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NASA 2015 SBIR Phase II Solicitation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 A1.01-9678
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL46P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Structural Efficiency-Hybrid Nanocomposites
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid Nanocomposites for Efficient Aerospace Structures
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cornerstone Research Group, Inc.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton,OH 45440 -3638 (937) 320-1877
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bryan Pelley
pelleybm@crgrp.com
2750 Indian Ripple Rd.
Dayton ,OH 45440 -3638
(937) 320-1877 Ext: 1198

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA?s Advanced Air Vehicles program seeks to improve safety and efficiency through exploration of the value of hybrid composites, guiding utilization of the materials by industry. Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG), University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI), and NanoSperse LLC have formed a team of experts in the aerospace composites industry to demonstrate, financially justify, and quickly transition hybrid composites into commercial aircraft markets. In Phase I, the team demonstrated a scalable, qualifiable hybrid materials solution using stitched CNT yarns capable of exceeding the performance of toughened prepregs using infusion grade materials and compatible manufacturing methods. Phase II efforts will further validate the financial and functional viability of the hybrid composite system through identification of relevant applications, optimization of stitched laminate designs, evaluation of multifunctional properties, and scale-up of hybrid composite manufacturing methods enabling the fabrication and evaluation of a component prototype.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed multifunctional hybrid composite technology has high potential for application in public and private sector commercial aircraft systems. This project's technologies, developed for NASA systems and programs, would directly apply to aerospace systems designed, manufactured, and operated by other government and commercial enterprises.
Government systems, such as the B1-B, currently utilize multifunctional nanocomposites to simplify manufacturing processes and reduce maintenance, contributing significantly to life-cycle cost savings. Additional systems that would benefit from this incorporation of this technology and other hybrid composites would include fighters, bombers, transport aircraft, unmanned air vehicles, missiles, spacecraft, satellites, and marine systems operated by the Department of Defense.
This technology's attributes enable multifunctional structures and coatings which should yield a high potential for private sector commercialization within commercial aviation platforms through increased efficiency and safety. With sufficient reductions in materials and manufacturing costs, these materials could also be adopted by the automotive, marine, and civil infrastructure industries.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Supporting NASA's Advanced Air Vehicle Program, this project's technologies directly address requirements for acceleration of development and certification procedures for composite materials. This project's technologies provide an objective, value-driven roadmap for the development and integration of hybrid composite materials, leveraging scalable, certifiable design and manufacturing practices. This technology could be used by NASA to design, build, and test future aerospace research vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Space Transportation & Safety
Characterization
Quality/Reliability
Processing Methods
Composites
Nanomaterials
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 A1.02-9373
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL65P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamic Efficiency Drag Reduction Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Plasma Flow Control for Drag Reduction
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Technology Applications, Co.
P.O. Box 6971
Chesterfield,MO 63006 -6971 (314) 373-3311
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris Nelson
ccnelsonphd@gmail.com
P.O. Box 6971
Chesterfield ,MO 63006 -6971
(425) 778-7853

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase II SBIR project deals with advancing the design, development, and testing of an innovative drag reduction concept named ?Smart Longitudinal Instability Prevention via Plasma Surface? using a new revolutionary plasma actuator technology developed at the University of Notre Dame (UND). During Phase I, Innovative Technology Applications Company (ITAC), LLC and researchers from UND developed and demonstrated drag reduction of more than 65% in turbulent boundary layers using the SLIPPS approach. This approach intervenes in the Streak Transient Growth Instability mechanism which is a dominant mechanism in the production of drag in turbulent boundary layer flows. In Phase II, we will investigate and test the use of SLIPPS concept at both higher Mach number and Reynolds number flows, as well as build an improved understanding of the physics in order to make even further efficiency gains possible. Phase III will advance the TRL to a level suitable for flight tests and integration into production systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Since fuel costs have historically been the largest single cost of airline operations, any technology which offers significant drag reduction (and thus fuel savings) will be of great interest to aircraft manufacturers. Other potential areas of application include high speed rail (and also normal passenger rail). Operators of ground test facilities outside of NASA (whether DoD or privately held) might also be interested in this technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
When fully developed, the SLIPPS technology would be widely applicable within NASA. Any system with significant contributions to drag from attached turbulent boundary layers could potentially benefit from this approach. This would include not only flight vehicles, but also test facilities, which could take advantage of the reduced power required to maintain test conditions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Aerodynamics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 A1.03-8884
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CC89P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Emissions Propulsion and Power
PROPOSAL TITLE: Toward Autonomous Stable Energy Management of Hybrid Electric Aircraft Propulsion Systems
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
New Electricity Transmission Software Solutions (NETSS)
22 Weir Hill Road
Sudbury,MA 01776 -1427 (978) 443-8973
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sanja Cvijic
sanja.cvijic@netssinc.com
22 Weir Hill Road
Sudbury ,MA 01776 -1427
(215) 272-7969

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We have demonstrated the ability of our Dynamic Monitoring and Decision Systems (DyMonDS) framework to structure a systems approach to the modeling and control of aircraft electric power systems. To begin, we selected two example aircraft power systems and developed dynamic models for those systems within the DyMonDS framework. Next, we derived optimized sets of control set points for the power systems. Each set of set points constituted an optimized allocation of resources under an assumed aircraft operating condition. A separate set of control set points was derived for each assumed operating condition. To do so the selected aircraft electric power systems were first mapped into equivalent terrestrial power systems. The NETSS optimization software for terrestrial electric power systems was then applied to optimize the aircraft power systems. Finally, we developed and stabilizing controllers for electric power system operation around each set point set. To do so, critical, and potentially unstable, aircraft electric power system dynamics were first identified for closed-loop control. Finally, the required controllers were designed and simulated to show that they indeed stabilized the dynamics around the prescribed set points. All accomplishments were greatly facilitated by the DyMonDS framework.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The non-NASA commercial applications primarily concern the operation of terrestrial electric power systems such as utility systems, ?smart? grids and micro-grids. The proposed DYMONDS framework enables a significantly new approach to the modeling and control of future electric power systems. These systems in particular will require the systematic integration of diverse energy storage and intermittent resources, which is directly addressed by the DYMONDS framework. For example, in parts of the Texas power grid today, wind power plants involving doubly-fed induction generators connected via a weak power-electronically controlled transmission line have experienced oscillations. Advanced digital control is required to prevent the oscillations, and such controls could be naturally developed within the DYMONDS framework. It is our belief that pursuing the modeling and control of complex NASA energy systems will contribute greatly to the process of modeling and controlling future terrestrial electric power systems. In this way the results of our Phase I project have the potential for major non-NASA impact as well.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The design and power-electronic control of individual aircraft energy system components is well understood today. Less consideration has been given to integrating these components into electric power systems that operate in adaptive conditions-driven ways to ensure fault-tolerance, stability and efficiency. The DYMONDS framework developed here directly addresses this systems-thinking need. It introduces a multi-layered interactive approach to nonlinear power-electronically-switched control of AC-DC and DC-AC converters so the desired power is provided in transiently stable ways in response to varying aircraft situations. The approach can be extended to controlling electric power systems for single vehicle and future multi-vehicle manned deep-space missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Analytical Methods
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Sequencing & Scheduling
Distribution/Management
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 A1.03-9122
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CD15P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Emissions Propulsion and Power
PROPOSAL TITLE: Continued Development of Environmentally Conscious "ECO" Transport Aircraft Concepts as Hybrid Electric Distributed Propulsion Research Platforms
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Empirical Systems Aerospace, Inc.
P.O. Box 595
Pismo Beach,CA 93448 -9665 (805) 275-1053
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Benjamin Schiltgen
benjamin.schiltgen@esaero.com
P.O. Box 595
Pismo Beach ,CA 93448 -9665
(805) 275-1053 Ext: 125

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ESAero's vast TeDP and HEDP-specific experience, Helden Aerospace's distributed propulsion airframe integration effects & CFD analysis experience, and Rolls-Royce's propulsion and power, thermal management, and fault tolerant microgrid systems design experience will be leveraged to develop the ECO-150 and ECO-80 concepts as Vision Vehicles which can become research platforms to investigate the potential merits of novel technologies and stand as well-defined and reputable reference vehicle benchmarks. The ECO concepts will represent rational approaches to incorporating multiple NASA technologies in a synergistic manner for the 2030-2040 timeframe, including distributed energy management, embedded fan split-wing configuration for powered lift and improved aerodynamic efficiency and structural rigidity, ducted radiator cooling systems, hybrid power supplementation, and tail reduction via propulsive aircraft control. Complete design iterations of the ECO-150 and ECO-80 concepts will incorporate lessons learned relating to the following objectives and cross-check them with the existing vehicle design, competing discipline requirements, and detailed component integration: (1) Advance the TeDP system design through non-superconducting, high power microgrid design and detailed motor/generator sensitivity analyses; (2) Advance the TMS design with a new TMS architecture for redundancy and by applying thermal capacitance to achieve transient performance targets; (3) Take credit for the propulsion system?s utility as an aircraft control mechanism and address any new design requirements this imposes on the aircraft; (4) Investigate hybrid power supplementation and establish a roadmap for the sizing and synthesis of HEDP architectures; (5) Continue the high-fidelity aero-propulsion CFD study to improve the high lift and cruise efficiency of the split-wing design, and use the CFD results to validate and calibrate ESAero?s analytical propulsion duct models.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ESAero will use this work to guide aerospace primes toward the identification of feasible hybrid-electric architectures and support power system manufacturers interested in how their technology affects hybrid/all-electric designs. A robust PANTHER tool and high confidence vehicles will be available to advance the art and understand tradable system architecture parameters for future hybrid pursuits. Electric air vehicle design services for Aerospace companies (especially primes) are only becoming of greater demand. This has been shown by ESAero with other government entities and industry including Boeing, General Electric, Lockheed Martin, General Atomics, Electricore, automotive manufacturers, etc. While these efforts have been specific to electric- or hybrid-electric distributed propulsion type of aircraft, limitless integration opportunities to support quick iteration conceptual design with little incoming knowledge of the system provides a relatively new service and capability. There is potential and interest to sell and/or otherwise make the resultant ECO configurations and PANTHER open source to industry partners to advance the technologies necessary. Having been told that ESAero is one of the only groups looking at tube-and-wing distributed propulsion and rotorcraft at this level for more conventional machines, there is limited competition, as the major airframers and universities are looking at hybrid, blended wing bodies and larger systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This work will facilitate the conceptual design of hybrid/all-electric propulsion systems from transformational thin-haul to transport air vehicles. This application comes from the improvement in fidelity and integration of TeDP and HEDP power and propulsion systems into a moderate- to high- fidelity ECO reference vehicles sized using PANTHER with power systems from Rolls Royce and aero-propulsive knowledge from Helden. This work benefits multiple NRA projects, and other direct NASA projects like RVLT, AATT and TACP. Several nuances native to the turbo-electric or hybrid electric distributed propulsion are electric component weight and structure, power transmission networks, and thermal management systems. These new design hurdles have not been addressed in previous methods or efforts, but play a significant role in determining the feasibility of these aircraft, as one of the major benefits to a decoupled energy management system using distributed propulsion is the freedom in placing the propulsors virtually anywhere. With a potential decision by NASA to determine if these types of vehicles are feasible in the next few years, the results of this ECO effort will equip NASA with opportunities for independent technology assessment and comparison, system integration and challenges, potential partnership funding paths, and potential component or system commercialization opportunities to support "vision vehicle" configurations for internal NASA studies and public relations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Aerodynamics
Distribution/Management
Storage
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Actuators & Motors
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Verification/Validation Tools
Heat Exchange
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 A1.03-9346
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CC49P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Emissions Propulsion and Power
PROPOSAL TITLE: A New Cryocooler for MgB2 Superconducting Systems in Turboelectric Aircraft
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, LLC
16 Great Hollow Road
Hanover,NH 03755 -3116 (603) 643-3800
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Zagarola
mvz@creare.com
16 Great Hollow Road
Hanover ,NH 03755 -3116
(603) 643-3800 Ext: 2360

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Turboelectric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft design space by decoupling power generation from propulsion. Resulting aircraft designs such as blended-wing bodies with distributed propulsion can provide the large reductions in emissions, fuel burn, and noise required to make air transportation growth projections sustainable. The power density requirements for these electric machines can only be achieved with superconductors, which in turn require lightweight, high-capacity cryocoolers. Creare has previously developed a Cryoflight turbo-Brayton cryocooler concept that exceeds the mass and performance targets identified by NASA for superconducting aircraft with high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials requiring cooling to 50 K. Here, we extended the temperature range of our cryocooler with an innovative new cycle concept to provide cooling to 20 K for MgB2 superconductors, which offer price and performance advantages for certain superconducting machines. In Phase I of this project, we evaluated the performance advantages of our concept through modeling and preliminary component designs. In Phase II, we will fabricate and test the highest-risk components to bring the overall TRL to 4. In Phase III, we will build and test a complete cryocooler to support extended performance testing with MgB2 systems. This development effort will provide an enabling technology for the superconducting systems needed to make turboelectric aircraft feasible.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Superconducting materials have the potential to revolutionize the way we generate, transmit, and consume power. Transformational initiatives that rely on superconducting technologies include power conditioning and power transmission systems, large-scale offshore wind turbines, high efficiency data centers, Navy ship systems, and turboelectric aircraft. While the latter is the target application for the proposed cryocooler, the other applications represent potential near-term markets for the technology. Companies are currently pursuing approaches based on either HTS or MgB2 superconducting materials. The low-temperature cryocooler proposed here will support MgB2 systems, which offer a number of advantages over HTS systems including lower cost and reduced losses in varying magnetic fields. The 20 K operating temperature of these systems makes the cryocooler a critical component of any solution. There is also a large potential market beyond superconducting applications, including cooling for laboratory and industrial-scale gas separation, liquefaction, cryogen storage and cryogen transportation systems, liquid hydrogen fuel cell storage for the automotive industry, and commercial orbital transfer vehicles and satellites.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our proposed cryocooler development effort will support NASA?s long-term goal to increase aircraft efficiency and reduce aircraft emissions and noise. By providing a cryocooler capable of cooling MgB2 systems and optimized to meet the aggressive power density target required for aircraft, we will enable an alternative approach to HTS systems and allow a detailed evaluation of the relative advantages of HTS and MgB2 superconducting technologies. Such an evaluation is needed to clarify the road map for superconducting aircraft. While such aircraft are still two or three decades from production, supporting technology development needs to begin now if such aircraft are to become a viable alternative to the aircraft configurations in production today. The results of this SBIR project will support continuing NASA design trade studies, system demonstrations, and eventual superconducting aircraft demonstrations. Other NASA applications include space applications such as hydrogen cryogenic liquefaction and zero-boil-off storage for in-space propellant depots, planetary and extraterrestrial exploration missions, CEVs, extended-life orbital transfer vehicles and extraterrestrial bases. Terrestrial NASA applications include cooling for spaceport cryogen storage and transportation systems and for demonstration hydrogen production and transportation systems. The highly reliable and space-proven turbo-Brayton cryocooler is ideal for these applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 A1.04-9214
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL70P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Quiet Performance
PROPOSAL TITLE: Interferometric Correlator for Acoustic Radiation & Underlying Structural Vibration (ICARUSV)
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Systems & Technologies, Inc.
12 Mauchly, Building H
Irvine,CA 92618 -2330 (949) 733-3355
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vladimir Markov
vmarkov@asatechinc.com
12 Mauchly #H
Irvine ,CA 92618 -2330
(949) 733-3355 Ext: 26

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Current methods for identification of aircraft noise sources, such as near-field acoustical holography and beam forming techniques, involve the use of pressure probes or microphone arrays to measure the radiated sound field. However, those techniques are intrusive, bandwidth limited, time consuming to implement, require extensive data processing and the resulting data may ultimately generate false results in the form of pseudo (noise) sources. Advanced Systems & Technologies Inc. proposes an optical non-contact sensor fusion concept which, for the first time, enables direct capture and observation of full-field non-stationary dynamic structural vibrations (SV) and unsteady radiated sound fields or transient flow fields around the structure of interest. SV depict the flow of energy in a structure and provides an unambiguous identification of structural noise sources and sinks. Additionally, the ability to capture and correlate the acoustic/flow field data with the structure borne intensity, offers an unprecedented and rapid diagnostic capability for noise source characterization and evaluation of noise abatement systems. In addition to being non-intrusive the measurements are fast, can be made at operationally relevant bandwidths, which extend to the ultrasonic domain, and provide deeper insight into the complex structural dynamics which are the root cause of noise emission.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The parallel sensor architecture of the ICARUSV overcomes limitations in existing technology, introducing, for the first time, a true imaging modality to the laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). The ICARUSV concept and related instruments is thus anticipated to appeal to a broad spectrum of applications and industries where existing commercial single beam LDV?s are currently employed. In addition to performing routine vibration measurements much more efficiently (orders of magnitude faster than LDV) the imaging modality of the ICARUSV is anticipated to find new diagnostic capability beyond those of traditional LDV, including aerospace, automotive, electronics and industrial plants applications. Numerous industries (automotive, aerospace, medical and computer electronics) employ LDV for modal vibration analyses. In addition to modal analysis, the ICARUSV would target the market represented by non-destructive testing in the marine, aviation and space industries and, in particular, the non-destructive inspection in manufacture and maintenance of deployed military systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ICARUSV contributes towards current and future noise reduction goals by providing a diagnostic tool for evaluation of a wide range of aircraft structures designed to effect noise reduction. Examples of applications include testing of continuous mould line wing structures, drooped leading edge, active flow control, adaptive and flexible wing structures, smart cheverons, and toboggan fairings. Related applications include evaluation of engine noise reduction systems such as Ultra High Bypass engines, distortion-tolerant fans and variable fan nozzles. The ability to visualize energy flow paths between sources and sinks on the structure will elucidate the contribution of specific design features in determining these paths and suggest design modifications which mitigate or redirect this energy away from specific locations. ICARUSV also offers a new tool for identification of vehicle specific aero-elastic instabilities and for fundamental aeronautic studies related to ground testing, wind tunnel tests, and flight experiments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Aerodynamics
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Aerobraking/Aerocapture
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Data Processing
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Acoustic/Vibration
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 A1.05-9104
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CC65P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Physics-Based Conceptual Aeronautics Design Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Physics-Based Aeroanalysis Methods for Open Rotor Conceptual Design
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing,NJ 08618 -2302 (609) 538-0444
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Todd Quackenbush
todd@continuum-dynamics.com
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing ,NJ 08618 -2302
(609) 538-0444 Ext: 110

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Operating costs and fossil fuel consumption of civil transports can be reduced through use of efficient counter rotating open rotor (CROR) propulsion systems, thereby addressing both key industry needs and long-term NASA technical goals. To develop such next-generation systems, multiple design variables must be assessed efficiently within a conceptual design software environment. A blend of physics-based, mid-fidelity tools featuring low CPU and ease of setup can provide this capability. Phase I built on an established, highly efficient lifting surface free wake model, the CDI CHARM analysis, and also began initial development of a novel variant of the CDI Cartesian Grid Euler (CGE) model to yield fast-turnaround, low- mid fidelity tools well suited to this requirement. Phase I involved several key upgrades to CHARM and preliminary validation on representative CROR designs. Regarding CGE, formulation of the new rotating frame and multirotor capability has been largely completed, and demonstrations of single rotor modeling are complete. Phase II will entail: additional upgrades to the CHARM rotor blade and airfoil models for improved fidelity; completion of implementation of the CGE analysis for CROR cases; integration of the two models into a unified CHARM-CGE AeroAnalysis (C2A2) architecture; and extensive validation and operational testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The enhanced fast-turnaround, physics-based analysis and design tools for CROR systems that will emerge from Phase II will support both civil aircraft manufacturers and DoD. The US Air Force is actively seeking more efficient future transports, and airframers and private industry can utilize these tools in designing aircraft with lower emissions footprint and a superior balance of reduced fuel burn in cruise and community noise impact. Spinoffs of the model to the design of propulsion systems for compound rotorcraft and UAVs are also possible. Phase III commercialization will benefit from the beta testing that will be a feature of the Phase II, as well as by offering new capabilities the pre-existing installed base of CHARM and CGE software users.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Open rotor propulsion systems can help meet long range emission reduction targets in support of initiatives such Green Aviation. The final Phase II C2A2 code package will be made available to NASA engineers, and will aid multiple investigations of the potential of advanced CROR propulsion concepts to improve fuel efficiency and reduce the environmental footprint of commercial transports. In addition, to direct analysis of particular CROR designs, the model can efficiently produce full performance maps of candidate designs for use in conjunction with system-level design studies. The C2A2 software can also enhance analysis and conceptual design capabilities for assessment of novel air vehicles featuring Integrated and Distributed Propulsion systems such as the ongoing LeapTech initiative. Finally, the modeling capabilities of the CHARM and CGE codes can be exploited- in conjunction with standard noise models - to support initial studies of unsteady loading and acoustics for these advanced concepts.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Aerodynamics
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Atmospheric Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 A1.06-9851
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CA29P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vertical Lift
PROPOSAL TITLE: Vertical Lift by Series Hybrid Power
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
90 Broadway, 11th Floor
Cambridge,MA 02142 -1050 (617) 500-4800
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Van Livieratos
livieratos.van@aurora.aero
90 Broadway, 11th Floor
Cambridge ,MA 02142 -1050
(617) 229-6853

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A major market for vertical lift aircraft is in urban operations, primarily for police and electronic news gathering (typically a Bell 206 or a Eurocopter AS350). Manned systems are more costly to operate and have a much larger operational footprint than their unmanned counterparts. But the unmanned multirotor does not have the range and endurance to compete with the manned systems.

Aurora Flight Sciences believes that the Passive Miller Cycle (PMC) Series Hybrid System is a viable way to achieve the range and endurance required to penetrate the manned vehicle market. The PMC, like the typical Miller Cycle, uses delayed intake valve timing that allows the expansion ratio to be greater than the compression ratio; reducing pumping losses and giving greater energy extraction. But the PMC does not use a positive displacement supercharger. The delayed intake valve closing also allows the PMC greater quench in the combustion chamber to confront the fuel droplet issue associated with small engines. The delayed valve timing also allows the generator in the hybrid system to be optimized for power generation while still being used as the engine starter.

Based on the models developed in the Phase I program, Aurora will design, procure, and integrate the components required to demonstrate the Passive Miller Cycle (PMC) in a series hybrid architecture. The test system will be used to calibrate Phase I models and design a multirotor using the PMC hybrid system that will be able to perform police and news gathering missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are two main non-NASA commercial markets that Aurora sees as prime targets for using the high-endurance and payload capacity vertical lift aircraft developed under this program: Commercial applications and non-NASA Governmental applications. On the commercial side the primary market we are targeting is for urban operations, primarily for police operations and electronic news gathering. This market is currently limited to manned helicopters which are expensive to maintain and operate. Opening up this market to unmanned vehicles would provide a substantial reduction in operational costs and operational footprint (e.g. takeoff/landing area requirements, emissions, and noise) than the current manned systems. Additionally, it is expected that the lower operational costs would open the market to smaller law enforcement departments and news agencies that up to now have not had air services.

On the government side, there are many aspects of the government and military that could benefit from this platform. Its long endurance would be a useful in ISR missions as well as inspection services for oil and gas lines, solar and wind farms, and other large areas that need to be monitored. Additionally, its payload capacity would be invaluable in distributing material (i.e. ordinance, radios, first-aid supplies, rations) in contested urban environments with friendly forces spread over a large the area.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed unmanned multirotor vehicle with enhanced endurance enabled by a passive Miller Cycle series hybrid propulsion system confronts many commercial markets relevant to current NASA efforts. Two potential commercial markets that we will pursue include Emergency Services and Inspection Services. Aurora intends to replace expensive manned helicopter systems used by both emergency personnel for fire or disaster mapping, and by commercial inspection services for building inspections or utility service inspections (e.g. cell phone towers, power lines, and bridges). A second potential market for these multirotors would be in environmental monitoring and data collection in severe operational conditions where the use of manned vehicles would pose an inordinate risk to the pilots. This could include wildfire monitoring, storm tracking, environmental data collection in extreme environments (i.e. arctic conditions), and more. The passive miller cycle series hybrid propulsion system is an enabling technology for breaking into these markets as the current state-of-the-art in multirotors has endurances too low to be practical for such missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Atmospheric Propulsion
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 A1.07-9387
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CC48P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Efficient Propulsion & Power
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Temperature "Smart" P3 Sensors and Electronics for Distributed Engine Control
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sporian Microsystems, Inc.
515 Courtney Way, Suite B
Lafayette,CO 80026 -8821 (303) 516-9075
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alex Brand
abrand@sporian.com
515 Courtney Way, Suite B
Lafayette ,CO 80026 -8821
(303) 516-9075

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Current engine control architectures impose limitations on the insertion of new control capabilities due to weight penalties and reliability issues related to complex wiring harnesses. NASA in collaboration with Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) has been conducting research in developing technologies to enable Distributed Engine Control (DEC) architectures. Realization of such future intelligent engines depends on the development of both hardware and software, including high temperature electronics and sensors to make smart components. NASA is particularly interested in the design and development of these applications for assessing the benefit they bring to the engine system. Compressor discharge pressure measurement has long been a key aspect of turbine engine control to manage stall margin. Given that, there is a need for a high-temperature, smart P3 sensor as a key building block for distributed engine controls. Given the current limitations of high temperature electronics, the business case for smart control elements (sensors and actuators) can be made in the fan/compressor section of the engine. The long-term objective of the proposed effort is to advance high-temperature P3 sensor technology for DEC applications through working with OEM partners and industry working groups to: (1) to iterate the current technology toward DEC formats/functions, (2) advance the digital electronics design/firmware and high temperature electronics, and (3) (through demonstration and stakeholder collaboration) present the viability (technical and business case) of the proposed sensor.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aero propulsion turbine engines, communally used in commercial and military jets, would benefit significantly by having a non-invasive, small mass, on engine component sensor allowing for visibility of the conditions in the turbine engine. The technology and sensor product described in this proposal would allow exactly that, while existing sensors fall well short of the application's demand. The conditions in this application are harsh, and sensors must be able to withstand high temperatures, high pressures, high flow rates, jet fuel, and exhaust. In order for existing and future aero propulsion turbine engines to improve safety, reduce cost, and emissions while controlling engine instabilities, more accurate and complete information is necessary. The technology described in this proposal would allow the next boundary in sensing technology to be achieved: direct measurement from the point of interest within the turbine. Commercial applications abound for the successful results of this proposal in commercial and military turbine engine industries, which are made up of companies such as GE, Pratt & Whitney and Rolls-Royce. Additional potential market areas include: marine propulsion, rail locomotives, land based power generation turbines, automotive, oil and gas refining, government and academic laboratories.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed sensor directly supports NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) research thrusts including vehicle safety, efficiency and carbon emission reduction. The proposed sensor is broadly applicable to NASA GRC efforts in vehicle health monitoring and advanced controls. The sensor is also directly applicable to a planetary exploration mission to Venus since a high temperature sensor that does not require cooling will significantly reduce payload weight, volume, and complexity. Space propulsion systems, including chemical rockets, nuclear thermal propulsion, launch and station keeping, all exhibit high temperatures and would benefit from the proposed technology. Energy generation systems such as Stirling engines and fuel cells also have high operational temperatures that could be monitored by the proposed sensor. In situ resource utilization systems utilize high temperatures and pressures and would benefit from the proposed technology. Derivative sensor technology could potentially be applied for sensing conditions in thermal protection systems for alloy and ceramic matrix composite structural components.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Atmospheric Propulsion
Pressure/Vacuum
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 A1.08-8885
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL86P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Testing and Measurement Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniaturized Dynamic Pressure Sensor Arrays with Sub-Millimeter (mm) Spacing for Cross-Flow Transition Measurements
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Interdisciplinary Consulting Corporation
5745 SW 75th St, 364
Gainesville,FL 32608 -5504 (352) 359-7796
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tai-An Chen
tchen@thinkIC2.com
5745 SW 75th St, #364
Gainesville ,FL 32608 -5504
(937) 361-7711

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Interdisciplinary Consulting Corporation (IC2) and in partnership with the University of Florida (UF) propose a microfabricated, dynamic piezoelectric pressure sensor array with sub-mm spacing to enable high temporal and spatial resolution measurements of cross-flow transition in swept-wing, supersonic aircraft research. The proposal is in response to Subtopic A1.08 Ground Testing and Measurement Technologies, whereby the primary objective is "to develop innovative tools and technologies that enhance testing and measurement capabilities." More specifically, the proposed innovation addresses critically unmet measurement needs of the Commercial Supersonics Technology (CST) Project of the NASA Advanced Air Vehicles Program (AAVP). The proposed innovation is a highly miniaturized, dynamic piezoelectric pressure sensor array with sub-mm spacing for high bandwidth, high spatial resolution measurements of cross-flow transition. High-spatial resolution pressure sensors with sub-mm spacing provide a much-needed capability that does not currently exist among state-of-the-art offerings, enabling dynamic wall pressure measurement and identification of traveling and standing cross-flow modes. The proposed concept extends the basic design to high bandwidth, high-spatial resolution, dynamic pressure sensing via reduction in sensor geometry and integration of multiple sensors arrayed on a single chip. The end result is a miniaturized, highly-compact array of dynamic pressure sensors with backside contacts to enable a truly flush-mounted, smooth interface for flow measurement applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed instrumentation technology has the potential to be transportable across multiple NASA facility classes as well as implemented across government-owned, industry and academic institution test facilities. The target market is the research-grade instrumentation and measurement shear stress sensors market for the aerospace research and development industry. The target application for entry into NASA Aeronautics Test Program is as ground test wind-tunnel instrumentation for turbulent skin friction measurements and separation detection and control. cross-flow boundary layer transition measurements for swept wing models, such as is performed at NASA Langley. These measurements are critical to the proper design of swept wing geometry for the next generation of civilian supersonic aircraft. The design and operating conditions of these aircraft expose the vehicle to cross-flow instabilities that complicate the prediction and control of laminar flow and transition to turbulence. Accurate measurement of these cross-flow instability modes is not currently possible with existing technologies due to limited spatial resolution and sensor spacing constraints. Our proposed technology surmounts the constraints of existing technologies, enabling the required sensor spacing and resolution, thereby directly addressing the previously unmet need.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
External customers for dynamic pressure measurements include universities and industry aircraft manufacturers such as the Boeing Company. Particularly, those customers seeking or currently designing next generation, civilian or defense supersonic aircraft have an identical unmet measurement need as NASA Langley. Furthermore, in-flight flow-control (a rapidly growing area of research and development) requires compact accurate measurements of key fluid dynamic parameters such as wall shear stress and dynamic wall pressure. This is a potentially larger volume market with relatively high ASP but will require more development time to meet the tighter space constraints, tougher operating conditions and unique target specifications that such an application entails.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Aerodynamics
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Pressure & Vacuum Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 A1.08-9052
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL75P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Testing and Measurement Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fast Pressure-Sensitive Paint System for Production Wind Tunnel Testing
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc.
7610 McEwen Road
Dayton,OH 45459 -3908 (937) 630-3012
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jim Crafton
jwcrafton@innssi.com
7610 McEwen Road
Dayton ,OH 45459 -3908
(937) 630-3012 Ext: 107

