise performance improvements will likely be asymptotic, with incremental improvements resulting in only modest noise reduction. Thus, innovative measurement technologies to better identify and diagnose noise sources within the aircraft and engine are necessary, particularly for the subscale-size test articles and low-SNR environments of wind tunnel testing. ATA believes there is a significant market opportunity for the enhanced CS toolset through adoption at engine manufacturers, airframers, and international aviation authorities. Beyond aviation, CS tools and methods will be applicable to wind turbine, automotive, and industrial noise.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As part of Strategic Thrust 3: Ultra-Efficient Commercial Vehicles, in the Strategic Implementation Plan issued by the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), NASA establishes noise improvement margins (relative to the FAA Stage 4 noise limit) of −32 dB, −42 dB, and −52 dB, for N+1, N+2, and N+3 future aircraft technology generations, respectively. The plan also calls for "tools and technologies to reduce turbofan-thrust-specific fuel consumption, propulsion noise, and emissions." By improving the quality and efficiency of acoustic measurements taken in wind tunnels, the proposed measurement and modeling technology will provide NASA with new capabilities to lead the development of next-generation propulsion systems, airframes, and efficiency technologies. Multiple NASA research centers operate wind tunnels that support aeronautical acoustics research, including the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels at NASA Ames, the 14' x 22' subsonic tunnel at NASA LaRC, and the 9' x 15' LSWT and five others at NASA GRC.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Atmospheric Propulsion
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.03-7624
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Emissions/Clean Power - Combustion Technology/Emissions Measurement Techniques
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fluidic Fuel Flow Modulation for Active Combustion Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Fluidics, LLC
4217 Red Bandana Way
Ellicott City, MD 21042-5928
(443) 864-5295

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SURYA RAGHU
sraghu@advancedfluidics.com
4217 Red Bandana Way
Ellicott City,  MD 21042-5928
(443) 864-5295

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose a novel method of high frequency, high control authority fluidic modulation of pilot fuel flow to enable implementation of active combustion instability control (ACIC) either by feedback control or decoupling of the heat release frequency with that of the resonance frequency of the combustion chamber. The possible rugged design of the fluidic device permits its installation in the harsh environment right upstream of the fuel injector thus enabling closer coupling for high-fidelity control action. The method also provides a means of accurate measurement of fuel flow metered through the device. In Phase I, we propose design, fabrication and testing of two fluidic methods of pulsing the fuel ı one method is driven by a fluidic oscillator and a second method by a vortex diode using an externally triggered pulse for phase controlled pulsations. In Phase II, based on the obtained performance characteristics and the customer needs, we will down-select the best of the options for further development.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The market need for fuel modulators for active control of combustion instability in lean-burn combustors runs in millions both for aircraft engines as well as land-based gas turbines for power generation. In addition, there is a demand for such modulators for active control of reheat buzz in the military airplanes with afterburners. Potential end-customers are: Pratt & Whitney General Electric Siemens Rolls Royce

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The fluidic fuel flow modulator developed in this project will enable NASA GRC to evaluate the device in its specially designed characterization test rig for suitability in using it for active combustion instability control. The device will also help in the development of suitable control algorithms by NASA for implementation in actual jet engines. The fuel flow modulator can also be used to mitigate combustion instabilities in liquid fuel rockets as well - thus making the technology available for space launch vehicle design.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Launch Engine/Booster


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.03-8199
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Emissions/Clean Power - Combustion Technology/Emissions Measurement Techniques
PROPOSAL TITLE: Spatially and Temporally Resolved Diagnostics of Dense Sprays Using Gated, Femtosecond, Digital Holography

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MetroLaser, Inc.
22941 Mill Creek Drive
Laguna Hills, CA 92653-1215
(949) 553-0688

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Trolinger
jtrolinger@metrolaserinc.com
22941 Mill Creek Drive
Laguna Hills,  CA 92653-1215
(949) 553-0688

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This is a proposal to develop a unique, gated, picosecond, digital holography system for characterizing dense particle fields in high pressure combustion environments; a critical requirement clearly defined in the NASA solicitation. Most imaging methods fail to provide this capability because noise from multiple scattering buries the signal needed to acquire a useful image. Solutions to this problem are expensive, difficult to implement, and not ideal candidates for field experiments. The proposed innovation combines digital holography and picosecond, optical gating to limit the amount of optical noise sufficiently to enable high resolution, 3D imaging, effectively generalizing existing pseudo-ballistic imaging systems that have been used for imaging through dense particle fields. Storing the complete wavefront in a hologram enables use of a wide range of optical diagnostics methods including image processing and interferometry to improve image and information quality. The result is a new sensor concept that will be extremely useful in the experimental study of dense sprays and other particles fields, providing a detailed, instantaneous look at the structure and position of all of the particles as well as density field information in a large three dimensional sample volume. Moreover, the system can record dynamic information at high frequency.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The resulting tool can enhance combustion research in commercial engine development leading to lower emission, control instabilities and may have commercial applications in other gas-turbine based industries (such as power generation and industrial burners). The modeling and results can be and will be employed in current and future hydrocarbon rocket engine designs (improving combustion efficiency, ignition, stability, etc.).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The tool developed in this research can provide data in combustion research that is not currently attainable with other methods and therefore can have an impact on future aircraft engine combustor designs. The system is applicable in studies requiring fuel air ratios, particle size and number density and refractive index gradients in the gases surrounding the particles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
3D Imaging
Image Analysis
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Image Processing
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Interferometric (see also Analysis)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.03-8523
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Emissions/Clean Power - Combustion Technology/Emissions Measurement Techniques
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electrometric Aviation Soot Monitor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerodyne Research, Inc.
45 Manning Road
Billerica, MA 01821-3976
(978) 663-9500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zhenhong Yu
zyu@aerodyne.com
45 Manning Road
Billerica,  MA 01821-3976
(978) 932-0265

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a highly sensitive and portable device to monitor soot particle mass distribution from aircraft engine exhaust. The proposed method is based on sensitive electric charge measurement on soot particles of specific mass, which was selected via Lorentz force. Through extensive investigation on soot emission from internal combustion engines over the past four decades, it has been well known that engine soot particles are usually charged. Counting particle charge at specific mass could lead to the determination of both total particle count and mass. Currently commercially available electrometric measurements on charged particles suffer from rapid signal drift, which limits its applications on soot emission measurements. In our proposed design, an amplitude modulation scheme is included to eliminate the influence from signal drift and also improve detection sensitivity. The proposed soot mass distribution monitor will be less than 50 pounds in weight and consume approximately 300W electrical power. It will also be capable of being remotely controlled and operating under vacuum condition. Since most of the components are commercially available, total cost of the proposed device could be less than $30,000.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We expect that the soot particle mass monitor developed under this program will significantly benefit the scientific community interested in characterizing soot particle mass from a variety of internal combustion engines. The ability of one instrument to measure particle charge at specific mass will enable continuous measurements of particle mass distribution that can be directly used to determine total particle count and mass. In combination with an electrical aerosol charger, either with a radioactive source like 85Kr or non-radioactive source like corona discharge, this instrument will provide a direct measurement on particle count and mass simultaneously for any particles or aerosols. This measurement technique could be applied to ambient aerosol monitoring, PM emission detection, and particle manufacture process.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA need for this technology is to measure soot particle mass distribution from aircraft engine exhaust. At present, particle mass distribution is calculated from particle size distribution, which is measured by the Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS) and Scanning Mobility particle Sizer (SMPS) techniques. Both techniques provide information on particle count at each electrical mobility diameter. To calculate particle mass distribution, an assumption of particle density becomes necessary. Since engine soot particles are intrinsically fractal aggregates, their densities are complex function of particle size and compositions. Obtaining the particle density information requires sophisticated measurement instrumentation. The proposed soot mass distribution monitor will directly measure particle mass distribution, from which total particle count and mass could be determined. In the past, NASA has funded a number of field measurement programs such as EXCAVATE, APEX, UNA-UNA, and AAFEX that focus on the measurement of black carbon emissions from civilian aircraft engines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Pressure & Vacuum Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.04-7639
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamic Efficiency - Active Flow Control Actuation Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flow Control on a High Lift Airfoil Using High-Bandwidth Microactuators

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street, Suite 301
Dayton, OH 45431-1262
(937) 266-9570

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sivaram Gogineni
goginesp@gmail.com
5100 Springfield Street, Suite 301
Dayton,  OH 45431-1262
(937) 266-9570

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
High-lift airfoils employ trailing edge flaps during takeoff and landing and are stowed during the cruise. These airfoils enhance the lift characteristics at subsonic speeds but suffer due to flow separation over the deflected flap surface. During cruise at transonic speeds, the shock induced separation results in drag penalty and structural fatigue. Traditionally, high-lift airfoils employ multi-element flaps to eliminate flow separation during takeoff and landing but at the cost of increased mechanical complexity and aircraft weight. Active flow control (AFC) has the potential to mitigate flow separation and enhance performance. The objective of proposed study is to design, develop, validate and implement a closed-loop, high-bandwidth active flow control technique. The technique will be based on high-momentum, resonance-enhanced unsteady microjet actuators and implemented on an NASA-EET high-lift airfoil configuration. Under the proposed program we bring a team of experts with the requisite knowledge and tools needed for successful development and implementation. We will deign and build a high-lift airfoil to suit the FSU polysonic wind tunnel for testing at high subsonic and transonic speeds (Mach 0.3 - 0.9). We will implement and demonstrate the applicability of Adaptive Sampling-Based Model Predictive Control (SBMPC) to control flow separation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to aeronautical industry, the development of unsteady actuation will be very useful to automotive industry in reducing aerodynamic drag and improving energy efficiency. The proposed team is in the process of establishing an Industry & University Cooperative Research Center (I/UCRC) in the broad area of Applications of Flow Control with the help of National Science Foundation (NSF). This will help us leverage our collaboration with broader aerospace and automotive community.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed development of a closed-loop, high-bandwidth active flow control technique using high-momentum, resonance-enhanced unsteady microactuators will help achieve NASA?s objective to build an energy efficient and environment-friendly fixed-wing transport aircraft. The proposed AFC method is an on-demand, and closed-loop technique is capable of improving vehicle performance and adaptive to the flight changes. The actuators proposed are simple, energy-efficient, high-bandwidth, reliable and robust. The proposed technology will support NASA N+2 and N+3 performance goals.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Actuators & Motors
Acoustic/Vibration
Contact/Mechanical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.04-7670
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamic Efficiency - Active Flow Control Actuation Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Colliding-Jet Fluidic Actuators for Active Flow Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Fluidics, LLC
4217 Red Bandana Way
Ellicott City, MD 21042-5928
(443) 864-5295

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SURYA RAGHU
sraghu@advancedfluidics.com
4217 Red Bandana Way
Ellicott City,  MD 21042-5928
(443) 864-5295

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose a novel method of producing sweeping jets using a simplified geometry that is very short in stream-wise length and no feedback channels inside. This rugged design is expected to be more efficient, occupies about 50% less space (and hence less weight) when scaled-up compared to the existing feedback-oscillator-based actuators and hence offers advantages in developing a flow control system that can be more suitable for integration into aerodynamic configurations. In Phase I, we propose to optimize the geometry for stable operation with high momentum output, and minimum streamwise length. Scaling studies will be conducted for the best design to obtain scaling laws for scale-up to full-scale. We will also develop concepts of actuator arrays with integrated plenum chamber. In Phase II, we plan to demonstrate the use of these actuators for flow control in a blended wing or on a thin airfoil flap.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed actuators have application in the flow physics and flow control, applied aerodynamics programs for advanced aerodynamic design of air vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed actuators have potential for Active Flow control, mixing of fluids, Jet Noise control in NASA's aerodynamic applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Airship/Lighter-than-Air Craft
Fuels/Propellants


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.04-8270
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamic Efficiency - Active Flow Control Actuation Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cyclotronic Plasma Actuator with Arc-Magnet for Active Flow Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CU Aerospace, LLC
301 North Neil Street, Suite 502
Champaign, IL 61820-3169
(217) 239-1703

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Carroll
carroll@cuaerospace.com
301 North Neil Street, Suite 502
Champaign,  IL 61820-3169
(217) 239-1703

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CU Aerospace and team partner the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign propose to develop a new type of plasma-based flow control actuator, which uses a high-voltage electrode that arcs to a cylindrical grounded electrode within a magnetic field. The result is that an arc plasma can be produced, with a Lorentz force that creates a plasma disc (similar concept to a cyclotron). The thought behind this concept is that the thermal actuator authority provided by the plasma arc is coupled with an induced swirl component into a boundary-layer flow, which will enhance mixing and allow flows to remain attached in high adverse pressure gradients. Effectively, the proposed actuator would function like vortex generators that one could enable or disable on command. This subsystem demonstration will pioneer a family of devices to address a notoriously difficult problem in active flow control.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The use of the cyclotronic plasma actuator also has potential to lead to significant reductions in drag and fuel burn for commercial aircraft through improved control surface effectiveness and high-lift performance, allowing the weight and size of aerodynamic surfaces to be reduced. Operational benefits are also anticipated for the efficiency, maneuverability, and stall prevention of military aircraft in high angle of attack operation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The anticipated benefits of the proposed cyclotronic plasma actuator are improved actuator authority and improved effectiveness for low-speed and high-speed flows, when compared to traditional dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators. Additional benefits are anticipated for alleviation of turbulent separation through 3D mixing mechanisms, similar to passive vortex generators. It is anticipated that this mixing mechanism will also provide an improvement in operational efficiency, or reduced power requirements, for the proposed actuator, as compared to existing technologies. The proposed innovation also has the benefit over passive devices, as control authority can be provided on-demand and it does not produce undesirable parasite drag during high-speed cruise. Additionally, the actuator has no moving parts and does not require the heavy infrastructures and mechanical complexities associated with high-pressure air storage.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Superconductance/Magnetics
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Actuators & Motors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.04-8579
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamic Efficiency - Active Flow Control Actuation Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Analysis of Active Flow Control Concepts Using the 3D LES VorCat Software

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
VorCat, Inc.
22828 Styles Street
Woodland Hills, MD 91367-1620
(818) 854-6220

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
jacob krispin
jacob@vorcat.com
22828 styles st.
woodland hills,  MD 91367-1620
(240) 498-6150

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of this project is to produce a revolutionary computational methodology that is fast, reliable and accurate for predicting complex high Reynolds number, turbulent flows associated with efficient aerodynamic designs. The proposed work will focus on low-speed canonical flows that introduce challenging physics, e.g., separation, transition and turbulence onset/progression, vortex/viscous interactions, merging shear layers with strong curvature, juncture flows, etc.. The extension of our proposed methodology to compressible flows has already begun and will be pursued in Phase II and beyond. The VorCat implementation of the gridfree vortex method is particularly attractive in this case since it efficiently represents near-wall vorticity producing motions while at the same time capturing the dynamics of the shed vorticity without numerical diffusion. An accurate and well resolved accounting of the boundary flow is crucial for controlling separation and other complex phenomena while unsteady free vortices are responsible for producing sound, downstream wing/vortex interactions and a range of other important phenomena. A number of previous published studies have established the unique benefits and accuracy of the VorCat vortex filament method. These include computations of ground vehicle flows, isotropic turbulence, shear layers, coflowing round jets, and boundary layers. Additional validation studies have been conducted in such applied settings as wind turbines, rotorcraft and particulate flows. Collectively, these results establish the effectiveness of the vortex filament scheme in capturing the flow structure and statistics for complex flow fields in a way that has not been duplicated by alternative grid-based methodologies. In the realm of vortex structure the VorCat approach has opened up a window into the dynamics of flow organization that is forcing a reassessment of some of the principal ideas concerning the physics of turbulent flow (J. Phys., 2011).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Vorcat, Inc. has been very active in the commercial, non-NASA markets both in the US and abroad. Vorcat's focus in the commercial markets has been on reen/renewable energy applications, such that include the simulation and assessment of innovative hydro- and wind turbine concepts, the design, analysis and optimal placement of wind turbines in a wind farm and aerocoustics analysis of wind farms; Applications in the automotive market include aerodynamics (and aeroacoustics) analysis and optimization of automotive shapes, simulations of automotive subsystems (HVAC, under carriage flows); Helicopter applications - both in the commercial world and DOD - include safety studies (landing on moving objects, hovering in the vicinity of obstacles, etc.), providing data to flight simulators for complex landing and hovering settings, etc. Pollution and chem/bio warfare scenarios which include turbulent mixing, particulate transport, collection of chemical agents by UAV, etc. There are numerous other commercial market niches where we can step in once this NASA project is completed.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project brings to NASA a means for circumventing the persistent limitations of traditional turbulence modeling and simulation techniques that have delayed or prevented progress across a spectrum of innovative flow technologies. In particular, unlike RANS modeling, VorCat requires no ad hoc model adjustments that must be fine tuned to the peculiarities of individual flows or extensive three-dimensional grid development that often requires a posteriori refinements to reduce numerical diffusion and/or capture missing details of detached vortices. Unlike grid-based schemes, VorCat readily accounts for natural transition to turbulence without the use of special forcings. With VorCat, the door is opened for NASA to more freely pursue design innovations without heavy reliance on corroborating physical tests. Some particular examples where VorCat can have high impact both for NASA and global aerospace industry include aerodynamic efficiency and drag reduction through innovative active flow control mechanisms, aeroacoustics and structural analysis that relies on accurate CFD input data, vehicle design optimization, safety studies, and flows containing complex physics, turbulent mixing and heat transfer. When the compressible Vorcat version is developed and validated, possibly with the addition of more physics, it will be applied to compressible flow problems such as found in transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic flow regimes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.05-7521
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Physics-Based Computational Tools - Stability and Control/High Lift Design Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robust Prediction of High Lift Using Surface Vorticity

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Research in Flight
1919 North Ash Court
Auburn, AL 36830-0000
(334) 444-8523

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Burkhalter
john.burkhalter@researchinflight.com
4219 Saugahatchee Hills Court
Opelika,  AL 36803-0000
(334) 559-7453

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Research in Flight is proposing to advance the capabilities of its surface vorticity solver for aerodynamic loads on subsonic aircraft to include more robust solutions for high lift configurations. A compelling capability to accurately calculate lift for high lift configurations such as the NASA EET geometry and the DLR-F11 geometry. Generally, there is an upper limit on lifting surface incident angle past which potential flow solvers such as FlightStream can no longer accurately predict the lift due to flow separation. Furthermore, FLightStream does not currently have the functionality to include features for delaying flow separation such as blown flaps. The inclusion of a pressure difference rule has indicated great promise for using FlightStream ultimately to predict maximum lift coefficient given a reliable model for the separation. This adaptation of FlightStream to "CLmax" calculations is not broadly applicable because of the required empiricism based on discrete pressure points on a wing for a limited number of configurations. For the proposed work, separation criteria will be developed based on a more fundamental physics based analysis driven by surface vorticity rather than limited correlations to surface pressure. This approach will involve three phases of effort. The first phase of the effort will involve simply predicting whether or not flow separation has occurred on the wing to a significant enough level to affect lift. This will give rise to a simple "CLmax" calculation. The second, more advanced phase will identify the flow separation line on the wing based on a maximum allowable vorticity value, and the third phase of the effort will include the release of vortex filaments along this line of separation, resulting in a highly advanced approach for high lift prediction. This effort will be supplemented by blown flap functionality, robust weight estimates for the high lift system and a high lift system design optimization capability.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial airframers conduct extensive preliminary design level studies using lower order tools. The more reliable and diverse these capabilities become, the more efficient the design process becomes. The commercial manufacturers also are required to consider hundreds of flight conditions for certification purposes. Often these flight conditions can only be evaluated with even rudimentary levels of accuracy using very advanced and computationally expensive CFD methods, wind tunnel tests or even flight tests. This pushes the discovery of potential problems into the detailed design or even testing phase, at potentially great expense. The earlier in the process that the high risk flight conditions can be accurately analyzed, the more efficient and less expensive the design process becomes. Boeing spent a reported 8 billion dollars on the certification of the 787 transport aircraft. Reducing this cost is absolutely critical to the future of US leadership in commercial aviation. The proposed improvement to FlightStream will offer the commercial users the opportunity to much more reliably predict high lift flight conditions at the preliminary design level using a lower order but ever higher fidelity tool and thereby saving substantial time and resources. Research in Flight has sold copies of FlightStream in the commercial transport market and in the UAV market. This success is expected to accelerate with added capability for this low order, high fidelity tool.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Research in Flight proposes to assist in dramatically improving the tool set available to the NASA aircraft design community by providing an expansion to the lower order, high fidelity tool set to enable the analysis of high lift configurations. The primary NASA goal for transport aircraft, reducing fuel burn, leads to novel and interesting configurations, some of which do not fall within the conventional design space. Some of these configurations are innovative with regard to fuel burn but must be evaluated for the limiting flight conditions such as a range of takeoff and landing scenarios. For some of these high lift conditions, the flow is separated on at least a portion of the lifting surfaces. For the attached flow conditions, some preliminary design level tools are available for estimating lift for example but for the configurations which are separated, there are no good lower order options for reliably determining maximum lift. The expansion of the high lift analysis capability already available with FlightStream will substantially improve the efficiency of the NASA transport design team and thus lead to the consideration of more novel concepts and ultimately better recommendations for aircraft design methodology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Support
Development Environments


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.05-7880
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Physics-Based Computational Tools - Stability and Control/High Lift Design Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Physics-Based Conceptual Design Flying Qualities Analysis using OpenVSP and VSPAero

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Empirical Systems Aerospace, Inc.
P.O. Box 595
Pismo Beach, CA 93448-9665
(805) 275-1053

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nicholas Brake
nick.brake@esaero.com
P.O. Box 595
Pismo Beach,  CA 93448-9665
(805) 275-1053

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA?s OpenVSP tool suite provides a common parametrically driven geometry model formany different analyses for aircraft and is primarily used in the conceptual design phase. The current 3.5.1 release currently contains significant gaps when assessing handling qualities for a particular configuration forcing the engineer to rely on historical methods with limited applicability to advanced technology design concepts with unconventional configurations. In the proposed effort, ESAero will develop an integrated workflow within the OpenVSP suite for quantitative assessment of handling qualities enabling the engineer to explore new design spaces with unconventional configurations. Along with this workflow a set of pre-requisite tasks to improve the system modeling capabilities will be completed as well. These efforts include: improving flight control surface modeling, improved mass properties representation for generic components, a new aerodynamic trim solver, a new vehicle dynamics model calculation, and a new parameter sweep capability to tie geometry to quantitative physics base handling qualities. These efforts will also lay the ground work for follow on studies of high lift aerodynamics and closed loop flight control. The proposed efforts are designed to complement the existing and active OpenVSP and VSPAERO development efforts.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The results of this effort can also be added and taught to the user community at the OpenVSP workshop, which takes place every year in August. ESAero agrees to provide the updates to OpenVSP 3.0 proposed here in an open format to benefit the user community, aerospace industry and especially the government customer. Previous versions of this tool are already in use at NASA, the Air Force, industry, including Boeing Research & Technology, and multiple aerospace universities (Georgia Tech, Virginia Tech, MIT, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo, etc.), as it has been downloaded thousands of times. The items proposed here also help meet the desires of the AFRL Aerospace Systems Directorate (specifically RQVA). OpenVSP improvements and associated tools are intended to further develop and progress the vehicle analysis and design capability within AFRL which in turn supports contracted development efforts. Such tools and improvements proposed here could have a direct involvement with future programs of record, including 6th generation fighter (F-X), Long Range Strike Bomber (LRS-B), and next generation trainer (T-X). This ?openness? leads to industry and government engaging ESAero and the team, as the partial developers, for support, tool modifications, or just outright engagement to exercise the tool on a customer?s behalf. This Phase I effort will only solidify the ESAero team?s expertise in the conceptual design discipline, broadening the companies reach and bringing in new customers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
To date, the results of Dr. McDonald's NRA efforts have culminated in the release of OpenVSP 3.0 in 2015. This capability is ?open? in the sense that it can be downloaded, free of charge, for use from the OpenVSP website (www.openvsp.org). Therefore, the commercialization strategy for this effort is straightforward. There is a significant need in NASA for geometric aircraft conceptual design tools such as this, especially ones that consider unique geometries. The ESAero team proposing this work is in a unique position because the addition of Dr. Rob McDonald and Dr. David Marshall to ESAero and a subcontractor, J.R. Gloudemans, all brought on to support OpenVSP development under the AFRL Phase II SBIR, are critical to the best path for immediate commercialization and use. Providing these much needed improvements in an open format is beneficial to the entire industry, but especially NASA. In the current budget environment, there isn?t much money available for those users to purchase additional tools. ESAero knows this from direct experience with their hybrid-electric tool development in MATLAB; NASA customers have had trouble obtaining MATLAB licenses, which are very modestly priced. All funding awarded during this effort will be put towards improving OpenVSP 3.0 and associated tools to meet the integrated workflow for quantitative assessment of handling qualities objectives; no licensing fees are required or foreseen at this time.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Development Environments
Programming Languages


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.05-8105
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Physics-Based Computational Tools - Stability and Control/High Lift Design Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Defining Handling Qualities of Unmanned Aerial Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Systems Technology, Inc.
13766 Hawthorne Boulevard
Hawthorne, CA 90250-7083
(310) 679-2281

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Klyde
dklyde@systemstech.com
13766 Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne,  CA 90250-7083
(310) 679-2281

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Unmanned Air Systems (UAS) are here to stay and operators are demanding access to the National Airspace System (NAS) for a wide variety of missions. This includes a proliferation of small UAS that will operate beyond line of sight at altitudes of 500 feet and below. A myriad of issues continues to slow the development of verification, validation, and certification methods that will enable the safe introduction of UAS to the NAS. These issues include the lack of both a consensus UAS categorization process and quantitative certification requirements including the definition of UAS handling qualities. Because of a lack of quantitative data, attempts to address core problems thus far have failed to achieve consensus support. Currently the UAS arena includes traditional airframers, established UAS manufacturers, academic institutions, and many newcomers such as Amazon, Google, and Facebook that see UAS as a means to other commercial ends. The program described herein does not propose to address the entire verification, validation, and certification problem, but instead to address the important need to define UAS handling qualities in both remotely piloted and autonomous operations with an end product being the UAS Handling Qualities Assessment Software System, a toolbox that will guide UAS stakeholders through a systematic evaluation process. The process begins with classification. Because of the wide variety of vehicle types and size there cannot be a one-size-fits-all set of requirements. Given an appropriate classification, missions are next considered wherein they are broken down into specific task elements. These mission task elements are then used to identify specific criteria that predict handling qualities analytically and test demonstration maneuvers that verify handling qualities in flight. Feasibility of this process will be demonstrated in Phase I with existing physics-based UAS analytical models and flight test data.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In describing the growing UAS market, Teal Group reported that the worldwide UAS market spending will increase from $6.4 billion in 2014 to $11.5 billion in 2024. The Teal Group article also states that 'Our 2014 UAV study calculates the UAV market at 89% military, 11% civil cumulative for the decade, with the numbers shifting to 86% military and 14% civil by the end of the 10-year forecast.' The STI-Mitchell Aerospace Research team sees a strong demand for the advancement of UAS handling qualities capability on the military side where the Air Force and Navy have long been looking for a path forward in this area. The team sees this demand expanding to the growing commercial market, particularly on the small UAS side, as the FAA continues to open up the NAS to new UAS applications over the coming months and years.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
First, this proposal directly supports the NASA Air Vehicle Technology topic that 'solicits tools, technologies and capabilities to facilitate assessment of new vehicle designs and their potential performance characteristics' and as specifically called out under Topic A1.05 Physics-Based Computational Tools - Stability and Control/High Lift Design Tools, the 'definition of handling qualities for unmanned aerial systems.' Beyond these specific NASA goals, NASA issued in 2014 a new strategic vision for the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). From this effort came six new strategic thrusts. Of these thrusts, several involve the safe expansion of global air operations and are therefore directly related to the safe integration of UAS into the air space. The specific thrusts include 'safe, efficient growth in global operations,' 'real-time, system-wide safety assurance,' and 'assured autonomy for aviation transformation.' This proposal also supports NASA's Integrated Aviation Systems Program (IASP) of which the UAS Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project is a direct application.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Man-Machine Interaction
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Teleoperation
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.06-7988
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vertical Lift - VL Measurement Techniques and Condition-Based Maintenance
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rapid In-Place Composite Rotor Damage Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luna Innovations, Inc.
301 1st Street Southwest, Suite 200
Roanoke, VA 24016-1921
(540) 769-8400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Kominsky
kominskyd@lunainc.com
3157 State Street
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-6604
(540) 553-0865

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Luna Innovations is proposing to develop the Rapid In-Place Composite Rotor Damage Detection (RIPCoRDD) for determining and tracking the structural health of composite rotorcraft blades. There is a need for accurate, reliable assessments of rotor condition, particularly for damage which may not be visible from the surface. The RIPCoRDD system is designed such that it will result in absolutely no increase in weight, power consumption, or volume of the rotorcraft. The core of the RIPCoRDD device is a unique, distributed, fiber optic strain sensor which provides spatially dense strain measurements (every 1.25-5 mm) within the composite structure of the blade, coupled with a ground based installation of Luna?s proven instrumentation. During Phase I Luna (with guidance from a rotorcraft OEM partner) will demonstrate the ability to detect and characterize damage which occurs in sample composite structures. During Phase II Luna will mature the technology to TRL6 by testing the system in a complete rotor. Commercialization will focus on transitioning the technology first to OEM manufacturers for non-destructive inspection applications, followed by deployment to rotorcraft end users for lifetime monitoring and diagnostics.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Rotorcraft play a key role in numerous areas of modern life, from life-saving medical transports, to enabling access to remote locations, to military use. The performance capabilities of composites (strength to weight, non-catastrophic failure) have driven their use in the weight sensitive designs of rotorcraft. Due to the complex structure of composite materials there is a potential for hidden damage internal to the blade which shortens lifetime while being difficult to detect. By enabling true condition based monitoring of these rotors, the useful lifetime of rotor blades can be extended, lowering total cost of ownership. In addition, this technology can be expanded into a host of non-aeronautical applications, such as wind turbine health monitoring.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Rapid In-Place Composite Rotor Damage Detection (RIPCoRDD) system directly addresses elements of the NASA technology development roadmap (topic 15.5). While the proposed technology is broadly applicable to a range of applications within NASA projects, there are some for which the proposed work is especially relevant. One specific program which has called for rotor health maintenance is the Revolutionary Vertical Lift Technology (RVLT) Project. In addition, the advanced composites project is actively seeking new technologies which can help in the rapid inspection and characterization of composite material health.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Characterization
Composites
Structures
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Contact/Mechanical
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.06-8213
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vertical Lift - VL Measurement Techniques and Condition-Based Maintenance
PROPOSAL TITLE: Predictive Condition-Based Maintenance for Vertical Lift Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Qualtech Systems, Inc.
100 Corporate Place, Suite 220
Rocky Hill, CT 06067-1803
(860) 257-1803

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sudipto Ghoshal
sudipto@teamqsi.com
100 Corporate Place, Suite 220
Rocky Hill,  CT 06067-1803
(860) 761-9341

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has invested significant effort in the past decade in developing and maturing technologies that enable efficient and effective use of Next-generation (NextGen) Vertical Lift (VL) systems for a broad class of missions and operations. One of the key barriers it faces to the widespread use of VL vehicles within the National Airspace is the cost of maintenance on the vehicles to keep them safe and reliable. Qualtech Systems, Inc (QSI) in collaboration with Lockheed Martin - Mission Systems and Training (LM-MST) seeks to address these maintenance challenges by fielding a predictive Condition Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) solution leveraging a diagnostic reasoner TEAMS-RDS (Testability Engineering And Maintenance System Remote Diagnosis Server) and prognostic algorithms. CBM+ involves inferring, tracking and forecasting of system degradation based on state awareness acquired from monitored data through fault detection, isolation, identification, diagnosis and prognosis techniques and to proactively plan maintenance actions to improve system availability and safety. QSI-LM's CBM+ solution will furnish the ability to keep the vehicle health status continually ahead of an advancing failure accumulation through a predictive maintenance strategy geared towards replacement-while-in-operation before the ensuing failures render the VL vehicle inoperable. Diagnosis will focus on current health state identification through detection, isolation, root cause analysis and identification of faults that have already occurred, while prognosis will leverage the current health state identification and forecast performance degradation, incipient component failures and probability density (or moments) of remaining useful life (RUL) or Time to Maintenance (TTM) or Time to Failure (TTF). It is anticipated that the CBM+ solution will leverage the currently existing communication capabilities between the aircraft, the pilot and ground-support personnel in a seamless and automated manner.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Among the other agencies FAA's NextGen program is the most obvious commercialization target for this technology. We envisage the proposed technology to be of significant interest for to DoD Future Lift Vehicle (FVL) program and being network-ready with support for modern web technologies can readily be available as part of the NextGen System Wide Information Management (SWIM) technologies. Apart from the FAA, US Air Force, US Navy, and commercial aviation (e.g., Boeing, Airbus) are the potential customers for the resulting technology. The development of the various interacting technology components for PHM enabled CBM can be easily directed towards mission assurance and will be of direct interest to large scale military systems (systems of systems) such as NORAD, Space Command ground segments, the Joint Strike Fighter fleet, the Navy shipboard platforms, Submarine Commands and ballistic missile defense (BMD) systems. In addition, UAVs, UMGs and other unmanned submersible vehicle markets are potential targets as well. QSI expects to leverage its relationship with manufacturers of these systems, such as the Lockheed Martin's K-MAX (unmanned cargo helicopter) for which QSI is involved in providing a PHM solution for commercialization of the proposed technology. The product is also expected to be of commercial value to the manufacturers of DoD and military's remotely guided weapons and reconnaissance systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's current vision to enhance the level of autonomy for vehicle health management and mission planning makes the proposed effort worthy of funding from several branches within it. The proposed technology, aimed at increasing operational uptime through the use of predictive CBM techniques, and the software tool for supporting its implementation will allow NASA to better plan and execute future Science Missions. The technology can be leveraged to support safety in complex systems, such as NASA's long-duration missions in space science and exploration. This technology can also be applied to autonomous and hybrid/ full electric systems with a vertical lift capability designed for a variety of civil missions. It is envisioned that the technology will also be able to readily operate as part of NASA's next generation Mission Control Technology allowing NASA to utilize the continuous health assessment and mission satisfiability information from the tool for improved mission execution while improving safety, mission success probability and the overall operational uptime of the VL Vehicle.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Quality/Reliability
Data Fusion
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Knowledge Management
Simulation & Modeling
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.06-8494
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vertical Lift - VL Measurement Techniques and Condition-Based Maintenance
PROPOSAL TITLE: Distributed Contact Solver for 3D Dynamics Simulation of Drive Systems with Defects

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Numerical Solutions LLC
3554 Mark Twain Court
Hilliard, OH 43026-5729
(614) 771-4861

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sandeep Vijayakar
sandeep@ansol.com
3554 MARK TWAIN CT
HILLIARD,  OH 43026-5729
(614) 771-4861

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose a novel computational method for generating data needed to create decision strategies for condition-based monitoring algorithms that can effectively differentiate between a healthy system and different types of defects in a damaged system. Currently, the only means available to generate this data are physical testing which is time consuming and expensive, and simplified computer models- either lumped parameter models or 2D models. The most advanced current computational model of drive systems with surface and crack damage can only be deployed on stand-alone computers. The existing contact algorithm relies on shared memory between CPUs, and quickly saturates memory bandwidth. We propose innovative modifications to the algorithm so that models may be efficiently deployed on very large clusters of computers connected by high speed networks. These changes will make possible realistic time-domain 3D modeling of drive systems with surface and crack damage.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) Vibration Prediction in Time-Domain: To date, only frequency domain based vibration calculations with linear models have been commercially available. But Time-domain models are necessary to correctly include contact and kinematics induced non-linearities. Having the fast contact solver will allow very realistic drive system dynamic models, to run in the time domain. 2) Impact Dynamics: It will be possible to make predictions for survivability of drive systems subjected to transients caused by short duration events such as a load spikes. This is an important consideration in the wind-turbine and off-highway equipment industries. Modeling these transient dynamics can only be done in the time-domain. A fast contact solver will allow realistic prediction of these effects. 3) Automatic optimization: Access to a very fast solver will make it possible to run fast static analyses inside the optimization loop of a commercial general-purpose optimizer. It will be possible to optimize metrics such as gear contact patterns, transmission error, and stress while automatically varying the surface modifications and other design parameters. 4) Manufacturing Error Studies: Each manufacturing error has a unique probability distribution. A very fast solver will enable Monte Carlo type studies of manufacturing errors with realistic random distributions. The output will be the probability distribution functions of performance and failure metrics for the drive system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) Condition Based Monitoring: The primary application of this work for NASA, is as a tool that can be used for creating, testing, and fine-tuning condition-monitoring strategies for rotor craft drive systems. The distributed contact analysis will enable dynamic analysis of full drive system models, both in a healthy state as well as with various kinds of damage. Both surface damage as well cracks can be studied. 2) Life Estimation: Current component life prediction tools are constrained by the limited accuracy of simplified dynamic stress prediction methods. The proposed work will, make it possible run very accurate simulations under dynamic conditions. 3) Dynamic Factors: The proposed work will enable NASA to compute accurate dynamic factors for use during the design evaluation stage of gear boxes. These dynamic factors can be used to account for steady state dynamics, as well as for transients caused by short duration events.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Structures
Tribology
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.07-7705
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Efficiency - Turbomachinery Technology for Reduced Fuel Burn
PROPOSAL TITLE: Injector-Integrated Fuel-Air Heat Exchanger Module

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Micro Cooling Concepts, Inc.
7522 Slater Avenue, #122
Huntington Beach, CA 92647-7738
(714) 847-9945

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Underwood
daveunderwood@microcoolingconcepts.com
7522 Slater Ave, #122
Huntington Beach,  CA 92647-7738
(714) 847-9945

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Modern high efficiency gas turbine engines typically operate with hot section temperatures so high that metal parts in those areas need to be cooled to maintain strength and life properties. A well-established approach to this bleeds a portion of the compressor discharge air to flow through and over turbine parts. As engine compressor pressure ratios continue to increase, the temperature of this compressor discharge air also increases, to the point that the cooling air itself needs to be cooled. Micro Cooling Concepts is involved in developing a concept for a heat exchanger co-located/integrated near the point of fuel injection in order to provide cooled cooling air. The main advantages of this concept are the minimization of the amount of heated fuel between the heat exchanger and fuel injector tip such that the fire danger from leaking tubing is eliminated, and the ease of delivering cooled cooling air to the secondary air circuit. Additionally, the modular concept distributes the heat exchange function, allowing for easy replacement of an individual heat exchanger module. For this program, high temperature materials will be used for fabrication using Micro Cooling Concepts' laminated foil construction approach. This effort supports the NASA goal of improving aeropropulsive efficiency through reduced fuel burn and increased cycle temperatures, specifically by enabling very high turbine cooling effectiveness.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ability to provide cooled cooling air with minimal fire risk offers a compelling value proposition to turbine manufacturers and their clients. A major engine manufacturer has interest in incorporating the proposed concept into future civil and defense gas turbine engine products that currently show benefits from fuel-cooled cooling air. The designs proposed are inherently compatible with Micro Cooling Concepts' existing production line, enabling arrangements such as building the components under contract or licensing the IP to the engine manufacturer and/or their suppliers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A reduction in the temperature of available cooling air would provide additional heat sink, thereby enabling use of higher combustion temperatures. The benefits of such a concept include reduced fuel burn and the accompanying reduction in CO2 emissions, in alignment with NASA's goals, with accompanying minimal fire risk. This technology would be applicable to any NASA air-breathing fuel-based propulsion systems where available cooling air temperatures are currently too high to reach the desired performance goals.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Atmospheric Propulsion
Fuels/Propellants
Simulation & Modeling
Heat Exchange
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.07-8365
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Efficiency - Turbomachinery Technology for Reduced Fuel Burn
PROPOSAL TITLE: Improved Efficiency of Small Core Turbines through Tip Leakage and Secondary Flow Mitigation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ATA Engineering, Inc.
13290 Evening Creek Drive South, Suite 250
San Diego, CA 92128-4695
(858) 480-2000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Timothy Palmer
tpalmer@ata-e.com
13290 Evening Creek Drive South, Suite 250
San Diego,  CA 92128-4695
(858) 480-2066

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate has declared ultra-efficient commercial air vehicles a strategic area for development in the coming decade. With no foreseeable alternatives, advanced gas turbine propulsion will continue to power future subsonic transport aircraft. As a result, engine manufacturers are devoting significant effort to increasing fuel efficiency and pushing engines toward higher fan bypass ratios (BPRs). With fan speed already limiting allowable fan sizes, higher BPR requires new, smaller engine cores. However, component efficiency tends to decrease with decreasing size due in part to enhanced tip leakage and secondary flows. Many of the existing technologies designed to mitigate losses associated with these flow structures have only been investigated in conventional machines, under steady approximations, and/or in single components or stages. Also, they often address only a particular loss mechanism in a given flow structure. The proposed SBIR project innovates on existing mitigation strategies from a practical, holistic perspective to generate novel aerodynamic devices tailored to improve the efficiency of multi-stage, small-core turbines while also accounting for their inherently unsteady nature. The proposed devices, including tip leakage control and endwall treatments for secondary flow control, will be designed by accounting for each loss mechanism in the targeted flow structure and the device's influence on the unsteady flow field in the current stage and upstream and downstream stages. Successful designs will ensure increases in component efficiency also increase engine overall efficiency by avoiding offsetting reduction in loss in one stage with increased loss in another. In Phase I, numerical simulations will be used to devise and characterize feasible loss mitigation technologies. This foundational work will provide justification for comprehensive analysis and experimental evaluation of the most promising concepts in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The turbomachinery efficiency improvements that may be realized by the envisioned aerodynamic devices (blade tip geometries, rotor casing, and/or endwall treatment) will provide ubiquitous benefit to nearly all turbomachinery applications. In addition to aircraft propulsion applications, the technologies could enable reduced fuel consumption and carbon emissions for a wide spectrum of Brayton-cycle power-generation applications. Secondary applications with similar increasing demands on efficiency include auxiliary power units (APUs), industrial power generation, and turbine-electric transmissions such as those on ocean vessels. Because the tip leakage mitigation mechanisms may have applicability in both the compression and turbine stages of these products, numerous derivative applications may be possible.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Strategic Thrust 3: Ultra-Efficient Commercial Vehicles in the ARMD "Strategic Implementation Plan" establishes specific efficiency levels for subsonic transport aircraft. Key to obtaining these ambitious goals will be development of more efficient, higher-fan-BPR engine architectures, which because of physical limitations on fan size will require more compact engine cores. This need motivates the Advanced Air Transport Technology (AATT) Project's Technical Challenge (TC) 4.2 to investigate materials and concepts for a "Compact High OPR Gas Generator." By developing solutions for mitigating tip leakage and other secondary flows in small-core engine designs, the technologies to be developed in the proposed effort have the potential to make substantial contributions toward realizing the aircraft engine architecture and fuel efficiency targets set forth by NASA. The proposed effort will also be aligned with the objective of TC4.2, developing OPR 50+ gas generators without affecting noise or component life, and well timed with the goal of achieving TRL4 technologies by 2019. In particular, NASA's Compact Gas Turbine Sub-Project has awarded NRA contracts under TC4.2 to Pratt & Whitney and General Electric to begin developing high-pressure compressor technologies and loss mitigation methods. ATA intends to engage both organizations in the performance of the envisioned project to investigate technology transfer opportunities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Generation
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Atmospheric Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.07-8447
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Efficiency - Turbomachinery Technology for Reduced Fuel Burn
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fan Duct Heat Exchanger for Turbine Cooling Air

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
N&R Engineering
6659 Pearl Road, #201
Parma Heights, OH 44130-3821
(440) 845-7020

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Boyle
rbrjboyle760@gmail.com
6659 Pearl Road #201
Parma Heights,  OH 44130-3821
(440) 845-7020

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposal is for the design of a fan duct heat exchanger in order to improve aircraft fuel burn. The fan duct heat exchanger decreases the temperature of the 15% to 20% of compressor discharge air used to cool the High Pressure Turbine(HPT). Reducing the HPT cooling air temperature reduces the amount of cooling air needed for HPT cooling, and reducing vane and rotor blade cooling improves engine Specific Fuel Consumption(SFC). Fuel burn is adversely affected by any added engine weight due to the heat exchanger. Fan duct air is much colder than compressor discharge air, and can be used as a cold sink for cooling the HPT cooling air. Parametric analyses will be done to determine the SFC reduction as a function of cooling air temperature decrease. Pressure losses for both sides of the heat exchanger will be part of the analyses. The fan duct heat exchanger has large pressure differentials between the high pressure compressor discharge air and the relatively low pressure fan duct air. Structural analyses will be done for the heat exchanger to determine heat exchanger weight.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed work advances the NASA Aeronautics program goal of reduced fuel burn by using a fan duct heat exchanger. Reducing fuel burn, and the consequent reduction of CO2 emissions, is a goal of the Environmentally Responsible Aviation(ERA) component of the NASA Aeronautics program. A fan duct heat exchanger reduces both HPT first stage vane and rotor blade cooling requirements when T40 and T41 are unchanged. Precooling vane coolant air also permits a smaller temperature difference between the combustor outlet temperature, T40, and the rotor inlet temperature, T41. If T40 decreases, NOx production is decreased, since NOx is very sensitive to T40 . If T41 is increased, SFC improves due to a higher rotor inlet temperature. To quantify fuel burn reduction the heat exchanger weight must be known. Applications where the fuel-to-payload fraction is high, or where there is a premium for reduced fuel consumption benefit from a light weight fan duct heat exchanger. The primary benefit of increased turbine inlet temperature is in the reduction of SFC.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed work advances the NASA Aeronautics program goal of reduced fuel burn by using a fan duct heat exchanger. Reducing fuel burn, and the consequent reduction of CO2 emissions, is a goal of the Environmentally Responsible Aviation(ERA) component of the NASA Aeronautics program. A fan duct heat exchanger reduces both HPT first stage vane and rotor blade cooling requirements when T40 and T41 are unchanged. Precooling vane coolant air also permits a smaller temperature difference between the combustor outlet temperature, T40, and the rotor inlet temperature, T41. If T40 decreases, NOx production is decreased, since NOx is very sensitive to T40 . If T41 is increased, SFC improves due to a higher rotor inlet temperature. To quantify fuel burn reduction the heat exchanger weight must be known. Applications where the fuel-to-payload fraction is high, or where there is a premium for reduced fuel consumption benefit from a light weight fan duct heat exchanger. The primary benefit of increased turbine inlet temperature is in the reduction of SFC.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Metallics
Atmospheric Propulsion
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.07-8448
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Efficiency - Turbomachinery Technology for Reduced Fuel Burn
PROPOSAL TITLE: Design Concepts for Low Aspect Ratio High Pressure Turbines for High Bypass Ratio Turbofans

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
N&R Engineering
6659 Pearl Road, #201
Parma Heights, OH 44130-3821
(440) 845-7020

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Boyle
rbrjboyle760@gmail.com
6659 Pearl Road #201
Parma Heights,  OH 44130-3821
(440) 845-7020

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposal is to identify cycle improvements and verify structural feasibility of shrouding a low aspect ratio High Pressure Turbine(HPT) rotor designed to use ceramic blades. When the clearance-to-span ratio between the rotating blades and the stationary casing is the same as the clearance-to-span ratio between the rotating shroud and the stationary casing, stage efficiency improves. However, shrouding rotor blades increases centrifugal stresses, and metallic HPT rotor blades are typically unshrouded in order to maximize stage output. Ceramic Matrix Composite(CMC) blades weigh much less than metallic blades. Shrouded CMC blades have lower centrifugal stresses than unshrouded metallic blades. The fuel burn reduction from an increase in stage efficiency due to shrouded HPT blades will be determined. The fuel burn reduction due to the higher temperature capability of CMC blades will also be determined. Cycle efficiency improvements from shrouding HPT rotor blades will increase for future engines. The HPT blade aspect ratio will decrease as engine Overall Pressure Ratio(OPR) increases. Future HPT blade aspect ratios may be less than half of current aspect ratios. While the absolute clearance may decrease in future engines, the relative clearance is likely to increase. Aerothermal analyses will determine the improvement in fuel burn from shrouding cooled HPT rotor blades. Structural analyses will determine stresses for unshrouded metallic and CMC rotor blades, and for shrouded CMC blades.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
All gas turbine engines are expected to have reduced HPT blade aspect ratios because higher specific work is a consequence of higher efficiency. Military engines with the higher thrust-to-weight requirement have an additional incentive to reduce blade aspect ratio. Ground power gas turbines also have a strong incentive to improve HPT efficiency. Increasing rotor blade aerodynamic efficiency and increasing temperature capability is a route to reducing fuel consumption. N&R Engineering will offer design and analysis capability for CMC and conventional materials to gas turbine manufacturers and customers. Shrouded CMC blades may be costly to fabricate, and manufacturers may offer shrouded blades as an option.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed work advances the NASA Aeronautics program goal of reduced fuel burn by increasing aerodynamic efficiency due to shrouding HPT rotor blades. Reducing fuel burn, and the consequent reduction of CO2 emissions, is a goal of the Environmentally Responsible Aviation(ERA) component of the NASA Aeronautics program. The feasibility of shrouding HPT rotor blades is advanced by using Ceramic Matrix Composite(CMC) materials due to their lower density compared to conventional metallic materials. The structural analysis of CMC blades and shrouds differs from the analysis of conventional HPT materials because of the directionally dependent properties of CMC materials. CMC have a wide range of applications in gas turbines. N&R Engineering will provide NASA with analysis and design expertise for CMC components. The analysis of the benefits of to fuel burn reduction from improvements in component efficiency and/or reduced coolant requirements is an additional capability for commercialization.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Ceramics
Metallics
Atmospheric Propulsion
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.08-7188
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeronautics Ground Test and Measurements Technologies - Ground Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Small Sub-Micron-Particle Position-Resolving Laser-Doppler Velocimeter for High-Speed Flows

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied University Research, Inc.
605 Preston Avenue
Blacksburg, VA 24060-4618
(540) 961-3005

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Roger Simpson
rogersimpson@aurinc.com
605 Preston Avenue
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-4618
(540) 961-3005

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The technical objectives of this proposed work are to develop and prove the use of LDV and CompLDV for particle-position-resolving and flow velocity profile measurements using small sub-micron particles or facility-residual particles in higher speed test flows, making use of new hardware capabilities, miniature optical probe head designs for versatile use in facilities and models, and signal processing techniques that have not been simultaneously implemented. With the optical system feature, the expected results from this multi-SBIR-Phase work are improved low-collected-light LDV technology and a completely functional multi-velocity-component CompLDV system that can be used with only facility residual or small sub-micron seeding particles in low-speed and high-speed flow facilities for low uncertainty particle position and low uncertainty velocity profile measurements. Methods to generate 50 to 200 nanometer particles and clean evaporating particles for in situ local seeding in flow facilities appear to be possible and need to be examined for practical implementation in NASA facilities. Phase-Doppler anemometry signal processing will be used to determine the size of larger particles. The known measurement volume fringe light intensity variation for the LDV and CompLDV and light scattering theory also will be used to determine an estimate of particle size.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
It is clear that other groups involved with measuring high-speed flows or flows without additional added seed or clean seed will be interested in using these new developments. Universities, DoD laboratories, aircraft and aircraft engine manufacturers R&D laboratories should be interested in acquiring systems. One US company has already expressed intense interest in the final product. In the past, AUR has sold the existing models of LDV and CompLDV systems to these potential customers of the Phases II and III small sub-micron particle/residual particle LDV and CompLDV system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
When completed under a Phase II or Phase III, this small sub-micron particle or facility residual particle non-intrusive multi- velocity-component spatially-resolving LDV and CompLDV velocity profile measurement system with miniature probe heads that can fit inside models will enhance NASA Aeronautics Ground Test and Measurements Technologies, require minimal small sub-micron seeding methods that do not contaminate wind tunnel walls or anti-turbulence screens, enable more routine measurements for advanced computational simulations, even for low-temperature facilities, such as the National Transonic Facility (NTF) and hypersonic facilities, increase data capture per test point, including the ability to simultaneously measure multiple flow parameters at high acquisition rates and capture rapidly evolving or oscillatory flow phenomena, improve current particle-based diagnostics and produce significant measurement accuracy enhancements. A Phase II product with low uncertainty velocity profile measurements will solve a specific difficult problem for the National Transonic Facility (NTF), the determination of flow angles during semi-span testing. Based on recent past improvements, the resulting measurement system will be robust and user-friendly for practical and routine applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.08-7805
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeronautics Ground Test and Measurements Technologies - Ground Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development of an Elastomeric Force Balance

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc.
7610 McEwen Road
Dayton, OH 45459-3908
(937) 630-3012

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jessica Webb
jwebb@innssi.com
7610 McEwen Road
Dayton,  OH 45459-3908
(937) 630-3012

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
One focus of NASA aerodynamics research is enabling energy efficient flight through drag reduction technologies. A variety of drag reduction techniques have shown promise and are under investigation, including both active flow control and surface microstructure concepts. Experimental verification of the performance of any drag reduction technique, however, can be challenging. Drag forces are generally significantly smaller than lift and side forces. Furthermore, drag reduction techniques are operating on components of the model, and therefore, a model mounted drag balance is required to evaluate the performance of the drag reduction technology. Further complicating the measurement is the fact that active flow control requires that high pressure air or electrical power be passed through the model mounted balance without impacting the measurement. Over the past 10 years, ISSI has developed an optical sensor for measurements of skin friction known as Surface Stress Sensitive Film (S3F). S3F has demonstrate good sensitivity to skin friction while maintaining very high common mode rejection between the pressure and skin friction forces. ISSI has recently designed and built a prototype drag balance based on this sensor. The balance design is structurally similar to a traditional balance, employing four pillars S3F as the active elements. Rather than monitoring strain in the pillars, as is done with a traditional balance, the vertical and horizontal deformation of the pillars is monitored and these displacements are converted to forces and moments. Preliminary results on the prototype balance indicate that forces smaller than a mili-Newton may be resolved, and there is no measureable coupling between the drag force and the normal or side forces. Development of a force balance technology that can be integrated into a model and measure small changes in drag would be of significant value for the development of energy efficient flight.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The objective of the Phase I and Phase II program is to refine the elastomeric balance design, characterize the performance of the balance, and evolve the model mounted balance concept into a productive research tool. The result should be an experimental tool that can be used to evaluate drag reduction technologies in a variety of bench-top settings, on model components in wind tunnels, and eventually into flight testing. This device should be a valuable tool for the evaluation of a variety of drag reduction technologies. It is noted that this balance design may have applications outside of the aerodynamics community. Balances for hydrodynamics research into issues such as drag reduction of ship models, sedimentation and erosion around bridges, and biomedical research on insect locomotion have many of the same challenges as aerodynamics research. A balance design that allows high common mode rejection between channels and can be easily tuned for a particular application would be of value in those applications. ISSI is already working to develop a skin friction sensor for biomedical research, and integration of this balance design into that product is underway. We are also in discussion with several small wind tunnel manufactures as to the marketability of a six component balance for small academic wind tunnels.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The objective of the Phase I and Phase II program is to develop an experimental tool that can be used to measure aerodynamic forces in a variety of bench-top settings, on model components in wind tunnels, and eventually into flight testing. The development of this balance is viewed as an enabling technology for the development of drag reduction technologies, an area of active research at NASA. Specifically, one current focus of NASA research is the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) program and evaluation of drag reduction technologies is a key component of this program. A successful program will enable the design, construction, and deployment of custom balances that can be used in for this research. Reduction of noise using acoustic liners is a goal of the Subsonic Fixed Wing project at NASA. Evaluation of drag induced by these liners would benefit from the proposed balance. Finally, ongoing research between NASA and Boeing on the ecoDemonstrator seeks to evaluate drag reduction panels in flight. A balance design that could be deployed for flight testing on small samples of such a material would facilitate early stage evaluation of these drag reduction technologies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Conversion
Characterization
Polymers
Acoustic/Vibration
Contact/Mechanical
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.08-8296
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeronautics Ground Test and Measurements Technologies - Ground Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Repetition-Rate Interferometric Rayleigh Scattering for Velocity, Density, and Temperature Meas

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street, Suite 301
Dayton, OH 45431-1262
(937) 266-9570

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Naibo Jiang
naiboj@yahoo.com
5100 Springfield Street, Suite 301
Dayton,  OH 45431-1262
(937) 256-7733

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic ground test facilities are used extensively to evaluate forces and moments as well as surface measurements on test articles required to validate computational tools used to extrapolate wind tunnel data to realistic flight conditions and hardware. The development of fast and noninvasive instrumentation and measurement capabilities that can readily be integrated into the extreme environments is one of several major technological challenges associated with the design, building, and operation of these complex test environments. Accurately mapping velocity flow fields-undoubtedly one of the most critical parameters-remains a significant challenge. In addition, spatially and temporally resolved measurements of other flow parameters such as density, pressure, and temperature are of paramount importance. This proposal offers an integrated package of truly cutting-edge, multidimensional, seedless velocimetry and multi-flow-parameter diagnostics for wind tunnels and ground test facilities. The concepts and ideas proposed are ranging from proof-of-principles demonstration of novel methodologies using 10-100 kHz-rate nanosecond (10-100 nsec) duration burst-mode laser sources for measurements in realistic tunnel conditions. The proposed high-repetition-rate Rayleigh scattering which is suitable for any wind tunnel testing involving various gases is a state-of-the-art technique for analysis of unsteady and turbulent flows.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The advanced noninvasive diagnostic toolkit proposed under the current program will be a significant step forward in using cutting-edge laser technology to address a variety of diagnostics challenges in multiple government and industrial applications. A major beneficiary besides NASA would be DOD test facilities developing advanced systems such as aircraft engines. The increasing cost of fuels as well as the cost associated with offsetting pollutant emissions requires engine manufacturers to implement onboard nonconventional combustion strategies and diagnostics for existing systems as well as to develop improved engine designs. Being able to apply well-developed laser-based diagnostic tools in laboratory could be a game changer for commercial users and manufactures of engines. The impact areas may include aircraft engine manufacturers, stationary power plant operators and owners as well as automotive design engineers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Improvement of high-data-rate multi-dimensional, multi-parameter diagnostics will have wide application in NASA large ground test facilities. These test facilities play an integral role in the design, development, evaluation, and analysis of advanced aerospace technologies and vehicles. Cutting-edge optical diagnostics and modeling tools are proven to be instructive and will be the basis of such new developments in these fields. The advanced diagnostic toolkit developed under this SBIR project will be instrumental to fully investigate multiple flow parameters relevant to subsonic to hypersonic vehicles as well next generation airplane engines, and hence will be an invaluable asset to NASA and to the nation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Ultraviolet
Visible


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.08-8552
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeronautics Ground Test and Measurements Technologies - Ground Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Plenoptic Attitude Monitoring System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Optics Corporation
1845 West 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501-1510
(310) 320-3088

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Marc SeGall
EOSProposals@poc.com
1845 West 205th Street
Torrance,  CA 90501-1510
(310) 320-3088

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is seeking an optical system capable of analyzing the attitude of wind tunnel models in real time, with a high angular resolution and robustness. To address this need, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Plenoptic Attitude Monitoring (PAM) system, which utilizes a dual plenoptic imager to extract attitude information. The innovative dual plenoptic design utilizes one plenoptic imager to analyze and correct for turbulence effects introduced by airflow around the model, while the second imager extracts the attitude information from the model itself. This system is capable of providing real-time measurements with a high angular resolution of better than 9 arcsec. As an analytical imaging based system, PAM may also be placed in any location that provides it with a view of the model under test, thereby ensuring compatibility with existing monitoring technologies and enabling protection from wind tunnel temperature and pressure conditions. The compactness of the design also minimizes setup and calibration time, thereby fully compatible and reducing the impact on wind tunnel operations. During Phase I, POC will design and demonstrate the feasibility of the PAM system using a low-speed wind tunnel and modeling for higher wind speeds. By the completion of Phase II, POC will demonstrate the PAM system in subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic wind tunnel tests and finalize the design for production.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications include military applications of the PAM system after modifications for installation in aircraft. PAM's ability to be incorporated into a predictive flight path program will enable it to rapidly forecast the flight path of an enemy aircraft or missile, thereby improving the response time for countermeasures. Commercial applications of PAM include civilian wind tunnels and the ability for physical analysis when it is necessary to eliminate external factors from the imagery. This includes shock analysis, tests of tensile strength for new materials, and rapid characterization of objects in motion to be incorporated into physics-based simulations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary application of the PAM system will be for model attitude analysis in wind tunnels, enabling improved analysis of model design. With minor modifications, PAM can also be incorporated into land- and aircraft-based observation platforms, which will enable real-time analysis of flight systems under actual flight conditions. This will enable wind shear analysis of aircraft and spacecraft and also provide for a predictive flight path program based on the changes in position and attitude.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Attitude Determination & Control
Image Analysis
Interferometric (see also Analysis)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.09-7073
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vehicle Safety - Inflight Icing Hazard MitigationTechnology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Thin-Film Hybrid Coating for Ice Mitigation on Aircraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Modification, Inc.
2809-K Merrilee Drive
Fairfax, VA 22031-4409
(703) 560-1371

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tirumalai Sudarshan
sudarshan@matmod.com
2809-K Merrilee Drive
Fairfax,  VA 22031-4409
(703) 560-1371

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Current aircraft utilize electro-thermal/mechanical protection systems to actively remove ice from vital aircraft surfaces. These systems have high power requirements and only protect certain areas of the aircraft; thus such technology is not considered for next generation vehicles as it will greatly diminish the allocation of power for other vital components. The accumulation of ice on an aircraft (airframe or engine components) results in a drastic decrease of performance (decrease in thrust and lift, increase in weight and drag). To this effect, Materials Modification, Inc. (MMI), proposes to develop a thin-film coating that will combat dynamic icing conditions with a two-part solution; in which the top layer coating consists of a smooth superhydrophobic coating to combat the supercooled water droplets and a base layer that consists of a smooth silicone elastomer to reduce ice adhesion strength from possible ice nucleation. Phase I efforts will be primarily dedicated towards developing and synthesizing the hybrid thin-film coating and evaluating its ice adhesion strength, coating durability, and surface morphology. Phase II efforts will build upon the results of the Phase I findings and incorporate the material/coating into NASAıs constructed vehicles such as UAVs, manned aircrafts, and next generation aerial vehicles (N+2).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed hybrid thin-film coating has many commercial and industrial applications such as the aviation, communications, shipping, power generation and transmission, construction, and alternative energy industries. The proposed hybrid thin-film superhydro/icephobic coating can be integrated into communication towers, satellite dishes, trains, outdoor heavy machinery, commercial aircrafts, windmills and solar arrays, power lines, maritime vessels, and bridges.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The hybrid thin-film coating developed in this proposed Phase I effort can be incorporated into NASAıs Sensor Integrated Environmental Remote Research Aircraft (SIERRA), whose key mission is to perform remote sensing and atmospheric sampling of isolated or inaccessible regions on Earth. Furthermore, the proposed innovation will also benefit manned aerial vehicles such as the P-3 Orion and next generation aerial vehicles (N+2 or N+3) that are being jointly developed by NASA and Boeing. The proposed technology will be primarily used on the leading edge of the aerial vehicle, other structural and airframe components that are susceptible to ice accretion, as well as engine components.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Nanomaterials
Polymers


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.09-7646
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vehicle Safety - Inflight Icing Hazard MitigationTechnology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Durable Icephobic Cellulose Nanopaper Composite for Aircraft Icing Mitigation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Helicity Technologies
3655 James Road, Suite 110
Acworth, GA 30102-3010
(770) 403-5549

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Liang Wang
liang.wang@helicitytech.com
3655 James Rd, Ste 110
Acworth,  GA 30102-3010
(678) 448-8975

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Existing aircraft ice protection systems operate at the expense of other payload and add significant weight, power requirements, system complexity, or cost. A completely passive technology that would prevent ice accretion is highly desired, but no known technique has reached a level of effectiveness, durability and cost-efficiency to merit commercialization. Helicity Technologies proposes to integrate our proprietary icephobic liquid into a durable, easily renewable, environmentally friendly, icephobic composite that does not distort airflow and adds negligible weight. In Phase I, we will develop a cellulose nanopaper base layer for the storage and replenishment of our functional fluid to dramatically extend its useful life. Methods for increasing cellulose nanopaper strength and elasticity, and improved control of porosity will be explored. The resulting icephobic composite prototype will be tested for performance under simulated icing conditions in an icing wind tunnel.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Icephobic coatings have numerous potential commercial applications within civil aviation, rail, wind energy, maritime transport, and logistics industries. Potential applications include airframes, rail infrastructure, railcars, switches, wind turbines, shipboard structures, and transit equipment. An economical, reliable, readily renewable, and long-lasting passive anti-icing solution could potentially improve the overall safety, performance, and efficiency of the future transportation system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our proposed technology has broad applicability across NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) and is especially relevant to the Airspace Operations and Safety Program and Advanced Air Vehicles Program. When fully developed, our technology can provide continuous, lightweight, rain-erosion resistant icing protection without adding manufacturing complexity or affecting payload for fixed and rotary wing vehicles. Our proposed technology is also in close alignment with NASA's Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) research. By mitigating the hazards of flight into icing conditions, our technology will dramatically increase options for flight path, range, altitude and duration of unmanned missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Nanomaterials
Organics/Biomaterials/Hybrids
Polymers


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.09-8166
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vehicle Safety - Inflight Icing Hazard MitigationTechnology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Performance Enhancement of Deicing Systems with the Use of an Anti-Ice Nano-Coating

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NEI Corporation
201 Circle Drive North, Suite 102/103
Piscataway, NJ 08873-1154
(732) 868-3141

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jiong Liu
jliu@neicorporation.com
201 Circle Drive North, Suite 102/103
Piscataway,  NJ 08873-1154
(732) 868-3141

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed program addresses NASA's need for a new generation of icing mitigation technology for manned and unmanned vehicles, particularly related to icing on airframe of flight into supercooled liquid water clouds and regions of high ice crystal density. The state of the art active deicing method on leading edges involves either an electrical, pneumatic or vibration induced debonding of accumulated ice. With the advent of icephobic nanocoatings, there have been attempts to develop a durable passive anti-ice coating. However, success to date has been limited. The state of the art can be advanced if anti-ice coatings can be made more durable, and are made to function synergistically with active de-icing techniques. The advantages are reduced power consumption, improved service life of mechanical components, lighter electronics and extra protection in case of failure of active device. Working in collaboration with a manufacturer of low power ice protection systems for commercial and military aircraft, we propose in Phase I to demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating a durable anti-ice coating with an active deicing device. The proposed program builds upon NEI's core competency of introducing desirable functionalities into engineered coatings. The anti-ice/deicing performance will be tested at our collaborator's icing wind tunnel. The objective of the Phase II program will be to further refine the coating composition and coating deposition process, as well as the configuration of the baseline active deicing device so as to deliver a working prototype of an integrated ice protection system that combines a passive anti-ice coating and an active deicing device.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Ice accretion on aircraft structures is a common aviation danger. Under non-icing conditions air flows smoothly over the airfoil and creates lift. Ice buildup on aircraft?s leading surfaces disturbs laminar airflow, leading to increased drag and decreased lift. Consequently, aircraft icing degrades performance and controllability and significantly increases pilot workload and aircraft fuel consumption. The proposed anti-ice nanoscale coating has the potential to drastically reduce the ice adhesion and/or prevent ice accumulation on surfaces in inclement weather conditions. The coating technology being developed in this program can be applied to military and commercial aircraft. Additionally, the coating can also find use in satellite dishes, transmission lines, wind turbine blades, communication towers, and train cars. The market presents an opportunity for NEI Corporation to develop and sell a nanotechnology based coating formulation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed integrated deicing system directly supports NASA's continued interest in inflight icing hazard mitigation technology for aircraft. Existing and next generation aircraft, including N+2/N+3 aircraft as well as vertical lift and unmanned systems, will benefit from the technology as it will help enable all-weather operation, reduce weight and lower power consumption. The baseline active deicing system, upon which the proposed technology is based, is already being used on several commercial and military aircraft. Success in the proposed effort will advance the capabilities of the active deicing system. It will also serve as the basis for future deicing systems that incorporate a passive coating working in conjunction with an active deicing system.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A1.09-8557
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vehicle Safety - Inflight Icing Hazard MitigationTechnology
PROPOSAL TITLE: In-Flight Ice Accretion Hazard Mitigation with Low Surface Roughness Aluminum Airfoil

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Microengineered Metals, Inc.
1808 Country Hills Drive
Yorkville, IL 60560-9685
(630) 553-2923

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Susan Wilson
swilson@microengineeredmetals.com
1808 Country Hills Drive
Yorkville,  IL 60560-9685
(630) 553-2923

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Icing is a major problem for the aviation industry, but it has proven to be a difficult problem to solve as the physical processes that lead to icing are complex and interdependent. Recently, it has been shown that a 4X reduction in surface roughness resulted in a 250% decrease in ice-adhesion strength. Super polishing aluminum slurry and pad technology has been used in preliminary tests to polish aluminum airfoils to rms surface roughness levels to 100 nm and below. An aluminum surface polished to 10 nm surface roughness exhibited a 73% reduction in temperature adjusted ice adhesion strength at 1.7 psi. Designed experiments on polishing will be conducted to optimize the surface roughness that yields the lowest ice adhesion strength. Subsequently, the TiN erosion/corrosion coating will also be super polished after deposition to equivalent low surface roughness levels. The manufacturing process can be optimized for time and cost efficiency. A hybrid solution consisting of low surface roughness, a TiN erosion/corrosion coating, and thermal energy is proposed for icing mitigation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications include: commercial airfoils, wing stabilizers, helicopter blades, wind turbine blades, gas turbine engine structures and condenser coils.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Mitigation of icing on aluminum structures through super polishing is applicable to ice build up on manned and unmanned aircraft, airfoils, wing stabilizers, and helicopter blades.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A2.01-7127
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: RF Emission-Based Health Monitoring for Hybrid and/or All Electric Aircraft Distributed Propulsion S

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nokomis, Inc.
310 5th Street
Charleroi, PA 15022-1517
(724) 483-3946

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Davis
wdavis@nokomisinc.com
5330 Heatherdowns Blvd., Ste 209
Toledo,  OH 43614-4644
(724) 483-3946

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future aircraft propulsion is destined to be electric. All electric aircraft propulsion systems promise significant improvements in energy efficiency, maneuverability, safety, reliability, reduced maintenance costs, noise reduction, higher lift, shorter takeoff, and other factors. NASA's LEAPtech technology is the major departure from the current state-of-art aircraft vehicle/engine design, possibly enabling unprecedented performance and design flexibility...and [can] maximize total vehicle performance. This offers new opportunities to monitor aircraft propulsion components, on the ground or continuously in-flight. Nokomis has developed and installed a system for testing electronic components for Air Force procurement and maintenance spanning non-contact measurement of electronic part degradation, part aging and predicting onset of part failure. We propose a system whereby Electromechanical Health and Remaining Useful Life (RUL) can be determined real-time in-flight using motor's unintended Radio Frequency emissions, making flight testing such aircraft safer, and detecting dangerous conditions before they materialize.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There exists continued developmental efforts and sales volume in the automotive industry of hybrid and all-electric vehicles. Future efforts towards autonomous operation demand the development of technologies to ensure the safety margin and reliability for such vehicles. Other potential industries include elevator manufacturers, robotics providers and the defense industry to avoid system failures in motor drive systems and improve maintenance.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology is intended for use by the LEAPtech Program, especially directed towards anticipating safety issues and improving overall performance of this platform. Additional programs which could benefit from the technology proposed include the Integrated Vehicle Health Management effort (IVHM), originated by NASA but now also supported by Boeing, Cranfield University, and other large industry leaders, and the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) for ensuring reliability of equipment in support of both human and robotic exploration programs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Actuators & Motors
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Electromagnetic
Microwave
Radio
Lifetime Testing
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A2.01-7475
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Inexpensive, Rugged and Compact Tunable Laser with Simple Tuning Control for Airborne Fiber Optic Sensor (FOS) Interrogators

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Freedom Photonics, LLC
41 Aero Camino
Santa Barbara, CA 93117-3104
(805) 967-4900

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gordon Morrison
gordon@freedomphotonics.com
41 Aero Camino
Santa Barbara,  CA 93117-3104
(805) 967-4900

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Dryden (Armstrong) Flight Research Center has developed a 4-fiber interrogation system for Fiber Optic Smart Structures (FOSS) sensor networks interrogation. Replacing the expensive, bulky, mechanically tuned swept laser technology used in the FOS system will help reduce the system cost, size and weight, and enable massive deployment. In this program, Freedom Photonics proposes to develop a novel, inexpensive semiconductor based widely tunable laser, which can be tuned using simple tuning algorithms and control.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications include temperature and pressure monitoring for oil and gas drilling, monitoring the strain on blades of wind turbines, sensing liquid levels in vats of chemicals, monitoring temperature and strain along the wings or blades of aerial vehicles, and monitoring the interior and exterior structural strain of all sorts of structures, 3D shape sensing. Spectroscopy, instrumentation for spectroscopic measurements.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The applications for the FOS technology with NASA: stress and strain monitoring in air and space vehicles; temperature monitoring in air and space vehicles. Structural health monitoring in air and space vehicles. Liquid fuel level monitoring in rockets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Emitters
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Acoustic/Vibration
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A2.01-7500
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cloud-Based Electronic Test Procedures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRACLabs, Inc.
100 North East Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio, TX 78216-1234
(281) 461-7886

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Kortenkamp
korten@traclabs.com
100 North East Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio,  TX 78216-1234
(281) 461-7886

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Test procedures are at the heart of any experimental process, especially those involving novel and complex hardware. Whether these procedures are for system check-out, experimental set-up, data collection, or operating the test article, following appropriate procedures and auditing the results of these procedures brings rigor and repeatability to the experimental process. Typically, test procedures are written in Microsoft Word or Excel and then printed out. Data entry is done by pen and pencil with little to no data captured electronically. This increases the error rate in procedures and reduces efficiency. A cloud-based test procedure system provides procedures via web browsers on tablets or laptops and guides the user through the procedure step-by-step. Electronic test procedures can capture and display data automatically and provide a record of procedure performance. Common procedure elements can be re-used and shared across multiple projects and programs. Custom displays can be generated from the same procedure content for use on-board in addition to on the ground. TRACLabs proposes to extend its existing electronic procedure system, PRIDE, to capture the unique requirements of NASA flight test projects. PRIDE is currently being used on a variety of NASA projects, including the International Space Station (ISS), and by an increasing number of commercial customers. PRIDE replaces the document-oriented test procedures currently in use with information-oriented procedures that are flexible and optimized for on-line performance. The result will be an extensible electronic test procedure system that can be utilized across all of NASA's aeronautical test facilities and programs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
TRACLabs is already selling PRIDE as a commercial product with oil field services company Baker Hughes as a launch customer. Baker Hughes is field-testing PRIDE as several sites world-wide before deployment in actual operations in mid-2016. PRIDE is proving automation assistance to drilling operations. Baker Hughes has already expressed interest in licensing the new capabilities being developed in this project including data logging and content re-use. We will work with them to make sure that this project meets their requirements. TRACLabs expects additional customers in the oil and gas industry will deploy PRIDE once it has been proven effective by Baker Hughes. TRACLabs also sees application of this technology in the automotive manufacturing area. TRACLabs performed a small pilot project for automotive supplier Magna (second largest in the world with 285 manufacturing facilities and over 125,000 employees) on flexible robotic assembly. This was successful, and after a tour of several Magna manufacturing facilities in North America, TRACLabs personnel are negotiating a follow-on contract for research and development. Augmented reality would be used to assign personnel on the manufacturing floor in performing their tasks and validating their work. We expect other manufacturing companies to be interested as well. Sierra Nevada Corporation has also purchased PRIDE licenses for use in their Dream Chaser program.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our initial application of this technology will be NASA aeronautics research projects such as the Scalable Convergent Electronic Propulsion Technology Operations Research (SCEPTOR) project. We have already talked with NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) about using PRIDE and they are excited and have already been evaluating the existing software. Additional aeronautics research projects would follow. PRIDE is being evaluated for use in ground operations for the Resource Prospector robotic mission to the moon being jointly developed by NASA JSC and ARC. Ground operations personnel are currently evaluating PRIDE and this technology would potentially be able to assist them in their operations. The data logging and content re-use aspects of this technology would be immediately applicable to their project. Applications to ISS and Orion operations are numerous and we are working with NASA personnel to pursue these applications. We are also pursuing applications to NASA robotics activities including NASA JSC's R2 and R5 robots and NASA ARC's Astrobee robot.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Man-Machine Interaction
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Knowledge Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A2.01-7589
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Battery Management and Control System using a Universal Reconfigurable Architecture for Extended Health of Batteries in Hybrid and/or All-Electric Propulsion Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
X-wave Innovations, Inc.
407 Upshire Circle
Gaithersburg, MD 20878-5238
(301) 948-8351

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Carlos Rentel
dxiang@x-waveinnovations.com
407 Upshire Circle
Gaithersburg,  MD 20878-5238
(301) 948-8351

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA seeks intelligent monitoring for hybrid and/or all electric propulsion systems, as well as methods to significantly extend the life of electric aircraft propulsion energy sources. Lithium-based batteries will continue to play a key role as an electric propulsion source due to their high energy and power densities. However, the requirement to advance towards more fuel efficient and environmentally friendly aircrafts demands battery systems that can operate for longer periods of time in a safer and more reliable manner. Efforts within the commercial aviation sector also indicate strong interest in this area. As an example, Boeing is developing hybrid airplanes as part of the Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft project funded by NASA, and has also developed the first hybrid electric airplane in cooperation with Cambridge University. On the battery monitoring and control area, focus has been mostly aimed at achieving accurate and stable long-term estimation of cell State of Charge, State of Health, and Remaining Useful Life. These efforts have achieved excellent progress, and accuracies below 3% error are common today. We propose a new universal architecture that intelligently utilizes this estimated information and turns it into tangible actions to satisfy application demands while simultaneously improving on battery's health/life performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We envision that the proposed system has many market applications in different industries such as space exploration, defense, and energy sectors. Other government agencies, including DOD, DOE, DOT, and commercial sectors will benefit from this technology. Additionally, battery technologies are constantly being sought for renewable systems, such as solar, wind, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Battery systems are also a critical component in Data Centers where intelligent and accurate monitoring of batteries is essential along with enhanced performance.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has great interest in methods and approaches for intelligent monitoring of electric power and propulsion systems for hybrid and/or all-electric aircrafts. NASA is specifically interested in the areas of intelligent monitoring and battery life and health improvement methods for fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly aircrafts. This includes the development of battery management systems capable to significantly extend the life of batteries while at the same time ensuring safety and performance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Distribution/Management
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A2.01-7618
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Automated Tools and Technologies for Enhancing Long-Range Imagery

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
EM Photonics
51 East Main Street, Suite 203
Newark, DE 19711-4685
(302) 456-9003

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aaron Paolini
paolini@emphotonics.com
51 East Main St. Ste 203
Newark,  DE 19711-4685
(302) 456-9003

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
One of the mandates of NASA's Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) is participating in the flight testing of experimental aircraft, which includes monitoring these tests with long-range, ground-based cameras. Because these cameras track and capture flight tests occurring multiple kilometers away, the imagery collected is often degraded by the atmospheric turbulence between the camera and subject. In the summer of 2015, EM Photonics delivered the ATCOM TM-1, a rack-mountable system that is capable of taking a live HD-SDI video from a NASA long-range tracking camera, enhancing that video in real time, and outputting the resulting video in the same format; however, the current approach still requires user configuration to achieve the best results. The focus of our work in this project will be on both automating system configuration to adjust automatically to changing system and scene parameters, as well as improving human factors related to operator's use of an inline video processing solution. The former requires research on methods for estimating turbulence and determining motion in complex videos with significant distortion and warping. In the course of this project, we will develop technology in four primary areas, each of which are useful in themselves but with the ultimate goal of including them as features in the ATCOM TM-1 system currently used by NASA AFRC.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology developed in this project will have applications at other federal government agencies as well as in the private sector. From a federal government perspective, these tools can be used to monitor secure facilities including sensitive government buildings and nuclear stockpiles. Our technology can reveal additional details on the subjects being monitored. They can increase the effective range of cameras placed at the border. Customs and Border Patrol has shown an interest in this technology for helping catch drug traffickers. Local government and regulatory agencies may also be interested in in monitoring wildlife around power-generation facilities including solar farms and land and sea-based wind turbines, primarily for their effects on local bird and other animal habitats. Within private industry, we have had discussions with camera vendors that would like to incorporate this technology directly into their hardware platforms once the algorithms have reached a sufficient state as to not require operator interaction. They are interested in the potential to automate the image enhancement techniques. We have also been approached by video production companies about using our tools in their processing pipeline. While some have used it successfully, they have expressed an interest in further automation of the tools. We see this as a group that could help sustain this work once this project is complete.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our work will be broadly applicable to any group that collects long-range imagery for monitoring, scientific study, or surveillance applications. At NASA, this includes groups that track flight tests and rocket launches as well as those looking from ground-based cameras to observe astronomical phenomena. The primary application of this technology is to the flight test and tracking work done at Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC). These tools will provide further enhancement of videos collected there allowing for observation of additional detail in the subjects imaged. It will also include software to automate the current image enhancement system, reducing the burden on the operator of interacting with it and thus freeing them up to focus on their other responsibilities during flight tests. The image enhancement tools developed here can be used in two ways during rocket launches. First, since observation cameras must be placed far from the launch pads, our technology can assist in range clearance to allow for observation of additional details on vehicles prior to launch. Second, they will provide additional detail on rockets as they fly to provide more information to ground crew. Additionally, the software we develop can also be used in the study of objects in space from ground cameras. We can mitigate the atmospheric effects given a clear picture of objects of interest.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Image Analysis
Image Processing
Optical
Telemetry (see also Control & Monitoring)
Visible
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A2.01-7801
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Runtime Assurance for Flight Test Research Aircraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Barron Associates, Inc.
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901-2496
(434) 973-1215

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Schierman
schierman@bainet.com
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville,  VA 22901-2496
(434) 973-1215

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Barron Associates proposes to develop a runtime assurance (RTA) system that provides in-flight protection to research aircraft that are flight testing advanced or experimental controllers. The RTA system monitors key critical parameters to determine if errors in the experimental controller are potentially driving the vehicle to unsafe flight conditions. If such conditions are ensuing, the RTA system activates mitigation strategies to bring the aircraft back to a safe state. The main efforts in Phase I are: (1) develop the RTA system in a desktop simulation environment using a challenge problem with a specific advanced control system applied to a specific flight test vehicle that is of interest to NASA Armstrong, (2) integrate the RTA system into a NASA flight test experiment processing environment, (3) generalize the RTA design approach, and (4) prepare for SUAS Phase II flight tests by designing a flight test article and flight test experiment plan. The unmanned, small scale Phase II flight test will lay the groundwork for larger scale Phase III flight test in manned aircraft at NASA or other test facilities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The developed technologies will help advanced flight testing efforts of DoD services, such as the Army, Navy and Air Force, as well as defense agencies, such as DARPA, as well as commercial airline services. Other potential opportunities in commercial markets will be in unmanned systems applications. There is substantial interest in unmanned systems that can think on their own and react to unforeseen events without the need for human control and intervention. More commercial companies continue to see the benefits of such tools in helping to deliver their products, manage construction of equipment, process hardware, perform automated tasks, etc. Such unmanned platforms range from airborne vehicles, to unmanned ground vehicles, to robotic applications. Errors, breakdowns, faults and unforeseen characteristics will be commonplace when utilizing these types of advanced autonomy, and there is critical need for runtime protection that can provably bound the behaviors of these unmanned, autonomous systems to avoid unsafe conditions or costly accidents.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The developed technologies will help advanced NASA AFRC flight testing efforts by providing trusted, automatic safety monitoring and mitigation measures. This will ease the burden on the flight test pilots from continually monitoring for unsafe conditions, which can often occur faster than a human pilot can recognize and react to in the first place. This added level of protection will also allow expanded flight envelope testing of more complex, advanced control, guidance, mission management/planning systems, and other onboard support technologies, such as vehicle health monitoring.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Man-Machine Interaction
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A2.01-7848
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: MATE: Modern Software Technology for Flight Test Automation and Orchestration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
METECS
1030 Hercules Avenue
Houston, TX 77058-2722
(832) 476-8651

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John MacLean
john.maclean@metecs.com
1030 Hercules Ave.
Houston,  TX 77058-2722
(832) 476-8651

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The development of advanced technologies for flight testing, measurement, and data acquisition are critical to effectively meeting the future goals and challenges faced by NASA and the aerospace industry. Space systems have become increasingly complex where the development of each system may be geographically distributed across organizations and subsystems. When performing an integrated flight test, the main problems that must be addressed are test orchestration and measurement/data acquisition. The main issue with both areas typically arises from the fact that each system component may employ various disparate interfaces which may be in addition to the direct interfaces used during flight. Effective flight tests will also likely involve the integration of multiple simulations and other test equipment to provide inputs and feedback for real-world scenarios. The proposed innovation is a scalable architectural software framework known as the mREST Automated Test Environment (MATE) which addresses the technical issues commonly associated with flight testing, measurement, and data acquisition by providing comprehensive flight test orchestration and data measurement/acquisition capabilities in both centralized and distributed environments. MATE has the potential to significantly optimize current flight test methodologies without levying new requirements on each test element. The proposed software framework is based on the mREST Architecture and Interface Specification which is a specific implementation of a RESTful web-services architecture that resulted from research and prototyping efforts performed by METECS for the Johnson Space Center (JSC).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Any object that requires a simple web-based interface would be able to use the MATE software. Likewise, any system of disparate elements could easily be integrated using MATE. Some potential non-NASA commercial applications of MATE include building environmental control and monitoring, product verification and validation, hardware testing, remote monitoring equipment, safety and security monitoring systems, and automated processes. The potential NASA commercial applications listed in the previous section would also apply for non-NASA applications: 1. Remote data monitoring 2. Integrated test automation and orchestration 3. Simulation monitoring and control 4. Model-based system engineering (MBSE) 5. Facility monitoring and control 6. Monitoring and control of environmental control systems 7. Process management and control 8. Security system management 9. Computer system administration monitoring and optimization 10. Failure analysis and testing 11. Browser-based graphical user interfaces

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The MATE software has the potential to greatly enhance existing flight test orchestration capabilities at NASA. Any facility which requires integration and testing of hardware and/or software elements would benefit. In addition, development of web-based user interfaces would be streamlined for any MATE element or system. Systems that utilize common NASA components with existing web-based interfaces such as LabVIEW, the Trick Simulation Environment, and/or EDGE graphics have a greater initial potential for implementation. Other applications that have potential for NASA are: 1. Remote data monitoring 2. Integrated test automation and orchestration 3. Simulation monitoring and control 4. Model-based system engineering (MBSE) 5. Facility monitoring and control 6. Monitoring and control of environmental control systems 7. Process management and control 8. Security system management 9. Computer system administration monitoring and optimization 10. Failure analysis and testing 11. Browser-based graphical user interfaces

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Command & Control
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Sequencing & Scheduling
Teleoperation
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Fusion
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing
Knowledge Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A2.01-8005
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aircraft Chemical Sensor Arrays for Onboard Engine and Bleed Air Monitoring

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Makel Engineering, Inc.
1585 Marauder Street
Chico, CA 95973-9064
(530) 895-2771

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Susana Carranza
scarranza@makelengineering.com
1585 Marauder Street
Chico,  CA 95973-9064
(512) 589-0718

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Makel Engineering Inc. (MEI), proposes to develop flight capable chemical microsensor arrays for in-situ monitoring of high temperature bleed air and turbine exhaust in jet engines. The proposed chemical sensor probes will be a new class of on-board engine instrumentation for real time monitoring of engine and bleed air system operation in flight. Sensor arrays developed by MEI have been demonstrated for ground tests usage to quantify composition of critical constituents in turbine engine exhaust products, e.g., CO, CO2, NOx, O2 and HC (unburned hydrocarbons). There currently is no flight capable instrumentation for real time measurement of high temperature gas streams from engine bleed air or the turbine exhaust. Ground test demonstrations with high temperature capable (500 to 600 (deg) C) solid-state chemical microsensors have shown the potential value for engine health monitoring and detection of engine faults or abnormal operations from ingestion of high moisture levels or particulate from volcanic emissions. The development of flight qualified engine sensors which can measure key chemical species will enable a new level of aeronautical vehicle health management.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
All commercial passenger aircraft manufacturers are highly interested in sensors for monitoring bleed air quality to avoid exposure of harmful or noxious gases to passengers and crew. MEI is currently in discussions with The Boeing Company looking at sensor approaches for bleed air monitoring. MEI has been working Cobham PLC on pilot breathing air quality monitoring for the Air Force for aircraft which use OBOGS systems to supply pilot breathing air. Cobham is a major US Defense contractor has approximately 70% of the world wide OBOGS market. Cobham is currently seeking chemical sensing technology for OBOGS monitoring. A multi-species, on-engine capable, exhaust or combustor sensor is a product desired and sought after by the engines companies including Rolls Royce, GE, and Pratt & Whitney. A similar product is the expressed interest of stationary gas turbine manufacturers including GE and Siemens.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This proposal targets the improvement of NASA's ground and flight test aeronautics testing capabilities. Potential end users within NASA include ground test facilities such as Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) and Flight Loads Laboratory (FLL), as well as flight facilities such as AFRC with both piloted and unmanned systems. Real-time, in-flight data regarding combustor condition and emissions species can provide a previously unavailable test capability for NASA. Monitoring of bleed air for contaminants and fuel backflow is also an area of interest. The sensor probe systems proposed in this project are aligned with the next step testing which has been proposed for the VIPR program. Potential VIPR 4 or 5 activities could include measurements of the bleed air and engine exhaust using on-board chemical sensors. Presently no such sensors exist and they would need to be developed along the lines proposed in this project.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A2.01-8364
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Optimal Realtime Damage Identification in Composite Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation
2363 Calle Del Mundo
Santa Clara, CA 95054-1008
(408) 565-9004

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vahid Sotoudeh
vs@ifos.com
2363 Call Del Mundo
Santa Clara,  CA 95054-1008
(408) 565-8528

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS) proposes to develop an effective real-time, in situ damage locating and growth monitoring system of composite structures by optimizing a smart, high-speed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor and piezoelectric actuator placement strategy. A new damage identification technique is proposed from which damage in composites such as delamination and impact-related defects can be detected. The proposed technique utilizes the pitch-catch Lamb wave signals obtained from an FBG sensor and piezoelectric actuator network, without the need of baseline signals from the pristine condition. The project goals include designing an ultra-high-speed/high resolution, small footprint FBG sensor and piezoelectric actuator network plus an FBG interrogator, constructing a system model, fabricating a test platform and developing signal processing algorithms to identify and measure Lamb wave signals in the presence of a quasi-static background strain field. The system model will demonstrate proof-of-principle, and the test results will provide proof-of-functionality of the proposed sensor system as a measurement method for damage identification in composite structures. The methodology proposed by IFOS includes using advanced signal processing algorithms. IFOS and its collaborators in this project will develop a Phase II plan that includes a development and integration strategy, potential demonstration opportunities, program schedule, and estimated costs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Many non-NASA commercial markets exist that can realize significant benefits from this new technology for testing, verification and validation of highly integrated/synergistic structures in the aerospace, automobile, and infrastructure industries. Commercial aviation, the oil and gas industry, and land and marine vehicles will benefit significantly from this technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary application of this technology meets NASAıs requirements for improved measurement and analysis techniques for acquisition of real-time, in-flight data used to determine aerodynamic, structural, flight control, and propulsion system performance characteristics. The technology can also be used to provide test conductors the information to safely expand the flight and test envelopes of aerospace vehicles and components.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Acoustic/Vibration


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A2.02-7076
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Core Flight Software for Unmanned Aircraft Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Windhover Labs
2115 Castle Drive
League City, TX 77573-4947
(832) 385-3941

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mathew Benson
mbenson@windhoverlabs.com
2115 Castle Dr
League City,  TX 77573-4947
(832) 640-4018

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) is increasing worldwide, but multiple technical barriers restrict the greater use of UASs. The safe operation of UASs in the National Airspace (NAS) will require the vehicle to equipped with sophisticated avionics and flight software. The cost of verifying the flight software required for safe operation is a tremendous barrier to the growth of the technology. Windhover Labs intends to port NASAs Core Flight Software (CFS) to a UAS platform, and use new techniques and tools to lower flight software verification costs. This will provide a safe platform for UAS technology expansion. Windhover Labs intends to extend the existing safety critical pedigree of CFS to UASs. We will develop all the UAS platform specific applications and integrate them into a UAS avionics package. Windhover Labs will certify the CFS framework so application developers need only focus on the verification of their applications. With the basic UAS platform certification taken care of, UAS users can focus on their specific needs like precision agriculture, aerial survey, product delivery, etc. CFS is built around a software bus which allows for straightforward addition of this application specific software. Windhover Labs will also create an embedded test agent. This agent will provide an automated test engine that has access to all the application interfaces. This embedded agent provides an interface and execution platform for application developers to write effective verification tests. Innovative ground control software will enable automating the execution of these tests and the collecting of necessary verification evidence. The CFS framework is a perfect fit for powering the future of UASs in the NAS. Windhover Labs believes that providing this safety critical flight software framework and verification tools tailored for that framework lowers the technology barrier so many new UAS applications can be brought to market affordably.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Non-NASA Commercial market for UASs is ready to explode. Many potential application developers cannot currently overcome the barrier to entry that is presented by safety related concerns. With a safety critical flight software framework in place, they can focus on their problem space without needing extensive flight software experience. A precision agriculture company can focus on their sensors and data processing functions rather than worrying about how the vehicle can safely fly in the NAS. A delivery company can solve the problems associated with mechanizing their delivery process rather than how to get the vehicle to fly safely from source to destination. A certified CFS is to UAS as iOS is to the iPhone. CFS can enable application developers to create solutions that stand on the shoulders of a rock solid platform without having to ascend the learning curve associated with the platform specifics. The Non-NASA market would benefit from the embedded test agent and ground software in the same was that NASA would. Efficient test programs reduce the number of defects and allow for more testing at a lower cost. Thorough testing is the key to the expansion of UASs in the NAS.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA Commercial Applications and research would greatly benefit from a certified version of CFS for UASs. NASA already has significant in-house expertise in creating CFS applications. With a UAS enabled version of CFS, NASA researchers could more easily use UASs to safely fly their payloads and perform their research. With the embedded test agent and accompanying ground software, NASA would be able to verify their applications quickly and efficiently, reducing the number of defects that escape to the field and lowering the cost of their test programs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Command & Control
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Computer System Architectures
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Development Environments
Operating Systems
Verification/Validation Tools
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A2.02-7563
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Run-Time Assurance for Safe UAS Operations with Reduced Human Oversight

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Barron Associates, Inc.
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901-2496
(434) 973-1215

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alec Bateman
bateman@bainet.com
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville,  VA 22901-2496
(434) 973-1215

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Current Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) operations in the National Airspace System (NAS) rely heavily on human oversight, with the majority of commercial operations currently authorized by the FAA through the Section 333 exemption process restricted to visual line of sight with a single vehicle controlled by an experienced UAS operator. Operation of SUAS may be highly automated, but human oversight is still required to provide a last line of defense against failures, especially those due to errors in the Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) system. Oversight of the systems is appropriate because the Verification, Validation, and Certification (V&V/C) activities required to achieve a high software Design Assurance Level (DAL) typically have not been conducted for these systems. In some cases this is because the GNC systems contain elements such as adaptive and learning capabilities that make V&V/C with existing methods difficult or impossible, while in other cases the issue is primarily cost, which can be prohibitive especially for small, low-cost systems. Barron Associates proposes development of automated monitoring capabilities that can assume the low-level monitoring responsibilities currently allocated to humans, enabling safe UAS operations with reduced human oversight. To develop these automated capabilities, the team will build on a rigorous Run-Time Assurance (RTA) framework developed by Barron Associates. Goals of the research effort include (1) building a safety monitor based on the rigorous theory of the RTA framework to enforce geo-fence boundaries for arbitrary vehicles, including fixed-wing vehicles, (2) rapidly advancing the TRL of the technology with a Phase II program that culminates in flight demonstrations, and (3) demonstrating that the RTA framework is a practical and powerful basis that can be used to enable reduced human oversight for a wide range of operating scenarios.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The non-NASA commercial applications of the proposed technology are enormous. By August 2015, the FAA had issued over 1000 authorizations to operate UAS through the Section 333 Exemption process, and in just the last two weeks of January 2016, the FAA issued over 80 additional authorizations. This demonstrates that the UAS market is already substantial and is growing very rapidly. UAS operators need effective technologies, such as that currently proposed, to ensure a high level of safety. The rapidly increasing number of organizations offering commercial UAS services also means that cost competition is likely to be intense, and operators will have to be efficient to be successful. With the cost of vehicles and the operating cost per hour already fairly low, especially compared to manned aircraft, reducing labor costs is a compelling strategy for providers of UAS services to remain competitive. The proposed technology will help to reduce labor costs by reducing the required level of human oversight, allowing a single human operator to conduct operations with a focus on mission management, rather than requiring two people, one to manage the mission and one to maintain eyes on the vehicle and provide backup control. Ultimately, the proposed technology will help to enable one operator to control multiple vehicles and conduct beyond line of sight operations, for enhancing efficiency and operational flexibility.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology is closely aligned with several current NASA research areas. One example is the Unmanned Aerial System Traffic Management (UTM) effort, one of the stated goals of which is to "enable safe and efficient low-altitude airspace operations by providing services such as...dynamic geo-fencing". The proposed research effort will provide a highly assured geo-fence enforcement capability that can readily accommodate dynamic boundaries. The system will also be able to provide rapid feedback when a specific boundary change will lead to a geo-fence violation given the current vehicle states, and an estimate of how long it will be before the vehicle can comply with the new boundary. The proposed research effort would also complement work such as the SAFEGUARD effort at NASA Langley, which is developing independent monitoring hardware and geo-fence enforcement capabilities. The proposed work will complement NASA efforts by providing rigorously defined switching boundaries and a robust maneuver capability to guarantee fixed wing-aircraft remain in the geo-fenced area without unnecessarily constraining maneuvering near the boundary. The proposed technology also offers potential value as a safety system for NASA's research flight test activities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Man-Machine Interaction
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Verification/Validation Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A2.02-7580
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Autonomous Contingency Detection and Reaction for Unmanned Aircraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Near Earth Autonomy, Inc.
5001 Baum Boulevard, Suite 750
Pittsburgh, PA 15213-1856
(412) 513-6110

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sanjiv Singh
ssingh@nearearth.aero
5001 Baum Blvd Ste 750
Pittsburgh,  PA 15213-1856
(412) 855-3675

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and, in particular, intelligent, autonomous aircraft operating in the national airspace system (NAS) have the potential to significantly impact modern society. They could perform difficult and dangerous tasks such as fire fighting, border patrol, and search and rescue, and dull tasks such as surveying crops. The elimination of a cockpit and pilot makes UAS operation attractive from an economic standpoint. In addition, much of the technology used for autonomy could benefit manned flight as a pilot's aid to help in tasks such as landing on an offshore oil rig. Open questions remain, however, about how unmanned autonomous aircraft can be safely incorporated into the NAS. UAS operating in the NAS must (1) sense and avoid other vehicles and follow air traffic commands, (2) avoid the terrain and land safely without operator intervention, (3) react to contingencies such as engine-out and lost-link scenarios, and (4) be reliable (by FAA airworthiness standards) and cost-effective. The current approach for UAS integration relies on radio links and the operator's acuity to direct them safely. Lost links, however, are unavoidable. UAS must have the capability to make their own decisions based on information available via databases and any information discovered by onboard sensors. Near Earth Autonomy proposes to develop technologies and capabilities leading to fully autonomous systems that are able to discover and adapt to unpredicted changes in their environment, and yet still accomplish the mission, with minimal or no human involvement. This proposal focuses on developing an Autonomous Contingency System in the form of sensors and computer software that will enable UAS of the future to be operable safely in the NAS. Additionally, the proposal addresses how the technical challenges can be met and how the technology developed can be shown to be both trustworthy and commercially viable for general aviation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Government agencies, both military and civilian, will comprise a much larger market for the technology. The commercial sector will eventually be the largest market sector. A recent market analysis in Composites World magazine, drawing on work from both the Teal Group and AUVSI, indicates a global military market of approximately 57,000 UAS, with about 19,000 for the US military services--primarily in the reconnaissance and attack configurations, with growing utilization of utility and cargo configurations. Additionally, the analysis forecasts a commercial market of as many as 160,000 unmanned aircraft, most of which would be in the public safety and precision agriculture segments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Near Earth envisions the initial NASA market to be primarily units for testing and validation at both the system level and at the aircraft level. The autonomous capabilities that Near Earth proposes will contribute to NASA's testing and validation of the technologies and concepts for UAS operations in the NAS. Additionally, Near Earth's autonomous technology will provide an enhanced capability, enabling more comprehensive UAS flight-testing for NASA's collaborative efforts with the FAA to accommodate UAS operation in the Next Generation Air Transportation System. As the autonomous flight capabilities mature and are integrated into aircraft, they will be of direct use to NASA in their flight testing of ground-based air navigational aids and guidance systems located in remote areas, such as Antarctica. Near Earth's autonomous technology will enable greater utilization of UAS in other NASA areas, particularly for experimentation and testing in NASA?s various research centers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Intelligence
Perception/Vision
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A2.02-7634
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Safety Analysis For Evaluating (SAFE) sUAS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 190
Rockville, MD 20855-2814
(301) 294-5221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ankit Tyagi
atyagi@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 190
Rockville,  MD 20855-2814
(301) 294-4639

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASAıs Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration in the NAS (UAS in the NAS) project is aimed at developing new technologies to enable safe operations of UAS in the NAS. Under the UTM program NASA plans to investigate procedures that can make sUAS operations for all stakeholders. Safety and operations studies under UTM will require accurate trajectories for sUASs. Since there are no sUAS flights permitted by FAA there is no real world trajectory data available to model trajectories reliably and accurately. To this end IAI has been developing USAM over the last several years as part of a NASA sponsored effort. The architecture is well developed and has been used to demonstrate the safety and efficiency impacts of integrating large fixed wing UASs in the NAS. SAFE sUAS project will extend the USAM approach to UAS safety analysis to cover sUAS missions. Extending USAM capabilities to sUAS requires additional capability to model sUAS (multirotor, fixed wing and hybrid) trajectories. This effort will develop high fidelity models for one multi-rotor sUAS and use it to analyze operating them in the NAS.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial sUAS operators can use SAFE sUAS to test the safety of their flight plans before flying them. The FAA can use the models to introduce sUAS in existing modeling and simulation platforms. FAA can also test new technologies such as geofencing and study the impact they have on overall NAS safety metrics.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed architecture and tools have a wide variety of application for NASA ı Perform safety analyses of sUAS flight plans as part of UTM project. ı Integrate the high fidelity sUAS models into a modeling and simulation platform of choice ı Investigate the safety and efficiency impacts of policy changes on sUAS operations ı Test and validate Minimum Operational Performance (MOP) for sUAS platforms.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A2.02-7689
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Self-Directed and Informed Forced-Landing System for UAV Avoidance of On-Ground Persons, Vehicles, and Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Barron Associates, Inc.
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901-2496
(434) 973-1215

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nathan Richards
richards@bainet.com
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville,  VA 22901-2496
(434) 973-1215

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
During a piloted forced landing in which the aircraft can no longer maintain level flight and is therefore forced to make an emergency off-airport landing, the human pilot continuously reassesses and updates the plan to minimize on-ground and onboard injury and damage. In the case of an unmanned air vehicle, this level of intelligent risk minimization is unavailable. Moreover, low-weight and low-cost design objectives for unmanned aircraft have resulted in a lack of propulsion and control redundancy, as well as unreliable communication links and an associated increase in incidents due to engine failure, control failure, and lost link. Safe integration of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS) will require an onboard capability for unmanned aircraft to accomplish the complex observation, understanding, and decision making that is required without assistance from a human operator. An advanced system capable of perception, cognition, and decision making is necessary to replace the need for a dedicated expert operator to ensure safety to persons, vehicles, and structures on the ground during UAS forced landings. Deployment of such a system would enable multiple UAS to be supervised by a single operator without compromising safety. The Self-Directed and Informed Forced Landing system emulates the continuous decision making process of a human pilot by assimilating available information and constantly reevaluating the plan. Robust, onboard guidance and control maximize the capability of the impaired aircraft while executing the current plan. The system considers current vehicle capability, wind estimates, landing site and route risk, as well as the uncertainty associated with these factors. Also, system design decisions have been, and will continue to be, weighed against current and near-future verification, validation, and certification requirements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In order to safely fulfill their rolls in government and commercial sectors, UAS will need to meet performance expectations for mission completion, reliable operation, and safe coexistence with other aircraft in the national airspace. The proposed system will address this need and increase the reliability, safety and autonomy of a UAS. Government agency UAS applications include: (1) Department of Defense military and intelligence-gathering operations, (2) FBI and local law-enforcement operations in urban areas, and (3) Department of the Interior land management oversight. In the private commercial sector, applications include the rapidly growing use of UAS for remote inspection and photography as well as future uses including package and medical supply delivery. The proposed system will interface with a widely used open-source auto-pilot software suite to provide direct access to a significant market of current small UAS users. Following successful completion of the research plan, the proposed system can be licensed to manufacturers of UAS airframes and autopilots. Widespread commercial use on small and mid-sized UAS will ultimately help prove the technology and lead to implementation on large UAS.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Widespread commercial use of UAS requires the safe integration of UAS into the NAS. Associated NASA research programs with a focus on achieving multi-vehicle operation and autonomous operation with less human oversight are application areas that directly benefit from the proposed system. The system directly addresses the Integrated Aviation Systems Program's focus area of ?high level machine perception, cognition, and decision making? while also supporting the focus area of enabling ?humans to operate multiple UAS with minimal oversight.? Specifically, the system will enable UASs to plan and execute forced landings that minimize the risk to persons and property on the ground. This technology is applicable to all classes/tiers of UAS including those in low-altitude airspace and those in high-altitude Class A and Class E airspace. Deployment in low-altitude airspace is directly applicable to near-term interests in Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management (UTM). Application to larger atmospheric research UAS and unmanned reusable launch vehicles follows maturation of the technology on small and mid-sized UAS at lower altitudes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Simulation & Modeling
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A2.02-8065
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Tool for Collaborative Autonomy

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
90 Broadway, 11th Floor
Cambridge, MA 02142-1050
(703) 369-3633

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sachin Jain
jain.sachin@aurora.aero
90 Broadway, 11th Floor
Cambridge,  MA 02142-1050
(617) 229-6812

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Over the last 25 years, UAS have proven to be very valuable tools for performing a wide range of operations such as environmental disaster relief, search and rescue operations, wildfire suppression, multi-robot planetary exploration, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR), precision agriculture, and weather forecasting. Envisioned missions often involve executing several different activities, sometimes simultaneously, where agents (Unmanned air, sea surface, or ground vehicle) must coordinate and interact with each other to perform the requisite tasks. Agents within these networked teams are usually heterogeneous, possessing different resources and capabilities, and some agents are better suited to handle certain types of tasks than others ? this leads to different roles and responsibilities within the mission. In other scenarios, independent vehicles, each with their own goals, must operate in the same space without interfering with one another . Ensuring proper coordination and collaboration between different agents is crucial to efficient and successful operations, motivating the development of autonomous planning methods for heterogeneous networked teams. Reducing the necessity for perfect communication is also critical. Since operations involve dynamic environments, with situational awareness and underlying models changing rapidly as new information is acquired, so planning strategies must be computationally efficient to adjust solutions in real time. We propose to develop the Tool for Collaborative Autonomy (TCA) that will provide an automated planning capability that routes assets to optimize overall airspace utilization (e.g. in traffic management scenarios) or operational effectiveness (e.g. in cooperative scenarios), and to ensure spatial and temporal deconfliction/synchronization of the team under dynamically changing environments while considering cost factors (e.g. fuel and time), available resources and network constraints.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Tool for Collaborative Autonomy (TCA) will also find applications in the burgeoning package delivery domain in which heterogeneous air and ground robots retrieve and deliver packages from base locations to delivery locations. This domain is complicated due to uncertainties and constraints, including decentralization, no online communication between robots, partial and noisy observability of packages, and probabilistic distributions of delivery times. Optimal or near-optimal solutions cannot be found in these situations by standard task allocation and planning algorithms; this will be a key goal of TCA. In addition, it will enable infrastructure surveillance, agricultural monitoring, micro-scale wind model development in urban environment, transport-related applications such as automated parking garages and autonomous vehicles, mining-related applications such as automated mine vehicles and mine sensing. TCA will be of great significance in warehouse management systems, in which large numbers of cooperative mobile robots that perform a majority of the physical tasks.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Tool for Collaborative Autonomy (TCA) will enable scheduling and deconfliction for civilian low-altitude and Unmanned Aircraft System operations. TCA will replace or augment pilots performing dangerous and/or high precision tasks. Crop dusting, aerial firefighting, agricultural monitoring, and environmental disaster relief involve complex routing of vehicles at low altitudes in communication constrained and uncertain environments. Using TCA for these applications has the potential to save lives and increase productivity. TCA will also be applicable in the areas of multi-satellite missions, multi-aperture telescopes. Using TCA, multi-satellite missions can be performed, involving clusters of satellites performing in a ?fractionated? spacecraft architecture; a group of navigation capable inspector satellites can provide an external inspection solution to Earth-escape vehicles, like Orion capsule; and multi-aperture telescopes can provide improved optical performance and better coverage of multiple task areas by providing a flexible reconfigurable system.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Man-Machine Interaction
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Sequencing & Scheduling
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A2.02-8094
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Smart COordination of UAV Teams (SCOUT)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
1650 South Amphlett Boulevard, Suite 300
San Mateo, CA 94402-2513
(650) 931-2700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Stottler
stottler@stottlerhenke.com
1650 South Amphlett Boulevard, Suite 300
San Mateo,  CA 94402-2513
(650) 931-2700

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Managing teams of unmanned vehicles is currently time-consuming and labor intensive. There needs to be a way to control multiple UAV teams with minimal human oversight. The proposed innovation builds on and combines several technologies we have developed to create an architecture and set of software methods that will achieve this goal, significantly advancing the state of the art. The proposed innovations are based on our NASA-funded Aurora planning, resource allocation, and scheduling framework, which has proved optimal in many, many diverse domains, including UAV scheduling; a Probabilistic RoadMap Planner (PRMP) to plan detailed real-time UAV routes to rapidly satisfy and optimize a large number of simultaneous constraints and objectives; the asynchronous consensus-based bundle algorithm (ACBBA) for UAV-to-UAV task negotiation; and the concept of a play (from sports) represented using behavior transition networks (BTNs). The ultimate goal of this proposed effort is to allow intelligent UAV team coordination and control in an intelligent, predictable, and robust way, with little cognitive load on the human users. This will require intelligent real-time planning, role allocation, negotiation, and detailed path planning and, when communication is not possible, autonomous, intelligent, adaptive behavior by the UAVs. In Phase I, we will develop the required AI techniques to automate all aspects of intelligently executing, recommending, and/or automatically selecting appropriate plays, robustly assigning roles and planning routes, and adaptively executing each role, robustly and predictably in environments with varying levels of uncertainty. We will design the ultimate system and, to absolutely prove its feasibility, prototype all aspects of it in Phase I on *actual, physical UAVs*.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a large number of non-NASA commercial applications for the SCOUT technology, as evidenced by the explosion of civilian UAVs. Examples include remote sensing, disaster response, agriculture, search and rescue (in the wilderness, in the ocean, in urban areas during disasters, inside buildings during fires or other severe problems), wilderness fire-fighting to find hot spots, crop reconnaissance to find problems (such as over/under watering, disease, pests, too much or too few nutrients/fertilizer), surveying networks looking for problems (roads/bridges, electrical distribution, water, oil, or gas pipes, etc. across large outside areas or within buildings/factories), looking for fugitives, and SWAT team and other rapid responses to terrorist, mass shooter, or large scale kidnapping incidents. And, of course, new applications will be discovered all the time, and new ones enabled by SCOUT itself, autonomous UAV teams requiring little human oversight. There are also many DoD applications for SCOUT. Army and Marine small unit leaders using SCOUT could utilize a variety of manned and unmanned organic assets to accomplish a variety of tactical mission tasks, including autonomous exploration of indoor environments. The proposed techniques are applicable to all four services. Because the techniques are very general, any tactical ISR, weapons effects, exploration, search, or route-planning application would benefit.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Although, as requested by the NASA topic, SCOUT focuses on greatly reducing the cognitive burden of controlling UAV teams, the technologies, since they implement a degree of autonomy and because they are not specific to aerial vehicles, would be useful for any NASA mission involving teams of unmanned vehicles of any kind in any location. These could be a team of unmanned spacecraft inspecting the outside of the ISS or any other future NASA facility in space or a combination of UAVs and UGVs on the surface of Mars or another planet or moon, or unmanned subsurface vehicles in the ocean of Europa or another moon. Autonomous science oriented missions would share similarities to the Search and Rescue and other Search-oriented missions discussed in the proposal.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Man-Machine Interaction
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Sequencing & Scheduling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A2.02-8241
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low SWaP-C FAA Compliant UAV Navigation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cybernet Systems Corporation
3741 Plaza Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-2217
(734) 668-2567

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Charles Jacobus
proposals@cybernet.com
3741 Plaza Drive
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-1655
(734) 668-2567

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is responsible for breakthrough research to assure that adding UAS to the US Airspace is safe to both manned and unmanned aircraft. The FAA has made new rules that restrict small consumer and commercial UAS from operating beyond line of sight and over 500 feet in altitude but present day UAS controllers do not enforce these rules in hardware, and manual pilots cannot assure compliance with present day small UAS controls. Furthermore, while many UAS have GPS awareness, they have virtually no awareness of potential collision events. We propose to develop and demonstrate a collision safe and FAA rules enforcing UAS controller technology and make it available widely for consumer UAS licensing for low cost. Small outdoor UAVs for surveillance, small payload transport, and other applications are readily available in the commercial market and are remaking the lower altitude airspace. These units navigate through direct teleoperation within line of sight of the operator and controller. Some units also include GPS navigation so that they can accurately station-keep or move to a predetermined location and altitude. The missing technology for this kind of autonomous operation is obstacle detection and avoidance integrated with controls in a low SWaP-C form factor.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
To commercialize this technology in the private sector, we will follow a strategy that has proven successful for us in the past. We will start by identifying those parties who have a vested interest in this technology (for instance the Defense Department UAV users community. After identifying interested parties, we will arrange partnerships with one or more of these vendors whereby we will receive royalties on the sale of products incorporating our technology. The licensing arrangements will be strengthened by our existing patents and existing technology. We will also partner with organizations to make a consumer UAV version of the technology for direct sale as commercial uses of FAA compliant UAVs become more common.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA performs aviation research to improve the operation of UAVs in civilian and military airspace. This sensor will provide improved autonomy in both areas. It also will be extended to support ground rovers and air vehicles used in advanced planetary exploration in the future.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Perception/Vision


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A2.02-8328
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact High Power 3D LiDAR System for (UAS) Unmanned Aircraft Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
EOTRON, LLC
3516 Seagate Way, Suite 140
Oceanside, CA 92056-2677
(760) 429-7117

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gerald Kim
geraldkim@eotron.com
3516 Seagate Way, Suite 140
Oceanside,  CA 92056-2677
(760) 707-6955

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Eotron has introduced a high performance 3D Time-of-Flight Laser illumination source based on its patented silicon packaging technology originally developed to improve power and brightness in high-power diode laser modules. Using proprietary design, fabrication and thermal management techniques, Eotron has developed a compact Laser illumination source that achieves a high pulse modulation rate and peak power output with fast rise times. This technology allows for real time 3D imaging and ranging using higher peak power and pulse rate to provide both long distance and high resolution imaging. Eotrons 3D Time-Of-Flight (TOF) technology will add new dimensions and capabilities to a seemingly endless number of applications. Whether it is for collision avoidance systems for manned or unmanned air or ground vehicles, surveillance system?s intruder detection or identification, robotic vision or artificial intelligence, all can benefit from this technology. Add to this that the technology is Wafer Scale Production ready, lowering the cost of production in volume.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Collision avoidance systems both Auto and Drones, security systems, robotic vision, computer gesture control, 3D imaging

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Collision Avoidance, Robotic Vision, Terrain Mapping, Image Recognition, Security Systems, Gesture Computer Control, Precision Measurement of Large Objects, LiDAR, 3D Imaging

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Perception/Vision
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
3D Imaging
Image Analysis
Image Processing
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Lasers (Guidance & Tracking)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A3.01-7271
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Simulation-Based Tool for Traffic Management Training

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
540 Fort Evans Road, Suite 300
Leesburg, VA 20176-4098
(800) 405-8576

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris Brinton
brinton@mosaicatm.com
540 Fort Evans Road, Suite 300
Leesburg,  VA 20176-4098
(703) 980-3961

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Both the current NAS, as well as NextGen, need successful use of advanced tools. Successful training is required today because more information gathering and decision making must be done manually, which requires training in the fundamental principles and objectives of traffic management. Successful training is required in NextGen due to the increased reliance on automation. Given the multitude of input channels and actors that must be included in an environment for comprehensive training of Traffic Management Coordinators (TMCs), it would be too costly and too complex to attempt a full-scale human-in-the-loop simulation or table-top exercise that includes the direct participation of all of these entities. In this research, we will study and prototype effective techniques and technologies to allow virtual and/or constructive simulation of key components of the TMC's environment to achieve a significant step forward in the state of the art of TMC training. The proposed innovation and focus on this research is called the COMprehensive Environment for TM Training by Simulation (COMETTS). NASA's recent research thrust in the Shadow Mode Assessment using Realistic Technologies for the National Airspace System (SMART NAS) provides an important step toward, and platform for, research in simulation-based training for the controller and TMC workforce. Such research holds the potential to significantly improve the transition of technologies from NASA to the FAA and onward to fully successful implementation and acceptance by the end users. This proposed effort will leverage SMART NAS to conduct research, development, prototyping and evaluation of advanced simulation-based TMC training.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The simulation-based training concept described in this proposal can also be used by airlines and other Flight Operators for training of their dispatchers and ATC coordinators. Collaborative Decision Making in ATM requires a detailed understanding of terminology, operations, tools and constraints amongst all participants. Through a broad use of the COMETTS concept across both FAA and Flight Operator participants, CDM can be enhanced. The simulation-based training concept has extensive applicability across numerous other fields including military, emergency response, security, power plant operations, process control, and many other areas. The ability to simulate unstructured interaction with virtual/constructive participants is at the cutting edge of current market needs in many of these fields. Through the combination of Artificial Intelligence, Natural Language Processing, Machine Learning and Speech Recognition, Mosaic will leverage this work to significant commercial opportunities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As this innovative concept is directly related to the air transportation system, the most appropriate application of the concept and prototype will be further research on operational improvements in the US ATM system. This concept for simulation-based TM training can be applied by NASA across many concepts and technologies to enhance the technology transfer process and end-user acceptance of NASA-developed capabilities. By considering the training process as a core part of the research on advanced ATM decision support tools and procedures, NASA can optimize concepts and capabilities to facilitate training in the operational environment. NASA can use the COMETTS environment to perform research specifically on ATM training associated with new tools, to further improve the FAA's deployment process of new capabilities. In regard to technology transfer of the COMETTS concept to the FAA, Mosaic ATM has provided significant support on numerous projects in the successful transfer of NASA research into the operational inventory of the FAA. Our approach to this technology transfer is to provide support for the transfer process, but to remain within the direction of NASA and the FAA at all times. Using this approach, the research is properly recognized as NASA technology, and the FAA receives in-depth support from an organization that already knows the details of the technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Training Concepts & Architectures
Knowledge Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A3.01-7346
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Technologies Supporting Seamless Oceanic Transitions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Innovation Laboratory, Inc.
2360 Southwest Chelmsford Avenue
Portland, OR 97201-2265
(503) 242-1761

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jimmy Krozel
Jimmy.Krozel@gmail.com
2360 SW Chelmsford ave
portland,  OR 97201-2265
(503) 242-1761

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We integrate existing technologies and build an infrastructure that is ready to leverage emerging technologies to realize an oceanic TBO capability that is seamless with the domestic air traffic operations and a solution that is within the near-term horizon. Technologies include surveillance (both traditional ADS-B and space-based ADS-B) as well as domestic weather radar and other weather source (e.g., GOES satellite information), and a probing capability to allow oceanic traffic to plan TBO operations into domestic airspace. We investigate how to to assist the airlines in submitting oceanic flight plan amendments in Trajectory Options Set (TOS) formats for offshore airspace compatible with the FAAıs Collaborative Trajectory Options Program (CTOP).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We establish a service oriented solution that provides the appropriate data gathering, data transfer, information processing (flight plan amendments), and CTOP TOS submissions to allow airlines to proactively plan transitions to and from domestic and oceanic airspace. The capability would likely be embedded into the workstations of international aircraft dispatchers at major airlines in the US.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's Airspace Operations and Safety Program (AOSP) benefits from our techniques that allow NASA to: - Identify design requirements for seamless oceanic operations - Extend TBO capabilities seamlessly from domestic to oceanic airspace - Investigate new ways to manage air traffic by airline strategic planning instead of tactical air traffic control The resulting set of integrated technologies will greatly assist NASA in the pursuit of Airspace Technology Demonstrations (ATDs), in particular, ATD-3 demonstrations showing TBO in seamless oceanic operations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Command & Control
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Data Processing
Transport/Traffic Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A3.01-7633
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Stakeholder Web-based Interrogable Federated Toolkit (SWIFT)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 190
Rockville, MD 20855-2814
(301) 294-5221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Frederick Wieland
fwieland@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 190
Rockville,  MD 20855-2814
(301) 294-5268

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The chief innovation is the development of a Predictive Query Language that populates databases with future information provided from aviation models, along with integration to social media networking to augment research, with an overarching web-based system for finding and generating aviation-oriented research questions. The innovation is intended to aid stakeholders in their analysis of current trends and future concepts, and to show its utility we propose using the toolkit to investigate the Trajectory-Based Operations concept, in particular how the future state of the NAS as predicted by the federated models will be different with TBO than without it. NASA is interested in enhancing system capacity by using existing aviation assets more efficiently or by expanding capacity through new technology or smart infrastructure planning. One aspect that is key to this idea is the involvement of the stakeholders, in particular the airlines and the traveling public. Stakeholder involvement is key to many FAA programs, and stakeholders are often represented during NASA programs. Increasing stakeholder involvement, and including the traveling public in some of the projects, will help focus NASA research energy towards high-impact areas that are likely to result in earlier concept implementation. In addition, NASA is interested in using existing models more effectively, allowing past investment on models to yield future returns. The proposed PQL is a large step in that direction. The proposed SWIFT program enables answering vital questions about existing projects as well as providing the stakeholder involvement to enhance new projects. The concept is to integrated existing models and insights from social media into a web-based tool that allows stakeholders (including NASA) to ask and answer ıwhat ifı questions about various topics easily and conveniently. The insights provided by the answers will help guide stakeholder decision making.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Outside of NASA, we imagine that desktop analysis engines would become commonplace in the future. Database systems will be extended to include whole models to populate tables, and predictive querly languages like PQL will become a standard. In the future, fast-running (or even slow-running) models will be invoked through web-formatted PQL statements much like extant data can be easily accessed from a desktop using web-generated SQL statements. Data mining, which for now relies on existing data to predict future trends, will be extended to include model-based future predictions to create future data for which future trends will be uncovered. Data mining both past and predicted future data will be a burgeoning field that will extend the scope and reach of analysts. Is this vision too far-fetched? That beyond NASA, a system such as PQL will become standard and open the door to new horizons? We believe that this vision, if anything, is too restrictive. The explosion of computing technology in the future, with the advent of qbit-based Quantum Computers, as well as the under-exploitation of computer technology today, will provide a new platform on which future analysts will be able to conduct research in ways currently unimaginable. A system like SWIFT will likely exploit these capabilities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Within NASA, the immediate application is as a useful user interface for the SMART-NAS system. Imagine a researcher being able to access SMART-NAS from his desktop and generate a useful result from otherwise complicated and hard-to-use models. Imagine what a game-changer it would be if FAA analysts could run a system-wide study using the NASA-developed ACES model with a few clicks of a button? In the meantime, the PQL statements provide a useful common language in which different analysts from different organizations, using both publicly-available as well as proprietary models, can communicate. A user from the FAAıs Technical Center using their SIMMOD program can generate a PQL statement describing their use of SIMMOD in a way that an analyst at NASA Ames Research Laboratory, who is skilled in ACES but otherwise unaware of SIMMOD, can understand. In other words, the researcher at the Tech Center has, in a few short lines of text, described completely to the researcher at Ames what s/he is doing with SIMMOD. The Ames researcher should be able to replicate that analysis within ACES (assuming that the analysis is based on features that are available in both models, even if implemented entirely differently). In other words, the SWIFT system, with its embedded PQL, allows communication between researchers to occur in a manner heretofore difficult, if not practically impossible

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing
Programming Languages


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A3.01-7729
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Weather Scenario Generator for ATM Simulation and Testing Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AvMet Applications
AvMet Applications Incorporated
Reston, VA 20191-2019
(571) 335-7079

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Colleen Reiche
reiche@avmet.com
1800 Alexander Bell Dr, Suite 130
Reston,  VA 20191-4343
(703) 351-5649

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We design and prove the technical feasibility of a weather scenario generator (WSG) to provide an interoperable weather service that could support testing, development, and demonstration of advanced Concepts and Technologies (C&T) for Air Traffic Management (ATM) through modeling and simulation. Many recent advances in weather accountability for NAS simulation in support of C&T development are only able to manage one or two static weather scenarios, often limited to historical events which may be rare, and lack the ability to vary these scenarios to consider forecast accuracy variability and/or alternative impacts. The proposed WSG would address this shortfall by enabling creation of adjustable and meteorologically realistic scenarios comprised of observed (ıactualı) weather and associated forecast uncertainty for relevant NAS impacting weather phenomena. We design the WSG to work with NASAıs SMART NAS to further its mission of delivering an evaluation capability that allows NextGen and beyond-NextGen C&T to be assessed and developed under realistic live/virtual/constructive weather conditions. Finally, this research provides guidance to NASA researchers or other users of testbeds, such as SMART NAS, on how to tailor weather scenarios for maximal effectiveness in experiments and demonstrations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applications outside of NASA include the FAA who likewise has the need to inject controlled weather conditions and forecasts into NAS simulators in support of research on TBO and other ATM concepts and technologies. These simulation and experimental needs are shared by other non-NASA organizations, especially those who possess or are developing large-scale air transportation simulators, such as Embry Riddle University, MITRE-CAASD, Volpe, EUROCONTROL, SESAR, and the Ecole Polytechnique.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The core application of this work furthers NASAıs goal to deliver an evaluation capability, critical to the ATM community, allowing full NextGen and beyond concepts to be assessed and developed. If successful, we envision this will provide the primary mechanism by which users of SMART NAS will inject weather and weather forecasts into their experiments and demonstrations. Our product would serve the same purpose for other NASA simulators such as Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), and Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A3.01-8505
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Multi-Mode Automation for Trajectory Based Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Architecture Technology Corporation
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344-3586
(952) 829-5864

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Douglas Sweet
dsweet@atcorp.com
1700 Dell Ave.
Campbell,  CA 95008-6902
(408) 618-9803

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Air Traffic Management's lack of support for aircraft with different capabilities is a long standing and persistent issue that can limit the ability of the National Airspace System (NAS) to take full advantage of advanced aircraft capabilities. To fully utilize the variety of Trajectory Based Operations (TBO) concepts planned for the NAS, some of which utilize advanced aircraft capabilities for implementing trajectories, an air traffic controller (ATC) must be able to simultaneously support a variety of TBO concepts using different aircraft automation systems to fly the desired trajectory. To accomplish this, the ATC needs automation support to simplify the inherent complexities of using a variety of different TBO concepts and trajectory implementation strategies and provide the controller with the tools needed to execute the desired trajectories, maintain situational awareness at all times, and support off-nominal situations. As depicted in Figure 1, IMMA (Integrated Multi-Mode Automation) provides the automation to simplify the inherent complexities of using multiple TBO concepts by focusing the controller interactions on common core functions (e.g., the initial clearance, compliance monitoring) that all TBO concepts must support. For example, monitoring compliance for an aircraft using speed/path to control delivery time at a metering point is different than monitoring compliance for an aircraft executing Flight Interval Management (FIM) which maintains a time-based spacing interval with another aircraft. Using IMMA, the controller doesn't need to track compliance differently for the two different implementations because the automation accounts for the difference and simply informs him if an aircraft is out of compliance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The strategy is to retain the models and simulation tools internally to use to provide analytical services to customers. In this business model, the customer defines the problem or issue for which analysis is required, and the ATCorp business is to apply the appropriate models and simulation tools as well as our professional services expertise to analyze the problem and produce an analytical report delivering the results.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The strategy is to use these technologies to create standard products for sale in a standard, packaged form to government and civilian customers domestically and internationally. This is a model we have used successfully in building businesses in the computer security/incident response/computer forensics field and in the network management tools market.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A3.02-7084
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace Systems (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hiawatha Aircraft Anti-Collision System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nokomis, Inc.
310 5th Street
Charleroi, PA 15022-1517
(724) 483-3946

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Karen Canne
kcanne@nokomisinc.com
310 5th St.
Charleroi,  PA 15062-1517
(724) 483-3946

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
For SUAVs, the FAA mandate to equip all aircraft with ADS-B Out transmitters by 1 January 2020 to support NextGen goals presents both logistical and mission security issues. Aircraft without ADS-B Out capabilities, ranging from commercial or general aviation aircraft with failed transponders to adversarial aircraft deliberately operating without required transponder equipment, will continue to exist within the general airspace and pose navigational hazards and tactical threats to SUAVs. Nokomis proposes to adapt its ultra-sensitive RF sensor system, called Hiawatha, to provide an unsurpassed trajectory management and anti-collision avoidance capability. The Hiawatha system provides flight-tested state-of-the-art ultra-sensitive RF detection, identification and geo-location performance. Nokomis will develop a system-level design of an anti-collision system to aid in trajectory management and safe traffic flow of autonomous UAV operations capable of meeting the SWaP requirements for incorporation into a representative SUAV payload platform. The RF-based traffic management and anti-collision avoidance system will be capable of monitoring the entire spectral range from 30 MHz to 3 GHz, while providing the necessary detection, identification, and locating abilities from all angles while operating in a non-interfering manner with other potential payloads. Specifically, Nokomis will demonstrate system sensitivity including long range detection and identification of representative UAV emissions, system geo-location and contact bearing capabilities, Doppler-based bearing and range to aircraft, and design Trajectory Prediction and Avoidance System and efficient Traffic Flow System for maintaining aircraft spacing. The Phase I effort proof of concept demonstrations will focus on a demonstration of the Hiawatha airborne system, detection, identification, and location of relevant targets using existing AoA algorithms, and existing source classification algorithms.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Hiawatha anti-collision system can be applied to a variety of UAV and drone applications in which way-finding or obstacle avoidance is necessary. For drones used in agricultural applications, the system can be adapted to help the aircraft avoid electrical towers and other obstructions near fields. Further applications can use beacons to provide location points for the tracking and way-finding of UAVs on long distance per-mapped routes beyond user control. The system can also be reconfigured as a ground-based detection, identification, and tracking system of UAVs or other platforms, providing information about a region of airspace for space operations such as UAV and balloon launches. In addition, the automobile industry is expanding exploration into the development of fully automated vehicles. This technology represents a distinct capability for potential anti-collision avoidance systems that are not reliant upon inter-vehicle communications. The automotive semiconductor market represents a potential $37.3 billion market for insertion at approximately the time that this technology would be ready for transition.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to the nearly 102,000 flights in the air across the United States today, in the near future UAVs and drones will start making up increasing segments of the aviation traffic in this country. Aircraft without ADB-D Out capabilities, including malfunctioning and 'non-cooperative' aircraft will continue to exist within the general airspace and pose navigational hazards and tactical threats to SUAVs. These 'non-cooperative' aircraft could range from commercial or general aviation aircraft with failed transponders to adversarial aircraft deliberately operating without required transponder equipment. The ability for UAV to detect, identify, and track these aircraft to ensure safe operation and trajectories in traffic will become of increasing importance. The Hiawatha aircraft anti-collision system will provide a tool for trajectory managements and efficient traffic flow, especially for preventing collisions in case of transmitter failure or non-cooperative traffic. In addition, the Hiawatha aircraft anti-collision system can aid in operations during approach or in dense traffic areas by providing range and bearing of nearby aircraft to maintain spacing during approach. The passive nature of the system allows for the detection of non-cooperative or disabled aircraft, while the low cost and small size of the system allow for integration on various platforms.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Processing
Electromagnetic


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A3.02-7176
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace Systems (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: SDR-Based MicroADS-B for Low Altitude Small UAS Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
KALSCOTT Engineering, Inc.
PO Box 3426
Lawrence, KS 66046-0426
(785) 979-1116

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tom Sherwood
tom.sherwood@kalscott.com
PO Box 3426
Lawrence,  KS 66046-0426
(785) 979-1113

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ADS-B is emerging as the defacto standard for manned aircraft in the context of NextGen ATM. There are several advantages to ADS-B, but most ADS-B gear was developed for manned aircraft, and some smaller versions have been developed for UAVs recently. However, even the smallest currently-available ADS-B transponder is still about 250g, which is not suitable for small UAVs, such as those becoming popular for civilian use in the US. KalScott proposes to develop a micro ADS-B unit, which is light enough, inexpensive enough, and uncomplicated enough that it can be adopted readily for small civilian UAVs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Can be used for tracking all types of manned and unmanned, civilian and military vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Safe integration of small UAVs into the national airspace, specially for low altitude scenarios. Enables real time tracking via ADS-B, along with feeds to FAA. Supports collision avoidance and separation assurance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Network Integration
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A3.02-7644
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace Systems (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Autonomous Air Traffic Reporting and Operations for UAS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
KALSCOTT Engineering, Inc.
PO Box 3426
Lawrence, KS 66046-0426
(785) 979-1116

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tom Sherwood
tom.sherwood@kalscott.com
PO Box 3426
Lawrence,  KS 66046-0426
(785) 979-1113

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A hardware/software solution for autonomous reporting of flight operations of a UAS is proposed. Such a system would enable the UAS to report identity, position, and other information to local human and autonomous traffic and air traffic controllers in an autonomous manner, in legacy terminology. This will improve the overall safety of UAS operations, and lead to easier integration of UASs into the national airspace system. In Phase I, the hardware will be developed and flight tested on a manned platform. In Phase II, refinements to the design will be implemented, and the system will be readied for production.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Such a system can also be used for military air traffic scenarios involving manned and unmanned traffic, civilian autonomous traffic, etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Improved safety for UAS integration into the national airspace, improved human/machine integration.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Man-Machine Interaction
Transmitters/Receivers
Command & Control
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Computer System Architectures
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A3.02-7738
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace Systems (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Landside-Aware Air Traffic Management

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Innovation Laboratory, Inc.
2360 Southwest Chelmsford Avenue
Portland, OR 97201-2265
(503) 242-1761

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jimmy Krozel
Jimmy.Krozel@gmail.com
2360 SW Chelmsford Ave
Portland,  OR 97201-2265
(503) 242-1761

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We focus on the passenger as the key stakeholder of the Air Traffic Management (ATM) system. Air transport is only a portion of the passenger door-to-door journey, which also relies on other modes of transportation (a taxi ride, bus ride, drive over the freeways, rail, or other) to complete the journey. Transportation modes are usually studied separately as if not interacting, although they are intrinsically coupled through passenger transfers; in fact, the failure of one mode disrupts the entire passenger journey. In this effort, we gather specific passenger location data from individual passengers and aggregate data on passengers, both airside (within the terminal) and landside (within the airport and outside the airport) to build a better estimate for the expected time of departure for an aircraft at an airport gate. The system is composed of multiple technologies that either access specific data or aggregate data of passengers. A "push" technology is used to shape passenger behavior by informing the passenger about security delays, traffic delays, and other information that could encourage the passenger to be on time to the departure gate.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This capability has the potential to assist in the following commercial applications: - Better schedule integrity for airlines - Greater lead times for airlines to rebook late or cancelled passengers and to provide seats to standby passengers - Improved taxi, train, and rental car operations - Increased revenues for business at airports (due to longer passenger dwell times)

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This capability is applicable to a number of NASA applications: - Improved ATM due to more accurate planning of gate OUT times - Improved tracking of passengers changing planes at hubs - A potential for improved gate assignments that minimize passenger transit times between aircraft gates - Efficiency gains through faster turn times for aircraft - Fewer missed connections - Fewer cancellations due to duty limits - Optimization of airport operations

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Process Monitoring & Control
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Knowledge Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A3.02-8018
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace Systems (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Increasingly Autonomous Traffic Flow Management Under Uncertainty

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ATAC
2770 De La Cruz Boulevard
Santa Clara, CA 95050-2624
(408) 736-2822

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aditya Saraf
aps@atac.com
2770 De La Cruz Boulevard
Santa Clara,  CA 95050-2624
(408) 736-2822