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 6
End: 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Ground-based testing resources are essential for the development of aerospace systems. While these facilities can be expensive to maintain and operate, the cost to acquire data can be significantly reduced by implementing measurement systems featuring high data capture per test while requiring limited modification or instrumentation of models. There has recently been a significant upturn in the use of fast responding Pressure-Sensitive Paint (PSP) technology. Fast PSP, which offers a means of acquiring unsteady pressure data at millions of locations on a model surface, has long been viewed as a disruptive technology. Recent advancements in fast CMOS camera and LED technology have facilitated the realization of this long promised capability. Data at an individual pixel can be extracted and processed as traditional pressure tap data to identify mean, rms, and spectral content and full data sets can be decomposed spectrally to present the amplitude of the pressure fluctuations spatially at a series of frequencies. Acquisition of the data is only one portion of an effective fast PSP system. Fast PSP systems generate thousands of images in seconds, and each of these images represents a sample of up to one million fast pressure sensors. For maximum productivity, the data must be collected, processed, and a preliminary analysis conducted in near real-time to allow users to identify flow features of interest, and modify the test plan to maximize tunnel test time. The data processing tools must include fast processing of the data and automated analysis tools to identify key flow features in near real-time. The objective of the Phase I and Phase II program is to both identify the fast PSP hardware for a large wind tunnel system, and develop and integrate the data processing tools that will result in a productive system. The proposed fast PSP system would improve wind tunnel utilization, enhance the performance of ground-based programs, and indirectly lower operational costs

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Fast pressure-sensitive paint systems is under investigation for a variety of applications in aerodynamics. This program will provide advancement of the state-of-the-art in this field as the proposed research will develop a system for the measurement of continuous distributions unsteady pressure that require no physical modifications to the model and produces data with high spatial resolution. The addition of the near real-time data presentation and data mining tools will improve productivity by allowing users to focus test resources on key flow features. The final product of this program would be a very marketable system that should be of interest to both military and commercial wind tunnel facilities. The proposed fast PSP system would improve wind tunnel utilization, enhance the performance of ground-based programs, and indirectly lower operational costs. The installation of a productive fast PSP system would provide a marketable capability for any commercial wind tunnel customer

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is considerable interest in measurements of unsteady pressure for evaluation of computational models and study of flow physics on hypersonic inlets, compressors, aeroelasticity, and rotorcraft aerodynamics. The ability to acquire data from one million fast responding pressure transducers sprayed onto a model is a technological capability that is of interest to a variety of research wind tunnels, for example the TDT and Ames 11-foot tunnel. This proposal will provide advancement of the state-of-the-art in this field as the proposed research will develop a system that includes near real-time data presentation and data mining tools will improve productivity by allowing users to focus test resources on key flow features. The fast PSP technology could be deployed to wind tunnels at different NASA centers for testing on a variety of programs that have need of unsteady pressure measurements. The proposed fast PSP system would improve wind tunnel utilization, enhance the performance of ground-based programs, and indirectly lower operational costs. The installation of a productive fast PSP system would provide a marketable capability that could drive customers to the NASA facilities

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Aerodynamics
Characterization
Image Processing
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Acoustic/Vibration
Pressure/Vacuum
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 A2.01-8787
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CD20P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rugged, Compact, and Inexpensive Airborne Fiber Sensor Interrogator Based on a Monolithic Tunable Laser
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Freedom Photonics, LLC
41 Aero Camino
Santa Barbara,CA 93117 -3104 (805) 967-4900
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Renner
info@freedomphotonics.com
41 Aero Camino
Santa Barbara ,CA 93117 -3104
(805) 967-4900 Ext: 7008

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this program, Freedom Photonics will develop and build a robust, low C-SWaP laser source with improved performance over current technology, to be incorporated into improved FOS interrogator systems. The laser will be 40nm continuously tunable around C-band, with fast sweep rate. The laser interrogator module to be developed will be based on our advanced monolithic, fast-tunable laser and receiver technology, leading to ultra-low SWaP with smaller FOS laser interrogator module, two orders of magnitude smaller than existing technology, and interrogator mass less than 100 grams. The configuration will be rugged, compatible with fuel, fuel vapor, shock, and vibration.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
- 3D Shape Sensing: Antenna deflection, solar array deployment, space station snake robots - 2D Shape/Deflection Sensing: Wing deflection, morphing wings, engine nozzle shape, rocket shape - trajectory corrections - Strain Measurements: Distributed load monitoring, COPV failure prediction, failure precursor detection, composite material embedment, full scale testing, structural dynamics - Temperature Measurements: Cryogenic liquid level (rocket fuel), re-entry ablative material monitoring

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
- Oil & Gas: Drill/tool shape and head position, well movement, ROV tether, flexible riser shape, Platform movement, Well health monitoring, well equipment integrity, Storage tank liquid level, liquid composition, distributed well temperature - Medical: Catheters, robotic surgery, Mattress deflection, body contour sensing, bone impact deflection Swallow strength - detection, prosthetic limb design and test, sport equipment safety, Inflammation, Heat Therapy, Cancer Treatment - Energy (other): Nuclear facility snake robots, nuclear tube deformation, Wind turbine blade and shaft deflection Wind turbine blade embedment - health monitoring, blade design and testing, Gas turbine temperature distribution

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Acoustic/Vibration
Contact/Mechanical
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Thermal


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 A2.01-8865
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CD19P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Sensitivity Semiconductor Sensor Skins for Multi-Axis Surface Pressure Characterization
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanosonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke,VA 24136 -3645 (540) 626-6266
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hang Ruan
hruan@nanosonic.com
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke ,VA 24136 -3645
(540) 626-6266

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This NASA Phase II SBIR program would fabricate high sensitivity semiconductor nanomembrane 'sensor skins' capable of multi-axis surface pressure characterization on flight test vehicles, wind tunnel models as well as operational aerospace vehicles, using SOI (Silicon on Insulator) NM techniques in combination with our pioneering HybridSil nanocomposite materials. Such low-modulus, conformal nanomembrane sensor skins with integrated interconnect elements and electronic devices can be applied to new or existing wind tunnel models for multi-axis surface pressure analysis, or to lightweight UAVs as part of active flutter control systems. NanoSonic has demonstrated the feasibility of NM transducer materials in such sensor skins for the measurement of dynamic shear stress and normal pressure. Semiconductor NM sensor skins are thin, mechanically and chemically robust materials that may be patterned in two dimensions to create multi-sensor element arrays that can be embedded into small probe tips or conformally attached onto vehicle and model surfaces. Sensors may be connected to external support instrumentation either through thin film and ribbon cable interconnects, or potentially wirelessly using RF communication directly from electronic networks incorporated into the sensor skin material.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Small, unmanned air vehicles large enough to carry the extra load associated with electronics and power, and operationally sophisticated enough to require air data sensors would be a likely first use. Distributed pressure mapping on air vehicles as well as in biomedical devices and other systems may have merit.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The anticipated initial market of the NM sensor skin arrays is for flight testing and wind tunnel testing of flow models for NASA flight research centers. An appreciation of the instrumentation issues obtained by working with such centers would allow improvements in sensor materials, electronics and packaging, and potentially allow the transition of related products to operational vehicles. The thin film sensor elements may be used as air flow or water flow devices in systems where either the low weight, low surface profile, lack of need for space below the flow surface, or high sensitivity at a low cost are needed.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Aerodynamics
Acoustic/Vibration
Pressure/Vacuum
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 A2.01-9858
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CD10P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: CloudTurbine: Streaming Data via Cloud File Sharing
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cycronix
21 Surrey Lane
Laconia,NH 03246 -6010 (603) 556-9181
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Matthew Miller
matt@cycronix.com
21 Surrey Lane
Laconia ,NH 03246 -6010
(603) 556-9181

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose a novel technology to leverage rapidly evolving cloud based infrastructure to improve time constrained situational awareness for real-time decision making. Our "CloudTurbine" innovation eliminates the distinction between files and streams.
Streaming and static data have long been considered separately. Whereas streaming data protocols continue to fragment, a great unification of approach for static data has occurred. The paradigm for file-sharing services is simple: (1) put data in a local file folder, (2) it automatically shows up at other linked systems. Wouldn't it be nice if one could unify an approach for streaming data while leveraging the file-sharing cloud infrastructure? This is precisely what we propose.
CloudTurbine is a streaming data interface to file-sharing and file-transport services such as Dropbox and FTP. It delegates much of the data transmittal, security, and server resources to the third-party service. It eliminates the distinction between files and streams, and enables a simple, cost effective new paradigm for streaming data middleware.
Phase I demonstrated the features, utility, and performance of the prototype CloudTurbine to be very appropriate for a wide range of data-streaming applications. A significant performance issue is the inherent latency imposed by file bundling plus transfer time. Testing has proven this to be tractable, with low latency (2-5s) for several file sharing services, and very low latency (10-50ms) for protocols such as FTP and mapped drives.
We propose an Open Source CloudTurbine web portal as a hub to provide this technology to NASA, scientific, and industrial communities. Following the legacy of the earlier-generation DataTurbine, we will vigorously move to establish a self-sustaining Open Source community which provides CloudTurbine access, development, services, spin-off products, and community support.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA applications include scientific sensor applications, a DataTurbine compatible enhancement for scientific researchers at http://dataturbine.org, smartphone photo/video sharing, and a new platform for the rapidly growing "Internet of Things" market to monitor home appliance, utility and energy use.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
CloudTurbine would provide a significant advancement of the NASA "Virtual Presence" infrastructure for flight research data and wind tunnel test data remote collaboration. Other potential NASA applications include LVC-DE distributed flight simulation, SOFIA sensor data streaming to schools for educational outreach, and conversion of legacy flight data to a sustainable, transparent archive format.
CloudTurbine is synergistic and compatible with the DataTurbine middleware and WebScan web viewer in use by NASA, and leverages the investment and utility of these legacy technologies. It brings new advantages and lowers the barriers to interfacing data at both source and consumer. Significantly, it brings the power and advantages of modern Cloud computing to streaming data for flight operations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Network Integration
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Outreach
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Fusion
Acoustic/Vibration
Simulation & Modeling
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 A2.02-9059
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CD17P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Collision-Avoidance Radar for Small UAS
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
UAVradars, LLC
2029 Becker Drive
Lawrence,KS 66047 -1620 (316) 461-1181
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lei Shi
shi@uavradars.com
2029 Becker Drive
Lawrence ,KS 66047 -1620
(316) 461-1181

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In the near future unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) will be utilized for many societal and commercial applications. However, the hurdle of operation safety in the form of avoiding airborne collisions must first be overcome. UAVradars LLC is proposing a small, lightweight, and low-power radar system designed specifically to give small UAS (< 55 lbs) airborne collision-avoidance sensory capability. Radar is ideally suited for this purpose due to its all-weather capability to provide accurate position and velocity data. The proposed radar is based on previous R&D funded by NASA and performed at the University of Kansas from 2012 to 2014. This effort resulted the successfully flight testing of a large scale proof-of-concept radar that was then miniaturized as an academic demonstrating of the potential reduction in size, weight and power (SWaP). The SBIR Phase I focuses on overcoming critical factors specific to commercialization needs that were left unresolved. These were 1) replace the bulky user laptop controller with a small Raspberry Pi 2 to allow the miniature radar system to be installed on a sUAS; 2) move the radar operations to the ISM band to avoid FCC licensing complications; and 3) implement radar transmit encoding to allow multiple radar systems to operate in the same area without cross jamming. The successful complete of Phase I indicated the radar commercialization feasibility which leads into Phase II. The objectives in Phase II is to create a flight tested prototype. This involves 1) maximize radar hardware performance; 2) create a target detection and tracking algorithm; and 3) perform radar flight testing to validate its capability. By completing these tasks, the Phase II miniature radar system will be proven as a disruptive technology for overcome key sense-and-avoid barriers in NASA?s efforts of integrating UAS in the National Airspace System (NAS).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The worldwide commercial UAS market is already a multibillion dollar industry and growing at 15 to 20 percent each year. The U.S. however, is lagging due to FAA restriction on UAS operations primarily due to collision-avoidance concerns. Research has shown that once unleashed, UAS will be use in agriculture, film/photography, academia, package delivery, law enforcement, and many more creating a multibillion dollar UAS industry in the U.S. almost overnight. However, to achieve this possibility, UAS operation must first be made safe. The proposed radar system will be a critical sensor in achieving this safety threshold and therefore, will be applicable to all commercial sUAS that has roughly a 4-lbs payload. This is expected to include precision agriculture, the movie industry, pipeline monitoring, search and rescue, border patrol, package delivery, and many more. Beyond Phase II, UAVradars will work towards developing sensor and autopilot integration, creating a complete airborne collision-avoidance package that is plug-and-play to further reach additional markets. As an example, Amazon in Dec 2015, presented its latest UAS for package deliver which changed form a hexa-copter to fixed-wing aircraft. This is exactly the type of sUAS that could carry and benefit from the collision-avoidance radar system since flight beyond line-of-sight must be performed to have any commercial value.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA currently has multiple UAS applications/technology development programs which could benefit from the proposed situation awareness radar system. The Phase II miniature radar system will allow NASA pilots to operate multiple UAS with minimal oversight, enhance multi-vehicle cooperation (especially in an unknown environment), and achieve higher levels of situation awareness for intelligent decision making in real-time. For example, NASA?s Autonomous Robust Avionics (AuRA) would directly benefit from the radar?s ability to reduce operator workload.

Either as a stand-alone sensor or integrated with other devices, the situation awareness provided by the radar is a disruptive solution that will greatly affect the rules and regulations for UAS in the NAS which NASA, the FAA, and other agencies are collaborating on. NASA AFRC has successful R&D on large scale UAS in the NAS using vehicles such as the Ikhana but will so move towards sUAS such as the DROID3 or Area I. This proposed radar system with its miniature SWaP form factor has been identified as suitable for installation onboard these sUAS. Furthermore, detection range and coverage provided by the radar lends itself to be a backup sensor on the large scale UAS without upsetting the current payload limitation. Finally, since radars are capable of operating in outer space, the proposed radar could theoretically be applied to space mission as well.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Perception/Vision
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Electromagnetic
Interferometric (see also Analysis)
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 A2.02-9086
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CD16P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development and Flight Testing of RAIDER: An Automated Upset Recovery System
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Barron Associates, Inc.
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville,VA 22901 -2496 (434) 973-1215
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Neha Gandhi
barron@bainet.com
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville ,VA 22901 -2559
(434) 973-1215

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
UAS have the potential to offer great economic and operational advantages, but realizing this potential will require greater operational flexibility for UAS in the National Airspace. New technologies that enable beyond visual line of sight operations and that allow one operator to control multiple vehicles will expand the range of missions that can be accomplished and reduce operating costs. Automated upset recovery technology will reduce reliance on a human operator to mitigate hazards posed by Loss of Control (LOC) due to upset, leading to greater operational freedom. This technology is critical because LOC due to upset is one of the main causes of accidents in manned aircraft and is already emerging as an important causal factor in UAS accidents. LOC of an UAS operated at low altitude poses a hazard to people and property on the ground and is a barrier to relaxing operational restrictions. The Phase I research has developed a recovery system that replaces the perception, cognition, and decision making of a skilled operator with a two-stage automated recovery architecture and an innovative upset detection system. The decision about when to activate each stage of a recovery is difficult to make at design-time, so the upset detection system employs a novel statistical testing framework that combines at run-time numerous pieces of data including vehicle attitude, rotational rate, and controller performance to answer the question: Has an upset occurred? During Phase I, the recovery system was evaluated in a high quality simulation of a small fixed-wing vehicle. All hardware needed for flight testing was obtained, and systems integration work was performed. The proposed Phase II effort will focus on flight testing of the recovery system, including tests with multiple vehicle designs. The Phase II team includes a flight testing and commercialization partner with a track record of safe, legal, and effective UAS inspection operations in support of commercial customers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Phase II program is structured to raise the maturity of the recovery system to a level that enables product commercialization onboard commercial inspection UAS. One of the Phase II partners is actively conducting inspection flights for utility companies under a Section 333 exemption from the FAA and has provided low-cost aerial imagery to identify numerous infrastructure problems and wildlife issues. Inspection operations are conducted at low altitude and in close proximity to infrastructure to provide the highest quality imagery. Clearly, this leaves a very small margin for recovering from upset events. The recovery system will help to mitigate the ground hazard, a very real concern considering a significant amount of utility infrastructure exists in densely populated areas. As continued use allows stakeholders to gain confidence in the system, the recovery system will enable flight beyond visual line of sight, operation of multiple UAS by a single operator, and larger mission envelopes. The operational experience that is gained after initial commercialization of the recovery system on commercial inspection UAS operated will leave the team well poised to market the technology in other sectors including (1) military and intelligence gathering operations, (2) law-enforcement operations, (3) land management oversight, (4) aerial photography, and (5) package delivery.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed research aligns closely with several NASA programs and thus has multiple potential NASA commercial applications. The system directly addresses the Integrated Aviation Systems Program (IASP) focus areas of perception, cognition, and decision making and operation of multiple UAS with minimal human oversight.? The overall goal of the IASP is to demonstrate integrated technologies to a maturity level that is sufficient to reduce the risk of implementation for stakeholders in the aviation community. To meet this goal, the Phase I effort has been used to lay the groundwork for a series of flight-test experiments in Phase II that will advance the recovery system to TRL 7. The Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management (UTM) project is researching prototype technologies to enable and safely manage the widespread use of low-altitude airspace and UAS operations. The proposed technology will help meet the autonomicity goals of this program, enabling UAS to maintain control when faced with the large range of precipitating factors that lead to LOC. The Safe Autonomous Systems Operations (SASO) project seeks ways to safely integrate within the National Airspace System the highest level of automation that is justifiable, exploring future airspace concepts including point-to-point and on-demand usage of personal air vehicles (PAVs). The recovery system is applicable to any autonomous vehicle whether a small UAS or self-flying PAV.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Attitude Determination & Control
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Sequencing & Scheduling
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 A2.02-9479
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL58P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Autonomous Agricultural Application using Unmanned Aircraft
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing,NJ 08618 -2302 (609) 538-0444
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Wachspress
dan@continuum-dynamics.com
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing ,NJ 08618 -2302
(609) 538-0444 Ext: 114

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Interest in Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) for civilian use has increased greatly in recent years and is expected to grow significantly in the future. NASA is involved in research that would greatly benefit from advancing the ability of UAS to make autonomous real-time decisions based on sensor data. This SBIR effort will provide this capability, developing and demonstrating an intelligent controller for a UAS that can autonomously perform agricultural chemical spraying leveraging EPA-approved software and following NASA guidelines for suggested certification requirements for commercial UAS over 55 lbs. This is a high-value civilian application well-suited to autonomous UAS given the dangers posed by maneuvering manned aircraft at extremely low altitudes. This also serves as a test case for evaluating future UAS certification requirements. Phase I established feasibility by demonstrating the ability to perform the required onboard sensing, to establish communication between a UAS and flight controller at high enough bandwidth to allow inflight decision-making, and to execute a pre-determined flight path/spraying strategy autonomously. Phase II would see the design, development and implementation of a fully-autonomous, prototype system that can perform high-level decision-making during flight and satisfy NASA?s draft certification basis for UAS performing precision agricultural spraying. The prototype system would install algorithms based upon existing EPA-approved spray drift management software within the autonomous flight control system. The end goal of the Phase II effort would be a flight demonstration of the prototype system consisting of a modified, midsize UAS spraying intelligently and autonomously, with high-level decision-making, within a relevant environment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The DoD is seeing growing use of UAS in surveillance and urban operations where the ability to extract information in-flight and utilize this information in decision-making with minimal human oversight is critical. The number of trained operators of DoD unmanned aircraft systems is currently being vastly outstripped by requirements for operating an ever-increasing fleet of UAS aircraft. UAS operators are currently being forced to work longer and longer shifts with no alleviation in sight. The technology developed during this effort directly supports addressing this need, providing advancements in the ability for autonomous control of UAS platforms that will reduce the level of direct piloting required. Private industry will also benefit greatly from this current effort. First, this SBIR will provide advancements in fully-autonomous, application-specific, UAS platforms. Autonomous control is critical to the eventual expansion of the customer base beyond those with piloting experience to the general public at large. Thus this area of research supports an enormous leap in commercialization potential. Second, the proposed effort also has a component addressing FAA-certification requirements for autonomously-controlled UAS. This is currently a critical barrier to the commercial use of UAS in the U.S.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed effort directly addresses NASA program goals to develop technologies that provide the ability of UAS to extract information in-flight and utilize this information in decision making. This SBIR effort also directly supports current NASA/industry initiatives to establish airworthiness standards for FAA-certification that will provide a roadmap for future application of UAS in commercial applications within the United States. Specifically, this SBIR effort dovetails with a NASA/DPI partnership to study civil airworthiness certification for use in the national airspace through demonstration of precision agricultural spray application, a mission that is particularly suited to UAS given the significant dangers faced by manned aircraft maneuvering at extremely low altitudes. The proposed SBIR effort complements and directly supports this NASA/DPI effort by demonstrating fully-autonomous, flight path and mission management system for UAS tailored toward a specific task, in this case agricultural spraying. The proposed project addresses two key elements that must be demonstrated before UAS can be applied in commercial missions within the U.S; a need for technical advancement related to autonomous control and decision-making and a need to develop airworthiness FAA-certification requirements for UAS operations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Air Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Attitude Determination & Control
Command & Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 A2.02-9634
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CD12P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flight Testing of Resource allocation for Multi-Agent Planning (ReMAP) System for Unmanned Vehicles
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Area-I
1590 North Roberts Road, Suite 102
Kennesaw,GA 30144 -3636 (678) 594-5227
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Kuehme
dkuehme@areai.aero
1590 North Roberts Road, Suite 102
Kennesaw ,GA 30144 -3636
(678) 594-5227

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 6
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Area-I, Incorporated personnel have led the design, fabrication, and flight testing of fourteen unmanned aircraft, one manned aircraft, and numerous advanced guidance, control, and avionics packages. Area-I has continued this tradition in its development of the Resource allocation for Multi-Agent Planning, or ReMAP, guidance and navigation system for unmanned aircraft. The ReMAP system, whose core function is to significantly reduce operator workload by providing mission-driven autonomy to unmanned aircraft in single- and multi-agent scenarios, was proven through flight testing during the Phase I program. The work proposed will further mature the ReMAP technology and core capabilities, resulting in continued flight-based evaluations on Area-I aircraft. Core capabilities provided by the ReMAP system include: 1) A small, lightweight, inexpensive avionics package that provides real-time mission-driven guidance capabilities to unmanned air vehicles 2) A system architecture that is platform and autopilot agnostic and can therefore be utilized by a wide array of aircraft with varying performance levels 3) A multi-agent planning and control algorithm to allow multiple aircraft to coordinate and thereby maximize mission capabilities and results 4) Aircraft and obstacle avoidance capabilities, including ADS-B In integration, providing autonomous avoidance maneuvers or operator warnings 5) A mission planning interface to provide situational awareness and mission management to operators, usable as a stand-alone system or integrated with existing mission planning tools such as NASA's Airborne Science Mission Tools Suite

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ReMAP system has a large number of end-use applications, including multiple aircraft platforms and mission types. Analysis shows that a multi-UAS system such as ReMAP is key to enabling UAS for commercial applications. Our strong industry support shows the significant impact the ReMAP system may have on UAS applications and provides a clear path to commercialization. The system may be commercialized as a stand-alone system, or coupled as an add-on to COTS autopilot systems. Area-I may also commercialize turn-key, ReMAP enabled aircraft as well as multi-agent mission support.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ReMAP system provides a unique ability to enhance two of NASA's mission directorates: the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) and the Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The system improves the goals of the ARMD through the development of a system that promotes the safe integration of unmanned aircraft systems into the National Airspace System (NAS) and is in line with the goals of the NextGen system. The majority of others'work performed in multi-agent systems has been largely academic and often solves very specific or theoretical problems. The goal of the ReMAP development, however, has been to provide a successful and operationally relevant product that may be used in a wide variety of applications. The result is a system that has a significant potential impact on the SMD to support a variety of missions, both present and future.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Man-Machine Interaction
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Process Monitoring & Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 A2.02-9727
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL43P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Modular Swarm Optimization Framework Enabling Multi-Vehicle Coordinated Path Planning
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Heron Systems, Inc.
22685 Three Notch Road Suite B
California,MD 20619 -3019 (301) 866-0330
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kenneth Kroeger
ken.kroeger@heronsystems.com
2121 Eisenhower Ave
Alexandria ,VA 22314 -4688
(571) 257-8403

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The advancement of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) with computing power and communications hardware has enabled an increased capability set for multi-vehicle collaborative operations. By cooperatively allocating unmanned resources, vehicle tasking, and planning the subsequent vehicle paths, the efficiency of UAS operations can be maximized. Heron Systems proposes to develop the Multi-Agent Cooperative Engagement (MACE) framework into a mature prototype that enables collaborative resource allocation, task allocation, and path planning for unmanned systems operating in dynamic environments subject to diverse communication conditions. This Phase 2 work will focus on refining the path planning portion of MACE as well as maturing the resource and task allocation library developed during Phase 1. The path planning architecture will define key modules to plan paths to a global objective, assess potential obstacles, and avoid collisions while maintaining progress towards the global objective. The framework will be constructed in a modular fashion to allow a plug-and-play capability for the resource/task allocation as well as the various components of the path planning pipeline, giving end users the flexibility to explore other methods for UAS collaboration. At the conclusion of Phase 2, the MACE framework will be demonstrated using Heron Systems? HWIL simulation/stimulation environment. Once verified via the HWIL environment, the MACE framework will be deployed onboard several aerial assets and tested against scenarios specifically tailored towards precision agriculture applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercially, MACE promises to dramatically improve the efficiency of operations of many envisioned UAS applications. Of particular interest are those in the areas of precision agriculture and aerial surveying. Heron Systems will build a service delivery model tailored for precision agriculture supporting rapid surveying of fields and follow-on tasking based on real-time findings. Similarly, a second product line will tailor to the needs of civil engineers supporting inspection requirements. Heron Systems is principally targeting the commercial market.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Collaborative unmanned operations can offer NASA significant new capabilities in the areas of airborne science, weather monitoring and the ongoing study of UAS integration into the National Air Space (NAS). We have identified the ongoing Unmanned Traffic Management (UTM) program and related studies being conducted at NASA Langley and NASA Ames. Collaborative capabilities can support several ongoing initiatives either directly or by offering capabilities that empower further opportunities. Methods for determining suitable paths in the presence of both compliant and non-compliant aircraft are vital for safe integration.

Additionally, MACE can provide NASA with a framework for enabling safe terminal area operations where collaborative control can be used to guide entering and exiting UAS into safe and predictable flight patterns. A secondary NASA customer set will be the Aeronautical Earth Sciences programs operated by NASA Langley. MACE can empower enhanced data collection through the deployment of multiple sensors and increased coverage areas. Further, the flexible resource allocation capability can allow scientists to maximize their data collection time to focus on targets of opportunity that may not be fully understood prior to launching the mission.

A third opportunity is insertion into the ongoing storm monitoring and prediction activities jointly conducted by NASA and NOAA. MACE can be used to supplement ongoing GlobalHawk flights to gather high fidelity data.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Air Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Man-Machine Interaction
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 A2.02-9786
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CD11P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Command and Control Software for Single-Operator Multiple UAS Missions
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Opto-Knowledge Systems, Inc. (OKSI)
19805 Hamilton Avenue
Torrance,CA 90502 -1341 (310) 756-0520
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris Holmesparker
Chris.HolmesParker@oksi.com
19805 Hamilton Avenue
Torrance ,CA 90502 -1341
(310) 756-0520 Ext: 246

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Existing command and control (C2) paradigms for UAS platforms are extremely limited and cumbersome, requiring at least a single operator per UAS, if not more than one operator for each UAS (as is the case with many scientific and commercial UAS platforms). For example, UAS platforms such as the ScanEagle or the Sierra require at least one operator to handle the routing / navigation tasks for the aircraft and another operator to handle and operate the mission-specific payload. In this setting, the UAS platforms actually become a force-divider instead of a force-multiplier. The requirement of multiple operators for each individual UAS platforms is problematic for commercial applications where the high cost of human operators would inhibit many key applications such as package delivery from becoming financially viable.
To address these issues, Opto-Knowledge Systems Inc (OKSI) and Analytical Graphics Inc (AGI) are joining forces to design, demonstrate, and deliver a robust multiple Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) semi-autonomous command and control tool that will enable a single human operator to manage multiple UAS platforms concurrently. Though there has been significant research into the single-operator multiple UAS control paradigm, there are currently no existing commercially available tools for this application. This work is aimed at shoring up this gap by creating the Single-Operator Multiple Autonomous Vehicle (SOMAV) command and control tool that will be integrated with AGI?s Systems Tool Kit (STK) software and sold commercially at the end of the Phase-II program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
UAS Communication Networks): Recent advancements (e.g., Aerial Communications Node platforms) have resulted in UAS-based aerial communications platforms that are able to provide up to 10 times more coverage than traditional ground-based communications towers, and that are able to dynamically move to address changing customer needs. There has recently been a great deal of talk about bringing these capabilities to the civilian communications sector. This forms a complex UAS route coordination problem: Given a set of UAS platforms and a dynamic set of customers that have changing bandwidth requirements and move throughout the environment (e.g., traveling from work to home, or 50,000 people being packed into a stadium on game day), how should the UAS platforms optimize their routes and coverage areas in order to optimize the total bandwidth coverage available to customers? The SOMAV module will readily address this routing and coordination problem in a way that concurrently maximizes coverage over a mobile set of customers and minimizes the total fuel consumed by the fleet of UAS communications nodes. SOMAV will provide high fidelity simulation and modeling of the entire UAS fleet and the RF communications links between the ground-based users and the UAS communications nodes including effects due to radio and antenna characteristics, weather, terrain, and communication protocol.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NAS Integration and Air Traffic Control (NASA NextGen Program): For the past decade, NASA has been working to develop NextGen Air Traffic Control (ATC) Management capabilities that will provide increased efficiency and throughput of the National Air Space (NAS) to meet growing system demands. The SOMAV STK module for multiple-UAS command and control directly promotes these efforts in several ways. First, it provides a high-fidelity simulation environment for testing potential ATC routing algorithms, particularly those for systems of UAS platforms. Second, our tool reduces human operator workload by pushing much of the low-level control onto the UAV platforms themselves and having the routing/coordination performed autonomously. Reducing operator burden is listed as a specific goal of within Topic A2.02 Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology of this SBIR effort. Third, our UAS routing and coordination tool will automatically optimize separation assurance for the UAS platforms in each team, which relates to the goal of safely and seamlessly integrating UAS platforms into NextGen. Fourth, the proposed module directly promotes autonomous operation for systems of UAS platforms using machine intelligence for decision-making. Finally, the UAS coordination tool addresses NASA?s goal of advancing the state-of-the-art in autonomous navigation under uncertain conditions (e.g., collision/hazard avoidance) and cooperative task completion.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Man-Machine Interaction
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Process Monitoring & Control
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 A3.01-8620
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL97P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Optimality Metrics Reporting Toolkit for SMART NAS
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Resilient Ops, LLC
4 Albamont Road
Winchester,MA 01890 -3418 (650) 248-8285
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bala Chandran
bala.chandran@resilientops.com
4 Albamont Road
Winchester ,MA 01890 -3418
(650) 248-8285

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR project aims to develop a software module for the SMART NAS Test Bed (or another similar simulation environment) that allows an apples-to-apples comparison of system performance across scenarios and a comparison to a 'best possible' case.

The module, named TOMO (Toolkit for Optimality Metrics Overlay), is a metrics toolkit for comparing SMART NAS simulation runs to the optimal decisions that should be made/should have been made relative to a selected metric to help compare the performance of the scenario being simulated to a best possible outcome, either in shadow-mode or in post-operations mode. The output from TOMO is not only a normalized metric, but the 4-D trajectories of all aircraft in an optimally-performing system.
A key component to the success of any simulation environment is the quality of the metrics that it is able to report back to a user to allow informed decision-making. TOMO addresses the need to develop metrics that are comparable across scenarios by computing a 'baseline' for each scenario that represents the best that the system could perform given the operating constraints, weather, and demand. By normalizing metrics relative to this baseline, it allows for more direct comparisons across scenarios along multiple dimensions both in shadow mode and playback scenarios. When used in shadow mode, TOMO will identify the actions that should be taken to optimize for a given objective.
In addition to computing the metrics, TOMO's output includes descriptive information on how the trajectories in the scenario being simulated differ from those in the optimal solution, and provides insight into how system performance may be improved.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The FAA will have similar interest in TOMO as would NASA, by leveraging TOMO's powerful decision support capability. These simulation and experimental needs are shared by other non-NASA organizations, especially those who possess or are developing large-scale air transportation simulators. Those organizations include Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, MITRE-CAASD, and Volpe. Each of these organizations has a European counterpart with comparable roles and interests. Those organizations include EUROCONTROL, SESAR, and the Ecole Polytechnique.
Furthermore, there are many foreign air navigation service providers (ANSP), who are the counterpart of the FAA, with burgeoning air traffic management systems that could benefit from decision support tools for better trajectory planning and understanding of the cost/benefit tradeoffs of flow management initiatives. In some respects, these are even more viable customers for our product than the FAA, because their air traffic management systems are less highly developed (in some cases, nascent) and, therefore, able to incorporate new subsystems. Countries with such ANSPs include South Africa, the Dominican Republic, Australia, and Colombia.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The core application of the work in this project will be to further NASA's goals to enable safe and efficient Trajectory-Based Operations, and to develop a decision-support capability to enable better decision making. SMART NAS will be the primary application of TOMO; we envision that TOMO can be plugged into SMART NAS as a module enabling metrics computation and comparison. TOMO will display its results on a convenient user interface, to allow SMART NAS users to readily make informed decisions.
If successful, it is envisioned that TOMO will not only integrate with SMART NAS to enable scenario simulation and evaluation, but will also provide output on the optimal trajectories that will promote new learning and improved decisions.
TOMO can also be used for post-operations evaluation of the existing system and be integrated with real-time data feeds such as SWIM to allow TOMO to be run in playback or shadow mode.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 A3.01-8953
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CA53P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Airport Gate Activity Monitoring Tool Suite for Improved Turnaround Prediction
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimal Synthesis, Inc.
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos,CA 94022 -2777 (650) 559-8585
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hui-Ling Lu
vicky@optisyn.com
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos ,CA 94022 -2777
(650) 559-8585 Ext: 110

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of this research is to create a suite of tools for monitoring airport gate activities with the objective of improving aircraft turnaround prediction. Airport ramp areas are the most crowded and cluttered spaces in the entire National Airspace System (NAS). Operations associated with turnaround of the aircraft from the gate represent a significant source of delay and therefore impact the predictability of NAS operations. The computer-vision-based Gate Activity Monitoring TOol Suite (GAMTOS) will specifically identify the various stages of turnaround such as refueling, baggage handling, and deicing. It will further employ a probabilistic model of the times associated with each of these events, that will be used for predicting the future sequence of events and their predicted times of completion. We seek to leverage our expertise in monitoring aircraft using the Vision BAsed Surveillance System (VBASS) currently being developed under a Phase III SBIR research from NASA Ames Research Center. At the end of Phase II, the GAMTOS software is expected to operate in two different modes. The first mode is an offline mode, which generates a database of gate activities, their timings, and their sequence. The second mode is a real-time mode which involves continuous monitoring of activities and prediction of future activities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Low-cost airport activity monitoring techniques are of considerable interest to FAA and airports in general. It can be used by airlines to monitor the efficiency and bottlenecks in their own operations. GAMTOS directly benefit the American Airlines who is working on expected off-block time prediction. Potentially GAMTOS technology can be inserted into the existing ramp-area situational awareness product such as Aerobahn. Moreover, computer-vision-based activity monitoring techniques are of significant interest in several areas such as warehouses, commercial office buildings, train stations, and bus stations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
By providing improved pushback time Prediction, GAMTOS directly benefits Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA), which is part of the Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) II. GAMTOS is also directly applicable to objectives of the Networked ATM sub-project under the Shadow Mode Assessment Using Realistic Technologies in the National Airspace System (SMART NAS) project. GAMTOS is expected to increase the gate operations predictability and reduce the total cost of National Airspace System operations. GAMTOS would further enhance the development of Trajectory-Based Operations (TBO) concepts and enabling technology solutions that enable capacity, throughput, and efficiency gains within the various phases of gate-to-gate operations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Air Transportation & Safety
Intelligence
Perception/Vision
Process Monitoring & Control
Sequencing & Scheduling
Image Analysis
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Image Processing
Data Fusion
Knowledge Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 A3.01-9499
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL57P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Networked ATM for Efficient Routing
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robust Analytics
2053 Liza Way
Gambrills,MD 21054 -2007 (410) 980-3667
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Peter Kostiuk
peter.kostiuk@robust-analytics.com
2053 Liza Way
Gambrills ,MD 21054 -2007
(410) 980-3667

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We developed a EFB Data Communication Network (EDCN) concept that offers a more capable air-ground communications architecture. The solution takes full advantage of emerging communications technologies to integrate AOC/FOC and flight deck capabilities and leverage existing system integration between the AOC/FOC and TFMS to fully close the loop between controllers, traffic managers, pilots and dispatchers on tactical reroutes. Closing the loop between these four key stakeholder groups is an essential element for the extension of Trajectory Based Operations (TBO) and User Preferred Trajectories (UPT) into the enroute domain including NAS Oceanic airspace. This approach offers a more robust, extensible architecture that can be tailored to an individual airline's operational model while simultaneously offering an upgrade path for adding more capability over time. Our solution aims to combine the best features of recent NASA research products including DWR, DAR and TASAR, and adds more capability via enhanced data communications and connected cockpits. The solution is centered on both integration with AOC/FOC systems and the EFB and integration of AOC/FOC systems, to provide full access to superior information. This enables our architecture to use the best available data, allocate data processing and analytical functions to where they can be performed most efficiently, and allows the stakeholders to collaborate and make the best operational decision for the users as well as ATC.
Robust Analytics will developed and flight test a prototype of the EDCN with matched AOC and EFB applications to support uploading of graphical weather and exchange proposed flight re-routes to avoid weather and other NAS constraints.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Airlines are eager to find ways to gain operational advantage from the availability of high bandwidth, reliable, low cost data communications. This provides a timely opportunity for both the EFB app and AOC app, and more generally the EDCN concept in the immediate future and as TBO evolves. Our concept can be deployed immediately using existing airline systems, while offering an upgrade path to support desirable new concepts including trajectory negotiation. Improved AOC access to aircraft state information will improve airline ability to predict aircraft flight times and benefit network performance.
The principal mechanisms for offering our EDCN applications to airlines will come from our partnership with Sabre Airline Solutions and sales to other vendors and airlines. Our product will be attractive and add value to both AOC system vendors and EFB vendors. Airlines are also a direct sales channel, as they can add 3rd party applications to their EFBs, depending on the EFB OEM (Airbus, for example, does not allow 3rd-party apps on the EFB it sells with new aircraft purchases, which greatly reduces the value of their EFB in the view of many airlines.)
Business aircraft will provide another early opportunity as they are typically more willing to experiment with new technologies and quicker to deploy it when receiving value.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are five immediate NASA applications:
1. The SMART NAS Regional Trajectory Based Operations Sub-project is directly relevant to this effort. Under Regional TBO, NASA will develop and test concepts for TBO in the New York metroplex. Our prototypes provide two direct applications:
a. Concepts to test
b. AOC-aircraft communications and application testing infrastructure to install and evaluate new TBO-related algorithms
2. TASAR operates in the EFB and would benefit from data that EDCN can receive from the AOC.
3. Dynamic Weather Routing (DWR) is a TMU-AOC decision support tool that currently operates outside of the airline IT security firewall. This severely limits is usefulness to dispatchers, especially during weather events when they need it most. Our EDCN applications work within the firewall and exchange data with AOC system continuously, provide a seamless decision support capability.
4. Real-time System-wide Safety Assurance in a strategic thrust that aims to provide prognostic risk tools to better identify hazards and precursors. Our EDCN offers a platform to gather and disseminate flight deck data for use by RSSA models.
5. Thrust 1 ? Safe, Efficient Global Aviation ? develops new concepts and tools to improve operational efficiency.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Air Transportation & Safety


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 A3.02-8660
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL95P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace System (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Distributed Resilient Autonomous Framework for Manned/Unmanned Trajectory-Based Operations
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Resilient Ops, LLC
4 Albamont Road
Winchester,MA 01890 -3418 (650) 248-8285
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bala Chandran
bala.chandran@resilientops.com
4 Albamont Road
Winchester ,MA 01890 -3418
(650) 248-8285

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Resilient Ops, working in collaboration with Metron Aviation, Inc., proposes to develop a prototype system for planning Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) trajectories based on user intent and preference information. The system, called DRIFT-UAS (Distributed Resilient Framework for Trajectory Management of Unmanned Aircraft Systems), is intended to support autonomous Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM) under Trajectory-Based Operations (TBO). It is composed of algorithms and information-sharing components that enable autonomous trajectory planning while optimizing system-wide objectives such as safety, efficiency, and equity. DRIFT-UAS works for a mixed environment (manned and unmanned aircraft), but special emphasis is placed on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). The immediate application is primarily targeted at lower-altitude aircraft (below 18,000 feet) but DRIFT-UAS would apply as well to upper altitudes.

Using DRIFT-UAS, flight operators and air traffic management iteratively exchange trajectory intent and congestion feedback to develop trajectories that are efficient and equitable, while preserving an aircraft?s autonomy in generating its own trajectories based on its internal objective tradeoffs. The feedback aspect of the DRIFT-UAS architecture separates it from other ?evaluators,? i.e., systems that check whether operating constraints are violated given a set of trajectories. Once DRIFT-UAS checks the proposed trajectories against system constraints, it provides each aircraft with information via a price update on levels of congestion and system constraints in space and time that would enable the aircraft to revise its trajectory if required. This two-way communication between aircraft and air traffic management on trajectory intent and feasibility results in better trajectories as well as clearer guidance to airspace users as to which trajectories are most likely to be available.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The FAA will have similar interest in DRIFT-UAS as would NASA, by providing a prototype tool for planning trajectories based on user intent and preference information. If DRIFT-UAS were to go live, the FAA would be the holder of the software. Like NASA, the FAA will have interest in conducting research experiments for UAS integration and trajectory-based operations. These simulation and experimental needs are shared by other non-NASA organizations, especially those who possess or are developing large-scale air transportation simulators. Those organizations include Embry Riddle University, MITRE-CAASD, and Volpe. Each of these organizations has a European counterpart with comparable roles and interests. Those organizations include EUROCONTROL, SESAR, and the Ecole Polytechnique.
Furthermore, for real-time application of DRIFT-UAS, there are many foreign air navigation service provides (ANSP), who are the counterpart of the FAA, with burgeoning air traffic management systems that could benefit from more organized methods of trajectory planning. In some respects, these are even more viable customers for our product than the FAA because their air traffic management systems are less highly developed (in some cases, nascent) and, therefore, able to incorporate new subsystems. Countries with such ANSP include South Africa, the Dominican Republic, Australia, and Colombia.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The core application of the work in this project will be to further NASA?s and the FAA?s goals to enable safe and efficient Trajectory-Based Operations for UAS. If successful, it is envisioned that DRIFT-UAS will provide the platform though which all aircraft (unmanned or otherwise) would strategically interact with the air traffic management system to signal trajectory intent and receive feedback on delays and congestion. DRIFT-UAS would also serve as a centralized repository for trajectory intent and system capacity.

In the short-term, DRIFT UAS could be integrated within NASA?s SMART NAS platform as a trajectory planning module. This would aid SMART NAS in technology demonstrations and research experiments for topics such as integrating UAS into the national airspace system, planning traffic flow management activities, collaborative decision making for traffic flow management, trajectory-based operations, and enabling civilian low-altitude airspace UAS Operations. Near-term applications of DRIFT-UAS include estimating the impact of late entrants (i.e. unmanned or manned pop-up flights) to the system by examining the marginal cost of their addition, and measuring the marginal cost of all aircraft in the system to devise more efficient allocation schemes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Air Transportation & Safety
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Computer System Architectures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 A3.02-8950
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL82P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace System (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Generic FMS Platform for Evaluation of Autonomous Trajectory-Based Operation Concepts
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimal Synthesis, Inc.
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos,CA 94022 -2777 (650) 559-8585
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
P. K. Menon
menon@optisyn.com
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos ,CA 94022 -2777
(650) 559-8585 Ext: 101

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of the Phase II work is to develop a generic, advanced Flight Management System (FMS) for the evaluation of autonomous 4D-trajectory based operations (4DTBO) concepts. The work will address the following limitations of most commercially available FMS: they have limited advanced features; are specific to a single aircraft type; and cannot be readily modified by researchers. The proposed research will identify and extend advanced FMS features for the simulation evaluation of 4DTBO concepts in different phases of flight, based on the feasibility demonstration during Phase I work. Some of proposed feature include (i) advanced 4D guidance modes such as Required Time of Arrival (RTA), 4DFMS, and Interval Management (IM), (ii) high-fidelity wind modeling and wind update capability for improved predictability, (iii) trajectory negotiation, (iv) optimal 4D trajectory planning. Phase II work will develop a generic FMS interface to NASA's Multi-Aircraft Control System (MACS) to enable the evaluation of FMS modules from multiple vendors in 4DTBO simulations. The proposed FMS platform and the generic FMS interface will allow the users to deploy a wide array of autonomy enabling FMS features through a Graphical User Interface. All the algorithms and software developed under this research will be delivered to NASA at the end of the project.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The FMS platform developed under the proposed research will be of interest to NASA, FAA, and other ATM research organizations. It is expected that some of the next-generation FMS features developed under the Phase II research may also be of interest to commercial FMS manufacturers. The technologies will also be useful to the Unmanned Aerial System community for investigating the interactions of autonomous UAS with other highly automated aircraft operating in the National Airspace System. 4DTBO technologies developed under the proposed work has applications in other high-density transportation problems such as highway, railway and maritime traffic management.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The FMS platform developed under the proposed research is an enabling technology for autonomicity (or self-management) - based architectures for the entirety, or parts, of the NextGen airspace operations. It will augment the capabilities of NASA MACS ATM simulation environment to allow the evaluation of 4DTBO concepts by enabling new features such as RTA, and ADS-C. Generic MACS-FMS interface developed under the Phase II work can be used to evaluate next-generation FMS products from multiple vendors in human-in-the-loop simulations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Man-Machine Interaction
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Sequencing & Scheduling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 A3.02-9077
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CA49P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace System (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Autonomous, Safe Take-Off and Landing Operations for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in the National Airspace
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Near Earth Autonomy, Inc.
5001 Baum Boulevard, Suite 750
Pittsburgh,PA 15213 -1856 (412) 513-6110
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sanjiv Singh
ssingh@nearearth.aero
5001 Baum Blvd Ste 750
Pittsburgh ,PA 15213 -1856
(412) 855-3675

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have the potential to significantly impact modern society. While the technology for unmanned air vehicles operating day in and day out without constant human supervision is maturing steadily, much remains to be done to make these vehicles commonplace. We have identified a number of challenges that must be addressed for these vehicles to safely and efficiently conduct their tasks in the National Airspace System (NAS). Civilian applications of UAS must ensure that they can: (1) fly safely without an operator, using but not relying on maps or GPS to guide their course; and (2) deal with contingencies, especially rare events such as complete failure of sensors that provide awareness of the environment. We plan to address these challenges in the context of small, low-cost air vehicles in a manner that will enable our technology to be widely adopted. In Phase I we have demonstrated GPS-free navigation and environmental mapping in real time on a kilogram-scale sensing and computing payload for a small multi-rotor aircraft. The demonstration was noteworthy because it was conducted in complex environments in which GPS signals are blocked or degraded by multipath. In Phase II we propose to extend GPS-free navigation to a larger set of operating environments and to show collision-free guidance from take-off to landing with emphasis on the phases at low altitudes. We will work with the UTM team at NASA Ames to coordinate our experiments on block 4 testing. We expect to show in this program that it is possible for small autonomous air vehicles to reliably and safely fly in the first and last 50 feet of operation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The UAS market is forecast to require hundreds-of-thousands of units within just a few years of the FAA establishing the appropriate regulatory procedures for the operation of UAS in the NAS. An enhanced capability for safe and robust autonomous take-off and landing will fuel the market's forecast growth. Technology ensuring the safe operation of UAS, particularly during the first and last 50 ft of flight, will contribute to testing that verifies the safety of UAS operations as well as providing regulators, legislators, and the general public with increased confidence in UAS operations. UAS are already in high demand, and they are being used in an increasing number of applications. Military UAS requirements are well documented and tens-of-thousands of UAS are already in use worldwide. The ability to take-off and land in tactical cluttered environments will allow UAS to be used more extensively in support of forward units. Additionally, the commercial market is forecast to grow to as many as 160,000 UAS. As soon as UAS operation in the national airspace is fully implemented, the cargo transportation market, in particular, is forecast to be the largest market segment. Autonomous precision take-off and landing will be a key enabling technology in realizing this market.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Safe and robust flight and landing are of great application to NASA. On the air side, the proposed technology can be refactored as a safety aid for aircraft that must operate in degraded visual environments or in unprepared sites, providing information to a human pilot. On the space side, NASA has enduring interests in low-form factor sensing that could be applied to landers. Additionally, Near Earth's technology will provide an enhanced capability, enabling more comprehensive UAS flight-testing for NASA's collaborative efforts with the FAA to accommodate UAS operations in the NAS. As the capabilities mature and are integrated into more air vehicles, they will also be of direct use to NASA in their flight testing of navigational aids and guidance systems located in remote areas. The proposed autonomous technology will enable greater utilization of UAS in other NASA areas, particularly for experimentation and testing, for example expanding the utilization of UAS in the Ames FINESSE volcano research. The technology will ultimately enable greater use of UAS in space. A UAS that knows its position and is able to set down and avoid obstacles in a cluttered environment can be used for repairs inside and outside a spacecraft and perform exploration of planetary surfaces. The successful development of the technology specified in this solicitation will enable NASA and its contractors involved with autonomous systems to accomplish testing with increased safety and decreased cost.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Perception/Vision
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 A3.02-9153
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CA46P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace System (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Verification & Validation of Complex Autonomy Concepts Using the Cloud
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Crown Consulting, Inc.
1400 Key Boulevard, Suite 1100
Arlington,VA 22209 -1577 (703) 650-0663
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Cobb
pcobb@crownci.com
3451 Oak Knoll Dr.
Redwood City ,CA 94062 -3117
(650) 533-8727

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Crown Consulting, Inc., proposes a new method of verification and validation for autonomous operations by using cloud computing resources for massively parallel execution of National Airspace System (NAS) simulations. This method increases by an order of magnitude the number of Monte Carlo simulation runs that can be executed in a given time, enabling assessments of safety and performance across thousands of scenarios. Uses of this innovation include verification and validation of concepts for autonomous UAS operations, validation of advanced NAS concepts, and development of SMART NAS. Phase II will develop and demonstrate the concept by creating a sUAS SMART NAS Testbed simulation running thousands of cases simultaneously, along with automated system performance and safety assessment. Applications to NASA needs include analysis of concepts for UAS operations, prognostic safety assessment, NAS performance assessment, exploring applications of autonomy, and real-time evaluation of traffic flow strategies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA uses of this innovation include:
* Concept evaluation by FAA and system developers
* Validation and FAA certification of new concepts for prognostic safety assessment
* Development of a system-wide prognostic safety assurance system
* Evaluating tradeoffs and alternative designs of automated or autonomic systems
* Exploring applications of autonomy, including safety issues

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA commercial applications include licensing results for the following uses:
* Developing UTM and other concepts for UAS operations
* Prognostic safety assessments and concepts and NAS performance assessments
* Amplifying the capabilities of existing simulation models.
* Exploring applications of autonomy.
* Real-time evaluation of traffic flow management strategies

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing
Development Environments
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 A3.02-9414
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CA37P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace System (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Anomaly Detection to Improve Airspace Safety and Efficiency
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Metron, Inc.
1818 Library Street
Reston,VA 20190 -5602 (703) 787-8700
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gregory Godfrey
Godfrey@metsci.com
1818 Library Street, Suite 600
Reston ,VA 20190 -5631
(703) 326-2897

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As the air transportation system becomes more autonomous in the coming years, there will be an increasing need for monitoring capabilities that operate in the background to identify anomalous behaviors indicating safety or efficiency deficiencies. Today, these behaviors are largely detected after an incident has occurred. In July 2013, an Asiana Boeing 777 flew too low approaching San Francisco International Airport (SFO), its tail hitting a seawall and crashing into the runway. Three people died and 180 were injured.
This type of anomalous behavior (i.e. foreign pilots consistently flying too low into SFO on visual approach) could have been detected prior to the crash because the data was available, but no one was looking at it. Metron proposes to develop a semi-autonomous background monitoring system to apply this type of data mining and data discovery to flight track data in order to identify opportunities for improvements to safety and efficiency in airspace operations.
In the Phase I effort, Metron demonstrated a proof-of-concept statistical approach that we call the Normalcy Score Broker (NSB), which uses historical flight data to develop models of normal behavior, and then applies statistical methods to combine multiple features into a single score for identifying outliers. Metron has used this same NSB technique to develop operational systems for customers in the land and maritime domains.
In the Phase II, we propose to extend the techniques to process at scale, whether for real-time streaming data or for efficient analyses on forensic repositories. In addition to generating new features associated with clusters of flights interacting with each other, we propose to incorporate greater context (e.g., flight behavior in the presence of convective weather) and learning techniques to reduce false positives based on operator feedback on the relevance of the reported anomalies. We will test and evaluate our software on the NASA Cloud-based SMART-NAS Test Bed.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For Non-NASA commercial applications, we plan to use the proposed work to extend our technology base of kinematic modeling and anomaly detection (which is focused on the land and sea domains) to include air operations. This will allow us to break into new areas within agencies such as the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA). NGA is already using our anomaly detection capabilities as part of a suite of tools that we have developed to support Activity Based Intelligence on land and maritime-based track data. In FY16, we will be moving some of these track analytics developed for NGA to a computing cloud environment, and the NASA Phase II development can provide a complementary set of techniques. Similarly for the Navy, much of our technology base for anomaly detection was developed as a kinematic component for Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA), where it is important to understand the behavior of commercial shipping. We would use the extension of this work into the air domain to develop a similar capability for the Air Force, providing capabilities for them to interact more safely and effectively within the context of civilian airspace.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The long-term goal of this A3 Airspace Operations and Safety work is facilitating the development of autonomy in the future National Airspace System (NAS) through the modeling of how human behavior influences the details of flight path selection. The short-term goal is to improve the current NAS by identifying flights deemed ?anomalous? by a suite of indicators designed to assess flight efficiency and safety. The transition path for NASA priorities begins with the Performance Data Analysis and Reporting System (PDARS) flight repository, the source of the forensic data for this project. ATAC has been the primary developer / integrator of PDARS, and Metron is developing joint business opportunities with ATAC to complement their domain and visualization expertise with Metron?s analytics. Part of ATAC?s responsibilities on PDARS is to consolidate, to cleanse, and to otherwise add value to NAS data?the indicators that we propose to develop for this project are designed to aid that mission. During the execution of the Phase II, we will work with ATAC to transition our short-term technology to an FAA NextGen program (e.g., Collaborative Air Traffic Management Technologies (CATMT)), and leverage these in-roads to begin transitioning our deeper human-behavior modeling effort.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Process Monitoring & Control
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Fusion
Data Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 A3.02-9466
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL59P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace System (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Weather Aware Route Planning (WARP)
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel H. Wagner Associates, Inc.
559 West Uwchlan Avenue, Suite 140
Exton,PA 19341 -3013 (610) 280-3830
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Eanes
james.eanes@va.wagner.com
2 Eaton Street, Suite 500
Hampton ,VA 23669 -4054
(757) 727-7700

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Phase I of this NASA SBIR project, Daniel H. Wagner Associates, Inc., designed and demonstrated the feasibility of a system for integrating environmental data into flight planning and execution for Unmanned Air Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS). The Weather Aware Route Planning (WARP) system will provide weather-based Indicators and Warnings (I&W) and navigational recommendations for UAS in order to improve their autonomy, safety, and energy efficiency. Using all available environmental and navigational data, WARP will assess environmental impacts to planned/executing flight plans and generate alerts and recommendations for those plans based on expected environmental impacts. Operating in conjunction with existing and emerging mission planners and ground control systems (GCS), WARP will use a combination of rules-based/heuristic and simulation-based approaches to assess environmental impacts to UAS flight plans and provide I&W and recommendations for each UAS to avoid negative environmental impacts and take advantage of positive environmental impacts. WARP will also provide real-time environmental impact assessments during mission execution, assisting ground-based pilots, and eventually UAS autonomous controllers, in performing dynamic re-planning for safer and more efficient flight.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our commercialization strategy for potential transition outside of NASA programs is focused on customers that are likely to provide transition funding in the form of Phase II-E partnerships (for NASA matching funds) and independent Phase III contracts. These customers include government agencies (e.g., FAA, DHS, DoD, DoT, etc.) and prime contractors working on UAS and their associated C2 systems, both within the NAS and operating anywhere in the world. Specifically, we are very familiar with Northrop Grumman, Boeing/Insitu, and Textron/AAI, since we are working with them on DARPA and Navy projects for distributed data fusion among unmanned systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is a key partner in the development and maturation of NextGen technologies. Specifically, the Integrated Systems Research Program (ISRP) matures and integrates NextGen technologies into major vehicle/operational systems (http://www.aeronautics.nasa.gov/programs_isrp.htm), and the UAS Integration in the NAS Project (http://www.aeronautics.nasa.gov/isrp/uas/index.htm) within ISRP is focusing on demonstrating effective UAS operations in relevant test environments. In Phase I, we were introduced to this NASA program, specifically with relation to the integration of environmental data into air traffic control; in Phase II we will continue to pursue that avenue of potential Phase II-X partnerships to help develop UAS and Command and Control (C2) performance standards regarding environmental conditions and to integrate WARP (upon successful prototype development in Phase II) into a realistic test environment, such as the live virtual constructive (LVC) distributed environment (DE).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Navigation & Guidance
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Man-Machine Interaction
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 A3.03-8942
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CA55P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Future Aviation Systems Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Big Data Driven Architecture for Real Time Systemwide Safety Assurance Phase II
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ATAC
2770 De La Cruz Boulevard
Santa Clara,CA 95050 -2624 (408) 736-2822
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Schade
jes@atac.com
2770 De La Cruz Boulevard
Santa Clara ,CA 95050 -2624
(408) 736-2822