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Today, traffic managers largely rely on their intuition for making Traffic Management Initiative (TMI) decisions due to lack of decision aids. As a result TMIs are often inefficient and there is a lot of variability in their application across similar situations. NASA's 'Similar Days in the National Airspace System (NAS)' research addresses this issue, but, the research tools produce not a single recommended TMI choice but an array of choices, with the final decision again left to the manager's intuition. The proposed SBIR research provides a capability for down-selecting to the most effective TMI choice by developing a what-if analysis functionality for exploring multiple TMI options by realistically simulating NAS-wide operations under the influence of individual TMI options. This what-if analysis capability achieves accurate modeling of NAS traffic flows under uncertainty by creatively integrating two innovations. The first is a traffic flow modeling framework for enabling fast and accurate simulation of individual aircraft transits through the NAS network. This traffic flow modeling framework, which we call the Hybrid Traffic Flow model combines desirable features of trajectory-based models with aggregate traffic flow models to allow fast, near real-time NAS performance evaluation under multiple candidate TMI options. Each option is evaluated under multiple scenarios to capture the whole range of possibilities as per the underlying real world uncertainties,. The second is Bayesian Networks for modeling variations caused by underlying NAS uncertainty factors with explicit encoding of human reasoning behind multiple influencing decisions (e.g., Center MIT restriction impositions, airline cancellations), this enables realistic traffic demand and capacity forecasting for feeding the traffic flow model-based TFM evaluations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A direct post application for the proposed technology is as a what-if analysis DST to be used at the FAA ATCSCC, the FAA Centers and at airline Flight Operation Centers (FOCs) for supporting NAS-wide what-if analyses while planning and negotiating potential TMI actions under a Collaborative Decision Making (CDM) operational paradigm. An ideal FAA enhancement effort, where this proposed TFM DST capability can reside, is the Strategic Flow Management Application (SFMA). Moreover, BNs based prediction of likely future scenarios can be further expanded to other flight-domains in aviation (e.g., surface-terminal-en route traffic prediction, passenger movement prediction, aircraft turnaround time prediction, safety precursor detection under uncertain pilot/controller intent) and outside aviation (e.g., road traffic prediction, aircraft engine health monitoring, monitoring pilot actions for safety assurance). Another application is as a post-operations evaluation tool for the FAA, the airlines, and international ANSPs. In this application the users operate the what-if analysis platform using historical data on the last day of operations to playback the operations by making appropriate manipulations to the actual implemented decisions (e.g., model a GDP with a higher program rate than the one actually implemented) to understand whether they could have managed the operations better as compared to what they actually did.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology provides NASA with a what-if analysis TFM tool for use in its SASO research program (especially the Autonomous TFM sub-project) for the purpose of evaluating different TFM algorithms of varying levels of autonomy. The proposed what-if analysis capability can also be used by NASA's Airspace Technology Demonstration-3 (ATD-3) researchers as a testing platform for candidate rerouting strategies recommended by rerouting technologies such as MFCR, ORC, and DRAW being developed at NASA. Our what-if analysis capability provides a credible V&V platform for proving the operational feasibility and benefits of the reroutes recommended by NASA's DSTs. The proposed BN-based uncertainty models can be integrated into NASA's SMART-NAS Test Bed to provide a much needed capability to simulate propagation of delays across the NAS network along with the involved human controller actions in multiple Centers, without the need for large number of humans to staff positions in human-in-the-loop simulations. After adding computational speed enhancements via distributed processing, NASA's FACET can be used as the prediction engine for what-if analyses, instead of the Hybrid Traffic Flow model. Thus, the proposed technology could enable a FACET-based TFM what-if analysis DST, the only required capabilities, external to FACET, would be the user interface and BN models, which can be integrated as wrappers around FACET.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Man-Machine Interaction


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A3.02-8204
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace Systems (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: IR Beacon System for Assisted or Automated Landing of Aircraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Opto-Knowledge Systems, Inc. (OKSI)
19805 Hamilton Avenue
Torrance, CA 90502-1341
(310) 756-0520

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tait Pottebaum
Tait@oksi.com
19805 Hamilton Avenue
Torrance,  CA 90502-1341
(310) 756-0520

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
OKSI proposes to design an optical system to support assisted or automated precision approach of fixed or rotary wing aircraft, or other low altitude airspace operations, under diverse weather conditions. The Infrared Beacon System (IRBS) will utilize beacon lighting located near the landing site and an optimized imaging and processing system onboard the aircraft. Automated software will extract observed light positions to generate aircraft position and attitude data relative to the landing site. This precise navigational guidance will be provided to the pilot or to another control system for use during approach and landing. In Phase-I, the concept will be developed in detail, including selection of lighting sources, operating wavebands, imager technology, and frame rates. The end-to-end system performance and accuracy will be simulated over a diverse set of weather and solar conditions, and preliminary concepts for output interfaces will be developed. Based on the Phase-I investigations, a prototype system will be developed and demonstrated in Phase-II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The navigation guidance system developed under the proposed effort will be a low-cost alternative to existing approach and landing guidance systems, allowing implementation at airfields and on aircraft currently not equipped for instrumented landings in low visibility weather conditions. This will be of particular interest to the general aviation market. The airborne components will be low-SWaP that can also be accommodated by small UAS operating in the NAS. In addition, by making use of different phenomenology from existing systems, the proposed IRBS will provide redundancy to RF-based instrument landing systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed navigation guidance system addresses NASA's stated objective of improving the efficiency, safety, and cost-competitiveness of the air transport system through the use of autonomy. Specifically, the IRBS will enable safe, autonomous operation of UAS in the last 50 feet under diverse weather conditions, as well as improving general low altitude airspace operations for both autonomous and human-operated (piloted or remotely controlled) aircraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Attitude Determination & Control
Image Processing
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A3.02-8235
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace Systems (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Avionic for Low Altitude High Density SUAS - Dynamic Configurable Dual ADS-B with Interrogation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
R Cubed Engineering, LLC
4103 11th Street Court West, Unit #203
Palmetto, FL 34221-5809
(202) 271-9686

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vincent Contarino
mike@rcubedengineering.com
4103 11th St Court West Unit #203
Palmetto,  FL 34221-5809
(240) 298-1025

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Avionic for Low Altitude High Density SUAS ı Dynamic Configurable Dual ADS-B with Interrogation Flight Safety in the NAS consists of multiple layers ı Flight Planning, routing, Radar coverage, transponder coverage, and Dual band ADS-B are examples. This proposal will focus on optimization of the existing active RF Dual band ADS-B and transponder system for use with anticipated large numbers of SUAS. SUAS will often be operating in areas and at altitudes that will not be visible to the existing FAA infrastructure. They will also have much higher densities of aircraft than the current infrastructure can handle. This Proposal will investigate the use of very small software defined transceiver technology (under 1 oz) tri-band avionics that include the ability to receive full UAT including ADS-B, ES ADS-B, and Mode A,C, and S transponder responses that can keep track of all transmitting aircraft. The SUAS will also transmit low power UAT ADS-B with dynamically configurable time slots allowing very high density of SUAS. Included will also be the use of a low power ıall callı interrogator when the operational area is not already interrogated by a local source.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The performance of small CSWaP (Cost, Size, Weight and Power) avionic systems has applications to all air and ground vehicles for commercial and military uses. Full situational awareness with the use of properly configured avionic packages is a universal need for all vehicles, manned and unmanned.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Small High performance low CSWaP (Cost, Size, Weight and Power) Avionic systems suitable for use on SUAS will also be useful for manned aircraft and space platforms. The performance evaluation of the avionic approaches can be applied to any type of flight vehicle or ground station and used to help determine optimum avionic packages for them.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Amplifiers/Repeaters/Translators
Transmitters/Receivers
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Training Concepts & Architectures
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Radio
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A3.02-8237
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace Systems (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Innovation in the Sky

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Higher Ground
2225 East Bayshore Road, Suite 2
Palo Alto, CA 94303-9430
(650) 322-3958

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rob Reis
rob@myhigherground.com
2225 E. Bayshore Rd, Suite 2
Palo Alto,  CA 94303-9430
(650) 322-3958

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal presents a scope of work to develop a total product solution for Beyond Visual Line of Sight [BVLOS] Unmanned Aerial Vehicle [UAV] operations. Our focus is on technology development to increase the safety and efficacy of the commercial UAV air transportation system. The goal is to improve autonomous and safe UAV operations for the first/last 50 feet (and beyond) under diverse weather conditions. In particular we focus on a UAV electronics package to provide the following system solution: a) BVLOS communications; b) track/locate; c) sense/avoid; d) long endurance flight; e) long range command/control; f) remote imaging and g) first person video. The solution we propose has a reasonably clear path to regulatory approval for spectrum and flight certification. First and foremost, the regulatory agencies need to be satisfied that the industry is safe. To be safe we need to develop autonomous [and semi-autonomous] concepts that can be scaled into today's airspace operations. Second, there are still features missing from a whole product solution. The commercial world invests in productivity improvements - anything less is simply too much work for the potential customer. We believe that it is possible to design/build a small, relatively inexpensive UAV that can a) reliably and ubiquitously communicate it's location vector; b) avoid obstacles; c) fly for more than 2 hours; d) do hover and horizontal flight; e) be commanded even outside of terrestrial radio line of sight; f) send back targeted high resolution images and g) (maybe) provide first person video. We suggest in the interest of time-to-market, an initial focus on semi-autonomous UAV flight instead of full autonomy. Semi-autonomous flight permits a human in the loop for unusual events and extraordinary situations that are difficult to plan (like the first/last 50 feet). Fully autonomous flight is likely not worth that substantial incremental investment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many applications for commercial use of the BVLOS technology. We outline just a few. Infrastructure Inspection: There are many large asset-based operations [rail, pipeline, refinery...] in which periodic observations are mandated by statute. These assets need to be inspected regularly. Many of these companies have thousands to tens of thousands of miles that are today inspected monthly by manned aircraft. This inspection can be done far less expensively by UAV's. But, the savings cannot begin until we make BVLOS flight safe and approved. Videography: A UAV is a valuable new platform for capturing scenes in movies and real-time news. Agriculture: A UAV will be an important asset for pest control, monitoring plant health and vegetation efficiency. The UAV can fly at low altitude over the farm and provide real-time agricultural health reports (which due to their ease and periodicity) become quite actionable. Mapping: A UAV can be used for mapping of areas that are challenging to access. Package Delivery: UAV's can provide quick and expedient delivery of small packages.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many applications for Government use of the BVLOS technology. We outline just a few. Secret Service: The movement of the President is a very complex operation. The process becomes quite challenging when the President moves in the public space as it is difficult to control all access. UAV's can be a meaningful advance to this problem. It would be quite valuable to have UAV's cross the sky at low altitude above the public space to provide real-time, actionable visibility of activity on the ground below. Environmental: NOAA and the Department of the Interior would like to send UAV's into rural spaces to understand better weather, environmental changes and wildlife count. UAV's provide a wonderful vehicle for this research as the landmass is enormous and access is often limited. Border Security: Unauthorized movement around any border can be inexpensively patrolled by BVLOS flights. Transportation Infrastructure: Buildings, bridges, roadways' can be explored and imaged at distance via BVLOS UAV's. Search & Rescue: A BVLOS UAV can search far more area, faster and cheaper than by humans.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Man-Machine Interaction
Perception/Vision
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Coding & Compression
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A3.03-7315
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Future Aviation Systems Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integration of 4D Airline Operation Control Systems into NextGen and the NAS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
WxOps, Inc.
500 Ala Moana Blvd Suite 400
Honolulu, HI 96813-4920
(808) 779-5096

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scott Shipley
sshipley@wxops.com
500 Ala Moana Blvd Suite 400
Honolulu,  HI 96813-4920
(571) 309-6024

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
WxOps patent pending OpsTablet(TM) software and 4D geospatial data are used by Hawaiian Airlines to achieve unprecedented Airline Operation Control (AOC) in a geobrowser-based Common Operating Environment (COE). Dispatchers and pilots coordinate flight operations in real time using identical Google Earth based visualizations on desktops and tablets both on the ground and in the cockpit during flight. Google has unilaterally deprecated critical functionality which causes the latest versions of the Google Earth application to be unsuitable for FAA regulated flight operations. Additional unilateral changes to Google licensing terms are impacting applications for international transportation, particularly for flight operations in Asia. WxOps has anticipated the need for an alternate geobrowser, and has tested NASA World Wind open source components for critical functionality needed at Hawaiian. NASA World Wind provides the equivalent or superior performance for critical functions when compared to Google Earth. WxOps proposes to enhance and harden NASA World Wind open source to achieve and potentially exceed the equivalent of Google Earth best practices. This includes the introduction of a COM API software interface for coupling of NASA World Wind with WxOps OpsTablet(TM) and other flight operations software. A successful outcome will provide a reliable geobrowser capability which can serve transportation community applications in the years to come without fear of deprecation by an uninterested commercial interest. WxOps proposes to: A. Evaluate NASA World Wind Open Source for geobrowser equivalent of current geobrowser (Google Earth). B. Prototype a World Wind based Application that demonstrates critical and required Common Operating Environment (COE) functionality. C. Build a support community including Commercial Airlines Associations for continued support. D. Share the COE Application with the support community.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NextGen and NAS investment has been one-sided, with funds directed to the regulatory side of the system. Future NextGen and NAS operations will be a partnership of regulatory and commercial/private interests. The geobrowser based Common Operating Environment (COE) enables the users (and data/information providers) to best utilize data and information. An open source geobrowser Application which is freely available to all users provides a level playing field to promote innovation and growth. Focusing less on the database and more on the software, the proposed NASA World Wind Application provides a basis for reliable and sustained operations in regulated environments. Since this geobrowser can continue operations without connectivity to the internet, coordinated aviation operations can be supported in remote polar and trans-Oceanic regions.The proposed goals and results will impact and enhance AOC and commercial transportation efficiency and safety in the regulatory environment. The Phase 1 result will be shared with the AOC Community, which impacts Next Generation COE adoption at Hawaiian Airlines and other airlines, UAV Traffic Control and Routing Optimization, and Miltary applications likely limited to the United States due to EAR considerations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA World Wind based Application that is equivalent to Google Earth and made freely available is extraordinarily useful for AOC Community which is using geobrowser-based Common Operating Environment (COE). From a human factors perspective, the geobrowser COE provides for better communication, better situational awareness and a common display of resources in the current operational environment. The same application can also display the data after a flight for SMS, forensics, record keeping and training. Focusing on aviation, the proposed World Wind Application can be used to support Field Missions for atmospheric research, including CAT, volcanic plumes and radionuclides. Other Missions supported include UAV Research Applications, Air Traffic Control and Routing Optimization, Air Safety and Cockpit Integration.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Transport/Traffic Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A3.03-7366
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Future Aviation Systems Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Plug-and-Play ATM-Centric Speech-Enabled Agent for SMART-NAS Testbed

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimal Synthesis, Inc.
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos, CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hui-Ling Lu
vicky@optisyn.com
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos,  CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To accelerate the acceptance of new concepts developed under NextGen, the Shadow Mode Assessment using Realistic Technologies for the National Airspace System (SMART-NAS) testbed, which enables integrated examinations of NextGen or beyond-NextGen concepts under distributed environment, becomes critical to the Air Traffic Management (ATM) community. To support human-in-the-loop (HITL) testing for NAS-wide simulation using SMART-NAS testbed, this proposal addresses the feasibility of constructing an ATM-centric speech-enabled agent as a plug-and-play service of the SMART-NAS testbed. This service addresses the gap of HITL testing that is currently limited to small regions of airspace and few airports with a small number of controllers and pseudo-pilots. Leveraged from our prior development on noise-robust speech recognition system for the Navy and virtual agents for NASA to support HITL simulations, an infrastructure of ATM-centric speech-enabled agent will be developed. A feasibility demonstration of the speech agent as a service component of the SMART-NAS testbed will be provided by the end of the Phase I research. Phase II work will utilize the infrastructure built in Phase I to expand the speech-enabled agent to a full-scale prototype that supports HITL testing for NAS-wide simulation using the SMART-NAS testbed.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed ATM-centric speech-enabled agent can be adapted for other simulation facilities within the FAA. In addition, the ATM speech agent will also benefit air traffic control training facilities, including the FAA Academy at the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center in Oklahoma City, OK, and DoD training facilities such as the Naval Air Technical Training Center (NATTC) in Pensacola, FL. In addition, the technology can be implemented in individualized training systems for pilots and air traffic controllers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The plug-and-play ATM-centric speech-enabled agent is conceived as a service component of the SMART-NAS testbed to support HITL testing for NextGen feasibility assessment studies within NASA. The ATM-centric speech-enabled agent can support HITL experiments in numerous NASA facilities, including at Ames Research Center the ATC Lab, the FutureFlight Central (FFC), the Crew Vehicle Systems Research Facility (CVSRF), and the Airspace Operations Lab (AOL). It is also applicable to the HITL activities at the Air Traffic Operations Lab (ATOL) at Langley Research Center.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Man-Machine Interaction
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Sequencing & Scheduling
Teleoperation
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A3.03-7397
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Future Aviation Systems Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Intelligent Information Processing for Enhanced Safety in the NAS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Metis Technology Solutions, Inc.
9301 Indian School Road, Northeast, Suite 202
Albuquerque, NM 87112-2884
(650) 967-3051

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Jessop
rkjessop2@yahoo.com
18 W Dressage Ct
Hampton,  VA 23666-5305
(719) 337-0185

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose a system that focuses on how improved information flow between agents acting in a flight deck environment can improve safety performance. Agents are defined as either human, computational, or hardware that can act on information. Information that can flow to an agent is filtered based on priority. This protects human agents from information glut and information overload and reduces bandwidth requirements on communications channels. Agents react to the presented information by accepting it, discounting it, or querying the system for more information. All decisions and actions are recorded and modeled by the system in order to verify correct and efficient processing of information. The proposed system will operate independently of flight deck systems but will have access to required information sources. It will not impose an additional monitoring responsibility on the flight crew except for when safety issues surface. At that point, the flight crew's attention is captured and then predefined, prioritized information is presented in a selected format. The proposed system consists of the major software components: the Metadata Workbench, the Condition Monitor, and the Notification Terminal. The Metadata Workbench is used to identify all agents, roles, conditions of interest which trigger information flows, and information with associated context and priority. The notification mechanism, the information flow's destination, and the format for reporting information along with justification is also defined by the workbench. Condition monitors serve as the interface between information-producing systems and notification terminals. Conditions of interest along with all information metadata are deployed to the condition monitors. The notification terminal receives prioritized information and presents the information in the predefined format.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Military command and control. Battlefield operations are some of the most dynamic information environments going from relatively inactive to completely overwhelmed. Information flows are likewise dynamic with the number of agents, their roles, and their need for information constantly changing. The proposed system can define these characteristics and can scale in terms of size from small unit tactical operations to theater-wide strategic operations and from a low level combat unit's specific information needs to the highest level leadership's abstract information needs. Emergency response systems. Emergencies can run the gamut from a small, local house fire to a state-wide environmental catastrophe. In the larger scale emergencies, the need for timely, critical information flow to the responders must be efficient and effective especially since traditional information channels may be overwhelmed, no longer be available, or severely degraded. The proposed system with its metadata analysis would only allow the most important and necessary information to be communicated in the most succinct and abstract form with well-defined alternatives. The proposed system focuses solely on information, who has it, who needs it, and how it is handled.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Monitoring high-reliability systems where human agents must be in-the-loop to handle events. High-reliability systems are rarely expected to experience adverse events. However, when the events do occur, information overload can result. The human operator must be able to come up to speed on the situation as quickly as possible without being overloaded. The decisions and responses may not be optimal or may even be deficient. The proposed system will prevent information overload by presenting the most important information first. The proposed system can also monitor operator responses and compare them to expected behaviors. Decision support in an environment where information glut exists. The availability of information is increasing at an exponential rate. The proposed system can filter this information by performing such tasks as assigning priorities, coordinating information flows, and defining how information is presented. The proposed system can also integrate information from multiple sources, repackage the information, and present the information in a more abstract form. It also allows linking of information producers with information consumers in a uniform, integrated manner. Monitoring rogue behavior. Models of expected behavior can be compared with agent actions. Actions are monitored in the context of an explicit intent consistent with all agents. As behaviors deviate, additional, appropriate actions may be taken by other agents.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Man-Machine Interaction
Knowledge Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A3.03-7425
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Future Aviation Systems Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Monitoring Real-Time NAS Safety with State-Dependent Risk Models

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robust Analytics
2053 Liza Way
Gambrills, MD 21054-2007
(410) 980-3667

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Peter Kostiuk
peter.kostiuk@robust-analytics.com
2053 Liza Way
Gambrills,  MD 21054-2007
(410) 980-3667

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA recently added real-time, system-wide safety assurance (RSSA) as one of its aeronautics strategic thrusts. As NASA, FAA, and industry introduce new technologies, concepts, and vehicles into a growing and evolving national airspace system (NAS), the need for monitoring of an increasingly complex, congested, and more automated system becomes greater. RSSA will develop risk models, methods, computational solutions, and prototype monitoring systems to move risk identification and mitigation from weeks and months to real-time. The preliminary RSSA technology roadmap identifies the need for real-time NAS-wide status monitoring but does not describe how this information would be provided or used to assess real-time changes in safety risk. Our proposal aims to demonstrate how to accomplish those objectives and quantify risk for normal safe operations and degraded states, thereby accelerating RSSA milestones. Our approach enables real-time estimates of NAS risk and can also provide valuable insight into assessments of new technologies and procedures. FAA interest in this capability offers the potential for an FAA deployment platform by integrating the state-dependent risk models with an existing FAA safety analysis and monitoring tool, the Integrated Safety Assessment Model (ISAM).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
With its System Safety Management Transformation program, the FAA since 2010 has tried to develop models to analyze the safety impact of NextGen and move toward real-time safety assessment. One of their identified gaps has been the lack of infrastructure status and the ability to incorporate that information into their risk models. Our model responds directly to that requirement. Our approach builds on current and planned FAA availability and maintenance management systems, thereby minimizing additional investments by either NASA or FAA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA aeronautics mission directorate (ARMD) has defined a set of six thrust areas, with real-time system-wide safety assurance (RSAA) as one of the new additions in 2014. This thrust area was added in recognition of the need to demonstrate the safety of air traffic technologies developed by ARMD, during demonstration and test as well as during normal NAS operations. The FAA has tried to develop a forward-looking, prognostic safety analysis capability for many years with limited success. Our concept offers a strong start to the RSSA need to implement tools to provide for state awareness for all elements of the NAS. We go much further by integrating real-time safety monitoring with the state awareness capability. In addition, our concept, when coupled with analytical efforts currently underway, accelerates the target of providing analytical insight from weeks to days in the 2025 timeframe. Our concept applies to the following ARMD thrust objectives for RSSA: ı Accelerate the detection and prognosis of systemwide safety threats ı Substantially improve the ability to gain insights and develop mitigations from the growing amount of available aviation system data ı Dramatically improve safety assurance within the next decade, by reducing the time to analyze, identify, and mitigate safety risks from what can now take months down to days

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A3.03-7631
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Future Aviation Systems Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: DAAS: Data Analytics for Assurance of Safety

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 190
Rockville, MD 20855-2814
(301) 294-5221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ankit Tyagi
atyagi@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 190
Rockville,  MD 20855-2814
(301) 294-4639

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Assuring safe operations in the National Airspace (NAS) encompasses monitoring a variety of systems simultaneously and in real time. It is helpful to imagine NAS as a system of systems where each system loosely interacts with the other. Under this paradigm, an aircraft is a system, so is an airline and as is an airport. Automating safety assurance for each of these systems would involve monitoring an array of sensors each with a different time cycle and reporting characteristics and processing enormous amounts of data. Given the complexing of NAS, it is unlikely that any one tool could provide a solution. Instead, a number of tools each monitoring a smaller, more manageable part of the NAS, all the while sharing information with each other, seem more promising. In the future these tools would ensure airborne separation assurance, track Air Traffic Control (ATC) guidance conformance and ensure safe ground operations. DAAS is an architecture to support these very needs. It forms the basis of a network of smaller, more focused, safety assurance tools that share information and data through a central Big Data repository that is mined using advanced machine learning algorithms.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
DAAS can be used by airlines to plan the best routes in presence of congestion by using it to answer what-if scenarios. They could also use DAAS tools to plan contingency maneuvers in presence severe weather.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Researchers at NASA will find the tool useful for exploration of new concepts. DAAS will allow them to experiment with different concepts of operations for interval management, fuel management, route planning, conflict avoidance and mitigation planning, and separation standards. NASA could couple the tool with advanced NAS-wide simulations platforms like SMART NAS to evaluate other technologies in presence of automated separation assurance. The researchers could use this tool to investigate minimum aircraft performance requirements to ensure safe operations. Finally, a network of DAAS based tools could provide the basis for investigating the risks in complete automation of safety.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Intelligence
Man-Machine Interaction
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Fusion
Data Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 A3.03-8048
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Future Aviation Systems Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Automated Real-Time Clearance Analyzer (ARCA)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Architecture Technology Corporation
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344-3586
(952) 829-5864

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Rinehart
drinehart@atcorp.com
1698 Dell Ave.
Campbell,  CA 95008-6902
(434) 336-3353

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Automated Real-Time Clearance Analyzer (ARCA) addresses the future safety need for Real-Time System-Wide Safety Assurance (RSSA) in aviation and progressively more trusted autonomy as will be explored in NASA's SMART-NAS and SASO within the Airspace Operations and Safety Program (AOSP). ARCA builds on recent advances in probabilistic (Bayesian) network modeling and the rapid expansion of big data capabilities. The application of ARCA that we propose to develop, ARCA-A, performs safety analyses of approach clearances based on multiple sources of relevant real-time data, such as real-time aircraft data, weather data, past and current operations data, and crew data. ARCA-A provides intelligent risk assessment of clearances over the lifetime of the operation, from planning to clearance delivery. As it matures, ARCA can play a range of roles at increasing levels of autonomy and authority. Initially, once it has trained to the level of generating insight, it can be used to identify hot spots in the NAS or in a region (specific areas, procedures, aircraft types, or times of day when risks increase) on a daily or weekly review basis. Next, it could be deployed to air traffic managers, dispatchers, or other users with real-time operational oversight. With further integration, it could optionally display real-time informational warnings on ATC displays, flight displays, or dispatcher screens. Eventually, ARCA could play a foundational role in automated clearance selection and delivery. For research purposes, in this project we propose to design and begin development of a specific ARCA-A application. The primary focus of the research will be core algorithms, information integration, performance, and feasibility. ARCA is a promising new concept that represents a major step forward in aviation safety from static, forensic, manual methods toward real-time, prognostic, automated capabilities, the end result of which will be safer and more efficient operations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential commercial applications of the Automated Real-Time Clearance Analyzer (ARCA) include future systems for Fleet Operators, ANSPs (such as the FAA), and the flight deck. Fleet operators have a unique and powerful interest in operational safety. ARCA-A technology would give them a tool to continuously analyze approach procedures and the associated risk levels. This in turn can inform very impactful decisions, such as what procedures are planned, requested by pilots, and supported by the operators. In the near/mid-term, ARCA could give operators or ANSPs an initial capability to start assessing, flagging and tracking risk factors associated with the approach clearance. The FAA could start looking at trends NAS-wide in approach clearance risks (e.g. what areas and procedures are highest/lowest risk) and evaluate ARCA technology as part of ATM/ATC real-time decision support tools. ARCA could also be adapted to the flight deck to intelligently assist pilots. In the far-term picture, ARCA lays the foundation for approach clearance automation (e.g. automation generates and delivers context-appropriate approach clearances with human supervision). As real-time safety is a concern for all aviation stakeholders, ARCA capabilities are relevant to multiple future commercial applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Automated Real-Time Clearance Analyzer (ARCA) could be a Real-Time System-Wide Safety Assurance (RSSA) component in NASA's SMART-NAS project within the Airspace Operations and Safety Program (ASOP). ARCA could also be an element of future NASA concept systems (simulations, prototypes, research studies) for ATC, ATM, flight decks, and/or flight operations centers. ARCA could evolve into any or all of the following: a decision support tool for controllers or pilots, a real-time monitor for flight dispatchers, or an aggregator for useful periodic reporting (by airport, runway, time period, etc.). SBIR Phase I focuses on the essential design and proof-of-concept demonstration. Phase II will create a working prototype capability incorporating multiple sources into a real-time analysis of a potential approach clearance. This prototype and derivatives of it could be instrumental to NASA RSSA research, exploring both real-time safety concepts in general as well as specific decision support automation. Beyond core algorithm research and development, we envision ARCA expanding its reach into real-time information access using big data technology and becoming integrated into end-user systems. We expect ARCA capabilities to be synergistic with NASA research in these areas.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Data Fusion
Data Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H1.01-7789
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In situ Resource Utilization - Production of Feedstock for Manufacturing and Construction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Extruded Clay-Based Regoliths for Construction on Mars, Phobos and NEAs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Deep Space Industries Inc.
NASA Ames Research Park, Building 156, Suite 204
Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001
(855) 855-7755

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stephen Covey
stephen.covey@deepspaceindustries.com
13300 Tanja King Blvd. #408
Orlando,  FL 32828-7847
(904) 662-0550

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Research by Deep Space Industries and the University of Central Florida last year discovered an intriguing property of the carbonaceous asteroid simulants being developed. We noticed that simply wetting the material, mixing it thoroughly, and drying it (in vacuum or air) at ambient temperature causes it to bond into solid, very hard rock, and we could control the hardness by the amount of water mixed into it before drying. On Earth when making bricks from clay we need to fire them in a kiln at temperatures as high as 1300⁰C to make them hard. Apparently simple air or vacuum drying of these minerals can substitute for the kiln effectively, making it easily hard enough for construction in the space environment. Carbonaceous asteroids are not the only place in space where clayey regolith can be used for construction. Recently, scientists have shown that Mars has abundant clay deposits all over the globe. The minerals on Phobos appear similar to those in a certain type of carbonaceous asteroid including phyllosilicates (the type of minerals that include clays), so apparently Phobos may have abundant clay minerals, too. This suggests construction by low-temperature vacuum drying is possible on those bodies. It is not possible on the Moon, however, as there are no phyllosilicates on the Moon.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
DSI is developing end-to-end technology pathways for prospecting, mining, and processing asteroid and other space resources into finished products, primarily to serve in-space markets. Current plans envision HarvestorsTM loaded with NEA resources entering a High Elliptical Earth Orbit (HEEO) with its perigee above geosynchronous orbit where additional processing would be conducted. While HEEO provides good access to geosynchronous orbit, the use of heat shields fabricated from space resources to enable aerobraking down to low Earth orbit would be an efficient alternative to expending significant propellant for the orbit change. Asteroid mining will focus primarily on the iron, nickel, chromium and cobalt that will be utilized for in-space applications. However, delivery to terrestrial markets of by-products such as platinum group metals may become more profitable if entry heat shields are made from asteroid regolith. There are also terrestrial opportunities for this technology. A 3D printing architecture that turns unavoidable clay shrinkage into an asset while drying makes 3D printing with clayey terrestrial regolith a viable technology. This will have commercial application in regions where cement is expensive or not locally available.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
It is important to develop methods for construction in space with local materials, because this reduces the cost of space exploration, provides material for spares and repairs, and makes missions more flexible and effective. The path to crewed Mars expeditions is particularly mass intensive, and a barrier that could be lowered through use of space resources. Structures made from regolith will provide radiation shielding for the crew while working on the Martian surface or Phobos, as well as micrometeoroid shielding for the habitat module, and key thermal insulation. In addition, clayey regolith on asteroids or Phobos can be converted into heat shields for re-entry into Mars' or Earth's atmosphere. Clayey regolith on Mars can be converted into landing pads to enable many-ton, human-tended landers to descend safely. It can be made into pavers or slabs for dust-free work zones on Phobos or Mars, or for roads on Mars, where ISRU operations are occurring. An asteroid can be converted into a Mars Cycler spacecraft by 3D printing with its bulk mass.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In Situ Manufacturing
Resource Extraction
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H1.01-7981
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In situ Resource Utilization - Production of Feedstock for Manufacturing and Construction
PROPOSAL TITLE: In-Situ Generation of Polymer Concrete Construction Materials

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luna Innovations, Inc.
301 1st Street Southwest, Suite 200
Roanoke, VA 24016-1921
(540) 769-8400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Benjamin Beck
beckb@lunainc.com
3157 State Street
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-6604
(540) 961-4506

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Expanding the capability of human exploration is a primary goal for NASA and the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) program which focuses on transforming available material resources on extraterrestrial surfaces into usable materials and products. By identifying, collecting, and converting local resources into products that can reduce mission mass, cost, and/or risk, a sustainable manned expedition to Mars becomes closer to reality. Bulk or modified regolith can be combined with a binder as a concrete aggregate to form a construction material that can be extruded into bricks or slabs for structures, shelters, landing pads, roads, and shielding. With this goal in mind, researchers at Luna have identified a polymer concrete formulation based on urea-formaldehyde (UF) that can be pressed into high compressive strength interlocking bricks suitable for construction. Lunaıs binder system can also be produced in-situ from feed gases identified by NASA (N2, H2, CO2) while generating O2 and water. If successful, these UF polymers are also expected to have additional use in the production of plastic parts or components to support mission sustainability.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Polymer concrete and interlocking brick systems both have great potential as the availability of traditional Portland cements become more scarce and communities seek more sustainable building materials.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Urea-formaldehyde polymers and their adducts are used in a myriad of plastic applications for electronics, utensils, structural components and surfaces. Having the capability to generate UF and melamine (MF) based materials from hydrogen and atmospheric gases off world presents a number of advantages.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Polymers
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H1.01-8046
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In situ Resource Utilization - Production of Feedstock for Manufacturing and Construction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Polyethylene Production from In-Situ Resources in Microchannel Reactors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 West 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033-1916
(303) 940-2347

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gokhan Alptekin
galptekin@tda.com
12345 West 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge,  CO 80033-1916
(303) 940-2349

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
According to NASA, it costs $10,000 to move a pound of material from earth into orbit, and 10 to 40 times more to movie to the Moon and Mars. Instead of paying to move each spare part, structure support, radiation shield and utensil (along with a wide range of other products) from Earth to Mars extraterrestrial in-situ resources (sunlight, CO2 and H2O) can be converted into polyethylene. A wide range of products including water bottles, thin films, bags, high pressure pipe and at almost any shape could be produced using additive manufacturing. Polyethylene is also a candidate for radiation shielding due to its high hydrogen content. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) proposes to develop a plastics manufacturing plant via in situ resource utilization. The plant consists of (1) a solar powered gas generation system to produce CO and H2 from indigenous CO2 and H2O, (2) a micro-channel olefin synthesis reactor that converts the synthesis gas (CO and H2) to light olefins, (3) a polyethylene synthesis reactor, (4) a reformer for processing unreacted gases and by-products back into more synthesis gas feedstock. In Phase I, we will focus on demonstrating the viability of two of the key sub-systems: (1) testing a proprietary TDA catalyst in a micro-channel syngas-to-olefins reactor at small scale, and (2) refining a small scale polyethylene synthesis system that converts the range of products from the olefin synthesis process into polyethylene and other co-polymers. We will design a 5 kg/day polyethylene production plant, using lab data and performance specifications provided for existing systems such as the electro-chemical CO2 reduction to CO, hydrolysis for conversion of H2O to H2, and reformer technology for converting unreacted gases back to synthesis gas. Phase I will produce a detailed design of this system, including an estimate of the weight and volume.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed synthesis gas-to-olefins process will find immediate industrial use. Polyethylene is one of the most produced chemicals with single plant producing as much as 2 billion pounds/year. The production of ethylene, which is the feedstock to these plants, from synthesis gas rather than naphtha or ethane cracking provides a cost-effective alternative (i.e., the synthesis gas can be generated by well-established natural gas reforming), allowing low cost abundant domestic natural gas to be used as a feedstock to a value added chemical.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The mechanical properties of the polyethylene can be tuned by selecting the catalyst and process conditions to provide feedstocks suitable for a wide variety of products via additive manufacturing, including radiation shielding, structures for habitat or infrastructure, thin films, tubing, fittings, housewares and many others. Since polyethylene is a thermoplastic, scraps and pieces at the end of their lifecycle can be shredded and re-melted for reuse in the additive manufacturing equipment. Using in situ resources to make these plastics products will significantly reduce the launch weight and cost for missions to the Moon and planets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
In Situ Manufacturing
Polymers


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H1.01-8072
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In situ Resource Utilization - Production of Feedstock for Manufacturing and Construction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Extraterrestrial Metals Processing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pioneer Astronautics
11111 West 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood, CO 80215-5516
(303) 980-0890

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Berggren
mberggren@pioneerastro.com
11111 W. 8th Ave, Unit A
Lakewood,  CO 80215-5516
(303) 980-0231

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Extraterrestrial Metals Processing (EMP) system produces ferrosilicon, silicon monoxide, a glassy mixed oxide slag, and smaller amounts of alkali earth compounds, phosphorus, sulfur, and halogens from Mars, Moon, and asteroid regolith by carbothermal reduction. These materials, in some cases after further processing with other in-situ resources, are used for production of high-purity iron and magnesium metals (for structural applications), high purity silicon (for photovoltaics and semiconductors), high purity silica (for clear glass), refractory ceramics (for insulation, thermal processing consumables, and construction materials), and fertilizer (from phosphorus recovered from carbothermal reduction exhaust gases). Carbothermal reduction also co-produces oxygen at yields on the order of 20 percent of regolith feed mass when integrating downstream processes to recover and recycle carbon. Many of the EMP products can be prepared in a fashion suitable for casting or additive manufacture methods and have broad application in support of advanced human space exploration. The EMP methods are based on minimal reliance on Earth-based consumables; nearly all of the gases and reagents required for processing can be manufactured from Mars in-situ resources or can be recovered and recycled for applications using Moon or asteroid resources.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
One potential terrestrial EMP application is the production of high-grade silicon metal or ferrosilicon. The hydrogen-enhanced carbon monoxide disproportionation method employed in the EMP system enables high rates of carbon deposition onto pure silica in the absence of a metal catalyst. Direct carbon deposition from CO generated during carbothermal reduction integrated with RWGS-electrolysis modules would reduce the purchase of carbon for the process while significantly reducing overall carbon emissions compared to current practice. In a closed-loop system including reverse water gas shift-electrolysis, silicon or ferrosilicon manufacturing could be accomplished with virtually no carbon emissions. The EMP techniques have additional potential for the processing of lower-grade ores and feed stocks including residues and wastes. As higher-grade ores on Earth are more-difficult to find and mine, feed costs for existing technologies rise. The EMP can help to reduce overall processing costs by enabling the use of non-conventional feed stocks.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary application of EMP is for production of iron, silicon, and magnesium metals as well as refractory metal oxides and byproducts including phosphors and oxygen from Mars, Moon, or asteroid in-situ resources for manufacturing in support of advanced human space exploration. The EMP product suite includes many useful materials that will expand exploration and colonization capabilities while substantially reducing the costs and risks of bringing supplies from Earth. Many EMP product streams are suitable for use in advanced casting or additive manufacturing methods to allow for efficient use of resources.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Resource Extraction
Ceramics
Metallics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H1.01-8191
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In situ Resource Utilization - Production of Feedstock for Manufacturing and Construction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact In-Situ Polyethylene Production from Carbon Dioxide

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Opus 12, Inc.
2342 Shattuck Avenue, #820
Berkeley, CA 94704-1517
(917) 349-3740

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Etosha Cave
cave@opus-12.dom
2342 Shattuck Ave Num 820
Berkeley,  CA 94704-1517
(281) 235-2314

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Opus 12 has redesigned the cathode of the commercially available PEM water electrolyzer such that it can support the reduction of carbon dioxide into ethylene and suppress the competing hydrogen reaction. When coupled with an ethylene polymerization reactor to make polyethylene our technology could make plastics out of the Martian CO2 atmosphere in a simple two-step process. PEM water electrolyzers have already been proved space worthy and are commercially available at various scales. Ethylene polymerization is well understood. Our innovation enables the creation of polyethylene from the most basic starting materials: CO2, water and electricity. During Phase I, Opus 12 will show the feasibility of ethylene production in a single step by hitting key performance targets to optimize our existing prototype reactor. This optimization will be done by creating and testing different ratios of the catalysts to the other material components of the reactor. During Phase II, we will integrate our reactor design into commercially available PEM electrolyzers with a commercial partner and add a polymerization reactor to the system to produce polyethylene for additive manufacturing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide (ECO2R) is a platform for novel, renewable, zero land use chemicals and fuels. Across the U.S., 48 million tons of CO2 emissions from fermentation and biogas can be converted into 15 million tons of low-carbon ethylene. ECO2R will provide a new platform for manufacturing products from the most basic compounds: CO2, water, and electrical energy. ECO2R ethylene is just the beginning: our team has demonstrated ECO2R production of 16 different fuels and chemicals, including fuels such as ethanol and propanol.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Plastics for manufacturing in space traditionally have been shipped from earth. Opus 12 is developing a breakthrough technology, which will enable the creation of plastics using only CO2, water, and electricity as feedstocks. Our technology can take water and CO2 from the Martian atmosphere, and transform these molecules into polyethylene plastic. This opens up a variety of space manufacturing applications, including 3d printing to make tools and building materials.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Conversion
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Storage
In Situ Manufacturing
Polymers


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H1.01-8380
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In situ Resource Utilization - Production of Feedstock for Manufacturing and Construction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Micro-Channel Reactor for Processing Carbon Dioxide to Ethylene

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Reactive Innovations, LLC
2 Park Drive, Unit 4
Westford, MA 01886-3525
(978) 692-4664

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Carr
dcarr@reactive-innovations.com
2 Park Drive, Unit 4
Westford,  MA 01886-3525
(978) 692-4664

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The processing of carbon dioxide is a continuing NASA need, ranging from separation processes to remove it from cabin air, to reaction processes that convert the Martian atmosphere to fuels. In support of future habitation activities on Mars, it is desired to process this high Martian concentration of carbon dioxide to ethylene, a chemical precursor that can be used to subsequently produce plastics including polyethylene, propylene, and polypropylene for building structures. Additionally, ethylene can be readily converted to ethanol and subsequently to sugar, nutrients that support biohabitation. Toward this goal, Reactive Innovations, LLC proposes to develop an electrochemical micro-channel reactor that can convert carbon dioxide to ethylene. The modular architecture of the micro-channel reactor enables the system to be scaled to increase throughput while the small feature sizes of the reactor enhance thermal and mass transfer processes increasing the ethylene yield. During this Phase I program, the electrochemical reactions will be optimized to convert CO2 to ethylene maximizing the yield and rate. Single channel and multiple micro-channels will be produced using a new fabrication process that produces channels on the order of 100 microns wide. Characterization of the micro-channel reactor operating conditions will be conducted while producing ethylene to aid in scaling the process to larger production rates. Conversion of ethylene to polyethylene plastic will subsequently be demonstrated.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The conversion of carbon dioxide to ethylene can help reduce the concentration of this green house gas on earth while providing a valuable chemical feedstock. Over 109 million tonnes of ethylene is produced around the world, more than any other organic compound, where it is converted to a number of products. Newer production pathways to create this compound using micro-channel chemical reactors can help lower the capital and operating costs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Mars is the ultimate destination of NASA's human exploration program where the goal of using resources at the site of exploration will reduce launch mass and cost, and enable new missions not possible otherwise. Processing the carbon dioxide to ethylene in a compact modular micro-channel reactor will provide a valuable chemical that can further be used to produce habitat structures and equipment as well as ethanol and sugar nutrients for life support.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Prototyping
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Organics/Biomaterials/Hybrids
Polymers


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H1.01-8453
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In situ Resource Utilization - Production of Feedstock for Manufacturing and Construction
PROPOSAL TITLE: ISP3: In-Situ Printing Plastic Production System for Space Additive Manufacturing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Altius Space Machines, Inc.
3001 Industrial Lane, Unit #5
Broomfield, CO 80020-7153
(303) 438-7110

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nathan Davis
ndavis@altius-space.com
3001 Industrial Lane, Unit #5
Broomfield,  CO 80020-7153
(801) 230-6754

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The ability to "live off of the land" via in-situ resource utilization has long been recognized as a key capability for enabling the affordable development of space. While most of the focus has been on the production of bulk quantities of rocket propellants such as Liquid Methane, Liquid Hydrogen, and Liquid Oxygen from extraterrestrial water and carbon dioxide sources, there has recently been an increase of interest in the production of structural materials as well from in-situ resources, particularly materials that can be used for Additive Manufacturing. For this Phase 1 effort, Altius and its team members propose development of an In-Situ Printing Plastics Production (ISP3) system, that can take methane and oxygen inputs from various in-situ sources, and convert them into High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) filaments for use in a fused deposition modeling (FDM) style 3D printer, such as those developed by Made In Space. In Phase 1, Altius and its team members will simulate and test the three primary subsystems for ISP3: an Oxidative Coupling of Methane reactor that converts the methane into olefins and water, an olefin separation membrane that separates olefins from other outputs of the OCM reactor, and an innovative polymerization reactor that does not use physical catalysts for initiating the polyethylene polymerization reaction. Successful completion of these experiments and subsequent scaling and process refinement tasks will result in an updated ISP3 process design for Phase 2, raising the TRL of ISP3 from TRL 2 to TRL3. Phase 2 will focus on production of an integrated brassboard ISP3 prototype capable of producing small quantities of HDPE filament from methane and oxygen inputs. This will raise the system TRL to 5.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Three potential Non-NASA applications for ISP3 are: 1- Production of HDPE on non-NASA space facilities, such as those planned by Bigelow Aerospace. 2- Production of small quantities of HDPE for 3D printers on military submarines. 3- Production of small quantities of HDPE for 3D printers using natural gas feedstocks at remote locations such as military forward operating bases, and research facilities in remote regions such as Antarctica.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to long-term applications of ISP3 for producing HDPE for manned missions and colonies on places like Mars and Venus, Altius and its partners have developed a concept for demonstrating the ISP3 system on the International Space Station, for producing limited quantities of HDPE filament for the Made In Space Additive Manufacturing Facility, leveraging waste materials already on-board the ISS. This waste material source would likely be available on most other crew-tended space facilities, enabling the production of HDPE filaments anywhere humans go in the Solar System.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Process Monitoring & Control
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Polymers
Lasers (Machining/Materials Processing)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H2.01-7120
SUBTOPIC TITLE: LOX/Methane In-Space Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Additive Manufacturing Technology for a 25,000 lbf LOX/Methane Mars Ascent Engine

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Masten Space Systems, Inc.
1570 Sabovich Street
Mojave, CA 93501-1681
(661) 824-3423

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jacob Teufert
jteufert@masten.aero
1570 Sabovich Street
Mojave,  CA 93501-1681
(480) 800-9458

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Masten Space Systems proposes a Phase I SBIR effort in support of the preliminary development of a 25,000 lbf additively manufactured (AM), aluminum alloy, liquid oxygen (LOX)/methane engine for in-space propulsion. The use of AM processes have the potential to realize transformative mass, cost, and schedule savings over current state of the art in the 25,000 lbf thrust class that will enable human and robotic missions to Mars and beyond. The proposed effort will utilize Masten?s experience in engine design and fabrication as well its experience with AM processes. Masten has prior experience in the use of additive manufacturing for high thrust engine hardware and will build on this heritage for the in-space propulsion application proposed in this Phase I effort. Specifically, the proposed AM engine design approach employs innovative regenerative cooling channel geometries that leverage the design freedom of AM to maintain adequate chamber cooling.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
DARPA XS-1 This DARPA Tactical Technology Office (TTO) Experimental Spaceplane (XS-1) initiative has contracted Boeing, Northrop Grumman, and Masten in the first phase of development for a reusable first stage launch vehicle that will fly 10 times in 10 days, to Mach 10+ at least once and launch a demonstration payload to orbit. Masten?s design will develop a vertical takeoff vertical launch (VTVL) system with return to launch site capability and a reusable booster to launch 1500+ kg payloads to orbit. Masten's XS-1 design, known as Xephyr, builds on Masten's award-winning VTVL heritage, aircraft-like reusability, reliable propulsive control, high tempo operations, and unprecedented price per launch. Propulsion for the Xephyr reusable vehicle will be the 65,000lbf+ LOX/methane booster Broadsword engine, which is currently in prototype development. Commercial Launch Vehicles An accelerated production of small satellites and new applications are driving up demand for nontraditional launches, and demand for launches is projected to continue to increase significantly as payload development and launch costs decrease. Satellite operators and vendors are targeting shorter lifespan satellites, less expensive buses, and lower launch costs, as they migrate from a handful of large geostationary assets toward constellations of small satellites in LEO. As a result, increased responsiveness and reduced cost launch vehicles are poised to reshape the small payload launch market.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Evolvable Mars Campaign. A Masten Mars Ascent engine presents new mission architecture for NASA?s proving ground missions and in exploration beyond to deep space destinations. Technology demonstrations of MMA's in-space propulsion and ascent capabilities will target NASA's cislunar (short stay and long stay) cis-Mars robotic, Mars orbit, and Mars surface missions. The cost and mass savings that comes with the use of additive manufacturing along with Masten?s expertise in engine component and systems development presents a needed and affordable opportunity to prove the reliability of critical systems and operations techniques on which missions into deep space will depend. K. C. Laurini and M. M. Gates, NASA's Space Exploration Planning: The Asteroid Mission and the Step-Wise Path to Mars, 65th International Astronautical Congress, Toronto, Canada, Copyright 2014 by the International Astronautical Federation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Space Transportation & Safety
Processing Methods
Nonspecified
Spacecraft Main Engine
Surface Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H2.01-7193
SUBTOPIC TITLE: LOX/Methane In-Space Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Diamond_Copper Materials Based Solution for Improved Engine Performance

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Global Technology Enterprises, Inc.
13 Lariat Loop
Bozeman, MT 59715-9200
(406) 640-1558

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Todd Johnson
tjohnsongte@charter.net
13 Lariat Loop
Bozeman,  MT 59715-9200
(406) 522-8027

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A Narloy-Z-diamond particulate composite providing increased thermal conductivity and light weight will be developed for use in liners for liquid rocket engine thrust chamber designs at similar cost to NarloyZ. Shortcomings of previous copper-diamond products have been poor resistance to thermal cycling and high cost. In the current work, attention will be given to developing a strong, chemically bonded metallurgical interface between the copper alloy and diamond phases to resist thermal cycle damage under operational conditions for the thrust chamber

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Thermal management of electronic devices such as improved heat sinks and spreaders for motor drives CPUs, power electronics and photonics to replace existing Cu/Mo/Cu and copper tungsten composites,

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Improved rocket nozzle liners for LOX/methane engine designs to replace existing high thermal conductivity materials such as Narloy Z with 50% increased thermal conductivity , lighter weight at similar cost . This approach can be used for any liquid rocket engines including heavy lift. Improved heat exchanger design for environment control for manned spaceflight

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Characterization
Prototyping
Quality/Reliability
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Composites
Metallics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H2.01-8108
SUBTOPIC TITLE: LOX/Methane In-Space Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing for High Performance Combustion Chambers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TGV Rockets, Inc.
2519 Benning Road Northeast
Washiington, DC 20002-4805
(301) 913-0071

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Earl Renaud
renaud@tgv-rockets.com
2519 Benning Rd., NE
Bethesda,  DC 20002-4805
(613) 618-3940

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of using ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) to dramatically reduce the cost and lead-time of fabricating rocket engine chambers, particularly high performance rocket engine chambers. Rocket engine combustion chambers require a very complex geometry, consisting of a cylinder of varying diameter, with a variable wall thickness, and integral complex coolant passages in the wall These chambers must be capable of withstanding high internal chamber pressure and high pressure fluid within the passages without suffering mechanical failure from hoop stress or coolant passage blowout, while also undergoing intense thermal stress from the extreme heat transfer levels. Levels of fit and finish are very high to minimize turbulence both in the combustion chamber and the coolant passages. The inner walls of the chamber must be extremely thin, and are held to very exacting tolerances, yet are usually machined into the outside of a chamber. The large number of discrete operations, high tolerances, multiple materials, and most often distinct vendors for each step lead to very high cost and long manufacturing lead times for these components. If a bimetallic UAM printing process can be demonstrated successfully, the cost of combustion chamber fabrication could drop by 10-100X and significant time and cost can be saved from engine development programs. This would be in line with the goals of NASA's Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion initiative, which is aimed at reducing costs by 50%. A significant win in chamber manufacturing costs will dramatically advance the program goals. TGV will build upon this technology to produce the system capability to launch 100 Lbs. to LEO for $1 Million.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
DoD has recognized military utility to payloads at or below 700 lbs and has funded several 150 lb class payloads. DoD views applications to launch small dedicated comms, timing, comms photo recon, weather. A number of small satellite constellations for commercial applications have been proposed including OneWeb, Planetlabs, UrtheCast and technical growth will allow service to existing customers such as ORBComm, Iridium and Globalstar.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has been looking at a series of small science and earth science missions using NanoSats and the potential for lunar missions using CubeSats. The Early Explorer, Vanguard and pioneer spacecraft were all built and flown under the 100 Lb. threshold. NASA STMD has been funding small and NanoSat missions. Small satellites, including CubeSats, are playing an increasingly larger role in exploration, technology demonstration, scientific research and educational investigations at NASA. These miniature satellites provide a low-cost platform for NASA missions, including planetary space exploration; Earth observations; fundamental Earth and space science; and developing precursor science instruments like cutting-edge laser communications, satellite-to-satellite communications and autonomous movement capabilities. They also allow educators an inexpensive means to engage students in all phases of satellite development, operation and exploitation through real-world, hands-on research and development experience on NASA-funded rideshare launch opportunities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Processing Methods
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H2.02-7384
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electrolytic Method for Tungsten Coating of Uranium Oxide Spheres

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Reactive Innovations, LLC
2 Park Drive, Unit 4
Westford, MA 01886-3525
(978) 692-4664

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Edward Salley
esalley@reactive-innovations.com
2 Park Drive, Unit 4
Westford,  MA 01886-3525
(978) 692-4664

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Tungsten clad uranium dioxide spheres are deemed an enabling technology for nuclear thermal propulsion. Current research has mainly focused upon chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technologies to apply the tungsten cladding. Although good progress has been made with this technique, the process still requires improvements to lower the impurity content, increase throughput and lower operating cost, . Reactive Innovations, LLC (RIL) proposes to develop an electrolytic process for coating high purity tungsten metal onto uranium dioxide spheres economically. The process is performed at ambient pressure and is expected to provide a uniform, dense, and adherent coating. The Phase I effort will lead to demonstrating the electrolytic deposition of tungsten onto surrogate spheres. The coating will be evaluated for thickness, uniformity, and adhesion. A manufacturing cost model will be established for the process and a pathway to large scale economic production will be outlined. The Phase II effort is envisioned to further improve and characterize the coating's properties in terms of process capability, evaluate coated spheres in a suitable hydrogen environment, perform thermal cycling tests, scale the fabrication process, and provide coated material to NASA for evaluation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology will find applications in automotive, aerospace, and military for wear resistant, corrosion resistant, or increased durability of their products. Items such as enhanced life drill or milling bits, improved armor, higher safety levels and corrosion protection in autos are a few examples of where the technology can be applied

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology's main focus is for use in producing fuel for nuclear thermal propulsion systems. These systems are more fuel efficient than chemical rockets and much lighter. This results in an enabling technology for long duration space flight (e.g. Mars) and the feasibility of multiple short duration flights (e.g. cargo trips to the moon). Additional benefits include limiting exposure of personnel and equipment to harmful radiation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
Processing Methods
Metallics
Fasteners/Decouplers
Fuels/Propellants


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H2.02-7555
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Joining of Tungsten Cermet Nuclear Fuel

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Plasma Processes, LLC
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville, AL 35811-1558
(256) 851-7653

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John O'Dell
scottodell@plasmapros.com
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville,  AL 35811-1558
(256) 851-7653

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) has been identified as a critical technology needed for human missions to Mars due to its increased specific impulse (Isp) as compared to traditional chemical propulsion systems. A critical aspect of the program is to develop a robust, stable nuclear fuel. One of the nuclear fuel configurations currently being evaluated is a cermet-based material comprised of uranium dioxide (UO2) particles encased in a tungsten matrix (W). Recently, hot isostatic pressure (HIP) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) processing techniques have been evaluated for producing W cermet-based fuel elements from powder feedstocks. Although both techniques have been used successfully to produce W cermet fuel segments, the fabrication of full-size W cermet elements (>20) has proven to be difficult. As a result, the use of W cermet segments to produce a full-size W cermet fuel element is of interest. However, techniques for joining the segments are needed that will not lower the use temperature, damage the UO2 particles, or compromise the nuclear performance of the fuel. For these reasons, joining of the segments using braze or weld techniques is not desired. Therefore, diffusion bonding techniques will be developed during this investigation for producing full-size nuclear fuel rods from W cermet segments. To promote diffusion during solid state bonding, different refractory metal interfacial coatings will be evaluated.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial sectors that will benefit from this technology include medical, power generation, electronics, defense, aerospace, chemicals, and corrosion protection. Specific applications include protective coatings, x-ray targets, valves, non-eroding throats and thrusters for propulsion, and crucible/furnace components.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications that would directly benefit from this technology include Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) and Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Initial NTP systems will have specific impulses roughly twice that of the best chemical systems, i.e., reduced propellant requirements and/or reduced trip time. The proposed Phase I and Phase II efforts would greatly assist NASA with achieving the promise of NTP and NEP. Potential NASA missions include rapid robotic exploration missions throughout the solar system and piloted missions to Mars and other destinations such as near earth asteroids.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Characterization
Prototyping
Processing Methods
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Metallics
Fuels/Propellants


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H2.02-8468
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Accident Tolerant Reactor Shutdown for NTP Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ultra Safe Nuclear Corporation
186 Piedra Loop
Los Alamos, NM 87544-3834
(505) 672-9750

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paolo Venneri
pvenneri@ultrasafe-nuclear.com
186 Piedra Loop
Los Alamos,  NM 87544-3834
(858) 342-4837

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this SBIR, USNC will develop an accident tolerant reactor shut-down system for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) systems that will guarantee sub-criticality in the event of a water submersion accident. Reactor shut down during a water submersion accident is a crucial issue that must be addressed in NTP systems. The technology that USNC will develop in this SBIR is a low risk design feature that has notable advantages over existing reactor shut-down systems during water submersion accidents. USNC's accident tolerant reactor shut-down system will consist of enhanced control drums with significantly more criticality worth. USNC's enhanced worth control drums are a low risk modification to the traditional control drum where a small amount of fuel is added opposite to the neutron absorber. In addition, USNC's enhanced worth control drums will be moved deeper into the active core to further enhance the criticality worth of the control drums. The combination of adding fuel and moving the drums deeper into the active core will substantially increase the shutdown margin of the control drums and will be sufficient to maintain sub-criticality in the worst case water submersion accidents. Neutronic analysis codes such as MCNP6 and Serpent 2 will be utilized.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The market for the NTP system and its supporting technologies extends beyond NASA with numerous potential customers in the private industry and defense sector. NTP is a game changing technology that is difficult to quantify in the non-NASA market but has the potential to be very large. USNC is currently pursuing earth based mobile reactors and small modular reactors. These reactors are different than traditional reactors as they can be shipped in whole or modular sections. In the shipment of these reactors it is essential to ensure that they are subcritical during water submersion (much like space reactors). The technology developed in this SBIR may have application in addressing water submersion in these earth-based reactors. In addition, a number of other companies are trying to bring mobile or small modular reactors to the market, creating a clear opportunity to implement the novel technology developed in this SBIR. The market potential for advanced reactors is several billions dollars and approximately 40 U.S. companies are trying to bring advanced nuclear technology to the market backed by a total of more than 1.3 billion dollars of private investment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NTP and its supporting technologies have great promise in spreading human presence to Mars and other locations beyond low earth orbit. USNC's accident tolerant reactor shutdown technology will address the water submersion criticality accident for NTP systems and help make NTP a viable technology to fulfill NASA human exploration needs. USNC's work directly aligns with the NASA Technological Roadmap 2015 TA 2: In-Space Propulsion Technologies: 2.2.3 Thermal Propulsion. Currently, NTP is being investigated for a human Mars Mission in the 2030s time frame, but a NTP system would be a game changing technology that would have application for a multitude of missions. In addition, USNC's accident tolerant reactor shutdown technology can be applied to small nuclear systems for space or surface power. These systems, like NTP systems, must also remain sub critical during a water submersion accident.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Fuels/Propellants
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H2.03-7641
SUBTOPIC TITLE: High Power Electric Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Long Life Cathode Heaters for Hollow Cathodes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sienna Technologies, Inc.
19501 144th Avenue North East, Suite F-500
Woodinville, WA 98072-4423
(425) 485-7272

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ashley Bissell
ashley.bissell@siennatech.com
19501 144th Ave NE Suite F-500
Woodinville,  WA 98072-4423
(425) 485-7272

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Present and future NASA missions, including the Asteroid Redirect Mission and efficient cargo delivery to mars, require a substantial increase in lifetime for ion engines and Hall thrusters. This has led to the development of long-life lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) hollow cathode emitters, which operate at temperatures >1600⁰C. Current state-of-the-art co-axial swaged cathode heaters use magnesium oxide (MgO) insulators, which experience a significant drop in insulation resistance at temperatures of 1300⁰C, causing heater failure. Hollow cathode failure caused by the failure of an external cathode heater is the single most critical event that controls the thruster lifetime. While alumina (Al2O3) has recently been used as a replacement insulator material, it has questionable reliability due to grain growth and void formation at temperatures >1600⁰C. In Phase I, we will formulate a new ceramic insulator using sound scientific principles, and develop a long-life cathode heater that can operate reliably at high power levels (>200 W) at high temperatures greater than 1600⁰C for use in long duration space propulsion missions. We will design, fabricate and test prototype swaged coaxial heaters to demonstrate the superior performance of the new insulators.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The United States Air Force has many missions that would benefit from small, low-cost satellites. Commercial applications include communications and imaging satellites, companions to large satellites to provide surveillance and close-up inspection capabilities, such as to monitor and assure proper deployment of solar panels, antennae and other appendages.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Swaged coaxial heaters for hollow cathodes are used in ion propulsion systems including in flight Hall thrusters and in the Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) for the Asteroid Redirect Mission. Hollow cathodes have widespread use on spacecraft, on communication satellites, the electrodynamic tether, and space station structure and other space environments that include those of low-earth orbits, sun-synchronous high inclination orbits, and geosynchronous orbits.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ceramics
Composites
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H2.04-7581
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management for In-Space Transportation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Bubble Free Cryogenic Liquid Acquisition Device

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
IRPI, LLC
7929 Southwest Burns Way, Suite A
Wilsonville, OR 97070-7678
(503) 974-6655

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ryan Jenson
rjenson@irpillc.com
7929 Southwest Burns Way, Suite A
Wilsonville,  OR 97070-7678
(503) 545-2501

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Recent results of fundamental capillary fluidics investigations conducted aboard the ISS have targeted families of geometries with direct application to Liquid Acquisition Devices for low-g propellant management. NASA's exploration goals will demand low-g cryogenic propellant management for the Exploration Upper Stage and other vehicles. The specific geometric requirements of a LAD providing bubble-free cryogenic rocket engine flows of 37L/min may now be readily determined using closed-form expressions validated from archived ISS investigations. In this effort we provide the precise geometric specifications and margins for a passive capillary fluidic LAD for cryogenic fluid management for in-space transportation. We will provide design tools such that dimensions may be tuned to adapt to changes in requirements, propellants, tank geometry, materials, flight, etc. We will employ the SE-FIT software to determine all a/symmetric global minimizing surfaces and myriad stability limits as functions of acceleration environment magnitude and orientation with special considerations for orbit and coast with drag, gravity gradient, spacecraft mass center, and self-gravitation. We will confirm predictions with experiments performed employing accurately-scaled devices in a drop tower. Our long term commercial interest is the broad deployment of our method to design highly configurable devices for a broad range of commercial aerospace tankage uses.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA markets include commercial spaceflight, with hopes of terrestrial applications concerning biomedical diagnostics, inkjet printing, microfluidics, and Lab-on-a-Chip technologies. The ability to passively separate and store fluid phases for 100% single phase delivery is a desirable unit operation for a variety of important applications at large scales aboard spacecraft, but at small scales on earth. Our design methodology is appropriate for both environments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The developed Liquid Acquisition Device will have immediate applications within NASA at both the design and subsystem level for cryogenic propellant systems. The design approach is also portable to a variety of passive fluids management operations on spacecraft including storable propellants, thermal control fluids, and water processing systems for life support. Current and advanced systems are being pursued by both NASA and the commercial aerospace industry.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Fluids
Fuels/Propellants
Simulation & Modeling
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H2.04-7766
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management for In-Space Transportation
PROPOSAL TITLE: A High Efficiency Cryocooler for In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Storage

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, LLC
16 Great Hollow Road
Hanover, NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Zagarola
mvz@creare.com
16 Great Hollow Road
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is considering multiple missions involving long-term cryogen storage in space. Liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen are the typical cryogens as they provide the highest specific impulse of practical chemical propellants. These cryogens are stored at temperatures of nominally 20 K for hydrogen and 90 K for oxygen. Due to the large size of these tanks, refrigeration loads to maintain zero-boil-off are high, on the order of 10's of watts at 20 K and 100's of watts at 90 K. Space cryocoolers have been developed for cooling space sensors that have modest cooling loads and are not suitable for high capacity applications. On this program, we propose to develop a high capacity turbo-Brayton cryocooler that provides 150 W of refrigeration at 90 K. On the Phase I project, we will design the cryocooler, assessing the size, mass, and performance, and assess development risks. On the Phase II project, we will develop and demonstrate a critical cryocooler component. In Phase III, we will build and demonstrate an engineering model cryocooler. Successful completion of this project fills a clear void in space cryocooler technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Private sector applications for high-capacity turbo-Brayton cryocoolers include cooling for laboratory- and industrial-scale gas separation, liquefaction, cryogen storage, and cryogen transportation systems; high-temperature superconducting magnets in motors and magnetic resonance imaging systems; liquid hydrogen fuel cell storage for the automotive industry; and commercial orbital transfer vehicles and satellites.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Space applications for high-capacity turbo-Brayton cryocoolers include cryogen storage for planetary and extraterrestrial exploration missions, CEVs, extended-life orbital transfer vehicles, long-term geosynchronous missions, in-space propellant depots and extraterrestrial bases, and cooling systems for observation platforms requiring large arrays of infrared and X-ray detectors. Terrestrial applications include cooling for spaceport cryogen storage and transportation systems. The highly reliable and space-proven turbo-Brayton cryocooler is ideal for these missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H2.04-7770
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management for In-Space Transportation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Innovative Stirling-Cycle Cryocooler for Long Term In-Space Storage of Cryogenic Liquid Propellants

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Converter Source, LLC
16922 South Canaan Road
Athens, OH 45701-9461
(740) 592-5166

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Laurence Penswick
lpenswick@convertersource.com
121 Carefree Dr.
Stevenson,  WA 98648-6542
(509) 427-9337

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Numerous studies have concluded that increasing effectiveness of long-term storage of cryogenic liquid propellants, primarily LO2 and LH2, offers the largest single opportunity for reducing the mass and cost of associated space missions. The goal of this Phase I SBIR project is to evaluate and complete the preliminary design of an innovative integrated Stirling-cycle-based cryogenic refrigeration and coolant circulating subsystem for use with broad area cooling systems to deliver reduced or zero boil-off propellant storage. The Stirling cryocooler offers higher cooling efficiency than conventional reverse turbo-Brayton cooling approaches. Furthermore, the close integration of our unique open-bore cryocooler and coolant circulator reduces connecting duct length, mass and associated pumping and thermal losses and can also eliminate the need for separate coolant recuperator heat exchangers used by other cryocooler-circulator combinations. Finally, the modularity of our unique cryocooler and circulator components enables the system designer to build inherent redundancy into the system to boost propellant storage robustness over long missions. Phase I will result in a report detailing the most appropriate cryocooler, gas circulator, and integrated system configuration. The report will include projected performance characteristics for the integrated system and overall physical characteristics based on a concept layout drawing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Cryocooling - The cryocooler could be used to cool high-temperature superconducting magnetic bearings in industrial spindles and motors. The ability to cool a central load and reject heat at the periphery is ideal for zero boil-off re-condensation of liquid nitrogen, volatile fuels and other substances. Refrigeration and Gas Compression - The core hydrodynamic bearing technology could be applied to linear free-piston compressors for domestic refrigeration. The Department of Energy Office recently issued a new report which prioritized accelerating the commercialization of high-efficiency appliance technologies. This Roadmap ranked the development of advanced compressor technologies for refrigerators and freezers as having the highest overall importance and potential impact.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Space-based Cryocooling - The cryocooler can be used to produce cooling in the temperature range of 50 - 100 K. Lower operating temperatures are possible via staging. Potential applications include direct cooling of space sensors, vapor re-liquefaction for zero boil-off fluid storage or cooling superconducting magnetic bearings in support of flywheel energy storage systems. Space-based Refrigeration and Compression - The core cryocooler and linear motor technology could be applied to build higher-temperature Stirling coolers for in-space scientific experimentation or biological material preservation. The same enabling technology could be used to build linear compressors for refrigerant-based cooling or other working gas compression or fluid pumping. Space Power Generation - The proposed innovation has the potential to support space power generation applications in the 75-500 W electrical power range using thermal input from one or more radioisotope heat sources, with waste heat radiated to space.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Fuels/Propellants
Active Systems
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Heat Exchange
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H2.04-8027
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management for In-Space Transportation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microcapillary Recuperative Heat Exchanger (MRHX)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CU Aerospace, LLC
301 North Neil Street, Suite 502
Champaign, IL 61820-3169
(217) 239-1703