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Our proposed research work significantly enhances the state-of-the-art in aviation data analytics by providing, for the first time, a one-stop resource for meeting data analysis needs of aviation researchers, analysts and practitioners. The resulting Cloud-based Aviation Big Data Analytics Platform benefits multiple NASA projects: RSSA real-time safety assessment, SMARTNAS test-bed, and the Sherlock ATM data warehouse. Our innovation is researched through achievement of five objectives and associated work efforts. The first objective is the refinement of use cases for the big data application. We draw upon our knowledge gained in Phase I research and continued interactions with aviation stakeholders to narrow the use cases to specific applications that are a challenge to NASA and the broader aviation community related to RSSA, SMARTNAS, and other ATM research efforts. The second objective is to create a Big Data technology-driven architecture and processing capabilities for the more specific use cases developed to meet objective 1. The third objective is to achieve a subcomponent demonstration for each refined use case so that we can measure the benefit of using these techniques to solve ATM analytics challenges. The fourth objective is to tie together the demonstration components developed as part of objective 3, into an overall architecture offering a ?one-stop-shop? for both ?at-rest? and ?in-motion? analytics to meet a variety of research needs. Finally, our fifth objective is to pursue commercialization via outreach to government and industry stakeholders. Most current aviation research focuses on smaller datasets or specific data-types. A massive amount of data thus sits un-analyzed and potentially holds a rich set of undiscovered trends that may be valuable for aviation safety-assurance and NAS efficiency-enhancement. Our SBIR will greatly contribute to the advancement of aviation research by enabling truly big data analytics on this massive, un-tapped data.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Enable FAA safety personnel to have performance dashboards containing near real-time safety analytics and prognostics
Allow airlines to monitor and predict their fleet and pilot safety performance using vast amounts of FOQA and/or other airlines data.
Applicable to other international Air Navigation Service Providers for data-driven real time safety assurance.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Enable safety prognostics capability for RSSA to address safety risk/hazard identification techniques on large quantities of historical and streaming live NAS data,
Enhance the capabilities of SMART-NAS for researchers to quickly examine system-wide safety implications of new concepts and technologies,
Assist ATM researchers directly by enhancing the capabilities of Sherlock with these techniques, and provide a one-stop resource for aviation data acquisition, storage and processing for NASA researchers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Computer System Architectures
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Fusion
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing
Knowledge Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H1.01-9186
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CK10P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Regolith ISRU for Mission Consumable Production
PROPOSAL TITLE: Task-Specific Asteroid Simulants for Ground Testing
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Deep Space Industries, Inc.
13300 Tanja King Blvd. Suite 408
Orlando,FL 32828 -7847 (904) 662-0550
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Lewis
jsl@email.arizona.edu
P.O. Box 772
Anacortes ,WA 98221 -0772
(360) 873-8781

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The project will produce at least four asteroid simulants at high fidelity for mineral content and particle size, created through standardized inputs and documented processes. In addition to making simulant available at moderate cost compared to duplicative individual efforts, this initial library of pedigreed asteroid simulants will enable researchers and technology developers to compare their results with others using the library, and with their own previous experiments using the library. The downside of uncoordinated, undocumented, dissimilar simulants is the wasting of time and financial resources, as well as the risk of misleading results from the use of inappropriate or low-fidelity materials.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Hayabusa2 mission could use the Phase 2 simulants to interpret the results when it blows a crater on its target asteroid.
Asteroid mining companies such as Deep Space Industries and Planetary Resources will require simulants in order to design and test sensors and manipulators for sampling asteroids, large-scale mining equipment, and the the industrial processes to refine and manufacture propellants, components and structures.
Academic researchers require simulants for a wide range of investigations into solar system formation and evolution.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Asteroid Redirect Mission has requested more than a ton of the simulant that will be produced by the Phase 2 program, for use in testing the design of ARRM equipment for sensing and grasping the boulder to be returned to lunar orbit, and for preparing the ARCM astronauts to be able to safely interact with the boulder.
Joel Sercel, the PI of a NASA-funded NIAC on solar-induced volatiles production ****** NAME already has been using simulant from Phase 1 and intends to use the higher-fidelity simulants to be produced in Phase 2.
Dr. Leslie Gertsch ****************** add.
The OSIRIS-REx mission is expected to use the Phase 2 simulants to understand and model the results of its interactions with asteroid Bennu.
NASA's upcoming deep space habitation module, funded in the 2016 omnibus appropriations bill, will be an appropriate location to test microgravity ISRU processes designed to enhance exploration capabilities through abundant space-sourced propellant, and eventually space-sourced metals for structures and silicon for PV cells. Simulants are required to fully implement this research, since the boulder returned by ARM will represent only one of the roughly 47 asteroid types.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Processing Methods
Resource Extraction
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H1.01-9667
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CJ26P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Regolith ISRU for Mission Consumable Production
PROPOSAL TITLE: Planetary Volatiles Extractor for In-Situ Resource Utilization
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics, Ltd.
Building 3, Suite 1005 63 Flushing Avenue Unit 150
Brooklyn,NY 11205 -1070 (212) 966-0661
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kris Zacny
zacny@honeybeerobotics.com
398 W Washington Ave. Suite 200
Pasadena ,CA 91103 -2000
(510) 207-4555

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) or ?living off the land relies on exploiting local resources and in turn reducing burden of transporting supplies. NASA has determined through various studies that ISRU will be critical for both robotic and human exploration of the Solar System. ISRU is also viewed by commercial Space companies as a significant source of revenue; volatiles (mainly water) could be mined and sold as Hydrogen/Oxygen fuel to satellite operators to extend spacecraft life.

Traditional ISRU architecture follows methods employed in the mining industry on earth: material is mined, crushed, transported, crushed again, processed, and waste is disposed of. However, mining concrete-hard ice and icy-soil is difficult without using explosives. Volatiles will get lost during crushing and transportation, and robotic material handling, as shown by the 2008 Mars Phoenix mission, is difficult. For these reasons, we propose the Planetary Volatiles Extractor (PVEx) Corer, which uses a drill based excavation approach and an integrated volatiles extraction plant. PVEx successfully addresses several aspects: drills can penetrate hard materials, there is no need for material crushing and transfer, if volatiles sublime, they will flow directly into the capture system. PVEx can also work with hydrated minerals.

Under the SBIR Phase 2 we propose to mature the technology from TRL 4 to TRL 5/6, and in turn ready the system for NASA's next HEOMD and SMD missions, as well as commercial planetary missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The PVEx system could be used by several commercial companies that are interested in In Situ Resource Utilization for financial gain. These include Planetary Resources and Deep Space Industries targeting Asteroids and Shackleton Energy Corp, targeting the Moon (see letter of interest from Shackleton Energy section 13). The ultimate goal of SpaceX is to establish human presence on Mars. As such, SpaceX would also benefit from mature volatile extraction technology.
Brining water from the Moon or NEOs could be very profitable given that launching water from Space costs ~$20,000/liter. The major market for water could be human consumption (e.g. once Bigelow Space Hotels are established) or refueling of existing satellites. The latter is of particular interest, since satellites come to the end of their life not because of electronics, or power, but because there are running out of fuel for station keeping. NASA and industry have been developing in space refueling technology, the first step in enabling refueling of satellites.
Other non-NASA applications include robotic acquisition of volatiles as well as soil and liquid samples from hazardous environments: chemical spills, nuclear waste, oil spills.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications would satisfy goals of HEOMD and SMD. In particular, the Planetary Volatiles Extractor could be initially used as a reconnaissance tool to map and characterize volatiles distribution around the area before deploying ISRU plants. Depending on the required water (or other volatiles) production levels per day, the PVEx could be used to extract water and other volatiles to support human habitats,for LOX/LH2 propulsion systems to enable return of humans or samples back to Earth or for a journey to the outer reaches of Space.
Because of the system's flexibility, the PVEx could be deployed on any extraterrestrial body that contains volatiles or hydrated minerals: Mars, the Moon, Europa, Enceladus, Asteroids, Comets, Phobos and Deimos. If the system were to be deployed on the Moon or NEOs, the water produced by the system could be returned to the ISS.
NASA's near term goal is to send humans to Mars. As such, PVEx could not only be used as a reconnaissance system, but also as a production plant to mine and process water and other volatiles. These would need to be mined and stored before human arrival to the surface.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Conversion
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
In Situ Manufacturing
Resource Extraction
Deployment
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H1.01-9764
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP30P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Regolith ISRU for Mission Consumable Production
PROPOSAL TITLE: Carbonaceous Asteroid Volatile Recovery (CAVoR) system
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pioneer Astronautics
11111 West 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood,CO 80215 -5516 (303) 980-0890
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Berggren
mberggren@pioneerastro.com
11111 W. 8th Ave, Unit A
Lakewood ,CO 80215 -5516
(303) 980-0231

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Carbonaceous Asteroid Volatile Recovery (CAVoR) system produces water and hydrogen-rich syngas for propellant production, life support consumables, and manufacturing from in-situ resources in support of advanced space exploration. The CAVoR thermally extracts ice and water bound to clay minerals, which is then combined with small amounts of oxygen to gasify organic matter contained in carbonaceous chondrite asteroids. In addition to water, CAVoR produces hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide that comprise precursors to produce oxygen for propellant and breathing gas and to produce organic compounds including fuels such as methane when integrated with a downstream methanation-electrolysis. Thermochemical production of hydrogen by CAVoR results in substantial reductions in electrolysis mass and power requirements compared to combustion-based volatile recovery methods. A conceptual Phase II continuous flow auger reactor design was based on successful Phase I batch reactor operations. Phase II advancements will include reactor seal designs to accommodate regolith simulant feeding and discharging while collaborations will be developed to aid the infusion of the CAVoR system into a conceptual asteroid resource utilization mission plan.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The autothermal steam reforming technology proposed for the CAVoR has applications in the recovery of water and energy values from terrestrial wastes and resources. Steam reforming technology has mostly been applied to feed matter containing only small amounts of inorganic matter. The efficient use and recovery of process heat to be established during the CAVoR program will enable non-catalytic autothermal steam reforming technology to be applied to feeds such as contaminated soils, low-grade hydrocarbon feeds, oil shale, un-sorted municipal waste, and other organic materials, including renewable resources. By so doing, many otherwise refractory, hazardous compounds can potentially be broken into syngas constituents for use as fuels rather than being incinerated with no economic gain. The CAVoR technology will be poised for entry into the growing market demand for waste volume reduction and low-grade fuels resources. The device solves a variety of industrial and municipal waste challenges with minimal environmental impact.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary application of the Carbonaceous Asteroid Volatile Recovery (CAVoR) system is to provide a compact, high performance apparatus for the extraction and recovery of water and organic matter in support of propellant production, breathing gas, and life support. The in-space production of these mission critical items results in substantial launch cost savings and can help to enable the extension of NASA's mission beyond low earth orbit to include long-duration space habitation, lunar, and Mars colonization missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Resource Extraction
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Simulation & Modeling
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H2.01-9296
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CJ34P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Chemical Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Additively Manufactured Monolithic LOx/Methane Vortex RCS Thruster
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Parabilis Space Technologies, Inc.
1145 Linda Vista Drive
San Marcos,CA 92078 -3820 (855) 727-2245
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher Grainger
chris@parabilis-space.com
1145 Linda Vista Drive Suite 111
San Marcos ,CA 92078 -3820
(855) 727-2245 Ext: 703

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Parabilis Space Technologies proposes to advance development of an additively manufactured liquid oxygen (LOx) and liquid methane Reaction Control System (RCS) thruster in response to solicitation H2.01, In-Space Chemical Propulsion. This RCS-class thruster will provide a simple, robust, and low-cost solution for vehicle attitude control on upcoming NASA projects.
The thruster is additively manufactured in a single monolithic structure with minimal secondary processing. During Phase I, a prototype thruster was successfully designed, fabricated, and test fired multiple times. Phase II efforts include furthering the development of the thruster toward flight ready design, including expanding on additive manufacturing implementation and performing additional hotfire testing to evaluate a flight-like design and expand the operational envelope.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
LOx/methane is an attractive propellant combination for commercial launch vehicles. Potential customers for a LOx/methane RCS engine include United Launch Alliance (ULA), SpaceX, Blue Origin, XCOR, Armadillo Aerospace, Northrup Grumman, Aerojet and Firefly, among others. Each of these organizations has propulsion systems that utilize the LOx/methane propellant combination in development. Beyond LOx/methane, the technology developed in this proposal could also be developed into products that could exploit the entire range of bi-propellant combinations, opening the range of applications to include most launch vehicles currently in development.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed thruster innovations are applicable to a number of proposed future NASA missions such as Mars exploration as well as NASA next generation launch vehicle upper stages. Future launch vehicles utilizing LOx/methane as their main propulsion system can utilize the proposed innovation as complementary reaction control system thrusters. The technology could also be a key enabler for all deep space manned missions where the need to service and repair or replace components in transit could be critical to mission success. Additionally, the technology can be scaled for use as a kick stage or orbital insertion engine.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H2.02-9127
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CC62P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Passive Technology to Improve Criticality Control of NTP Reactors
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ultra Safe Nuclear Corporation
186 Piedra Loop
Los Alamos,NM 87544 -3834 (505) 672-9750
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paolo Venneri
pvenneri@ultrasafe-nuclear.com
186 Piedra Loop
Los Alamos ,NM 87544 -3834
(858) 342-4837

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR will develop passive reactor criticality control technology for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) identified by Ultra Safe Nuclear Corporation (USNC) in Phase 1. This technology will allow NTP systems to start up by rotating the control drums to a single predetermined location and remain there for the duration of operation for the majority of the burns associated with a Mars mission. Passive technology will greatly simplify the control of NTP systems and increase their overall performance during operation. USNC's passive criticality control technology works by
-Employing advanced burnable neutron poison to completely remove the need for control drum movement during a full power burn.
-Tuning the hydrogen density in the tie-tubes to ensure a consistent start-up position for the control drums.
-Enhancing the fuel temperature reactivity feedback mechanism to ensure the stability of the reactor and reduce the burden for active control.

This work addresses noted research needs so that NTP systems can help enable human exploration to Mars and other destinations. USNC's Phase 2 work will be a substantial improvement over the state-of-the-art and increase the overall knowledge of NTP control. At the end of Phase 2 USNC will:
-Produce a NTP transient code (named the "TRICORDER" code) capable of modeling NTP systems through start up to the end of a burn.
-Develop passive criticality control technology rigorously with TRICORDER
-Design and then fabricate a new NTP burnable neutron poison (named the "BORGalloy" alloy) and test it in prototypic NTP environments.
-Deliver NTP LEU Cermet, LEU Graphite Composite, and HEU Graphite Composite NTP system designs that showcase passive criticality control for human Mars missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is an emerging market need for advanced reactors that provide power in locations and markets where traditional nuclear power plants cannot be utilized effectively. There are approximately 40 U.S. companies trying to bring advanced nuclear technology to the marked backed by a total of more than 1.3 billion dollars of private investment. USNC's passive reactivity control technology can address the needs of this emerging market. Specifically, our passive reactivity control technology can minimize the operator burden for controlling these new advanced reactors and as a result make the reactors safer and more profitable.
As mentioned in the above section, USNC is pursuing this emerging market and actively developing small, passively safe, and long-lived nuclear power reactors that can be operated in remote locations. The technology and expertise developed in this SBIR can be directly applied to USNC's small reactor development efforts

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NTP has great promise in spreading human presence to Mars and other locations beyond low earth orbit. USNC's passive criticality control technology will address key needs in NTP development to make it a viable technology to fulfill NASA human exploration needs. USNC's work directly aligns with the NASA Technological Roadmap 2015 which calls for complex reactor models to optimize the nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) engine systems. Currently, NTP and USNC's passive criticality control technology is being investigated for a human Mars mission in the 2030s time frame, but NTP also has application for longer term goals such as exploration beyond Mars and aiding in Space colonization.

In the near term, USNC's technology will be able to support NTP development efforts by providing the research tools needed to address NTP related questions (TRICORDER) and give assurance that private industry can address key technology needs for NTP systems (BORGalloy, and HYPOSPRA). TRICORDER will be able to provide the highest fidelity modeling of the NTP system to date and will be a valuable research tool for developing NTP systems.

Beyond NTP, the technology and expertise that USNC is building has application to small nuclear systems for surface power and science missions. Small nuclear systems are a very appealing technology for space exploration because they can provide power independent of solar availability and for extended periods of time.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Metallics
Spacecraft Main Engine
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H2.04-9218
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CC57P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management for In-Space Transportation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Vapor Cooled Structure MLI: Efficient Vapor Cooling of Structural Elements
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Quest Thermal Group
6452 Fig Street Unit A
Arvada,CO 80004 -1060 (303) 395-3100
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scott Dye
scott.dye@questthermal.com
6452 Fig St Unit A
Arvada ,CO 80004 -1060
(303) 395-3100 Ext: 102

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Human exploration requires advances in propulsion for transport to Earth orbit, the moon, Mars and beyond. New technologies are needed for advanced in-space propulsion systems to support exploration, reduce travel time, reduce acquisition costs and reduce operational costs. The goal is a breakthrough in cost and reliability for a wide range of payload sizes and types supporting future orbital flight vehicles. Lower cost and reliable space access will provide significant benefits to civil space (human and robotic exploration beyond Earth as well as Earth science), to commercial industry, to educational institutions, for support to the International Space Station National Laboratory, and to national security. NASA?s Technology Roadmaps call Zero Boil Off storage of cryogenic propellants for long duration missions? the #2 ranked technical challenge for future NASA missions, and new technologies are necessary for improved cryogenic propellant storage and transfer to support NASA's exploration goals. Heat leak through tank mounts such as struts and skirts is an increasingly large part of the total heat flow into modern, well insulated tanks. Specifically, NASA has a high priority for simple mass efficient techniques for vapor cooling of structural skirts (aluminum, stainless, or composites) on large upper stages containing liquid hydrogen and liquid methane (can include hydrogen catalyst). Improved cryogenic insulation that can incorporate vapor cooling to reduce the heat flux through struts and skirts would benefit cryogenic fluid management, and help towards achieving zero boil off.Vapor Cooled Structure MLI (VCSMLI) is a novel system that uses discrete spacers to create a sealed vapor layer within IMLI for lightweight, efficient vapor cooling of tank skirts. In the Phase I program, VCSMLI was modeled, designed, fabricated, installed on a tank skirt and its thermal performance measured. VCSMLI provided a 41% reduction in total system heat flux reaching TRL 4.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Several aerospace prime contractors have interest in Quest insulation. Vapor cooling of support structures could reduce upper stage cryopropellant boiloff, increasing payload capacity for commercial missions with long coasts. High performance VCSMLI could be used or new vehicles such as Vulcan and SLS.
Advances in thermal insulation have relevance to terrestrial commercial applications. Reducing thermal conductivity and heat leak impact heating and cooling industrial processes and energy efficiency. Quest has a current grant from the State of Colorado's Advanced Industry Accelerator program, which is funding prototype development of our commercial grade superinsulation for appliance use.
IMLI and derivatives might be able to provide improved thermal insulation for storage and preservation of cryogens for a wide variety of industrial uses, such as insulation for dewars for LHe, LH2, LN2 and LOX, for commercial, medical, industrial and research uses. Large LNG tanks could benefit from improved thermal insulation. Quest has had conversations with VJP suppliers to the LNG industry about our advanced Wrapped MLI. For industrial cold transfer piping, Quest Wrapped MLI has 12X lower heat leak than spiral wrapped MLI, and may enable next generation high performance vacuum jacketed pipe insulation with significantly lower heat leak.
Quest high performance insulation has many opportunities for green energy savings and thin insulation panels.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This Phase II program would continue VCSMLI development and increase technology maturity to TRL 5 - 6. Improved cryogenic insulation that can incorporate vapor cooling to reduce the heat flux through struts and skirts would benefit overall cryogenic fluid management, and help towards achieving zero boil off. Any cryogenic launch vehicle could benefit from VCSMLI. The Atlas V family uses the Centaur cryogenic upper stage, with LOX and LH2 tanks with support skirts external sidewalls, such that heat gain and cryopropellant loses are substantial during launch ascent and on-orbit. The Delta IV cryogenic upper stage LOX and LH2 tanks are contained within the Interstage and Payload Fairing, but still have little thermal insulation. Improvements to the cryogenic insulation of the Centaur and Delta Cryogenic Second Stage could add additional capabilities to these launch vehicles. Reducing heat load even further with vapor cooling might be a future enhancement to these launch vehicle families.
VCSMLI could help meet cryogenic fluid management goals, reducing propellant boiloff and enhancing the capabilities of current space transportation systems as well as future systems (LH2 storage for SLS for chemical propulsion and for future Nuclear Thermal Propulsion vehicles).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Fuels/Propellants
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H2.04-9337
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CM38P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management for In-Space Transportation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fabric, Inflated, Insulating Shroud for Cryogenic In-Space Transportation
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paragon Space Development Corporation
3481 East Michigan Street
Tucson,AZ 85714 -2221 (520) 903-1000
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chad Bower
cbower@paragonsdc.com
813 14th Street, Suite B
Golden ,CO 80401 -1877
(520) 382-1705

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Cryogenic Encapsulating Launch Shroud and Insulated Upper Stage (CELSIUS) innovative layered system combines functions of Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI), Micro-Meteoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) protection, and fairing functions (exposure to free stream) into a deterministic soft-goods system that provides far greater performance for far less mass than the equivalent State of the Art (SOTA) systems performing the same functions. CELSIUS provides nearly perfect radiation dominated thermal performance. A 5 layer system MLI/MMOD system limits heat load to a cryogen to <0.5 W/m
^2 and gives >95% probability of no penetration for a two year mission in low Earth orbit and is readily scalable to other mission types. The system is applicable to large structures, including cryogenic tanks. Furthermore CELSIUS is robust enough to tolerate the vibrations, load, dynamic pressures, and heating of the launch ascent environment allowing it to protect nearly any portion of the launch stack up to and including serving as a complete launch fairing. Our Phase II effort matures the concept through analysis, design, subscale test and validation activities; including simulation of the highest risk areas of free-stream exposer and vibration at launch followed by system deployment while at cryogenic cold-soak. This effort significantly improves the TRL of the system and we exit Phase II with complete validation and having completed a Preliminary Design cycle in support of technology insertion onto the SLS EUS.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
CELSIUS has significant interest from commercial launch providers where it can improvements cryogenic upper stage thermal and MMOD protection for minimal mass. This enables on-orbit services and mission flexibility in GEO, and planetary missions. It will also allow commercial providers to contemplate on-orbit upper-stage refueling and depot concepts for far greater mission capability that currently available. CELSIUS, as a complete inflated launch shroud or booster nose-cone would save hundreds of kilograms vs traditional systems. CELSIUS is being investigated for ground applications for improved cryogenic insulation. This is a particularly large cost for NASA, the United States Air Force, and commercial launch providers who must maintain facilities and produce or deliver cryogenic propellants in large quantities in some of the warmest and most humid regions of the country.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
CELSIUS has application to NASA as an insulation solution for the exposed Hydrogen tank barrel section on the SLS Exploration Upper Stage (EUS). CELSIUS can, for minimal mass provide ascent-to-orbit protection for the barrel section and excellent long term thermal and MMOD protection. CELSIUS will greatly extend the EUS on-orbit life providing NASA improved mission flexibility for Exploration Missions. CELSIUS also has future application for orbital propellant depots, habitats, and as a complete launch fairing solution. In this role, CELSIUS may be an enabling technology that provides a single solution to the ground-to-orbit and long term on-orbit storage of cryogenic propellants. With CELSIUS there is never a moment when the cryogenic system is unprotected, nor is transfer needed. The CELSIUS fairing and insulation system is carried directly to orbit and remains to protect the cryogen system from the duration of its useful life. CELSIUS is being investigated for ground applications for improved cryogenic insulation. This is a particularly large cost for NASA, the United States Air Force, and commercial launch providers who must maintain facilities and produce or deliver cryogenic propellants in large quantities in some of the warmest and most humid regions of the country.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Textiles
Deployment
Structures
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H2.04-9987
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CJ15P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management for In-Space Transportation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Light Weight Spherical Cryotank
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gloyer-Taylor Laboratories, LLC
112 Mitchell Boulevard
Tullahoma,TN 37388 -4002 (931) 455-7333
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zachary Taylor
zachary.taylor@gtlcompany.com
41548 Eastman Drive Unit A
Murrieta ,CA 92562 -7051
(951) 600-9999

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
BHL? technology offers the means to reduce the mass of cryogenic propellant tanks by 75% relative to state-of-the-art metal tanks. Since propellant tanks are generally the largest individual mass item on a launch vehicle or spacecraft, this mass savings of this magnitude can have profound effect on vehicle performance. A conceptual design of a spherical BHL cryotank for the NASA Morpheus Lander shows an 80% reduction in mass from the existing aluminum cryotanks. Replacing all four metal tanks on Morpheus with BHL cryotanks would provide the lander with more than 15% additional ∆V.
In the Phase II effort, GTL will develop a spherical BHL cryotank suitable for use on the Morpheus lander. This will include fabrication and testing of a full scale (48? diameter) developmental unit, followed by the fabrication and delivery of a prototype spherical BHL cryotank. This effort will also demonstrate the capability to integrate propellant management devices into the spherical BHL cryotank.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The BHL technology provides performance benefits to a wide spectrum of industries and applications by offering a light weight alternative for transporting cryogenic propellants. A leading application for BHL technology is liquid natural gas (LNG) storage and transportation. All LNG is currently transported using ships, train cars, or trucks over the road using massive double walled metal tanks to transport the LNG. Using a cryogenic-compatible BHL composite, the overall weights of these transportations methods could be reduced, greatly cutting shipping costs.
One of the most significant sectors for BHL commercialization is in launch vehicles (commercial, military and NASA). Traditionally, metal propellant tanks are the most massive components in a launch vehicle and constrain vehicle performance. When BHL cryotanks are substituted for metal tanks in conventional launch vehicles, the mass savings would double the launch vehicle performance.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The immediate application for the 48? diameter spherical BHL cryotank is on NASA?s Morpheus Lander. Replacing the existing metal tanks on Morpheus with BHL cryotanks would reduce tank mass by 75%, which would translate into more than 15% additional ∆V.
NASA?s Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer project (CPST) could benefit from the reduced mass of spherical BHL cryotanks and the long-term cryogenic propellant storage potential. The BHL cryotank technology could also be used to upgrade the NASA Space Launch System (SLS). If implemented for the entire vehicle, SLS could potentially deliver double the payload of the current design.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Aerodynamics
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
Composites
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Structures
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H3.01-8848
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CC78P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring for Spacecraft Cabins
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Airborne Particulate Monitor for Spacecraft
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerosol Dynamics, Inc.
935 Grayson Street
Berkeley,CA 94710 -2640 (510) 649-9360
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Susanne Hering
susanne@aerosol.us
935 Grayson Street
Berkeley ,CA 94710 -2640
(510) 649-9360

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A compact instrument will be develop to provide long-term monitoring of the number concentration and approximate size of airborne particles in microgravity environments such as found aboard spacecraft cabins. Particles as small as 10 nm will be detected by a self-sustaining, tippable, water-based condensation particle counter. This will be coupled to an optical sizing instrument to provide particle concentration and approximate sizing from 10 nm to >20 micrometers.

Knowledge of the concentration and size of airborne particles on manned spacecraft is needed to assess environment to which astronauts are exposed, and to provide early warning of on-board fire. Especially important are those in the submicrometer size range. Yet to date there is no zero-gravity technique for long-term monitoring these fine particles at the low concentrations generally present.