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris Mangun
cmangun@cuaerospace.com
301 North Neil Street, Suite 502
Champaign,  IL 61820-3169
(217) 239-1704

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CU Aerospace (CUA) and team partner Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) propose to develop a low-cost lightweight recuperative heat exchanger for High Power/High Efficiency cryocoolers, in support of Cryogenic Fluid Management for In-Space Transportation. Brayton cryocoolers are well suited for high cooling power space applications, especially those such as cryogenic propellant management that benefit from broad area cooling. However, Brayton recuperators are large, heavy and expensive. CUA and LMSSC have been developing a robust ultra-compact recuperative heat exchanger for Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocoolers using CUAıs sacrificial fiber technology (VascTech). This technology relies on weaving warp sacrificial fibers with weft copper wires to make a 3D structure with excellent counterflow heat exchange, but low parasitic heat conductance. The proposed microcapillary recuperative heat exchanger (MRHX) requires much larger gas flow (for >150 W cooling at 90 K) than the JT recuperator, and the focus of this proposed work will be modifying and scaling up the heat exchanger for Brayton applications. This new recuperator material will reduce the mass and cost of Brayton coolers while offering improved thermal performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We regard the MRHX as having high potential for infusion to external customers as the hardware geometry and manufacturing process can be adapted for a wide variety of uses. The recuperative heat exchanger can also be used in Joule-Thomson coolers, such as the sorption coolers used on Herschel, Planck, Astro-E and Astro-H. Furthermore, there are many terrestrial uses for inexpensive counterflow heat exchangers, beyond cryogenic applications such as air liquefaction and separation. This recuperator geometry also offers potentially lower cost and higher performance for commercial cryogenic applications such as air liquefaction and separation using Hampson-Linde coolers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The microcapillary recuperative heat exchanger (MRHX) supports the NASA Roadmap for In-Space Transportation, Cryogenic Fluid Management. A lighter, low cost, more robust Brayton cryocooler has numerous space applications, and may be able to replace Stirling and pulse tube coolers used in many instruments, eliminating the risk of exported vibration from the cryocooler and offering broad area cooling which is difficult to achieve with Stirling coolers. Many highly sensitive instruments and optics require precise thermal stability and uniformity. Most space cryocoolers provide cooling at a point source, and must cool the instrument or optics conductively. This can lead to thermal gradients within large structures, and can also lead to temperature gradients between the cryocooler and instrument which require the cryocooler to operate at a lower temperature (and consequently require more electrical input power). Thermal gradients within cryogenic storage tanks are a concern for long life cryogenic propellant storage. Developing this MRHX allows one to retain the remote cooling functionality of the Brayton cooler but at lower mass and cost.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Polymers
Active Systems
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H2.04-8412
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management for In-Space Transportation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Thermally Insulative Structural Connection for Cryogenic Propellant Tanks

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paragon Space Development Corporation
3481 East Michigan Street
Tucson, AZ 85714-2221
(520) 382-1723

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chad Bower
cbower@paragonsdc.com
813 14th Street
Golden,  CO 80401-1866
(520) 382-1705

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Paragon Space Development Corporation and Thin Red Line Aerospace (TRLA) propose a unique solution that thermally isolates the upper stage rocket from a payload on orbit while still providing adequate structural connection for orbital maneuvers. Cryogenic fluids such as LH2 and LOX are ideal upper stage propellants because of their high specific impulse. Unfortunately, the high thermal conductivity of the adapter and payload interface or between the O2 and H2 tanks themselves allows significant heat transfer between the sections, ultimately opening a relief valve that vents the propellant to space. Once vented, the propellant is lost forever resulting in a limited on-orbit useful life for cryogenic upper stages. The proposed solution provides an insulative structural connection between the payload and the upper stage utilizing an inflatable annulus with performance attributes from TRLA's Ultra High Performance Vessel (UHPV) technology that provides an inflatable structure with fully determinate load paths and the highest specific strength and stiffness of any soft-goods architecture. By using the existing payload adapter technology and separation systems for the ascent, the long heritage and reliability of these systems are maintained. Once on orbit, the primary structural connection between payload and adapter separate as normal while the inflatable structure is deployed. The pressurized fabric ring acts as a thermal insulator significantly reducing the undesired heat leak while still providing structural characteristics at 0.2 g's of sustained compressive loads for station keeping, attitude control and telemetry. The innovation will ultimately allow cryogenic propellants stored in an on-orbit depot to have a longer storage life while still utilizing the services of an attached upper stage. Additionally, it will allow an upper stage with a conventional payload to loiter for longer periods in LEO before too much propellant boils off.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The innovation has application to commercial launch providers for improvement to their cryogenic upper stage offering a thermal disconnect between the upper stage and payload. The proposed technology allows for longer on-orbit propellant storage, services, and mission flexibility for Exploration Missions. The innovative technology also has future application for propellant depots, payload fairings, and system habitats.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed solution has application to NASA as a thermal disconnect solution between cryogenic tanks on the SLS Exploration Upper Stage (EUS) while still providing the necessary structural characteristics for station keeping, attitude control and telemetry on orbit. The proposed solution will greatly extend the on-orbit life of propellant depots providing NASA improved mission flexibility for Exploration Missions. The innovative technology also has future application for propellant depots, payload fairings, and system habitats.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Textiles
Deployment
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Structures
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H2.04-8454
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management for In-Space Transportation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight, High-Flow, Low Connection-Force, In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Coupling

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Altius Space Machines, Inc.
3001 Industrial Lane, Unit #5
Broomfield, CO 80020-7153
(303) 438-7110

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jonathan Goff
jongoff@altius-space.com
3001 Industrial Lane, Unit #5
Broomfield,  CO 80020-7153
(801) 362-2310

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Three of the key abilities needed for making future NASA and commercial in-space transportation systems more affordable and capable are: a) the ability to ılive off of the landı via in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), b) the ability to reuse in-space transportation hardware, and c) the ability to leverage continuing advancements in lower-cost earth-to-orbit transportation. All of these abilities require the ability to transfer large quantities of cryogenic liquids (Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Methane) between tanks on separate vehicles. In this proposed SBIR research effort, Altius Space Machines proposes the development of a lightweight, high-flow cryogenic propellant coupling to enable such bulk propellant transfers. This coupling incorporates an innovative new cryogenic sealing architecture to enable a coupling with very low insertion/extraction forces, for both robotic and Astronaut-connected cryogenic propellant transfer operations. In Phase I, Altius and its team will focus on developing and testing a proof-of-concept of this innovative new cryogenic sealing architecture, including performing insertion/extraction and leak testing, to compare with a more traditional spring-energized polymer seal concept. Altius will then update the coupling design based on lessons learned-from these tests, raising the TRL from 2 to 3 at the end of Phase I.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential Non-NASA applications include: 1- A combined T-0 coupling/in-space cryogenic transfer coupling that can be integrated into future upper stage designs, such as the planned ULA ACES upper stage. 2- Refueling of commercial cryogenic stages in space. 3- Other terrestrial applications that could benefit from a low-connection force cryogenic coupling, such as automated LH2 fueling for fuel-cell cars.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications include: 1- Enabling refueling of the EUS upper stage in LEO or other in-space locations, enabling stage reuse, and/or launch of much larger payloads to deep space trajectories. 2- An integrated T-0 fill coupling for EUS that enables in-space refueling with the same coupling. 3- Fueling of Mars Ascent Vehicles or future fully-reusable Mars vehicles from ISRU production facilities. 4- Distributed launch for very high-energy robotic science missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Tools/EVA Tools
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Fasteners/Decouplers
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H3.01-7134
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring
PROPOSAL TITLE: Devices and Methods for Collection and Concentration of Air and Surface Samples for Improved Detecti

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
InnovaPrep, LLC
132 East Main Street
Drexel, MO 64742-0068
(816) 619-3375

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrew Page
apage@innovaprep.com
132 East main street
Drexel,  MO 64742-0068
(816) 619-3375

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Protecting the International Space Station (ISS) crew from microbial contaminants is of great importance. Bacterial and fungal contamination of air, surfaces and water aboard ISS has the potential to cause sickness among ISS crew and to impact onboard experiments. Further, it has been noted that pathogenicity and virulence of microbes can increase in microgravity environments. These factors, along with the high consequence of sickness in the remote space environment, creates a significant need for a rapid way to determine when microbial contamination events occur. To this end, InnovaPrep LLC of Drexel, MO proposes development of improved methods for collection of microbes from air and surfaces for delivery into a small liquid volume compatible with advanced molecular based detection systems. Rapid microbiological detection systems have taken dramatic steps forward in the last two decades and today detection of even a single organism is possible in less than one hour. Unfortunately, development of rapid detection methods has far outpaced development of sample collection and concentration techniques, which are necessary to enable detection of low microbial concentrations in the environment. In the proposed Phase I work, InnovaPrep will leverage current aerosol and surface collection and elution technologies and innovations from a 2015 NASA awarded SBIR for microbial concentration from ISS potable water, for handling of these technologies in a microgravity environment, to develop novel ISS aerosol and surface collection systems. Specifically, InnovaPrep will develop new, optimized aerosol filter assemblies and surface sampling assemblies that allow for collection from larger air volumes and surface areas and elution into smaller liquid volumes than is currently possible.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
InnovaPrep has applied this wet foam elution technique to elution of microbes from aerosol collection filters and swabs, wipes and other surface sampling instruments with significant success. Specifically, with regard to aerosol collection, the company has developed a family of aerosol collectors that utilize electret filter collection and wet foam elution, called the Bobcat, has quickly become the go to collector for ongoing Department of Defense (DoD) biodefense detection programs. An integratable version of the Bobcat is the selected collector for the DoD Joint Biological Tactical Detection System program and is also being used in several configurations by three of the large scale integrators on the ongoing DoD Joint United States Forces Korea Portal and Integrated Threat Recognition (JUPITR) program. Further, the underlying technology was also recently selected for award under the Department of Homeland Security SenseNet program as part of a team selected to develop an autonomously operated bioterrorism detection system. InnovaPrep is also in discussions with multiple commercial partners about the potential of developing a very low cost collector based on these same technologies that would be used for microbial monitoring in the agricultural and pharmaceutical industries.In the area of surface collection, InnovaPrep has more recently engaged in development of a range of surface collection devices for Animal Health, DoD and Food Safety.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Protecting the ISS crew from microbial contaminants is of great importance. Bacterial and fungal contamination of air, surfaces and water aboard ISS has the potential to cause sickness among ISS crew and to impact onboard experiments. Further, as noted by Yamaguchi et al., crewed habitats in space can significantly alter the relationships between humans and microbes, including increasing the pathogenicity and virulence of microbes. The possible high penalty of sickness while aboard the ISS creates a significant need for a rapid way to determine when microbial contamination events occur. To this end, InnovaPrep proposes development of improved methods for collection of microbes from air and surfaces for delivery into a small liquid volume compatible with advanced molecular based detection systems. In 2015, InnovaPrep was awarded a Phase I SBIR for development of a microbial concentration system for ISS potable water and, after what by most measures was a successful Phase I project, is currently awaiting word on a potential Phase II award. This system is based on membrane filtration of water samples and Wet Foam Elution of the captured particles. This method was developed by InnovaPrep as a means for efficiently eluting microbial particles from large membrane filters and quickly led InnovaPrep to apply this technique to elution of microbes from aerosol collection filters and swabs, wipes and other surface sampling instruments with significant success.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H3.01-7294
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring
PROPOSAL TITLE: Silver Biocide Analysis & Control Device

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Environmental and Life Support Tech.
6600 East Lookout Drive
Parker, CO 80138-8707
(303) 495-2090

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Clifford Jolly
cliff.jolly@elstechnology.com
6600 East Lookout Drive
Parker,  CO 80138-8707
(303) 495-2090

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Rapid, accurate measurement and process control of silver ion biocide concentrations in future space missions is needed. The purpose of the Phase I program is to develop an electroanalytical device for analysis and process control of biocidal silver in potable water, with the option integrating an Ag+ ion generator. The device will automatically provide continuous and on-demand maintenance of Ag+ ion biocide levels in spacecraft water streams and storage tanks, as well as providing output data for silver concentrations and a profile of total silver added to the system over time. Considerable test work is planned under the AES program and, given silver ion's 'elusiveness' in water systems, the data will be far more reliable if the methodology for adding the biocide and measuring its concentration is performed by a reliable and flight-qualifiable design from the beginning. The Phase I Technical Objectives are to develop the device specifications, software and hardware to conform to spacecraft applications as specified by NASA. The specific objectives will be to 1) develop a complete analytical characterization of the detection method, inclusive of automated autocalibration and QA/QC functions, 2) demonstrate the Feedback Control Function to maintain consistent Ag+ ion concentration in active water systems, and 3) determine the operating parameters required to generate Ag+ in the ranges of 0.05-40 mg/l in potable water. Phase I will culminate in a complete analytical methodology and a flight preproduction prototype for measurement and control of silver ion at sub-ppb levels in finished waters.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Extensive global applications in environmental monitoring and industrial process control in automotive supply chain, semiconductor, lighting, mining, energy production and energy storage industries. ELS Technology is already successfully implementing similar technology in industrial environemnts in Asia, Africa, Middle East and the United States.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Advanced Exploration Systems using silver as a biocide in water recoveryand water supply systems are the primary focus of this effort. Additionally, the analytical platform can be expanded to provide NASA with an entirely new generation of instruments that will enable a level of agility and in-flight analytical capability that currently does not exist.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H3.01-7659
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniaturized Sensor Array Platform for Monitoring Calcium, Conductivity, and pH in Urine Brine

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Polestar Technologies, Inc.
220-3 Reservoir Street
Needham Heights, MA 02494-3133
(781) 449-2284

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ranganathan Shashidhar
rshashidhar@polestartech.com
220-3 Reservoir Street
Needham Heights,  MA 02494-3133
(781) 449-2284

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In response to NASA SBIR Topic H3.01, Polestar Technologies Inc. proposes to develop a miniaturized sensor array platform for simultaneous monitoring of calcium, conductivity and pH in urine brine suitable for the international space station (ISS). The sensor platform will incorporate three different types of sensors: i) molecular recognition sensor elements incorporated onto nano-architecture for calcium detection, ii) Doped electronic material for pH measurement, and iii) a suitably designed microelectrode structure for conductivity determination. Phase I project will involve design and fabrication of the first generation sensor platform consisting of an electrochemical part (for calcium studies) and electronic part (for both pH and conductivity measurements). The capability of this platform to measure calcium in the range of 50-400mg/L, pH in the range of 0.5-5.0 and conductivity in the range of 10-250mS/cm will be demonstrated. In Phase II all the three types of sensor modalities will be integrated into a common platform. In addition, a handheld electronic readout unit will also be designed and fabricated in Phase II. This will serve as a basis for the development of a rugged detection system for applications on ISS.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed detection system capable of monitoring calcium, pH and conductivity will have a wide range of commercial non-NASA applications such as marine resource management, environmental monitoring entities, aquaculturist, and fisheries etc. for assessing the impact of ocean acidification and calcification on the health of the marine ecosystem. Other applications could include clinical chemistry monitoring pH and calcium in plasma.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Human space exploration missions require life support systems to sustain and secure crewmembers' health. The proposed detection system will provide a critical technology in the current NASA vision for space explorations. Urine processor assembly (UPA) on ISS is designed to extract around 85% of the water from wastewater including urine and flush water. However, because of lack of suitable monitoring instruments, the recovery percentage had to be compromised to ensure water quality and prevent the release of ammonia. Meanwhile, astronauts have been reported to lose an average of more than 1% bone mass per month spent in space. Hence the proposed approach can not only help monitor crew health but also recover more waste water.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H3.01-7755
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact Chemical Monitor for Spacecraft Water Recovery Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 West 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505-5217
(424) 263-6300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jesus Delgado Alonso
jesusda@intopsys.com
2520 West 237th Street
Torrance,  CA 90505-5217
(424) 263-6321

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The International Space Station (ISS) requires lightweight, low-power, easy-to-use, accurate, and stable sensor technology for monitoring wastewater content to ensure proper functioning of the ISS Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). In particular, continuous and unattended pH, Ca2+, and conductivity monitoring in the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) in use in the ISS Water Recovery System is required. At present, no such sensor technology exists that can satisfy the demanding operational requirements of the ISS and future exploration missions. Intelligent Optical Systems (IOS) proposes to develop a luminescence-based optical sensor probe to monitor calcium, conductivity, and pH levels directly in ISS wastewater in real time. Optical sensors are superior to electrochemical ones in terms of robustness, reliability, and maintenance. These advantages are most notable in corrosive aqueous environments. Our monitor will incorporate robust sensor elements, interrogated via a compact, low-power optoelectronic unit. The proposed sensors will be remotely connected to the electronic circuitry by an electromagnetic interference (EMI)-proof optical fiber cable. For space systems control, miniature fiber optic sensors connected to the electronic circuitry by an optical fiber cable allow greater flexibility in placing the sensor system in the ISS, where space is highly valuable. Our flow-through monitor will include optical sensors for calcium and pH sensing based on previous sensor technologies developed at IOS. IOS will also incorporate a miniature conductivity sensor into the sensor probe system. In Phase II we will produce prototypes for integration in a Urine Processor Assembly and conduct extensive testing under simulated environmental conditions, culminating in delivery to NASA of a monitoring system, bringing the monitor to TRL 7.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is significant market potential for a low cost, compact, durable, accurate, and automated sensor to monitor water composition. State-of-the-art instrumentation for monitoring water quality includes instrumentation that is bulky and that requires trained personnel for operation. With its luminescent optical probe, our device will not only accurately perform in-line detection of calcium, pH, and conductivity, but will also be adaptable to monitor several other analytes important and/or relevant to water quality analysis. With the rising demand for smart water solutions in the water industry, a low cost, compact, and easy to use sensor technology will have significant market value. Additionally, there are a large number of potential commercial applications for a multisensor probe for calcium and pH, as well as for the individual sensors themselves, outside of the water quality and wastewater markets. The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, which require real time monitors for accurately tracking calcium, pH, and/or other biomarkers for R&D purposes will be target markets. Biomedical monitoring may also be an attractive business opportunity; miniature probes for measuring and monitoring extracellular calcium have potential applications for monitoring the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases.[1]

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Recycling spacecraft wastewater is essential for the success and sustainability of manned space missions. The proposed multisensory probe responds directly to a NASA need for monitoring calcium, pH, and conductivity in the ECLSS aboard the ISS, specifically in the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). Successful development of a compact, low power, fully automated multisensor probe for multi-agent analysis will give NASA a powerful tool for wastewater monitoring. Real-time knowledge of wastewater chemistry will allow optimal recycling of wastewater aboard the ISS as well as for other manned space missions. This device will also have application as a monitor for water quality in all water streams aboard the ISS. Sensors capable of monitoring organic, inorganic, and trace contaminants in water, operational in microgravity, could make use of the same sensing technology and optoelectronic unit.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Remediation/Purification
Waste Storage/Treatment
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H3.01-7869
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring
PROPOSAL TITLE: Real-Time Ethylene Sensor Based on Chemical Anisotropic Nanochannel Impedance Spectroscopy

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanolab, Inc.
179 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451-1063
(781) 609-2722

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Thomas Morgan
tmorgan@nano-lab.com
179 Bear Hill Road
Waltham,  MA 02451-1063
(781) 609-2722

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has need of a real-time sensor capable of <25ppb detection of ethylene for off-world greenhouse monitoring. NanoLab proposes the use of a fundamentally new style of sensor based off of anisotropic impedance analysis of vertically aligned nanotube arrays (VANTA). Specifically, we propose the use of chemical anisotropic nanochannel impedance spectroscopy (CANIS). This style of sensor provides up to eight degrees of analytical freedom, resulting in extreme discrimination between chemical species without requiring modification of the sensor to provide selectivity. For the particular application of ethylene sensing, NanoLab proposes the use of a carbon nanotube based CANIS sensor, sensitized to improve the interaction of ethylene with the surface, using either a metal or metal organic coating, in order to lower the limit of detection. The sensor will be self-referencing to minimize drift, and will be capable of simultaneously monitoring other relevant species, such as water, ethanol, acetaldehyde, and ammonia without interference to the detection of ethylene. The sensor will be lightweight, and have a footprint of 1cm x 1cm.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This Phase I effort will expand our activities in sensors, which have been gaining significant momentum in the past years. The results of this Phase I work should provide a sensing platform appropriate for ethylene detection in on-world and off-world environments. In the envisioned Phase II effort, we will work to further optimize the limit of detection, and broaden the characterization of cross sensitive species. The developed sensor will find application in commercial growth, storage, and shipping of foods and minimize food spoilage. This sensor is just one application envisioned for the broadly functional CANIS style sensor, and will act as a launching point for development into medical, automotive, industrial, and laboratory sensors for both liquids and gasses. We see follow-on applications including: 1) Simple point of care medical devices capable of simultaneous monitoring of multiple biomarkers, such as for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). 2) Laboratory gas and liquid analyzer for detection of known and unknown species in complex mixtures. 3) A robust industrial gas analyzer for determining trace and component gasses in process and waste gasses.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The CANIS sensor is a multifunction, broad based sensor capable of quantifying and discriminating a wide variety of small molecules in either the gas or liquid phase. This includes organic species, inorganic species, and ionic species. The opportunities for a light weight sensors of this sort span a multitude of applications. Specifically, NanoLab envisions the CANIS sensor for use in space stations, in monitoring not only the atmosphere, but the health of astronauts through urinalysis, saliva analysis, blood tests, and breath analysis to monitor important biometrics, such as blood and urine ionic strength, calcium content, pH, etc., as well as nutritional markers including glucose, and bilirubin. Beyond biological assessments, the CANIS sensor has the ability to monitor atmospheric composition of inorganic and organic compounds in complex mixtures without the need for independent development of specific sensitizing agents. As such, NanoLab envisions the use of CANIS sensors in exploratory missions, such as Mars rovers, as well as in greenhouse monitoring, such as in the proposed effort. The real analytical power of the CANIS system comes from the multiple degrees of freedom in the measurement without the need for sensitizers for many applications. This allows the sensor to fingerprint chemical species without needing prior knowledge of their existence.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Biomass Growth
Crop Production (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H3.01-8321
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring
PROPOSAL TITLE: Polymer Nanowire-Based Reversible, and Quasi Real-Time, Ethyene Analyzer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innosense, LLC
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance, CA 90505-5245
(310) 530-2011

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anamika Ray
anamika.ray-1@innosense.us
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance,  CA 90505-5245
(310) 530-2011

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In-orbit or deep space-based plant growth systems are of interest to NASA as part of fundamental space research and for ensuring supply of fresh produce to the crew. These systems are part of enabling technologies for sustainable and long-term human spaceflight. Ethylene gas is a natural plant metabolite and phytohormone. In enclosed spaceship settings, ethylene build-up can be deleterious to plants. Thus, there is a need to monitor ethylene in real-time, sensitively, reversibly and effectively. Currently, state of the art technology is limited with portability and detection sensitivity issues. To close this technology gap, InnoSense LLC (ISL) will develop a solid state electrochemical sensor (Polymer Nanowire based ethylene Monitor (PNet-Mon)). To expedite this development, PNet-Mon will build on electronic hardware platform engineered by ISL previously. The innovation on this project will only be on ethylene sensing. This effort directly addresses a need expressed in NASA Technical Roadmap (TA 6).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA application during human spaceflight missions, PNet-Mon will prove to be a valuable tool in any greenhouse, food processing, storage and distribution facilities. The benefits of integrating PNet-Mon into any produce/crop supply chain would be of great interest to the industry in terms of product quality and marketability, and production cost. By monitoring ethylene gas, the optimal harvest time and/or storage time/conditions can be determined. Thus, producers can achieve optimal fruit quality and ripeness. PNet-Mon supply chain integration can help prevent produce spoilage caused by deleterious levels of ethylene gas. By preventing spoilage, companies could save time and money associated with spoiled produce.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
PNet-Mon is intended for use in plant growth systems and chambers in space. Once integrated into NASA systems, PNet-Mon will provide vital quantitative information in situ about the ethylene gas levels. The rugged, compact, and portable sensor will detect ethylene at part per billion levels. This is critical in enclosed space settings. Successful ethylene monitoring will enable efficient crop management. PNet-Mon will be compatible with size, power and sensitivity requirements of NASA for long-term human spaceflight missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Biomass Growth
Food (Preservation, Packaging, Preparation)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Prototyping
Crop Production (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Organics/Biomaterials/Hybrids
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H3.01-8576
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring
PROPOSAL TITLE: Innovative Microbial Surface Sampler

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
QuickSilver Analytics, Inc.
1371 Brass Mill Rd, Suite E
Belcamp, MD 21017-1239
(410) 676-4300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rodney Hudson
rod.hudson@qckslvr.com
1371 Brass Mill Rd, Suite E
Belcamp,  MD 21017-1239
(410) 676-4300

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The QS Team will develop an Innovative Microbial Surface Sampling (IMSS) device design and provide prototype kits for use in the International Space Station (ISS). The sampler will meet key design characteristics including: design based on QS?s BisKit macrofoam sponge; able to withstand Gamma irradiation and/or autoclave; allow sampling up to 1M2 in a single sample; contain up to 15 ml of buffer within the sampler and not release buffer during sampling at low pressure (8 psi); designed so as to allow a small sample of buffer to be extracted while in the ISS for local plating; be as compact as possible; have a two year shelf life; easy for ISS staff to use; stable in storage for up to six weeks; certified sterile and have a verified DNA background ? below 1000 rRNA gene copies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The IMSS device could also be used to Commercial sample clean rooms where stringent sampling requirements call for a very low background of DNA. The IMSS could also be used by DoD personnel to conduct Sensitive Site Exploitation (SSE) sampling missions. QS is currently working another SBIR to develop a SSE sampling kit for the Gold Standard US CBRNE Sampling Teams. These Teams mission includes sites involving high value national security targets. The IMSS may become a component of this kit.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The intended use of this IMSS device is to sample up to 1m2 surface areas within the ISS. Device will be configured to allow liquid samples to be taken in the ISS for plating and also retain remaining buffer for transport back to Earth for subsequent analysis. The IMSS may not replace the existing SSK, but may augment the SSK providing buffer when transported back to Earth which can be used for gene sequencing and indentification of potentially hazardous bacteria, viruses, molds, etc. on surfaces within the ISS. This has been a general weakness of the existing SSK.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Biomass Growth
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Medical
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Prototyping
Material Handing & Packaging
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Biological Signature (i.e., Signs Of Life)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H3.02-7349
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Control and Life Support for Spacecraft and Habitats
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multipurpose Waste Disposal Bags for Heat Melt Compactor Application

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Modification, Inc.
2809-K Merrilee Drive
Fairfax, VA 22031-4409
(703) 560-1371

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Krishnaswamy Rangan
kris@matmod.com
2809-K Marrilee Dr
Fairfax,  VA 22031-4409
(703) 560-1371

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Trash bags from the International Space Station (ISS) are currently stored on-board until they are returned to earth for disposal. Alternate methods are seriously being considered for long duration missions such as travel to Moon and Mars. NASA Exploration Life Support system is currently developing an Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) for waste management for long duration missions. Using HMC, trash can be compacted into disks instead of allowing the trash-filled containers to occupy valuable space in the spacecraft. Such compacted trash can potentially be useful as radiation shields. In order to assist the HMC process, MMI will develop a multipurpose trash bag that will be capable of storing waste generated during travel in space. The waste bag will allow water vapor to pass through during hot melt compactor processing. The bag will also enable encapsulation of the compacted product and will be amenable for sterile storage. In the Phase I effort, waste container bags will be tested for containment of simulated trash typically used on a space mission. The waste container bag material will be tested for removal of water from the bag during the hot melt compaction process. After removal of water, the dehydrated solid compacts will be tested for the prevention of harmful microbial growth. In the Phase II effort, the waste bag material design and volume will be optimized to fit the NASA's hot melt compactor systems that will be used in long duration travels in space.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Proposed trash bags can be used in collecting a variety of waste materials including medical hazards, toxic chemicals and radioactive wastes. These bags can also be used in domestic applications such as trash collection in a recreation vehicle, hospitals and homes and industrial establishments. Another potential use is in regular civilian aircraft so that space can be better utilized during non stop flights that exceed 6 hours.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The multipurpose waste disposal bags developed in this project can be incorporated into NASA?s next generation space vehicles such as Orion for Long Duration Space Missions as well as in ISS.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Waste Storage/Treatment
Coatings/Surface Treatments


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H3.02-7564
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Control and Life Support for Spacecraft and Habitats
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Novel Cleaning Technology for Spacecraft Habitat

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
nGimat Co.
1824 Willow Trail Parkway
Norcross, GA 30093-2608
(404) 213-7208

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yongdong Jiang
yjiang@ngimat.com
1824 Willow Trail Parkway
Norcross,  GA 30093-2608
(678) 287-2477

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There is currently no space based laundry technology. Traditional laundry uses a large amount of surfactants, which results in a substantial organic contaminant burden on downstream wastewater processors. Using cleaning wipes to clean crew contacted surface also generates solid wastes. In this project, based on its success on high performance superhydrophobic and antimicrobial coatings, nGimat proposes to develop a novel cleaning technology, which can be applied onto a wide range of crew contacted surfaces and fabrics. The proposed effort by nGimat will create functional surfaces via CCVD so that surfactants are no longer needed to clean and much less solid wastes will be generated. In the meanwhile, the technology will also provide a cleaning pad to collect and hold the cleaning water/solution and dust for easy recycling and regeneration of cleaning water in microgravity environment, which will significantly reduce resource and energy usage and improve comfortableness and safety of the space habitats.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to the significant NASA's needs, the demand for easy-cleaning or self-cleaning surfaces are widely needed for high protective clothing, functional outdoor clothing, window glass, bath and kitchen surfaces, medical devices, sensors, and electronic components, etc. Wide usage of the proposed technology would result in significantly improved safety, comfortableness and reduce energy and resources needed for cleaning and launderings. Thus any common carriers, such as airlines, taxis and public transportation, would benefit greatly. The NASA/military will benefit from the dual use nature of this technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology could find direct use in NASA's space habitats for long human missions, in microgravity, and on planetary surfaces, by forming an easy cleaning surface on a wide range of substrates, including both rigid and flexible materials. The super-omniphobic antimicrobial coatings can grant not only excellent water repellency and oil resistance, but also active self-cleaning performance and bacteria resistance, thus they can be used as high protective surfaces. A special cleaning pad optimizes the use of limited resources.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Space Transportation & Safety
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Nanomaterials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H3.02-8381
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Control and Life Support for Spacecraft and Habitats
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nano-Scale ZnO Coating for Reduction of Biofilm Formation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
N2 Biomedical, LLC
One Patriots Park
Bedford, MA 01730-2343
(781) 275-2727

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ARASH ASLANI
aslani@n2bio.com
ONE PATRIOTS PARK
BEDFORD,  MA 01730-2343
(781) 325-0750

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed program will develop a ceramic coating with surface features, ranging from nanometer to micrometer size-scale, that will be optimized to prevent the attachment of biofilm-forming bacteria found in wastewater plumbing in life support systems in space. The coating technology offers several advantages compared to presently available processes, including low temperature deposition, a range of surface feature sizes, strong adhesion, and no toxic waste products. Phase I will deposit the anti-microbial coating on metallic and polymer samples of materials typical of those in the International Space Station (ISS), measure the mechanical and physical characteristics of the coatings, and compare bacterial and biofilm formation rate with uncoated controls. The coating with the greatest anti-microbial activity will also be demonstrated on the interior surface of tubing sections of the same ISS materials. If Phase I is successful, Phase II would expand testing to other biofilm-forming bacterial types and to other organic materials found in wastewater piping, and demonstrate coating deposition on realistic-size plumbing configurations. Phase II would also initiate intellectual property protection and develop partnerships for NASA and commercial applications. Phase III of the proposed program would see strong commercialization efforts, both in-house and through external licensing agreements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed coating technology would have immediate biomedical applications in which an anti-microbial, anti-contamination coating could prevent infection and biofilm formation on percutaneous catheters, orthopedic devices such as artificial knees and hips, and percutaneous screws and pins. The photochemical activity of the coating also could be useful as an anti-contaminant on illuminated surfaces of biomedical and other devices.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Initial NASA applications are in wastewater plumbing and water recovery systems for long- and short-duration life support in ground-based and space-based human habitation. The coating would reduce and/or prevent biofilm formation and subsequent blockage of critical plumbing. It could also be effective on illuminated surfaces that are exposed to contamination from humans and animals.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Medical
Waste Storage/Treatment
Quality/Reliability
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Nanomaterials
Smart/Multifunctional Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H3.02-8508
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Control and Life Support for Spacecraft and Habitats
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electrochemical Peroxide Generation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Faraday Technology, Inc.
315 Huls Drive
Englewood, OH 45315-8983
(937) 836-7749

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
E. Jennings Taylor
jenningstaylor@faradaytechnology.com
315 Huls Drive
Englewood,  OH 45315-8983
(937) 836-7749

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this Phase I SBIR program, Faraday will develop a custom bench-scale electrochemical cell incorporating state of the art electrocatalysts in a gas-diffusion electrode (GDE) system to serve as proof-of-concept of the suitability of an electrochemical system for in situ hydrogen peroxide generation, to serve as a disinfectant solution for crew contact surfaces in space vehicles. Hydrogen peroxide is an appealing disinfectant due to its low toxicity and innocuous decomposition products (i.e., water and oxygen). Faraday will construct a bench-scale electroreactor to incorporate a custom-fabricated gas diffusion cathode and a commercial mixed-metal oxide anode, which will then be used in hydrogen peroxide generation tests. Adventitious hydrogen peroxide consumption at the anode will be avoided by inclusion of a selective membrane between the anode and cathode compartments. The performance of this electrochemical generation system will be enhanced through application of the FARADAYIC Process, which involves precise tuning of pulsed electrical potentials applied to the catalytic electrodes. The system will be characterized by the peroxide generation rate, the maximum achievable peroxide concentration, and the microbial disinfection capability demonstrated by the solutions generated. These efforts will provide a platform for scale-up and optimization efforts in Phase II and transition to commercialization in Phase III.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed innovation has the potential to be useful in a variety of situations where disinfection of contact surfaces is of importance. The specific application as described by the program solicitation topic is that of crew contact surfaces in space vehicles, but the system would be valuable in a broad range of other settings as well. Some potential applications include naval warships and military field hospitals, where lightweighting of the logistical chain is a key consideration. As well, chemical laboratory environments represent a possible application, where on-site generation of hydrogen peroxide for experimental use may be of value. More broadly, the global commercial market for hydrogen peroxide is sizeable, with a projected growth rate of 5.6% over the next decade. Thus, in addition to in situ generation applications, the technology could also be valuable as an alternative method for commercial synthesis of hydrogen peroxide.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
At present, surface disinfection in NASA space vehicles is accomplished through the use of pre-packaged, disposable, wetted wipes, which represent an appreciable carry-along mass and disposal burden. The proposed hydrogen peroxide generation system offers a more economical and practical alternative, with the disinfectant solution being generated in situ and applied to reusable cloths, reducing both the carried and disposed mass associated with the disinfection process. The stock materials for the disinfectant solutions would consist of dry buffer salts and detergents, reconstituted with water from onboard supply prior to passage through the generation system and application to suitable reusable cloths.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Remediation/Purification
In Situ Manufacturing
Fluids


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H4.01-7875
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Dust Tolerant, High Pressure Oxygen Quick Disconnect for Advanced Spacesuit and Airlock Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Dust Mitigation Strategies for High Pressure Oxygen QDs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Air-Lock, Inc.
Wampus Lane
Milford, CT 06460-4861
(203) 878-4691

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Battisti
bbattisti@airlockinc.com
Wampus Lane
Milford,  CT 06460-4861
(203) 878-4691

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As human spaceflight once again moves toward planetary exploration, space suit hardware must be ready to face the harsh environmental conditions of these surfaces. This is especially true for High Pressure Oxygen Quick Disconnects. These systems are critical life support items that enable the flow of breathing gas, water, and electrical & communication signals from the suit to the vehicle or habitat. Lunar and Martian dust and regolith can have a detrimental effect ranging from an annoyance during mate & demate, to a severe hazard through contamination of the breathing gas lines. The work proposed in this effort will focus on dust mitigation strategies that can be used in a variety of High Pressure Oxygen Quick Disconnects. As a test bed for this effort, Air-Lock will focus on the existing connector designs of the EMU SCU/DCM Multiple Connectors, and the CSSS T-Handle Multiple Connector. However, the task will determine dust mitigation strategies that will be extensible to any existing or future connector design. The first step in this process is identifying the effects that dust and regolith will have. The next step will be a multifaceted approach, we will look to mitigate dust through 1) material and coating technologies 2) mechanical design features such as purges, wipers, and dust seals 3) connector covering and shielding. After a variety of dust mitigation options are developed, the third step in this process will be implementation of the strategies into the connector designs. The final step in this process will be testing of the strategies through samples and mock-ups in a simulated dirty environment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Along with servicing the space industry, Air-Lock provides this life support hardware to the aerospace, military and fire fighter industries. Similar to our spacesuit products, contamination control is always a consideration. The knowledge and design techniques learned through these efforts will be used in support Air-Lockıs various hardware designs where applicable.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Air-Lock's core business focuses on providing life support hardware to enhance human performance in hazardous environments. The dust mitigation strategies learned through this effort will be leveraged on all planetary exploration hardware moving forward. While the focus of this task is on the High Pressure Oxygen Quick Disconnects that enable the flow of breathing gas, water, and electrical & communication signals from the suit to the vehicle or habitat, the dust mitigation strategies can be leveraged for other types of connectors and hardware as well. The knowledge and design techniques learned through these efforts will be used in support of all existing and future suit efforts including the current space suit program of record (EMU) and future programs (OCSS and AES) to market the dust mitigation strategies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H4.01-7953
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Dust Tolerant, High Pressure Oxygen Quick Disconnect for Advanced Spacesuit and Airlock Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Dust-Tolerant, High Pressure Oxygen Quick Disconnect for Advanced Spacesuit and Airlock Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics, Ltd.
63 Flushing Avenue Unit 150
Brooklyn, NY 11205-1070
(212) 966-0661

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Herman
herman@honeybeerobotics.com
63 Flushing Avenue Unit 150
Brooklyn,  NY 11205-1070
(646) 459-7819

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future human missions to Mars, the Moon, Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) and other planetary bodies will require a spacesuit equipped with a compact, lightweight, reliable, dust tolerant, high pressure oxygen quick disconnect (QD) for astronaut extravehicular activity. The next generation of QDs must transfer high pressure oxygen (HPO2) between the vehicle and space suits under adverse conditions, including an extreme range of temperatures, in a high vacuum, and amid pervasive dust. Currently, no QDs deliver O2 at sufficient pressure, nor are they able to mate in the presence of dust. Honeybee Robotics proposes to develop a dust tolerant, high pressure oxygen quick disconnect suitable for advanced spacesuit and airlock applications. This system will integrate form, fit, and function of existing and new subsystems for umbilical quick disconnects, leveraging both the design work completed to-date by Oceaneering (provided by NASA) and the dust-tolerant QD connector prototypes that Honeybee developed to TRL 6 for spacesuit applications for NASA's Constellation program. These QDs have been successfully tested at 6x10-6 mbar coated in JSC-1AF lunar dust simulant. Materials integral to the dust-tolerant system can perform acceptably at -160&#8304;C. The Phase 1 effort will focus on modifications necessary to apply existing dust-tolerant electrical connection technology (US Patent No. 8,011,941) to high-pressure oxygen delivery. This will include developing and performance testing a model in the presence of significant amounts of JSC-1A lunar simulant. A successful end point will demonstrate the design's capability to transmit gas over the interface and prevent dust from entering the gas stream over multiple mate/de-mate cycles. A design path will be laid out for Phase 2 to address remaining technical challenges and create higher-fidelity hardware suitable for testing at NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future commercial space missions into LEO or beyond will require life support equipment for all travelers, and requirements for an oxygen quick disconnect interface will likely be similar to NASA standards. Currently, no commercial dust tolerant, high pressure oxygen quick disconnect system exists, and development of this technology will be attractive to commercial entities that need high-reliability life support systems for crewed missions. This includes any lunar exploration or settlements that seek to harvest resources from the moon. Beyond direct interfacing with primary life support systems for human exploration, a dust tolerant, cryogenic fluid repeatable mate/de-mate interface could find use in fuel transfer for planetary vehicles. Rovers, whether autonomous or for human transport, may require refueling to recharge consumables, such as in the case of fuel cell-powered vehicles. Finally, autonomous spacecraft may require a dust tolerant interface to transfer fluid such as fuel, coolant, or other cryogenic fluids during on-orbit docking. This type of mating will likely be required for future modular spacecraft that are assembled on-orbit.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Dust tolerant, high pressure oxygen quick disconnects will be critical to future exploration missions beyond LEO. Such an interface will find extensive applications in EVA systems designed to operate on the surface of Mars, the Moon, or in the particulate torus around planetary moons and near-Earth objects. The dust-tolerant, high pressure oxygen quick disconnect commercial applications may include resource prospecting and long-term human settlement. The same interface used in an oxygen quick disconnect can also be used for other fluid transfers in dusty environments, including potable or cooling water, or waste CO2, for extended EVA operations. The dust tolerant QD can also be used for fuel; rovers or other vehicles that require liquid recharge of consumables, as would be the case with fuel cell-powered systems, will require a dust-tolerant fueling QD interface. This interface could be integrated into manual or autonomous recharge systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Tools/EVA Tools
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H4.02-7354
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Trace Contaminant Control for Advanced Spacesuit Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fiber-Based Adsorbents Tailored for PLSS Ammonia and Formaldehyde Removal

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Serionix
60 Hazelwood Drive
Champaign, IL 61820-7460
(651) 503-3930

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Langer
jlanger@serionix.com
60 Hazelwood Dr
Champaign,  IL 61820-7460
(651) 503-3930

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Development of an advanced lightweight Trace Contaminant Control filter will play a critical role in the viability of life support systems for future space and interplanetary missions. Serionix has developed proprietary adsorptive coatings which can be applied to both porous and nonporous substrates to yield functional composite media capable of rapid, efficient, adsorption of trace ammonia and formaldehyde. In preliminary testing, this flexible system has exhibited 7 times higher ammonia capacity relative to conventional phosphoric-impregnated activated carbon. The primary objective of this Phase I effort is to design and demonstrate a lightweight, high performing system for removal of ammonia and formaldehyde from next generation spacecraft and space suits. Systems for both vacuum-swing and single use adsorption will be extensively evaluated. Secondary performance characteristics such as pressure drop, flammability, and gravimetric/volumetric efficiency will be quantified internally while media prototypes will be delivered to NASA for evaluation. Building off of a successful Phase I demonstration, the focus of Phase II will be to optimize the system and prototype components to yield mass and volume savings for NASA life support systems. Parallel goals include demonstration of full-scale manufacturing capability and commercialization into industrial applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Army: there is substantial overlap in the performance requirements for military collective protection systems and spacecraft/personal life support systems. We are actively pursuing commercial and demonstration opportunities with the Department of Defense related to our previous Army SBIR contract. Industrial Application: the single-use media has been successfully demonstrated in a leading chip manufacturer's cleanroom for 6 months. We have received a purchase order for 1200 square feet, and are pursuing related opportunities in a broad range of additional markets. Residential application: the single-use media is also effective at removing ammonia and other pet odor components in residential settings. The visual indication of filter life has proven to be a great feature for improving customer awareness of air quality and filter performance. Serionix has received tremendous interest and feedback from pet owners, and has decided to actively pursue the billion dollar residential air purifier market.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Because ammonia and other VOCs pose a great risk to the health of astronauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), this technology will potentially be of great value to broader NASA missions in addition to the primary focus of PLSS contaminant control.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Remediation/Purification
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Textiles


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H4.02-8047
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Trace Contaminant Control for Advanced Spacesuit Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced TCCS for Spacesuit Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 West 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033-1916
(303) 940-2347

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gokhan Alptekin
galptekin@tda.com
12345 West 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge,  CO 80033-1916
(303) 940-2349

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A recent trade study showed that active removal of ammonia (NH3) and formaldehyde (CH2O) is crticial to meeting the 24-hr SMAC limits in the advanced space suit designs (Jennings 2009). TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) proposes to develop a new TCCS for the PLSS based on a combination of a regenerable NH3 sorbent and an ambient temperature catalyst that can oxidize formaldehyde into much more benign CO2 to control the concentration of these contaminants in the spacesuit ventilation loop. In Phase I, with the guidance of molecular modeling, we will synthesize several sorbents and evaluate their potential in reversible NH3 removal under representative conditions. We will also evaluate the efficacy of the ambient temperature oxidation catalyst for formaldehyde removal as well as for oxidation of other VOCs. We will demonstrate the regenerable sorbentıs operation for a minimum of 5,000 adsorption/regeneration cycles and its catalytic activity for a minimum of 400 hrs (equivalent of 50 8hr EVAs). We will evaluate the impact of bed geometry and potential of using different integration options to the PLSS to ensure that the addition of these new materials will not impact the operation of the swing bed that removes carbon dioxide. We will carry out detailed design of the TCCS and determine its weight/volume to assess the logistics savings against the one-time use NH3/CH2O removal sorbents.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A successful ambient temperature CH2O and VOC oxidation catalyst and NH3 removal sorbent system that can remove harmful contaminants from breathing air will find an immediate use in a range of commercial markets such as fire protection systems and indoor air quality control. In addition, it will also find use as fire recovery units on-board the submarines.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The main attraction of our research to NASA is its ability to provide a lightweight, compact, TCCS for the PLSS. Reducing the weight and volume of the sub-components of the spacesuit is of critical importance to NASA, particularly for next generation planetary exploration missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Tools/EVA Tools
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Prototyping


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H4.02-8142
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Trace Contaminant Control for Advanced Spacesuit Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Supported Liquid Membranes for Ammonia and Formaldehyde Control in Spacesuits

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Reaction Systems, Inc.
17301 West Colfax Avenue, #160
Golden, CO 80401-4892
(303) 881-7992

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Wickham
wickham@rxnsys.com
17301 W. Colfax Avenue #160
Golden,  CO 80401-4892
(720) 352-7161

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
With plans to transition to the Rapid Cycle Amine system for CO2 control in the Portable Life Support System used for extra vehicular activities (EVA), NASA has a need to improve the method for controlling trace contaminants, specifically ammonia (NH3) and formaldehyde (CH2O), which have the potential to exceed space craft maximum allowable concentrations (SMAC) by the end of the EVA. A very simple way to remove ammonia and formaldehyde would be with a membrane that would allow ammonia and formaldehyde to escape to space vacuum while retaining oxygen (O2). Reaction Systems, Inc. (RSI) proposes to develop a supported liquid membrane (SLM) that incorporates a facilitated transport mechanism for the control of ammonia and formaldehyde in spacesuits. An SLM consists of a reactive liquid supported within a porous membrane and takes advantage of the difference in chemical reactivity between the compound of interest and oxygen to achieve the needed selectivity and permeation rate. In addition to reacting with the contaminant, the liquid must have extremely low vapor pressure to prevent loss by evaporation, and it must have low viscosity to allow diffusion across the membrane. As part of the development, RSI will prepare and characterize new functionalized liquid sorbents with near zero vapor pressure, and evaluate their effectiveness for ammonia and formaldehyde removal.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology could also find application for trace contaminant control to improve indoor air quality in factories and laboratories. For example, workers are exposed to formaldehyde in the manufacture of formaldehyde-based resins and their use in particleboard products. Morticians and laboratory workers may also be exposed to formaldehyde. Risk of exposure to ammonia is high in the manufacture of fertilizers. For these applications a vacuum pump would be used on the low pressure side to provide the driving force for separation. With the very high selectivity potentially available with an SLM, the flow through the pump would consist primarily of the contaminants and very little oxygen or nitrogen. This would minimize the flow through the pump and therefore the required power.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most immediate application of the technology being proposed herein is the control of trace contaminants, like ammonia and formaldehyde, in a space suit. The same technology could also find application for trace contaminant control in spacecraft cabins and on the International Space Station (ISS). Currently, an acid treated, non-regenerable carbon bed is used to remove ammonia. However, a highly selective SLM vented to space would be a continuous system that demands very little power, with negligible losses of nitrogen or oxygen.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Remediation/Purification
Smart/Multifunctional Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H4.02-8157
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Trace Contaminant Control for Advanced Spacesuit Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel, Vacuum-Regenerable Trace Contaminant Control System for Advanced Spacesuit Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Precision Combustion, Inc.
410 Sackett Point Road
North Haven, CT 06473-3106
(203) 287-3700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christian Junaedi
cjunaedi@precision-combustion.com
410 Sackett Point Road
North Haven,  CT 06473-3106
(203) 287-3700

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Trace contaminants that are introduced into the ventilation loop of a spacesuit (primarily ammonia and formaldehyde) via metabolic processes, off-gassing of spacesuit materials, and by-products of the amine used in the rapid cycle amine (RCA) system are typically removed using activated charcoal. Although effective, the downside of using these materials is a bulky system with low regeneration capability, a reliance on consumables, significant power consumption, and consequently high associated life cycle operating cost. Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes a new material paradigm for the Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS) based upon its novel adsorbent nanomaterials that have high surface area and can be designed to achieve uniquely-targeted sorbent properties including minimizing competitive sorption with water and CO2 and vacuum regeneration without heating. PCI will apply the developed nanomaterials on ultra-short channel length, lightweight Microlith? support substrates to permit practical implementation of the sorbent for a real-time vacuum swing regenerable TCCS. Successful implementation of PCI?s modular strategy will increase flexibility of equipment while reducing total volume and material inventory required for TCCS and atmosphere revitalization applications. Additional benefits include humidity tolerance, as well as reduced volume, weight, pressure drop, energy consumption, and reliance on consumables.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Targeted non-NASA commercial application relate to commercial aircraft air purification where the compact size, low weight, durability, and increased operating time of the sub-systems can bring value and for military vehicle cabins such as in aircraft, ships and submarines. One of the biggest markets for this technology would be commercial buildings where it can have significant impact on the demand control ventilation, resulting in significant decrease in associated energy cost.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Targeted NASA applications will be in advanced spacesuit PLSS with key potential customers include Marshall Space Flight Center, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, and private sector customers. Additional NASA application includes future ISRU concepts for Lunar or Martian bases, space shuttles, and International Space Station.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Remediation/Purification
Nanomaterials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H4.03-7597
SUBTOPIC TITLE: EVA Space Suit Power, Avionics, and Software Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Speaker Driver and Wireless Transciever ASIC

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Silicon Technologies, Inc.
4568 South Highland Drive, Suite 300
Holladay, UT 84117-4233
(801) 913-4332

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tracy Johancsik
tjohancsik@silicontechnologiesinc.com
4568 South Highland Drive, Suite 300
Holladay,  AK 84117-4233
(801) 913-4332

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A robust and reliable wireless communication system capable of surviving the harshness and radiation of space is required for future space missions. Current EVA (Extra Vehicular Activity) communications systems are out dated and in need of an overhaul. Silicon Technologies Inc. (STI) proposes to design a wireless communication ASIC that will include audio DACs, ADCs, and a Dual-band WLAN as well as speaker drivers for a complete communication solution. To minimize design and layout time, STI shall use its ADONIS Rad Hard by Design Analog Cell Library (RADL). RADL contains the basic components required for the design of the ASIC including radiation hardened by design operational amplifiers, voltage references, analog transistors, resistors and capacitors. STI has developed a revolutionary new design tool, ADONIS, which will be used for this ASIC design. One of the key benefits of using STI's ADONIS technology is that it provides NASA Rad Hard technology that is portable to new processes and will extend the potential life of the program by ensuring that the design can be manufactured in a new fab if the existing fab closes. Additionally, ADONIS can do this at a lower cost with reduced risk compared to existing design technologies. In Phase II, STI shall take the feasibility design in Phase I, build a prototype ASIC, and test the silicon electrically before and after radiation exposure. Other advantages of the patented ADONIS design technology are: (1)Consistent cell structures with Rad Hard design, (2)Reduced mask costs by 80% using conventional techniques, (3)Repeatable structures which control leakage, (4)Interactions between cells are known at design time, (5)Faster design cycle resulting in a savings of more than 2x standard design time, (6)Portability between different CMOS processes (7)Noise and IR reduction due to a proprietary power and ground mesh, (8)1D approach, and (9)Compatible with future Ebeam Direct Write Technology when it is commercialized.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
STI and Northrop Grumman expect to use the ADC or portions of it in the DARPA CRAFT program. Discussions are ongoing with the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), the Air Force, and the Army in a variety of applications, including instrumentation and monitoring.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High performance Speaker Driver and Audio ASICs can be used as standalone devices or in CODECs for audio applications. The market for Rad Hard Audio Speaker Driver include spacesuits, MP3 devices, sound cards, VoIP, telephones, LCD's, and speaker systems. With the growth in the space market, there is an increasing need of high quality audio systems. One potential use of the Speaker Driver would be a system for sound cancelation that could reduce the normal noise of a craft and only allow special sounds such as key alarms or voice to reach the user's ears, bringing attention to unusual sounds and/or alarms. STI has a customer base and is experienced in the manufacturing and selling of their products. In addition to the Space Suit Audio Communications program, the high performance Rad Hard Audio ASICs can be used for sound cancelation systems inside space vehicles and other active audio systems. When combined with other circuits, the Speaker Driver can be used for a variety of monitoring, telemetry, instrumentation, and controls.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ad-Hoc Networks (see also Sensors)
Network Integration
Transmitters/Receivers
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H5.01-7616
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Large Deployable Structures for Smallsats
PROPOSAL TITLE: 200W Deep Space CubeSat Composite Beam Roll-Up Solar Array (COBRA)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Composite Technology Development, Inc.
2600 Campus Drive, Suite D
Lafayette, CO 80026-3359
(303) 664-0394

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dana Turse
dana.turse@ctd-materials.com
2600 Campus Drive, Suite D
Lafayette,  CO 80026-3359
(303) 664-0394

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Solar arrays that have very high specific power (W/kg) and compact stowed volume (W/m3), while still providing shielding to the solar cell, are an enabling technology for Deep Space CubeSat missions. Current CubeSat and small satellite solar arrays employ either fixed panels mounted directly to the Satellite side-wall(s) or small hinged rigid panels. These arrays generate very low power (4-20W) due to their limited area available for solar cell installation, thereby constraining CubeSat payload capacity, capability and mission applications. Composite Technology Development, Inc. (CTD) proposes to develop an approach for a high-power, flexible and compact deployable solar array for Deep Space CubeSat Applications. The Composite Beam Roll-up Array (COBRA) is a very high specific power solar array that combines the Photovoltaic Assembly with the deployable boom structure into a unified integrated laminated assembly that can achieve >265 W/kg at the array level, including the deployable structure. The integrated structure will also shield the solar cells from the harsh space environment. The objective of this SBIR is to develop a COBRA for a 6U Spacecraft that generates at least 200W for Deep Space Applications. The unique design is also inherently low cost due to the design simplicity and very low part count. Furthermore, the COBRA technology is highly modular and scale-able, and could be easily scaled to provide in excess of 600W for a small satellite.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
CubeSats are already demonstrating commercial Earth Imaging capabilities. This market will continue to grow as other customers and agencies such as the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency realize the benefits offered from these CubeSat operators. Other applications in asset tracking and surveillance around the globe can also be performed using CubeSat constellations. In addition, today's armed services are looking for faster / cheaper ways to gain eyes, ears and crosslink communication for the dynamic battlefield. Several CubeSat subsystems are being developed that will drastically improve functionality. However, higher power will be necessary to realize the full capability of these small satellites.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
CubeSats' fast time to market and modular architectures open up a new paradigm for NASA scientists and mission planners to consider more cost effective ways to perform a greater variety of science or exploration space missions. Multipoint scientific investigations have been presented in the most recent NASA Roadmap and it is likely that these and other science objectives will be expanded upon in future decadal studies. The high cost of access to space makes deploying constellations of traditional satellites impractical. It is therefore desirable to develop much smaller and lower-cost sensor/satellite systems such that the largest number of distributed measurements can be economically made in the space environment. However, meaningful science investigations will require highly capable CubeSats with attitude determination and control systems, communications systems, data handling subsystems, and scientific payloads, all of which require high levels of power which will be enabled by the proposed technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Generation
Prototyping
Composites
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Deployment
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H5.01-7702
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Large Deployable Structures for Smallsats
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Performance TRAC Boom for Solar Sails

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ROCCOR, LLC
500 South Arthur, Unit 300
Louisville, CO 80027-3000
(720) 200-0068

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tom Murphey
tom.murphey@roccor.com
500 S Arthur Ave Unit 300
Louisville,  CO 80027-3000
(300) 200-0068

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In response to NASA's need for compact, low-cost deployable solar sail booms for CubeSats, Roccor proposes to develop a high performance composite TRAC (TRAC HP) Boom system. The proposed design will advance TRAC technology through: 1) the use of thin-ply composite laminates that are capable of higher packaging strains, 2) the use of high modulus carbon fibers to increase specific modulus of the deployed booms, and 3) incorporating a stepped taper of the boom laminate thickness along its length to improve compression efficiency while minimizing impact to packaged volume. Preliminary analyses indicate a composite TRAC HP boom can achieve more than a 3X increase in buckling strength and 15X reduction in thermal deformations compared to the Elgiloy TRAC design currently baselined for NASA?s NEA Scout mission. The overarching Phase I objective is to conduct an preliminary design-analysis-fabrication-test loop for a TRAC HP four-boom system capable of meeting requirements for NASA?s NEA Scout mission, and clearly identify engineering development risks that must be addressed to ultimately ensure adequate performance of these booms on-orbit. During Phase II, the TRAC HP Boom system will be developed to a proto-flight level of maturity (engineering design to flight CDR, and manufacturing/test plan in conformance with flight hardware quality standards), and numerous hardware prototypes will be built and tested to establish performance for NEA Scout and other CubeSat solar sail missions of interest to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
* Deployable solar sails * Deployable mono-pole and di-pole antennas for CubeSats * Deployable CubeSat decelerators

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
* Deployable solar sails * Deployable mono-pole and di-pole antennas for CubeSats * Deployable CubeSat decelerators

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Composites
Polymers
Actuators & Motors
Deployment
Structures
Photon Sails (Solar; Laser)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H5.01-7830
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Large Deployable Structures for Smallsats
PROPOSAL TITLE: Simulating CubeSat Structure Deployment Dynamics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MotionPort, LLC
473 South River Road, Suite 1-182
Saint George, UT 84790-2150
(435) 703-9195

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brant Ross
brant.ross@motionport.com
473 South River Road, Suite 1-182
Saint George,  UT 84790-2150
(435) 703-9195

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There is high value in simulating the nonlinear dynamics of stowing, deploying, and performance of deployable space structures, especially given the profound limitations of physical testing. Dynamic simulation can reduce the risk of developing new deployable space structures, including solar arrays, by predicting transient motions and loads during stowage, deployment, and mission-related maneuvers. Dynamic simulation can also be used to assess the efficacy of using motion control to mitigate the effect of accelerations on the response of the space structure. The proposed innovations of this proposal are: 1) Development of a general automated process to efficiently take a detailed hinge assembly model and simulate its range of motion while retrieving stiffness information for all degrees of freedom and convert that data to define a simple but accurate nonlinear point-to-point force for use in the solar array assembly model, 2) Development and simulation of a high-fidelity system-level model of the deployment dynamics of an commercial deployable solar array that was designed for use with a 6U cubesat, and 3) Review and evaluation of the hinge assembly simplification process and the modeling approach by an independent resource. The significance of the proposed innovation is: 1) This work builds upon previous simulation success with a split-tube solar array by adding a new automated method to efficiently develop an accurate but simplified representation of the connections used on rigid panel solar arrays, 2) This is an initial engagement with the products of the smallsat community and a commercial cubesat solar array will be simulated. The successful results may encourage the smallsat community to use this technology, thereby reducing technical risk, 3) The simulation of a commercial cubesat solar array in this project potentially leads to obtaining validation comparisons between the simulation and physical test results during a corresponding Phase II effort.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The deployable space structure application that is prepared for use by NASA research centers and contractors would also be suitable for non-NASA organizations. A limited market investigation for the application would be done at selected international space agencies in order to understand their needs. The addition of the Phase I and II capabilities will result in a software application that can be sold to an international market of agencies and contractors who work with deployable space structures. MotionPort has working relationships with distributors of MBD software in Europe, Japan, South Korea, India, Australia and Taiwan. These organizations have advanced technical skills and customer relationships that can bring this vertical application to the international market. The application will be marketed at technical conferences that the staff of aerospace organizations may attend, such as AIAA conferences. Marketing will include having a booth in the exhibition area as well as presenting a technical paper at selected conferences.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA commercialization will follow a logical progression. First, the initial application will consist of the six functions to help simulate the nonlinear dynamics of roll-out solar arrays (developed in an earlier Phase I SBIR) and the two functions for the simplified representation of flexible hinges that will be developed in this Phase I SBIR. Second, the addition of the Phase II capabilities (simulation of lanyards and tape springs) and the integration of functions will result in a software application that will be appropriate to the overall market of organizations that design, evaluate and make purchasing decisions for deployable space structures. A variety of solar array configurations can be addressed as well as deployable antennas. Most NASA Centers could be approached with this application, as well as their contractors. The necessary documentation, tutorials, marketing materials and application licensing will be developed. MotionPort has prior experience in the development of such materials. The application will be marketed at technical conferences that NASA staff may attend, such as AIAA conferences. Marketing will include having a booth in the exhibition area as well as presenting a technical paper at selected conferences.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Deployment
Structures
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H5.01-8115
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Large Deployable Structures for Smallsats
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electrically Activated Shape Memory Composite Deployable Boom

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cornerstone Research Group, Inc.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440-3638
(937) 320-1877

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Hermiller
hermillerjm@crgrp.com
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton,  OH 45440-3638
(937) 320-1877

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CRG proposes to advance the solar sail boom system with a bi-stable, deployable, composite boom which implements a composite electrically activated shape memory polymer (EASMP) to transition the matrix with characteristics representing an elastomer, for storage and deployment, into a thermoset creating a rigid boom. This bi-stable solution will allow for a lightweight, reliable, and controlled solution of deployment while consuming less power upon deployment compared to current metal booms. This technology will not be limited by mission; it is scalable for larger solar sails in future missions and missions with similar applications such as the Lunar Flashlight.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project's technologies, developed for NASA systems, would directly apply to systems operated by other government and commercial enterprises. Government systems that would derive the same benefits would include deployable composites for satellites operated by the Department of Defense, Department of Interior?s EROS, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Federal Aviation Administration. This technology's attributes for tunable composite modulus should yield a high potential for private sector commercialization for various space materials and systems for companies such as Boeing, Sierra Nevada, SpaceX, Virgin Galactic, and many more.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Supporting NASA's materials and structures capabilities, specifically at NASA Langley, this project's technologies directly address requirements for lightweight deployable solar sail booms for cubesats. The proposed technologies offer deployable booms at a fraction of the weight, with reduced deployment power. Through this project, tailoring EASMP for space applications opens a new frontier for novel material applications for various space systems such as, but not limited to; deployable solar arrays, deployable antennas, micro-actuators, variable vibration dampening structures, and tunable signal cancellation panels. Other NASA applications may benefit from the material?s ability to stay flexible and soft below -100?C, such as seals, couplings, or dampers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Composites
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Deployment
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Structures
Photon Sails (Solar; Laser)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H5.01-8169
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Large Deployable Structures for Smallsats
PROPOSAL TITLE: Structural Origami Array (SOAR)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
LoadPath
2309 Renard Place Southeast, Suite 101
Albuquerque, NM 87106-4264
(866) 411-3131

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joseph Footdale
jfootdale@loadpath.com
2309 Renard Place SE, Ste 101
Albuquerque,  NM 87106-4264
(866) 411-3131

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
For small satellite program managers and integrators, who must contend with increasing power consumption of small spacecraft with advanced electric propulsion and/or science instrumentation, the Structural Origami ARray (SOAR) is an extremely high performance deployable solar array system that delivers 200W to 1kW+ power output, while exceeding state-of-the-art packaging efficiencies. Unlike existing folding panel or rolled architectures, our approach utilizes a simple reliable deployable supporting structure and a two-dimensional origami packaging scheme of the flexible blanket/substrate that exhibits several unique and enabling characteristics. These include a perfect packaging efficiency, equal to z-folding; small stowed square form factor to easily fit into any small satellite; easily scalable to create longer arrays with little impact on stowed height, complexity, and structural performance; uniform folding mechanics for simple electronic harnessing; deterministic folding kinematics that unfold in two dimensions when pulled along its length, which minimizes potential array damage during deployment; and an inherent thickness insensitivity, which allows for the uses of thicker, long lifespan or high efficiency photovoltaic cells.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
SOAR will be of interest to Government spacecraft procuring agencies such as the Air Force, Navy, National Reconnaissance Office, and Operationally Responsive Space Office; as well as, prime contractor spacecraft developers such as ATK, Lockheed Martin, Boeing, Northrop Grumman, Sierra Nevada Corporation, and Ball Aerospace. In addition to spacecraft solar arrays, the SOAR structure will enable other larger small satellites deployable systems such as antennas or radiators.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future NASA small satellite missions are seeking an order-of-magnitude increase in power generation capability to support solar electric propulsion and other high consumption instrumentation. Overcoming this need while not consuming a large fraction of the spacecraft volume requires advanced innovative structural solutions. The Structural Origami ARray (SOAR) is an extremely high performance deployable solar array system that delivers 200W to 1kW+ power output, while exceeding state-of-the-art packaging efficiencies. SOAR will enable planned NASA missions and support power demand growth of future missions. The proposed technology impacts NASA small satellite missions that require increased power for SEP, high power instruments, or increased communications capability. The National Research Council (NRC) Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) identified NASAıs top technical challenges and highest priority technologies across all 14 NASA space technology roadmaps. Based on the 30 identified in the study, increased power or lightweight structures are key, enabling technologies that contribute to the advancement of approximately 30 percent of the top technical challenges and the highest priority technologies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Generation
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Quality/Reliability
Processing Methods
Composites
Deployment
Structures
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H5.01-8430
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Large Deployable Structures for Smallsats
PROPOSAL TITLE: Solar Cube 2U: A Heliogyro Propulsion System for CubeSats

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Altius Space Machines, Inc.
3001 Industrial Lane, Unit #5
Broomfield, CO 80020-7153
(303) 438-7110

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Blomquist
rblomquist@altius-space.com
3001 Industrial Lane, Unit #5
Broomfield,  CO 80020-7153
(412) 580-6083

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Solar Cube heliogyro is a CubeSat propulsion system that utilizes reflected solar pressure as its only means of propulsion and attitude control. It has the appearance of a Dutch windmill and employs sail control akin to a helicopter. Four solar reflecting blades made of ultrathin polyimide attach to a central bus. During operation, centripetal tension and chord-wise battens provide stiffness. The system uses collective and cyclic pitch of the blades to control attitude and thrust. For stowage, each blade is rolled onto a spool adjacent to its pitch actuator. For deployment, the spacecraft spins and the blades unroll in a controlled manner. The proposed Phase I effort will focus on fabrication and feasibility testing of a blade assembly, to prove that a sail blade of sufficient area can stow in the proposed volume and can deploy and pitch reliably. Phase II will mature the hardware design and develop the necessary GNC software. Eventually, Solar Cube will help CubeSats become capable of interplanetary operation, and extend their reach to places that are currently unattainable.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Small, private spacecraft benefit from the heliogyro in unique ways, including increased access to space. Commercial space exploration is in its nascent stage and the CubeSat community is booming. The heliogyro will allow a CubeSat the same access to a large segment of space as a larger spacecraft. At the same time, it will dramatically reduce the cost of missions that otherwise would require a booster; e.g., going to the moon, GTO to LEO, high LEO to MEO, and other, scientifically important research missions. Solar Cube also enables nanosatellites with ambitious propulsion requirements to ride on launch vehicles that prohibit secondary payloads from carrying propellant. Example applications include: Situational awareness & asset relocation (DOD) Pole Sitter Position beacon/relay in space Mineral mapping of asteroids CubeSat transport for lunar science and exploration Orbital Transfer