Our innovation, a tippable, self-sustaining, water-based condensation particle counter, will provide this measurement. Individual particles as small as 10nm are detected through condensational enlargement to form optically detectable droplets. Unlike other condensational methods all liquid water required for measurement is contained within, and recpatured by, the wick of the instrument. All water transport is by capillary action, and thus enabling operation at zero gravity. Combined with ultrafine particle precut, and standard optical particle counting and sizing for larger particles, this instrument system will provide particle number concentration and approximate sizing from 10 nm to above 20 micrometers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This instrument would be uniquely suitable for measuring concentrations on moving platforms, inside aircraft, on school buses, or in indoor environments such as offices and schools. It would be used for community monitoring networks, and by aerosol research laboratories as a handy, non-toxic measurement.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA could use this instrument to monitor airborne particle concentrations aboard the International Space Station or other manned spacecraft. Such data are needed (1) to establish the levels and sources of airborne particulate to which crew are exposed, and (2) to provide a signature of background levels to enable earlier detection of smoke particles from fires.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Fire Protection
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Remediation/Purification
Process Monitoring & Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H3.01-8900
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP60P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring for Spacecraft Cabins
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis for In-Situ Water Analysis
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Leiden Measurement Technology, LLC
751 Laurel Street #344
San Carlos,CA 94070 -3113 (650) 691-8573
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nathan Bramall
n.bramall@leidentechnology.com
751 Laurel Street #344
San Carlos ,CA 94070 -3113
(650) 691-8573

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project, Leiden Measurement Technology, LLC (LMT) will develop a portable microfludic analysis instrument for measurement of inorganic ions present in potable water supplies, thermal control system cooling water, and human waste water. A primary goal of the Phase I effort was to identify and demonstrate the most viable development path to advance current state-of-the-art NASA microfluidic analytical instrument technology into a user-friendly, compact, and automated instrument platform for use on the International Space Station (ISS). In this SBIR Phase II effort, LMT will advance current state-of-the-art technologies by developing a Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis (MCE) system with Capacitively-Coupled Contactless Detection (C4D) for the rapid separation, detection and quantification of inorganic ions specified in NASA Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines (SWEG). The specific objectives of this Phase I R&D effort are: 1) Development and fabrication of Phase II Microfluidic Chips with Embedded C4D Electrodes for Water Quality Analysis on the International Space Station; 2) Development and fabrication of a Phase II Lock-In-Measurement C4D; 3) Development and fabrication of Phase II MCE Microcontroller and Power Breakout Board; 4) Development of and fabrication of a Phase II MCE High Voltage Board; 5) Verification and validation and end-to-end instrument integration

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Chemical separation and analysis of inorganic ions from aqueous matrices is a fundamental need in many industries including: pharmaceutical, chemical, food and beverage, environmental, and medical, and biotech. Our SBIR developed compact automated instrument system will be particularly suited for the measurement of trace levels of inorganic contaminates in drinking water supplies, the need for which reaches globally. The innovative power of our system stems from robustness of the detection system, which greatly improves portability allowing use in remote regions across the globe. This detection approach is packed in to a user versatile friendly system that can be used to automate routine sample processing or serve as the basis of a high fidelity research instrument with the ability to couple detection systems (e.g., Laser Induced Fluorescence and C4D) in the same unit. In this configuration, the instrument provides the capability for end-to-end organic and inorganic chemical analysis of complex matrices. As an automated system for medical applications, our instrument will provide point-of-use technology for the identification and quantification of inorganics (and organics) in biological fluids with lab-on-a-chip analysis. The instrument is well suited for numerous potential commercial applications where separation and of inorganic species is required including: soil analysis, water analysis, and diagnostics.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our SBIR developed automated analysis systems will address a number of essential NASA needs and requirements. A primary target application is efficient separation, identification and quantification of ion organic both potable and non-potable water supplies. This directly addresses the NASA Human Exploration and Operations Directorate Goals by providing technology to enable the safe and extended use of the International Space Station. The proposed technology is also highly relevant the needs of Human-Robotic Space Exploration and Space Life & Physical Science Research Applications. The instrument will prove improved and enhanced technology to overcome analytical constraints that may be encountered in future Science Exploration missions. The proposed technology is also applicable to contamination control studies and other NASA Planetary Protection needs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H3.01-9921
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP23P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring for Spacecraft Cabins
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rapid Concentration for Improved Detection of Microbes in ISS Potable Water
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
InnovaPrep, LLC
132 East Main Street
Drexel,MO 64742 -0068 (816) 619-3375
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrew Page
apage@innovaprep.com
132 East Main Street
Drexel ,MO 64742 -0068
(816) 619-3375 Ext: 129

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Providing a reliable supply of safe drinking water is a critical requirement for space exploration. Systems that provide recycled treated water aboard the International Space Station, and that will supply water aboard future spacecraft, are inherently complex and can be susceptible to biofilm formation and microbial contamination. Further, it has been noted that pathogenicity and virulence of microbes can increase in microgravity environments. These factors, along with the high consequence of sickness in the remote space environment, make rapid, reliable methods of detecting microbes at low levels a critical need. Rapid microbiological detection systems have taken dramatic steps forward in the last two decades and today detection of even a single organism is possible in less than one hour. Unfortunately, development of rapid detection methods has far outpaced development of sample concentration and preparation techniques, which are necessary to enable detection of low microbial concentrations in drinking water. Currently, without sample concentration, rapid detection techniques alone produce results that are hundreds to thousands of times less sensitive than the minimum desired detection limit for microbial water contaminants. InnovaPrep proposes development of a rapid microbial concentration system designed for use aboard the International Space Station. The system will concentrate microbes from up to 5 Liters of potable water into volumes as small as 200 uL, providing concentration factors as high as 15,000X. It will be based on technologies developed and commercialized by InnovaPrep, but will contain innovations to allow for operation in microgravity. Large volumes of potable water are processed through a hollow fiber membrane filter concentration cell as microbes are captured within the lumen of the fibers. Following capture, the microbes are efficiently eluted using a novel Wet Foam Elution process and then delivered to a rapid detection system for analysis.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Phase II project will perfect elution fluid formulation and development of our fluid canisters, and improve manufacturing techniques for elution canisters and handheld devices for use in an InnovaPrep biological concentrator for use in a microgravity environment. We expect that the improved performance of our space systems will provide commercial potential for InnovaPrep. The feasibility, usefulness, and market need for commercial InnovaPrep systems that use canned elution fluids and/or hollow fiber concentration has already been demonstrated. As of December 2015, over 150 instruments have been sold or leased worldwide that use our canned fluids, and nearly 10,000 fluid canisters have been manufactured here and sold to those customers. Over 50,000 concentration cells have been sold. This initial success includes early adoption by DoD in the Joint Biological Tactical Detection System (JBTDS), which is now in the early manufacturing and design (EMD) phase. When completely deployed by 2019, over 4500 of those systems will be in daily operation, using up to 4.5 million canisters per year. InnovaPrep has also made significant early progress in commercial markets, and customers include global market leading companies in biopharmaceuticals, commercial products manufacturing, animal health, food & beverage, and other applications of industrial microbiology and life sciences R&D. The sales to these customers are expected to exceed the sales to DoD.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In the proposed format, the Hydrosol Concentrator for microgravity (HC-ug) will have direct application to the microbial water monitoring needs of the International Space Station & all crewed national and international space agencies and missions. Further, because small sample sizes are a requirement of rapid microbial detection systems, & because required microbial detection limits for drinking water are extremely low, this need is not anticipated to decrease in the near future. The WetLab-2 initiative will directly benefit from the Hc-ug program, & they will be able to spin off additional tools using this technology. In addition to the needs of the space agency community, many components of the technology developed in the proposed project will also have application to USG earth-based microbial water monitoring applications. The small, zero-power format of the HC-ug system will lend itself to development of fieldable concentration devices for DoD water monitoring needs in austere environments. It will be applicable to field sampling and analysis during outbreak investigations in remote locations, or when sending samples to a laboratory is not acceptable. Water monitoring in developing countries is an important need that could benefit greatly from low-cost, fieldable kits that allow for delivery of a concentrated sample to rapid detection kits. InnovaPrep is already working to identify aligned opportunities within US DoD through DTRA's SOCOM handheld sample prep prgm

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H3.02-9111
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CK11P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Bioregenerative Technologies for Life Support
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rapid Activation of Biological Wastewater Treatment Systems
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pancopia, Inc.
1100 Exploration Way, Suite 302Q
Hampton,VA 23666 -6264 (757) 344-8607
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Cumbie
bill@pancopia.com
1100 Exploration Way, Suite 302Q
Hampton ,VA 23666 -6264
(757) 344-8607

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Pancopia proposes development of a system with the capability to remove high levels of organic carbon and nitrogen from wastewater, capable of preservation for a year, and which can be used to reliably start up a biological wastewater system in 15 days. Phase 2 target criteria are 1) development of an inoculum capable of removing 95% of organic carbon, and 95% conversion of ammonium (75% removed as nitrogen gas and remaining 25% converted to nitrite/nitrate) when treating ersatz EPB wastewater with a startup time of less than 15 days; 2) development of a reactor that can effectively treat EPB wastewater; and 3) development of an operations manual providing process guidelines. PROBLEM/OPPORTUNITY: Properly configured biological wastewater systems can treat wastewater containing high organic carbon and nitrogen and produce a high quality effluent using minimal consumables. However, such systems can be difficult to startup rapidly and reliably. Developing a reliable inoculum to permit rapid startup of biological wastewater systems that treat high levels of organics and nitrogen would make such treatment viable. PLAN/PROCESS OUTLINE: Pancopia proposes to 1) To optimize lyophilization and reactivation of the inoculum developed in Phase I; 2) to develop a reactor system that permits accelerated startup; and 3) to operate the wastewater system for an extended period of time and develop an operations manual. BENEFITS: 1) Significant improvements in startup time and reliability for a system that can treat wastewater high in nitrogen, and 2) reduced costs due to optimization of bioreactor design and treatment optimization.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Currently the wastewater treatment industry is being revolutionized by a new type of treatment that can remove nitrogen from wastewater at less than half the present cost. The combination of simultaneous nitrification/denitrification (SND) coupled with deammonification has moved out of the research phase and is being implemented in plants throughout the world with the Blue Plains WWTP in Washington, DC being one of the early adopters. Although this technology is starting to be used, it is still in its infancy with less than 50 full-scale installations worldwide. Unfortunately, one of the primary organisms, anammox, necessary for this type of treatment has an extremely slow growth rate and it can take up to a year to start up a plant unless it receives seed from another plant. Even with seeding, plants generally take 50 days or more to start. Developing an inoculum to rapidly and reliably start up a mixed SND/deammonification system has great commercial possibilities. The Chesapeake Bay watershed is an excellent example of the possible economic potential of this new technology. The Bay's watershed has 539 treatment plants that are under or are coming under mandate to remove nitrogen. The estimated cost for nitrogen removal in 2002 was $8.2 billion for these plants. Development of a process to rapidly and reliably start up mixed SND/deammonification plants has the potential to be extremely profitable and be the source of significant environmental improvement.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA application for the proposed treatment system is the capability of rapidly and reliably starting up a biological wastewater system. This innovative treatment system will ultimately be capable of shortening the start up time of a wastewater treatment system to 15 days while enabling the to plant to remove high levels of organic carbon and nitrogen. It may be possible to use the inoculum to remotely start a wastewater treatment system, thus permitting the system to be operational at the time of occupancy of the station. A secondary application of the inoculum is for use as a backup in the event of failure of the wastewater system. This capability would be useful in cases of toxic shock, equipment failure, operator error, etc. Another application of the inoculum is its use as a standardized base to ensure reliable, uniform treatment. Use of a standard inoculum would lessen variability during treatment and simplify process control. A standard inoculum would permit different researchers to better compare research results. It would also simplify testing potential new wastewater constituents to determine how they may affect treatment

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Remediation/Purification


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H3.03-9079
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CM52P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Cabin Atmosphere Quality and Thermal Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Designer Fluid for use in a Single Loop Variable Heat Rejection Thermal Control System
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mainstream Engineering Corporation
200 Yellow Place
Rockledge,FL 32955 -5327 (321) 631-3550
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ted Amundsen
tamundsen@mainstream-engr.com
200 Yellow Place
Rockledge ,FL 32955 -5327
(321) 631-3550

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The efficient thermal control of vehicles is essential to the success of every single NASA mission. All vehicles have very tight requirements for the thermal control systems while simultaneously placing incredibly stringent demands upon them. These demands are getting even more intense given the shift towards variable heat rejection, which is essential in missions reaching beyond the lower earth orbit. Specifically, the thermal control fluid must maintain excellent thermal properties for heat rejection under peak conditions while at the same time remain liquid at extremely low temperatures. Currently used fluids either do not meet the low temperature requirement (glycol/water mixture) or do not have thermal properties conducive to a compact, efficient system (Galden). Mainstream has identified several promising next generation thermal fluids using computation chemical techniques. Mainstream has already demonstrated in Phase I that these fluids are superior to incumbent fluids. In Phase II, Mainstream will perform more long term durability, compatibility and performance studies in a simulated test-loop representative of conditions encountered on NASA spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to an attractive market within NASA, these fluids will have far reaching effects in other commercial markets as well. These applications include freeze protection, process cooling, refrigeration coil defrosting and sub-ambient dehumidification.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This program will result in a fluid or family of fluids providing a significant benefit to NASA in enabling efficient variable heat rejection thermal control systems. The fluids will be formulated at Mainstream complete with any necessary additive packages to ensure stability, materials compatibility and safety. The commercial market for these fluids within NASA is immense and includes essentially every spacecraft which would require a single phase thermal control loop.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing
Fluids
Lifetime Testing
Active Systems
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Heat Exchange
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H4.01-8817
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CJ42P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Survival Systems for Launch, Entry, Abort
PROPOSAL TITLE: In-Suit Waste Management Technologies
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Omni Measurement Systems, Inc
808 Hercules Drive
Colchester,VT 05446 -5839 (802) 497-2253
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Harvie
mharvie@omnimedicalsys.com
808 Hercules Drive
Colchester ,VT 05446 -5839
(802) 238-9634

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 7
End: 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There is no acceptable urine or fecal containment waste management system for long duration missions for use by crew members confined to pressurized space suits available.
Omni's proposed solution is to integrate its new patent pending urine collection and containment system technology, ProRen FLO (Prosthetic Renal Flow System), combined with Omni fecal collection and containment options into a In-Suit waste management System Garment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Urine and fecal incontinent civilian patients. Waste management for military and civilian personnel using CBRN (chemical-biological-radiological-nuclear) protection suits. Including Ebla virus protection gear.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Pressure suit waste management (urine and fecal) for astronauts.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Air Transportation & Safety
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Space Transportation & Safety
Medical
Physiological/Psychological Countermeasures
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Waste Storage/Treatment
Mission Training


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H4.02-9073
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CJ40P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: EVA Space Suit Pressure Garment Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multifunctional, Self-Healing Hybridsil Materials for EVA Space Suit Pressure Garment Systems
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanosonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke,VA 24136 -3645 (540) 626-6266
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vince Baranauskas
vince@nanosonic.com
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke ,VA 24136 -3645
(540) 626-6266

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A Phase II SBIR transition of NanoSonic?s high flex HybridSil space suit bladder and glove materials will provide a pivotal funding bridge toward Phase III maturation of this very promising lightweight, self-healing pressurized space suit assembly technology. Based on highly encouraging Phase I results indicating 1) its self-healing bladder composites instantly repair after puncturing with a 2 mm probe in vacuum at 10-5 torr to maintain stable operational bladder pressures of 4.3 and 8.1 psi and 2) HybridSil armor array padding provides increased abrasion and puncture resistance at lower weights than currently employed glove padding while meeting established adhesion and modulus metrics, NanoSonic envisions significant Phase III transition potential into next-generation EVA space suit ensembles.

To meet its proposed technical objectives, NanoSonic proposes an aggressive 24-month Phase II SBIR research program to further optimize its high flex HybridSil space suit bladder and glove materials and demonstrate their manufacturing compatibility. Upon Phase II completion, NanoSonic will provide NASA with operational lower arm bladder and TMG glove softgood prototypes integrating its optimized high flex HybridSil self-healing composite and armor array padding respectively.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NanoSonic?s high flex, high durability self-sealing bladder and armor array padding materials will have significant non-NASA commercial applications. Immediate secondary applications will include a broad spectrum of military and civilian protective garment and equipment applications. Considerable utility is also envisioned within inflatable aerospace structures, military / civilian inflatable boats, and military / commercial diver drysuits.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
By providing unprecedented self-healing multifunctional performance along with a litany of environmental durability benefits over legacy multilayered space suit materials, NanoSonic?s high flex HybridSil bladder and armor array glove padding materials will have immediate utility within a broad spectrum of NASA applications. Near term applications will include use within current and next generation space suit bladder and glove ensembles. NanoSonic?s self-healing HybridSil bladder composites will provide previously unavailable, immediate bladder repairability while weighing less, affording increased flexibility, and providing increased puncture resistance. Additional NASA applications will include utility within inflatable habitat structures, protective jumpsuit garments, and higher performance, more durable interior materials within spacecraft.

NanoSonic?s HybridSil armor array padding may be immediately integrated into current and future glove ensembles to provide increased environmental durability over legacy silicone padding while weighing less and having increased flexibility. Therefore, HybridSil armor array padding has the immediate potential to provide enhanced astronaut hand protection with less torque, reduced hand fatigue, and increased dexterity while affording improved astronaut safety.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Organics/Biomaterials/Hybrids
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Textiles


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H4.02-9792
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CJ23P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: EVA Space Suit Pressure Garment Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Contact Stress Design Parameters for Titanium Bearings
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Air-Lock, Inc.
Wampus Lane
Milford,CT 06460 -4861 (203) 878-4691
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Battisti
battistib@airlockinc.com
Wampus Lane
Milford ,CT 06460 -4861
(203) 878-4691

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Air-Lock's Phase I effort tested the effects of ball induced contact stresses on Titanium bearing races. The contact stress design limit that would achieve a planetary exploration suit?s required cycle life was determined. These tests were performed on uniformly loaded flat thrust bearing style test plates.

The Phase II effort will take this information and use it in a real world application, existing advanced planetary exploration suit?s bearings. Specifically focusing on the Z-1 series suit?s Hip and Waist, and also the Z-2 Series Hip bearings. These are areas that are known to have large contact stresses due to non-uniform loading through axial restraint lines. This loading yields increased stresses in different areas of the race. With an understanding of the max expected stress, the bearing design can be made to accommodate all contact stresses applied to the race.

The Phase II effort will consist of finding the maximum expected contact stresses in these bearings through both test and FEA simulation. The bearing designs can then be optimized to reduce the contact stresses in these areas. Air-Lock will manufacture DVT units in order to cycle test the optimized bearings. The task will be finalized with the delivery of optimized bearings capable of being used on the Z-1 Series and Z-2 Series suits.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Along with servicing the space industry, Air-Lock provides this life support hardware to the aerospace, military and fire fighter industries. Similar to our spacesuit products, weight reduction and low profiles are design drivers for aerospace, military and fire fighter life support hardware. A key staple of core products for those industries are quick disconnects (QDs) that utilize bearing ball locking mechanisms. Understanding the role ball contact stresses play relative to component wear and degradation can be implemented across these QD product lines; yielding lighter weight, improved wear resistant assemblies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Air-Lock's core business focuses on providing life support hardware to enhance human performance in hazardous environments. The Titanium bearing design knowledge learned through test and simulation will be used on all suit projects moving forward. Titanium is an excellent candidate bearing race material. It offers lighter weight compared to Stainless Steels commonly used in EVA applications. It offers higher strength Aluminums commonly used in IVA applications. As ever-present budgetary restraints move the industry towards ?one suit fits all applications? approaches. The knowledge and design techniques learned through these efforts will be used in support of all existing and future suit efforts including the current space suit program of record (EMU) and future programs (OCSS and AES) to market the Titanium bearing technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Project Management
Quality/Reliability
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Processing Methods
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Metallics
Lifetime Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H4.03-9399
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CJ30P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: EVA Space Suit Power, Avionics, and Software Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact Wireless EVA Communications System (CWECS)
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innoflight, Inc.
9985 Pacific Heights Boulevard, Suite 250
San Diego,CA 92121 -4712 (858) 638-1580
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joe Koeniger
jkoeniger@innoflight.com
9985 Pacific Heights Boulevard, Suite 250
San Diego ,CA 92121 -4712
(858) 638-1580 Ext: 166

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Extravehicular Activity (EVA) systems are critical to every foreseeable human exploration mission for in-space microgravity EVA and for planetary surface exploration. Innoflight proposes developing a Compact Wireless EVA Communications System (CWECS) as a replacement and advancement of the Space-to-Space EVA Mobility Unit (EMU) Radio (SSER).

The CWECS goals are to: (a) provide backward-compatibility with the existing SSCS network and SSER; (b) provide enhanced communication between the EMU and space vehicle (or ISS or future space habitat) via 802.11n, including high-speed telemetry from the EMU to the spacecraft; and (c) provide body area network (BAN) coverage for wireless biomedical devices and sensors within the EMU.

The Phase II will leverage Innoflight?s DeSCReeT IF-SDR architecture, which uses cutting edge radiation-tolerant components as the foundation of a software-defined radio (SDR), and transform it into an integrated unit supporting SSCS, 802.11n and BAN. The end result of the Phase II will be a brass-board CWECS that demonstrates compatibility with the selected waveforms.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Innoflight will work with JSC to understand the opportunities to pursue opportunities to offer EVA technologies to commercial spaceflight companies, such as Virgin Galactic, and international space agencies, such as ESA or JAXA.

Furthermore, high-speed wireless capabilities in SDRs will be of interest for autonomous spacecraft. Innoflight has experience with Air Force Research Laboratories, Space Vehicles (AFRL/RV), and Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC), Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), and Innoflight will pursue these customers? continued demand for more capable SDR along with their current interests in wireless networking capabilities for fractionated and swarming spacecraft concepts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The current SSER is provided by NASA as GFE. To provide backwards-compatibility to EMU / EVA space suits efforts that use the GFE SSER, Innoflight proposes to build an SSER-compliant variant of CWECS. This will enable consideration in upcoming EMU block upgrades for ISS operations as well as using the ISS and the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) as enabling capabilities for a Mars surface mission. Furthermore, for advanced EVA concepts, including the Exploration EVA, the CWECS will be repackaged into smaller form factor and weight. Deep-space high-speed wireless capabilities (especially 802.11n) will be of interest to the Jet Propulsion Laboratories (JPL) and their robotics efforts. Furthermore, advancing state of the art SDR for space will be appealing to numerous mission areas ? most notably, AES?s SCaN.

The NASA SBIR program is ideal vehicle to provide cost savings and/ or cost avoidance for an EMU program overdue for innovation but with budget constraints that prohibit a large scale program to advance the space suit design.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Man-Machine Interaction
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Ad-Hoc Networks (see also Sensors)
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Network Integration
Transmitters/Receivers
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H5.01-8614
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL99P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deployable Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Composite Truss (ACT) Printing for Large Solar Array Structures
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
San Diego Composites, Inc.
9220 Activity Road
San Diego,CA 92126 -4407 (858) 751-0450
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Quinn McAllister
qmcallister@sdcomposites.com
9220 Activity Road
San Diego ,CA 92126 -4407
(858) 751-0450 Ext: 118

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Large solar arrays (100 kW-1 MW) are required in order to generate the power necessary for solar electric propulsion to drive NASA's future missions, including: Asteroid Redirect Mission, Mars Exploration, and NASA Commercial Supply. The advantages and benefits of large solar array designs will only be realized if the array support structure weight and packaging volume are minimized. SDC's Advanced Composite Truss (ACT) additive manufacturing technology can provide a 30-40% weight savings and a 250-300% improvement in power per unit volume over existing state-of- the-art solar array boom structures. The ACT technology consists of the lightweight advanced composite truss, the autonomous low-packing volume ACT printer, and an integrated solar array deployment system. The weight of the ACT structure is designed to optimize the load carrying path within an open truss architecture. The material for the truss is efficiently packaged within the envelope of the ACT printer prior to launch. Once in orbit, the ACT printer autonomously manufactures the ACT structure without the need for mechanical joints. The ACT printer can be scaled to manufacture any size, length, and/or geometry truss required to meet the prescribed mission requirements. Following the manufacture of the ACT truss, the integrated drive system of the ACT printer autonomously deploys the solar array.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ACT system is being developed with complete printer and structure tailorability to meet a range of mission objectives. Additional applications include private space exploration spacecraft that employ solar electric propulsion, private space stations, and terrestrial applications including low wind resistant booms, light weight antenna structures, and tether satellite structures (electrodynamic and moment tethers). SDC estimates that if the ACT system could be utilized in a production environment (either in space or on earth), ROIs of 10-100 could be realized.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary market for the ACT additive manufacturing technology is large (100 kW-1 MW) solar arrays. However, the ACT system is reconfigurable, scalable, and reprogrammable, making it applicable to a large number of other space applications. The ACT system could also be implemented for structural reinforcement for the ISS or other space structures, structural booms for solar arrays on lightweight space structures, Mars colonization infrastructure, straight and curved primary structure on satellites or future space stations. SDC estimates that the ROI for launching the ACT system on five (5) different missions will exceed 3. The ACT system has direct applicability to the asteroid redirect mission, the Mars Exploration missions, and NASA commercial resupply missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Process Monitoring & Control
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
In Situ Manufacturing
Composites
Deployment
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H5.01-9640
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL49P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deployable Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact Telescoping Array Design and Development
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Angstrom Designs, Inc.
P.O. Box 2032
Santa Barbara,CA 93120 -4914 (805) 876-4138
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Peter Sorensen
peter.sorensen@angstromdesigns.com
5551 Ekwill Street
Santa Barbara ,CA 93111 -2355
(805) 689-4586

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Solar arrays power the vast majority of space missions. Solar arrays with higher power, better mass efficiency and improved packaging are critical, especially given NASA interest in solar electric propulsion (SEP). The Phase I results shows that the Compact Telescoping Array (CTA) architecture, originally conceived by a NASA sponsored team, is a very promising new technology. Not only has CTA shown outstanding performance metrics, but it does so in a manner that is scalable, reliable and offers compact stowage.

The proposed innovation is a solar array design consisting of a single central truss structure flanked by tensioned flexible photovoltaic blankets. This configuration has been shown in multiple analytical studies to be the most mass efficient for a cantilevered solar array. Phase I results confirm that CTA has very low structural mass which, with state-of-practice cell technology, allows the platform to deliver excellent specific power. For example, sub-200 kW systems show specific power approaching 190 W/kg and mega-Watt versions of CTA still produce better than 150 W/kg.

The CTA stowed wing achieves the ?compact? attribute due to the fact that the two primary components of the system, the boom and the PV blankets, though by different methods, both stow into highly volume-efficient packages. The individual boom segments all nest neatly inside one another while the PV blankets stow into compact Z-folded stacks. The result is a system that is capable of delivering compactness in excess of 100 kW/m?, far beyond expectations.

The CTA system, although a new solar array configuration, is shown through Phase I research to have high reliability. This is achieved by leveraging heritage mechanical subsystems and by minimizing new mechanism design, thereby effectively delivering a higher TRL than would ordinarily be associated with a new system. The CTA design draws heavily from heritage designs of Angstrom Designs subcontractor Orbital ATK Goleta.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
CTA is primarily the combination of flight-qualified components so the design is inherently lower risk than completely new arrays. After successful completion of the Phase II work, including building and testing a CTA wing, risk will be further reduced and the TRL of CTA will be significantly advanced. Phase II work will further reduce development costs and risks of future programs.

CTA?s exceptional metrics and packaging versatility are also of great benefit to the non-NASA, commercial market. Phase II work will advance technology and lower risk to enable commercial infusion beyond NASA.
Commercial satellite enterprises will be able to reap the benefits of reduced solar array mass in the form of increased payload capacity and/or reduced launch costs. CTA is also an excellent candidate for the advanced arrays needed for GEO-Comm satellites to take advantage of the cost benefits of using SEP and dual launch. The Phase II demonstrator CTA wing will be representative of a 17 kW system, a power level of interest to the suppliers in the GEO-Comm market. At least two suppliers of commercial satellites, Boeing and Orbital ATK, are currently seeking to replace rigid panel technology with flexible blanket systems in near term programs.

Other high probability customers include the department of Defense, Air Force Research Laboratory and foreign governments all of whom have an interest in high power, low mass, low risk, low cost solar arrays.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential CTA Phase II and Phase III SBIR contracts will build demonstration units representing 17 and 30 kW systems respectively. This will advance CTA technology to TRL 6. Increasing power level step by step advances CTA technology toward larger systems by taking advantage of the natural scalability of the CTA platform. This will bring SEP power class systems 50 kW and higher well within reach.
NASA programs involving large solar arrays would be particularly interested in this technology development path as it directly supports mass-critical SEP mission requirements. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is one relatively near term NASA mission that could benefit from CTA. Following Phase II and Phase III work, Angstrom Designs expects applications should be in the form of purchase contracts with our subcontractor and commercialization partner, Orbital ATK, to supply ARM or other NASA missions with efficient space power.
Phase I results show that a CTA system could supply 50 kW for a potential ARM SEP mission delivering metrics of 190 W/kg specific power and 88 kW/m? power density. A future Mars cargo SEP mission could be fitted with 190 kW of CTA power with outstanding metrics: 187 W/kg and 98 kW/m?.
Versatile packaging, exceptional performance and solid reliability over a wide range of power classes and g-loads all indicate that the CTA platform lends itself well to future NASA missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Actuators & Motors
Deployment
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H5.01-9816
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL38P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deployable Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight Inflatable Structural Airlock (LISA)
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
701 McMillian Way Northwest, Suite D
Huntsville,AL 35806 -2923 (256) 726-4800
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Essam Sheta
efs@cfdrc.com
701 McMillian Way Northwest, Suite D
Huntsville ,AL 35806 -2923
(256) 726-4800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Innovative low cost, light-weight airlock technologies are required to integrate with deep space and surface platform hosting Extra-Vehicular Activity. CFDRC team proposes an inflatable airlock structure that employs unique fabric architecture capable of delivering the lowest mass and greatest versatility of any competing design. The proposed design features a completely integrated air beam inter-wall to passively generate the wall stiffness required for airlock depressurization?without the mass and bulk of aluminum pressure hulls or complexity of multi-structure adaptations of competing inflatable habitat architectures. This unique architecture utilizes a matrix of braided fiber tendons to contain the structure?s global pressure loads. The underlying woven fabric and gas barrier envelopes are thereby only exposed to minimal local shell loads where they bulge outwards between adjacent tendons. Working in pure tension in the absence of load coupling, the tendon array architecture has been shown to be statically determinate and auto-stabilizing under extreme deflection. The proposed airlock stows compactly for transport to the habitat further reducing logistic costs. Phase I effort focused on conceptual design of the airlock system, identification and evaluation of candidate materials, and characterization of the airlock system. Phase II effort will focus on design refinement, integrated testing, analysis, and integration plan that will culminate in the fabrication and demonstration of a subscale prototype inflatable airlock structure.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications include many potential venues including underwater habitats, deep sea emergency escape systems (submarine), portable storage tanks for oil transport, high altitude air ships, aerostats, compressed air energy storage, remote fuel depot stations, remote water storage tanks for forest fire control, deep space antenna reflectors for ground stations, antenna radomes, emergency shelters, and troop shelters with integrated ballistic protection.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful completion of this SBIR effort will result in the development of a lightweight fabric inflatable airlock structure for advanced space exploration missions that protect habitable environments and reduce operational and logistical overhead. This system will have immediate application in expanding the utility of any human space exploration architecture while benefiting from system cost and payload volume reduction. The proposed technology will find direct application within many NASA missions, programs and projects including projects associated with NASA Evolvable Mars Campaign, STMD Minimalistic Advanced Softgood Hatch (MASH) project, Exploration Augmentation Module (EAM), and deep space inflatable habitat. Other NASA applications include planetary surface habitats, large-scale space hangars for on-orbit assembly, design and analysis of space-based inflatable structures such as telescopes, inflatable aerodynamic decelerators, antenna reflectors, cryogenic propellant tanks, debris shields, rescue vehicles, and barometric chambers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Tools/EVA Tools
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Deployment
Structures
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H5.02-9227
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CM46P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme Temperature Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Metallic Joining to Advanced Ceramic Composites
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Plasma Processes, LLC
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville,AL 35811 -1558 (256) 851-7653
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Timothy McKechnie
timmck@plasmapros.com
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville ,AL 35811 -1558
(256) 851-7653 Ext: 103

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) utilizes attitude control motors (ACM) with advanced ceramic composite components that function as a valve control system to allow for safe maneuverability away from danger. This system is made steerable due to the valve controlled thrusters which utilize advanced ceramic pintles made of 4D C/C-SiC that are attached to metallic structures and actuated.