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has an innate interest in what a Solar Cube heliogyro CubeSat can enable: semi-autonomous, fuel-free positioning of spacecraft at presently unattainable places of interest. In developing this capability for CubeSats, Altius can provide to NASA the possibility of undertaking exotic CubeSat missions once reserved for large spacecraft. Furthermore, the heliogyro can scale. Larger versions of the heliogyro that will be proven through this SBIR effort can accomplish all solar sail missions on NASA?s Technology Roadmap. Example applications are: Solar Weather Monitor Out-of-Ecliptic missions (Solar Polar Imager) Interstellar Probe Pole Sitter Earth-moon L2 Radio Quiet Observatory Transport to outer planets

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Attitude Determination & Control
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Deployment
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Photon Sails (Solar; Laser)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H5.02-7100
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme Temperature Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Extreme Temperature Stitched Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Carbon-Carbon Advanced Technologies, Inc.
4704 Eden Road
Kennedale, TX 76060-6800
(817) 985-2500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aaron Brown
abrown@c-cat.net
4704 Eden Road
Kennedale,  TX 76060-6800
(817) 985-2500

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovation proposed here is the development of an integrally stiffened stitched composite structure that is capable of operating within extreme thermal environments similar to those encountered by atmospheric reentry vehicles. Such temperature extremes and challenging structural weight goals will necessitate the use of advanced composite material systems that can also be assimilated into structurally efficient hot structure architectures that are damage tolerant, lightweight, and reasonably affordable to manufacture. While such goals have been achieved within subsonic design regimes using the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS), the lack of elevated temperature capable materials has precluded its application at higher temperatures. Recognizing the potential that this novel structural design approach might hold at higher temperatures, coupled with the recent advances made in carbon fiber sewing threads, further experimentation is warranted to determine whether the advantages demonstrated using integral stitched structures could also be extended to high speed airframe applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aggressive competition among the big three jet engine manufacturers has led to several advanced applications of composite hot structures in next generation commercial aircraft engines. Such swift implementation virtually guarantees that subsequent improvements will follow, and that larger and more integrated structural components will be designed that can benefit from the integrated structural approach proposed in this STTR.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Innovative material and structural concepts that provide reductions in mass and volume for next generation space vehicles shows up as a key focus area in nearly all NASA and Air Force technology roadmaps for futuristic high speed airframes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Isolation/Protection/Radiation Shielding (see also Mechanical Systems)
Processing Methods
Composites
Nonspecified
Textiles
Structures
Destructive Testing
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H5.02-7447
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme Temperature Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel, Functionally Graded Coating System for Reusable, Very High Temperature Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Allcomp, Inc.
209 Puente Avenue
City of Industry, CA 91746-2304
(626) 369-1273

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steven Jones
steve.jones@allcomp.net
209 Puente Avenue
City of Industry,  CA 91746-2304
(661) 275-5975

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal addresses some of the most challenging materials issues with respect to multi-mission, very high temperature, up to 4000ıF, applications. The very successful, record breaking, NASA led X-43A hypersonic flight proved the ability to use state of the art (SOTA) material/coating system for short duration, single mission, and very high temperature applications. The transition into multi-mission applications requires a total paradigm shift. Allcomp proposes an extremely innovative solution to this problem by using functionally graded (FGM) CVD coatings to alleviate interfacial shear stresses and greatly reduce transverse thermal cracking, which historically have plagued ceramic coatings applied to very low thermal expansion coefficient 2-D C-C composite substrates. The success of this Phase I will totally open new avenues in the area of high temperature materials. That, in turn, will enable NASA designers to implement hot structure solution in lieu of parasitic passive insulation system, resulting in significant weight reduction in future NASA Space Exploration vehicles, as well as a plethora of other applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Several DoD organizations are actively pursuing hypersonic vehicles for both advanced missile systems, as well as sophisticated surveillance vehicles. The novel, low cost technology developed under this program will lead to DoD applications as well.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary focus is initially on new TPS solutions for NASA Space Exploration vehicles. In addition, this technology would also have applicability in future hypersonic applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Coatings/Surface Treatments


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H5.03-7392
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Multifunctional Materials and Structures: Integrated Structural Health Monitoring for Long Duration Habitats
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flexible Multifunctional Structural Health Monitoring Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Acellent Technologies, Inc.
835 Stewart Drive
Sunnyvale, CA 94085-4514
(408) 745-1188

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffrey Bergman
jeffb@acellent.com
835 Stewart Drive
Sunnyvale,  CA 94085-4514
(408) 745-1188

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Composite materials are being used in an increasing number of NASA?s space habitat structures because they are lightweight but very strong. The materials can enhance the operation and performance of the structures, they can also introduce significant inspection challenges that push the limits of traditional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) in terms of time and cost. Using built-in sensors for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) can help overcome inspection difficulties, and can also enable real-time monitoring from cradle-to-grave. Currently however, there are no long duration flexible hybrid multifunctional sensors that can be conformably distributed over very large flexible surfaces and thereby enable their availability of instantaneous information on the structural integrity of expandable space habitats made of composites or other hybrid materials, and measure environmental conditions for optimum performance while adding minimal weight. This program will therefore focus on development, maturation, assembly and automation of Flexible multifunctional Structural Health Monitoring systems? on non-traditional conformal, bendable, and stretchable substrates for use in space. The program will enable the low-cost manufacturing of large area sensors that can be integrated into large flexible substrates for space habitat. Phase I will focus on demonstrating the feasibility of the approach using a space habitat material.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Acellent Technologies is currently working towards a path breaking technology that will have a potential impact on future structural health monitoring applications. The outreach of this technology will be vast in the composites world ranging from in-service airborne, ground, and sea-based vehicles to space, and weapons system platforms that require some form of inspection and maintenance procedures to monitor their integrity and health condition, to insure the safety of mission personnel, to prolong flight vehicle life span, or to prevent catastrophic failures. Composite materials are increasingly being used in the aerospace, automotive, and ship industries for performance reasons, competitive pressures drive the need for reductions in manufacturing costs and associated improvements in fabrication reliability. The easy integration and plug-and-play aspects of the system will make it ready to use with any type of structure

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed system has several critical future exploration applications including support of platform technologies for self-assembly, in-space assembly, in-space maintenance & servicing, and high-energy space platforms such as highly reliable autonomous deep-space systems. These technologies have the potential of significantly increasing safety, reliability, affordability, and effectiveness of NASA missions. One of the major applications would be in future space habitats where health monitoring is of major concern because of the costs and risks associated with each mission failure. These habitats can now be built by taking advantage of new, lightweight proven structural material design. By keeping down empty weight and operations and maintenance costs and personnel requirements, and emphasizing reusability and save-ability these habitats will greatly decrease space mission costs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Space Transportation & Safety
Processing Methods
Composites
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Structures
Acoustic/Vibration
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H5.03-7485
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Multifunctional Materials and Structures: Integrated Structural Health Monitoring for Long Duration Habitats
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Low-Cost, Multi-Functional Sensor Network System for Intelligent Vehicle Health Assessments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
X-wave Innovations, Inc.
407 Upshire Circle
Gaithersburg, MD 20878-5238
(301) 948-8351

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dan Xiang
dxiang@x-waveinnovations.com
407 Upshire Circle
Gaithersburg,  MD 20878-5238
(301) 948-8351

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is seeking innovative, multifunctional and lightweight approach to integrate long-duration structural health monitoring (SHM) capabilities for space habitat long-duration mission concepts. The enabling sensing technology and integration approach should not compromise the load-carrying capability or other structural design requirement. Sensing capabilities by fusing multiple sensors to predict and locate critical damage areas and probable failure zones are highly demanded. To address this critical need, X-wave Innovations, Inc. (XII) proposes to develop a low-cost, multi-functional sensor network system (MFSNS) for intelligent monitoring of critical aero- and space vehicle structures. For the Phase I program, we will prototype a MFSNS system and demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed technique for precursor/damage detection and long-duration structural health monitoring. For the Phase II program, XII will focus on refining the prototype system design and development with improved hardware and software. For the Phase III program, XII will focus on optimizing the MFSNS performance and packing the MFSNS technology into a turnkey commercially-available system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For military applications, the enabling technology will increase an aircraft's readiness and allow the cost-saving Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) of aircrafts, ships, ground vehicles and infrastructures to be implemented. In commercial sectors, this advanced SHM technology will benefit the maintenance decision for air and space vehicles, civil structures and power plants. This new NDE/SHM technology could significantly extend an aircraft?s service life, reduce maintenance costs, and protect the safety of critical assets.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Structural health monitoring for critical aircraft structures posts significant challenge and interest to most military and commercial applications. We anticipate that by the end of our Phase II effort we should have developed a working prototype of the proposed MFSNS technology for damage and precursor characterization in complex aircraft structures. This NDE/SHM technology should have many applications in NASA, other government agency and industries. For NASA, this technology is especially critical to protect the platforms' and crews' safety.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Structures
Acoustic/Vibration
Electromagnetic
Destructive Testing
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H5.03-7546
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Multifunctional Materials and Structures: Integrated Structural Health Monitoring for Long Duration Habitats
PROPOSAL TITLE: Non-Invasive Environmental Sensing System for Lifecycle Management (NIEL)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
San Diego Composites, Inc.
9220 Activity Road
San Diego, CA 92126-4407
(858) 751-0450

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Quinn McAllister
qmcallister@sdcomposites.com
9220 Activity Road
San Diego,  CA 92126-4407
(858) 751-0450

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SDCıs Non-Invasive Environmental sensing system for Lifecycle management (NIEL) can be integrated during manufacture of composites making up habitats and space structures to provide up to the minute environmental data on the system over the entire lifecycle of the part from the moment the first ply is laid down to the time when the structure is retired. The NIEL system will include a network of strain, thermal, radiation, and damage sensing fiber optic sensors that are seamlessly embedded at various depths within the composite plies, tows, or weave making up the structure. In this Phase I SBIR, SDC will design, analyze, manufacture, and test a non-invasive fiber optic sensor embedding manufacturing process that provides unparalleled manufacturing and performance data at each ply depth within the part. The process will be non-invasive such that the embedding process is an integral component of the composite material, the fiber optic sensors do not induce failure initiation, and the sensor connector ends are ingressed/egressed from the part through a robust capillary compatible with the resin matrix. SDC will evaluate the embedding processes for survivability and performance and test the integrated parts to demonstrate the capability of the NIEL system for space structure lifecycle management.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to the space structures market, embedded fiber optic sensing technologies have unlimited possibilities. Structural health monitoring systems that donıt impact the structural integrity of the composite parts can be implemented in aircraft, pressure vessels, ship structures, commercial vehicles, racing vehicles, and many more. The implementation of the NIEL system into these commercial sectors would realize returns on investments over 1000 purely through reduced maintenance and downtime costs. Overall, the NIEL system is a space exploration enabling technology that would change the landscape within the commercial market.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of the NIEL system has been specifically aligned with the requirements for Mars Exploration, Mars Resupply, Mars colonization, ARM missions, Jupiter exploration, and future satellites and spacecraft. By implementing the NIEL system into first flight articles an instrumented proof test can be performed of the actual flight article and the design safety factor can be reduced for the first flight. The detailed data collected by the NIEL system during the first flight can be used to redefine the design parameters in the next generation of the structures. The redesign could further reduce the safety factor based on a precise definition of conditions. The combination of the material savings and the weight savings at launch due to the lower required safety factors realizes a return on investment of 24 in the first flight, and an increasing return on investment for each subsequent flight.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Composites
Textiles
Structures
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Lifetime Testing
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H5.03-7999
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Multifunctional Materials and Structures: Integrated Structural Health Monitoring for Long Duration Habitats
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Structural Health Sensors for Inflatable Space Habitats

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luna Innovations, Inc.
301 1st Street Southwest, Suite 200
Roanoke, VA 24016-1921
(540) 769-8400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Ohanian
ohanianj@lunainc.com
3157 State Street
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-6604
(540) 443-3872

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Luna will partner with Dr. Daewon Kim and Dr. Sirish Namilae of Embry Riddle Aeronautical University to develop a multifunctional structural health monitoring solution for lightweight composites used in long duration space habitats. A combination of fiber optic sensors, for strain and temperature monitoring, and piezo resistive sensors, for impact detection, will be utilized to provide a flexible and lightweight health monitoring solution. Luna's high definition fiber optic measurement system utilizes low cost optical fiber to report strain or temperature points every 1.25 mm to 5 mm along the sensing fiber. Fiber can be embedded in the composite materials to detect changes in the structure and predict early onset of failure, prior to visible damage. The piezo resistive sensors will be mounted on flexible soft goods materials. During Phase 1, Luna will fabricate a small-scale expandable composite test article and demonstrate the ability to sense strain using embedded optical fiber and detect impact events using surface mounted piezo resistive sensors. During Phase II, Luna will demonstrate a solution that fuses data from both sensing techniques into one platform for a cohesive SHM solution. Phase III will focus on transitioning the technology to NASA and NASA affiliates such as Bigelow Aerospace.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A multi-functional structural health monitoring technology would provide an innovative and revolutionary solution for many commercial applications. The aerospace and automotive industries are increasingly shifting towards the use of composites in design of future commercial vehicles in efforts to achieve significant weight savings to lower fuel consumption. This innovation will provide the ability to embed or surface mount lightweight fiber optic and piezoelectric sensors to a variety of composite structures and provide an unrivaled level of detail about the structure?s performance for increased safety. The solution could be adapted to a variety of applications, from in-flight monitoring of composite fuselages and wings for aircraft to in-vehicle monitoring of composite panels and springs in ground vehicles. Embedded sensors can initiate a movement towards the use of "smart materials" that provide information about their structural health and can detect the onset of defects or delamination prior to any visible surface damage.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lightweight composites can provide not only significant mass and size savings, but also allow for more efficient and complex designs for future space vehicles and in-space habitable structures. Use of new lightweight materials also raises a critical need to assess and monitor their structural performance. Lightweight and minimally invasive fiber optic sensors can be embedded in composites during their manufacturing process and utilized afterwards for structural health monitoring. High Definition Fiber Optic Sensing (HD-FOS) technology will provide NASA with a measurement technique that can report hundreds of strain or temperature measurement points along the fiber optic cable, allowing for a detailed understanding of the composite?s structural reliability. Combined with piezo resistive surface sensors for impact detection, this multi-functional solution enables a wider coverage area of the structure to be monitored and can improve sustainability of future crewed missions to Mars.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Composites
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Deployment
Structures
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Lifetime Testing
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H5.04-7952
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Structural Assembly
PROPOSAL TITLE: Strut Attachment System for In-Space Robotic Assembly

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics, Ltd.
63 Flushing Avenue Unit 150
Brooklyn, NY 11205-1070
(212) 966-0661

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Herman
herman@honeybeerobotics.com
63 Flushing Avenue Unit 150
Brooklyn,  NY 11205-1070
(646) 459-7819

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The size of space systems is currently limited to payload envelopes of existing launch vehicles. Due to this and the customized nature of satellites, existing space systems are very costly to stand up. Nor are they designed for repair, upgrade, or reuse to amortize the cost over multiple missions. As missions get further from low-earth orbit (LEO), the dangers of human extra-vehicular activity (EVA) for manual on-orbit assembly or repair increases making robotic assembly of large structures very desirable. Honeybee Robotics (Honeybee) proposes to develop a Strut Attachment System (SAS) that provides a common electromechanical connection architecture for robotic on-orbit structures assembly. The SAS will enable the creation of networked space frame structures with a strut/node architecture; enable payload docking to those structures for power and data transfer; and enable the creation of reusable, serviceable, and upgradable vehicle systems in support of lower cost space exploration. The SAS will leverage technology that Honeybee developed for robotic satellite servicing (DARPA Satlet Grasper Tool | TRL-5). The proposed Phase 1 technical approach is to modify the Satlet Grasper Tool and receptacle designs to increase the connection's strength, rigidity, and power/data transmission capability. The SAS will consist of the Strut Attachment Mechanism, Strut Receptacle, and Node. The Phase 1 project will result in a Strut Attachment Mechanism and Strut Receptacle at TRL of 4 at the end of Phase 1 and TRL 5-6 at the end of Phase 2.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There exist multiple defense and commercial applications for the SAS including: - Large deployable aperture arrays to address the exponential increase in global mobile data consumption - GEO hosted payload platform to provide less expensive access to space for science, defense, and commercial customers DARPA is interested in the development of a persistent platform in GEO that would provide common resources (e.g. power, communications, attitude control) to a large number of hosted payloads. Scientists, commercial entities, or defense customers many times desire an on-orbit capability, but the required investment to develop and launch the asset simply outweigh the benefits or do not mesh with budgetary constraints. What if on the payload needed to be developed and there was inexpensive access to GEO via commercial payload delivery systems such as DARPA's Payload Orbital Delivery (POD) architecture? A GEO hosted payload platform could provide significant value to numerous payloads. This GEO platform is likely to be a networked space frame structure ? and the proposed SAS is key to realizing that architecture. This concept has significant scientific, defense, and commercial value both for payload providers (customers) as well as the GEO host provider from a revenue perspective.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SAS will be an enabling technology for future exploration missions by providing a core technology for in-space robotic assembly of: - Extended operation space exploration vehicles - Planetary exploration surface habitats - In-space transportation hubs Future exploration missions either in Earth orbit or to other planets will require large space vehicles. The optimal architecture for in-space operations may not look like a traditional space vehicle like the Space Shuttle or Apollo-era vehicles, and will be too large to assemble on the ground and launch into space directly in-space assembly will be necessary. In fact, the International Space Station is a perfect example of such a space asset. Combining the enabling capabilities of robotically assembled, networked space frame structures, with other in-space robotic technologies being developed such as the in-space refueling work going on at NASA Goddard and the Phoenix robotic servicer/tender going on at DARPA, leads to the capability to assembled large structures on-orbit, connect multiple modules to a common structure, and create very large space systems that are not possible with today's methodology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H5.04-8148
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Structural Assembly
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reclaimable Thermally Reversible Polymers for AM Feedstock

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cornerstone Research Group, Inc.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440-3638
(937) 320-1877

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Henslee
hensleeb@crgrp.com
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton,  OH 45440-3638
(937) 320-1877

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) proposes to design and develop thermally-reversible polymeric materials that will function as reprocessable thermosetting matrixes. These material systems will enable reclamation and repurposing of structural fiber-reinforced composites into new configurations during extraterrestrial missions, such as conversion to Additive Manufacturing (AM) feedstocks or direct fabrication into multipart constructs. The thermally-reversible polymer thermosets also present the opportunity to generate volumes of AM feedstock through function as an optimized binder matrix, allowing compounding and impregnation/infusion of in-situ resources such as environmentally sourced metallic, mineralogical (i.e. regolith), and desized/milled non-reprocessable composites. This material approach will provide NASA with a means to generate AM feedstock and support in-situ resource utilization with a reduced reliance on pristine raw material payloads. CRG has already demonstrated the efficacy of thermally-reversible polymer structures in commercial adhesive applications, as well as in a previous NASA technical effort for modifying waste packaging plastics to provide improved compatibility to AM processing (specifically FDM). The proposed concept not only has the potential to enable resource reclamation and AM capability, but also to advance the state-of-the-art in AM materials technology. CRG's proposed approach to develop thermally-reversible polymer materials for thermoset polymer reprocessing, and demonstration of reclamation and AM compatibility evaluation, will provide NASA with a material and processing technology readiness level (TRL) of 3 at the conclusion of the Phase I effort.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Government systems would derive benefits from this technology, including rapid prototyping and additive manufacturing of complex, low-run number, and advanced design parts for systems operated by the Department of Defense. Prime defense contractors could find use of an enabling technology allowing 3-D printing of new and exotic polymeric materials or polymeric composites previously thought incompatible to additive manufacturing processes. Human systems focused solutions would have the ability to additively manufacture custom components for personnel equipment, such as softer elastomeric materials for integral user-custom equipment. This technology's attributes for improving the compatibility of polymers to AM systems would yield a high potential for private sector commercialization for AM and 3D printer manufactures, significantly increasing the materials properties available in the feedstock. Such companies could dramatically expand the thermoplastic raw materials available to consumers, create new product lines based on thermosetting material designs, and potentially be able to produce materials with custom thermal-mechanical performance on-demand. The technology would enable businesses to additively manufacture components and systems previously impossible due to material limitations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Supporting NASA's Human Exploration Destination Systems Technology Area and LaRC, this project's technologies directly address requirements for reducing launch mass by reclaiming launched structural components into AM printing feedstock and providing polymeric technology for utilizing in-situ resources as composite AM raw materials. This project's technologies offer the ability to manufacture components and structures on-site as needed using structural composites that are no longer needed and yielding effective binder matrixes for large volumes of environmental sourced particulate materials. This reduces overall launch cost, and provides deep space exploration the ability to fabricate components as needed.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H6.01-7276
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Robotic Systems - Mobility, Manipulation, and Human-System Interaction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fail-Safe, Controllable Liquid Spring/Damper System for Improved Rover Space Vehicle Mobility

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Materials and Devices, Inc.
4750 Longley Lane, Suite #104
Reno, NV 89502-5981
(775) 826-8868

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Barkan Kavlicoglu
b.kavlicoglu@amadinc.com
4750 Longley Lane, Suite #104
Reno,  NV 89502-5981
(775) 826-8868

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is planning to return to the moon in 2020 to explore thousands of miles of the moon?s surface with individual missions, lasting six months or longer. Surface mobility is critical to outpost buildup and exploration activities, where the change in the vehicle weight between unloaded and loaded cargo conditions and travel over rough terrain can adversely affect the ride handling conditions and vehicle dynamics. The vehicle suspension system components should accommodate for the required range of vehicle weights and provide mobility during various surface activities. In response to NASA?s need to improve surface mobility, an autonomously adaptive liquid spring/damper system is proposed. This system will utilize a compressible fluid, which performs as a liquid spring to eliminate the need for mechanical springs and accumulators, to reduce the overall weight and space requirements of the suspension. The controllable damping force will be utilized by a fluid system that has a fast response time. The system will provide independently controllable damping force on each wheel. Based on our prior work, the proposed system could have a weight saving of more than 20% and size saving of at least 40%. The proposed system is a fail-safe device, i.e., in case of any power interruption or electronic failure, it will retain as a regular passive suspension system component. In this effort, the feasibility of utilizing the proposed system will be demonstrated through testing and multi-body vehicle dynamics model analysis. The proposed system will increase the mobility of the exploration vehicle under different payload (cargo and possible crew) configurations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA's applications, advanced controllable suspension systems could be used for vehicle suspension systems, especially for medium/heavy vehicles to reduce weight, increase mobility, enhance controllability of the vehicle's motion, and to prevent rollover in rough terrains and during emergency maneuvers. The applications range from commercial and private sector to military, such as medium/heavy commercial vehicles, buses, coaches, trailers, High Mobility Multi Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWVs), tracked vehicles, unmanned military wheeled vehicles and, Light Armored Vehicles (LAV). The developed liquid spring/damper is also suitable for use in landing system of the airplanes and suspension systems of railway vehicles, such as high-speed trains.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
To load, manipulate, deposit and transport payloads to desired sites on the surface of the moon, the suspension systems of prototype NASA robotic vehicles plays a key role. The proposed SBIR Phase I project will demonstrate the feasibility of a liquid spring/damper to be utilized as a component of the active suspension system of NASA's space exploration vehicles, including the Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) and Chariot and All Terrain Hex-Legged Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE). All vehicles under consideration can support cargo transport and Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA), which require them to perform activities such as surface navigation, terrain mapping and docking. The proposed system can potentially be utilized in NASA?s Lunar Electric Rover and planetary rovers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H6.01-7532
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Robotic Systems - Mobility, Manipulation, and Human-System Interaction
PROPOSAL TITLE: The Stinger: A Geotechnical Sensing Package for Robotic Scouting on a Small Planetary Rover

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics, Ltd.
Building 3, Suite 1005 63 Flushing Avenue Unit 150
Brooklyn, NY 11205-1070
(212) 966-0661

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kris Zacny
zacny@honeybeerobotics.com
Building 3, Suite 1005 63 Flushing Avenue Unit 150
Brooklyn,  NY 11205-1070
(510) 207-4555

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Flawless operation of planetary mobility systems, excavation, mining and ISRU operations, regolith transport and many others depend on knowledge of geotechnical properties of the soil. Knowing, for example, the soil strength and its density and in turn fundamental soil parameters such as friction angle and apparent or true cohesion, will guide the design of the wheels and excavation systems and help to determine anticipated excavation energies, time, and forces. Nearly all planetary rovers to-date have experienced some type of problem due to the unknown nature of planetary regolith. The MER Spirit mission ended when the rover bogged down. The MER Opportunity rover barely recovered from a sand trap. MSL Curiosity spent over a month trying to find a safer route around a sand dune. Apollo Lunar Roving Vehicle got stuck and had to be lifted and placed on firmer ground while Lunokhod managed to recover from a 'near' stuck position. Honey Robotics, therefore, proposes to design and test a prototype geotechnical tool called the Stinger, that combines soil bearing strength measurements with shear test measurements. The Stinger instrument consists of a percussive cone shear-vane penetrometer capable of measuring near-surface and subsurface soil properties to a depth of 50 cm or greater. The cone deployment is percussive, because this approach reduces penetration forces, an important consideration when a tool is deployed in a low gravity environment from a small vehicle. During percussive cone deployment, the soil bearing strength is measured. The shear vane is initially housed inside a cone and it is pushed out whenever shear tests are required. When the shear vane is out, the cone-vane is rotated to measure shear strength of the soil. This measurement can be performed at any depth. Based on results of the breadboard testing, a preliminary design for a TRL6 Stinger GeoTool will also be realized.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is a general need for systems that provide rapid and more reliable soil characterization and the Geo Tool could provide this. Some of the applications include oilsands bearing strength assessment (this is required by law in the state of Alberta), environmental monitoring of industrial sites, agricultural surveys, and soil remediation. The military has expressed the nead for a rapid near-surface soil characterization tool, something that can be carried and deployed by a single soldier, with the data acquired and processed by someone with no or little training. Currently we are in the process of negotiating a contract that could start as soon as April of 2016.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Geotechnical Tool is imperative to gather essential engineering data to determine bearing strength, density, and trafficability of regolith. This is most useful to establish the stability of massive structures, set up resource mining operations, and survey exploration sites and routes. In addition, soil physical properties are used to help interpret surface geologic processes and to constrain the origins and formation processes of the soil. The Stinger is, therefore, not only a necessary surveying and exploratory tool, but a valuable scientific instrument as well, which would prove to be most useful for lunar missions and for ongoing exploration on Mars. In addition to penetrometer applications, the percussive mechanism could be used for rapid excavation (via an impact-actuated digging tool), setting anchors into the ground, and for rotary-percussive drilling systems. The system will be designed with a goal of minimizing system mass so that it might be mounted on small platforms like NASA's Centaur2 and also be human-deployable. Honeybee Robotics is a NASA-approved flight vendor and is therefore in the unique position to take a mechanism, such as that proposed, from low TRL to TRL 9, a successfully deployed flight unit. Honeybee has designed and built three critical flight components for Mars flight missions: Rock Abrasion Tool for 2003 MER, Robotic Arm Scoop for 2007 Phoenix Mars Mission, Sample Manipulation System and Dust Removal Tool for 2011 Mars Surface Laboratory.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Tools/EVA Tools
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Metallics
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H6.01-7743
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Robotic Systems - Mobility, Manipulation, and Human-System Interaction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Modular Advanced Networked Telerobotic Interface System (MANTIS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tethers Unlimited, Inc.
11711 North Creek Parkway South, Suite D113
Bothell, WA 98011-8808
(425) 486-0100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Blaine Levedahl
blevedahl@tethers.com
11711 North Creek Parkway South, Suite D113
Bothell,  WA 98011-8804
(425) 486-0100

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
With the goal to reduce astronaut time required to maintain experiments on the ISS and aid advances in vision processing and robotic arm control technology, TUI proposes to collaborate with NanoRacks to develop a "Modular Advanced Networked Telerobotic Interface System" (MANTIS) that will integrate an existing robotic arm in a NanoLabs payload on the ISS. The MANTIS system will reducing crew member burden for performing NanoLab experiments by enabling automated and/or supervised teleoperated operation of the Plate Reader, MixStix, and other systems in the NanoRacks instruments. The MANTIS development effort will leverage an existing KRAKEN robotic arm, integrate existing hardware and develop open source software to perform experiments on the NanoRacks platform. To aid design and integration in a Model Based Design (MBD) framework this SBIR will also develop an open simulation framework and tools, leveraging the Robot Operating System (ROS) environment. MANTIS will also enable advances in vision processing and arm control algorithms for the ISS by giving researchers an open software framework to develop on MANTIS. The Phase I effort will develop a detailed design for MANTIS. The Phase II effort will build MANTIS and mature it to TRL-6 through integrated testing with the KRAKEN arm and NanoRacks hardware aboard the ISS. NanoRacks has agreed to collaborate with us in these efforts to enable integration of MANTIS with their experiment platform, and will be our transition partner for Phase III commercialization.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The MANTIS platform will give individuals wishing to perform experiments with supervised telerobotic operation on the ISS a pathway to do so through development and integration tools, open software, and accessible hardware. This framework can be leveraged by commercial entities like NanoRacks to increase the number and efficiency of experiments onboard the ISS. This is evidenced by NanoRacks in-kind contributions to the proposed effort.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
MANTIS has the potential to give NASA development and integration tools, open software, and hardware onboard the ISS to commercialize the use of the MANTIS platform for organizations to develop software for supervised telerobotic operation of experiments onboard the ISS.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Process Monitoring & Control
Sequencing & Scheduling
Teleoperation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H6.01-7882
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Robotic Systems - Mobility, Manipulation, and Human-System Interaction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Retractable Robotic Anchor for Hard Rock and Granular Soils

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ProtoInnovations, LLC
5453 Albemarle Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15217-1132
(412) 916-8807

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
DIMITRIOS APOSTOLOPOULOS
da1v@protoinnovations.com
5453 ALBEMARLE AVE
PITTSBURGH,  PA 15217-1132
(412) 916-8807

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ProtoInnovations proposes to research, develop, and validate an innovative retractable robotic anchoring mechanism that works both in hard rock and granular soils permitting anchoring and subsequent repositioning of a lander, rover or other equipment. Our goal is to support a number of mission targets to Mars, the Moon, and asteroids. The technology proposed here is of special value to planetary missions involving extreme terrain mobility, small body/microgravity mobility, and missions that involve forceful interaction with the environment (e.g. drilling, digging, etc.) These missions are all ranked as High Priorities in NASA's Robotics, Tele-robotics, and Autonomous Systems Roadmap Technology Area 04 (April 2012). The use of retractable anchors could also benefit missions involving multi-rover exploration, instrument employment, infrastructure emplacement, etc. In Phase 1 we will: 1- Research the mechanics of robotic anchoring in hard rock and soft soils; 2- Design and prototype a working robotic anchoring mechanism; 3- Conduct proof-of-concept and performance characterization testing; 4- Demonstrate the weight holding capacity of the prototype anchoring mechanism on a vertical and inverted surface.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The robotic retractable anchor concept could be applied to numerous commercial applications. For example, the ability of a robot or a mechanized system to anchor and hold on steep faces lends itself to a variety of applications including mining, construction, inspection of buildings and bridges, as well as reconnaissance and intelligence. Robotic systems that utilize retractable anchors would facilitate a great deal of prospecting and exploration capabilities and could benefit both commercial and non-commercial scientific endeavors in some of the Earth's most challenging environments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A reliable solution to recurring anchoring would benefit various robotic mission concepts that are being developed at NASA. We will work with scientists and technical leads at NASA Centers to promote the proposed innovative robotic anchoring for future NASA missions, including for example exploring the South Pole of the Moon, steep terrain exploration on Mars, sampling missions on asteroids, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Actuators & Motors
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H6.01-8135
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Robotic Systems - Mobility, Manipulation, and Human-System Interaction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Liquid Cooled Viscoelastic Actuation for Robust Legged Robot Locomotion

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Apptronik
1512 West 29th Street
Austin, TX 78703-1922
(512) 300-8171

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nicholas Paine
n.a.paine@apptronik.com
1512 W. 29th St.
Austin,  TX 78703-1922
(512) 300-8171

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The work proposed here seeks to significantly improve actuation technology for mission-capable articulated robots and exoskeletons such as NASA's Robonaut 2, Valkyrie, and ATHLETE systems. The goal is enabled by a new type of robotic actuation technology, Viscoelastic Liquid Cooled Actuation (VLCA), which offers improved energy efficiency, power density, and mechanical robustness over conventional actuators for space applications. The scope of the proposed work encompasses the construction and experimental evaluation of a VLCA prototype for Phase I, including the mechanical structures, avionics, and embedded control software. Additional work in Phase I will include studies on liquid cooled brushless DC motor architectures and space-compatible elastomers that will reduce risk for a detailed VLCA design and build in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Any commercial application that relies on hydraulic actuation could potentially be a market for VLCA technology. Its high payload and mechanical robustness enables it to perform well in many of the same application domains. Its increased efficiency and safety are technology benefits that could be exploited to replace hydraulic machines. Example industries include disaster response robotics, construction, rehabilitation and tactical exoskeletons, scouting and exploration, industrial automation, oil and gas.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Robotic assets with human-levels of strength and dexterity, such as Robonaut 2, Valkyrie, and to some extent, ATHLETE, have been of increasing interest to NASA. Development of the proposed VLCA technology can augment the performance capabilities of future such systems. These robots will be able to work alongside astronauts, will alleviate astronauts from mundane and time consuming tasks, will be capable of semi-autonomous mobility over unstructured terrain on other planets, will have the strength to carry significant payloads, and will have manipulation capabilities to construct scientific outposts and human dwellings.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Prototyping
Actuators & Motors
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H6.02-8297
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Requirements Management for Spacecraft Autonomy and Space Mission Automation
PROPOSAL TITLE: cFS-Based Autonomous Requirements Testing Tool

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
S&K Global Solutions, LLC
145 South Lake Crest, Suite 2
Polson, MT 59860-6969
(406) 745-5725

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Carroll Thronesbery
cthronesbery@skgs-llc.com
1331 Gemini Street, Suite 315
Houston,  TX 77058-2781
(287) 732-6493

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The S&K Team proposes design of a tool suite, Autonomy Requirements Tester (ART), to address the difficulty of stating autonomous requirements and the links to clear testing plans. ART will represent autonomy requirements, test plans, and test results, and the relationships among them so that it is less difficult to state autonomy requirements clearly, to communicate test plans clearly among the full development team, to guide software development from requirements through acceptance tests, and to communicate test results in terms of the completeness with which the requirements have been tested. This will extend the state of the art by clarifying the progression from autonomy requirements to test results and make the tests more modular and reusable. The S&K team will first identify representative autonomy requirements for a design reference mission and high-level descriptions of how to test those requirements in the developed system. The team will then design XML schemas to represent data structures that define autonomy requirements, related test objectives, related cFS messages, test specifications and results. Next, they identify ways to generate and execute those tests by publishing and subscribing to appropriate cFS messages to run tests and examine the results. The S&K team will design information displays for showing relationship among requirements, test designs and results so that it is clear how thoroughly the autonomy requirements have been tested and how they performed. The team will develop a concept of operations for ART. They will prototype enough of the concept to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach, write a final report, and deliver results along with submission of a Phase II proposal.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a number of non-NASA applications that could benefit from better management of requirements for autonomy. In the developing drone market, there is already a very strong push for operating drones beyond the operator's line of sight, which requires autonomy to ensure successful completion of drone sorties. Autonomy is appearing with greater frequency and complexity in all sorts of software from office automation to data base searches and web site and smart phone applications. As these services expand their autonomy, they will feel greater pressure in managing the development and testing of that autonomy so that they can develop it efficiently and communicate it clearly to their customers. The S&K Team will need to perform market analyses in the future to determine if it is better to pursue a very simple application that can be started and used with very little training or a more detailed that can help to manage efforts of hundreds of engineers. Perhaps the best option is to offer both a light and a heavy duty version, with the light version getting potential customers into the framework of thinking about FM using our approach and the heavy duty assisting the coordination of a large number of engineers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ART will assist engineers and project engineers at NASA in managing and communicating autonomy requirements for flight and robotic systems. The forecasted potential and targeted applications relative to NASA needs are the development of robots (especially those interacting with humans) and the development of autonomous spacecraft systems both for unmanned spacecraft and those supporting small crews that operate at long distances from earth with resulting communications delays. The potential customers include manned missions to Mars and unmanned missions that will require increasing autonomy. They also include the development of robots like Valkyrie and Robonaut 2 that will support a small crew in performing safely the numerous duties required to operate a spacecraft for long duration, long distance missions. As pressures increase for spacecraft autonomy, the complexity of the autonomy and the number of systems that involve autonomy will increase. ART offers the ability to develop and test autonomy requirements more cost effectively.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Man-Machine Interaction
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Project Management
Quality/Reliability
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H6.03-7501
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Autonomy and Space Mission Automation for Consumables
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrating Standard Operating Procedures with Spacecraft Automation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRACLabs, Inc.
100 North East Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio, TX 78216-1234
(281) 461-7886

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Kortenkamp
korten@traclabs.com
100 North East Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio,  TX 78216-1234
(281) 461-7886

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Spacecraft automation has the potential to assist crew members and spacecraft operators in managing spacecraft systems during extended space missions. Automation can monitor critical resources, perform routine tasks, respond to unexpected events, and manage the overall operation of on-board systems. Current NASA missions to the International Space Station (ISS) are heavily dependent upon ground controllers to assist crew members in performing these activities. Crew members and ground controllers rely on pre-defined standard operating procedures, which are at the heart of spacecraft operations. In current operations, automation and procedures are completely divorced from each other. This can make it difficult to utilize fully spacecraft automation, especially in long-duration crewed missions when ground control support is limited. On-board spacecraft automation typically focuses on fault monitoring and response and often uses specialized programming or scripting environments that are not accessible to crew members or system experts. On the other hand, procedures focus on non-continuous, human-in-the-loop execution of high-level instructions to change spacecraft operating states or respond to operational failures. This means that spacecraft automation systems are ignorant of the higher-level procedures being performed around them and spacecraft automation systems cannot exchange data with these procedures. On the other hand, procedures do not have access to or authority over spacecraft automation software and little knowledge of resource status or demands. TRACLabs has developed a procedure integrated development environment called PRIDE that is currently being used by NASA for ISS and Orion procedures. TRACLabs proposes to develop a generic PRIDE interface to real-time spacecraft automation systems. We propose to prototype this interface using the Integrated Test and Operations System (ITOS) and its Spacecraft Test and Operations Language (STOL) interpreter.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
TRACLabs is already selling PRIDE as a commercial product to an oil field services company. PRIDE is proving automation assistance to drilling operations. Many oil field services companies have legacy automation systems that they would like to integrate with electronic procedure systems such as PRIDE. They have also expressed interest in PRIDE learning resource and duration constraints during operations to adjust schedules and predict when work will be finished. We will work with them to make sure that this project meets their requirements. TRACLabs also sees application of this technology in the automotive manufacturing area. TRACLabs performed a small pilot project for automotive supplier on flexible robotic assembly. This was successful, and after a tour of several manufacturing facilities in North America, TRACLabs personnel are negotiating a follow-on contract for research and development. Factory floor electronic procedures will also need to connect to legacy automation systems and provide timeline and resource allocation services. Commercial space companies are interested in using PRIDE for their operations and integrating with their legacy spacecraft automation systems. Finally, our subcontract sells spacecraft automation software and can add PRIDE into their commercial tool suite when integration is complete.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
PRIDE is being evaluated for use in ground control operations for the Resource Prospector (RP) robot being developed by NASA JSC and ARC for lunar surface operations. Ground control operations personnel for RP and have seen several demonstrations of PRIDE and are evaluating it. The results of this research are expected to have immediate applicability to RP and we anticipate RP using PRIDE for their ground operations. We also see application to ISS when we complete integration with Timeliner in Phase II. This would allow PRIDE procedures to call Timeliner scripts. We will work with NASA JSC personnel to ensure we understand NASA's requirements in this area. Potential integration of STOL or Timeliner into MCC21 would provide additional commercial opportunities. TRACLabs has a long history of working on autonomous control of advanced life support systems. A combination of PRIDE and a life support executive such as PLEXIL would be applicable to many spacecraft life support systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Man-Machine Interaction
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Sequencing & Scheduling
Verification/Validation Tools
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H6.03-8394
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Autonomy and Space Mission Automation for Consumables
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Intelligent Consumables Management System Development Framework based on Artificial Intelligence Techniques

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
1650 South Amphlett Boulevard, Suite 300
San Mateo, CA 94402-2513
(650) 931-2700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Stottler
stottler@stottlerhenke.com
1650 South Amphlett Boulevard, Suite 300
San Mateo,  CA 94402-2513
(650) 931-2700

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovation, called the Management of consumables Adaptive Execution, SynchronizaTion, Replanning/rescheduling, Optimization system (MAESTRO), would leverage the investment of NASA from originally funding the development of the Aurora Intelligent Scheduling framework and also leverage the previous NASA-funded Intelliface, to interface Aurora to diagnosis systems and extend it both to include more Course of Action (COA) development/planning and adaptive execution (i.e., executing the scheduled activities/procedures after scheduling). MAESTRO would be an open standards architecture and framework for the development of intelligent consumables management systems for autonomous and/or astronaut management of consumables. Each task (an abstract token) in a MAESTRO/Aurora schedule would be a procedure of several steps or actions that must be executed, and incorporating the Adaptive Execution capability of Intelliface (based on Open Source SimBionic) would allow the plans and schedules generated by MAESTRO to be adaptively executed. The Intelliface link to diagnosis systems allows the entire loop to be closed so that an autonomous or human-interfaced system can transition seamlessly between diagnosis, replanning, rescheduling, adaptive execution, etc. The generality of the proposed MAESTRO system will be proven, in Phase I, by using it to develop three separate consumable management systems for three separate applications using the same code base. Consumables management will be possible with significantly less skill and experience, less manpower, and reduced turnaround time. The multiple applications also show that MAESTRO is a general, open architecture.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
On the commercial side, Stottler Henke already sells Aurora and associated customization services to private companies. Commercial product and service sales related to Aurora have already resulted in over $8 million in revenue. MAESTRO improvements can be readily incorporated into Aurora and sold through existing sales channels. And beyond NASA there is a large number of real-time diagnosis, replanning/rescheduling, and execution problems that MAESTRO could be readily adapted to such as oil refineries, power plants, factories of all types, etc. And many of these potential MAESTRO users are already Aurora customers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most direct targets for transition of this proposed effort are the large number of intelligent consumables management systems needed for the several systems onboard various future manned and unmanned spacecraft. By showing its ability to create high-quality responses to consumables events with greatly reduced manpower and expertise, MAESTRO will clearly illustrate its advantages over the status quo. Because it will be an open system that other developers could use to create intelligent consumables management, a large number of intelligent consumables applications can be quickly developed. Since MAESTRO is specifically designed to easily interface with Diagnosis, Adaptive Execution, and Planning engines, such developers will have their choice. And additional interfaces can be developed over time to increase the number of such options. There is a potential to automate the majority of consumables management decision-making at NASA, even for low earth orbit, with a corresponding savings in highly skilled manpower. Additional applications are various types of ground processing at KSC.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Sequencing & Scheduling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H6.04-8219
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Integrating ISHM with Flight Avionics Architectures for Cyber-Physical Space Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrating ISHM with Flight Avionics Architectures for Cyber-Physical Space Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Qualtech Systems, Inc.
100 Corporate Place, Suite 220
Rocky Hill, CT 06067-1803
(860) 257-1803

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sudipto Ghoshal
sudipto@teamqsi.com
100 Corporate Place, Suite 220
Rocky Hill,  CT 06067-1803
(860) 761-9341

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Autonomous, avionic and robotic systems are used in a variety of applications including launch vehicles, robotic precursor platforms, etc. Most avionic innovations are based on software-embedded systems, and this has resulted in an increase in the number of interactions (coupling) among heterogeneous subsystems. Avionic systems degrade in performance due to gradual development of anomalies and unanticipated failures ranging from issues affecting a single hardware or software subsystem to issues occurring as a result of coupling among multiple subsystems. In addition, system usage and operating conditions may lead to different failure modes necessating multiple recovery procedures possibly causing conflicts and deadlocks among recovery steps. QSI intends to address these challenges by leveraging the current capabilities of model-based fault management and supportability solutions of TEAMS to efficiently sequence individual steps within each procedure, including adding/deleting steps, and resolve conflicts and deadlocks in recovery procedures. TEAMS-RT, the real-time inference engine, has multiple fault diagnosis capability built-in. Additionally, TEAMS-RDS (TEAMS-remote diagnostic server) already exploits commonalities among test steps during guided troubleshooting, where each test is represented as a chain of pre-setup, post-setup and action nodes with Do and Undo steps interspersed. The proposed effort will extend this to more general digraphs of test and recovery/repair procedures and also embed this capability in a solution linked to enhanced TEAMS-RT for automated /crew-initiated recovery and resolution of conflicts and deadlocks in recovery procedures. This proposal aims to enhance QSI?s existing probabilistic inference engine to handle multiple, intermittent and coupled failure scenarios and developing an ISHM response engine module that dynamically assembles feasible and near-optimal recovery procedures to handle multiple failure scenarios.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Among the other agencies, DoD, US Air Force, US Navy, and commercial aviation (e.g., SpaceX) are the most potential customer for the resulting technologies. Large scale military systems (systems of systems) such as NORAD, Space Command ground segments, the Joint Strike Fighter fleet, the Navy shipboard platforms, Submarine Commands and ballistic missile defense (BMD) systems can be potential areas to field the proposed technology. In addition, UAVs, UMGs and other unmanned submersible vehicle markets could also be potential target for the proposed technology. The product is also expected to be of commercial value to the manufacturers of DoD and military?s remotely guided weapons and reconnaissance systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is developing increasingly autonomous systems that can perform missions with a high degree of certainty with minimal human intervention. Examples of such mission include rovers operating in Mars, where the missions are extremely long, and therefore multiple components and subsystems will degrade and fail over the duration of the mission. However, due to the long communication delays between Mars and Earth, these systems cannot be monitored and diagnosed by mission control like any other near-earth mission. The proposed capability will be invaluable to NASA for such operations by (a) Predicting failures before they disrupt the mission, (b) Reducing false positives of such prediction with the proposed inference engine under multiple failure scenarios, and (c) merging multiple recovery procedures that may have conflict. This will enable NASA to fill the gap between the current flight avionics CW FDIR systems and desired ISHM systems handling multiple failure high stress situations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Command & Control
Sequencing & Scheduling
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Knowledge Management
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H6.04-8395
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Integrating ISHM with Flight Avionics Architectures for Cyber-Physical Space Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multiple Failure Response Procedure System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
1650 South Amphlett Boulevard, Suite 300
San Mateo, CA 94402-2513
(650) 931-2700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Ong
ong@stottlerhenke.com
1650 South Amphlett Boulevard, Suite 300
San Mateo,  CA 94402-2513
(650) 931-2700

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
When an ISHM module identifies a single failure, an associated response procedure, developed and validated in advance, can be selected for execution to verify the diagnosis, safe the system, and perform recovery. However, the ISHM system might return a diagnosis that indicates multiple failures. Or, it might return an ambiguity group that identifies more than one candidate failure. When multiple failures or ambiguous diagnoses occur, it seems attractive to exploit procedures that were developed in advance to handle each of the individual failures. However, simply combining procedures in just any order might not work due to interactions among the procedure goals and effects. We propose to develop the Multiple Failure Response Procedure System, which will automatically generate and present procedures for responding to multiple failures and ambiguity groups. During this project, we will iteratively design, implement, and evaluate algorithms for generating multi-failure procedures from procedures developed for responding to single failures. Our approach is based on the belief that it is usually easier to develop procedures and plans from existing procedures that serve as large building blocks, compared to search-intensive methods that construct procedures from primitive steps. To identify and resolve procedure interactions, we will translate procedure specifications into planning domain actions, apply automated planning systems to generate a valid plan, and then translate the plan back into a combined procedure. We will design the procedure generation algorithm and user interface, develop a software prototype, and apply it to several scenarios to demonstrate our approach.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology can be used to enhance the range of adverse situations that can be supported by response procedures in other types of critical systems such as nuclear power plants and chemical plants, power distribution systems, and emergency response systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology resulting from this research will generate multi-failure response procedures from single-failure procedures in real-time when multiple failures occur or when ambiguous diagnoses are returned by automated diagnostic systems. This capability will extend the range of adverse situations for which procedures can be provided to support crew members and ground-based flight controllers. These multi-failure procedures can be used to respond to failures in air vehicles, space vehicles (manned and unmanned), and space habitats.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Man-Machine Interaction
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H7.01-7145
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ablative Thermal Protection Systems Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Evaluation of Alternative Carbon Fibers to Improve Joint Performance in 3D Woven Heatshields

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Research and Design, Inc.
300 East Swedesford Road
Wayne, PA 19087-1858
(610) 964-9000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kerry Howren
kerry.hopp@m-r-d.com
300 East Swedesford Road
Wayne,  PA 19087-1858
(610) 964-9000

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Abstract

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to the potential NASA applications, there is also potential for applications within the Department of Defense (DoD). Specifically, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is currently investigating the use of 3D woven carbon fiber reinforced composites for aeroshell applications. Depending on the desired trajectory of the vehicle, it is expected that some regions of the vehicle will experience peak surface temperatures that exceed the as-received temperature of the carbon fibers. Therefore, modeling tools capable of predicting the effective material properties and strengths of 3D woven carbon fiber reinforced composites following additional graphitization of the fibers would also be very useful to this community.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful completion of the Phase I program would directly benefit the Adaptable, Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) and the Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) programs, both of which are currently focused on the use of 3D weaves in ablative TPS. The identification of an alternative fiber that could be used to both improve strength retention after exposure to high heat fluxes and eliminate the outgassing issues associated with the current use of PAN-based fibers could result in significant performance improvements for the thermal protection system. In addition, the ability to predict strengths for dry 3D woven materials would allow for additional design and analysis to be performed on various heat shield components which could reduce the amount of fabrication and testing that needs to be done to arrive at a suitable design.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Textiles
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
Destructive Testing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H7.01-7553
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ablative Thermal Protection Systems Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Through-Thickness Health Monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
JENTEK Sensors, Inc.
110-1 Clematis Avenue
Waltham, MA 02453-7013
(781) 373-9706

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrew Washabaugh
andrew.washabaugh@jenteksensors.com
110-1 Clematis Avenue
Waltham,  MA 02453-7013
(619) 421-8139

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This program addresses the need to monitor surface recession, temperature, and through-thickness properties of thermal protection system (TPS) materials. These TPS materials have unique properties for shedding the heat generated under reentry conditions to protect the integrity of the spacecraft. However, ever-increasing mission demands require improved performance and a better understanding for modern heat shield structures. This can be accomplished with a noninvasive, nondestructive method that uses projected sensing fields through the thickness of the TPS material. Novel eddy current methods are proposed that incorporate innovative sensor array constructs, physics-based models, and multivariate inverse methods to nondestructively assess carbon-based TPS materials such as Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA). The sensors can be mounted behind the TPS material or embedded within the TPS with sensing magnetic fields that are projected through the material. JENTEKıs physics-based methods for diagnostics of layered media using MWM-Array technologies have been demonstrated as a nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method for flexible and rigid ablative TPS materials for condition, orientation, and thickness assessment. These methods are commonly used for NDE, such as coating characterization, and have been extended to surface mounted sensing applications such as torque, fatigue, and heat treatment condition monitoring. This proposed Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of these methods in an embedded sensor configuration for representative material layer configurations and a heating transient as well as investigate the adaptations required for full-scale testing and operation. JENTEK delivered the MWM-Array solution used by NASA KSC on the Space Shuttle leading edge to detect damage of the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) thermal protection tiles; thus JENTEK is well-positioned to deliver a novel method for health monitoring of TPS materials.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are numerous applications that could use an in-situ health monitoring capability for materials exposed to high temperature conditions. These embedded sensors could be incorporated into high performance analytical instruments to improve observability for high value and complex infrastructure, vehicles, machinery and processes. This type of projected field sensing provides capability for through-thickness monitoring for damage, surface recession, and temperature with sensors placed in more accessible and lower temperature regions of structures. An example is high temperature process monitoring such as heat treatment or annealing processes that are commonly performed on metals. In-situ monitoring of the electrical conductivity and/or magnetic permeability would offer a real-time assessment and process control capability. This could also be applied to composite materials where the electrical conductivity and temperature of the carbon-based material is monitored during impregnation and curing of resins.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
If the program is successful, it will demonstrate the capability of the MWM-Array technology to monitor condition (e.g., electrical conductivity) thickness and temperature of materials that are exposed to high temperature conditions. Initial implementation is anticipated to support specific spacecraft applications, such as monitoring during ground-based tests of thermal protection system materials. Later versions with dedicated instrumentation designed for reduced size and weight have the potential for implementation on spacecraft. In addition to basic heat shields for ablative TPS materials, it is anticipated that NASA may have a need for this type of projected field high temperature monitoring solution in other structures, such as the carbon-carbon rocket nozzles, Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicles, and exhaust nozzles. Other NASA customers which will have a need for this technology include the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) spacecraft manufacturers and other interplanetary programs such as science exploration mission vehicles and human crew vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Electromagnetic
Thermal


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H7.01-7929
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ablative Thermal Protection Systems Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Char Flexible Polymers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 West 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033-1916
(303) 940-2347

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Diener
mikee@tda.com
12345 West 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge,  CO 80033-1916
(303) 940-2314

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
TDA Research is proposing to chemically modify the polymer backbone of polymers known to have char yields upwards of 70% at 800+ &#8304;C (under inert gas) in order to make the polymers flexible, and possibly elastomeric at or near room temperature. Flexibility is a result of easy rotation around the bonds within a polymer backbone, maintained only in the presence of low crosslink density. Conversely, a high char yield requires very robust bonding, generally with high crosslink density, since floppy, easily broken bonds lead to the evolution of gas, reducing the residual mass. Our modifications will reduce the char yield, but, in this case, even a 10% loss in char yield would still be comparable to the char yield of the inflexible phenolic resins currently in use.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Ablative insulation incorporating high char yield polymers is widely used in a variety of military applications, including the reentry vehicles of ballistic missiles, rocket nozzles, and certain hypersonic vehicle designs. TDA is actively working with the Missile Defense Agency to develop new materials and/or formulations for several of these applications. New programs, such as the Ground-Based Strategic Deterrent, are also emerging, and would benefit from high char polymers with improved processing, environmental stability, and/or decreased thermal conductivity.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Flexible polymers with high char yields are required for advanced ablative thermal protection systems (TPS) used for planetary aerocapture and entry, as well as for Earth return missions. Minimizing TPS weight versus legacy materials can greatly reduce the mission cost, and a suite of new TPS materials has recently been developed at NASA and elsewhere. However, most of these newer, higher-performing TPS have limitations on part size. A spacecraft TPS is therefore made from many individual pieces of material, and the narrow space between parts must be filled to retain performance. There is therefore an acute need for a gap filler that has enough flexibility to prevent cracks from developing during assembly and deployment, and a similarly high char yield so that cracks do not develop when the TPS is exposed to high thermal loads.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Polymers
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H7.01-8143
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ablative Thermal Protection Systems Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flexible Gap Filler for Ablative Thermal Protection Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luna Innovations, Inc.
301 1st Street Southwest, Suite 200
Roanoke, VA 24011-1921
(540) 769-8400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Beck
beckb@lunainc.com
3157 State Street
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-6604
(540) 961-4506

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's Orion spacecraft will serve as the exploration vehicle that will carry a crew to space, provide emergency abort capability, sustain the crew during the space travel, and provide safe re-entry from deep space return velocities. Planetary aerocapture and entry requires that the crew vehicle be equipped with a Thermal Protection System (TPS) comprised of lightweight, high performance ablator materials. Materials current under development include felt or woven material precursors impregnated with polymers (i.e. PICA) and/or additives to improve ablation and insulative performance, along with the block form of Avcoat ablator. There is a need for advancements in polymers for use in bonding and/or gap fills for tiles of advanced TPS for extreme entry conditions. The ideal binder would be a flexible, low glass transition temperature polymer with a high decomposition temperature/char yield (comparable to phenolic) and a high (>1%) strain-to-failure that is compatible with cured epoxy, phenolic, and/or cyanate ester. Engineers at Luna have developed a novel copolymer elastomer that has a very low glass transition (< -100 degrees F) and a decomposition temperature on par with typical phenolic ablatives. This resin can be highly filled to tune ablative properties and is compatible with glass and carbon fabric substrates.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Ablative gap fillers will be useful in commercial space transport reentry vehicles and various ablative liners in both military and commercial rocketry. There is also potential use for this low Tg polymer in hydraulic seals that experience a wide temperature gradient.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Luna's flexible, ablative gap filler will be enabling for the Thermal Protection System capability on current and future NASA reentry vehicles as well as carbon cloth phenolic ablative liners for nozzles on solid rocket boosters. Variations on Luna's formulation may also find use as robust flexible sealants for spacecraft exterior repair.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerobraking/Aerocapture
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Composites
Polymers


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H7.01-8243
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ablative Thermal Protection Systems Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flexible, High Char Yield Hybridsil Adhesive Materials for Next Generation Ablative Thermal Protecti

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanosonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke, VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vince Baranauskas
vince@nanosonic.com
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke,  VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NanoSonic will create and empirically validate flexible, high char yield HybridSil adhesive nanocomposites for use within current and next generation polymer based ablative thermal protection systems during the proposed NASA SBIR program. Building from its established high temperature HybridSil material technology, NanoSonic will develop a room temperature cured hybrid organic ı inorganic adhesive material for bonding polymer infused tiles within advanced thermal protection systems. The proposed HybridSil nanocomposite will be molecularly engineered for exceptional adhesion to both EDL substrates and currently employed high temperature thermosets (phenolic, epoxy, and cyanate ester) while maintaining high strains to failure and a rapid conversion robust silicates at elevated temperatures for additional substrate protection. Leveraging a base HybridSil thermoset that has previously demonstrated promising HyMETS performance as a carbon felt infusing resin (Figure 1 and right inset), NanoSonic will synthesize hybrid organic ı inorganic block and segmented copolymers molecularly engineered for exceptional adhesion to carbon felt tiles infused with aromatic thermosets while maintaining glass transition temperatures < - 100 oC and high strains to failure (>100%) for retained flexibility in space. Promising structure ı property interdependencies affording adhesive materials with extreme ablative adhesion, high char yields, and thermal resilience will be empirically down-selected through rigorous high temperature (2,000 oC) flow testing with the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at the University of Washington.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Broad secondary non-NASA applications exist for NanoSonicıs HybridSil TPS tile adhesives. Immediate Phase III transition potential will exist within an array of aerospace heatshield systems, as well as fire protective materials within the aerospace, marine, and automotive industries.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Primary NASA applications will include entry, descent and landing ablative thermal protection systems for future planetary entry vehicles while immediate secondary applications will include spacecraft aerocapture systems. Additional NASA applications will include utility within a broad spectrum of reentry body heatshield systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H7.02-8111
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Diagnostic Tools for High Velocity Testing and Analysis
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Sensitivity, High Frequency Sensors for Hypervelocity Testing and Analysis

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanosonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke, VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hang Ruan
hruan@nanosonic.com
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke,  VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This NASA Phase I SBIR program would develop high sensitivity, high frequency nanomembrane (NM) based surface sensors for hypervelocity testing and analysis on wind tunnel models as well as operational aerospace vehicles, using SOI NM techniques in combination with our pioneering HybridSil ceramic nanocomposite materials. Such low-modulus, conformal nanomembrane sensor skins with integrated interconnect elements and electronic devices can be applied to new or existing propulsion systems for high frequency surface pressure analysis. During this program, large continuous NMs of single crystal Si, SiGe and Ge will be readily released from the engineered wafers using wet chemical etching and transferred to flexible substrates to form multi-axis surface pressure sensors and arrays. Sensors may be connected to external support instrumentation either through thin film and ribbon cable interconnects, or potentially wirelessly using RF communication directly from electronic networks incorporated into the sensor skin material.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Primary customers would be university, government laboratory and aerospace industry researchers. The thin film high frequency pressure sensor elements may be used as air flow or water flow devices in systems where either the low weight, low surface profile, lack of need for space below the flow surface, or high sensitivity at a low cost are needed.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The anticipated initial market of the NM high frequency surface sensors is for hypersonic wind tunnel testing of flow models as well as in measurements of turbine engines. An appreciation of the instrumentation issues obtained by working with NASA centers would allow improvements in sensor materials, electronics and packaging, and potentially allow the transition of related products to operational vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Acoustic/Vibration
Pressure/Vacuum
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H7.02-8293
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Diagnostic Tools for High Velocity Testing and Analysis
PROPOSAL TITLE: Laser Scattering Diagnostic for Shock Front Arrival and Electron Number Density

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MetroLaser, Inc.
22941 Mill Creek Drive
Laguna Hills, CA 92653-1215
(949) 553-0688

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jacob George
jageorge@metrolaserinc.com
22941 Mill Creek Drive
Laguna Hills,  CA 92653-1215
(949) 553-0688

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Three diagnostic methods are proposed for measuring properties of interest in the post-shock regions of a hypersonic bow shock wave that is used for studying planetary entry and earth reentry flows. Shock location is measured using an imaging approach by laser Rayleigh scattering from molecules, shock velocity is measured by beam deflection via schlieren effects, and electron number density is measured by Thomson scattering. The Rayleigh and Thomson scattering methods are complimentary to each other and can use the same pulsed laser. The schlieren deflection is accomplished with a continuous wave laser and can be used to generate a precise arrival time and provide triggering for the pulsed laser. Thomson and Rayleigh scattering imaging may be extended to MHz rates with pulse burst laser technology, providing a capability to time-resolve the motion of the shock wave as it passes through the test section. The electron density measurement is a direct technique with the potential for high accuracy time and space-resolved measurements. The Phase I effort will demonstrate all three techniques in laboratory environments at relevant conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ability to accurately measure shock location, shock velocity, and electron number density would be attractive to research on hypersonic vehicles, and should find use in research facilities employed in the development of high-speed missiles and aircraft. In particular, the Air Force has programs to develop hypersonic vehicles that would benefit from these diagnostics. Other Air Force programs that would benefit include those on the development of Hall thrusters for satellite propulsion, which have a need for accurate, time-resolved electron number density measurements.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed diagnostics will support the development of spacecraft for entering planetary atmospheres, such as Mars and Venus, as well as reentry to Earth?s atmosphere. Radiative heat transfer to the vehicle during atmospheric entry can be severe, yet predictive methods are hampered by a lack of data for validating models. The proposed tools will provide electron number density and electron temperature thus yielding key insight into radiative properties of the plasma formed post-shock during atmospheric entry and help improve the fidelity of current measurement techniques. Information obtained from these diagnostics should aid in the design of advanced space exploration vehicles, and in the improvement of prediction models that simulate radiative heat transfer used in the design of thermal protection systems (TPS). This can help in reducing the design margins of TPS and thus result in increased mission payload capability.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerobraking/Aerocapture
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
Visible


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H8.01-7293
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Energy Conversion
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Speed Closed Brayton Cycle Turboalternator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mohawk Innovative Technology, Inc.
1037 Watervliet-Shaker Road
Albany, NY 12205-2033
(518) 862-4290

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hooshang Heshmat
hheshmat@miti.cc
1037 Watervliet-Shaker Rd
Albany,  NY 12205-2033
(518) 862-4290

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A single shaft, low cost, long life, maintenance-free modular turbogenerator scalable from 1 to 100 kWe capacity range for human exploration of the moon and Mars is proposed. Operating at high spin speeds and based on a closed Brayton cycle using a binary He-Xe working fluid, the device combines five key enabling technologies to achieve high cycle and electrical efficiencies. MiTi's innovation is the seamless integration of 1) MiTi's Fifth Generation low power loss; high load, damping and temperature foil bearings with high reliability and long life; 2) a modular configuration that isolates the alternator elements from high temperature for improved thermal management; 3) a high efficiency direct drive permanent magnet high-speed alternator; 4) high adiabatic efficiency aero components; and 5) high effectiveness/low pressure drop ceramic/cermet based recuperator. The specific design has its heritage in an open Brayton cycle turboalternator with a demonstrated specific power 1.6 kW/kg.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Besides space systems a large number of potential military and commercial customers would benefit from use of the proposed technology for microgrid and waste heat applications. Amongst these are distributed cogeneration from high-grade waste heat recovery (heating exhaust for residential use of the order of 1 kWe) to industrial (process waste heat in the order for generation of 50 kWe and higher) applications. Additionally, the U.S. military could benefit from direct application of the technology (U.S. Nuclear Navy), and from derivative technology for portable power for dismounted soldier and forward operating bases (Army, Air Force) as well as for electric power sources for UAVs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology will satisfy NASA's stated need for technology for power conversion from fission to support space exploration applications. The initial technology development will be suitable for space based stationary and transportation power generation systems This effort will lay the groundwork for subsequent scaling to higher power platforms (order of 100 kWe), capable of powering spacecraft on-board power, communication, navigation controls and electronics, life support systems, planetary rovers and machinery, and even planetary human settlements.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Tribology
Surface Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H8.01-7513
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Energy Conversion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Thermal Energy Conversion

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanohmics, Inc.
6201 East Oltorf Street, Suite 400
Austin, TX 78741-7509
(512) 389-9990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steve Savoy
ssavoy@nanohmics.com
6201 East Oltorf Street, Suite 400
Austin,  TX 78741-7509
(512) 389-9990

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Solid-state thermoelectric (TE) devices provide many advantages in refrigeration (TE coolers) and power generation (TE generators). These highly reliable devices have no moving parts, operate over a large range of temperatures, and do not emit toxic or environmentally-unfriendly gases. These devices can be easily integrated into thermal energy conversion systems that meet NASA's needs for innovative space power generation on orbiting platforms, extraterrestrial surfaces, and space transportation vehicles. To date, the adoption of TE generator (TEG) devices in energy scavenging/power recovery applications has been hampered by three primary challenges: - Lack of thermoelectric material compositions with large figures of merit, ZT, that function over a range of operating temperatures - Lack of high throughput production methods that enable large-area, conformable TEG devices - High cost-per-unit area for tiling rigid plate TE devices Production of large-area sheets of high-ZT TEG devices that conform to space vehicle and other relevant thermal gradient surfaces acting to scavenge waste heat need specific processes (e.g. roll-to-roll). Nanohmics Inc. proposes to develop thermoelectric devices based on sintering of high-ZT thermoelectric powders. This TEG fabrication method will enable large-area, conformable devices with 1) high thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency, 2) high areal power conversion (W/cm2), 3) large total power recovery (W), 4) high specific power (W/kg), 5) low fabrication cost ($/W), and 6) durability and long operational life.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Unrecovered waste heat from energy-consuming industrial processes is estimated by the DoE at 5-13 quads/yr (1 quad = 1015 BTU). Assuming a conservative 9 quads, 6% efficiency for TE devices constructed with our approach, 50% losses due to parasitic heat transfer losses and integration, and penetrating 10% of the waste heat market, we estimate an economically viable TE device could enable recovery of ~20 trillion BTU of waste heat/year. Additionally, the incorporation of TE devices in automobiles can improve the efficiency of their power system by up to 5%. This level of waste heat energy recovery would lower the average consumer gas consumption ~15-20 gallons per year on a 750-gallon consumption/year basis with a cost savings on the order of $70-$100/year. A low-cost manufacturing solution at the ~$100 price point would pay back in the first year, passing the savings onto the lifetime of the device, which based on non-moving parts, should be relatively long. Technologies such as our proposed effort that lead to quasi-renewable energy recovery, or energy that would otherwise by radiated as waste environmental heat, will have a far-reaching impact on the world's energy consumption, including lowering the U.S. dependence on foreign oil. Next to solar energy, waste heat recovery is the most available secondary power source.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Space power engineers can use these devices to produce custom fit power generation systems directly on surfaces with high temperature differences such as the hull of a space vehicle, satellite thermal busses, and extraterrestrial shelter materials. These large-area, integrated thermoelectric sheets will provide a means to maximize the extraction of otherwise wasted heat for both NASA and commercial applications such as automotive/aerospace exhaust systems, effluent piping, and petrochemical refining equipment. The proposed device embodiment is the only significant concept amendable to attachment to the contours and surfaces of space vehicles and as such will have a significant impact on generate power during space missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
In Situ Manufacturing
Nanomaterials
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H8.01-7742
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Energy Conversion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multi-Layer Radiation Shields