During the Phase I effort, an innovative technique to join metallics with the advanced ceramic composites was demonstrated. Detailed characterization confirmed the deposited metal (Inconel 625) produced during this investigation had good adherence to C-C/SiC pintles and no interfacial reactions occurred during deposition or elevated temperature exposure. In Phase II, the joining interface will be optimized and pintle assembles will be produced for hot fire testing with Orbital ATK. Additional CMC materials and components will also be developed.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Joining advanced composites to metal structures is applicable to existing and future NASA programs including the ACM motors of Orion MPCV?s Launch Abort System, human Lunar ascent/decent, and the Commercial Crew motors; Nozzle extensions of upper stage engines for nanosatellite launch (e.g. ORBITEC?s vortex liquid rocket engine) and ISS resupply (e.g. SpaceX?s Merlin Vacuum liquid rocket engines); and RL10 engines, upper stage nozzle extensions; Nosetips, leading edges and control surfaces for hypersonic vehicles; turbine engine components, and exit cones and control vanes for tactical missiles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Results of the Phase II will support the insertion of the joining technology of metallic to ceramic composite hot structures in the Attitude Control Motor of the Launch Abort System for SLS/Orion.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Space Transportation & Safety
Attitude Determination & Control
Characterization
Prototyping
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Metallics
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H5.02-9569
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL53P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme Temperature Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Enabling Technology for Thermal Protection on HIAD and Other Hypersonic Missions
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
S. D. Miller and Associates, PLLC
216 West Cherry Avenue, Building 2
Flagstaff,AZ 86001 -4424 (928) 779-5000
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stephen Miller
stephen.dwight.miller@gmail.com
216 West Cherry Avenue, Building 2
Flagstaff ,AZ 86001 -4424
(928) 779-5000

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Gas conduction and radiation are the two important heat transfer mechanisms in highly porous reusable thermal protection systems used for planetary entry of space vehicles. The relative magnitude of the two varies depending on altitude, temperature and the planet. Usually radiation is more significant at lower pressures and at higher temperatures. Gas conduction is more dominant at higher pressures and lower temperatures. In most planetary entries, both modes of heat transfer are significant. Typical flexible or rigid refractory ceramic fiber Thermal Protection System (TPS) such as Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) and Shuttle tiles can take high temperatures, can reduce gas conduction at lower pressures, and scatter radiation at higher temperatures.
There is a need for more efficient TPS with lower mass, reduced thickness and significantly lower thermal conductivity to make inter planetary missions possible. In order to achieve this goal, insulations need to be developed that can further reduce gas conduction and radiation heat transfer compared to standard refractory ceramic fiber insulations.

The overall objective of the Phase II program is to migrate and optimize proven paper making concepts to fabricate robust, flexible and cost efficient, fiber reinforced aerogels, without sacrificing the thermal and mechanical qualities, in large sections suitable for application on High Speed Vehicles (HSV?s).

Further investigation in Phase II would focus on production methods and recipe optimization for this new class of thermal insulations. Embedding materials with advantageous properties into fibrous mats allows tailoring the temperature and flexibility requirements to meet the needs of specific missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
According to the Department for Communities and Local Government, 118,760 new homes were built in 2014. This creates a potential market for 320 million square feet of thermal house wrap each year.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is developing an inflatable thermal protection system known as Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD). It consists of a giant cone of inner tubes assembled sort of like a child's stacking ring toy may some day help cargo, or even people, land on another planet, return to Earth or any destination with an atmosphere.
The HIAD could give NASA more options for future planetary missions, because it could allow spacecraft to carry larger, heavier scientific instruments and other tools for exploration. Improved thermal insulations will play a key role in HIAD and other TPS of the future.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Aerogels
Ceramics
Textiles
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H5.03-9682
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL45P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Multifunctional Materials and Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing for Multifunctional Structural Materials with Embedded Capabilities
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sheridan Solutions, LLC
745 Woodhill Drive
Saline,MI 48176 -1708 (734) 604-1120
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Sheridan
johns@sheridansolutions.com
745 Woodhill Drive
Saline ,MI 48176 -1708
(734) 604-1120

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase II development program will utilize a novel new 3D printing process to produce multifunction aluminum parts with integrated health monitoring sensors. In particular, Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing will be used to embed optical fiber strain sensors anywhere in a metal part that can subsequently be used for structural health monitoring (SHM). Success in this program enables real time strain and temperature measurements throughout a structural aluminum part that complements the integrated system of data, models, and other analysis tools to represent an aerospace vehicle over its entire life cycle.

This new capability is in direct support of the NASA Virtual Digital Fleet Leader / Digital Twin program, a concept which combines as-built vehicle components, as-experienced loads and environments, and other vehicle-specific characteristics to enable ultrahigh fidelity modeling of aircraft and spacecraft or their components throughout their service lives. When augmented with real time data, Digital Twin provides actionable information for making decisions now (diagnosis) and for the future (prognosis), considering all sources of uncertainty.

Data generated from this enabling work will provide the engineering design and programmatic information necessary for implementation into a flight program. In this effort we will contribute to NASA's plans to prepare for future generations of vehicles that will rely on increasingly complex, heterogeneous and multifunctional material forms with increasingly complex failure modes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This program, which embeds optical fiber strain sensors anywhere in a metal part, provides multifunction aluminum parts with integrated health monitoring sensors in support of the Digital Twin program. The Digital Twin program is, in fact, a joint Air Force - NASA effort. The initial commercial applications of this technology lie clearly with defense and aerospace manufacturers.

Aerospace and Defense are early adopters of additive manufacturing because it enables lightweight designs and the production of parts with complex geometries. Additionally, aerospace and defense manufacturers frequently incorporate high value materials, and additive manufacturing allows them to maintain fine control of material properties and reduce raw material waste.

There are very few conceptual approaches for fabricating metallic load-bearing structure with embedded multi-functional capability. Traditional fusion based welding and/or thermomechanical processes used for fabricating metallic structure would destroy delicate instruments. The solid-state nature of UAM is unique in that it allows sensitive sensors, such as thermocouples and strain gages, to be placed inside of metallic structure.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Embedding optical fiber strain sensors in aerospace aluminum alloys for structural health monitoring is an important constituent capability for the Virtual Digital Fleet Leader or Digital Twin. In the 2015 NASA Technology Roadmap, TA-12: Materials, Structures, Mechanical Systems, and Manufacturing, the Digital Twin technology state of the art is described as TRL 1. The Digital Twin is in the concept stage, but the constituent capabilities are in various stages of development. The technology performance goal is described as TRL 6. This would include the ability to adjust life prediction based upon the monitored past, the current structural status, and the potential new environments coming in the vehicle life, with confidence in sensor interpretation, and in integrated prediction accuracy. We plan to elevate embedding optical fiber strain sensors in aerospace aluminum alloys to TRL 6 by the end of the Phase II program, fully addressing the need for this constituent capability.

NASA plans to have the Digital Twin capability ready for Planetary Exploration Design Reference Missions to Mars in 2033, with the technology ready by 2027. We are on track to meet these goals.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Processing Methods
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H6.01-8753
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CJ43P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human Robotic Systems - Mobility Subsystem, Manipulation Subsystem, and Human System Interaction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Real-Time Integrated Navigation System for Planetary Exploration (RT-INSPEX)
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
American GNC Corporation
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley,CA 93065 -1812 (805) 582-0582
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stephen Oonk
soonk@americangnc.com
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley ,CA 93065 -1812
(805) 582-0582 Ext: 108

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
For supporting NASA's efforts in enhancing robotic autonomy and off-loading work from operators and astronauts, American GNC Corporation has developed the "Real-Time Integrated Navigation System for Planetary Exploration" (RT-INSPEX) to provide autonomous navigation with GNSS-free localization, terrain awareness and traversability estimation, and local/global mapping of unknown environments. Key current capabilities are: (a) advanced image processing for visual odometry based on stereo processing and an innovative routine of feature detection, tracking, and pruning for highly accurate robot motion and position estimation; (b) improved localization by vision and inertial system fusion; (c) simultaneous online local and global mapping; and (d) vision and touch based terrain traversability estimation using a combination of environment classification, ground plane detection, and ground interface analysis. During Phase II, the system will be customized for operating in indoor and outdoor environments and for any robotic vehicle type with the goal of increased autonomy by providing a complete GNSS-free awareness of location, an understanding of surrounding environments, and the ability to navigate autonomously. Areas of work in Phase II include: (1) customization to NASA's robotic platforms such as Robonaut; (2) accurate localization over multiple kilometer distances without GNSS; (3) complete integrated touch and vision based traversability system; (4) holistic scene and indoor/outdoor environment understanding; (5) consistent global map generation with included traversability information; (6) optimal route planning with obstacle avoidance for autonomous navigation; (7) robustness to diverse or adverse conditions in indoor or planetary environments; and (8) verification & validation, embedded development, and implementation in robotic vehicles. The final system can be applied to a variety of systems for NASA, the military, and in the commercial sector.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
One of the main objectives of this SBIR is the commercialization of the research results. The RT-INSPEX is a highly useful system for GNSS-free robotic navigation and environment understanding and therefore presents significant application potential for a wide range of non-NASA systems within both the civilian and military sectors. The technology is closely aligned with developments related to self-driving vehicles, where the ability to classify terrain, objects, etc. is very important for collision avoidance and navigation along roads. The capability of localization without GNSS using vision can be used to know one's position in consumer applications when GPS is not available or intermittent. Further areas the technology would find application in include: (1) commercially available and military based personnel tracking devices; (2) GPS-free navigation for both manned and unmanned ground, air, and sea vehicles; (3) military missions involving unmanned platforms; (4) accurate floor plan mapping of GPS-denied indoor environments that pose a risk for human intervention; (5) robotic surveillance applications; (6) aiding search and rescue missions; and (7) local law enforcement agencies for detecting the locations of harmful objects.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The RT-INSPEX will directly support NASA?s future missions ranging from the exploration of remote planetary surfaces (assuming very limited and time-delayed Earth-based communication) to assistive operations in man-made structures such as the International Space Station (ISS). The pervasive use of intelligent robotics with accurate navigation capabilities will enhance exploration and facilitate mapping of uncharted regions. This particularly benefits planetary exploration mobile robotic platforms such as the Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity Mars Rovers. Another application would be the ?K10? series from the NASA Ames Intelligent Robotics Group. However, the very flexible and modular nature of the system and software lends itself to operation in indoor environments as well such as the case with the Robonaut 2 at the ISS. For instance, the RT-INSPEX can be used to help obtain an autonomous understanding of the Robonaut's surroundings such as identifying important objects that should be avoided or interacted with, and to facilitate navigation along corridors without relying on any type of external guidance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Navigation & Guidance
Intelligence
Perception/Vision
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
3D Imaging
Image Analysis
Image Processing
Inertial (see also Sensors)
Optical
Ranging/Tracking


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H6.01-9110
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CJ39P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human Robotic Systems - Mobility Subsystem, Manipulation Subsystem, and Human System Interaction
PROPOSAL TITLE: SOUL System Maturation
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Busek Company, Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick,MA 01760 -1023 (508) 655-5565
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vlad Hruby
vhruby@busek.com
11 Tech Circle
Natick ,MA 01760 -1023
(508) 655-5565

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Busek Co. Inc. proposes to advance the maturity of an innovative Spacecraft on Umbilical Line (SOUL) System suitable for a wide variety of applications of interest to NASA, DoD and commercial missions. SOUL is a small (<10kg) robotic, self-propelled, self-navigating, autonomous vehicle equipped with a tool (e.g. gripper, light, camera etc.). The SOUL vehicle/robot is attached via the umbilical line to a larger host spacecraft that stows it in a marsupial-like manner and communicates with ground. The umbilical delivers power and commands to SOUL from the host spacecraft. Conceptually, the SOUL is a tool on the end of tens of meters long robotic arm with infinite degrees of freedom (flexible umbilical) that can access locations unreachable by conventional robotic arms. The initial purpose of the USAF and Navy funded SOUL development was removal of large space debris (1000kg class). Under this program, the development of the SOUL vehicle was extremely successful. The SOUL, tested on a air table, autonomously recognized simulated debris, estimated its pose relative to the target (fusing visible, IR images and IMU information), planned a path to the debris and executed the path and the touched the target with minimal momentum transfer. In Phase 1 of the present program, Busek designed, build and tested a winch that is the key part of the SOUL deployment and retrieval system, panning out or reeling in the umbilical line. In the proposed Phase 2 effort Busek will build the entire SOUL system consisting of the SOUL vehicle, umbilical, the Deployment/Retrieval system and the Command Module. The entire system will be housed for launch in a 6U CubeSat deployer which will also stow SOUL when inactive. Demonstration of the integrated system including the 6U deployer will be performed on the air table. The ultimate goal is to make a flight worthy system and demonstrate it on the ISS. Flight readiness will be achieved by qualifying program on the Phase 2 hardware.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Many of the NASA and non-NASA applications overlap and some were listed above. Purely commercial applications are also numerous centering on the commercial GEO sat. Examples include: 1) Self-inspection leading to on-orbit servicing/repair of host spacecraft. This of particular interest to GEO Com sat owners/primes during deployment of appendages, anomaly diagnostic and aging assessment; 2) Inspection of other spacecraft with development proceeding to on-orbit servicing/repair and even refueling (when the umbilical contains a propellant transfer tube); 3) Autonomous operations enabling on-orbit assembly and repurposing as envisioned by DARPA?s Phoenix Program; 4) Capture of large debris which could then be towed to disposal orbit by the larger host vehicle, Small SOUL mass decreases the danger of additional debris produced by inadvertent collisions due to SOUL low momentum; 5) Function as a long boom with sensors on the end, (e.g. Langmuir probes, magnetometers etc.) enabling better measurements via greater distance from the large host vehicle causing less disturbance to local plasma/environment; 6) Assist in space situational awareness by sensing RF, presence of effluent molecules some distance away from the host etc.; 7) Calibrate RF/radar antennas by measuring near-field pattern by flying the SOUL vehicle with the appropriate sensors in front of the antenna/aperture.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Possible NASA applications include: 1) Inspection of ISS external systems reducing requirement for costly and dangerous manned EVAs. 2) Inspection of heat shield on reentry vehicles to prevent disasters such as Columbia. Integrating SOUL into such vehicles for routine use prior to re-entry would greatly increase the crew safety; 3) Collect small samples from asteroid/comet surface without landing the larger mother ship/host. If Philae was on an umbilical line or if the harpoons were on an umbilical, the Rosetta mission would have been greater success; 4) Create large deployable space system such as large antennas/apertures by coupling multiple satellites using the umbilical line (e.g. rotating formation for stability or artificial gravity); 5) Enhance manned the EVA capability: a) The SOUL robot could carry lights, bring tools, spare consumables (e.g. air tank) to the EVA astronaut working on the ISS or any other future ship; b) The SOUL robot could provide real time video of EVA activity from vantage points unreachable by either other astronauts or conventional robotic arms; c) The SOUL robot could provide auxiliary heat management system or even water vapor capture system reducing weight and power requirements for the EVA suit; d) The SOUL-like umbilical line could carry power and fiber optics comm link reducing reliance on EVA suit batteries while the fiber optics can relay high resolution video from the EVA suit camera.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Tools/EVA Tools
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Perception/Vision
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Image Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H6.01-9378
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CA40P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human Robotic Systems - Mobility Subsystem, Manipulation Subsystem, and Human System Interaction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Stochastic Robotic Simulation Tool
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Energid Technologies
One Mifflin Place, Suite 400
Cambridge,MA 02138 -4946 (888) 547-4100
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ryan Penning
rpenning@energid.com
One Mifflin Place Suite 400
Cambridge ,MA 02138 -4946
(888) 547-4100

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Energid Technologies' innovation is an easy-to-use suite of simulation tools for formulating, testing, and implementing robotic missions for lunar and planetary environments. It will aid multiple phases of mission planning, from hardware development to deployment by providing a way to simulate and evaluate maneuvers under complex and uncertain conditions. It is designed to be used to seek out conditions that maximize the probability of either system failure or success. The multioptimization tool draws on concepts from game theory to find difficult corner cases by optimizing over multiple goals. The framework allows for profoundly unknown variables (those without known probability distributions) to be considered within an application, by determining values of these variables for which failure or success is likely to occur. A static design analysis tool draws on CAD model analysis and lifecycle probability distributions to determine system failure points. A terrain analysis tool builds on the stochastic optimization framework to provide detailed user feedback on available maneuvers. Each of these tools is dependent on an accurate simulation of the underlying system and sensor behavior. Therefore, in addition to the effort to develop the tools themselves, a portion of the innovation is the design and implementation of terramechanics, illumination, and advanced mechanism simulations for lunar and planetary environments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
To its commercial customers, Energid licenses its software technology through its Actin toolkit and integrated robotic products. Actin is delivered as libraries and header files that can be compiled into new software. This form of Energid's technology has found wide application in software for space, manufacturing, agriculture, nuclear energy, and oil exploration. The advanced level of simulation-based testing provided by the new software developed during this SBIR project will enhance these commercial activities, and allow Energid to expand into new areas of application. These areas include any domain where sensors, dynamics and control algorithms interact in an environment of uncertainty. A prime application of this, particularly given Energid?s expertise in robotics, is the burgeoning field of autonomous vehicles. These companies can leverage the software created during this SBIR to evaluate performance and safety in an uncertain world, and deliver products to market faster.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Energid?s tool suite will reduce cost and improve schedule on NASA?s lunar and planetary rover missions by leveraging simulation-based analysis to improve mission planning and design. Energid will partner with both the Intelligent Robotics Group, and specific mission project managers on missions such as the Mars 2020 Rover. Our tool suite can be used during all stages of mission planning. In early stage development, it can be used to help set achievable mission objectives. During deployment it can be used to choose among maneuver options that are likely to be successful. Energid will provide support for the new software's application on upcoming missions both as a prime contractor and as a supporting subcontractor to large NASA prime contractors.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Analytical Methods
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H6.01-9381
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CJ31P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human Robotic Systems - Mobility Subsystem, Manipulation Subsystem, and Human System Interaction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Surround Visual & Sensory Feedback for Robotic Arm Pilots
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Swift Engineering, Inc.
1141-A Via Callejon
San Clemente,CA 92673 -0000 (949) 492-6608
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrew Streett
astreett@swiftengineering.com
1141 Via Callejon
San Clemente ,CA 92673 -0000
(949) 492-6608 Ext: 219

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Robotic systems in space carry a lower risk tolerance than robotic systems on earth. Humans require faster learning curves for introduction of more complex robotics in space, but the only way to accomplish this is to acquire open source software on easily adaptable hardware. This will enable astronauts to perform multiple design cycles while they are in space, such as on the ISS. Swift Engineering is proposing a lightweight surround visual and sensory feedback system for robotic pilots that can easily be transferable, and is modular and scalable to any robotic system. Using 360 degree cameras, LIDAR, and a Myo armband, the robotic pilot will be able to quickly adapt to any environment from anywhere, including mission control. The key is that all of this work is being built from open source platforms so that nothing becomes overly proprietary, and astronauts can perform design cycles in space quickly and efficiently.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA Applications are: (1) Prosthetics: brain training whereby the physical therapist moves his/her arm and the amputee?s arm moves in succession. Brain waves can be monitored and trained to then move in that same motion. Never before have physical therapists and robotics been able to interact in such a way. (2) Education: STEM students will bring about change by understanding how they can help others with a tool where they have surround situational awareness and can manipulate the environment remotely. (3) Extreme Work Environments: Swift Engineering uses freezers and autoclaves in daily operation. If the engineering staff could enter an immersive environment and enter the freezer to remove need prepreg material rolls, time and energy costs would be reduced from the standard of opening up the freezer manually up to 50 times a day. If a vacuum sealed bag leaks in the autoclave, an engineer could fix it remotely without opening the autoclave, and hundreds of parts a year would not be affected. (4) Underwater vehicles: At extreme depths submarines need a better method to control the robotic arms that are on the front of their submarines. If pilots were inside the submarine, and could manipulate the robotic arm similar to their own arm, control would be vastly superior to current methods. (5) Hazardous material storage, disposal, or bomb disposal robots require dexteritys and full situation awareness in often very tight areas.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications that could be considered are: (1) Adaptation of the robotic arms onto an assistive free flyer capable of autonomously monitoring the environment. When an anomaly is present, the human operator can control and manipulate the environment with the robotic arms with full surround sensors. (2) Repair satellites will be required in the future, and full autonomy is unable to predict every anomaly and complexity. This system will require a human-in-the-loop with immersive technology and surround sensors. (3) Canadarm augmentation will be necessary as space stations grow, and humans are required to operate closer to moving robotic objects in space. Full system surround knowledge will be required with a human-in-the-loop at all times for risk reduction. (4) Rover robotic arms and/or backpack arms and/or quadcopter arms and/or ATHLETE robotic arms: human-in-the-loop robotic arm manipulation is required for non-redundant, risk adverse space environments. (5) As NASA plans to build structures on the moon and Mars utilizing robotic technicians, there will need to be a ?supervisory robotic assistant with situational awareness and full dexterity to control fully autonomous robots.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Man-Machine Interaction
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H7.01-9025
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CA50P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ablative Thermal Protection Systems Technologies, Sensors and NDE Methods
PROPOSAL TITLE: Embedded Multifunctional Optical Sensor System
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Optics Corporation
1845 West 205th Street
Torrance,CA 90501 -1510 (310) 320-3088
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Naibing Ma
ISProposals@poc.com
1845 West 205th Street
Torrance ,CA 90501 -1510
(310) 320-3088

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to continue the development of a novel Embedded Multifunctional Optical Sensor (EMOS) System. The EMOS addresses NASA?s need for in situ sensor systems for use on rigid and/or flexible ablative thermal protection system (TPS) materials to measure multiple TPS structural, aerothermal, and aerodynamic response parameters including temperature, heat flux, and pressure. EMOS is based on use of novel materials for high-temperature operation and uniquely designed fiber optic microsensors. The EMOS system is capable of simultaneously measuring multiple TPS response parameters (e.g., pressure, temperature, and heat flux) using a suite of miniature (diameter <400 micron) fiber optic sensors. An EMOS will tolerate operating temperatures >1500 degrees C and measurement errors within 0.4% for temperature sensors, 0.2% for pressure sensors, and 20% for heat flux measurement. The outcome of the Phase I EMOS program was the successful feasibility demonstration of the proposed EMOS technology, capable of operating at temperatures at >1500 degrees C. At the end of Phase II, POC will perform a technology readiness level (TRL)-6 demonstration of the EMOS at POC or at NASA facilities, and will deliver to NASA a fully operational EMOS system prototype.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Military applications of the EMOS system will include health monitoring of military aircraft components. The military will benefit from this technology by incorporating EMOS into the engine and drivetrain components of rotorcraft to monitor, in situ and in real time, potential component failure, to reduce the amount of inspection and testing required, and increase reliability and mission availability. Commercial applications include health monitoring of industrial control and heavy equipment used in construction and mining operations, commercial aircraft engines, drivetrain systems, and utility systems. An immediate application of the EMOS system will be monitoring coal-fired power plants, natural-gas-based power plants, geothermal plants, as well as other power-generation facilities throughout the nation. This sensor suite can be used directly in critical high-temperature power plant components including superheater and reheater pendants for in-situ real-time condition monitoring.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed EMOS system will provide for NASA a distributed and embedded in situ system for measurement of TPS response in aerothermal and aerodynamic environments. It will provide better traceability from the modeling and design tools to actual performance, because the resultant EMOS data can lead to higher-fidelity design tools, improved risk quantification, decreased heat shield mass, and increases in direct payload. For specific NASA applications, these microsensors can be applied to different types of ablative materials used for TPSs including, but not limited to, PICA, PICA-X, SIRCA, Superlight Ablator (SLA), and Avcoat, and those under development for planetary aerocapture and entry as well as return to Earth.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Waveguides/Optical Fiber (see also Optics)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Interferometric (see also Analysis)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Pressure/Vacuum


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H7.01-9767
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CA31P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ablative Thermal Protection Systems Technologies, Sensors and NDE Methods
PROPOSAL TITLE: Heat Shield Recession Measurements Using Remote Spectral Sensors
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Opto-Knowledge Systems, Inc. (OKSI)
19805 Hamilton Avenue
Torrance,CA 90502 -1341 (310) 756-0520
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gordon Scriven
gordon@oksi.com
19805 Hamilton Avenue
Torrance ,CA 90502 -1341
(310) 756-0520 Ext: 229

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
OKSI proposes a minimally invasive in-flight diagnostic to measure heat shield recession during flight tests. These measurements can be used to validate models and ultimately optimize heat shield design to reduce weight while maintaining sufficient safety margins. The concept has two components: 1) specially designed heat shield plugs and 2) a remote spectral sensor.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial and DoD applications also exist. For instance, SpaceX (Dragon), Blue Origin (New Shepard), and Boeing (CST-100) are pursuing capsule reentry capabilities. DoD is developing hypersonic cruise vehicles in support of Conventional Prompt Global Strike. These test vehicles undergo very high heating rates which stresses the Thermal Protective System (TPS) design. Non-invasive recession measurements are needed to support development of an optimal TPS.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is in the process of improving heat shield design either through the use of new heat shield materials or by reducing the thickness of existing heat shields using conventional materials. Currently, NASA heat shield predictive models are not reliably consistent with observed measurements. The proposed concept will provide time-resolved recession measurements that can be used for model validation (both during arc jet test and flight tests). With validated predictive models, NASA can optimize the heat shield design for expected reentry conditions.
Additionally, reliable onboard real-time recession measurements could possibly be used to identify localized excessive recession. This diagnostic could be integrated with capsule flight control system to orient the vehicle to reduce heating loads in damaged areas. Furthermore, this technology could be used to monitor Mars entry events whose heat shields cannot be physically inspected post-entry.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Radiometric
Verification/Validation Tools
Ultraviolet
Visible
Multispectral/Hyperspectral
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H7.02-9691
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CA32P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Diagnostic Tools for High Velocity Testing & Analysis
PROPOSAL TITLE: Short Pulsed Laser Methods for Velocimetry and Thermometry in High Enthalpy Facilities
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MetroLaser, Inc.
22941 Mill Creek Drive
Laguna Hills,CA 92653 -1215 (949) 553-0688
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jacob George
jageorge@metrolaserinc.com
22941 Mill Creek Drive
Laguna Hills ,CA 92653 -1215
(949) 553-0688 Ext: 222

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A suite of pulsed laser diagnostics is proposed for studying aspects of planetary entry and Earth atmospheric reentry in arc jets. For example, dissociation of molecules impacts the flow-field physics, including surface heat flux and catalytic surface reactions. Results obtained during the Phase I effort point to three promising diagnostic techniques: Rayleigh Scattering Polarimetry (RSP) for dissociation fraction, Thermal Acoustic Wave (TAW) thermometry for gas temperature, and Radar Resonance Enhanced Multi-photon Ionization (Radar REMPI) for gas temperature and velocity. The RSP technique is based on the differences in the polarization of Rayleigh-scattered light between atoms and molecules. The TAW technique is based on the determination of wave speed from the propagation of an acoustic wave generated by a laser spark from the focused beam of a pulsed laser. In the case of Radar REMPI, temperature and velocity are obtained through the spectral broadening and frequency shift associated with two-photon resonance interactions in atomic oxygen and nitrogen.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The unique capability to measure temperature, velocity, and dissociation fraction in high enthalpy flows will be attractive to the private space industry, including low Earth orbit and planetary exploration. Programs include delivery of cargo and astronauts to the ISS, and deep space exploration, i.e. involving Mars. Other applications are combustion diagnostics in premixed and diffusion flames.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed diagnostics are needed in test programs for atmospheric reentry and planetary entry at NASA's arc jet facilities, hypersonic wind tunnels, and shock tunnels. Non-intrusive unseeded measurements of temperature, velocity, and dissociation are required for validating fluid/chemistry models that incorporate real-gas kinetics, including those used to predict planetary entry aerothermodynamics. The diagnostics can serve as tools in very high enthalpy flow experiments that focus on testing the integrity of thermal protection systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Aerodynamics
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H8.01-8946
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CC72P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Nuclear Power Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Pulsating Heat Pipes
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Peregrine Falcon Corporation
1051 Serpentine Lane, Suite 100
Pleasanton,CA 94566 -8451 (925) 461-6800
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Hardesty
rhardesty@peregrinecorp.com
1051 Serpentine Lane, Suite 100
Pleasanton ,CA 94566 -8451
(925) 461-6800 Ext: 102

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Large radiator panels, based upon state of the art conventional heat pipes with attached fins for thermal load distribution and dissipation is the current baseline design for NASA?s Fission Power System. The initial 1 kWe FPS requires a total radiating surface of 2.5 m2. Higher power designs will require corresponding larger radiating surfaces. In order to achieve optimum radiator performance, the face sheets of these radiators should present waste heat loads as isothermal sheets pointed to the sink of space. The current state of the art designs do not meet this requirement and rely upon heat pipes to axially carry the waste thermal loads while radiating fins, with typical thermal gradients and losses, provide thermal distribution away from the heat pipes via simple conduction. Under Phase I, Peregrine has successfully demonstrated an alternative design which promises to be lower in mass while improving performance based upon pulsating heat pipes (PHPs). PHPs can directly acquire and then readily distribute thermal loads across the face of radiator panels to create highly efficient near isothermal designs. PHPs are an autonomous, self-contained, low profile, lightweight, high performance thermal transport system based upon heat of vaporization.