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Peregrine Falcon Corporation
1051 Serpentine Lane, Suite 100
Pleasanton, CA 94566-8451
(925) 461-6800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Hardesty
rhardesty@peregrinecorp.com
1051 Serpentine Lane, Suite 100
Pleasanton,  CA 94566-8451
(925) 461-6800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Peregrine will develop a Multi-Layer Radiation Shield (MLRS) that will provide the equivalent insulation of a 30 layer 1.25ı thick MLI blanket in the vacuum of space but on the surface of Mars. MLRS will provide superior properties to MLI but in a much smaller profile, MLRS can be accurately modeled and simulated so it is predictable, it can be pre-qualified, provide higher performance with no outgassing, and, when placed onto the exteriors of systems, can provide micrometeorite protection. The use of MLRS will, in a thin cross section, provide thermal isolation of the core of Fission Power Systems (FPS) to the environment of Mars. This will allow the FPS to operate at its intended design level; maintaining the heat within the core by creating a high performance insulation with an effective emissivity of less than 0.01 and an effective thermal conductivity of less than 0.005 W/mK.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The following non NASA applications will have the ability to improve both performance and reliability using MLRS. ıAll of the areas identified in the post NASA above applications. ıThermal isolation of instruments and detectors for spacecraft and satellite applications. ıIntegrated structure with MLRS for lightweight, high performance thermal solutions for commercial satellites. ıUse of MLRS technology will enhance environmental control of commercial buildings and large office centers. The use of MLRS for roofing systems could provide superior insulation leading to improved energy systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development and characterization of Multi-Layer Radiation Shields will optimize thermal control throughout all Fission Power Systems and provide higher reliability for both manned and unmanned systems for the exploration of Mars. In addition, MLRS will: ıProvide thermal isolation of instruments. ıProvide micrometeorite protection by having heavier outer layers in the MLRS. ıProvide an integrated thermal control solution that also can integrate a structure via a heavier OD or ID wall to the MLRS. This can be applied to multiple systems within any spacecraft/satellite.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Processing Methods
Structures
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H8.01-7759
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Energy Conversion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Liquid Interface Diffusion Bonding of FPS Heat Pipes to Core

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Peregrine Falcon Corporation
1051 Serpentine Lane, Suite 100
Pleasanton, CA 94566-8451
(925) 461-6800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Hardesty
rhardesty@peregrinecorp.com
1051 Serpentine Lane, Suite 100
Pleasanton,  CA 94566-8451
(925) 461-6800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Peregrine proposes the development of ıLiquid Interface Diffusionı (LID) bonding to be the joining method to provide a homogeneous connection between the heat pipes and cores of Fission Power Systems (FPS). This innovation will create a high strength, high temperature and high integrity (homogeneous) joint between the Hanes 230 alloy comprising the NaK heat pipe wall and U-8Mo core. This homogeneous joint will allow for high efficiency heat transfer from the core to NaK heat pipes with no voids or separations that can act as thermal shunts that will become hot spots/cold spots at the heat exchanging surface that could lead to dead spots, or potential sites for thermal runaway. The creation of a high efficiency joint allows both the core and the heat pipe to both operate at their optimum performance supplying a maximum and balanced thermal load to the hot side of the sterling engines making up the operating component generating electricity within the Fission Power System.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology will be applicable to terrestrial based applications such as commercial reactors, geothermal cores, and other high temperature heat pipe applications relating to regenerative heat transfer. Regenerative heat transfer is a particularly interesting area for the use of this technology and it is a way to capture waste heat for reuse providing energy efficiency.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development and characterization of LID bonding for Fission Power Systems will ıenableı thermal transfer throughout all FPS versions to optimize performance and reliability for both manned and unmanned exploration of Mars, Venus, and the moon.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Processing Methods
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H8.01-7787
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Energy Conversion
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Novel Electrode Material for Thermionic Power Generation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Busek Company, Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lauren Rand-Lee
lauren@busek.com
11 Tech Circle
Natick,  MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The conversion of heat to power has proven to be vital in flight missions where solar power generation is not an option. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators that converted heat produced by a decaying nuclear source to power have been used on missions such as Cassini, New Horizons, Galileo, Ulysses and the Mars Science Laboratory. Although never flown by the United States, thermionic converters have also been investigated for space applications. Their improved efficiency over thermoelectric generators makes them an attractive option, but the high operating temperatures required have thus far been a significant obstacle to their use. Thermionic generators convert heat energy directly into electrical power. An emitter electrode on a heat source emits electrons across a vacuum gap to a cold electrode. The generated current is pumped through a load where it can do useful work before it is returned to the emitter. Thermionic generators do not use any moving parts or working fluid, which results in highly reliable devices that do not need frequent maintenance. Unlike thermoelectric generators, which have exhibited efficiencies only up to about 8%, state-of-the-art thermionic generators operate with efficiencies approaching 20%. This proposal seeks to study the use of the nanomaterial C12A7 electride as an electrode material. C12A7 electride has been shown to emit stably at temperatures in excess of 1600 degrees C and has a measured work function between 0.8-2.1 eV. Due to its low work function, C12A7 electride has the potential to greatly improve the efficiency of the state-of-the-art in thermionic energy conversion as well as enable device operation at much lower temperatures than is currently possible. Busek previously has investigated C12A7 electride in thermionic emission configurations for space propulsion hollow cathode applications. In the proposed work, Busek will evaluate the potential benefits of a C12A7 electride thermionic converter electrode.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In the commercial space market, roughly 20 GEO launches and 25 non-GEO launches occur on an annual basis (excludes micro/nano-satellites), with most spacecraft having a number of chemical thrusters aboard for orbit-raising and station-keeping. In addition to Busek's own chemical propulsion systems, potential space customers include chemical thruster manufacturers such as Rafael, EADS, ECAPS, Northrop Grumman, Moog (AMPAC), Aerojet. Collectively, these firms represent the large majority of chemical systems flow in the industry. Potential customers for radioisotope power generation include ESA missions and NATO customers. The largest terrestrial market in terms of economic benefit, is industrial thermal energy recovery. The United States industrial sector uses one third of the country's energy. Improved waste heat recovery technology, in which some of the used energy could be "recycled", would lead to lower operating costs and decreased environmental impact and is therefore of great interest. Applications in which bulky, complex heat engines cannot be used need compact, solid-state devices that require little to no maintenance. The potential improvements enabled by a C12A7 electride thermionic generator device, in both efficiency and flexibility of use, could lead to a significant decrease in costs for industries such as glass manufacturing, cement manufacturing, iron and steel manufacturing, aluminum production, and metal casting.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The space market is a niche yet lucrative market for thermionic devices. NASA's deep-space missions might replace or augment radioisotope thermoelectric generation systems with thermionic systems, while in near-space, it may be possible to harvest thermal energy off monopropellant and bi-propellant propulsion systems (depending upon operating temperature/duration). Such energy generation technology can be utilized for continuous or pulsed-power generation for a variety of spacecraft, rover vehicles, and basecamp power needs. While Busek does not have experience with radioisotope generation systems, it does have design and development experience with small chemical thruster systems (<20N green monopropellant systems). Such systems have been known to initiate and run at temperatures close to or exceeding the forecasted thermionic power generation threshold of 700k (800 degrees F/ 427 degrees C). Coupling power generation with chemical propulsion warrants further exploration for both spacecraft as well as missile systems; such systems potentially being coupled with pulsed-power electronics, another area where Busek has design and development experience.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Nanomaterials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H8.02-8130
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Advanced Anode Electrocatalysis Concept for Direct Methane SOFC Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South
College Station, TX 77845-6023
(979) 764-2219

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mahesh Waje
mahesh.waje@lynntech.com
2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South
College Station,  TX 77845-6023
(979) 764-2200

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Planned Mars missions require long duration stays in orbit or at planet's surface, cannot rely on availability of pure reactant for power generation, and necessitate sun-independent operation capability. Direct methane solid oxide fuel cell (DM-SOFC) technology with an internal reforming approach has been investigated for generation of electric power from methane in order to preserve mission flexibility. Current internal reformer catalyst uses a significant amount of water (or oxygen) in the fuel stream to eliminate carbon coking issue. Lynntech proposes an advanced anode catalysis concept for DM-SOFC that is free of carbon coking without the use of water (or oxygen) in the fuel stream. Preliminary results with Lynntech's advanced anode catalysis concept using 100% dry hydrocarbon fuels demonstrated similar power densities to direct internal reforming technology. In Phase I, Lynntech will further optimize the anode electrocatalyst component and architecture, demonstrate the performance improvements and durability with single cells running on dry methane, and built and operate a bipolar short stack. In Phase II, Lynntech will built a bipolar 3-kW DM-SOFC stack and integrate all of the balance of plant component, demonstrate its performance and durability with improved thermal cycling (using dry methane), and deliver it to NASA for further testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Solid oxide fuel cell systems (with reformer integrated option) demonstrated the highest achievable energy efficiency for electric power generation from hydrocarbon fuels such as natural gas, methane, syngas, and other similar fuels. Carbon coking issue has been very detrimental on the long term durability (which has also affected their commercialization) and a major hurdle to overcome without the use of additional water or oxygen in the fuel stream. Lynntech's advanced anode catalysis concept already demonstrated carbon coking free operation without the use of additional water (or oxygen). Potential non-NASA commercial applications for this technology would be: commercial and military unmanned underwater vehicles, military tactical gen-sets, auxiliary power units for silent-watch vehicles, commercial and military unmanned aerial vehicles, and residential micro-combined heat and power systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future space missions will require a significant degree of mission flexibility (meaning utilize the resources available at the destination). Power generation devices are one of the critical components that determine the mission flexibility parameter. Solid oxide fuel cell based generation of electric power maximizes the mission flexibility and such systems can be used for the following potential NASA commercial applications: Mars landers, rovers, and other exploration vehicles, sun-independent electrical power generation for crew transportation systems and surface systems, power generation for surface mobility systems, Lunar landers, and other similar applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Generation
Ceramics
Nanomaterials
Surface Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H8.02-8156
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Solid Oxide Cell Architecture and Materials for Durable, Regenerative Operation at Pressure

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Precision Combustion, Inc.
410 Sackett Point Road
North Haven, CT 06473-3106
(203) 287-3700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Saurabh Vilekar
svilekar@precision-combustion.com
410 Sackett Point Road
North Haven,  CT 06473-3106
(203) 287-3700

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
PCI will develop and demonstrate advanced materials and innovative structural elements integrated within the stack for efficient H2O/CO2 electrolysis to overcome known SOEC shortcomings. The key focus will be to mitigate anode delamination and enable operation at high pressure differentials. Capability for effective regenerative operation will be examined. In Phase I proof of concept will be demonstrated and in Phase II a rigorous scaled hardware operating at pressure will be demonstrated. PCI has been at the nexus of various fuel cell generator development efforts and is collaborating with a University, as a major subcontractor, to bring to bear considerable expertise in demonstrating an innovative SOEC cell architecture. Additionally, PCI has been working with NASA on multiple atmosphere revitalization efforts for over 20 years and has acquired a comprehensive understanding of the requirements for long duration manned spaceflight and for In-Situ Resource Utilization architecture.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications are terrestrial H2/O2 generation from steam electrolysis as well as CO2 capture. The technology can be implemented for ISRU concepts for future private sector customers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This innovative technology offers improvement in SOEC durability and reliability and enables the potential to be key sub-system for NASA ISRU missions and applicable to other mission requirements.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Ceramics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H8.02-8171
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers
PROPOSAL TITLE: Methane-Oxygen Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NexTech Materials, Ltd. dba Nexceris, LLC
404 Enterprise Drive
Lewis Center, OH 43035-9423
(614) 842-6606

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scott Swartz
s.swartz@nexceris.com
404 Enterprise Drive
Lewis Center,  OH 43035-9423
(614) 842-6606

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has a defined need for energy dense and highly efficient energy storage and power delivery systems for future space missions. Compared to other fuel cell technologies, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) based systems are better suited to meeting NASA's efficiency targets while operating directly on methane and oxygen reactants. SOFC power systems for lunar landers and other exploration vehicles are an ideal application for this technology, as well as for power generation on the moon or on Mars. Nexceris has established SOFC technology that offers high power density and high single-pass fuel utilization, making it uniquely suited for achieving NASA's performance and efficiency requirements. In this project, NexTech will establish a process model for an externally reformed SOFC system that operates with oxygen and methane reactants, design a reformer and a stack for the system, refine the reformer and stack designs via modeling and analysis, validate the design and performance predictions via catalyst and stack testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The lightweight and high efficiency SOFC technology to be developed on this project is specifically geared toward meeting the demanding requirements of NASA applications, but will have near-term applicability to energy systems for unmanned underwater vehicles. Meeting the robustness requirements (i.e., thermal cycles and rapid start-up) for NASA applications will make Nexceris' SOFC technology suited for other military applications, such as gen-sets, auxiliary power units for silent-watch vehicles, and unmanned aerial vehicles. Additionally, the high efficiency SOFC system technology to be developed in this SBIR project is directly applicable to residential micro-combined heat and power systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Solid oxide fuel cells have promise to meet some of NASA?s emerging power generation system needs. An SOFC power system using the same reactants as the propulsion system (cryogenically stored oxygen and methane) can provide exceptional energy density. Lunar landers or other exploration vehicles are an ideal application of this technology. SOFC systems also may find uses on the moon or on Mars for generating power from hydrocarbons produced from In-Situ Resource Utilization technologies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Generation
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Project Management
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Lifetime Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H8.03-7723
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Photovoltaic Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Foldable Compactly Stowable Extremely High Power Solar Array System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Deployable Space Systems, Inc.
460 Ward Drive, Suite F
Santa Barbara, CA 93111-2356
(805) 722-8090

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Spence
Brian.Spence@DeployableSpaceSystems.com
460 Ward Drive, Suite F
Santa Barbara,  CA 93111-2356
(805) 722-8090

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS) has developed a high performance solar array system that has game-changing performance metrics in terms of ultra-compact stowage volume and extremely high specific power. The embodiment is a tensioned membrane blanket solar array that stows very compactly by folding, where it's total stowed height is only half the width of the deployed array, alleviating any stowed height restrictions and allowing for the packaging of enormous solar arrays within standard launch vehicle fairings. This innovation of extremely compact stowed packaging allows for much higher power to be packaged into a given stowed envelope, enabling significantly higher powered NASA/Non-NASA missions, and particularly enabling missions where stowed volumes are significantly constrained. The technology is also well suited for very large (extremely high power) SEP and non-SEP solar array systems where stowed packaging the greatest amount of power within a given enveloped is demanded. The proposed solar array technology innovation is reliable and leverages proven heritage components, materials, and approaches to provide very low risk implementation for the end-user. The proposed technology will produce revolutionary array-system-level performance in terms of ultra-compact stowage volume, high specific power, lightweight, reliability, modularity, adaptability, and affordability. The proposed technology also has many rapid commercial infusion paths to help maximize NASA's ROI.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA space applications are comprised of practically all missions that require affordable high-efficiency photovoltaic power production through deployment of an ultra-lightweight, ultra-compact stowage, and highly-modular solar array system. Potential non-NASA commercial and DoD applications span a broad range of high voltage/power applications that demand ultra-compact stowage. The technology is suitable for non-NASA LEO, MEO & GEO missions. The technology is particularly suited for missions that require game-changing performance in terms of affordability, ultra-lightweight and compact stowage volume.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA space applications are comprised of practically all Exploration, Space Science, Earth Science, Planetary Surface, and other missions that require affordable high-efficiency photovoltaic power production through of an ultra-lightweight, ultra-compact stowage, and highly-modular solar array system. The technology is particularly suited for advanced spacecraft that require high power / high voltage solar array arrays that require game-changing compact stowed packaging. The technology is suitable for NASA LEO, MEO & GEO, and interplanetary missions. The technology is also well suited for applications requiring scalability/modularity, operability within high radiation environments, high voltage operation, and operation in LILT and HIHT environments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Man-Machine Interaction
Conversion
Generation
Composites
Metallics
Deployment
Structures
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H8.03-8031
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Photovoltaic Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Affordable, Lightweight, Compactly Stowable, High Strength / Stiffness Lander Solar Array

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Deployable Space Systems, Inc.
460 Ward Drive, Suite F
Santa Barbara, CA 93111-2356
(805) 722-8090

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Spence
Brian.Spence@DeployableSpaceSystems.com
460 Ward Drive, Suite F
Santa Barbara,  CA 93111-2356
(805) 722-8090

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS) has developed a next-generation high performance solar array system specifically for NASA's future Lander and sample return missions. The proposed Lander solar array has game-changing performance metrics in terms of extremely high specific power, ultra-compact stowage volume, affordability, low risk, high environmental survivability/operability, high power and growth capability, high deployed strength and high strength during deployment (for mission environments that have high gravity and wind loading from atmospheres such as Mars), high deployed stiffness, high reliability, retraction and re-deployment capability, and broad modularity / adaptability to many missions. The proposed innovation is a tensioned membrane blanket solar array that stows very compactly with no auxiliary components extending beyond the stowed volume envelope of the stowed flexible blanket assembly, and when deployed becomes structurally pre-tensioned to create a deployed rigid body tensegrity-like configuration that exhibits very high deployed strength and stiffness. The proposed technology innovation significantly enhances Lander and sample return vehicle capabilities through its enabling performance and by providing a low cost alternative renewable power generating system in place of the very expensive standard RTG systems currently being used. The proposed innovation greatly increases performance and autonomy/mobility, decreases risk, and ultimately enables missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA space applications are comprised of practically all missions that require affordable high-efficiency photovoltaic power production through deployment of an ultra-lightweight, ultra-compact stowage, high strength and stiffness, affordable, and highly-modular solar array system. Potential non-NASA commercial and DoD applications span a broad range of applications that demand ultra-compact stowage and very high strength and stiffness. The technology is suitable for non-NASA LEO, MEO & GEO missions. The technology is particularly suited for reconnaissance missions that require game-changing performance in terms of affordability, ultra-lightweight, compact stowage volume, and high deployed strength and stiffness.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA space applications are comprised of practically all Exploration, Space Science, Earth Science, Planetary Surface, and other missions that require affordable high-efficiency photovoltaic power production through of an ultra-lightweight, ultra-compact stowage, high strength and stiffness, and highly-modular solar array system. The technology is particularly suited for Lander and sample return missions that require game-changing performance in terms of affordability, high power, compact stowed packaging, high deployed strength and stiffness, unsupported deployment in 1G, and lightweight. The technology is suitable for NASA LEO, MEO & GEO, and interplanetary missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Prototyping
Composites
Deployment
Structures
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H8.03-8153
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Photovoltaic Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: 38% Efficient Low-Cost Six-Junction GaAs/InP Solar Cells Using Double Epitaxial Lift-Off

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MicroLink Devices, Inc.
6457 Howard Street
Niles, IL 60714-3301
(847) 588-3001

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alex Kirk
akirk@mldevices.com
6457 Howard Street
Niles,  IL 60714-3301
(847) 588-3001

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Double epitaxial lift-off (D-ELO) in conjunction with semiconductor bonding will be leveraged to produce 38% efficient six-junction solar cells. These solar cells will enable optimal performance for future NASA missions that require solar cells with high specific power, high power conversion efficiency, and lower cost than the incumbent solar cell technology. High efficiency is enabled by the use of six AM0 spectrum-matched subcell junctions. A reduction in mass compared to incumbent technology is enabled by removal of the thick semiconductor substrates while a cost savings compared to incumbent technology is enabled by the recovery and subsequent reuse of the expensive semiconductor substrates via the D-ELO process.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Customers in the aerospace industry share NASA?s desire for cost-effective spacecraft systems and components. MicroLink is a manufacturing organization with the goal of commercializing the technologies it develops through R/R&D programs. To that end, MicroLink has engaged in discussions with several manufacturers of commercial satellites which have taken particular interest in MicroLink's ELO technology for the potential of reducing the cost of space solar cells while improving the efficiency compared to commercially available Ge-based solar cells. The low mass and high specific power of such photovoltaic modules with a durable polymer film replacing the traditional rigid coverglass also make them excellent for powering unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Finally, attractive military and civilian applications involving mobile solar electric power are derived from the ability to recharge batteries in remote locations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Thin, flexible, high efficiency ELO solar cells are attractive for next-generation spacecraft power and SEP systems. Arrays based on the proposed solar cells will be suitable for NASA missions ranging from near-Earth to deep space. Lockheed Martin, Space Systems Loral, and Boeing have shown great interest in MicroLink?s work and in future applications of low mass, flexible photovoltaic module technologies that can support NASA?s SEP program as a replacement for the solar cells in existing spacecraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Generation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H8.04-7232
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Next Generation Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aerogel-Ionic Liquid Hybrid Electrolytes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Modification, Inc.
2809-K Merrilee Drive
Fairfax, VA 22031-4409
(703) 560-1371

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Krishnaswamy Rangan
kris@matmod.com
2809-K Marrilee Dr
Fairfax,  VA 22031-4409
(703) 560-1371

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA energy storage requirements for extended human and robotic missions to space require energy generating systems with high specific energy, high volumetric efficiency, greater reliability, reduced parasitic impedance, and low cost/ease of manufacture. Current lithium ion batteries cannot meet the energy requirements of these missions. Lithium-air batteries, where lithium directly reacts with air can potentially have specific energy in the range of in the order 5.2 X 103 Wh kg&#8722;1. Realizing such high performance metrics however requires significant advances in component design. The electrolyte to be used in lithium air batteries, for example, must be compatible with lithium metal, and have high ionic conductivity in the order of 10-3 Siemens/cm to achieve the promised performance metrics. MMI proposes a novel aerogel-supported ionic liquid electrolyte with very high ionic conductivity for use as electrolyte in high performance lithium air batteries. With ionic conductance in the range of milli-Siemens/cm, this electrolyte, when combined with appropriate electrodes can potentially be used to fabricate lithium air batteries with specific energies as high as 500 Wh/kg and volumetric energy densities in the order of 700 Wh/L.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lithium ion batteries are ubiquitous now in commercial, industrial, medical and military applications ranging from electronics to vehicular power. Future advanced applications require higher power capacity and batteries that are superior to lithium ion batteries, such as lithium air batteries hold much promise in these applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Rechargeable batteries are used in numerous NASA applications. NASA's crew exploration vehicles, crew launch vehicles, lunar orbiters, rovers and landers, probes and impactors, astronaut tools and extra vehicular equipment require rechargeable batteries with high energy densities and the lithium air batteries will find use in such missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H8.04-8147
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Next Generation Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Lithium Sulfur Battery

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cornerstone Research Group, Inc.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440-3638
(937) 320-1877

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Henslee
hensleeb@crgrp.com
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton,  OH 45440-3638
(937) 320-1877

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CRG proposes to develop an Advanced Lithium Sulfur Battery (LSB) based on combining a novel super ion conducting ceramic electrolyte, entrapped sulfur cathode, and a lithium metal anode necessary to meet NASA's needs for high energy density, rechargeable, and safe energy storage. These new materials for LSBs will build upon a proven ceramic electrolyte for rechargeable lithium metal batteries. A composition of a metallic lithium anode, ceramic electrolyte, and a novel sulfur cathode will be optimized to achieve program goals for energy density, operational temperatures, storage, and cycle life. Supporting the Human Exploration and Operations Directorate, this project's technologies directly address requirements for high energy density space batteries for space exploration systems including rovers, landers, ascent vehicle space craft. This project's technologies offer high energy density (>450 Whr/kg), long storage life, and long operational life batteries. These advancements will enable space power supplies to keep pace with increasing electricity demands, and reduce battery weight by 50% while advancing the state of the art battery technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project's technologies, developed for NASA systems, would directly apply to systems operated by other government and commercial enterprises. Advanced solid state battery chemistries have been gaining interest for electric vehicles, UAVs, portable devices, and multifunctional structural materials. The technology is also generally applicable for a variety of other energy storage applications of interest to the DoE. Lithium metal battery systems enable significantly higher energy density at safe operating conditions that would be considered revolutionary for a variety of applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Supporting the Human Exploration and Operations Directorate, this project's technologies directly address requirements for high energy density space batteries for space exploration systems including rovers, landers, ascent vehicle space craft. This project's technologies offer high energy density (>450 Whr/kg), long storage life, and long operational life batteries. These advancements will enable space power supplies to keep pace with increasing electricity demands, and reduce battery weight by 50% while advancing the state of the art battery technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Space Transportation & Safety
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Storage
Processing Methods
Composites
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H8.04-8164
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Next Generation Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Energy Density Li-Ion Batteries Enabled By a New Class of Cathode Materials

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NEI Corporation
201 Circle Drive North, Suite 102/103
Piscataway, NJ 08873-1154
(732) 868-3141

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nader Hagh
nmhagh@neicorporation.com
400 Apgar Drive, Suite E
Somerset,  NJ 08873-1154
(732) 868-3141

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed program addresses NASA's need for advanced battery technologies, and in particular the energy storage needs for Extravehicular Activities. The most advanced commercially available Li-ion batteries use intercalation-based cathode materials, where the energy density is limited by the oxidation states of the metal oxide and the availability of lithium ions. In contrast, non-oxide cathode materials based on conversion mechanism offer an opportunity to realize exceptionally high capacity. Literature reports suggest that an energy density in excess of 1200 Wh/kg is possible at the material level. However, it has been a challenge to obtain such high performance at the cell level in practical batteries. Building upon NEI's experience in synthesis, surface modification and functionalization of nanoscale materials, the Phase I program aims to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of a new class of Li-ion batteries that utilizes a unique cathode architecture. In Phase I, materials will be synthesized and assembled into cells, and electrochemically tested under parameters of relevance to NASA's EVA application. Sample cathode materials will be submitted to NASA at the end of the Phase I program. In Phase II, 2Ah capacity Li-ion cells with cell-level specific energy and energy density of 500Wh/kg and 1000 Wh/l, respectively, will be fabricated and delivered to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Li-ion batteries are ubiquitous, having found use in portable devices, electric vehicles, stationary power storage, and myriad other applications. According to one estimate, Li-ion batteries account for more than 35% of the market for batteries, which is projected to be $120 billion by 2019. Virtually all Li-ion batteries use intercalated metal oxide materials as the cathode. This fundamentally limits the energy density of the material. The proposed program aims to advance the state of the art of conversion-based cathode materials so as to lead to a near doubling of the energy density from current levels.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A new class of rechargeable Li-ion batteries with an energy density greater than 450 Wh/kg (and volumetric density of at least 1000 Wh/L) with good zero degree performance is needed for use in the EVA spacesuit in future human missions. In addition to the energy density consideration, the battery needs to be safe for human operation, and have a calendar life in excess of 5 years. The cells should be sufficiently robust to withstand abuse, and not be susceptible to thermal runaway. The proposed program aims to demonstrate that a cathode material based on conversion mechanism can be engineered and assembled into a practical battery that meets NASA's requirements. In addition to addressing the EVA spacesuit battery requirements, the proposed technology has wider ramifications for other NASA needs (e.g., Human Lunar and Mars Landers and Rovers) where the energy density requirements are lower, but cycle life expectations are greater.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Storage
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Nanomaterials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H9.01-7254
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Optical Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Power-Consumption Integrated PPM Laser Transmitter

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
RAM Photonics
4901 Morena Boulevard, Suite 128
San Diego, CA 92117-3557
(858) 490-1030

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Marciante
john.marciante@ramphotonics.com
4901 Morena Boulevard, Suite 128
San Diego,  CA 92117-3557
(585) 771-7311

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Conventional PPM laser transmitters, a CW laser followed by a modulator, are inherently inefficient since the data must be carved from the laser's steady output. 95% of the optical power is discarded in a standard telecom RZ format, with another &#8805; 8x efficiency reduction using a PPM scheme. An alternative is to form the pulse train with a mode-locked laser. However, since the resultant MLL pulse train is periodic, it must produce pulses in every symbol slot, not just once per symbol. This means that for a 32-ary PPM scheme, the MLL optical efficiency is reduced by a factor of at least 32 by discarding the un-needed pulses. In both cases, the electro-optic modulator itself induces an additional 60% optical loss, and requires nearly 0.5W of power to drive. An alternative is to use a low-repetition-rate MLL in combination with a switch fabric to delay each output pulse into the correct PPM slot. However, the use of photonic integrated circuits (e.g., silicon) is prohibitive due to the high intrinsic loss. A 100-MHz PPM data rate scheme requires ~5ns pulse delay. This represents 43-cm propagation in silicon, inducing a power loss &#8805; 10 dB. Adding the loss due to spiraled delay lines, switch junctions, and coupling on/off chip, the aggregate loss of the switch fabric is 18 to 24 dB, representing a significant efficiency loss. RAM Photonics proposes the development of a qualitatively novel approach to high-efficiency, low-bit-rate laser transmitters compatible with space-borne missions. Specifically, we propose to develop a laser transmitter that attains highly efficiency optical data generation by (1) generating only one optical pulse per symbol at arbitrary temporal location, (2) eliminating all electro-optic modulators, and (3) exploiting a nearly lossless fiber architecture. The new transmitter device has low dissipation (< 0.5 W total) and low SWaP footprint, and can operate at arbitrary data rates and generate any symbol formats.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The clear first application is as a seed for long-range, high-performance LIDAR laser systems. One specific LIDAR application is differential absorption LIDAR, which require laser sources operating at 1.57&#956;m for sensing CO2. The technology developed in this program, although focusing on 1.5&#956;m for the particular communication application, is not specifically dependent on the wavelength of the light. By using alternate laser diodes and fiber amplifiers (doped with Yb, Tm, or Ho instead of Er), the 1-&#956;m window can be reached as well as the 2.05-&#956;m CO2 line, which is immediately applicable to environmental and pollution monitoring. A multitude of other photon-starved applications require format-flexible PPM transmitters, such as deep-sea sensing, aircraft-to-submarine communications, secure long-range optical links, and optical wireless. Further, we expect that the new seed source, combined with our commercial product line of fiber amplifiers (www.ramphotonics.com/products/spa-fiber-amplifier) that are currently targeted to low-noise amplification of single (solitary) pulses to high pulse energies, will generate a new flexible-format pulsed laser source that can enable new opportunities in sensing, laser accelerator drivers, medical surgery, and ultrafast laser material processing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
PPM laser transmitters, particularly with ultra-low electrical power consumption and arbitrary data format, are of significant interest for many NASA programs. The direct NASA application is a PPM laser transmitter with the following characteristics: 10-100-MHz symbol data rate; 250-ps symbol slot width, 16-128 PPM M-ary, 1540-1560 nm wavelength, 50mW average power, 25-ps pulse width, and total average power consumption &#8804; 500 mW. Further, the PPM transmitter developed in this program could be directly applied to small systems in near-earth orbit, such as Cubesats, and in proximity-length applications, such as orbiter-to-lander communications. They can also be used to seed a high-power fiber amplifier for interplanetary and deep-space optical communications systems. The transmitter can also be used as the seed for LIDAR transmitters. In conjunction with a low-jitter clock generator, the PPM pulses can be applied to mm-scale ranging for use in identifying objects and mapping contoured structures. The technology in our commercial CavitylessTM pulse source results in ultra-low-loss optical pulse generation with less than 25-fs jitter, and an optical engine that adds less than 5-fs of additive jitter.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Transmitters/Receivers
Emitters
Lasers (Communication)
Lasers (Guidance & Tracking)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H9.01-7422
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Optical Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: 200Gb/s WDM Optical Transceiver Chip Modules with RF Transmission, Quadrature Modulation and Fail-Safe Capabilities

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optonet, Inc.
828 Davis Street, Suite 206
Evanston, IL 60201-4442
(847) 425-7585

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yingyan Huang
yhuang@optonetinc.com
828 Davis st STE 206
Evanston,  IL 60201-4442
(847) 722-6980

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There have been significant interests from NASA in integrated optical transceiver chips for space optical communications, in particular space-qualifiable 1550nm laser transmitter and receiver with optoelectronic laser, modulator, and detector, that are capable of data rates from 1Gb/sec to 200Gb/sec. The power efficiency shall be better than 10W per Gb/sec and weight less than 100g per Gb/sec. In addition, hybrid RF-optical technologies are sought, and technology based on integrated photonic circuit solution is strongly desired.Operational range of -20ı C to +50ı C unpowered temperature cycling from -40ı C to +40ı C are also desired.To address the above mentioned interests, our proposed works will focus on realizing 100-200Gb/sec high-data-rate Wavelength-Division-Multiplexed (WDM) photonic transceiver module with the capability to transmit RF signals on optical beam as well that will be able to meet the above NASA requirements, based on a few key technologies we have developed including: (a) WDM Laser Transmitter with Concurrent Wavelength Locking Capability;(b) Ultra-Compact Wavelength Mux/DeMux; (c) Integrated Narrow Linewidth Laser;(d) Integrated 20-40Gb/sec High-Speed Electro-Optic Modulator with Low-Voltage Capability; (e) Polarization-Insensitive Multi-Mode-Fiber-Capable Integrated 100-200Gb/sec WDM Optical Receiver with Fail-Safe Wavelength and Power Recovery Capabilities; (f) Ruggedized Wide-Temperature-Range Chip Packaging Module.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For Non NASA Commercial Applications, the main market areas are computer Interconnect and Optical Network.Include Optical Transceiver Modules (OTMs) and ıActive Optical Cablesı (AOCs), used widely in data centers and networks. AOC market is $500 Mil/yr and the OTM is $4.4 Bil/yr currently. Other applications include coherent communications for network, and chip-to-chip optical interconnects with estimated market size of $300 Mil/year.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For Non NASA Applications, the main application area is high-gigabit/s laser transmitter and receiver optical-electronic subsystems: space qualifiable 1550 nm laser transmitter and receiver for data rates from 1 gigabits/s to >200 gigabits/s with power efficiency better than 10W per gigabit/s and mass efficiency better than 100 g per gigabit/s. Technologies for efficient waveform modulation, detection, and synchronization are desired. Integrated photonic circuit solutions are strongly desired. Applications include greatly increasing the data volume returns from space missions in multiple domains.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Multiplexers/Demultiplexers
Transmitters/Receivers
Waveguides/Optical Fiber (see also Optics)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Emitters
Lasers (Communication)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H9.01-8402
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Optical Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Superconducting Magnesium Diboride Thin Films for Ground Receiver Detectors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
STAR Cryoelectronics, LLC
25-A Bisbee Court
Santa Fe, NM 87508-1338
(505) 424-6454

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robin Cantor
rcantor@starcryo.com
25-A Bisbee Court
Santa Fe,  NM 87508-1338
(505) 424-6454

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Superconducting films of magnesium diboride (MgB2) are very attractive for a range of detector and telecommunications applications owing to the high critical temperature of these films, ~40 K, which greatly simplifies the cooling requirements. We propose to develop a reactive evaporation technique for the deposition of MgB2 thick films on wafers up to at least 4" diameter, and an etch back and passivation process to produce high-quality thin films that are needed for the development of superconducting single photon detectors (SNSPDs) and THz hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixers. Currently there is no domestic commercial source for MgB2 films; the only commercial source we are aware of is an overseas vendor that can supply films only on very small (<1 cm2) chips. In Phase I, we will demonstrate the feasibility of the etch back and passivation process and design the reactive evaporation system, in Phase II we will build the reactive evaporation system and develop a wafer-scale process for the deposition and production of MgB2 films.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High-quality MgB2 films are attractive for a number of superconducting electronics applications, and the availability of internal MgB2 deposition capabilities would enable the company to broaden the range of services and products currently offered. Potential non-NASA commercial applications include custom fabrication of microwave devices that can take advantage of the low surface resistance of MgB2 films; the development of SQUID sensors to augment the company's existing LTS and HTS SQUID product line for applications in biomedical imaging, non-destructive testing of materials and geophysical exploration; and the fabrication of flexible cryogenic interconnects for LTS computing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
All NASA space missions are supported by Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) technologies that provide the command, telemetry, science data transfer, and navigation support required for these missions. In view of NASA's commitment that "communications shall enable and not constrain missions," there is a recognized need for new and innovative technologies for free-space, long-range optical communications that will enhance downlink and uplink data transfer rates for space missions and provide increased security for future manned missions that could be jeopardized through cyberattacks. There has been significant interest in single photon detectors based on MgB2 films to meet these needs, and in THz HEB mixers based on MgB2 films for future astrophysics applications, such as for the Far-IR Surveyor mission or for SOFIA heterodyne instruments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Detectors (see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H9.01-8407
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Optical Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Speed Lasercom Signal Processing and Ground Station

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fibertek, Inc.
13605 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon, VA 20171-4603
(703) 471-7671

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Albert
malbert@fibertek.com
13605 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon,  VA 20171-4603
(703) 471-7671

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Space laser communications offer the promise and opportunity to downlink greatly increased data volumes from space as a supplement to radio frequency (RF) systems. The objectives of this SBIR support NASA's deep space and near-earth optical communications needs by developing and making key technologies available to spacecraft/instrument developers and ground station operators that scale data volumes dramatically at a cost point that enables operational use for NASA missions. We propose to develop a modular optical ground station architecture that can scale to hundreds of Gbps data rates from lunar and near-earth orbits in a gradual, low-cost, readably scalable manner accommodating the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) network standards and in the future supporting multiple protocols. This SBIR will also develop a spaceflight high speed Serially Concatenated Pulse Position Modulation (SCPPM) data channel encoder for the spaceflight modem and the complementary decoder for ground station use. Current and future space technology demonstration programs have been successful in maturing laser optical technology and have primarily focused on the space segment of the link. Fibertek will develop an integrated spaceflight and ground station optical communication architecture that provides NASA and/or its potential commercial suppliers with the ability to support hundreds of Gbps downlink. space missions with laser and lidar instrument payloads.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology developed in this SBIR has immediate applications in supporting non-NASA DoD and commercial laser communications activities. DoD flies a wide array of high data volume sensors and is working toward increasing downlink data rates. This work also support future space flight laser com systems provider and future ground station operators who desire to amortize the cost of their systems and support a diversity of satellites. Their challenge is to support their network protocols which are high rate PPM, OOK, PSK protocols.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ground station technology developed supports high bandwidth NASA mission needs for LEO, GEO to earth downlink. The unique waveform development can be incorporated into NASA missions for in Lunar, L1, L1 and deep space lasercom flight terminals and enables multi-channel operations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Multiplexers/Demultiplexers
Adaptive Optics
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Lasers (Communication)
Optical
Ranging/Tracking


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H9.02-7192
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Space Communication Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Plug-In Architecture for Software-Defined Radios

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Blue Sun Enterprise, Inc.
1942 Broadway Street, Suite 314
Boulder, CO 80302-5233
(720) 394-8897

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher Grasso
contact@bluesunenterprises.com
1942 Broadway Street, Suite 314
Boulder,  CO 80302-5233
(720) 394-8897

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The growing use in deep space of CubeSats is driving the need for small, flexible, full-featured telecom hardware like the Iris radio. The current Iris software is rudimentary compared the NASA Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS). The software on each slice uses a simple 333 kHz loop as a basic scheduler to invoke small C elements. Changes can only be made before the radio is installed in the spacecraft, and no code updates in flight are possible without patching. This proposal would result in software to enable simple, low-effort elaboration of new capabilities for the Iris and similar radios. 1. Telecom Abstraction Layer (TAL) implements STRS capabilities, plus the infrastructure to dynamically select waveform applications on any sort of radio. A high-speed scheduler selects apps to run, collects execution information for debug, and reconfigures the system for needed operations. The TAL can be targeted to any radio with the modification of an i/o layer. 2. Plug-in Cognition Architecture (PiCA) running on a separate slice for cognitive link services, interfaced to each radio slice via serial. Services could include downlink rate selection in response to DSN site conditions, guaranteed data delivery, relay, antenna pointing, and access negotiation. Built-atop flight-proven VML sequencing and JPL AutoNav for spacecraft navigation, easy-to-code scripts provide sophisticated timing and event response, making cognitive services easy to write and deploy, even after launch. The longer-duration computations of the PiCA do not interfere with the high-rate waveform activities in the TAL. Both can be updated with new components at any point in the mission, allowing unprecedented flexibility to take advantage of new technologies or compensate for spacecraft idiosyncrasies. PASDR has the potential to shorten radio development cycles and allow easy collaboration between separate developers, benefiting the community as a whole.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Since PASDR works with any software-defined radio, it could be applied to non-NASA spacecraft: DoD, NOAA, and ESA missions are prime candidates. International release of software should be possible under ITAR controls. The PiCA element of PASDR could be directly applied to commercial launch vehicles, including for human access to space. PASDR is also applicable to terrestrial deployments. The capabilities produced by this SBIR could be applied to radios for autonomous vehicle control, airborne systems, and remote science stations with limited contact time. Doing so would allow easy crossover of waveform apps and cognition services between space and terrestrial deployments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
PASDR is applicable to any software-defined radio flying on any spacecraft. The potential for commercialization is therefore enormous. PASDR could be installed in Iris radios by the provider chosen by JPL, and any others that the market may offer for deep space and LEO use, to give NASA the ability to use sophisticated standardized communications across a broad range of different small missions. This would stimulate activity and reduce costs by freeing missions from having to implement any telecom software, leading to better reliability of communications, simpler mission conops, more cross-mission synergy, and lower barriers of entry for inexperienced mission sponsors. By lowering development costs of new capabilities, more companies may produce small software-defined radios for use in CubeSat missions. In addition to the data communications aspect, the PASDR would add radiometric data for 1-way ranging (with a suitable on-board oscillator) and Doppler, allowing the CubeSat community the opportunity for autonomous navigation. This will reduce the cost of missions by reducing the need for expert navigation. New mission component providers could use PASDR for larger spacecraft, providing them with the same software-defined flexibility as the CubeSat community reducing implementation costs, onboard navigation present in PASDR could be used on these more expensive missions due to its ready availability, reducing the need to use as much expert time for support.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Sequencing & Scheduling
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Telemetry (see also Control & Monitoring)
Programming Languages


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H9.02-7583
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Space Communication Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: OpenSWIFT-SDR for STRS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tethers Unlimited, Inc.
11711 North Creek Parkway South, Suite D113
Bothell, WA 98011-8808
(425) 486-0100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tyrel Newton
newton@tethers.com
newton@tethers.com
Bothell,  WA 98011-8804
(425) 486-0100

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SWIFT is a small-form factor, highly-capable software-defined radio (SDR) platform whose strength lies in its flexible and modular hardware and software interfaces. TUI proposes to augment this existing, proven platform to make it compatible with the Space Telecommunication Radio System (STRS) architecture and other open standards. Furthermore, TUI proposes to leverage other ongoing work in the area of high-gain antenna pointing and electrically-steered antenna (ESA) control to augment these existing standards with antenna pointing and multi-antenna abstraction interfaces. The proposed STRS augmentations and ?OpenSWIFT-SDR? architecture will allow them to scale to large, multi-body networked systems, especially systems operating at multiple frequencies with multiple, steered antennas. The large existing code-base, availability of mature hardware solutions, and the ability to operate coherently at S-, X-, K-, and Ka-bands while connecting to multiple antennas makes SWIFT an ideal platform for both TUI and others to develop the next generation of communications architectures and protocols for current and future NASA missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
TUI anticipates the proposed technology enable the increased use of the proven SWIFT software-defined radio (SDR) platform in systems using multiple and steered high-gain apertures. Such systems include any mobile, networked remote sensing system that generate large volumes of data and subsequently require either ad-hoc or tight-beam exfiltration of the data. Separately, the proposed technologies would enable the creation of point-to-point links from low-Earth orbit to users in remote and/or disaster-stricken areas.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
TUI anticipates the proposed technology will enable the increased use of advanced software-defined radio (SDR) technologies for creating multi-frequency, multi-channel, multi-antenna, and steered antenna communications systems. These features will lower the cost of deploying large constellations of small, mobile air and space vehicles for remote sensing applications where the volume of data necessitates tight-beam point-to-point data exfiltration links. Furthermore, the open nature of the proposed modifications to the proven SWIFT-SDR technologies as well as STRS and other open standards will enable their use in third-party ad-hoc and cognitive networking research simplifying the infusion of these technologies into future mission concepts.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ad-Hoc Networks (see also Sensors)
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Transmitters/Receivers
Command & Control
Sequencing & Scheduling
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H9.02-7669
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Space Communication Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ka-Band Electronically Steered CubeSat Antenna

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kymeta Government Solutions
12277 134th Court Northeast
Redmond, WA 98052-8713
(425) 896-3700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Margaret Godon
mgodon@kymetagov.com
12277 134th Ct NE
Redmond,  WA 98052-8713
(805) 459-3796

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Kymeta Government Solutions (KGS) recently designed, analyzed, built, tested, and delivered a small, lightweight, low-cost, low-power electronically steered prototype antenna for use on CubeSat antennas in low Earth orbit. Like all Kymeta/KGS metamaterial antenna systems, this antenna uses a tunable dielectric material and an array of radiating elements to create an interference pattern that steers the beam in the desired direction. This method provides moderate gain without the use of mechanical steering and similar functional performance to a traditional phased array at a fraction of the size, weight, power, and cost (SWAP-C). This prototype antenna meets RF performance goals but was designed as a proof of concept lab test unit with no environmental requirements. As a result, it needs a variety of minor modifications to be capable of surviving launch, to be capable of operating in the space atmosphere, and to better integrate into a CubeSat. This Phase I proposal focuses on the design of four updates to the antenna aperture to better meet requirements in the installed environment. Survivability during launch will be increased by a modification of the antenna-to-drive electronics connectors as well as the addition of two new bolts between the waveguide and radiating cell board; a redesign of the radiating cell will improve observed performance parameters during operation at temperature; and a modification of the waveguide will minimize the antenna footprint in a 3U CubeSat. If awarded, Phase I deliverables will include analysis and simulations of expected results, as well as a plan for fabrication and verification of the design during Phase II. If awarded Phase II, KGS would build and test the antennas designed in Phase I; if this testing indicates that the designs perform as expected based on analysis, the antenna itself would be ready to go to space.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The CubeSat standard was defined by a university team in order to reduce cost and complexity of the launch of small satellites. Because they often do not have very much funding, university organizations developing CubeSats would benefit significantly from a small, lightweight, high-gain antenna which uses very little power and is available at relatively low cost. Aside from organizations who are interested in satellites, this small and lightweight antenna is appropriate for a variety of other applications. These include systems where either the antenna host platform or the antenna with which it is communicating is moving (or both), including aircraft, small marine craft, and mobile ground assets. This antenna is an especially good fit for entities that have low weight and power requirements, as these are areas where it performs exceptionally well compared to traditional mechanically-steered antennas as well as phased-array antennas.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This Ka-band CubeSat antenna is a small, lightweight antenna which provides moderate gain without the use of mechanical steering or power-hungry phase shifters. The modifications defined in this proposal will move it one step closer to being launch-ready for a CubeSat 3U or larger satellite in low Earth orbit. This technology provides a high data rate communications solution for small satellites which, when paired with sensors, would provide NASA with the ability to receive high volumes of sensor data directly from LEO satellites. This has potential applications to a variety of NASA interests, ranging from earth observation activities to experiments performed on LEO satellites. The technology could also be leveraged to provide inter-satellite links, allowing NASA increased communications architecture technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Antennas


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H9.03-7096
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Dynamics and Navigation Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robust Trajectory Design in Highly Perturbed Environments Leveraging Continuation Methods

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Analytical Mechanics Associates, Inc.
21 Enterprise Parkway, Suite 300
Hampton, VA 23666-1568
(757) 865-0000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Haijun Shen
shen@ama-inc.com
21 Enterprise Parkway, Suite 300
Hampton,  VA 23666-0000
(757) 865-0000

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Research is proposed to investigate continuation methods to improve the robustness of trajectory design algorithms for spacecraft in highly perturbed dynamical environments, such as near asteroids and comets, where many traditional methods that are often used and taken for granted simply do not work. The continuation is achieved through establishing homotopies between some simple models, for which solutions are easy to obtain, and the full models. We will investigate how sensitivities of the trajectory to the homotopy parameters can be used to systematically and effectively automate the homotopy continuation, improving the robustness of the algorithms. We will also investigate adaptive fidelity models and alternative interpolation-based gravity models, as well as a number of techniques developed by the investigators to speed up the dynamics evaluations. Almost every legacy trajectory design software code used by NASA (e.g., Malto, Copernicus, EMTG, GMAT, etc.) is faced by the dilemma that hard problems simply donıt converge without a good initial guess. The gradient-based localized optimization methods used in these software tools require initial guesses that are close to the final solutions. The common practice of using solutions based on simplified models as initial guesses often do not yield convergence if the full problem is solved directly, especially in highly perturbed dynamical environments. In the proposed method, instead of taking a full step from the simple model to the full model, we systematically take smaller steps, and judiciously introduce incremental perturbations. This method is amenable to automation and yields robustness in convergence. The proposed research will greatly benefit NASA and the space trajectory design community in designing high-fidelity trajectories with true ephemerides and force fields.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology can find applications at other government agencies and commercial entities that deal with spacecraft trajectory design and launch vehicle analysis, such as the Air Force, Missile Defense Agency, Orbital Science Corporation, Boeing, SpaceX, etc. Potential applications can also be found in engineering and mathematical software market such as Analytical Graphics, Inc. and Mathworks, Inc. The benefit of the continuation methods goes beyond the spacecraft trajectory design because it can also improve the robustness of numerical optimal control solvers, which are used in a great deal of industries such as the automobile manufacturing, oil production, chemical plants, etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed robust trajectory design techniques and tool are significant for NASA in supporting its committed ambition of robotic and human space flight. Expected NASA applications are in the area of interplanetary mission design, missions to asteroids and comets, planetary moon tours, atmospheric entry, aerobraking, launch vehicle trajectory optimization, etc., all of which can benefit from the improved robustness in convergence as a result of the continuation methods. Existing NASA software packages such as the open-source GMAT (General Mission Analysis Tool), Copernicus, Malto, etc., can all be enhanced through wrappers or plugin implementing the proposed methods.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H9.03-7387
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Dynamics and Navigation Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Time Inter-Comparison Using Transportable Optical Combs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AOSense, Inc.
929 East Arques Avenue
Sunnyvale, CA 94085-4521
(408) 735-9500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arman Cingoz
acingoz@aosense.com
929 E Arques Ave
Sunnyvale,  CA 94085-4521
(408) 636-2612

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
AOSense proposes a free-space, two-way optical time transfer system compatible with global-scale synchronization of current-generation optical atomic clocks. In Phase I, we will demonstrate the requisite performance using existing hardware coupled with off-the-shelf control electronics. Based on our results, we will design a fully-integrated module capable of disseminating timing signals with sub-femtosecond error from 1-10,000 s. Such a system would improve ground-to-satellite synchronization a million-fold over current RF-based time transfer systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Ultra low-phase noise microwave generation; High resolution coherent radar; communication systems insensitive to jamming; extended mission duration in GPS-denied environments

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Optical atomic clocks; clock based geodesy; very long baseline interferometry; test of general relativity; deep-space navigation; coherent LIDAR

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Transmitters/Receivers
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Lasers (Communication)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Ranging/Tracking


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H9.03-8310
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Dynamics and Navigation Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: NonLinear Parallel OPtimization Tool

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CU Aerospace, LLC
301 North Neil Street, Suite 502
Champaign, IL 61820-3169
(217) 239-1703

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alexander Ghosh
ghosh@cuaerospace.com
301 North Neil Street, Suite 502
Champaign,  IL 61820-3169
(217) 721-2875

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CU Aerospace, in partnership with the University of Illinois propose the further development of a new sparse nonlinear programming architecture that exploits parallelism at three levels. The Nonlinear Parallel Optimization Tool (NLPAROPT) is a black-box NLP solver intended to take advantage of multicore processors and distributed processing super computers alike to vastly improve the time-to-solution for optimization problems. It has been built with NASA trajectory optimization problems in mind, but can be applied to any class of NLP problem. By parallelising not only the basic linear algebra, but also the derivative calculation, problem formulation, and sparse aspects of typical problems, significant speed improvements are achievable by comparison to existing open source and commerical NLP solvers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Any group which needs to take advantage of nonlinear program problem optimization will benefit from the improved time-to-solution provided by NLPAROPT. There are direct applications to engineering design for other government agencies such as DoD who could use it in logistics optimziation, or NOAA who could use it for weather modelling. The DOE could use it for power grid optimization, and the USDA could use it for crop planting strategies. Further, most large aerospace corporations have internal optimization tools that depend on black-box solvers; NLPAROPT could substitute for those solvers and significantly improve the existing tools used in industry.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA currently utilizes SNOPT, IPOPT, and WORHP software packages for astrodynamics applications such as the design of complex spacecraft trajectories and other optimal control problems, but could greatly benefit from the introduction of a new parallel large-scale, nonlinear, sparse optimization solution. This new parallelized NLP technique has already been shown to result in a reduction in execution time, thereby reducing the optimization's turn-around time and improve communications between both designers and scientists. Our solver would act as a significant force multiplier for existing NASA tools such as GMAT's collocation-based low-thrust transcription, and EMTGs inner loop solver.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H10.01-7772
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Improved Test and Launch Operations via Interface Design
PROPOSAL TITLE: Improved Test and Launch Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Special Aerospace Services
3005 30th Street
Boulder, CO 80301-1304
(303) 625-1010

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tim Bulk
tbulk@specialaerospaceservices.com
3005 30th Street
Boulder,  CO 80301-1304
(303) 625-1010

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Special Aerospace Services (SAS) has detailed knowledge and experience in remote and autonomous launch sites, inclusive of foreign launch sites. SAS will provide NASA with an analysis of the historic and current trending of the launch vehicle to ground and launch vehicle to payload interfaces. SAS will accomplish this by leveraging its extensive knowledge of domestic and foreign launch vehicles (traditional and ?new space?) and their associated launch sites. In leveraging this data, SAS will identify candidates for possible standardization, and where candidates are not available, will develop preliminary concepts for considerations of becoming standards. As part of the preparation for this effort, SAS has engaged a robotic and autonomy control company (outside the space industry) to advise SAS on new innovative autonomy technology and its applications for developing non-standard approaches to processing and operating spaceflight vehicles.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In the chemical industry, SAS has identified certain segments suffering similar circumstances related to inconsistent interfaces. With the space industry closely resembling the chemical industry (especially with fluid commodities), the chemical industry can also benefit from this effort. Another industry that could benefit from this effort is the energy industry. There are many similarities with the space industry, especially when considering the severe environments and high-risk ventures involved. We have identified aspects of this industry having similar issues when systems interface with one another. The electric car industry is becoming viable and as such, it is ripe for developing standard interfaces as it matures. This industry has yet to determine the interface requirements for recharging all electric vehicles in a common manner. Similar to the space industry, they are in a parochial stage where the driver must use equipment produced by the builder of the electric automobile.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In the space industry, development of common interfaces and modularity allows the development of servicing systems for the launch vehicles and payloads to be outside the confines of their respective designs and facilities. This has the potential of producing a large economic value. This development moves such systems upstream in the process and allows the creation of support service companies focused on servicing the space industry. As terrestrial development continues, extraterrestrial operations benefit. In developing the architecture for off-planet operations, this modularity (and its robotic connectivity) allows these extraterrestrial modules to be similar to their terrestrial counterparts and to operate remotely, or even autonomously.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Deployment
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Structures
Launch Engine/Booster
Surface Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H10.01-7839
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Improved Test and Launch Operations via Interface Design
PROPOSAL TITLE: mREST: Flexible Open Interface Standard for Test and Launch Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
METECS
1030 Hercules Avenue
Houston, TX 77058-2722
(832) 476-8651

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pat McCartney
pat.mccartney@metecs.com
1030 Hercules Ave.
Houston,  TX 77058-2722
(832) 476-8651

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Spaceflight systems must pass through a complex set of testing and processing before being cleared for launch. A significant portion of the pre-launch processing involves integration with other flight systems, general ground support equipment, and test equipment. The process of interfacing this equipment has historically been a source of numerous delays and unplanned work prior to launch. The proliferation of different interface types, designs, and manufacturers only serves to increase the difficulties associated with pre-launch integration and testing.The development and adoption of improved, standardized interfaces holds the potential of reducing the cost and complexity of the testing and launch processing processes and could provide eventual benefits to autonomous servicing in future space missions. In-space and surface servicing of multiple types of spacecraft becomes more feasible if a common interface approach can be developed and widely adopted. In 2012, METECS developed the mREST Architecture and Interface Specification and began developing software prototypes that could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the standard for the automation of testing in flight laboratories at the NASA/Johnson Space Center. This specification and the associated software became collectively known simply as "mREST". The proposed innovation is to expand on the mREST foundational work to design an interface standard that can be utilized to solve the issues associated with test and launch operations. This will be accomplished by first doing research into the specific issues that typically arise during the pre-launch process and identifying areas where the existing mREST specification should be expanded and/or refined.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Any object that requires a simple web-based interface would be able to use software designed using the mREST interface specification. Likewise, any system of disparate elements could easily be integrated using mREST. Some potential non-NASA commercial applications include building environmental control and monitoring, product verification and validation, hardware testing, remote monitoring equipment, safety and security monitoring systems, and automated processes. The potential NASA commercial applications listed in the previous section would also apply for non-NASA applications: 1. Remote data monitoring 2. Integrated test automation and orchestration 3. Simulation monitoring and control 4. Model-based system engineering (MBSE) 5. Facility monitoring and control 6. Monitoring and control of environmental control systems 7. Process management and control 8. Security system management 9. Computer system administration monitoring and optimization 10. Failure analysis and testing 11. Browser-based graphical user interfaces

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The mREST interface specification has the potential to greatly enhance existing flight test and processing capabilities at NASA. Any facility which requires integration and testing of hardware and/or software elements would benefit. In addition, development of web-based user interfaces would be streamlined for any mREST element or system. Systems that utilize common NASA components with existing web-based interfaces such as LabVIEW, the Trick Simulation Environment, and/or EDGE graphics have a greater initial potential for implementation. Other applications that have potential for NASA are: 1. Remote data monitoring 2. Integrated test automation and orchestration 3. Simulation monitoring and control 4. Model-based system engineering (MBSE) 5. Facility monitoring and control 6. Monitoring and control of environmental control systems 7. Process management and control 8. Security system management 9. Computer system administration monitoring and optimization 10. Failure analysis and testing 11. Browser-based graphical user interfaces

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Command & Control
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Sequencing & Scheduling
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Teleoperation
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Fusion
Data Input/Output Devices (Displays, Storage)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H10.02-7439
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Propulsion Systems Ground Test Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fast Fiber-Coupled Imaging of X-Rays Events

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
HyperV Technologies Corporation
13935 Willard Road
Chantilly, VA 20151-2936
(703) 378-4882

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Samuel Brockington
sbrock@hyperv.com
13935 Willard Road
Chantilly,  VA 20151-2936
(703) 378-4882

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
HyperV Technologies Corp. proposes to construct a long-record-length, fiber-coupled, fast imaging diagnostic for recording X-ray back-lit material flows and X-ray emission events. X-ray imaging of material flows in detonation fronts and combustion through protective housings has many important aerospace, industrial and defense implications. First HyperV will design, construct and test, in conjunction with UAH, a single fiber coupled X-ray scintillator pixel. Silicon Photo-multipliers will be investigated to maximize channel properties for the accepted cost and desired scalability. Next we will develope an X-ray imager of at least 16 pixels for observing X-ray backlit material flows based off of the single channel experiments. A camera performance of at least 2500 frames at 10 Megaframes per second with at least 12-16 bits per pixel will be targeted. X-ray emission from backlighter will be shone through a rocket motor and projected onto a scintillator. The optical emission from the scintillator is then observed by a fiber imaging grid. The imaging grid would then couple light to a bank of amplified SiPM pixels with integrated analog gain and data acquisition. HyperV has already demonstrated as part of previous work a two clock domain technique for using slow cheap micro-controllers to manage high time resolution data acquisition over long record-length with a low cost digital backend. HyperV has also demonstrated that this back end can be used to observe SiPM as well as photodiode detectors. We propose now to extend these techniques observe X-ray induced emission of scintillator materials for performing time resolved imaging of X-rays. This small scale imager would then be used to observe material flows in rocket motors in the UAH X-ray laboratory as a demonstration of the diagnostics capability.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Combustion: X-ray information on the evolution of fast material flows that previously had to be aggregated over many shots, will now be recorded in a single shot. This allows shot-to-shot variant dynamics like turbulence and turbulent mixing to be resolved, and reduces the resources required, especially in large devices where shots are at a premium. Plasma Physics: X-ray imaging is important to plasma physics. Imaging of fast events in Z-pinches and implosions is absolutely vital to achieving the goals of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). Tomography: A low cost high time resolution camera allows 4-D X-ray tomography, which would be an advance in observing complex flow evolutions in nozzles, manifolds, and detonation fronts. Fast Material Augmentation: This is a general tool for time resolved X-ray imaging of fast material augmentation or displacement. Laser sintering, deformation, and detonation flows could be resolved, allowing for optimization of these industrial applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Rocket Motor Design:X-ray imaging can penitrate smoke and protective casings, allowing the combustion of propellants and exhaust plumes inside a rocket-motor to be imaged. High time resolution imaging of X-ray back-lit events can provide critical insight into the rocket motor dynamics. Investigation of Turbulence: For stochastic events, or dynamic events in devices too large to accumulate event evolution over many shots, the development of a deep record length imaging system for X-ray collection would be a huge advantage over single shot and burst shot imaging systems presently employed. Harsh Environment Testing: By minimizing the complexity of the imaging head, a replaceable, irradiateable imager head could be constructed for deployment in harsh environments. Filtered X-ray Imaging: Adding energy bandpass filtering only increases the flexibility and power of this diagnostic. Time Resolved X-ray Spectroscopy: By observing the output of an X-ray spectrometer it may be possible to record time resolved X-ray spectroscopy

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Image Analysis
Image Processing
Radiography
Filtering
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Fuels/Propellants
Spacecraft Main Engine
X-rays/Gamma Rays
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H10.02-7667
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Propulsion Systems Ground Test Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robust Cryogenic Cavitation Modeling for Propulsion Systems Ground Test Facilities

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tetra Research Corporation
420 Park Avenue West
Princeton, IL 61356-1934
(815) 872-0702

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rex Chamberlain
rex@tetraresearch.com
420 Park Avenue West
Princeton,  IL 61356-1934
(815) 872-0702

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Rigorous ground testing mitigates space propulsion system risk by enabling advanced component and system level rocket propulsion development and by demonstrating that designs reliably meet the specified requirements over the operational envelope before the first flight. The development of advanced ground test technology components and systems that are capable of enhancing environment simulation, minimizing program test time, cost and risk and meeting environmental and safety regulations is focused on near-term products that augment existing state-of-the-art propulsion system test facilities. Thus improved capabilities to model and predict component behavior in harsh ground test environments are needed for enhanced facility design. In particular, components such as valves, check valves and chokes that are subjected to high pressure, high flow rate cryogenic environments will experience potentially damaging two phase flow effects such as cavitation. Robust cryogenic cavitation models for real fluids equations of state in the presence of mixed supersonic/subsonic flows are demonstrated to deal with poor solution convergence and numerical instabilities. The proposed innovation leverages modifications to the local preconditioning formulation of the Roe flux with a barotropic equation of state and uses a representative component flow problem to demonstrate the effectiveness of enhanced modifications to the cryogenic liquid tabular equation of state. Instabilities arising from the single temperature assumption in the two phase mixture equation of state, which must often be evaluated by extrapolating data too far from the saturation curve, are eliminated with a nonlinear temperature limiter that precludes non-physical behavior, such as imaginary mixture sound speeds. The result is an efficient, robust cryogenic cavitation model suitable for application to propulsion systems ground test facility component design and analysis efforts.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The growing trend toward coupled multi-physics analyses is opening significant new markets as more difficult problems can be addressed using advanced computational techniques. The ability to robustly model complex cryogenic flows with cavitation will allow the commercial aerospace and defense industries to improve design and development of new products and streamline ground testing. Our analysis software can also be applied to marine propellers, boiler feed pumps and refrigerant systems. The basic architecture of the modeling framework can remain the same while new plug-in modules are developed to address different physics and design requirements.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology will provide NASA with an efficient, robust cryogenic cavitation modeling and prediction tool suitable for application to propulsion systems ground test facility component design and analysis. The research product will provide enabling engineering and scientific technologies to predict complex cryogenic flow problems, reduce ground test facility costs and overall system risk while increasing test productivity. Potential enhancements include improved treatment of evaporation and condensation rates, turbulence/cavitation interaction modeling, liquid/vapor thermal interface effects, variable transport properties, expanded thermodynamic databases and extended model validation. The proposed cavitation modeling tool is also applicable to hydrogen inducers, impellers and pumps operating at high vapor fraction.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Actuators & Motors
Simulation & Modeling
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H10.02-8152
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Propulsion Systems Ground Test Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Elimination of Rocket Ignition Side Loads

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arizona Systems Engineering Group, LLC
4572 South Avenida Paisano
Tucson, AZ 85746-8463
(520) 665-9089

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jose Chirivella
aseg1@yahoo.com
4572 S AVENNIDA PAISANO
TUCSON,  AZ 85746-8463
(520) 665-9088

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal is responsive to Topic H10: Ground Processing and in particular to Subtopic H10.02. When a rocket motor/engine is ignited at low altitude its convergent/divergent nozzle experiences significant impulses across the nozzle; these impulses are known as "ignition side loads" (ISL). The ISL duration ranges from a few tenths of a second for small nozzles, to as long as several seconds for very large nozzles. These large-amplitude ISLs are transient, chaotic, and develop during the chamber pressure rise when the over-expanded nozzle is partially empty. The ISL peak amplitude in large rockets can be as high as 70% of the nominal thrust. The ISL has caused problems in most rocket engine development programs, from pulling off engines from gimbals during their testing, to causing cooling engine lines cracks, knocking off instrumentation, and a large variety of other ISL related issues. ISLs are also experienced during hot staging of launchers and missiles. The current models for predicting ISLs result in very conservative estimates for the TVC actuators and nozzle throat structures, and impact negatively on development schedule, cost, and engine weight. The proposed work for Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of eliminating for the first time the ISL by developing a set of methods and procedures that will show by CFD simulation how to effectively reduce the ISL to a negligible level. The innovation consists of a set of devices installed precisely within the nozzle that stabilize the flow during the start up pressure rise and thus eliminate the ISL. These inserts are present ONLY during the brief period of rocket ignition and chamber pressure ramp-up. Once the rocket chamber reaches the nominal pressure in a short time, they ablate away and the nozzle configuration geometry returns to the intended high performance design. By implementing this innovation, the ISL risk is eliminated altogether, thus greatly simplifying engine/motor development.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial Sector Elimination of SLs on launch vehicles. The SL elimination devices can be retrofit. They can be installed on boosters, as well as on launchers using cryogenic propellants. This will result in lighter structures used in the throat and TVC actuators. The results and products of this proposal are of interest to the Air Force, US Navy, US Army, Orbital/ATK, Aerojet, Northrop/Grumman, Lockheed/Martin, and Raytheon. These agencies and industries have had to contend with ignition SLs in the past 10 years. Defense Applications - Strategic missile defense: Elimination of SLs during staging of strategic missiles, and interceptors - Elimination of ignition side-load in tube launched tactical missiles when egression is assisted by a gas generator to protect operating personnel - The results of this three Phase effort can be applied to any boosters, liquid engines, used in launchers, as well as those missiles that use hot staging to improve the time-of-flight. This applies to new launchers and missiles, as well to the existing fleet of vehicles with residual issues on ignition SLs by application of trivial retrofit programs. - Missiles that are tube-launched by a gas generator and are ignited after egression at a safe distance to protect the personnel (Javelin system). Estimates of the disturbing SL in a hot staging of the first stage of missiles, such as the SM-3 family

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This program has been organized assuming that the first user of this technology will be solid rocket motor boosters and engines used in a launcher such as Orion, but its results can be applied without much additional effort to other liquid propellant engines and motors they are ignited at low altitude from Earth. ASEG has already probed the market and the interest of aerospace agencies in eliminating the ignition SL, and has had a very favorable response. This program has been organized assuming that the first user of this technology will be in NASA engines, but its results can be applied without much additional effort to other liquid propellant engines, as well as solid rocket motor boosters. During the feasibility demonstration Phase I, Government agencies and propulsion prime contractors will be approached to brief them on the technology under development and the on-going results. A potential partner will be identified to join the program in Phase II, when the tools for the design and implantation of the inserts will be developed and tested in the simulator. In Phase III, the industrial partner will assist ASEG in testing the technology as a piggy back to an on-going engine development program. This industrial partner could be hopefully a NASA testing facility, a prime, or a combination of both. An agreement between Phase III partner and ASEG will be arranged for design of the inserts, their fabrication, and licensing to other industrial firms.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Launch Engine/Booster


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H10.02-8292
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Propulsion Systems Ground Test Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Plume Velocimetry Diagnostic for Large Rocket Engines

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MetroLaser, Inc.
22941 Mill Creek Drive
Laguna Hills, CA 92653-1215
(949) 553-0688

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tom Jenkins
tjenkins@metrolaserinc.com
22941 Mill Creek Drive
Laguna Hills,  CA 92653-1215
(949) 553-0688