Phase II will characterize a titanium/water pulsating heat pipe system, build prototypes of a Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP) radiator for a 1 kWe FPS, and also build a conventional heat pipe design in order to provide a side by side comparison of performance increases of PHPs versus the conventional design. Phase II will provide objective data through empirical results for future efficient lightweight, isothermal radiator designs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Pulsating heat pipes can also be used in the following areas.

1. As heat spreaders/thermal transport devices for cell phones, laptops, tablets, sensors, and ignition switches on automobiles.
2. As a thermal control device for GaN power amplifiers that have very high heat fluxes. This can assist in the replacement of conventional traveling wave tubes, thermal control of high power microwave devices, and power systems.
3. Autonomous thermal control devices in order to heat or cool buildings and residences.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The following potential NASA applications will benefit from this pulsating heat pipe technology.

1. The production of high efficiency (isothermal) radiators for NASA in General. Fission Power Systems will benefit directly.
2. Heat spreaders to acquire high heat fluxes and to transfer and distribute high thermal loads over both short and long distances. Most NASA systems can consider this advantage.
3. An autonomous thermal control device that operates by simple introduction of a thermal load (on startup) and dissipation via a sink (i.e. radiator).
4. PHPs can be stacked for redundancy and for improved performance, allowing instrument temperatures to be maintained within a narrow range.
5. PHPs can be placed within thin sheet metal and formed or rolled in order to provide complex or flexibility in their use.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H8.02-9587
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CC43P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers
PROPOSAL TITLE: Efficient, High Power Density Hydrocarbon-Fueled Solid Oxide Stack System
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Precision Combustion, Inc.
410 Sackett Point Road
North Haven,CT 06473 -3106 (203) 287-3700
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christian Junaedi
cjunaedi@precision-combustion.com
410 Sackett Point Road
North Haven ,CT 06473 -3106
(203) 287-3700 Ext: 219

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes to develop and demonstrate an innovative high power density design for direct internal reforming of regolith off-gases (e.g., methane and high hydrocarbons) within a solid oxide stack. The resulting breakthrough design offers the potential for higher overall efficiency, simplifies the system, and enables further compactness and weight reduction of the fuel cell system while significantly improving SOFC stack efficiency and the conditions for long system life. The approach also offers the potential to operate with a wide range of input fuels (i.e., high hydrocarbons as well as various levels of CO2 and water) without forming carbon. In Phase I all objectives and proposed tasks were successfully completed to demonstrate internal reforming concept for a high-power density, CH4-fueled solid oxide stack system. In Phase II, we will build on Phase I success to develop, fabricate, and demonstrate a TRL-4, breadboard solid oxide stack system operating with CH4. PCI's integrated reformer/fuel cell system will be much smaller, lighter, more thermally effective and efficient, and less expensive than current technology or prospective alternative structured catalytic reactor technologies. This effort would be valuable to NASA as it would significantly reduce the known spacecraft technical risks and increase mission capability/durability/efficiency while at the same time increasing the TRL of the solid oxide systems for ISRU application.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Targeted non-NASA applications include solid oxide fuel cell based application in the aerospace and distributed power generation industry. The implementation of PCI?s internal reformer technology will lead to significant cost reduction by eliminating external reformer and heat exchanger in the SOFC system, plus a considerable gain in stack efficiency will significantly make the life cycle cost of owning SOFC system more economically favorable and competitive with respect to other distributed power generation systems (both conventional and renewable).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA?s requirement for the solid oxide fuel cell and electrolyzer module is a long term one, and will be mission critical for space exploration, NASA ISRU missions, and extending human presence across the solar system with its Morpheus Project. PCI's integrated reformer/fuel cell system will be much smaller, lighter, more thermally effective and efficient, durable, and will offer advantages in terms of reduced launch mass/cost and reduced requirement for supplemental material re-supply.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Conversion
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H9.01-8772
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP63P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Optical Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Non-Mechanical, Electro-Optic Beamsteerers for Space Based Laser Communications
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vescent Photonics, Inc.
14998 West 6th Avenue, #700
Golden,CO 80401 -5025 (303) 296-6766
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scott Davis
davis@vescent.com
14998 West 6th Ave #700
Golden ,CO 80401 -5025
(303) 296-6766

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this phase II SBIR we will design, build, test, and deliver extremely low Size, Weight, and Power (SWaP) non-mechanical, electro-optic (EO) laser beamsteerers that are optimized for space based laser communications (lasercom). These new beamsteerers, which will finally satisfy the decades long dream of providing a viable alternative to opto-mechanics, will controllably steer high power (>10 Watts), low divergence (<100 micoradians) lasers with no moving parts. Novel self-calibrating, closed-loop stabilization techniques will provide very high pointing stability (<10 microradians). The outcome of this SBIR program will provide a critical component to help lasercom fulfill its long-standing scientific and commercial promise.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ultra-compact, low power, and low cost optical communication systems that will be enabled by the non-mechanical beamsteerers proposed here have numerous commercial applications. They will be instrumental in last-mile telecommunications environments in urban setting, for field-deployable high-definition video systems and a variety of reconfigurable, low-cost, commercial high-bandwidth data links. Extending the capability to space based platforms will find utility in satellite relay networks, surveillance systems, and general increased communications bandwidths. The beamsteerers also have additional potential for laser rangers, scanned illuminators, designators, and many more.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential benefit to NASA missions include: i) Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) which is part of the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Program, ii) the OPALS mission (Optical Payload for Lasercom Science) which will be a demonstration mission for optical communications from the ISS, iii) the optical comm trunkline on Mars 2022/2024 orbiter as a follow on to a Deep Space Optical Communications 2020 demo, iv) deep space cubesat optical links, and v) planetary lander/rover optical proximity link demo on future Mars sample return missionFurthermore, this development is in alignment with NASA technology roadmaps and addresses NASA technology grand challenges by drastically increasing space communication link capacity at LEO/GEO.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Space Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Ad-Hoc Networks (see also Sensors)
Transmitters/Receivers
Waveguides/Optical Fiber (see also Optics)
Lasers (Communication)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H9.01-8987
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP57P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Optical Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Single-Photon Lasercom Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC)
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Voxtel, Inc.
15985 Northwest Schendel Avenue, Suite 200
Beaverton,OR 97006 -6703 (971) 223-5646
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Adam Lee
adaml@voxtel-inc.com
15985 NW Schendel Avenue
Beaverton ,OR 97006 -6703
(971) 223-5646

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To satisfy NASA?s deep-space communications needs, a 128 x 128-element readout integrated circuit (ROIC) will be developed for integration with Geiger-mode (Gm) avalanche photodiode (APD) detector arrays. The ROIC features integrated imaging, background subtraction, and time-resolved (sub-nanosecond) photon-counting functionality. The ROIC, when integrated with InGaAs Gm-APD arrays, will enable acquisition, tracking, and ranging of the 1064 nm ? 1570 nm optical radiation used in free-space optical links. This ROIC development will enable the manufacture of highly functional single-photon focal-plane arrays, offering the capability to reduce laser beacon power 100 times over analog optical detector arrays. In Phase II, the ROIC design will be completed, fabricated using a domestic CMOS process, and fully tested and characterized using a detector array. It will allow, in subsequent program phases, InGaAs Gm-APD focal-plane arrays to be fabricated.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Time-resolved ROICs are at the core of optical communication and laser detection and ranging (LADAR) systems. On Earth, free-space optical communication transceivers are required to enable reliable two-way datalinks. Increased functionality in LADAR receivers enables adaptive cruise control, surveillance, restricted-area event alerts, object identification, day-night-rain-fog imaging, aviation takeoff and landing, mid-air refueling, terrain mapping, autonomous navigation, smart-intersection monitoring and control, unmanned ground vehicles, unmanned air systems and vehicles, machine vision, hazard material detection and handling, and underwater 3D imaging.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary focus of this effort is the development of a custom photon counting ROIC design for space optical communications. NASA?s Space The primary focus of this effort is the development of a custom photon-counting ROIC technology for use in space optical communications. NASA?s Space Communications and Navigation Program Office identified optical communications as an important technology for NASA missions, allowing enhanced volume and quality of data returned from the farthest reaches of space to be achieved in preparation for future human deep-space exploration missions. Although several missions have validated optical communications from low-Earth and geostationary orbit, the unique challenges of deep-space optical links still require separate risk-retiring technology demonstrations before implementing inner-orbit communication. The innovation will also enable a variety of other low-light-level and time-resolved imaging applications?including lunar and planetary hazard-avoidance and landing systems, automated rendezvous and docking in space, and in situ instrumentation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Transmitters/Receivers
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
3D Imaging
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H9.01-8990
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP56P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Optical Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Channel Count Time-to-Digital Converter and Lasercom Processor
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Voxtel, Inc.
15985 Northwest Schendel Avenue, Suite 200
Beaverton,OR 97006 -6703 (971) 223-5646
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vinit Dhulla
vinitd@voxtel-inc.com
15985 NW Schendel Avenue
Beaverton ,OR 97006 -6703
(971) 223-5646

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
High-channel-count, high-precision, and high-throughput time-to-digital converters (TDC) are needed to support detector arrays used in deep-space optical communications (DSOC) link receivers being developed between Earth and deep-space solar-system exploration platforms for human and robotic activities in 2020 and beyond. Compared to current radio-frequency (RF) space communications, DSOC will provide 10- to 100-times more data returns for future advanced instruments, live high-definition video, telepresence, and human exploration beyond cislunar space. To be accepted operationally, the optical link must provide substantially greater data rates/data-return volumes than equivalent mass and power RF systems?and at lower cost per bit. Therefore, to prepare for these deep-space missions, substantial enhancement of the current NASA telecom-link capacity is needed. To satisfy NASA?s DSOC needs, a scalable high-precision (≤ 100 ps), high-throughput (> 100 Gbps) high-channel-count (≥ 256) time-to-digital advanced processor (HiTAP) architecture will be developed for use in single-photon-counting free-space optical communications systems and test beds. In Phase II, two fully functional systems integrating custom hardware, firmware, and software will be designed, fabricated, tested, and delivered to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This innovation satisfies the general need for multichannel data processors supporting wideband (GBPS‐class) free-space optical-link FPAs and instruments requiring high-throughput time-of-flight instruments. The proposed innovation also has applications in these fields: free-space optical communications; 3D time-of-flight LADAR and LIDAR mapping systems; positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging in nuclear medicine; single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging in nuclear medicine; time-correlated single-photon-counting and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy in life sciences; collision avoidance, imaging, and adaptive cruise control in automotive applications; and data centers for high-throughput real-time data transfer and processing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
HiTAP will enable deep-space optical communications. NASA?s Space Communications and Navigation program office identified optical communications as an important technology for NASA missions, enabling enhanced volume and quality of data to be returned from the farthest reaches of space in preparation for future human deep-space exploration missions. Although several missions have validated optical communications from low-Earth and geostationary orbit, the unique challenges of deep-space optical links still require separate risk-retiring technology demonstrations before implementing inner-orbit communication. Many other NASA applications benefit from the innovation, such as reading out individual pixels of APD arrays, including single-photon avalanche-photodiode detectors and sensor signal-processing nodes. This makes it useful to NASA in systems for applications like LADAR autonomous navigation, docking and landing, space-based laser altimetry for studying the surface height of Earth and other planets from orbit, LIDAR instruments for atmospheric sciences, large-scale surveying / surveillance, bathymetry, and forestry.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Navigation & Guidance
Perception/Vision
Transmitters/Receivers
3D Imaging
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Telescope Arrays
Detectors (see also Sensors)
X-rays/Gamma Rays


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H9.03-9090
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CG32P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Dynamics and Navigation Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: World-Class Visualizations in GMAT
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Emergent Space Technologies, Inc.
6411 Ivy Lane, Suite 303
Greenbelt,MD 20770 -1405 (301) 345-1535
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ravishankar Mathur
Ravi.Mathur@emergentspace.com
6411 IVY LN STE 303
GREENBELT ,MD 20770 -1405
(301) 345-1535 Ext: 220

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Today's mission designers rely on state of the art tools with modern graphical user interface (GUI) elements and real-time 3D interactive graphics to visualize their trajectories and orbit control strategies. NASA GSFC's General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) offers advanced mission design and optimization capabilities with a flexible GUI, but its 3D graphics are lacking in both the quantity and quality of its graphical components as well as the maturity of its visualization subsystem. Emergent will therefore modernize GMAT with world-class visualization capabilities via a graphics architecture that can adapt to future visualization technologies by replacing the existing basic graphics code with the OpenFrames visualization software. OpenFrames is an Open Source API that allows simulations to incorporate high-performance interactive 3D visualizations without requiring significant changes to the existing software architecture. We will utilize the mission design visualization requirements developed in Phase I to fully integrate OpenFrames into GMAT and demonstrate how it enables new and innovative mission design applications such as visual interactive trajectory design and Virtual Reality-based simulation and modeling. As a result, this research will not only bring GMAT visualizations up to par with COTS mission design tools such as STK/Astrogator, but will also enable it to be viable for use in virtual reality environments such as the Oculus Rift. Modernized visualization technology will increase GMAT's user base and enhance its utility for future NASA Discovery and Human Space Flight missions that require high-fidelity simulations paired with truly interactive 3D visualizations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Small space startup businesses will also benefit from the advanced mission design technologies made possible by our research. For example, CubeSat missions are becoming increasingly affordable for small businesses, due in part to technology demonstrations from NASA's public CubeQuest challenge. GMAT will enable the design of low-cost CubeSat ventures such as asteroid mining and planetary science missions, for which low-thrust limitations necessitate designing complex long-duration trajectories. Our implementation of visual interactive trajectory design greatly reduces this effort by allowing mission designers to visually create and intuitively alter the trajectories, and immediately see how the changes affect the mission. Additionally, the VR industry is getting ready to explode. It is reasonable to predict that in the near future, mission designers will want immersive simulations that have, until now, only been seen in science fiction. By integrating advanced visualization and VR technologies such as Oculus Rift and Power Gloves, we enable GMAT to bridge the gap between science fiction and reality. Furthermore, the low cost of these VR technologies, coupled with the cutting-edge visualizations we implement in GMAT, will eliminate several of the major hurdles associated with space mission design and open the door for small businesses to create novel missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Robust and high-performance visualizations are especially important during trajectory optimization for interplanetary and asteroid missions. Enabling visual interactive trajectory design (VITD) in GMAT allows users to 'drag and move' trajectories intuitively, which greatly reduces the time required to create optimal trajectories for complex mission design problems. Furthermore, combining VITD with VR technologies such as the Oculus Rift and Power Gloves creates a never-before-seen application for mission design; designers now fully engage their visual analysis expertise to design the energy-constrained trajectories needed for asteroid tours such as Lucy, low-thrust CubeSat missions such as Lunar Flashlight, and Discovery-class planetary missions such as DAVINCI. Therefore, our integration of OpenFrames will make GMAT even more effective as a primary mission design tool for NASA's upcoming flagship Discovery-class missions in which cutting-edge trajectories must be designed to meet increasingly complex science requirements.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Outreach
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H10.01-8824
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CS11P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Purge Gas Recovery and Reclamation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Highly Efficient Electrochemical Cryogenic Purge Gas Recovery System
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sustainable Innovations, LLC
111 Roberts Street, Suite J
East Hartford,CT 06108 -3653 (860) 652-9690
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joshua Preston
joshua.preston@sustainableinnov.com
111 Roberts Street, Suite J
East Hartford ,CT 06108 -3653
(860) 652-9690

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As the price of helium has increased substantially in recent years, the interest in finding an efficient and economical method of helium recovery has never been more important. One method that can reduce the cost of rocket test operations is to recover hydrogen and helium gases using an electrochemical process. Sustainable Innovations is developing a commercial electrochemical platform that separates and compresses hydrogen using Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) technology for industrial applications such as metals and electronics processing. A Helium Recovery System (HRS), based on the same platform and constructed by Sustainable Innovations, selectively removes hydrogen from the mixed H2/He stream, leaving behind the high-value helium. The system then removes residual water vapor from this helium and compresses it to commercial storage pressure. This system featured a subsystem that captured the vented hydrogen and helium gas mixture, an electrochemical separation subsystem that purified both hydrogen and helium streams, and a compression subsystem that permitted high pressure gas delivery. A critical next step in the advancement of the HRS design is proving the scalability of this technology. The innovative step in this proposal is to increase the gas capacity capability of the electrochemical separation system while maintaining optimal operating efficiency and durability. It is expected that at least a doubling of throughput capacity per unit cell area ? largely driven by the amount of current that can be practically applied to an individual cell area without hindering longevity of critical components, can be achieved. This performance will be validated by cell durability tests. The innovation will be scaled in Phase II and integrated into a low-cost, scalable, modular package that will be delivered to SSC.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
-Process Hydrogen Markets: Hydrogen used as process atmosphere in industries such as metal heat treatment, electronics and semiconductor manufacturing, float glass production, and electricity production (for electric generator cooling.)
-Hydrogen Fueling Markets: Hydrogen used as fuel in a variety of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) (forklifts, scooters, passenger cars, ships, etc.), stationary power and research markets.
-Hydrogen Tri-Generation: Separation of hydrogen from stationary fuel cell reformate, and compression for fueling (such as FCVs) applications.
-Hydrogen Production: Captive production, merchant production and delivery, and distributed production of hydrogen from natural gas or methane via reformer, or via electrolysis.
-Power-to-Gas Energy Storage: Energy storage in the form of hydrogen produced from excess renewable power and stored in the natural gas infrastructure.
-Helium Production: Separation of hydrogen from mixed gas stream containing helium, hydrogen and other byproducts in the production of helium.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Hydrogen/Helium Separation - (SSC, KSC, MSFC) SSC has significant needs to separate and recover hydrogen and helium from its large rocket engine test stands. Hydrogen Separation for Resource Recovery ? SI is working with MSFC on a system that can separate and compress hydrogen from CO along with other reactive gases including methane, acetylene, ethane, and ethylene. This research project has shown that electrochemical hydrogen separation and compression is an enabling technology for the Carbon Dioxide Reduction System, facilitating closure of the oxygen loop in an Advanced Life Support System. Pressurization for Mechanical Actuation ? (JSC) The In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), group at JSC is interested in the use of hydrogen as a working fluid for mechanical actuation. In this application, hydrogen would be compressed electrochemically, using the core architecture of the HRS. Reformate Separation ? (JSC, MSFC) There is a need to separate hydrogen from CO, CO2, and excess fuels in processes such as reformation of methane and other fuels. The HRS being developed here provides the necessary technology base to support efficient separation of these constituents.Fuel Cell Energy Storage ? (GRC, JSC, JPL) Hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell systems are being carefully examined by NASA as a means of providing efficient energy storage for many different NASA missions. Long-term missions are hampered by helium in hydrogen tanks. An HRS can alleviate this problem.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Remediation/Purification
Distribution/Management
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Storage
Resource Extraction
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Fuels/Propellants
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H10.01-8857
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CS10P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Purge Gas Recovery and Reclamation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multi-Species Chemical Microsensor For Real Time Cryogenic Purge Line Monitoring
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Makel Engineering, Inc.
1585 Marauder Street
Chico,CA 95973 -9064 (530) 895-2771
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Darby Makel
dmakel@makelengineering.com
1585 Marauder Street
Chico ,CA 95973 -9064
(530) 895-2771

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 6
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Makel Engineering, Inc. proposes to develop a miniaturized Multi-Species Chemical Microsensor Instrument suitable for real-time, in situ measurements of hydrogen, oxygen, water vapor and mixture thermal conductivity for monitoring purge effectiveness in cryogenic propellant lines. Helium is a scarce, strategic and non-renewable natural resource. NASA is a major user of helium and significant future cost savings in operations can be realized with improved monitoring of purge activities. Without real time measurement of species being purged from systems, extended purge cycles and excess helium is used to ensure completely purged lines. The proposed sensor system will incorporate the required microsensors in a compact probe to enable multi-parameter monitoring in a single measurement port. The system will be designed to be permanently installed in purge and vent lines at cryogenic propellant storage, transfer, test stand and launch facilities. This program will adapt low cost and low power chemical microsensor technology which was originally developed for leak detection applications and recently been demonstrated in proof of concept cryogenic vent tests at NASA to develop a low cost, robust integrated sensor probe and electronics with data interfaces suitable for real time monitoring and control helium purge sequences to minimize overall helium usage.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial space transportation and spaceports will require operations to be highly automated and efficient to achieve the desired levels of cost effectiveness. The proposed MCMI will be immediately applicable to new facilities being planned and existing facilities undergoing modernization and upgrades. There is also a large opportunity for variations of the MCMI for monitoring a wide range of industrial processes such as gas-to-liquid plants using natural gas. Chemical processing and refining operations use purge gas systems with nitrogen during change over operations and maintenance cycles. Currently many industrial operations rely on personnel to do manual sampling and monitoring at various points in the system with portable analyzers during purge operations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA application of the technology will be at propulsion test stands at NASA SSC and NASA Launch facilities at NASA KSC. The proposed sensor product would be used in systems for propellant storage, transfer and fueling operations. The use of these sensors would be part of an overall operation and maintenance strategy to reduce helium purge gas usage and reduce facility operating costs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Storage
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H11.01-8820
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL91P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Shielding Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hydrogenous Polymer-Regolith Composites for Radiation-Shielding Materials
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
International Scientific Technologies, Inc.
P.O. Box 757
Dublin,VA 24084 -0757 (540) 633-1424
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eugene Aquino
intlsci@earthlink.net
P.O. Box 757
Dublin ,VA 24141 -0757
(540) 633-1424

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has identified a need in Sub-topic H11.01 for advanced radiation-shielding technologies using in situ resources, such as regolith, to protect humans from the hazards of galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) during extra-terrestrial missions. The radiation species of greatest interest are light ions (particularly protons), heavy ions (such as iron-56) and neutrons. International Scientific Technologies, Inc., in conjunction with The College of William and Mary, proposes the use of regolith combined with hydrogenous polymers to develop radiation-shielding structural materials for habitats. The program Technical Objectives include analysis of polymer-regolith specimens to supplement the empirical results of the Phase I program, fabrication of polymer-regolith materials and structures for use as radiation shields, acquisition of families of test data to determine key parameters of polymer-regolith structures for stopping galactic cosmic radiation on the Mars surface, and design of polymer-regolith bricks for habitat construction of the Mars surface. The innovation is the development of polymer-regolith composites and their efficient fabrication for structural radiation-shielding materials to protect humans on deep-space missions. The anticipated result is the creation of composite materials that combines in situ resource utilization (ISRU), i.e. regolith, with a hydrogenous polymeric matrix. Additives, such as boron, could be included to enhance absorption of neutrons generated by interactions of GCR and SPE particles with shielding materials. The proposed composites have multifunctional properties of radiation shielding against galactic cosmic radiation, neutrons and electromagnetic radiation, and structural integrity to permit use in habitats.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Multifunctional radiation shielding will find application in the commercial sector in reducing collateral damage from heavy charged particles emerging as a therapeutic approach in nuclear medicine. The Departments of Defense and of Homeland Security will find applications that include protection of soldiers, first responders and emergency medical personnel against high energy gamma radiation and neutrons resulting from so-called dirty bombs as well as from hazards brought about through accidental release of radiological materials.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed multifunctional high-performance polymers will find application in NASA missions in protecting astronauts and sensitive optical, electronic, thermal and acoustic components from space hazards, including radiation, dust and thermal transients, while, at the same time, providing structural components for habitats. It is expected that these polymer-regolith composite systems will provide a high-performance-to-weight radiation shield that can be used for human habitats.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Isolation/Protection/Radiation Shielding (see also Mechanical Systems)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
In Situ Manufacturing
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Structures
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H11.01-9318
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL67P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Shielding Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multifunctional Polyolefin Matrix Composite Structures
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 West 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge,CO 80033 -1916 (303) 422-7819
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Diener
mikee@tda.com
12345 West 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge ,CO 80033 -1916
(303) 940-2314

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Polyethylene, and ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) in particular, is an outstanding material for radiation shielding in the sense that its extraordinarily high hydrogen content both minimizes the production of secondary ions during exposure to energetic radiation and captures neutrons. Its low density and high wear resistance also make it attractive for the structures of manned spacecraft and extraterrestrial habitats. However, its use in structures is limited by its flammability and poor mechanical properties under load compared to other structural materials. While carbon fiber/UHMWPE are an obvious solution, to date they have not proved useful because load is not easily transferred to or from UHMWPE, and because its melt state is too viscous to infiltrate fiber preforms. In this Phase II project, TDA will apply its recent advances in composite manufacturing to create a UHMWPE-matrix composite that has good load transfer to a creep-mitigating continuous fiber reinforcement. Such a composite will not only have outstanding radiation shielding properties, but also have sufficient mechanical properties to be useful as a structural material.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Cf/UHMWPEm composites should be commercially useful in other wear-resistant structures, including mining equipment and ballistic threat protection. Self-reinforced UHMWPE composites dominate the market for lightweight armor, and the composited proposed herein should provide a complementary but similarly outstanding set of properties for mitigating a broad spectrum of ballistic threats. UHMWPE is widely used in the bed liners of mining equipment, and the composite materials proposed herein should extend the use of UHWMPE into other hard rock handling structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Multifunctional radiation shielding was identified as the top technical challenge in the Materials, Structures, Mechanical Systems and Manufacturing (MSMM) draft Roadmap (Technical Area 12), and the technology proposed herein offers a solution. The composites proposed herein should be a key components of the structural materials used in extraterrestrial human habits, whether they are in space, on the moon, on Mars, or any other location subject to high energy galactic cosmic rays and/or solar particle events. The lightweight and high strength of the proposed materials will enable their use in efficient structures, providing true multifunctionality from a radiation shield and minimizing the parasitic weight of the shielding.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Isolation/Protection/Radiation Shielding (see also Mechanical Systems)
Composites
Nanomaterials
Smart/Multifunctional Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H11.01-9861
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL36P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Shielding Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multifunctional Structural Composites for Radiation Shielding
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied Poleramic, Inc.
6166 Egret Court
Benicia,CA 94510 -1269 (707) 747-6738
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Hayes
hayesb1@sbcglobal.net
6166 Egret Court
Benicia ,CA 94510 -1269
(707) 747-6738

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Radiation shielding materials are necessary for protecting astronaut crews from the hazards of space radiation during future NASA missions. Although polyethylene based materials and composites are attractive for radiation shielding due to high hydrogen content, the poor thermal performance has limited its use as a parasitic, nonstructural material. Further impeding use of this material is its inherent flammability. Accordingly, thermally stable structural materials having low flammability combined with radiation shielding are necessary for the development of next generation aerospace structures and vehicles. It would be further desirable that the non-parasitic material has excellent damage tolerance to mitigate impact events in operation. Applied Poleramic, Inc. proposes to develop a new generation of structural high hydrogen content matrix materials which will be combined with an interlayer modification approach to result in fiber reinforced composite materials having enhanced radiation shielding combined with excellent damage tolerance and improved flammability resistance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications come from NASA funded crew and cargo space transportation partners including Dragon, SpaceX, Dream Chaser, Sierra Nevada Corporation, Crew Space Transportation-(CST)100, The Boeing Company, Crew Transportation System, Blue Origin, and Cygnus, Orbital Sciences Corporation. Other applications may be found in DOD applications involving high altitude reconnaissance aircraft, satellites, and other aerospace vehicles. Other commercial applications could be found in commercial satellites and manned and unmanned aircraft to protect sensitive electronic equipment and instruments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Composite materials having enhanced radiation shielding and multifunctional characteristics can provide design advantages for future spacecraft, large space structures, space stations, orbiters, landers, rovers, and habitats. Some vehicles include the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCW) and future Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicles (MMSEV). The developed technology may also find use for radiation shielding of cargo transportation vehicles and unmanned space vehicles to protect sensitive electronics and instruments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Air Transportation & Safety
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
Isolation/Protection/Radiation Shielding (see also Mechanical Systems)
Composites
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Structures
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H12.01-9633
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CC42P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Measurements of Net Ocular Blood Flow
PROPOSAL TITLE: Optical System for Monitoring Net Occular Blood Flow
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Sciences, Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover,MA 01810 -1077 (978) 689-0003
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mircea Mujat
mujat@psicorp.com
20 New England Business Center
Andover ,MA 01810 -1077
(978) 738-8254