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An instrument is proposed for non-intrusive measurements of velocity in the plume of a large rocket engine of the type used in the first or second stage of a launch vehicle. The method is laser-based and has the potential for standoff distances in the tens of meters, so optical components can be a safe distance from the hot gases. The diagnostic does not require flow seeding, works over the full temperature range, and covers the full range of velocities of a typical rocket engine. The method, hydroxyl tagging velocimetry (HTV), has already been successfully demonstrated on a small rocket engine. The proposed effort will adapt this technique to large engines by minimizing the effects of beam attenuation and beam steering due to turbulence and developing a robust beam delivery and detection system. Because OH molecules survive at high temperatures for appreciable lifetimes, it is anticipated that the HTV technique will work in even the highest temperature rocket plumes. The proposed diagnostic will provide measurements not obtainable by current methods and will enable experimental data that can be used for validating computer models of rocket engine performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A successful velocity diagnostic for large rocket engine plumes would have broad application across the worldwide aerospace propulsion industry. Military applications include rockets, missiles, scramjets, and turbine engines, as well as new concepts in propulsion such as pulse detonation engines. Commercial applications include the development of new turbofan designs that will require improved diagnostics for achieving increased efficiency. MetroLaser will pursue these military and commercial markets with a commercial version of the Phase II prototype

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA?s goals of returning humans to the Moon and sending humans to Mars and beyond present exciting challenges that will require significant advancements in propulsion technology. Current methods for developing hydrogen- and hydrocarbon-fueled engines rely largely on trial-and-error testing. Accurate computer models can significantly reduce the cost of hardware development, but current models are limited by a lack of experimental data needed for validation. The proposed velocity diagnostic would provide crucial data that is needed for the development, qualification, and acceptance process of present and future computer models.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Launch Engine/Booster
Spacecraft Main Engine
Ultraviolet
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H10.02-8302
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Propulsion Systems Ground Test Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Color-XHDR - A Compact High-Speed Color Extreme High Dynamic Range Video Capability for Rocket Engine Testing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Imaging and Research Corporation
Building 1103, Suite 140C
Stennis Space Center, MS 39529-0001
(228) 688-2452

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Ryan
rryan@i2rcorp.com
Building 1103, Suite 140C
Stennis Space Center,  MS 39529-0001
(228) 688-2276

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Innovative Imaging and Research (I2R) proposes to develop a 21st Century high-speed, color extreme high dynamic range (Color-XHDR) video recording system that will produce calibrated, engineering-grade video to accurately document rocket motor firings, at close range within a test cell, without image saturation. This novel imaging system will include a compact, single camera/single focal plane array camera and end-to-end image processing software to produce, high quality, low noise, high-speed video not currently possible with today's technology. The compact cameras will be compatible with existing SSC camera housing, as all acquired imagery will be stored off-camera to prevent loss of information in the event of a mishap. The system will be able to record entire test sequences at 250 fps lasting up to 45 minutes. Most importantly, the system will produce XHDR (>120 dB dynamic range) HD format imagery so that relatively dark test cell infrastructure and test article hardware will be visible alongside exhaust plumes that may also contain hot molten debris with brightness levels approaching that of the sun. Because the imagery will be calibrated, the system will also provide engineering information such as color temperature and particle trajectory velocities. Geometric calibration will enable multiple properly positioned cameras to provide accurate 3-D XHDR image products. Rocket engine certification ground testing requires clear visual high-speed video recording that can capture essential information for NASA during rocket engine certification ground testing. This need is particularly true in the event of a mishap, when investigations into the underlying cause ensue. The cameras in use today at SSC have significant limitations including plume saturation, rolling shutter image wobble, camera geometric distortion, and no off-board storage, which makes it nearly impossible, in catastrophic situations that result in the loss of a camera, to obtain critical information.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Compact, color, high-speed, extreme high dynamic range (Color-XHDR) video recordings that can produce calibrated, engineering-grade information to accurately record high energy events, such as rocket motor firings, at close range, without image saturation will have significant value to defense-based facilities that actively test propulsion systems and perform launches. These include the USAF Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) and the Air Force Research Laboratory at Edwards Air Force Base as well as Vandenberg Air Force Base. Commercial propulsion test and development entities, such as Orbital ATK, SpaceX and Blue Origin, would also benefit by our technology. In addition to rocket propulsion, other application areas that would benefit from our imaging technology including robotic welding and 3-D metal printing where bright-dark contrast become extreme. Another potential application is small area UAV remote sensing and mobile mapping. Our compact technology approach will enable our imaging systems to be flown on small UAVs. We have spoken to imaging and mapping companies developing technology for strip mining where deep shadows produce extreme contrast. Routinely mapping mining areas is important for managing a site and to maintain safety. Mobile mapping from moving ground vehicles is limited by the dark shadows produced in many landscapes. Compact HDR imaging could increase the utility of the images taken by these systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Compact, color, high-speed, extreme high dynamic range (Color-XHDR) video recording that can produce calibrated, engineering-grade video to accurately record high energy events, such as rocket motor firings, at close range, without image saturation will have significant value to NASA SSC. After a successful Phase II, I2R will be in a position to provide their state-of-the-art system to NASA SSC for incorporation directly onto the test stands. In addition to the facility at SSC, other NASA Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) and NASA launch facilities namely Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station and White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) will benefit by using this technology. This technology can also be incorporated into other NASA missions including both terrestrial and planetary exploration. Since, for example, there is relatively no atmosphere on Mars, there is limited diffuse scattering and dark shadows become visually darker. This effect increases the dynamic range of the scene making it an ideal target application for our technology. Similarly, our technology could be used to uncover the mysteries surrounding the extremely bright saturated spots captured by NASA?s Dawn mission on the dwarf planet Ceres.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
3D Imaging
Display
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Image Processing
Radiometric
Visible
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H11.01-7730
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Shielding Technologies - Transport Codes
PROPOSAL TITLE: Process and Tool Innovation for CAD Integration with OLTARIS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
XL Scientific, LLC
6100 Uptown Boulevard Northeast, Suite 260
Albuquerque, NM 87110-4193
(505) 244-8502

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Thelen
paul.thelen@xlscientific.com
6100 Uptown Blvd. NE, Suite 260
Albuquerque,  NM 87110-4193
(505) 222-4915

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA uses computer aided design (CAD) capabilities to produce space vehicle designs. One aspect of the vehicle design is utilizing enough shielding to minimize dose on personnel. Currently, there is no set process for using NASA CAD models in NASAıs transport code, HZETRN. XL Scientific will develop a ray tracing tool that converts STEP files to an XML input for OLTARIS, which contains HZETRN. This tool will carry geometric, material and density information and automate the process. By doing so, less human intervention will be necessary to run radiation transport problems and NASA personnel can produce results at a much faster rate. This effort will analyze the properties of a poorly defined and well defined CAD model to create the foundations of a process for automating the entire CAD to transport process. Success in this task will mitigate months of human effort per spacecraft design. XL Scientific has produced CAD/radiation transport capabilities in the past and have identified additional uses for CAD integration in radiation transport codes. This innovation is not limited to calculating dose on personnel; one major additional function is to calculate dose on electronics for other potential NASA applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
CAD integration into radiation transport codes is not unique to the space environment. XL Scientific has been and is currently contracted to develop scripts to work towards CAD/radiation transport integration for the Department of Defense (DoD). The DoD has several radiation test capabilities and there is a need for predictive models to calculate dose on target. This capability would also be used to determine if new, potential capabilities can meet requirements. Finally, the Department of Energy has several radiation test capabilities. Once successful at producing our transport suite, it is likely that the DOE will be interested in our innovation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has several CAD models that are considered poorly defined and require months of human intervention to deal with. Radiation transport on these models is required to calculate dose on personnel in space. The ray tracing tool and process provided by XL Scientific will reduce the amount of time and human intervention necessary to deal with these problematic CAD models. The SBIR topic is specifically interested in calculating dose on personnel in the space radiation environment for shielding calculations. An additional NASA application would be radiation effects on electronics in the space environment.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H12.01-7378
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Task Analysis Visualization and Data Management Tool
PROPOSAL TITLE: Task Analysis Data Processing and Enhanced Representations (TAPER)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Charles River Analytics, Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138-4555
(617) 491-3474

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Tittle
jtittle@cra.com
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge,  MA 02138-4555
(724) 745-8095

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Task Analysis (TA) is a fundamental part of NASA system design and validation. TAs are used to produce Master Task Lists that support engineering teams and operations specialists during development and validation of system design and procedures. However, current tools make it difficult to share TA insights between collaborators and do not adequately manage, maintain, and visualize complex TA data sets, making it challenging to integrate new data to support an iterative design and procedure development process. Improved TA tools that can better manage and visualize TA results have the potential to mitigate these shortcomings. Charles River Analytics proposes to design and demonstrate a system for Task Analysis Data Processing and Enhanced Representations (TAPER). TAPER will: (1) manage TA data through a modern web service-based data management framework that enables scalable storage, querying, and access to TA data between teams; (2) enable import and export of TA data that supports multiple forms of model development, including cognitive simulation, through a model representation engine; and (3) provide visualizations of TA data models tailored to the unique information needs of different users. Meeting these requirements will dramatically improve TA-supported collaborative design and development in large-scale engineering efforts.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We see two approaches to commercializing the technologies developed under this program. First, they can be licensed to other commercial entities that will use them directly or incorporate them as added functionality to their commercial products. In particular, we will look at businesses that use Task Analysis as part of their requirements development process as potential licensees of this technology. Second, we will incorporate this new technology into our AgentWorks' software, which will both increase its appeal as a commercial product and enable us to use the tool to provide consulting services based on AgentWorks to customers within the DoD, other Federal agencies, and commercial markets.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We expect the full-scope Task Analysis Data Processing and Enhanced Representations (TAPER) to have immediate and tangible benefit for NASA. In particular, TAPER will help maintain and track updates to Task Analyses as inputs to Master Task Lists (MTL), and communicate that information across engineering teams on large scale engineering projects. We will extend through a representative and targeted Requirements Analysis of the NASA Task Analysis process by incorporating the innovations developed under TAPER. Implementing these tools will enable scientists conducting TAs, engineers performing system design, and operations specialists developing procedures throughout the engineering process. TAPER's data management and model import services will also enable more effective testing and sharing of TA models when combined with novel TA model visualizations that support scientists, engineers, and operations specialists. These capabilities will ultimately result in increased utility of TA results to support system design, procedure development, and the validation of design and procedures.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Verification/Validation Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H12.01-7824
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Task Analysis Visualization and Data Management Tool
PROPOSAL TITLE: 5D Task Analysis Visualization Tool

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Control Point Corporation
110 Castilian Drive, Suite 200
Goleta, CA 93117-3028
(805) 882-1884

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jonathan Dorny
jonathan.dorny@control-pt.com
110 Castilian Dr., Suite 200
Goleta,  CA 93117-3028
(805) 882-1884

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The creation of a five-dimensional task analysis visualization (5D-TAV) software tool for Task Analysis and Workload Planning using multi-dimensional visualization will have significant positive impacts on the optimization of human-centered design at NASA. Recent research identified a 40% improvement in task analysis accuracy and efficiency using 3D visualization. Employing enterprise data integration and management innovation, configuration management, and loosely-coupled reusable libraries provides a single 5D model accentuating critical path, risk to task completion, staff selection, complexity, and conflicts. Such a software tool promises increased awareness for project management, operations personnel, and designers, improving efficiency and decision making, and reducing risk. These improvements will lead directly to improved system design and utilization of crew, as well as optimization of human and system allocations. The 5D-TAV tool's proposed integrated architecture incorporating available commercial tools provides the views, filters, rotations, and controls necessary for successful task analysis visualization and data management to increase mission success.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Existing CPC projects with Army and Navy can all take advantage of the 5D-TAV capabilities for workforce planning,supply chain management, and condition-based maintenance (CBM) optimization. There are additional opportunities with the Army and Navy to develop service-wide applications to support complex system planning, management and support requirements. Applications include but are not limited to: - Development of training solutions and measure effectiveness - Remote / Autonomous control of equipment and systems - Emergency emergency response planning and training - Integrated workforce planning and program management - Optimization of field service and sustainment support across enterprises - Code development performance metrics For many of our existing government customers, marketing of this tool is a logical extension to work we are now performing. Acceptance by key stakeholders such as PEO-GCS, CERDEC and CECOM will provide us with the opportunity to broaden its usage across those organizations. The tool will also become an available component of our commercial Business Management System (BMS) portal software sold to the Army. We have successfully marketed components of the BMS to other government and commercial customers. CPC is moving into the business of providing software as a service (SAAS) and the 5D-TAV is a strong addition to our developing software product line.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Five-Dimensional Task Analysis Visualization (5D-TAV) will prove n initial capability for use on NASA projects, it can be applied to any complex system development effort that incorporates complex human operations or system design, in a collaborative engineering environment, with a focus on complex task and mission tread analysis. Additional applications include: - Development of training solutions for high stress environments - Remote / Autonomous control of equipment and systems - Emergency preparedness and emergency response - Integrated workforce planning and program management - Optimization of field service and sustainment support across enterprises - Code development performance metrics

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Sequencing & Scheduling
Mission Training
Training Concepts & Architectures
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Project Management
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Fusion
Knowledge Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H12.02-8240
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Passive Vital Sign Monitoring
PROPOSAL TITLE: SpaceDoc-Intelligent Health Management System for Astronauts

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South
College Station, TX 77845-6023
(979) 764-2219

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christian Bruccoleri
christian.bruccoleri@lynntech.com
2501 Earl Rudder Freeway S
College Station,  TX 77845-6023
(979) 764-2200

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Crew health and performance are critical to successful space explorations. However, long duration missions present numerous risks to crew health and performance. Human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit (LEO) will present additional challenges. These missions will require technology solutions for crew health care to address physiological, psychological, performance, and other needs in-situ, e.g., self-sufficiency, since real-time medical support from the earth, and emergency evacuation will not be available. Onboard personal health-tracking tools for health monitoring, health risk assessment and management will be needed for the crews in order to predict his/her future health conditions. Therefore, missions beyond LEO will require a new generation of capabilities and systems, which will be built upon existing capabilities and incorporate technologies yet to be developed. Lynntech proposes image-based photoplethysmography, in combination with, smart machine-learning algorithms which will primarily utilize onboard high-quality video cameras. The proposed system will: (1) constantly monitor vital physiological signs data, (2) ensure their acceptability, (3) identify their unusual or abnormal patterns, (4) perform diagnosis and prognosis, as well as, (5) provide necessary risk mitigation and medical intervention options to maintain crew performance optimal and sustained throughout the mission.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The passive vital signs monitoring technology to be developed in this project will play a crucial role in healthcare industry. US health care system is struggling with aging population, prevalence of chronic diseases, and accompanying rising cost. It is envisioned that future healthcare system should be preventive, predictive, preemptive, personalized, and pervasive. The proposed algorithm will be capable of processing physiological information collected from other sensor systems (e.g., wearable), and make prognosis and diagnosis, as well as, provide plans for risk mitigation and medical intervention. Therefore, it can easily be a part of healthcare solution for home, sanatoriums, as well as, hospitals. In addition, the proposed technology will be beneficial for those who leave in low-resource settings, where access to healthcare facility is not easy.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology will utilize onboard technologies (e.g., high quality video cameras, infra-red sensors) to passively monitor NASA crews while they are on exploration mission beyond low earth orbit. This technology will not only monitor vital physiological parameters, but also will provide risk mitigation strategies and required medical interventions. This will especially helpful in situations when there is not be any real-time communication with the ground control, and emergency evacuation is not feasible. The proposed technology can also be used in the International Space Station to monitor crew health, and make them aware of any abnormal pattern, as well as, provide risk-mitigation strategies. This will help ISS crews to stay in good health during their mission.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Medical
Physiological/Psychological Countermeasures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H12.03-7975
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Novel Imaging Technologies for Space Medicine
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Methods for the Flexible Ultrasound System utilizing Augmented Reality Just-In-Time Procedural Guidance

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tietronix Software, Inc.
1331 Gemini Avenue, Suite 300
Houston, TX 77058-2794
(281) 461-9300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Buras
william.buras@tietronix.com
1331 Gemini Avenue, Suite 300
Houston,  TX 77058-2711
(281) 404-7248

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's future manned spaceflight missions will require medical diagnosis and treatment capabilities that address both the anticipated health risks and perform well in austere, remote operational environments. Spaceflight- ready medical devices will need to be capable of an increased degree of autonomous operation, acquiring clinically relevant and diagnosable data by every astronaut, not just select physician crew members credentialed in spaceflight medicine. Ultrasound is a diagnostic and treatment technology that currently fulfills mission medical capability support on ISS and is planned to accompany future deep-space missions. The Flexible Ultrasound System (FUS) is a new platform that is currently being developed by NASA and research partners to support this mission role. We propose three specific aims for this project proposal for methodological development utilizing the FUS platform: 1.) Develop and implement a group of vascular diagnostic methods related to health conditions on the Exploration Medicine Condition List (Carotid assessments, DVT, Cardiogenic shock, sudden cardiac arrest secondary to traumatic injury) and vascular access procedural guidance (central venous or arterial cannulation) utilizing the exposed API for the FUS platform 2.) Implement an Augmented Reality (AR) user interface for these vascular methods that provides procedural guidance in acquiring and initially diagnosing sonographic data for one or more ultrasound procedures to enhanced degree of procedural competency. 3.) Prototype the integration of Volume Navigation on the FUS platform to allow for 3-dimensional ultrasound procedural guidance through the Head Mounted Display.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Tietronix has already initiated work with Methodist Houston and an NSF sponsored Cyber-systems of the future Operating Room academic/industry consortium (with membership such as Medtronic, Boston Scientific and Karl Storz) on developing this technology for terrestrial medicine. Tietronix is successful in bringing SBIRs and other innovative NASA technologies to commercial application. The Tietronix workflow tool, TieFlow, developed under the SBIR program has been successfully commercialized by the company. Tietronix has deployed a document review process based on TieFlow in a Fortune 500 company in New Jersey. Another successful Tietronix SBIR based project is the Software Developer?s Assistant (SDA) which has received Phase III funding and is being used in the commercial world by aerospace and medical device companies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The envisioned AR procedural guidance tool can be applied to any ultrasound methods to be developed or implemented for FUS. The AR procedural guidance will provide benefits for methods of varying complexity, and will capture guidance support queues from a range or sources such as video, expert instruction and other relevant sources.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Medical
Display
Data Input/Output Devices (Displays, Storage)
Data Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H12.03-8207
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Novel Imaging Technologies for Space Medicine
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multi-Purpose X-ray System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stellarray, Inc.
9210 Cameron Road, Suite 300
Austin, TX 78754-3971
(512) 997-7781

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Savage
richardsavage@austin.rr.com
9210 Cameron Road, Suite 300
Austin,  TX 78754-3971
(512) 997-7780

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Stellarray proposes the development of a highly novel Multi-Purpose X-ray Source and System (MPXS), for use on flight missions, space stations, planetary excursions and planetary or asteroid bases, to meet nearly all NASA imaging needs as detailed in the Exploration Medical Condition List (EMCL). This proposal goes far beyond an incremental increase in imaging capability and offers a path towards providing the full range of radiographic imaging - 2D, digital tomosynthesis and even half (180?) or full (360?) computed tomography (CT) ? to cover routine and emergency imaging needs in space mission environments. The source is comprised of sections, each designed for a specific range of x-ray imaging or analysis functions. In the starting design, each section is close to one of the sidewalls of the source, which is shaped as a rectangular box and made primarily of aluminum nitride ceramic (AlN) sheets. Each AlN sidewall has a window that allows the x-ray flux to exit the source. The window can be a hollowed out section of the sidewall or a thin strip of low Z material (glass, BeO, etc) fritted, fused or brazed into or over a window aperture in the sidewall. Thin strips of metal can be placed over the windows for beam filtration. Each window will output flux from one or more rows of spots (x-ray pixels, or xels) on the metal anode inside. Systems comprise one or more of these sources and flat panel x-ray detectors, with several system modes configurable using the same source and detector.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many commercial applications of the core technology to be developed in this project, including a wide range of medical and industrial imaging systems. Stellarray?s smart x-ray sources can be used in various x-ray medical imaging systems. Stellarray will develop some systems on its own and sell sources for other applications where larger companies are better suited to clinical trials and market entry. MPXS sources will be sold to other developers, particularly at universities in medical schools, a number of which have asked for our resources as they are developed. They could be sold at $75K range to these developers for a good business line. By the time NASA is testing it be MPXS devices for missions there could be a reasonably sized installed base at universities that could also contribute application designs and reconstruction algorithms.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
MPXS would provide greatly enhanced imaging capabilities for the dental and limited MSK imaging of current interest to NASA. MPXS systems would go beyond the capabilities currently planned by enabling 3D/tomographic imaging, which will be particularly useful in MSK imaging and could be useful in some dental imaging. In addition, MPXS can be used for a much greater number of medical conditions of interest to NASA, particularly head and neck injuries, several conditions requiring imaging of the chest area and dual energy X-ray osteoporosis imaging. The specific gaps the proposed work addresses are 4.02 (We do not have the capability to provide non-invasive medical imaging during exploration missions) and 3.03 (We do not know which emerging technologies are suitable for in-flight screening, diagnosis, and treatment during exploration missions). Although not a focus in Phase I, MPXS can also be used for applications such as 4.27 (We do not have the capability to sterilize medical equipment during exploration missions). Sections of MPXS sources can be configured for x-ray sterilization. Other applications could include sources for a range of instruments NASA uses on space missions, including XRF and XRD. The sources carried on board for imaging applications could be used for sample analysis both on spacecraft and bases and perhaps even during excursions. Pencil beam secti

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Medical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H13.01-7712
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NDE Simulation and Analysis
PROPOSAL TITLE: Algorithms for Structural Dynamics Based Fiber Optic Strain Gage Health Monitoring

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
San Diego Composites, Inc.
9220 Activity Road
San Diego, CA 92126-4407
(858) 751-0450

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeremy Senne
jsenne@sdcomposites.com
9220 Activity Road
San Diego,  CA 92126-4407
(858) 751-0450

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
San Diego Composites Inc. (SDC) will develop techniques for the reduction and analysis of fiber optic data with a focus on developing associations between frequency domain behavior and structure aging and damage. The algorithms would relate changes in frequency domain behavior to changes in material energy interaction due to quantified material property change. The algorithms will also be coupled with visualization techniques which can help show changes in structural behavior compared to the baseline. In addition, the proposed algorithms would couple with fiber optic strain gage research that SDC is performing on other SBIR programs with a focus on the development of an integrated fiber optic SHM system. SDC believes that maintaining a focus on the full-scale system helps to better shape and direct the work on each component part of the system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to the listed NASA applications, this technology could be used on any structure or vehicle of interest. Any aircraft, especially those with a focus on composite structures, such as the 787, could benefit from this technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
SDC has developed this proposal to closely align with NASA's future mission roadmap, and to be an enabling technology for additional missions. SDC has specifically targeted the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), a mission where NASA aims to redirect a near-earth asteroid into a stable orbit around the moon by removing a mass from the asteroid, as the selected technology insertion point based on NASA's developmental timeline for the mission. There are a number of critical structures associated with the ARM spacecraft and its mission objectives, including the lifting hardware, solar array support structures, and COPVs. SDC is also aware of NASA's interest in the integration of FOSGs with composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs). SDC has a number of contracts geared toward COPV development, and has been working toward FOSG integration through these contracts. SDC believes that the combination of technologies developed through the COPV contracts with the proposed algorithm development effort could yield NASA an integrated FOSG for COPV monitoring.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing
Composites
Structures
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H13.01-8360
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NDE Simulation and Analysis
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fault-Tolerant NDE Data Reduction Framework

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Emphysic, LLC
5225 Nolan Drive
Minnetonka, MN 55343-8996
(763) 744-6282

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris Coughlin
ccoughlin@emphysic.com
5225 Nolan Drive
Minnetonka,  MN 55343-8996
(763) 744-6282

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A distributed fault tolerant nondestructive evaluation (NDE) data reduction framework is proposed in which large NDE datasets are mapped to thousands to millions of parallel, independent processes running on a mobile device, standard computer, or a networked cluster of machines. Each process scans a subset of the data for flaws and as independent entities are unaffected by errors in fellow processes or system failures. If a process fails, only its work is lost as the system continues to process the data; the work lost is immediately picked up by another process. The results of the parallel analyses are compiled back to the original dataset with structural flaw indicators. Phase I efforts are devoted to designing the framework and providing a proof of concept prototype able to automatically detect defects in NDE data.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA commercial applications include face detection in security video for the DHS and TSA; aerial surveys used in law enforcement; and autonomous vehicle computer vision for the military and law enforcement.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA commercial applications include data reduction for aerospace inspection systems that generate terabytes of data and signal processing in microwave detection of water ingress in honeycomb structures such as radomes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Quality/Reliability
Image Analysis
Image Processing
Thermal Imaging (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Computer System Architectures
Data Fusion
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing
Development Environments
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H13.01-8500
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NDE Simulation and Analysis
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electromagnetic Models and Software for the Nondestructive Evaluation of Carbon Nanotube Based Composites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Victor Technologies, LLC
P.O. Box 7706
Bloomington, IN 47407-7706
(812) 360-3645

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Harold Sabbagh
has@sabbagh.com
P.O. Box 7706
Bloomington,  IN 47407-7706
(812) 360-3645

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The use of eddy-current methods to detect damage in aerospace structures,and to characterize materials is well established, and is a key item to ensure that the risk of structural failures meets the strict damage tolerance requirements established by NASA. This is especially challenging when one considers that common aerospace structures are made from such disparage materials as aluminum, titanium and steel alloys, as well as carbon-fiber reinforced polymers (cfrp) and carbon-nanotube reinforced polymers (cnrp) that are seeing increased applications at NASA. Further the structural environments can be quite complex, including compound curvatures and/or multiple layers that are fastened together, with potential damage being located in each of the multiple layers. To address this need, Victor Technologies has developed VIC-3D(R), a comprehensive eddy-current modeling code for solving forward and inverse problems in nondestructive evaluation (NDE). Certain problems in modeling forward and inverse problems produce huge data sets, often requiring days of computation. In this proposal, we will enhance VIC-3D(R) for near real-time large-scale nondestructive simulations and automated data reduction/analysis of large data sets. Furthermore, we will add models to VIC-3D(R) that will allow the characterization of cnrp composites by electromagnetic means nondestructively. The result will be the first such commercial code for characterizing advanced composites by electromagnetic means nondestructively.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are over 30 commercial and university research institutions around the world that own copies of VIC-3D(R), which they use for the same purposes as NASA LaRC. They will have the same advantages with the enhanced version of VIC-3D(R). Furthermore, aerospace companies, such as Boeing, that are developing vehicles that use advanced composites, such as carbon-fiber reinforced polymers (cfrp), will be able to use the enhanced version of VIC-3D(R) to model carbon-nanotube reinforced polymers (cnrp), once NASA LaRC shows them the wisdom of doing so.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA LaRC already owns a copy of VIC-3D(R), which it uses for modeling forward and inverse problems in eddy-current NDE. With the enhancements proposed in this project, NASA LaRC will be able to extend its modeling capability to handle carbon-nanotube reinforced polymer composite materials, as well as run large problems much more efficiently.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Composites
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H13.02-7099
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NDE Sensors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Differential Terahertz Imaging Methods for Enhanced Detection of Subsurface Features, Flaws, and Damage

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Picometrix, LLC
2925 Boardwalk Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-6765
(734) 864-5600

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Zimdars
dzimdars@picometrix.com
2925 Boardwalk
Ann Arbor,  MI 48104-6765
(734) 864-5639

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Picometrix proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of using differential time domain terahertz imaging methods to enhance the contrast and detectability of features such as kissing disbonds and cracks that in conventional THz imaging only weakly reflect or scatter the THz pulses. The goal of the project is to develop methods of shearographic loading of the samples, and use the penetrating THz pulses to detect the subsurface deformation of the defects in the differential THz images with better contrast than traditional THz imaging. In a "kissing" disbond there is a region where the two sides of the material are not adhered, but the space between the two sides are essentially in perfect optical contact. When the space between the two interfaces is so optically "thin," the reflections of the THz pulses from the top and bottom surfaces cancel each other out. The defect signature is only weakly detectable compared to when the spacing is greater than the minimum THz wavelength (approx. 50-150 microns), the shearographic loading will microscopically deform defects, changing the small THz reflections in the loaded vs. unloaded state. The differential images should subtract all background clutter and highlight the microscopic subsurface distortion of the defects under loading.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Time-domain terahertz gages are used in industry to measure the thickness of multi-layer sheet materials such as plastic film, insulation, foam sheets, roofing, paper, and other similar products that are extruded in presses. THz gages are used to measure the thickness of aerospace coatings, when dry or wet. The proposed differential imaging method and shearographic loading techniques should enhance the detectability of interfaces and delaminations in the manufacturing of these materials. THz instrumentation has significant potential in the research and development, government, and industrial markets for use in on-line and off-line inspection, communications, and test and measurement.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Time-domain terahertz reflection imaging is a proven NDE technology for imaging sub-surface features, flaws, and defects within space flight structures such as thermal protection systems (ablative resin honeycomb, TUFI, SOFI), inflatable space habitats, composite overwrap pressure vessels, radomes, and other dielectric components. THz pulses (0.1 to 3 THz) penetrates these materials, and can be used to generate sub-surface images. THz NDE can detect voids, disbonds, and damage such as tearing and micro-meteorite impact. Material examples include Kevlar, Zylon, and other non-conductive polymer matrix composites. Differential THz imaging should improve the detectability of defects in each of these applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H13.02-7477
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NDE Sensors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Printed Ultra-High Temperature NDE Sensors for Complex Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Quest Integrated, LLC
19823 58th Place South, Suite 200
Kent, WA 98032-2183
(253) 872-9500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vincent Fratello
v.fratello@qi2.com
19823 58th Place S, Suite 200
Kent,  WA 98032-2183
(253) 480-2027

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase I SBIR proposal will address the use of innovative additive manufacturing technologies applicable to Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) strain and temperature sensors at ultra-high temperatures up to 1000 C. Technologies are required that enable flaw detection on atmospheric and space flight vehicles during deep space missions, hypersonic flight and reentry in harsh environments including high temperatures, combustion, high vacuum, high pressure, vibration, turbulence and cryogenic space conditions. Accurate strain gage readout at high and varying temperatures also requires temperature sensing for calibration. The prior art technologies of making strain gages and thermocouples have distinct limitations in direct application/integration to large 3D parts, cost, weight/resolution/feature size and operation to high temperatures. Direct-write printing has established itself as an enabling technology for production of both circuits and sensors on 3D and flexible surfaces that could not otherwise be fabricated with conventional techniques. This project will develop the specialized inks and deposition techniques necessary to implement additive manufacturing of hardened ultra-high temperature, lightweight strain gages and thermocouples with low profiles suitable for thin components. Fully integrated and modular sensors and arrays can be implemented for NDE and SHM of complex parts and hard-to-address locations that were previously out-of-bounds. Hardened inks may be applied by a variety of additive manufacturing techniques directly onto three-dimensional components or on high temperature substrates that can be adhered to complex components by refractory joining. High temperature stable strain gages will be proven feasible in Phase I to a Technology Readiness Level of at least 3. Phase II work on readout technology will focus on wireless techniques to take data remotely at high temperatures and on embedded components.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Qi2 has a long history of supplying nondestructive evaluation tools and services to the petrochemical industry. Structural health monitoring (SHM) needs in high temperature environments are currently underserved in refineries, furnaces and other facilities that operate at temperatures up to 1000 C. Such locations are at risk for deformation and failure from creep rupture, creep fatigue at welds, creep fatigue cracking at bends, overheating and environmental attack, e.g., nitriding. Currently examination of such locations requires taking the facility off line for dye penetrant or radiography tests. In situ structural health monitoring would improve up time and minimize catastrophic failure. Qi2 has an ongoing project for smart sensing of the exterior of aircraft. One significant gap in the current sensing scheme is the jet engines, which are outside the temperature range of current sensors. The proposed high temperature sensing technology will be also be useful for incorporating strain and temperature sensors in hypersonic aircraft as desired by the U.S. Air Force. The technology will be suitable to instrument not only hypersonic wind tunnel aerodynamic testing models but also to be implemented on hypersonic flying structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful development of high temperature sensors opens new ways to control and monitor thermal and structural loads in high temperature environments. These situations are very critical for the performance of propulsion systems as well as hypersonic and space vehicles. Printed high temperature sensor technology allows the placement of sensors on difficult-to-access areas, on surfaces with single or double curvature, and on places where current technologies are too bulky such as thin blades or thin parts. Furthermore, thanks to their light weight, the proposed printed ultra-high temperature sensors can be deposited on multiple points, creating sensing arrays to monitor large areas without imposing a weight penalty on the system. This is an excellent value proposition for NASA where every ounce counts. NASA applications for integrated high temperature structural health monitoring sensors are extremely varied for both atmospheric and space systems. Some potential applications for the proposed technology include turbine engines, combustion monitoring, rocket nozzles, hypersonic structures, reactor components, pressure vessels, thermal protection systems for reentry, thermal management for space structures, integration of sensing elements on or within 3D printed ceramic structural components and lifecycle management of reusable spacecraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Characterization
Metallics
Nanomaterials
Contact/Mechanical
Thermal
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H13.02-7827
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NDE Sensors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Precision Eddy Current Sensor for Nondestructive Evaluation of Spacecraft Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eagle Harbor Technologies, Inc.
169 Western Avenue West, Suite 263
Seattle, WA 98119-4211
(206) 402-5241

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kenneth Miller
kemiller@eagleharbortech.com
169 Western Ave W. Suite 263
Seattle,  WA 98119-4211
(206) 491-4576

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA develops and manufactures complex high-performance structures for space applications. In order to mitigate risk to equipment and crew, NASA needs nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and sensors that are capable of detecting cracks and corrosion of structures when these defects reside below conducting and non-conducting surfaces. Eagle Harbor Technologies, Inc. (EHT) is developing an eddy current NDE tool based their high gain integrator developed for fusion science applications. The high gain integrator sensitivity is comparable with superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDS), without the need for low temperature components. EHT proposes further evaluation and optimization to produce a NDE for NASA applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The eddy current NDE tool based on the EHT high gain integrator will have applications beyond spacecraft evaluation. EHT anticipates that this type of tool could be used for other aerospace applications including evaluation of aging commercial and military aircraft. With EHT's ability to print small, flexible coils, these probes could be inserted into hard to access locations like piping or tubing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is the primary customer for the high gain integrator based NDE tool. A handheld version of the NDE tool could be used by ground personnel, spacecraft crew, or automated robots to evaluate structures for subsurface defects. Additionally, this system could be built into materials for in situ evaluation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Quality/Reliability
Processing Methods
Electromagnetic
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H13.02-8093
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NDE Sensors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Active Metamaterial Based Ultrasonic Guided Wave Transducer System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Quest Integrated, LLC
19823 58th Place South, Suite 200
Kent, WA 98032-2183
(253) 872-9500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Haraprasad Kannajosyula
harak@qi2.com
19823 58th Place S, Suite 200
Kent,  WA 98032-2183
(253) 480-2035

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An active and tunable metamaterial phased array transducer for guided wave mode selection with high intensity per driving channel and with dramatically lower modal noise when compared to the state of the art. The innovation exploits aspect of phased array based guided wave mode selection theory, whose practical significance seems to be ignored in the state of the art. These aspects include a) low modal noise when the phased array has small inter-element distance and a large number of elements and; b) phased delays necessary for driving the phased array elements have an apparent periodicity and anti-symmetry. As a consequence of exploiting the first factors the proposed phased array transducer can be classified as an active tuneable metamaterial. The second factor is mentioned above is exploited to reduce the number of driving channels by using switching matrices to interface between the driving channels and the metamaterial transducer. Fidelity of inspection and cost-effectiveness are the primary features of the innovation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential Non-NASA Commercial applications, include structural health monitoring nondestructive inspection of petrochemical pressure vessels, tank bottom and pipelines as well as in aerospace structures that are of similar nature as those found in NASA applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA commercial applications include structural health monitoring and non-destructive evaluation of large thin walled complex structures, including metal and composite panels and; multiwalled pressure vessels.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Sequencing & Scheduling
Structures
Acoustic/Vibration
Contact/Mechanical
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Non-Electromagnetic
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H13.02-8257
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NDE Sensors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Penetrating Backscatter X-Ray Imaging System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Optics Corporation
1845 West 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501-1510
(310) 320-3088

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Victor Grubsky
ISProposals@poc.com
1845 West 205th Street
Torrance,  CA 90501-1510
(310) 320-3088

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To address NASA's need for advanced nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of complex built-up spacecraft structures, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Penetrating Backscatter X-ray Imaging (PRAXI) system for in situ single-sided, three-dimensional (3D) NDE of the integrity of spacecraft components and structures. The PRAXI system is based on a novel approach for 3D Compton-based structural imaging, which requires only a small number of images for 3D data reconstruction. These new features enable PRAXI to achieve 10x faster operating speed, smaller form factor, and smaller weight, compared to Compton imaging tomography (CIT), previously developed by POC. The proposed PRAXI system will allow noncontact, single-sided inspection of various spacecraft structures (such as micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) shields, pressure vessels, inflatable habitats, and thermal protection systems), either for in-space NDE or for on-ground material development and quality control. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of using the PRAXI system for NDE of spacecraft components by fabricating and testing a TRL-4 prototype, with the goal of achieving technology readiness level (TRL)-6 by the end of Phase II and delivering the prototype to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial applications of the PRAXI system include its use for in situ NDE/NDT of large-area nonuniform multilayer aluminum/titanium/composite structures with complicated geometry (and combined textile polymeric, ceramic, and metal matrix composite structures as well) in aging and modern commercial aircraft, spacecraft, light marine vessels, and any application requiring defect detection for multilayer ceramic, composite, metallic, and plastic nonuniform structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA application of the proposed PRAXI system is a compact NDE system that can be used for in situ nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of the integrity of spacecraft components and structures, with the capability to provide reliable, high-resolution assessment of the location and extent of damage within multiwall pressure vessels, batteries, thermal tile, thermal blankets, micrometeoroid shielding, International Space Station (ISS) radiators, and other aerospace structural components. Additional NASA applications include NDE of lightweight spacecraft materials used in the development of advanced aircraft and spacecraft, such as porous ceramics, carbon-carbon composites, metal honeycomb layers, fiberglass, Kevlar, and aluminum alloys, providing accurate identification, localization, and measurements of all types of internal and surface defects.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Quality/Reliability
3D Imaging
Radiography
Ionizing Radiation
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H14.01-7508
SUBTOPIC TITLE: International Space Station (ISS) Utilization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Space Facility for Orbital Remote Manufacturing (SPACEFORM)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
FOMS, Inc.
3525 Del Mar Heights Road, #236
San Diego, CA 92130-9213
(858) 342-0993

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dmitry Starodubov
dstarodubov@fomsinc.com
3525 Del Mar Heights Rd., #236
San Diego,  CA 92130-9213
(805) 501-4667

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To address NASA need in continued cost efficient International Space Station (ISS) exploration FOMS Inc. proposes to develop and deploy Space Facility for Orbital Remote Manufacturing (SpaceFORM). The new design of the module will be used on board of ISS initially to process the perspective fluoride glass compositions for optical fiber communications with intent of defining the technical details of the roadmap towards the first volume manufacturing capability on orbit. The unique property of microgravity of improving glass composition properties originally discovered by NASA scientists will be utilized for commercial and cost effective manufacturing of optical fibers with unique properties that would benefit a wide range of applications down on Earth. With high value of optical fibers per unit weight the goal of the development is to drive the expansion of space capabilities through commercially attractive and profitable manufacturing on orbit. The Phase I development will be focused on defining the path for implementation of manufacturing capability on board of ISS. The Phase II will lead to demonstration of the complete hardware and software solution for fiber production in orbital flight environment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The opportunity to expand the highly reliable and efficient all-fiber laser sources into ultraviolet and midwave infrared spectral regions will dramatically widen the range of applications for industrial fiber lasers. The new applications will include environmental and health diagnostics, plastics processing, 3D printing and many others. The defense and security industry will benefit with improved detection of harmful substances and airplane protection from proliferating heat seeking missiles. The new applications that utilize the ?fingerprint? spectral range would allow to specifically target the desired chemical compositions in both surveillance and chemical processing. The promise to decrease the insertion loss by an order of magnitude compared to currently installed optical fibers will have revolutionary impact on internet expansion, optical communications and data storage.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The key value of the volume manufacturing capability on the orbital platform of ISS through the proposed effort is the unique opportunity to kick start the commercially driven expansion of the humanity in space through the profit based utilization of the abundant resource of microgravity for material processing. The developed logistics, infrastructure, and operational experience of remote orbital manufacturing will be critically important for sustainable orbital presence and further expansion of in-space science and technology. The approach will leverage existing ISS facilities to extend NASA leadership in facilitating commercial space exploration. The resulting new glass materials with wide transmission range from ultraviolet to midwave infrared and optical fibers will set the platform for novel optical devices and systems for remote sensing and communications as well as novel fiber laser systems with high standard of safety, reliability and affordability.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H14.01-7565
SUBTOPIC TITLE: International Space Station (ISS) Utilization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Sintered Inductive Metal Printer with Laser Exposure

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Techshot, Inc.
7200 Highway 150
Greenville, IN 47124-9515
(812) 923-9591

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eugene Boland
gboland@techshot.com
7200 Highway 150
Greenville,  IN 47124-9515
(812) 923-9591

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovation is a 3D metal printer, which offers the unique ability to fabricate metal components and tools in space. The proposed system will accomplish this task through the utilization of a two-stage filament melting process whereby a metallic filament is first heated to Curie temperature through induction and then deposited on a build platform where it is fused to the previous layer by exposure to a low energy laser. This new unique process is known as Sintered Metal Printing with Laser Exposure (SIMPLE). Induction heating is not entirely new to Fused Deposition Manufacturing (FDM). There has been recent research into the integration of an induction coil into the "hot end" of a plastic filament FDM printer. The induction coil surrounds the metal nozzle, known as the "hot end" and inductively heats the nozzle when an AC current is applied. The nozzle then heats and melts the plastic filament allowing it to be extruded onto a platform where a part is formed. The use of induction heating, when printing with a metal filament, is similar but the induction coil heats the wire filament directly as it passes through its center. This system offers faster melt times resulting in faster feed rates, lower mass resulting in quicker more accurate printer head movements and lower overall power consumption. Conceptually, the wire filament will not be heated to melting but heated to the Curie temperature and laid as a hot filament on the build platform. To gain adherence between deposited layers, a low energy laser is used simultaneous to the layering process to heat and fuse adjacent filament layers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In parallel, Techshot will market SIMPLE to federal government agencies beyond NASA. The company has established excellent relationships with several branches of the Department of Defense, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Office of the Secretary of Defense and the National Science Foundation. Besides space-based commercialization, Techshot's business model includes the terrestrial commercialization of technology by the maximization of the company's IP assets, many of which have been derived from the SBIR program. In essence, Techshot's terrestrial commercialization strategy is to secure patents for technologies with the greatest potential for commercial success, then form start-up companies to which the technology is licensed. For example, Techshot Lighting, LLC successfully manufactures and markets an LED tent lighting system to military customers that derived from Techshot SBIR contracts with the Army.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Government customers will initially be from NASA, where it should be of keen interest to the Advanced Exploration Systems division and to scientists seeking to take advantage of ISS materials science research opportunities through NASA Research Announcements. Through its Space Act Agreement, its IDIQ contract and its role as a CASIS implementation partner, Techshot will offer both the SIMPLE equipment and the associated services required to conduct materials research and processing in microgravity aboard NASA vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Metallics
Structures
Lasers (Machining/Materials Processing)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H14.01-8013
SUBTOPIC TITLE: International Space Station (ISS) Utilization
PROPOSAL TITLE: ERASMUS: Food Contact Safe Plastics Recycler and 3D Printer System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tethers Unlimited, Inc.
11711 North Creek Parkway South, Suite D113
Bothell, WA 98011-8808
(425) 486-0100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rachel Muhlbauer
muhlbauer@tethers.com
11711 North Creek Parkway South, Suite D113
Bothell,  WA 98011-8804
(425) 486-0100

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
One of the goals of the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) from 2012 is to ıutilize the ISS for developing the systems and protocols necessary to humans to venture beyond low Earth orbit for extended durationsı, and with the push from Congress in 2015 to build a deep space habitat for a Mars mission by 2018, the goals of HEOMD are increasingly important to meet. ERASMUS will enable these goals by providing a technology suite which is both a trash recycling unit and a microbial sterilizer. The ERASMUS technology suite contains a plastics recycler, dry heat sterilizer, and 3D printer that accepts previously used utensils, trays, and food storage containers, sterilizes these pre-used materials, recycles them into food grade 3D printer filament, and fabricates food contact safe 3D printed parts. This effort intends to minimize the requirements for resupplying and/or storing excess wet wipes, utensils, food containers, and waste. It also intends to improve astronaut health and safety by providing utensils which are truly sterile and free of harmful contaminants for long duration missions. In the phase II effort, we will further enable the goals of HEOMD by expanding ERASMUS to provide a medical grade 3D printer.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
TUI expects that the advancements made to 3D printing in order to create food contact safe sterilized materials will be ideal for the DoD to support soldiers in remote locations where resupply is limited. We also anticipate this technology to be a game-changer for people with little access to water. In the Phase II, we plan to explore the possibility to extend the technology to medical grade 3D printing which will have an even more widespread impact across the globe and in space. Medical facilities will be able to print sterile implants and surgical tools on demand, rather than requiring storage or waiting for the delivery of these devices.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed ERASMUS technology will find use on the ISS and on any future long duration manned mission as a means to promote astronaut health and safety as well as lowering mission cost and trash generated by providing a means to create needed parts while in space. TUI anticipates that the expansion of ERASMUS into medical grade 3D printing in the Phase II effort will further the need for ERASMUS on the ISS, long duration missions, and on manned habitats.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Food (Preservation, Packaging, Preparation)
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Polymers


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H14.01-8181
SUBTOPIC TITLE: International Space Station (ISS) Utilization
PROPOSAL TITLE: MEMS-Based Sensor for Monitoring Cabin Air Quality on the ISS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerodyne Microsystems, Inc.
2374 Fosgate Avenue
Santa Clar, CA 95050-6412
(510) 316-4166

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Woolsey
pm_sensor@yahoo.com
2374 Fosgate Avenue
Santa Clara,  CA 95050-6412
(510) 316-4166

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this Phase I project Aerodyne Microsystems Inc. (AMI) will investigate the feasibility of a miniaturized, low power, and inexpensive sensor to provide real-time measurements of particulate matter (PM). The MEMS-based instrument would be suitable for monitoring indoor aerosols in spacecraft cabins such as the ISS and would offer significant improvements over legacy solutions including reduced form factor and lower power consumption. The system utilizes a hybrid detection technique to monitor aerosol sizes from 50 um to 10 nm. For PM smaller than 2.5 um, the systems employs the thermophoretic deposition of particulates from a sample stream onto a thin-film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAR), and determines the mass deposited by measuring the frequency shift of an electronic oscillator. PM larger than 2.5 um (including lint and fibers) is optically measured with a novel detector configuration. The proposed technique is suitable for both spherical and non-spherical aerosols. The Phase I project will design, prototype and test key modules of the instrument, simulate and analytically model device behavior, develop interface and control electronics, and develop novel techniques for aerosol sampling and handling. AMI's proposed monitor is portable, offers an intuitive user interface, requires minimal maintenance, and can maintain calibration for extended periods of time. The platform requires no volatile working fluid, operates in low gravity, and offers the ability to log data for longer-term indoor air quality surveys.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
PM is one of the leading global risks for morbidity. There is an urgent need for inexpensive devices that monitor PM pollutants such as diesel exhaust, combustion sources, environmental tobacco smoke, power plant emissions, and nanoparticles. The proposed technology has important societal impact by enabling those seeking to improve air quality and reduce the health impacts of airborne PM in the environment, home, and workplace, and by reducing the cost of collecting airborne PM pollution data. The proposed real-time MEMS PM monitor provides a compelling value proposition by offering stand-alone operation and an order of magnitude reduction in size and power and lower cost in comparison to existing aerosol mass monitors. Markets for the instrument include indoor air quality monitoring, wearables, IoT, monitoring in aircraft and automobiles, industrial hygiene, and power plant monitoring. The 2015 worldwide addressable market for the technology is over $300 million. Several leading companies have written formal letters of interest in the technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed aerosol sensor could be used to improve and study the air quality on the International Space Station. The technology could complement work done with the NASA Dust and Aerosol Measurement Feasibility Test (DAFT) and Smoke Aerosol Measurement Experiment (SAME-R). AMI's aerosol monitor could be used for novel, low-weight airborne sensor platforms in unmanned aircraft. Applications include atmospheric measurements of aerosols and collection of air / ash samples from volcanic plumes. Such measurements might complement Lidar and Doppler radar data taken with the Aerosol, Cloud, and Ecosystems (ACE) project. Because of the MEMS sensor's inert physical-chemical properties, the instrument functions over a wide-range of harsh temperature, power, and pressure conditions, can withstand high radiation and impact stress, and also operates without gravity. The sensor is suitable for deployment on planetary and lunar missions, and for operation in other crew exploration vehicles. It could be useful for balloon or surface based measurements of the atmosphere on Mars or Titan.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Emitters
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 H14.01-8449
SUBTOPIC TITLE: International Space Station (ISS) Utilization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Orbital Fiber Optic Production Module

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Optics Corporation
1845 West 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501-1510
(310) 320-3088

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kenneth Levin
ATProposals@poc.com
1845 West 205th Street
Torrance,  CA 90501-1510
(310) 320-3088

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop the Orbital Fiber Optic Production Module (ORFOM), which addresses NASA's needs for sustainable space operations and full utilization of the International Space Station (ISS). ORFOM is an orbital scientific payload that will be capable of optical fiber draw in zero gravity onboard the ISS, and specifically "ZBLAN" fluoride glass fiber which is capable of transmission from ultraviolet (UV) to mid-wave infrared (MWIR). When produced on Earth, ZBLAN glass fibers exhibit excessive loss due to crystallization; however, this crystallization can be suppressed in zero gravity. Low down-mass and the high value of low-loss ZBLAN fiber make it an ideal candidate for commercial ISS utilization. During Phase I, we will design and assemble a prototype fiber draw system that will have the size, weight, and power (SWaP) to fit into a NanoRacks ISS payload bay. We will also demonstrate a novel fiber draw process using an in-situ coating and a method to start the fiber draw from a preform that can be used in zero gravity. In Phase I, POC will develop a compact Technology Readiness Level (TRL)-4 version of the ORFOM, and formulate a preliminary Mission Plan, which will be implemented in Phase II. We will also explore commercial applications such as rare-earth-doped fiber for fiber lasers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial applications of the ORFOM low-loss ZBLAN fiber will include infrared countermeasures for protection of military and civil airborne platforms from heat-seeking missiles, eye-safe fiber lasers for medical, industrial, and military applications, and next-generation optical communications. The immediate need for MWIR laser sources will be addressed through the active ZBLAN fiber manufacturing on orbit, which would allow fiber laser manufacturing for the mid-IR spectral range. Low-loss MWIR transmitting fibers will enable fiber energy delivery for emerging quantum cascade lasers for remote optical sensing and material processing applications, thereby expanding overall industrial capabilities in process control, safety, and environmental monitoring. The possibility of low loss ZBLAN fibers beyond the existing state of the art can also revolutionize optical communications, and have use as 1.3 micron telecom amplifiers. The aerospace market represents the most significant market for doped fiber lasers emitting in the eye-safe 1.5 to 3 micron region, while the medical industry forms a major market for portable diagnostic equipment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA application of the proposed ORFOM module is commercial product development and manufacturing onboard the ISS. Such commercial utilization of ISS capabilities will ensure continuous expansion of critical manufacturing capabilities on orbit. In combination with up/down-orbit delivery of materials, commercial development of ZBLAN optical fiber manufacturing will serve as a backbone for evaluation and implementation of the next-generation of manufacturing capabilities onboard the ISS. The resulting ZBLAN optical fiber product of ORFOM will have unique optical transmission, from UV to MWIR, which can be utilized in NASA's remote sensing, hyperspectral imaging, atmospheric monitoring, and environmental monitoring applications. In addition, ORFOM's rare-earth-doped single-mode ZBLAN fibers will make possible a new generation of high power, high efficiency eye-safe lasers for remote sensing and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.01-7246
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact 2-Micron Transmitter for Remote Sensing Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Beyond Photonics, LLC
1650 Coal Creek Drive, Unit B
Lafayette, CO 80026-8868
(303) 475-2088

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sammy Henderson
sammy@beyondphotonics.com
1650 Coal Creek Drive, Unit B
Lafayette,  CO 80026-8868
(303) 396-8536

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Beyond Photonics proposes to develop a highly compact, efficient next-generation single-frequency pulsed transmitter laser for current and future NASA missions focused on laser remote sensing in the short-wave infrared wavelength region near two microns. More reliable and compact sources of this type are required for NASA and commercial/military applications such as terrestrial and airborne Doppler winds, long-range measurement of molecular CO2 and H2O concentrations in the atmosphere, and identification and tracking of fast moving hard targets (e.g. space debris, asteroids, docking). We will emphasize the use of small but powerful lasers operating near 2 ?m and capitalize optimally on solid-state laser designs recently developed at Beyond Photonics as well as our team?s extensive past experience with this specific laser technology. Efficient, compact hybrid approaches using bulk solid-state pulsed transmitters followed by doped-fiber amplification will be a focus to reach flexible performance on the order of 200 ?J/pulse, 0.5-8 kHz PRF, which can serve as an effective transmitter for many applications as-is in both coherent or direct detection lidar architectures, or which can be increased via further amplification as needed. Operationally flexible Q-switched and injection seeded operation compatible with several different applications with differing requirements will be emphasized. Very compact efficient MO laser technology will also be exploited and a prototype MO delivered in Phase I. Techniques will be explored to increase output pulse duration to narrow the transform-limited pulse spectra while maintaining very compact laser cavity length. These innovations will apply directly to current NASA missions and instruments (Doppler lidar, IPDA, LAS) and accelerate commercial development and availability of practical ground-based and airborne systems (e.g. compact airborne CO2 concentration-measuring instruments) at BP and elsewhere.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications of the proposed pulsed 2-micron solid-state/fiber hybrid laser sources include DoD hard target and space debris tracking and imaging problems as well as research and industrial applications requiring very compact efficient front-end transmitter lasers in the eye-safe SWIR wavelength region. Specifically relevant to Beyond Photonics, we will capitalize on past NASA SBIR innovations that produced our initial SWIFT single-frequency solid-state cw single-frequency laser format and apply them to the pulsed single-frequency (injection seeded) transmitter laser design proposed here; we plan to incorporate new design concepts in this master oscillator (MO) laser, and then build, test, and deliver a fully functional prototype of the new MO source in Phase I. We ultimately envision commercial development of a small, rugged, and compact differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) sensor product for airborne measurement of CO2 and water vapor concentrations in the atmosphere, and other similar laser remote sensing applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Moderate average power, compact, operationally flexible 2 ?m solid-state/fiber hybrid transmitter laser solutions will tangibly and positively impact the readiness of current and future NASA laser remote sensing systems and missions for airborne and in the case of atmospheric DIAL instruments, space-based measurement applications. Full development, test, and delivery at the end of Phase I of BP?s extremely compact and ruggedized master oscillator source will directly benefit existing NASA programs operating at 2 ?m and will accelerate commercial availability. Efficient single-frequency pulsed 2 ?m wavelength lasers with variable pulse duration and PRF will greatly enhance the technical readiness of 2-micron wavelength coherent- and direct-detection lidar systems for ASCENDS type missions, IPDA, LAS, and hard-target identification, tracking, and imaging. Many of the innovations proposed can be transferred to other relevant laser gain media and wavelengths for other NASA applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Optical
Ranging/Tracking
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.01-7291
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Polarization Maintaining Ho-Doped Fiber Amplifier

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AdValue Photonics, Inc.
3440 East Britannia Drive, Suite 190
Tucson, AZ 85706-5285
(520) 790-5468

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shibin Jiang
sjiang@advaluephotonics.com
3440 East Britannia Drive, Suite 190
Tucson,  AZ 85706-5285
(520) 790-5468

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The laser absorption spectrometer approach offers the potential to provide the high-accuracy carbon dioxide mixing ratio measurements with the vertical and horizontal spatial resolution that is desired by the carbon cycle research community. It is generally agreed that 2.05 micron wavelength absorption band of carbon dioxide can offer good differential absorption optical depth. An amplifier with output power of 15W is needed to burst the output power for airborne and space applications. We propose to develop a high average power polarization maintaining single frequency Ho-doped 2.05 micron wavelength fiber amplifier with output power of 15W by developing innovative radiation hardened Ho/Tm-co-doped silicate glass fiber. In Phase I we will demonstrate radiation hardened Ho/Tm co-doped silicate glass fibers, and PM fiber amplifier with greater than 10W output power.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This eye-safe laser source can be used to build commercial lidar for ranging and surface topography applications, be used as the light source for fiber optical sensing, fast scanning biomedical imaging, scientific research, and medial surgery.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This proposed PM single frequency 2.054 micron fiber amplifier can be used as innovative lidar component for measurements of carbon dioxide. Because it is fiber based, this amplifier is compact, efficient, and extremely reliable.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.01-7292
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact High Pulse Energy Single Frequency Fiber Amplifier

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AdValue Photonics, Inc.
3440 East Britannia Drive, Suite 190
Tucson, AZ 85706-5285
(520) 790-5468

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shibin Jiang
sjiang@advaluephotonics.com
3440 East Britannia Drive, Suite 190
Tucson,  AZ 85706-5285
(520) 790-5468

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Atmospheric methane is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. The overtone lines of methane at 1.65 micron are well suited for remote sensing of atmospheric methane in the Earth's atmosphere. NASA have already demonstrated ground-based and airborne methane detection using Optical Parametric Amplifiers at 1651 nm using a laser with a narrow linewidth. In this setup a single frequency pulsed laser near 1 micron wavelength with several mJ pulse energy is needed. We propose to develop a compact pulsed single frequency fiber laser with greater than 3mJ pulse energy and 30ns pulse width using our innovative Yb-doping fiber. Highly efficient Yb doped glasses will be developed, double cladding fibers will be designed and fabricated, the amplifier performance will be characterized. In Phase II we will build a deliverable prototype high energy and high peak power fiber laser system for NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a number of potential non-NASA commercial applications for high energy and high peak power fiber lasers and amplifiers. This laser source can be used to build commercial lidar for ranging and gas monitoring applications, and as the light source for optical sensing and scientific research. This laser can be used to build single frequency green laser.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This proposed single frequency high energy and high peak power fiber laser can be used as innovative lidar component for measurements of the atmosphere and gas contents of the Earth, Mars, the Moon, and other planetary bodies. This laser can also be used for other wavelength generation. Because it is fiber based, this single frequency high energy and high peak power amplifier is compact, efficient, and extremely reliable.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.01-7369
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Blue Laser Based on Frequency-Quadrupled Tm:Lu2O3

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aqwest, LLC
8276 Eagle Road
Larkspur, CO 80118-8224
(303) 681-0456

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Vetrovec
jvetrovec@aqwest.com
8276 Eagle Road
Larkspur,  CO 80118-8224
(303) 681-0456

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aqwest proposes to develop a novel, compact and rugged high-peak power blue laser in the 0.45-0.49 m range. The innovative blue laser is based on a frequency-quadrupling of 1.9-&#956;m laser output from ceramic Tm:Lu2O3, a novel high-performance solid-state laser (SSL) material that is new becoming commercially available. The project will adapt our novel and highly successful edge-pumped disk laser / multi-passed amplifier architecture we developed for the US Army, Navy, and the Department of Energy (DOE). In Phase I, we will use our existing suite of Tm laser models to determine the feasibility of the subject blue laser and identify preferred operating regimes. We will also fabricate a composite Tm:Lu2O3 laser disk using the ceramic material now being produced for Aqwest, and laser test it under relevant condition in our existing test bed to characterize performance at 1.9-&#956;m wavelength. In Phase II, we will develop and demonstrate a full-scale blue laser prototype.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1. Eye-safer laser material processing (supplanting traditional 1-micron lasers) 2. Welding of transparent plastics (especially in automotive applications) 3. Remote sensing, lidar 4. Laser bathymetry 5. Medical surgery 6. Dentistry

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1. Laser bathymetry using the blue output 2. Remote sensing of the 532-nm water absorption line 3. Remote sensing of CO2 using the Tm:Lu2O3 output tuned to 2.05 micron 4. Supplanting of Tm:YAG and Tm:YLF lasers in lidar transmitters in future remote sensing applications on air and space platforms

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Ceramics
Lasers (Communication)
Lasers (Cutting & Welding)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Lasers (Machining/Materials Processing)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Lasers (Surgical)
Lasers (Weapons)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.01-7662
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Power, Thermally Optimized Blue Laser for Lidar

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bridger Photonics, Inc.
2310 University Way, Building, 4-4
Bozeman, MT 59715-6504
(406) 585-2774

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Brasseur
brasseur@bridgerphotonics.com
2310 University Way, Bldg. 4-4
Bozeman,  MT 59715-6504
(406) 585-2774

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To enable widespread and rapid airborne bathymetric lidar to adequate depths in many ocean regions a low-cost, rugged, and high energy pulsed laser source must be developed in the ocean water transmittance spectrum of 450 - 490 nm. The ideal laser source will be high performance for lidar (high pulse energy, high rep rate, short pulse duration) with specific targeted emission spectrum to meet ocean water transmittance and filtering requirements. It will also feature low SWaP and a rugged form factor with high reliability for continual use on mobile platforms. No existing laser source can meet these demanding requirements. To address this challenge and meet NASA's lidar source needs, Bridger Photonics, Inc. (Bridger) proposes creating a high power Q-switched, off-line Nd:YAG source at 946 nm, which, when frequency doubled to 473 nm, will provide high transmittance through ocean waters. Bridger's design will leverage three key innovations: efficient, end-pumped, low-quantum-defect architecture; gain crystal design for optimal heat removal; and robust monolithic, alignment-free fabrication. The proposed design would allow for widespread deployment of mobile ocean-penetrating lidar transmitters. Bridger's overall goal for this Phase I effort is construct a breadboard prototype laser emitting 10 WAVG at 473 nm with a viable pathway to a rugged, turn-key system with >10% wall-plug efficiency to be built and delivered in a Phase II effort. Bridger has modeled and constructed similar lasers on Phase I SBIR efforts previously and will apply the innovations developed there towards this new system for NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed laser would be the most compact, high-power, solid-state blue laser source currently available. Within the lidar market there are many organizations that would be potential customers for an ocean penetrating blue lidar transmitter for bathymetry and underwater object detection: the Navy, NOAA, the EPA, the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency, and the Coast Guard for instance. The delivered lidar system would provide the Navy with the capability to conduct rapid and widespread object detection beneath the ocean surface from an airborne platform. This will be an invaluable tool for searching for submarines, mines, and mapping the ocean floor. Bridger envisions a wide variety of additional applications for this laser including gas sensing lidar, hard-target ranging, ablation applications including mass spectrometry, nonlinear spectroscopy and as general purpose OPO pump. The proposed transmitter could easily be adapted to detect a host of gasses, most of which are detected in the short wave infrared and mid-infrared spectral regions which are well suited for a seeded OPO pumped either with the 946 or 473 nm beam.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's primary application for the proposed transmitter would be ocean bathymetry and underwater object detection. The compact size, rugged design, and efficient electrical-to-optical conversion of Bridger's proposed laser would make it ideal suited for a mobile ship, airborne, or even satellite platform. Due to larger scattering at shorter wavelengths, the 473 nm source would be favored over the traditional 532 nm source for most cloud and aerosol lidar applications. The 473 nm beam would also work well as a general purpose OPO pump beam especially for generating green to near-IR signal waves or into the SWIR spectral band. The former is an intermediate step towards generating the UV wavelengths used for measuring tropospheric ozone via differential absorption lidar, while the latter is useful for profiling other important greenhouse gases and pollutants such as CH4, CO2, H2O, CO, NO2, and many others. Finally the 946 nm fundamental source would be useful for water vapor lidar.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Visible


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.01-7855
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Space-Hardened Seed Laser for Use in High Spectral Resolution Lidar Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ADVR, Inc.
2310 University Way, Building 1-1
Bozeman, MT 59715-6504
(406) 522-0388

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shirley McNeil
mcneil@advr-inc.com
2310 University Way, Building #1-1
Bozeman,  MT 59715-6504
(406) 522-0388

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The overall goal of the SBIR effort to develop a fully packaged, environmentally hardened wavelength-locked seed laser for seeding next generation Nd:YAG lasers currently being developed for future space-based, high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) measurements. In addition to establishing that a diode-based, wavelength-locked, seed laser can provide the spectral purity required for HSRL systems, this effort will accelerate the establishment of a US manufacturer of compact, robust, space-qualifiable diode-based seed lasers for use in future HSRL missions being developed at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). A direct diode, wavelength locked seed laser will reduce the overall size weight and power (SWaP) requirements of the HSRL laser transmitter thus directly addressing the need for developing compact, efficient, lidar component technologies for use in airborne and space-based environments described in the NASA SBIR topic S1.01, Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Laser source stabilization Commercial lidar systems Environmental and pollution monitoring Fiber and free-space communications

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Cloud and Aerosol Lidar, NASA LaRC (Hostetler, Cook, et al.) Wind Lidar, NASA/GSFC (Gentry, et al.) DIAL Lidar, NASA/GSFC (Riris, et al.)

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Waveguides/Optical Fiber (see also Optics)
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Infrared
Active Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.01-7997
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Agile Etalon Filter for Differential Absorption LIDAR

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michigan Aerospace Corporation
1777 Highland Drive, Suite B
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-2285
(734) 975-8777

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Will Johnson
wjohnson@michaero.com
1777 Highland Drive, Suite B
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-2285
(734) 975-8777

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Modern sensing systems often are required to pick out a very specific wavelength in a sea of other light (such as in daylight), making precise optical filtering a vital part of many sensing systems. Michigan Aerospace Corporation (MAC) plans to design, build and test an agile, frequency-tunable Fabry-Perot interferometer (etalon) for use as an optical filter of background light as part of a Differential Absorption LIDAR (DIAL) system. MAC's extensive history with designing and building rugged etalons for NASA and other customers will be key to this effort. Phase I will involve the design of this specific etalon and the testing of a faster method for precisely tuning it. Phase II will then involve the construction and test of the etalon.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications will be similar to NASA applications for precise, rapidly-tunable optical filters for sensing systems of all kinds, including those in rugged environments (airborne, shipborne, etc).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This new, faster-tuning etalon technology will be approriate not only for NASA DIAL/IPDA-type LIDAR systems, but also for other NASA remote-sensing tasks requiring rapidly-tunable wavelength discrimination. The ruggedness of the design will ensure the ability to use such etalons in airborne and space applications, as well as with ground systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Actuators & Motors
Filtering
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Interferometric (see also Analysis)
Ultraviolet
Visible
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.01-8414
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Spaceflight 1.94 micron Tm Fiber Laser Transmitter

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fibertek, Inc.
13605 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon, VA 20171-4603
(703) 471-7671

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Mathason
bmathason@fibertek.com
13605 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon,  VA 20171-4603
(703) 471-7671

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Fibertek proposes to develop a spaceflight prototype 1940 nm, 100 W thulium (Tm) laser suitable for NASA spaceflight and long-duration unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) missions. The proposal is innovative because it demonstrates 100 W of polarization maintaining (PM) performance at 1940 nm. We expect a 2x to 3x improvement in efficiency compared to available commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) unpolarized Tm fiber lasers, and the laser will be packaged for high reliability for spaceflight operation. This SBIR leverages commercial Tm laser technology, published scientific test data, available optical components, and Fibertek's validated Tm fiber laser model. A spaceflight 100 W PM Tm laser is enabling and provides a path to space for a pulsed, Q-switched 2 um Ho:YLF laser with up to 80 mJ/pulse at 100-200 Hz. Lidar performance design studies from a low earth orbit (LEO) satellite indicate that 80 mJ of pulsed 2 um energy enables the simultaneous measurements of CO2 and water vapor using Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) and global wind light detection and ranging (lidar). NASA laser experiments have shown the 100 W of 1940 nm peak pump power is needed to generate 80 mJ/pulse.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Coherent lidar for wind or hard-target velocity detection Infrared countermeasures (IRCM) DoD market Coherent 3D imaging lidar

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Satellite, ISS, UAS, Aircraft-Based Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, and Methane Lidar Coherent Lidar, Clouds, and 3D Wind Lidar

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
3D Imaging
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Lasers (Communication)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.01-8427
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: 780 nm Single-Frequency Laser Source for High Spectral Resolution Lidar

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NP Photonics, Inc.
9030 South Rita Road
Tucson, AZ 85747-9102
(520) 799-7400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Xiushan Zhu
xzhu@npphotonics.com
9030 S Rita Rd
Tucson,  AZ 85747-9102
(520) 799-7470

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
High energy narrow-linewidth and frequency stable laser transmitter at 780 nm is in great demand for the development of low-cost, compact, and eye-safe high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) for accurate aerosol and cloud profiling and distinguishing among different aerosol types. NP Photonics proposes to develop a 780 nm laser source capable of generating 20 mJ nanosecond pulses at a repetition rate of 10 kHz with wavelength tunability > 0.5 nm by use of our proprietary and mature highly doped short-length fiber amplifier technology and innovative Innoslab amplifier technology. The advantages of our proposed laser system include high reliability, narrow-linewidth, super stability, high spectral purity, robustness and compactness.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A 780 nm single-frequency laser can be locked to the transition of Rubidium to be a very stable secondary frequency reference (rubidium oscillator) for maintaining frequency accuracy in cell site transmitters and other electronic transmitting, networking and test equipment. Single-frequency fiber lasers at 780 nm can also be used for atomic interferometer, optical communications, atomic clock, GPS-free navigation, oil exploration, and mine detection. In addition, the 780 nm single-frequency lasers can be frequency doubled to produce high stability and narrow-linewidth UV lasers that have found applications in Raman spectroscopy, laser cooling and trapping, laser inspection, optical data storage, biomedical applications, and maskless laser lithography.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High energy single-frequency laser source at 780 nm can be used for next generation high spectral resolution lidar to accurately characterize and discriminate aerosol type and significantly improve both measurement retrievals and modeling on climate. Compact and robust single-frequency lasers at 780 nm can also be used by NASA for airborne and spaceborne laser cooling and manipulation of Rubidium, which has been extensively used in atomic vapor based instruments for sensing and metrology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.01-8531
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: 1.5-Micron Amplifier for High-Average Power

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aqwest, LLC
8276 Eagle Road
Larkspur, CO 80118-8224
(303) 681-0456

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Vetrovec
jvetrovec@aqwest.com
8276 Eagle Road
Larkspur,  CO 80118-8224
(303) 681-0456

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aqwest proposes to develop a novel, compact and rugged high-peak power erbium (Er) laser amplifier at 1.5 m to for NASA remote sensing trasmitter. The project will take advantage our novel and highly successful edge-pumped disk laser (EPDL) multi-passed amplifier we are developing for the US Army, Navy, and the Department of Energy (DOE) applications. In Phase I, we will use our existing suite of models to determine the feasibility of a 1.5- m EPDL-based laser amplifier and identify preferred operating regimes. We will test our existing Er:glass laser disk in our existing EPDL test bed to further calibrate/anchor our models over the wavelength range of interest, especially at around 1.547 m. Using this information, we will design and fabricate a new laser disk with optimized Er doping and improved waste heat handling capability for the targeted operating regime, and test its performance under relevant conditions, and confirm the models. In Phase II, we will design, fabricate, test, and deliver a prototype 1.5- m EPDL laser amplifier.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1. Eye-safer laser material processing (supplanting traditional 1-micron lasers) 2. Eye-safer communication 3. Remote sensing

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1. Remote sensing

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Structures
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.02-7221
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Microwave Technologies for Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Bulk GaN Schottky Diodes for Millimeter Wave Frequency Multipliers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
White Light Power, Inc.
149 Cuesta Drive
Los Altos, CA 94022-9402
(650) 492-0657

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Brown
rbrown@whitelightpower.com
149 Cuesta Drive
Los Altos,  CA 94022-9402
(607) 351-9768

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Within the context of this project, White Light Power Inc. (WLPI) will demonstrate the feasibility of using vertical GaN Schottky diodes for high-power rectification at W-band. To achieve this goal, WLPI will utilize it's experience of fabricating power rectifier diodes to enable highly cost-efficient selection of a wafer. The same experience will also be utilized in selecting and working with an epi-supplier to ensure demonstration of the requisite 1000 cm2/Vs mobility. WLPI will design, manufacture and test the diodes to ensure that the device characteristics such as breakdown voltage, C-V characteristics, leakage and ideality factor are consistent with the target 200 mW power handling capacity. WLPI will provide data and documentation supporting and detailing the wafer selection, epi qualification, manufacturing and testing of the devices. WLPI will dice and deliver devices to NASA for further testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
One of the most important non-NASA applications of the multiplier diodes is in the terahertz imaging radars for home-land security applications. The high power GaN diodes that we are proposing to develop with this project will enable higher transmitter power and, thus, higher stand-off distance and higher sensitivity. Potential Non-NASA applications will center around remote-sensing and imaging for security or industrial control applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Terahertz radiometry-spectrometry is an important technique for remote sensing of terrestrial, planatery, and interstellar trace constituents and physical properties. Numerous NASA missions with sub-millimeter wave instruments have been deployed with a wide-range of mission targets. Further expansion of the capabilities requires increased local oscillator power. A first GaN stage that can provide increased power-handling capability will extend the sub-millimeter wave power that can be supplied for radiometry-spectrometry instruments. Potential NASA commercial applications will likely center around terrestrial sensing for various industries.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Characterization
Radiography


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.02-7322
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Microwave Technologies for Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Frequency Reflective Mesh for Small Aperture Antennas

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tendeg, LLC
686 South Taylor Avenue, Suite 108
Louisville, CO 80027-3000
(303) 929-4466

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gregg Freebury
gregg@tendeg.com
686 S. Taylor Ave, Ste 108
Louisville,  CO 80027-3000
(303) 929-4466

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed Phase I program would develop and prototype a high frequency, high performance reflective mesh that is well suited to the emerging small aperture antenna designs. The program will review heritage mesh architectures and trade them against new designs. New materials and manufacturing methods will be evaluated with the goal of making low-cost mesh for CubeSat missions. The mesh samples will be tested to determine their mechanical stiffness properties. RF test samples will be delivered to NASA JPL.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is strong market potential in CubeSat up to smallsat size satellites in the commercial arena. There are numerous communication and data transfer constellations on-orbit and under construction. There are also numerous commercial Earth observation constellations under development. Billions of dollars are being invested in these constellations. Most of these commercial networks are small to nano sized satellites. Many of them would benefit from the lightweight, small packaged volume and high gain antenna performance for either high speed RF communications or weather and ground looking radar. In the terrestrial market, the U.S. Military is actively seeking man-packable high gain antennas for forward operating Warfighters.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA commercial applications include any Ka-Band small aperture antennas used for Earth observing science missions (RainCube radar), deep space communications, and any mission needing high data rate downlinks. The mesh technology can be expanded to larger apertures as well for any high gain mission needs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Antennas
Characterization
Prototyping
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Metallics
Textiles
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.02-7333
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Microwave Technologies for Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: 20GSps 6-bit Low-Power Rad-Tolerant ADC

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pacific Microchip Corporation
3916 Sepulveda Boulevard, #108
Culver City, CA 90230-4650
(310) 683-2628

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Denis Zelenin
denis@pacificmicrochip.com
3916 Sepulveda Boulevard #108
Culver City,  CA 90230-4650
(310) 683-2628

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed project aims to develop a 20GSps 6-bit radiation hardened analog to digital converter (ADC) required for microwave radiometers being developed for space and air borne earth sensing applications. Aiming to improve performance and to reduce the size of the electronics, high resolution, high-sampling rate, power efficiency and low spur energy are the requirements for ADCs employed for direct digitization in microwave radiometers. The proposed 20GS/s 6-bit interleaved successive approximation (SAR) ADC is intended to achieve >5 ENOB and 20GHz input bandwidth. A number of innovations will be introduced to the ADC in order to combine low power consumption with high signal to noise and distortion (SINAD), and spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) which is important for spectrography applications. A novel low glitch energy technique coupled with interleaved samples aperture calibration will be introduced to achieve digitization accuracy, improve linearity and achieve high sampling rate. The proposed ADC ASIC will contain on-chip all necessary components, including a frequency synthesizer, serial interface, standard interface with an FPGA, and design-for-testability features. The ADC will be implemented using a deep submicron CMOS technology. The project's Phase I will provide the proof of feasibility of implementing the proposed ADC. Phase II will include finishing design, fabrication, testing and delivering the ADC prototypes which will be ready for commercialization in Phase III.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to its primary application in spectral radiometry systems, the proposed wideband 20GS/s ADC and its building blocks will be targeting other commercial and military related markets which require high speed capture and digitization of wideband signals. Commercial applications include wireless (WiMAX, 3G, 4G) and fiber optic communication (40G and 100G Ethernet). The ramp-up of 100G Ethernet technologies raises the industry's demand for adequate test equipment. Therefore, the proposed ADC has great commercialization potential in this market segment. Possible military applications include high speed, secure communication and data transmission systems and millimeter-resolution radars.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The low power 20GS/s 6-bit ADC featuring power optimization capability has great potential in current and future NASA missions. Besides targeted application for microwave radiometers, the proposed ADC ASIC is directly applicable to systems seeking low-power, radiation hardened, flexible solution for direct digitization of wide bandwidth RF signals, such as deep space communication radios and/or reconfigurable radios for SDR applications. For example, this ADC can be employed in NASA missions using Ku band, such as OIB (airborne program for precise sea and ice elevation monitoring) or ISS based CONNECT (COmmunications, Navigation, and NEtworking reConfigurable Test-bed).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Data Input/Output Devices (Displays, Storage)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.02-7752
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Microwave Technologies for Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: RFI Mitigating Receiver Back End for Radiometers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alphacore, Inc.
398 South Mill Ave, Suite 302
Tempe, AZ 85281-2808
(520) 647-4445

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Esko Mikkola
esko.mikkola@alphacoreinc.com
398 South Mill Ave, Suite 302
Tempe,  AZ 85281-2808
(520) 647-4445

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase I proposal requests support for Alphacore, Inc. to design and a low power application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) RFI mitigating receiver back end that can be incorporated into NASAıs existing and future radiometer designs. Alphacore proposes next generation ASIC that provides significant SWAP reduction and better radiation hardness, as compared to board-level systems currently under development that use COTS ADCs and FPGAs. Alphacore ASIC will have a 3 GSPS (gigasamples per second), 12-bit, 340mW, radiation hard ADC and a 128-band, low-power digital filter bank. The total power consumption of the ASIC is less than one watt (0.87W). The ASIC will be developed in a small-geometry CMOS technology (28nm) that is inherently tolerant to high radiation doses. Single event effect mitigation strategies will be used as well in this ASIC. Alphacore has been developing IP in this process, including current mode logic (CML) transceivers and phase-locked loop (PLL) that can be leveraged in this program. The proposed systemıs front end ADC employs an innovative topology with a high-bandwidth front-end sampling circuit combined with an interpolated flash ADC and a back-end DSP that employs 128-band polyphaser filter bank using ultra low power synthesizable digital logic. The system is programmable and it is optimized to provide the user the most useful data available for effective RFI mitigation. The system is also designed to be scalable to other missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
While the initial development of the ASIC targets the stringent requirements of NASA's space-based Earth observing radiometer applications, the receiver back-end also has wide applicability to commercial and defense space missions that measure the humidity of soil, atmosphere or the height of the ocean surface, as an example. The developed system is also very similar to the ones used to read out kinetic inductance detector (KID) arrays that have wide applicability to radio astronomy experiments. One of the large scale experiments is Large Size Telescope (LST). The developed ASIC can be scaled to support KID array readout. The standalonerad-hard ADC has impressive performance and finds strong market potential in defense, communication, test equipment, medical imaging, high-energy physics experiments and high speed digitizer boards. The Government defense space industry, including satellite programs of Air Force, NRO, MDA, and Army will benefit from a high-performance radiation-hard ADC. Among these programs are AEHF upgrades, GPS follow-ons, MDA's PTSS, Air Force's TacSat family, Operationally Responsive Space (ORS), and Army's SMDC nanosat family. The defense CubeSat programs, including NRO's Colony program and the Air Force SENSE program will also benefit. Commercial space platforms that will benefit from the proposed rad-hard ADC include both LEO and GEO telecommunication satellites, such as Intelsat, Direct TV, XM radio, Orbcomm and Iridium.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Alphacore's technology supports NASA radiometer microwave sensors for a wide range of Earth observation applications. Examples of missions using the proposed RFI mitigating receiver back end technology are SMAP, and Jason missions. The Jason missions currently have radiometers that use analog band-pass filters. The future missions (Jason-CS / Sentinel A, and Jason-CS / Sentinel B) can significantly benefit from this low-power receiver ASIC that has on-chip ADC, digital filters and is optimized for RFI mitigation. Other example missions that can benefit from a radiation-hardened, high-speed, low-power ADC include solar system exploration missions (Europa Clipper, TSSM, VESPER, MARVEL, comet nucleus return, New Discovery and Living with a Star), Mars missions (MAVEN) and lunar orbiters and landers. The Jupiter-bound missions, such as the Europa Clipper and Io Volcano Observer missions, can greatly benefit from the ADC due to its high radiation hardness.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
GPS/Radiometric (see also Sensors)
Interferometric (see also Analysis)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.02-7872
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Microwave Technologies for Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: mmWave PolyStrata(R) High Power Compact Transceiver

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nuvotronics, Inc.
7586 Old Peppers Ferry Loop
Radford, VA 24141-8846
(800) 341-2333

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jean-Marc Rollin
contracts@nuvotronics.com
2305 Presidential Drive
Durham,  NC 27703-8039
(800) 341-2333

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In response to NASA SBIR Topic S1.02 on Microwave Technologies for Remote Sensing, Nuvotronics is pleased to propose a Phase I program focused on delivering an Ultra-compact W-Band High Power Transceiver. Our proposed plan is to take advantage of our PolyStrataı ultra-low loss micro-coax transmission lines, high power high efficiency GaN power amplifier and Low Noise Amplifiers to provide a transceiver with over 10 Watts of CW RF power and with less than 6dB of received Noise Figure. The integrated PolyStrata micro-coax assemblies allow for a paradigm shift in design and manufacturing of advanced microwave and millimeter wave components supported by ultra-low loss transmission lines (0.03 dB/mm at 94 GHz), ultra-wideband (no cut-off), very high isolation (>80 dB) and no dispersion. This together with the highest functional density, integrated thermal management, scalability in power handling and frequency of operation enable novel architectures to be built in which the usual performance tradeoffs would no longer be necessary. In recent years, Nuvotronics has demonstrated multiple high power SSPAs from 30 GHz to 240 GHz, enabling mmW components using the disruptive PolyStrata micro-coax technology. Our architecture will also offer excellent thermal management using the PolyStrata bulk copper thermal conductivity of 400W/mK and the 3D RF backplane routing, which allow heat sink integrated directly under the MMICs for efficient heat spreading.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Millimeter operation offers tremendous opportunity for diverse applications such high data rate communication, synthetic aperture radar imaging and aircraft landing systems, but the challenges of creating microwave circuits become exponentially harder at these frequencies. Compounding an already difficult paradigm, these solutions need to address applications that are extremely cost sensitive and high volume (thus any solution must be mass producible). The PolyStrata technology offers a revolutionary solution by compartmentalizing all of the microwave "challenges" into a single integrated component that can be placed on a standard printed circuit board. In most long term forecasts, demand for mobile broadband data is insatiable. According to the FCC, "in a span of 10 to 15 years, the world's cellular operators increased capacity by 20x while demand increased by more than 100x". The transceiver Nuvotronics will be developing in this research will have many commercial applications in mm-wave radio solutions from point to point application to switch beam antenna array. Nuvotronics offers clean room assembly and RF test space dedicated for space products maintaining highly controlled processes, traceability, and quality for deliverables.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Nuvotronics is committed to transitioning this work to NASA applications for future radars and sensors for atmospheric and environmental monitoring. Compact high power transceivers are the backbone in several critical NASA missions for both communications and radar sensor sources. The PolyStrata based transceivers offer a scalable semi-hermetic system, compatible with different NASA airborne, high altitude UAVs and CubeSat platforms. Clouds are the single most important source of uncertainty in predictions of climate sensitivity. Remote sensing instruments capable of measuring humidity inside cirrus clouds on a global scale is needed. For this reason dual-frequency cloud-profiling radar, 94 GHz cloud profiling radar in the future Aerosol/Cloud Ecosystem Mission (ACE) are being planned for deployment. This transceiver has applicability to the Cloud and Precipitation Processes Mission (CaPPM) for vision beyond the GPM dual-precipitation radar (DPR). The goal is to mature these instrument concepts to the point that they are ready for integration into a future Earth-Science Satellite such as the Snow and Cold Land Process (SCLP) mission, or the draft requirements of the Global Cloud and Precipitation Mission (GPCM). Furthermore, synthetic aperture radar imaging, and other ground-based radars, utilize high power transceivers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Transmitters/Receivers
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Microwave
Radio


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.02-8137
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Microwave Technologies for Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ka-Band Klystron Amplifier for CUBESATs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
e beam, Inc.
21070 Southwest Tile Flat Road
Beaverton, OR 97007-8739
(503) 628-0703

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bernard Vancil
bernie@ebeaminc.com
21070 Southwest Tile Flat Road
Beaverton,  OR 97007-8739
(503) 628-0703

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose a Ka-Band klystron amplifier for use in CubeSats. It will operate at 35.7 GHz, have 400 MHz of bandwidth, and output at least 32 watts of saturated power. Small signal gain will exceed 35 dB. In its final form, it will occupy a space 0.4-inch diameter and less than 0.5-inch in length. The combination of small size, high power, and high frequency obviate the use of solid state power amplifiers. Klystrons are the only technology that can be miniaturized to this degree. We propose an innovative construction technology that involves electrostatic focusing, glass insulator fastening of tube elements, a telescoping collector, and a highly loaded scandate cathode with integral focus electrode capable of 50 A/cm2. In Phase I we will build full performance prototypes. e beam inc. is the world's leader in innovative miniature cathode assemblies, electron guns, and vacuum electron devices generally. It has long promoted the transfer of cathode ray tube construction technology to other devices as a way to reduce size, mass, and cost. It has successfully done this with microwave amplifiers, terahertz mass spectrometers, and x-ray tubes. Some of these designs have been deployed in space.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
CubeSats are the enabling technology for space research by universities. This device will provide them with remote sensing capability of clouds, the ioniasphere, other satellites, and earth features. The larger commercial application is its potential for communications. Not only klystrons but broadband TWTs can be fabricated at a fraction of the cost of standard TWTs using this construction technology. There is an important market between 100 and 1000 watts not adequately addressed at this time. These are powers too high for solid state to address efficiently. The power is too low for standard ceramic-metal tube construction to address efficiently, the dollars/watt ratio being too high. Glass electrostatically focused TWTs and klystrons with glass rod construction can be manufactured at one-fifth the cost of ceramic-metal tubes. There are 250,000 cell towers in the U.S. Frequency and power need to go up. This technology provides a way forward.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A major objective of NASA's Science Mission Directorate is to use smaller, more affordable spacecraft. Another goal is multiple experiments on the same launch. This lowers cost and risk. The rapid deployment of small, low-cost remote sensing instruments is essential in meeting these objectives. It has an explicit mission to "reduce the risk, cost, size and development time of SMD observing instruments." This invention meets all those requirements and will find a ready market in NASA earth satellite missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Amplifiers/Repeaters/Translators
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Prototyping
Microwave


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.02-8474
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Microwave Technologies for Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: 640 GHz Heterodyne Polarimeter

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Virginia Diodes, Inc.
979 Second Street, Southeast
Charlottesville, VA 22902-6172
(434) 297-3257

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffrey Hesler
Hesler@VADiodes.com
979 Second Street SE
Charlottesville,  VA 22902-6172
(434) 297-3257

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal is responsive to NASA SBIR Subtopic S1.02: Microwave Technologies for Remote Sensing, specifically the interest in the development of a 640 GHz Heterodyne Polarimeter with I, Q, U Channels. Suitably compact, light-weight and power efficient heterodyne instruments are required to enable polarimetric measurements for microphysical parameterization of ice clouds applicable to NASA's planned Aerosol, Cloud and Ecosystems (ACE) mission. VDI will develop and demonstrate a compact heterodyne receiver technology that achieves the polarimetric capability required for ACE and other atmospheric remote sensing instruments throughout the frequency range from 100 GHz to about 1 THz. Through the Phase 1 effort, VDI will demonstrate the feasibility of achieving the 640 GHz polarimetric receiver capability required by NASA. This effort will include the development and characterization of a 640 GHz orthomode transducer (OMT), the demonstration of a 640 GHz low-noise amplifier, and the assembly and testing of a complete polarimetric receiver. Although the Phase 1 prototype will use discrete components (OMT, LNA, mixer, and multipliers); all of these components will be designed for full integration in Phase 2.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
One of the primary impediments to future scientific and commercial applications of the terahertz spectrum is the lack of compact, reliable and cost efficient receiver systems. Through this proposal and follow-on Phase 3 research, VDI will develop a new product line of highly integrated receiver systems throughout the frequency band from about 100 GHz to over 1 THz. The basic arguments for more highly integrated receiver systems include reduced size and weight, greater reliability and lower production costs. Improved performance and reliability are also possible through integration. Potential applications include a wide array of scientific investigations as well as a wealth of possible commercial and industrial applications; including imaging systems, chemical sensors, plasma diagnostics and industrial processing control.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For NASA, a primary application is the development of a suitable heterodyne polarimeter for the planned Aerosol, Cloud and Ecosystems (ACE) mission. The integrated polarimetric receiver module that will be developed through the successful completion of this proposed SBIR project will meet all of the performance requirements of ACE. These include low volume and mass, reduced power dissipation, state of the art sensitivity and broad available IF bandwidth with excellent frequency resolution. Additional NASA applications include all missions that require high frequency resolution polarimetric measurements in the range from ~100 - 1,000 GHz; for example studies of the Earth's atmosphere and other solar system bodies, and especially Cube Sat missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Electromagnetic
Radiometric
Terahertz (Sub-millimeter)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.03-7310
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Read-Out Integrated Circuit with Individual Pixel Programmability for Astronomy Infrared Focal Plane Arrays

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sensor Creations, Inc.
6609 Santa Rosa Road
Camarillo, CA 93012-5672
(805) 479-4608

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stefan Lauxtermann
stefan@sensorcreations.com
6609 Santa Rosa Rd.
Camarillo,  CA 93012-5672
(805) 479-4708

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
One of the key components in many NASA missions is a large-format focal plane Focal Plane Array (FPA) to capture images or 2 dimensional, hyperspectral information, especially in the Infra-Red (IR) domain. Apart from the detector, the performance of these FPAs is determined by the Read-Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC) that amplifies and multiplexes photo generated charge for signal processing by peripheral circuitry. In this project we propose to develop a new ROIC for low background applications, specifically designed to overcome present limitations of image persistence and inter-pixel capacitance (IPC). The main innovation in this project is an adaptive unit cell that can be individually and randomly programmed via on-chip logic to control bias state and reset duration of any pixel in the array while the integration of science data is on-going. In Phase I we will conduct a pixel trade study and performance evaluation for a Capacitive Trans-Impedance Amplifier (CTIA) and a source follower per detector (SFD) type pixel using analog circuit simulations. Then we will generate the optimum unit cell layout, define the overall architecture and create the top level schematic. By the end of Phase I we will have completed the blue prints for the design. The completion of the top level schematics, verified through simulation, is a critical milestone in the development. It substantially reduces the risk associated with creating new ROIC technology and will allow us to efficiently fabricate and test the device in Phase II. All results from Phase I will be documented in a preliminary Interface Control Document (ICD) so that the new ROIC can be considered for future missions. In Phase II we will produce the layout of the entire chip for fabrication using stitching lithography in a state of the art CMOS foundry and demonstrate its functionality on packaged prototypes. By the end of Phase II wafers of a known good ROIC design will be available for hybridization.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many applications for FPAs made using this innovative ROIC technology, although large formats with multi mega pixel resolution may be cost prohibitive for some commercial applications. However, because stitching is used in the manufacturing process, smaller formats can be built with the exact same mask and serve lower cost, high volume applications. Potential applications are: - Hot electron emission detection due to leaky junctions, defects, and latchup in Integrated Circuits. Existing systems requires operating in the near-IR region require very low noise and large format FPAs. - Spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging in industrial applications such as machine vision and process control. Because incoming radiation is separated by wavelength, the incident radiation per pixel is low, increasing the low noise requirements for the FPA. - Medical applications where the reflected near-IR and Short Wave-IR wavelengths can provide information on skin/tissue conditions and pathology. - Applications in Biotechnology where small signal fluorescence spectroscopy is used for information capture, e.g. genome sequencing. - Agricultural inspection: By capturing images of crops in the IR domain, critical information can be gathered about relative moisture and overall health of the plant. - Inspection of solar cells - Detection of glucose levels in the blood due to absorbance at specific short wave infrared bands.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Infrared Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) fabricated using this SBIR proposal's high performance, large format, and flexible ROIC will be a key sensor for nearly all NASA space missions which require high resolution infrared imaging and low read noise for low background applications. The specific applications include: - Space based observations particularly where low noise is a requirement (for example deep space). - Ground based space observations - All missions that require infrared spectroscopy (and hence typically low backgrounds and low noise), including remote sensing. - Space and ground based adaptive optics applications where low noise and persistence free performance is critically important. These devices are used to correct for the turbulent media between the detector and the target of observation. It is assumed that either a small portion of the large array can be used for this purpose (potentially an engineering grade array) or a new, modified design, assembled from the Intellectual Property (IP) building blocks developed on this program. It is expected that leading IR FPA vendors such as Teledyne, Raytheon, DRS, United Technologies will be interested in this device for various applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Electromagnetic
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Infrared
Multispectral/Hyperspectral


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.03-7328
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robust, Wafer-level 3D Electrical Interconnect Technology

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Voxtel, Inc.
15985 Northwest Schendel Avenue, Suite 200
Beaverton, OR 97006-6703
(971) 223-5646

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ren Earl
ren@voxtel-inc.com
15985 NW Schendel Avenue
Beaverton,  OR 97006-6703
(971) 223-5646

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There is a longstanding need for a reliable, low-cost manufacturing method for high-density three-dimensional (3D) interconnection of integrated circuits (ICs). This includes assembly of 3D stacked electrical interconnection of dissimilar semiconductors, electrical-interconnection of fine-pixel-pitch semiconductor detector arrays with readout ICs (ROICs) at the pixel level, and interconnection of ICs with flexible organic substrates and interposers. Such technology will allow for higher-density circuit integration into small-sized packages and enable high-density focal planes to be developed at lower costs. To address the need for high-density three-dimensional (3D) interconnection of circuits and detectors, including those made of dissimilar materials, inkjet-print additive-manufacturing (AM) materials and deposition technologies will be developed. It will be shown that reliable low-resistance electrical connections can be made- in three dimensions- to vertically stacked integrated circuits and interposers. The process is compatible with wafer-to-wafer, chip-to-wafer, and chip-to-chip processing, requires only modest capital investment, and can be performed with high yields at less cost and finer pitch compared to today's indium-bump hybridization technologies. In Phase I, the ability to produce densely packed conductive sub-1-&#956;m and larger nanometal pillars to form low-resistivity 3D interconnects at a sub-3-&#956;m pitch will be demonstrated. The process technology will be shown capable of forming 2.5D/3D stacked circuits at the chip and wafer levels. Parts will be electrically characterized over a range of frequencies, and samples will be environmentally and mechanically tested.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Electronic and optical packaging is at the heart of every electro-optical system application. It interconnects the individual components, protects the electronic systems against vibration and moisture, and dissipates heat reliably. In short, it ensures that electronics continue to function reliably in even the harshest conditions. Clever packaging also reduces the manufacturing costs for complex electronic systems. Based on that, the proposed innovation allows prototyping, small volume, and scaled production of customized 3D systems for industrial applications like medical, automotive, and communications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications include compact, dense electronic circuit assemblies, stacked 3D circuits, stacked 3D focal plane assemblies, IC chip integration, wafer-level redistribution (interposer), integrated smart packages.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.03-7356
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact, Low Power, Readout Electronics for KID Arrays

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Space Micro, Inc.
10237 Flanders Court
San Diego, CA 92121-1526
(858) 332-0700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Strobel
dstrobel@spacemicro.com
10237 Flanders Court
San Diego,  CA 92121-1526
(858) 332-0700

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to demonstrate a low power radiation hard readout system for frequency multiplexing of large format arrays of Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs). Large format arrays of superconducting detectors are a leading technology for a number of future NASA missions described in the recent astrophysics roadmap, ?Enduring Quests ? Daring Visions? (Koubeliotou, et al.)

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications are more limited, but certainly extend to our allies national space astrophysics programs (ESA, NASDA, ISRO, etc) in Europe, Japan, India, etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many NASA applications and programs to benefit from this R&D, which include: 1.A mission to map the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at millimeter-wavelengths (CMB Polarization Surveyor) 2.A Far-Infrared Explorer to study star and planet formation in our galaxy and throughout cosmic time 3.A future large UV-optical-NIR mission (e.g. LUVOIR) with energy resolving single photon detectors for deep uv/optical/NIR low resolution spectroscopy 4.Future X-ray imaging spectrometers

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Biological Signature (i.e., Signs Of Life)
Interferometric (see also Analysis)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.03-7414
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hydrogenation of Very Long Wavelength Infrared Focal Plane Arrays Based on Type II Superlattices

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sivananthan Laboratories, Inc.
590 Territorial Drive, Unit H
Bolingbrook, IL 60440-4887
(630) 226-0080

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Boieriu
contracts@sivananthanlabs.us
590 Territorial Dr. Unit H
Bolingbrook,  IL 60440-4887
(630) 226-0080

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to advance the Ga-free InAs/InAsSb type II superlattice (T2SL) materials technology for very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) by passivating lifetime-limiting defects with hydrogen from inductively coupled plasma (ICP) H2-plasmas. In Phase II, 1k x 1k detector arrays will be fabricated and hybridized to matching read-out integrated circuits for implementation in future Earth and Planetary science infrared imaging instruments and become part of future space missions. Larger format FPAs (2k x 2k) will be realized as part of follow-up developments extending beyond Phase II. In Phase I, we will compute and optimize the electronic band structures, optical properties, Auger coefficients and ideal diffusion-limited dark currents of InAs/InAsSb T2SL absorber materials. The operating temperatures and overall thickness will be used as part of a trade-off study designed to achieve the quantum efficiency and dark current program goals. Shockley-Read-Hall minority carrier lifetimes of T2SLs are predicted to increase due to hydrogen-passivation, leading to larger signal-to-noise ratios for improved range of detection, enhanced discrimination capabilities, or operation at higher temperatures. Reducing the electrical activity of defects by passivating them with hydrogen is equivalent to lowering their density, and has proven successful in other semiconductor systems. The proposed hydrogenation technique makes use of the same dry-etch equipment employed during FPA manufacturing, making it easy to implement. In addition to the potential to remove the deleterious effects of bulk material defects, ICP hydrogenation also improves the detector's surface passivation quality. Smaller pixels, reduced integration times, and systems with larger fields-of-view will be realized, allowing the imaging of fast changing scenes over long ranges.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Single detector and small arrays sensitive to VLWIR radiation have a wide range of commercial applications, such as spectrometry, thermometry, high&#8208;end industrial manufacturing, and hotspot detection. Low cost arrays with lightweight characteristics will meet various requirements in meteorology, geophysics, geology, law enforcement, remote environmental sensing, search and rescue, and emergency response including firefighting. If operating temperatures can be enhanced, the product would also have applications in medical systems, commercial airlines, and ground transportation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Large format VLWIR FPAs will be a valuable asset for a variety of Earth, planetary and astrophysics science experiments that require infrared imaging. The fabrication of large format VLWIR FPAs with high quantum efficiency, broad spectral response extending to 14 microns, and low noise will greatly increase the imaging capability of Discovery 13/14, New Frontiers 4, Europa Jupiter System, Mars 2018 and other space exploration missions. These detectors can also be used on Earth-based systems, such as in NASA?s Aqua satellite for meteorological infrared weather tracking of storm systems, the hyperspectral infrared imager (HYSPIRI), or the climate absolute radiance and refractivity observatory (CLARREO). Another potential application of the proposed technology is the Triangulation and LIDAR Automated Rendezvous and Docking (TriDAR) system that integrates a thermal imager used by NASA for real-time guidance during rendezvous and docking of the International Space Station.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Thermal Imaging (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Nanomaterials
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Thermal
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.03-7569
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Temperature Superconducting Thin Films for IR Detectors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
STAR Cryoelectronics, LLC
25-A Bisbee Court
Santa Fe, NM 87508-1338
(505) 424-6454

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robin Cantor
rcantor@starcryo.com
25-A Bisbee Court
Santa Fe,  NM 87508-1338
(505) 424-6454

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The development of the microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) has renewed interest in bolometric infrared detectors based on thin films of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) high temperature superconductor (HTS). A compelling advantage of HTS bolometers is that they can be operated at temperatures of around 50 K, which significantly reduces the complexity of the cooling requirements. To be viable for large-scale production of HTS bolometer detector arrays, high-quality, thin YBCO films are required on large-area Si wafers for increased throughput and to fabricate the membrane structures that support the YBCO bolometers. YBCO deposition on Si requires optimized MgO buffer layers deposited using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). Currently there is no domestic commercial source for YBCO films. In Phase I, we propose to improve the uniformity of currently available YBCO films on Si, and to design an innovative reactive co-evaporation system for the deposition of high-quality films of YBCO on large-area substrates that will be built and commissioned in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA commercial applications for YBCO films include electronic components such as Josephson junction devices and SQUIDs for applications in biomedical imaging, geophysical exploration and basic research, and directional antennas for homeland security applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The availability of a domestic commercial source of high-quality YBCO films will support current NASA research projects on the development of HTS bolometric infrared detectors, and future NASA missions requiring infrared imaging spectrometers with focal plane arrays of these detectors for planetary science or for earth observing satellites.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.03-8095
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: VIS-NIR Lightweight Spectrometer for the Sun and the Moon

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
EPIR, Inc.
590 Territorial Drive
Bolingbrook, IL 60440-4881
(630) 333-8693

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Wei Gao
wgao@epir.net
590 Territorial Drive
Bolingbrook,  IL 60440-4881
(630) 771-0203

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
EPIR Inc. and Brimrose Technology Corporation propose a miniaturized spectrometer covering the 0.35 to 2.3um wavelength range by integrating a Hg1-xCdxTe (MCT) - based photodetector (PD) with an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF). The goal is to achieve 4um spectral resolution with wide dynamic range to measure both the Sun's and the Moon's radiometric characteristics. Currently the best known infrared photon detectors used for spectroscopy are based on MCT. With an adjustable bandgap and little lattice mismatch, MCT photon detectors with high quantum efficiency are sensitive to a very broad spectral range. The proposing company, EPIR, is the leading small business in MCT growth, characterization and focal plane array (FPA) fabrication. The spectroscopic filter is an important component of any spectrometer. Compared with other technologies, e.g. Michelson or Offner interferometers, the proposed AOTF offers high spectral resolution, with the advantages of high speed, programmable waveband selection flexibility, and arbitrary wavelength step size. An AOTF has no moving parts and can be integrated with a MCT photodetector monolithically. The biggest advantage of the proposed spectrometer is its compact system design that reduced size, weight, and power consumption (SWaP), offering significant benefits to the payload as well as in the operation of missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The infrared PDs have applications in threat warning systems, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) ground and airborne, including small to medium size unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and missile threat defense. This technology would also be applicable for various targeting, tracking, active pixel components, countermeasures and proximity fuse applications. Since hyperspectral detection allows for unparalleled target identification, it is expected that this technology will provide a strategic advantage in missile seekers to circumvent counter-measures. The infrared PDs and FPAs also have a wide range of civilian applications, such as telecommunication via optical fibers, spectrometry, thermometry, high-end industrial manufacturing, and hotspot detection. Larger FPAs, due to their lower costs and lightweight characteristics, will have applications in astronomy, geophysics, geology, law enforcement, remote environmental sensing, search and rescue, and emergency response including firefighting. If multistage thermo-electric coolers are used, the product would also have applications for medical systems, commercial airlines, and ground transportation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The compact, short wavelength infrared (SWIR) spectrometer, or hyperspectral camera fabricated by integrating a MCT-based PD or focal plane array FPA with an AOTF, has huge potential applications in future NASA missions to Mars, Jupiter, and other space exploration missions. Besides quantitative irradiance or radiance measurements and calibrations of celestial bodies, atmospheric infrared absorption spectra, or the reflectivity of the ground soil often reveal the identity of the atmospheric composition and the mineral structures of an unknown planets, and are of significant importance to study the formation and the history of alien planets as well as monitoring and surveying different characteristics of Earth.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Filtering
Gratings
Detectors (see also Sensors)
GPS/Radiometric (see also Sensors)
Interferometric (see also Analysis)
Radiometric
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.03-8513
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Megapixel Longwave Infrared SLS FPAs for High Spatial Resolution Earth Observing Missions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
QmagiQ
22 Cotton Road, Unit H, Suite 180
Nashua, NH 03063-4219
(603) 821-3092

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mani Sundaram
msundaram@qmagiq.com
22 Cotton Road, Unit H, Suite 180
Nashua,  NH 03063-4219
(603) 821-3092

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Earth observing missions like NASA's LANDSAT Data Continuity Mission - Thermal Infrared Sensor (LDCM-TIRS) require greater spatial resolution of the earth than the ~ 100m provided by the current instrument. Improving resolution to the desired ~ 30m requires increasing the number of pixels on target from the current 640x3 to ~ 2048x3. The TIRS instrument contains 640x512 longwave infrared quantum well infrared photodetector focal plane arrays (LWIR QWIP FPAs) jointly developed by NASA/GSFC and QmagiQ. We propose to achieve the higher pixel resolution while simultaneously improving quantum efficiency and operating temperature by using antimony-based strained layer superlattice (SLS) detectors. A key challenge is dealing with the effects of reducing pixel pitch from 25 microns down to ~ 10 microns, viz. optical fill-factor, optical crosstalk, processing difficulties, pixel operability, etc. As a stepping stone in Phase I, we propose to develop and deliver SLS FPAs with 1280x1024 format on 12 micron pitch that will address these challenges and quantify the effectiveness of our solutions. In Phase II, we will increase FPA format to 2048x2048 and push cutoff wavelength to the longest possible value while still hitting desired quantum efficiency and operating temperature targets in consultation with NASA/GSFC. Several FPAs will be delivered to NASA for evaluation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) Gas imaging(e.g. for the petrochemical industry) 2) Security and surveillance 3) Thermography 4)Medical imaging 5) Missile defense 6) Space-based situational awareness

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) NASA's LANDSAT Data Continuity Mission - Thermal Infrared Sensor (LDCM-TIRS) 2) NASA's HyspIRI Mission - Multispectral thermal infrared (TIR)imager 3) Space- and ground-based astronomy and astrophysics 4)Chemical/spectral mapping of forests, vegetation, crops, and landmasses 5) Temperature mapping of oceans and landmasses 6) Atmospheric mapping 7)Pollution monitoring

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Thermal Imaging (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Thermal
Infrared
Multispectral/Hyperspectral


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.03-8518
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lunar Spectral Irradiance Monitor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Resonon, Inc.
123 Commercial Drive
Bozeman, MT 59715-0000
(406) 586-3356

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rand Swanson
swanson@resonon.com
123 Commercial Drive
Bozeman,  MT 59715-0000
(406) 586-3356

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
During this effort an instrument for calibrating the lunar irradiance will be designed. Such an instrument will lead to reliable exoatmospheric calibration for past, current, and future earth-viewing instruments and improve the accuracy of their data products, which in turn will improve climate change and weather models. The instrument will measure both the solar and lunar irradiances, which will enable cross calibration with the TSIS mission. The proposed instrument concept has been formulated to take advantage of the near-collimated nature of the input signals. The work plan is to develop detailed ray-trace and radiometric models of the instrument. The error budget for the instrument will be analyzed and pre- and post-launch calibration plans will be formulated.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The system is targeted for deployment on a small-SAT (6u). It will provide accurate calibration of the lunar irradiance, which in turn will greatly reduce the need for on-board calibration for future NASA low earth orbit, earth-viewing instruments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The system is targeted for deployment on a small-SAT (6u). It will provide accurate calibration of the lunar irradiance, which in turn will greatly reduce the need for on-board calibration for future NASA low earth orbit, earth-viewing instruments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Gratings
Lenses
Mirrors
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Radiometric
Visible
Infrared
Multispectral/Hyperspectral


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.04-7518
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detector Technologies for UV, X-Ray, Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Single Chip EUV, VUV and Deep UV Photodetector System with Integrated Amplifier

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CoolCAD Electronics, LLC
7101 Poplar Avenue
Takoma Park, MD 20912-4671
(301) 405-3363

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Akin Akturk
akin.akturk@coolcadelectronics.com
7101 Poplar Avenue
Takoma Park,  MD 20912-4671
(301) 405-3363

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We here propose the development and fabrication of an integrated sensor device capable of detecting across a wide band of UV radiation, from extreme UV (1 to 50 nm) through vacuum UV (50 to 175 nm) and into deep UV (175 to 350 nm). The proposed sensor will comprise a photodiode, a Schottky diode, and an amplifier circuit fabricated in the same process flow and monolithically integrated on the same die. We will use silicon carbide as the semiconductor material, which will make the proposed work the first time an integrated silicon carbide sensor device is fabricated. The nascent semiconductor material, silicon carbide, has found widespread application in power electronics. However, its advantageous properties as an optoelectronic detector device in the UV range (transparency to visible light and very low dark current, both results of its very wide bandgap) have not been utilized widely. With the proposed work, we therefore aim to advance the state-of-the-art in silicon carbide technology. To realize the goals of the program, which are designing and fabricating a SiC VUV detector, a SiC DUV/EUV detector, a single SiC nMOSFET, an amplifier comprised of SiC nMOSFETs, and an integrated single chip photodetector and amplifier from these individual components, we propose a work plan including process development and optimization for SiC Schottky diodes (as the VUV detector) and SiC nMOSFETs, and process optimization for SiC photodiodes (the EUV/DUV detector). We will simultaneously develop and optimize the process to fabricate all these components on the same die with the required connections to obtain a monolithic SiC detector/amplifier circuit and thereby obtain a SiC sensor-on-a-chip.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Military and government organizations will find our UV detectors useful in their early warning systems as rockets emit in the UV region. Furthermore, NOx compounds used in jet fuel emit in the UV spectrum when burned. This makes our devices useful for engine monitoring systems in military and commercial aircraft. UV spectrometry is a practice used throughout medicine in chemistry where our silicon carbide photodiodes can potentially replace existing diode/photomultiplier tubes in UV spectrometry systems, simultaneously reducing the cost and improving the accuracy of these systems. UV is used to study reaction kinetics in chemistry. It can also be used to distinguish between pre-cancerous growths and invasive carcinomas in head, neck, anal, cervical and breast cancer. In hospitals, UV radiation is used to decontaminate patient rooms as DNA denatures when absorbing UV light at 260 nm. The same process of using UV radiation as a germicidal agent can be used in hot tubs, aquariums, ice making machines, food processing, wineries, breweries and water purification. The wide-band gap of SiC results in leakage current that is substantially lower than silicon based devices on the market. Since our SiC photodiodes can simultaneously lower the cost and decrease the detection limit of several metals, such as lead, in AAS systems. The need for low-cost, readily available detection systems for lead is emphasized by the recent incident of Flint, Michigan

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The wideband UV detection system on a chip we plan to design and fabricate should be helpful for NASA's efforts in Astrophysics, Planetary, Earth Science and Heliophysics. We expect that the new EUV, VUV and Deep UV detection system on a chip could find applications in programs that need UV sensing. NASA Solar and Terrestrial probes, such as DYNAMIC and MEDICI, the Living with a Star program (GDC), and the Explorer Mission could benefit from the wide band technology. Ozone layer depletion is letting more UV enter the earth. The technology we are proposing here should make it easier for NASA to monitor UV penetration of the atmosphere and the effect on the earth's ecosystem. Special welding methods that are being explored MSFC Advanced Welding and Manufacturing facility could benefit from the use of the system we propose to monitor the integrity of their metallurgical results. The Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter can use our system for their lunar mapping by detecting low intensity UV from stars that reflect off the lunar surface. Furthermore, the UV emission from solar storms may be of such high energy that they may disrupt systems on the earth. The wide band UV system on a chip that we propose could be used by NASA to help monitor these storms. In addition, single chip EUV, VUV and deep UV system, with associated circuitry for readout, needs little extra components and thus can be implemented in a small payload of a spacecraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Optical
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
X-rays/Gamma Rays
Ultraviolet


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.04-8039
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detector Technologies for UV, X-Ray, Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Efficiency Semiconductor Arrays for Hard X-Ray Imaging

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699
(617) 668-6801

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Leonard Cirignano
lcirignano@rmdinc.com
44 Hunt Street
Watertown,  MA 02472-4699
(617) 668-6813

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The next generation of wide-field survey instruments with improved angular and energy resolution for research into astrophysical transient X-ray phenomena is currently under development. A scalable detector plane architecture has been developed at Harvard using CZT detector arrays for use in high resolution coded-aperture telescopes. Despite decades of research, the yield of device grade CZT is still quite low. In addition, internal defects cause spatial distortions in images. To meet the needs of hard X-ray astronomy a lower cost, more uniform and more readily available alternative to CZT is desirable. Thallium bromide (TlBr) has higher density and atomic number than CZT and therefore higher stopping power at hard X-ray energies. TlBr has a low melting point (460 &#8304;C, compared to ~ 1100 &#8304;C for CZT) and cubic crystal structure and can be grown from the melt by low cost techniques. As a result, TlBr has the potential to be a more efficient, lower cost alternative to CZT in the detector plane architecture developed by Harvard for use in high resolution coded-aperture telescopes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA-related space applications, this technology offers considerable potential in other areas, including nuclear and particle physics, nuclear non-proliferation, medical imaging, environmental monitoring, non-destructive testing, and geological exploration. Nuclear medicine techniques such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) would also benefit from the development of this detector technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The TlBr based spectroscopic imaging array that we propose to develop should be suitable for the next generation of wide-field hard X-ray coded-aperture imagers currently under development (cf. the ProtoEXIST and HREXI programs). It is anticipated that this technology will eventually be employed as part of a Medium Class Explorer (MIDEX) mission similar to that of the proposed Energetic X-Ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) and will probe X-ray transient phenomena with an improved sensitivity, energy resolution and angular resolution. This will enable the monitoring of a variety of phenomena, including tidal disruption events (TDE), supernova (SN), soft-gamma repeaters (SGR), X-Ray Flashes (XRF), the mapping of Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) distribution out to redshifts exceeding z=10, as well as neutron stars (NS) and black holes (BHs) at all mass scales in a variety of environments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ionizing Radiation
X-rays/Gamma Rays


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.04-8232
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detector Technologies for UV, X-Ray, Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Large-Area, Solid-State Photomultiplier for Ultraviolet Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699
(617) 668-6801

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Christian
jchristian@rmdinc.com
44 Hunt St.
Watertown,  MA 02474-4699
(617) 668-6897

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To detect air fluorescence generated from cosmic rays with energies exceeding 1019 eV, which are rare events that produce small light flashes at the detector, a large-area, high sensitivity UV (300-400 nm), single-photon detector is needed. Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. (RMD), proposes to design and develop large-area solid-state photomultipliers (SSPMs) based on wide band-gap materials. As the intrinsic carrier concentration is directly related to the band gap of the material, the thermally generated dark current associated with WBG materials will be much lower than silicon for a sufficiently small defect density in the bulk material. The proposed WBG SSPMs will have high gain (105-106), low noise (100 times lower than similar size Si based device), fast response (<5ns), high detection efficiency (>50%) and sensitivity to a single photoelectron at wavelengths between 300 and 400 nm. In phase-I efforts we will explore different design options to improve detection efficiency, response time of the GPD structure. Based on improved GPD structures we will design and fabricate 3mm x 3mm WBG SSPMs. Finally, its basic performance will be evaluated and compared to SSPMs from other vendors and PMTs. The Phase-II effort will develop the large-area multi-element devices and the readout for imaging.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
- Radiation dosimetry - Cherenkov detectors for high energy physics - Gamma/neutron spectroscopy - Medical imaging such as PET and SPECT - Portal monitors for nuclear material identification - Radiation detectors for oil logging

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
- Cherenkov telescopes to study high energy gamma rays - Low noise, high gain, single photon detectors of dark matter searches - Single photon UV detectors for scintillation based gamma/neutron detectors and spectrometers for planetary science

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Image Analysis
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Electromagnetic
Ionizing Radiation
Ultraviolet


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.05-7780
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Particles and Field Sensors and Instrument Enabling Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Deep UV Blocking Particle Filter

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MicroXact, Inc.
1750 Kraft Drive, Suite 1007
Blacksburg, VA 24060-6375
(540) 394-4040

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vladimir Kochergin
vkochergin@microxact.com
1750 Kraft Drive, Suite 1007
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-6375
(540) 394-4040

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
For sensitive detection of neutral and charged particles in satellite survey missions, instrumentation for the efficient rejection of EUV, Deep UV and visible flux is needed that also efficiently transmits the particles. At present, commercially available filters offer deep UV rejection, limited particle transmission efficiency, and limited lateral dimensions. The team of MicroXact Inc., Virginia Tech and Old Dominion University (ODU) is proposing to develop a deep UV blocking particle filter for NASA and commercial applications that will combine superior mechanical stability, with efficient UV blocking and high particle transmission efficiency. The proposed filter is based on macroporous silicon with conformal pore wall coating by Atomic Layer Deposition. In Phase I of the project the team will finalize the design of the MPSi structure, will make two iterations in fabrication of the filter prototype and will perform testing of both UV rejection and particle transmission to fully validate the proposed approach. In Phase II the team will optimize the material fabrication, and design and fabricate a packaged UV blocking particle filter that will fully comply with NASA specifications and will perform testing in a relevant environment. The filters developed on this SBIR project will be commercialized in Phase III.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Similar designs of these filters are expected to find considerable DoD applications in secure UV communication, an area being actively developed by a number of DoD agencies. Equally important are multiple DoE applications of the proposed technology spanning from plasma parameter monitoring in tokamaks, particle detection in accelerators, lightning and aurora studies, etc. Commercial applications include plasma monitoring in plasma etching systems, reactive ion etching systems and multiple other monitoring and control applications of tools using plasma (spanning from semiconductor processing to the medical field to general material science).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Satellite survey missions (IMAP, MEDICI, DRIVE Initiative, EXPLORERs, DISCOVERY, CubeSats / Smallsats, etc.) require filtering the incident radiation to plasma and neutral particle sensors for applications such as space weather monitoring and forecasting, exploration of planetary environments and interstellar medium, etc. For sensitive detection of neutral and charged particles in satellite survey missions, an instrumentation for efficient rejection of EUV, Deep UV and visible flux is needed that also efficiently transmits the particles. The proposed concept, when developed and commercialized, is expected to have a significant and immediate impact on such NASA missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Filtering


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.05-8269
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Particles and Field Sensors and Instrument Enabling Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: LENA Conversion Foils Using Single-Layer Graphene

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luxel Corporation
60 Saltspring Drive, PO Box 1879
Friday Harbor, WA 98250-8040
(360) 378-4137

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bruce Lairson
bruce.lairson@luxel.com
60 Saltspring Dr.
Friday Harbor,  WA 98250-8040
(360) 378-4137

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Our key innovation will be the use of single-layer graphene as LENA conversion foils, with appropriate microgrids and nanogrids to support the foils. Phase I develops a way to make the freestanding foils with usable size and perfection, and investigates added features such as EUV blocking. Phase II will make modifications to the graphene foil itself as needed for specific types of missions. For example, the existing graphene may be suitable in cases where incident LENA flux is high and the energy range of the instrument is high. Modified graphene may be necessary to increase conversion efficiency for converting to particular species, such as H+ or O-. In our proposal, we have fabricated small graphene coupons using existing methods, and shown these to optically consist of a carbon monolayer. The single-layer graphene mass density is 10X lower than conventional amorphous carbon foils. The Phase I activities build on this demonstration, and advances the TRL from the present TRL3 to TRL4. Phase I also comprises modeling and analysis in preparation for Phase II, which is expected to begin at TRL4 and end at TRL6.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Electron microscope specimen supports -EUV transmission elements and bandpass filters for EUV light sources -Strip foils for DOE facilities -Particle shields for semiconductor EUV lithography equipment. -Photocathode substrates for low energy X-ray imaging. -Ultralow mass density carbon foils for 3-dimensional bioimage reconstruction Luxel currently supplies components for all of the above applications. Future applications include graphene bolometers, other membrane sensors, and infrared bandpass filters.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
LENA conversion surfaces for a variety of instrument energy ranges and imaging applications. -EUV band filters with superior blocking/passband characteristics -Electron transparent membranes which can separate space environments from instruments. -Ultrafine metal grids for electrostatic acceleration and detection. -Visible-light transparent contamination blocking filters (CBFs) for cooled detectors in spacecraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
3D Imaging
Processing Methods
Nanomaterials
Filtering
Ionizing Radiation
Radiometric
Non-Electromagnetic


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.06-7136
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Lunar and Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Compact Fluorescence Lifetime Excitation-Emission Spectrometer (FLEXEMS) for Detecting Trace Organics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Leiden Measurement Technology, LLC
751 Laurel Street, #344
San Carlos, CA 94087-2919
(650) 691-8573

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nathan Bramall
N.Bramall@LeidenTechnology.com
751 Laurel St #344
San Carlos,  CA 94087-2919
(510) 301-8980

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) effort, Leiden Measurement Technology (LMT) proposes to design and build the Fluorescence Lifetime Excitation Emission Spectrometer (FLEXEMS), a stand-off fluorescence spectrometer that uses multiple light-emitting diodes to excite fluorescence in samples from the deep-ultraviolet through the visible and employs time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) and steady-state photon-counting techniques to quantify the fluorescence properties of the target in order to detect and identify trace levels of organics in-situ. The addition of fluorescence lifetime measurements distinguishes it from other compact, field-portable instruments available. The instrument will require no reagents or consumables and by simply placing the instrument on a sample of rock, soil, or ice, or other material it will be able to detect a wide range of organics (at or below the 10-100 ppb-level) including free aromatic amino acids; biomarkers including F420 (specific to methanogens), NADH, and proteins; PAHs; and porphyrins (e.g. chlorophyll). It will be designed with flight in mind so that mass, volume, and power-usage will be minimized as much as possible. The use of multi-anode photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and/or avalanche photodiodes (APDs) will make the system compact and rugged and thus suitable for future missions and ongoing field and laboratory studies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
FLEXEMS has many uses outside of NASA. Due to its sensitivity, specificity, and portability, it would be very useful for (1) environmental research of terrestrial and marine waters (e.g., DOM, humic and fulvic acid studies, aromatic pollutants), (2) process control and monitoring of closed and recycled water systems (e.g., Naval shipboard water monitoring, water treatment, municipal water recycling plants), (3) pollution monitoring of water, soils and sediments (e.g., PAHs, pesticides, and fuels), (5) the detection of biological weapons (e.g., Anthrax). Considering only (1) and (2), it is anticipated that total 5- year revenue may be as high as $20M.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A flight version of FLEXEMS could be used on nearly any NASA mission that has the detection and identification of organics as one of its goals. Because FLEXEMS is inherently a stand-off instrument requiring no consumables, it requires no complicated sample-handling and can take a variety of different form-factors to suit the mission architecture: flow-through measurements of extraterrestrial water or melted ices; surface measurements of ices or minerals; integrated into optical microscopes or microfluidic platforms; etc. Because FLEXEMS requires no consumables, it could be used indefinitely making it especially well-suited for long-duration missions where it could serve as both a primary instrument or a triage instrument for other instruments that may have a limited number of uses. Target extraterrestrial bodies FLEXEMS would be ideal to explore include Europa, Enceladus, comets and asteroids, Mars, and the permanently-shadowed craters of Moon. Additionally, its miniature size makes it suitable for Small- Sat missions to study organics such as O/OREOS. For terrestrial use, it will allow researchers in NASA's Space Science and Astrobiology Division to quantify the presence of different minerals and organics during analog field research and laboratory research.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Process Monitoring & Control
Biological Signature (i.e., Signs Of Life)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Ultraviolet
Visible


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.06-7773
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Lunar and Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact Raman Spectrometer For In-Situ Planetary Chemistry

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brimrose Technology Corporation
P.O. Box 616, 19 Loveton Circle
Sparks, MD 21152-9201
(410) 472-2600

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Feng Jin
fjin@brimrose.com
P.O. Box 616, 19 Loveton Circle
Sparks,  MD 21152-9201
(410) 472-2600

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this proposal, we demonstrate a new Raman imaging sensor based on a compact, CCD-mounted spectrometer. This enables high sensitivity and specificity for UV-Raman that will be capable of full-frame imaging, thus reducing size, weight, and power requirements, as well as eliminating the need for mechanical scanning and actuators to acquire data across a 2-dimensional image. The proposed program will establish the optical model and tools to estimate system performance, fabrication requirement and tolerance, formulate calibration procedure and evaluation criteria, develop critical optical component fabrication techniques and procedure, and chart the road for a Raman imager with improved performance that can be obtained with the state of the art fabrication techniques. In Phase II we will demonstrate a prototype imaging system and present a plan to infuse the technology into a NASA program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed method and instrument can be used for many applications - security/military: chemical and explosive detection and identification; manufacturing industry: non-destructive detection/evaluation; pharmaceutical: composition analysis, counterfeit detection, compound distribution, powder content and purity, polymorphic forms identification, contaminant detection and identification; Medicine and Life Science: bio-compatibility study, DNA/RNA analysis, drug/cell interactions study, single cell analysis; Geology and Mineralogy: gemstone and mineral identification.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Composition analysis and mapping is one of the central tasks for planetary explorations. The proposed method and rugged instrument can provide fast material identification regarding its molecular composition during planetary and asteroidal exploration missions. New information provided by proposed approach can help understand the history and future of planets/moons/asteroids.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Ultraviolet


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.06-8099
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Lunar and Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Radiation Tolerant Temperature-Invariant Scintillation Modules

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699
(617) 668-6801

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Erik Johnson
EJohnson@rmdinc.com
44 Hunt Street
Watertown,  MA 02472-4699
(617) 668-6801

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Radiation detectors are an invaluable tool for space applications that span planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, space weather, and dosimetry for human exploration, to name a few. A common technology used for radiation detection is scintillators, where the scintillation material generates a light flash with an intensity that is proportional to the energy deposited from the incident radiation. For exploration missions to hostile environments, such as those around Jupiter, Venus or Mercury, the dose to the scintillation material can become high, rendering them useless in a short time frame. A common practice to mitigate these effects is to anneal the scintillation materials, yet for the most advanced materials (hermetically packaged) that have unique properties that can be exploited (such as particle species discrimination based on the transient light response), there is no practical method or process to anneal them. For various experiments, the largest scintillation crystal possible may be ideal, yet when attempting to build an instrument inside a small spacecraft, such as a 3-6U cubesat, SiPMs are the only option to optically readout the crystal. Unless the energy spectrum can be compromised, a large crystal will require a large SiPM array, and to obtain the best performance from the detector, the array would need to be cooled. In both of these cases, the temperature of the scintillator and SiPM are modified for a specific purpose. The overall goal of this project is to develop a scintillator detector module for gamma ray and neutron detection that will provide mitigation strategies for reducing radiation and temperature effects.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The robust testing required for space flight leads to high-quality terrestrial instrument that will have uses for military and homeland security applications. Scintillation detectors are used in security applications where the temperature conditions fluctuate and handling is done without care, which is also valid for oil-well logging. For other applications, such as radiation monitors at nuclear reactors, the radiation tolerance must be high as the instruments can be exposed to low-doses for multiple years. Our technology will be an excellent fit for personal Radiation Detectors (PRD), Spectroscopic Radiation Detectors (SPRD), in Radioisotope Identification Devices (RIIDs), Area Monitors, and in Stand-off detectors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of this technology will serve instruments for planetary science missions. In the latest planetary science Decadal Survey (DS), gamma-ray and neutron spectrometers are explicitly mentioned for a potential New Frontier mission ? Trojan Tour and Rendezvous. Among missioned identified, these detectors could be used to examine the surface of a comet for sample return (Comet Surface Sample Return), the surface of the moon for sample return (Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample Return), lateral variations in the structure and composition of the lunar crust (Lunar Geophysical Network), and the surface of Venus in-situ (Venus In Situ Explorer). These potential missions could be proposed later in 2016 and onward.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Ionizing Radiation
X-rays/Gamma Rays


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.06-8175
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Lunar and Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lunar Borehole Seismometer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Seismic Instrumentation and Research
1945 Delores Way
Carbondale, CO 81623-2235
(303) 709-5359

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Peter Eric Malin
pem@asirseismic.com
1945 Delores Way
Carbondale,  CO 81623-2235
(214) 934-0752

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to adapt a miniaturized borehole seismometer for deployment with a heat probe below the Lunar surface. The heat flow probe has already been designed and tested to reach a depth of 3m and will be installed underground by an existing gas jet drilling method. By burying an innovative, broadband, optical seismometer along with the heat flow probe, we can accomplish all of the goals of a high-mass, high-power surface seismic station with minimal mass and power. While this method currently allows installation at depths of 3m - we make maximum use of this environment - our sensor anticipates possible deployments at much greater depths. In the proposed work we will build and test a full working prototype of this seismometer. We will test it under lunar environmental conditions (vacuum, temperature and simulated regolith), bringing this instrument concept (TRL2) to a tested prototype (TRL4).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy Related Research and Research and Development.Advanced Seismic Instrumentation Research Company (ASIR) is the new realization of the PI?s long-term commitment to seismic instrumentation and installation-technology development. In its previous realization as SONDI and Consultants LLC, this commitment lead to the contract for the 78 borehole seismographs now in use in the US Plate Boundary Observatory and the special downhole systems that were deployed in the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earthscope ). SONDI also constructed in 1991 and 2005 the seismic monitoring networks at the Coso and Puna Geothermal Fields, which are used for locating and controlling the locations and depth of returned geothermal waters (https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026310 and http://www.geothermal-energy.org/pdf/IGAstandard/WGC/2010/1352.pdf ). In 2006 SONDI installed and operated the induced seismicity regulatory-monitoring network for the City of Basel's Hot-Dry-Rock geothermal test. ASIR?s leadership team includes electrical engineer Paul R. Passmore, former owner of Refraction Technologies Inc, which was purchased in 2013 by Trimble Navigation Systems, and mechanical engineer M. Kevin Passmore, an experienced hardware designer and fabricator. The ASIR team has interacted with Silicon Audio in its development of the SiA Ultra Low Noise sensor for the past 5 years.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This instrument is directly designed to address the NASA Planetary Science Decadal Survey call for a Lunar Geophysical Network (LGN) mission. We are working with colleague Clive Neal, of University of Notre Dame, on the proposal of a LGN for the next available New Frontiers mission opportunity. Such a mission will need to by necessity of cost be incredibly miniaturized in both mass and power. We do not believe current seismological equipment can provide the low mass, high signal-to-noise, and low power required for such a mission. Our system can meet the needs of this mission and will automatically accompany the geothermal heat probe elements of the geophysical network, which already need to access the subsurface. A compact probe can be placed in the subsurface by proposed conventional auger drills (such as developed by partner Honeybee Robotics), which could enable global access to any solid surface solar system body (Mars,Europa, Titan...). On icy bodies, such as Europa, subsurface melting devices (cryobots) should carry a small seismic and heat flow package. Placed into the subsurface aboard a melting probe, our system would provide information on the thickness and internal structure of an icy crust while simultaneously providing a nearly isothermal environment with protection from surface radiation. Such an instrument could also be sent to the Polar ice caps of Mars, where our high-frequency strengths would provide incredible detail on internal layering.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Acoustic/Vibration


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.06-8301
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Lunar and Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniature Integrated-Optic Trace-Gas Sensors for Off-World Science Missions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Sciences, Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Oscar Herrera
oherrera@psicorp.com
6652 Owens Drive
Pleasanton,  CA 94588-3334
(925) 743-1110

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As miniaturized satellite platforms such as CubeSat increase in capability, they will eventually be deployed to other planetary bodies (e.g., JPL INSPIRE). An important aspect of this technology is the potential for the low-cost (<$30M/mission) in-situ quantification of off-world resources. Indeed, the recent NEO Trajectory Opportunities Study asked, What is the elemental and mineralogical composition and water content of primitive bodies? while the recent National Research Council Planetary Science Decadal Survey indicated that laser spectroscopy is a key technology that will provide answers via in situ measurement of off-world trace-gas species in various space-flight missions. Towards that end, Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop an ultra-low Size, Weight, and Power (SWaP) in-situ integrated optical sensor for the sensitive measurement of trace gases, initially water vapor. The novel sensor architecture, based on open-path Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy (TDLAS), will serve as a platform for a family of sensors, each able to detect one of the gaseous species of interest to NASA. The proposed project focuses on using novel manufacturing and engineering design concepts to create a sensor measurement head that detects <10 ng/cm3 water vapor in a 1cm optical path as part of a 10g, 1cm3 package. When combined with PSI's integrated electronics, the complete sensor SWaP is expected to be on the order of 500 g, 100 cm3 , and <600 mW, nominally 10-100X better than the current state-of-the-art. PSI's Phase I Program objective is a laboratory bench-top demonstration proving the feasibility of the compact packaging design in meeting both the spectroscopic goals and the SWaP needs for future inter-planetary CubeSat missions. This will entail the design and fabrication of an integrated optical water vapor sensor and the experimental demonstration of water vapor measurements with chemical resolution relevant to in situ resource quantification.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Success in project Phases I-III will lead to a new paradigm for highly sensitive and selective laser-based gas sensors. These sensors will be designed for high volume manufacturing using established micromachining or semiconductor fabrication techniques at costs enabling widespread deployment. While this proposal specifically addresses NASA planetary exploration mission needs for trace-gas detection, the products deriving from this technology can also address applications including wide-area networked sensing of toxic industrial chemicals and chemical weapons, greenhouse gas measurement networks, and other industrial, commercial, medical, environmental and consumer applications for trace gas sensors where cost, size, and complexity currently hinder widespread acceptance. Defense and Homeland Security applications of unattended ground sensors may also be supported by results of this project.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
PSI will create a platform for highly sensitive laser-based sensors on a chip-like platform suitable for packaging in a housing comparable to a cell phone and amenable to volume production. The proposed sensor platform will be directly applicable to NASA CubeSat space exploration missions. Although TDLAS technology is not much more complex than that of CD players, currently the smallest and lowest cost available TDLAS sensors weigh about 1.5 kg and cost ~$10,000. The high cost results from using: 1) laser packages produced in relatively low volumes yielding costs of greater than $1000 each; 2) bulk optical components; 3) control and acquisition electronics built from commercial discrete components. These costs limit TDLAS applications to low-volume markets where the expensive sensor provides an economic payback. The NASA need for sensors of low size, weight, and power provides an opportunity to develop and apply novel manufacturing techniques that overcome these cost barriers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:16-1 S1.07-7223
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Airborne Measurement Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact Methane Sensing Lidar for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Beyond Photonics, LLC
1650 Coal Creek Drive, Unit B
Lafayette, CO 80026-8868
(303) 475-2088

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sammy Henderson
sammy@beyondphotonics.com
1650 Coal Creek Drive, Unit B
Lafayette,  CO 80026-8868
(303) 396-8536

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Even though gaseous methane (CH4) is a comparatively sparse constituent in Earthıs atmosphere, it is the third most impactful greenhouse gas after water vapor and carbon dioxide, and the second most important in terms of anthropogenic drivers. Methane is some 60 times more effective than CO2 in absorbing long-wavelength radiation, because the methane absorption lines in that part of the spectrum are less saturated and have less overlap with water vapor lines. Natural and agricultural sources of methane continue to dominate, but are difficult to separate and quantify. World-wide, rice cultivation, biomass burning, ruminant farm animals, and fossil fuel mining and usage have long been the most powerful drivers, but with climate change these sources could be dwarfed in the future by the release of enormous quantities of methane from melting permafrost and/or methane hydrates currently buried deep in ocean sediment. Innovative new remote sensing technologies need to address the atmospheric methane concentration measurement problem for NASA and other applications. Beyond Photonics proposes to investigate specific very compact pulsed lidar designs near the 1.645-micron wavelengths of interest by NASA for atmospheric methane (CH4) and potentially water vapor in the same nominal wavelength region. Specifically, methane concentration from moderate-sized unmanned aerial vehicles of NASAıs choice will be a focus; this application puts particular emphasis on decreasing size, weight, and prime power (SWaP) and eliminating active laser component cooling. Particular emphasis will also be placed on ensuring that the lidar designs are compatible with scaling to space qualification in future such programs. Emphasis will also be placed on technical approaches with good operational flexibility in terms of pulse energy and duration, frequency agility, and application to other IR and SWIR wavelengths.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA commercial applications are of great interest to Beyond Photonics in terms of low cost, compact DIAL product development, as evidenced in our use of company IRAD to further the proposed effort. We ultimately envision commercial development of small, rugged, compact differential absorption lidar (DIAL) sensors for airborne (UAV) methane and CO2 atmospheric constituent detection and characterization. The lasers an