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a novel ophthalmic imaging platform for the characterization and monitoring of visual impairment observed in long-duration space flights. This platform will combine non-invasive measurement of retina/choroid structure and ocular blood flow based on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and wide-field semi-quantitative global flow visualization using Line-scanning Doppler Flowmetry (LSDF). During Phase II a system will be fabricated utilizing the most deeply penetrating waveband around 1060 nm which is especially critical for choroidal imaging. Therefore, the PSI's instrument will address the need for accurate 3D measurement of posterior segment layer thicknesses and volumes, and vascular (retinal and choroidal) topology and flow quantification. This novel imaging platform will enable Phase II imaging studies in animals and human subjects in normal and fluid-shift models of micro-gravity conditions, which are in line with the International Space Station (ISS) mission. Prior PSI experience in developing advanced ophthalmic imaging systems and space-qualified hardware will be leveraged to ensure the successful outcome of this important R&D program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology has multiple potential uses in clinical research and healthcare. Understanding normal retinal functions and its alterations is a very active research area. The retina is among the most highly vascularized and metabolically active tissues in the body. It represents the only part of the central nervous system where capillary blood flow is visible and can be measured non-invasively. Like the central nervous system it is susceptible to ischemic (insufficient blood flow) injury. Degenerative neurovascular diseases (e.g., diabetic retinopathy) of the eye often have either hemodynamic consequences or causes, though the mechanisms are poorly understood. In addition to diseases there are other causes that can disturb the hemodynamic activity of the retina. Little is known about the ocular and cerebral blood flow during exposure to increasingly hypoxic conditions (insufficient oxygen supply) or hypercapnia (too much CO2). Blood flow alterations occur under the influence of prolonged hypoxia. There is a close correlation between the regulation of blood supply to the brain and to the retina, due to similar vascular regulatory processes. The auto-regulation of blood flow in the eye is clearly exquisitely sensitive to many neurovascular and metabolic signaling systems. An advanced diagnostic imaging system which can accurately track multiple anatomical and physiological changes in the eye over time is therefore fundamental to understanding and mitigating these effects.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology addresses a clear need for studying and quantifying image-based ocular biomarkers that can be used to assess the health status of astronauts. As already known, changes in intracranial pressure (ICP) and correlated effects on vision encountered in space exploration missions, collectively referred to as Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome, have created the need for advanced imaging modalities to monitor these effects, pre and post flight, and potentially on board the International Space Station (ISS). Investigations of VIIP phenomena and its potentially permanent effects have elevated it to high priority gap and operational need status. Ocular functional and structural alterations including reduction of near visual acuity, signs of several degrees of optic disc edema, globe flattening with hyperopic shift, choroidal folds and cotton wool spots have been experienced by astronauts involved in long-duration space travels. The etiology of these findings is unknown, however, it has been observed that these anatomical changes affect retinal physiology and may also cause glaucoma-like loss of neurons or retinal degeneration during very long-duration flight such as for a Mars mission. The response to fluid shift with edematous changes in the optic nerve head (ONH), retinal and choroidal vessels and possibly neurons of various types, and nerve fiber bundles may constitute a long-term visual impairment risk.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Display
Image Analysis
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Image Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H12.02-9970
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CJ17P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unobtrusive Workload Measurement
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cognitive Assessment and Prediction to Promote Individualized Capability Augmentation and Reduce Decrement (CAPT PICARD)
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Charles River Analytics, Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge,MA 02138 -4555 (617) 491-3474
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bethany Bracken
bbracken@cra.com
625 Mt. Auburn St.
Cambridge ,MA 02138 -4555
(617) 491-3474 Ext: 733

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA missions include long periods of low workload followed by sudden high-tempo operations, a pattern that can be detrimental to situational awareness and operational readiness. An unobtrusive system to measure, assess, and predict Astronaut cognitive workload can indicate when steps should be taken to augment cognitive readiness. This system can also support testing and engineering (T&E); engineers can accurately evaluate the cognitive demands of new tools and systems, as well as how they affect task performance. In our Phase I effort, Charles River Analytics designed and demonstrated a system for Cognitive Assessment and Prediction to Promote Individualized Capability Augmentation and Reduce Decrement (CAPT PICARD). CAPT PICARD: (1) robustly and unobtrusively performs real-time synchronous data collection with a suite of sensors to provide a holistic assessment of the Astronaut; (2) extracts, fuses, and interprets the best combination of indicators of Astronaut state; (3) comprehensively predicts performance deficits, optimizing the likelihood of mission success; and (4) displays the data to support the information requirements of any user. The solicitation defined the following Phase I goals: review physiological, neurophysiological, and cognitive assessments in extreme environments and long duration missions; design an algorithm to assess workload. We did focus on these goals; however, we went beyond them to also demonstrate a functional prototype by the end of Phase I. Based on the success of this Phase I effort, we recommend a Phase II effort to refine and develop each component of CAPT PICARD, and iteratively evaluate this system in an undergraduate lab, at a T&E lab at Johnson Space Center (JSC), and in a mission-like analog environment at JSC. Successful completion of these tasks will result in a tool that can both dramatically improve Astronaut mission readiness and the design and development of tools Astronauts use to carry out mission objectives.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We see two approaches to commercializing the technologies developed under this program. First, they can be licensed to other commercial entities that will use them directly or incorporate them as added functionality to their commercial products. In particular, long-haul trucking and shipping crew experience similar challenges as Astronauts' long periods of low workload. Therefore, we will look at companies in the long- and short-duration shipping market, including UPS and FedEx, as potential licensees of this technology. Second, we will incorporate this new technology into our HumanSense? software, which will both increase its appeal as a commercial product and enable us to use the tool to provide consulting services based on HumanSense to customers within the DoD, other Federal agencies, and commercial markets.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We expect the full-scope Cognitive Assessment and Prediction to Promote Individualized Capability Augmentation and Reduce Decrement (CAPT PICARD) system to have immediate and tangible benefit for NASA. In particular, CAPT PICARD will help monitor the workload of Astronauts over short- and long-duration missions. We plan to enhance the effectiveness of widely-used tools, such as assessments that interrupt task performance, including the Psychomotor Vigilance Self-Test used by Astronauts on ISS missions (NASA, 2014) by incorporating the innovations developed under CAPT PICARD. Augmenting these tools will enable the crew monitoring Astronauts to cue Astronauts of impending deficits to augment mission performance. CAPT PICARD will also enable more effective testing and engineering by measuring the workload created by new tools and systems during design and development instead of during deployment. This capability will ultimately result in increased Astronaut performance and decreased cost to deploy technology to Astronauts, furthering NASA's goals of expanding the frontiers of knowledge, capability, and opportunity in space, and developing technologies to improve the quality of life on our home planet.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Physiological/Psychological Countermeasures
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Computer System Architectures
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Fusion
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H13.01-8878
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL87P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced NDE Modeling and Analysis
PROPOSAL TITLE: NDE Big Data Framework
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Texas Research Institute Austin, Inc.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin,TX 78733 -6201 (512) 263-2101
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Forsyth
dforsyth@tri-austin.com
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin ,TX 78733 -6201
(512) 263-2101

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NDE data has become ?Big Data?, and is overwhelming the abilities of NDE technicians and commercially available tools to deal with it. In the current state of the art in industrial practice, there is no integration of the NDE data into design data, NDE models, and structural integrity models for a holistic structural capability assessment. Our proposal responds to these issues described in the subtopic H13.01, Advanced NDE Modeling and Analysis. The innovations provided by the NDEToolbox? are:
1. Context-based data browsing and retrieval for diverse sets of large data.
2. Automated data analysis / reduction algorithms for aerospace composites.
3. Data fusion algorithms enabling the use of data from design, modeling (NDE and structural), and multiple NDE methods for the improved quantification of defects.
4. A plug-in architecture enabling further expansion

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
TRI/Austin is close to getting approval from an OEM for use of our software to assist in the interpretation of ultrasonic NDE data during the manufacturing process. The additional capabilities that would be developed in support of this phase II project will broaden our ability to support composite space and aerospace structures through the life cycle. This opens up the possibility of selling into the Maintenance Repair & Overhaul (MR&O) market in commercial and military aerospace. Approvals from an OEM will be a significant achievement that is unique to the NDEToolbox?.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The two main categories of NASA applications are in support of in house R&D, and in the inspection of structures for NASA applications by NASA or its suppliers. NASA also builds and procures hardware for many missions. The NDEToolbox? as envisioned provides a way for NASA to gain control over the NDE data from different suppliers using tools from different NDE vendors. The supplier technology base can also be upgraded by providing them with NASA-specified/developed/controlled processing for NDE. The specific case of Remote NDE, as might occur with an astronaut on station using limited equipment and skills to obtain data, is addressed by developing the tools to work with this special data in fusion with known data on space structures.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Air Transportation & Safety
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Quality/Reliability
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Composites
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H13.02-9522
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL56P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NDE Sensors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Space Vehicle Inspection High Range Resolution & Raman Spectral LIDAR
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation
7050 Burleson Road
Austin,TX 78744 -3202 (512) 479-7732
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bradley Sallee
sallee@spec.com
7050 Burleson Rd
Austin ,TX 78744 -3202
(512) 479-7732 Ext: 2122

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As a result of an extremely productive Phase I program, SPEC has designed and built a pre-prototype of a 1.5 U CubeSat format LIDAR, with class 1 eye-safe lasers for space structure inspection applications. The Space Vehicle Inspection High Range Resolution, Raman Spectral LIDAR provides both Raman Spectra for determination of the surface chemical content and precision imaging consisting of high range accuracy 3D LIDAR and RGB camera images fused to give an HD resolution image. Range accuracy for the high range accuracy 3D LIDAR is 15 microns out to a range of 6 meters. This capability is achieved by adapting a SPEC part inspection LIDAR with the high framing long range SPEC LIDARs. The chemical detection capability can interrogate a molecule one layer thick adsorbed on the surface determining chemical content and allowing detection of leaks or contamination in pressurized or vacuum conditions. The LIDAR provides both ultra, high resolution imaging of surface imperfections and holes caused by micro meteor or debris, and the chemical content map of the 3D imaged area. Maximum range for the Raman LIDAR is 300m at 3mm resolution and 6 meters at 15micron resolution.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications of the High Range Resolution, Raman Spectral LIDAR include intercept and docking missions for communications satellite life extension satellites and can be used for vehicle inspection missions by commercial and DoD customers. The Raman Spectral capabilities allow both multi-dimensional surface mapping and chemical analysis of surfaces for superior navigation, flight control, landing operations, docking, satellite inspection and maintenance. Critically needed structural inspection of commercial space assets is a direct spin off. Other commercial applications include: remote sensing of chemicals in the environment, monitoring of crops, forests, and urban areas; detection of explosives, bio toxins: and detection and monitoring of radioactive containers by the nitrous oxide adsorbed on the surface. Other applications are in waste stream monitoring, pollution and leak detection, and multi-dimensional imaging. Airborne applications can be eye-safe on the ground with ranges up to 3km. Ultra-high range accuracy applications include high resolution 3D imaging of complex, multispectral scenes.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA commercial applications for the High Range Resolution, Raman Spectral LIDAR are primarily for satellite inspection and repair and commercially with life extension packages for geosync communication satellites. Additional applications include space junk removal, operation of air and space platforms, 3d multispectral mapping and high speed descent landing for missions, such as the Mars, Venus and asteroid missions. Additionally, rendezvous and docking missions, such as with the space station, are supported. Other NASA commercial applications include long range acquisition, navigation, inspection, and robotic control of space platforms and satellites. Future uses would support non-GPS assisted navigation and optimal route planning for virtually every air platform from small UAVs to large airplanes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
3D Imaging
Data Fusion
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Visible


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H14.01-9375
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CJ32P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: International Space Station (ISS) Utilization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multi Phase Flow Decomposition and Imaging Using Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography Sensors
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tech4Imaging, LLC
4171 Fairfax Drive
Columbus,OH 43220 -4524 (614) 214-2655
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Qussai Marashdeh
marashdeh@tech4imaging.com
4171 Fairfax Drive
Columbus ,OH 43220 -4524
(614) 214-2655

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this proposed effort, we will develop a prototype product of a higher resolution ECVT system based on multi-phase decomposition for a two phase flow with water as the liquid phase, namely a phase separator. The intrinsic high measuring speed of capacitance measuring technology and potential high resolution capability of multi-phase decomposition will enable phase imaging at resolution better than the 2~3 mm specified by the topic description. Simulation and measurement results were used to verify this approach in Phase I. By the end of this Phase II, a prototype system that can image Air and Water phases in a phase separator with high accuracy, angular and vertical velocities of water layer, and water mass flow will be demonstrated. The developed prototype will serve as a deliverable to NASA by the end of this Phase II. It will be composed DAS unit, modular ECVT sensors, and reconstruction software. The proposed deliverable will be a working unit in form, fit, and function for phase separator experiments. It will also be suitable for utilization in the International Space Station after flight hardening. Flight hardening is not part of this effort.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The innovation here is an ECVT higher resolution image system for NASA applications and a multi-phase flow meter for the Oil industry. The intrinsic high measuring speed of capacitance measuring technology and high resolution capability of this proposed ECVT technology will enable such mass flow measurements at better around 2mm spatial resolution and 1% mass flow measurement resolution.
Our customers for the cold flow model are all over the world and we have received inquiries about using the ECVT system for measuring flows with more than two phases with one phase being water. Customers who expressed this need include Oil Companies, Power Generation Companies, and Companies that fabricate and install advanced power systems.
The Oil industry is interested in such system so the mass flow rate of Oil can be measured in a pipeline. Currently, the Oil industry relies of separation equipment to quantify the amount of Oil pumped. Such arrangement becomes problematic when Oil is being pumped from several wells and Oil has to be allocated to it source for Billing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For the NASA programs, the Packed Bed Reactor experiment and the Phase Separator project are immediate targets for potential applications. The prototype proposed for development here is aimed at addressing the phase separator application directly. Other potential applications in NASA include life science, Mars mission advanced diagnostics technologies, and science experiments through CASIS. As the sole manager of the US lab in the International Space Station, CASIS sees a growing demand for advanced diagnostics and has expressed interest in ECVT technology. ECVT technology can also be applied for imaging plant roots and organs of the human body.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Process Monitoring & Control
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
3D Imaging
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Fluids
Electromagnetic
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H14.01-9877
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CJ20P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: International Space Station (ISS) Utilization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Snap Freezer for ISS
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Techshot, Inc.
7200 Highway 150
Greenville,IN 47124 -9515 (812) 923-9591
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eugene Boland
gboland@techshot.com
7200 Highway 150
Greenville ,IN 47124 -9515
(812) 923-9591 Ext: 241

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Frozen tissue samples represent the state of the art in tissue preservation in many molecular analysis techniques as well as in in membrane analysis using free-fracture techniques. Rapid freezing eliminates the artifact caused by ice crystal formation within the tissues. Ice crystal nucleation and growth occurs between 0?C and -20?C typically. To avoid this damage and minimize destruction of proteins, RNA and DNA by lytic enzymes, cells or tissues have to be rapidly cooled through this temperature band. This is typically done in an isopentane bath cooled by liquid nitrogen (LN2) to -150?C. This 2 step process eliminates artifacts caused by ice nucleation as well as artifacts caused by nitrogen bubbles that surround the tissue as it boils if submerged directly into LN2. While these open methods are acceptable for terrestrial laboratories, they would not be compatible with experimentation on the International Space Station. Our proposed gaseous nitrogen-based Rapid Freezer clamp would provide an alternative means to rapid cool through ice crystal nucleation and growth temperatures without exposing the crew to the spill hazards of LN2 and chilled isopentane as well as the extreme flammability of isopentane.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Rapid Freezer is expected to be of particular interest to the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, academic researchers and terrestrial national laboratories, and Techshot is committed to investing in its commercialization. Beginning with the Phase I award, the company built a technology demonstrator with internal funds, and it will continue to invest its own funds in the further maturation of the Rapid Freezer system. While typical laboratories snap freeze tissues by plunging specimens into liquid nitrogen or an isopentane bath chilled by liquid nitrogen, this may not be compatible with all experimental protocols or facility safety standards, which will provide commercial opportunities. Much like the safety concerns on the ISS, significant burn hazards exist from liquid nitrogen spills and isopentane is an extremely flammable liquid. When these conditions exist in terrestrial labs, researchers use cold blocks to freeze samples. But even actively-cooled plates in cryostats do not typically reach temperatures sufficient for effective rapid freezing. This may not freeze sensitive or thick tissues at a fast enough rate to preserve the most sensitive DNA, RNA, proteins and crystal structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Techshot Rapid Freezer (formally known as the Snap Freezer) is being developed as an enabling device for conducting microgravity research aboard the ISS. Beginning first as an application for NASA mission programs, Techshot will have developed a unique device capable of safely rapidly freezing samples in space. Therefore, the initial targeted application of the proposed innovation is an offering of both the equipment and services associated with flight hardware and integration activities, which are highly desired by NASA-funded scientists. In 2015, Techshot signed a Space Act Agreement with NASA, and was awarded an Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract from the agency to enable the Government to lease (as needed) a wide variety of our ?professional grade? flight hardware. This new business model is expected to be very attractive to NASA because it reduces the agency?s upfront risk for flight hardware development, and more importantly, it reduces NASA?s cost of ongoing maintenance and upkeep of the flight hardware - for the life of the equipment.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Analytical Methods
Organics/Biomaterials/Hybrids
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Contact/Mechanical
Thermal
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H14.02-9260
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CJ37P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: International Space Station (ISS) Demonstration of Improved Exploration Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Pressure Electrochemical Oxygen Generation for ISS
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Giner, Inc.
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton,MA 02466 -1311 (781) 529-0500
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Meagan Rich
mrich@ginerinc.com
Giner, Inc.
Newton ,MA 02466 -1311
(781) 529-0506

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Giner, Inc. has developed an advanced high pressure electrochemical oxygen concentrator (EOC) that offers a simple alternative to the use of pressure swing adsorption (PSA) systems to generate high pressure oxygen for the International Space Station (ISS) and future human space flight applications. The high pressure EOC is based on proven electrolyzer technology demonstrated at Giner and delivers a continuous stream of dry oxygen with a highly controllable oxygen pressure (0-3600 psi) by feeding a low pressure humidified oxygen stream into the cathode side of the stack where oxygen is consumed. The generation of pure oxygen at 3600 psig is particularly applicable for filling tanks used for extravehicular activity (EVA). The benefits of using this technology rather than a standard high or large pressure differential electrolyzer stack include: 1.) significantly reduced membrane degradation resulting in an improvement in stack lifetime, 2.) increased safety as there is no risk of producing a combustible gas mixture in the event of gas crossover through the MEA, and 3.) simplified balance of plant (BOP) for the reason that typical liquid cathode feed electrolyzer stacks require sophisticated water management. Giner further simplified the high pressure EOC BOP by integrating a low pressure static vapor feed electrolyzer (SVFE) into a shared-end-plate stack.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Giner is very excited about a secondary application for the EOC, however in the field of organ preservation. Giner has come quite far in developing an organ transport and preservation system to maintain viability during transport by keeping the organ exposed to oxygen by persufflation, the passage of oxygen through the organs vascular system. Although this device uses an EOC, most of our work to date has concentrated on demonstrating the efficacy of the concept. The current NASA program will further advance the underlying technology, allowing us to increase reliability, while reducing mass; critical features for both applications.

Underwater manned vehicles will be another secondary application and customer base that we would pursue, starting with Treadwell who currently serves the US NAVY, followed by Corac (ACI) who serve the British and French Navys, and ultimately offering to select private integrators for recreational use.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology will take ambient air and water and deliver pure, dry high pressure oxygen at a rate of 0.9 kg/day at the end of Phase I. The high pressure achievable allows for both direct oxygen use and filling of oxygen life-support tanks. There are no other sub-systems necessary for this device and, obviously any NASA manned space mission could use this technology.
As volumes would be low for NASA applications, Giner would work with a space system integration company to develop test and final space articles. Giner is currently working with Hamilton Sundstrand in the development of a simplified static feed oxygen generator for the International Space Station. A similar relationship would be pursued to deliver this technology to NASA Giner would also consider working with NASA to directly deliver the technology for NASA needs. In a parallel path to NASA?s needs, Giner has a relationship with other private sector space integrators such as Bigelow Aeropsace which may be interested in this technology as it matures. Today our interaction with these type of companies have only accepted high TRL level products to incorporate into their ongoing projects.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Medical
Conversion
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H14.03-9324
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CM39P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Recycling/Reclamation of 3-D Printer Plastic Including Transformation of Launch Package Solutions into 3-D Printed Parts
PROPOSAL TITLE: CRISSP - Customizable Recyclable International Space Station Packaging
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tethers Unlimited, Inc.
11711 North Creek Parkway South, Suite D113
Bothell,WA 98011 -8808 (425) 486-0100
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rachel Muhlbauer
muhlbauer@tethers.com
11711 North Creek Parkway South, Suite D113
Bothell ,WA 98011 -8808
(425) 486-0100 Ext: 267

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The CRISSP Phase II effort will mature to TRL-6 recyclable launch packaging materials to enable sustainable in-space manufacturing on the ISS and future manned deep space missions. Our Phase I effort began by testing the recycling of current launch packaging materials, identifying several that are possible to recycle. We then prototyped concepts for sealable bags made with readily recyclable A.M. materials, including Ultem thermoplastic. We next developed a process for 3D printing customized containers having integral vibration-damping features, and performed testing that revealed this CRISSP packaging can provide vibration protection equivalent to or better than current foam packaging materials. To fabricate these containers, we developed novel 3D printer infills which can controllably provide a wide range of compression and flexing directions depending on the print parameters. For the highest performing infills, energy attenuation was up to two orders of magnitude better than that of a volumetrically equivalent amount of foam. We then demonstrated recycling of these test samples into 3D printer filament. The Phase II effort will mature the CRISSP technologies to flight-ready status by performing thorough materials-degradation studies to characterize the performance of the materials as a function of number of recycling iterations, maturing and optimizing our infill generation software to enable highly-automated design of customized CRISSP containers optimized for a given payload?s vibration sensitivities, prototyping 3D printed packaging for a test-case vibration-sensitive payload, and then performing extensive environmental qualification testing to mature the technology to TRL-6 or better. The primary results of the Phase II effort will be a flight-ready process for packaging supplies and components for launch to ISS with materials that are readily recyclable on-orbit.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The underlying technologies used in the CRISSP system have application outside the agency with other non-NASA space customers who also launch payloads into space. We will also reach out to DoD customers, such as the Navy, who are similarly limited to resupply during submarine missions. With the increasing number of 3D printer users as well as the increase in the shipping of goods to residential addresses, there is a lot of space for the CRISSP technology suite to revolutionize the packaging industry. In addition, the design and concept of CRISSP as it pertains to frequency attenuation is very well suited to frequency dampeners, opening a different use case for commercialization.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The CRISSP technology suite has multiple NASA applications which will enhance capabilities on the ISS and other long duration missions. The 3D printed packaging architecture can better attenuate launch vibrations than the foam materials already used, its frequency attenuation can be tuned for certain payloads, and it could better protect sensitive experiments from the overall launch vibration as well as from any specific harmful frequencies. After launch, the packaging can be recycled on-board to create 3D printer filament to enable sustainable in-space manufacturing of tools and satellite components.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Material Handing & Packaging
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Polymers


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 H14.03-9603
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CM28P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Recycling/Reclamation of 3-D Printer Plastic Including Transformation of Launch Package Solutions into 3-D Printed Parts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reversible Copolymer Materials for FDM 3-D Printing of Non-Standard Plastics
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cornerstone Research Group, Inc.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton,OH 45440 -3638 (937) 320-1877
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Henslee
hensleeb@crgrp.com
2750 Indian Ripple Rd.
Dayton ,OH 45440 -3638
(937) 320-1877 Ext: 1210

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) proposes to continue efforts from the 2015 NASA SBIR Phase I topic H14.03 ?Reversible Copolymer Materials for FDM 3D Printing of Non-Standard Plastics.? CRGs offers NASA the ability to reprocess space mission waste packaging plastics as an In-Situ resource for in space manufacturing via Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) type 3-D printing of replacement tools, parts, and devices. This innovation is enabling for space exploration, the application of CRG?s reversible thermoset (RVT) polymers combined with a plastic recycling, blending, and extrusion process will allow current and future packaging materials to be processed into a copolymer blend filament suited to FDM 3-D printing system. This approach offers two implementation routes including; (1) An RVT additive that can be combined with existing waste packaging during a reclamation process to produce 3-D printer filament and (2) A RVT based replacement packaging material that can be directly reclaimed into 3-D printer filament. The material properties of 3-D printer filament from the RVT-based reclamation process can be tuned for mechanical performance (stiffness, flexibility) by adjusting the blend ratios of reclaimed waste packaging:RVT. This will provide NASA with a means to generate 3-D printer feedstocks with varying mechanical performance from on-hand packaging plastics without the need for separate 3-D printer material payloads. CRG has already demonstrated the efficacy of RVT additive in reclamation of NASA?s packaging materials in Phase I by producing a co-polymer blend of RVT with NASA packaging, producing a FDM printer filament with the reclaimed packaging, and successfully 3-D printing the resulting reclaimed packaging material. CRG?s proposed approach to further develop thermally-reversible polymer materials to reclaim NASA?s packaging will provide a material and processing technology readiness level (TRL) of 5 at the conclusion of the Phase II effort.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Department of Defense systems would derive benefits from this technology, including rapid prototyping and additive manufacturing of complex, low-run number, and advanced design parts. Prime defense contractors could find use of an enabling technology allowing 3-D printing of new and exotic polymeric materials or polymeric composites previously thought incompatible to FDM-type processing. Human systems focused solutions would have the ability to additively manufacture custom components for personnel equipment, such as softer elastomeric materials for integral user-custom equipment.
This technology's attributes for improving the compatibility of polymers to 3-D printing systems would yield a high potential for private sector commercialization for 3-D printer manufactures, significantly increasing the materials properties available in the feedstock. Such companies could dramatically expand the thermoplastic raw materials available to consumers, and potentially be able to produce materials with custom mechanical performance on-demand.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Supporting NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) and the MSFC, this project's technologies directly address requirements for solutions to recycling on-board plastics materials into 3-D printable formats for low-earth orbit and space flight additive manufacturing systems. This project's technologies offer a means to take on-board non-critical plastics, such as packaging materials, and reclaim these objects for 3-D printing of needed custom parts without requiring an additional mission payload of 3-D printing feedstock.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Manufacturing Methods
Prototyping
Material Handing & Packaging
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Polymers


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.01-8695
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL94P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact, Rugged and Low-Cost Atmospheric Ozone DIAL Transmitter
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bridger Photonics, Inc.
2310 University Way, Building, 4-4
Bozeman,MT 59715 -6504 (406) 585-2774
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Brasseur
brasseur@bridgerphotonics.com
2310 University Way, Bldg. 4-4
Bozeman ,MT 59715 -6504
(406) 585-2774 Ext: 106

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Real-time, high-frequency measurements of atmospheric ozone are becoming increasingly important to understand the impact of ozone towards climate change, to monitor and understand depletion of the ozone layer, to further understand its role in atmospheric chemistry, and to assess its impact on human health and the productivity of agricultural crops. Expansions of tropospheric ozone measurement efforts, such as NASA?s TOLNet program, are critical to improve our understanding these effects. In response to this need, Bridger Photonics Inc proposes developing the most efficient, compact, rugged, low-power consumption and cost-effective UV ozone differential absorption lidar (DIAL) transmitter available. The proposed transmitter will enable widespread deployment of ozone DIAL systems capable of continuous range-resolved atmospheric ozone measurements from ground-based and airborne platforms to advance NASA?s Earth science mission. To achieve this design goal, Bridger will apply innovations proven out during its Phase I effort and developed previously for its MIR series laser product. The overall project goal is to design, construct, and test an autonomous, production-grade prototype, two-wavelength ozone LIDAR transmitter. The proposed transmitter will enable state-of-the-art continuous ozone LIDAR measurements without the need for a skilled operator. It will also provide a long maintenance-free interval (> 2 years), and will cost under $200k per transmitter. Successful completion of this Phase II program will allow Bridger to demonstrate a simultaneous DIAL, brassboard transmitter with pulse energies >200 ?J in both DIAL wavelengths capable of autonomous operation, without degradation, for 3 months.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The pump laser for the proposed design would be the most compact and high energy kilohertz-rate Nd:YAG laser on the market. Bridger envisions a wide variety of applications for this laser including gas sensing lidar, hard-target ranging, ablation applications including mass spectrometry, nonlinear spectroscopy and as general purpose OPO pump. To date Bridger?s MIR Series has been sold primarily to laser ablation mass spectrometry customers, but Bridger has experienced interest from customers for hard-target ranging and nonlinear spectroscopy applications. Within the lidar market both NOAA and the EPA would be potential customers for the complete UV transmitter to advance their ozone monitoring initiatives. Other commercial markets include detection of illicit methamphetamine labs, on-site pollution detection, verification of carbon sequestration sites, methane pipeline monitoring, and chemical weapons detection. The proposed transmitter could easily be adapted to detect a host of other gasses, most of which are detected in the short wave infrared and mid-infrared spectral regions and are well suited to a seeded version of Bridger?s existing OPO.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA?s primary application for the proposed transmitter would be for widespread deployment of ground-based and airborne sensors to map ozone concentrations with high spatial and temporal resolution. This will allow NASA to carry out its Earth Science missions with smaller and/or more affordable DIAL transmitters enabling NASA programs to meet multiple mission needs and make the best use of limited resources. Our system will be highly useful for both integrated column and range-resolved measurements due to its short pulse durations and scalable high energies. Additionally, our base pump laser can be frequency down-converted into the SWIR spectral band rather than frequency up converted to the ultra-violet band. This will enable compact single-mode, high-energy pulses for profiling other important greenhouse gases and pollutants such as CH4, CO2, H2O, CO, NO2, and many others. Finally, the base pump laser when frequency doubled into the visible region will enable compact single-mode, high-energy pulses for profiling of cloud and aerosol backscatter, ice mass and phytoplankton measurements, and direct-detection Doppler LIDAR wind measurements.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.01-9021
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CG34P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Power Tunable SeedLaser for Methane LIDAR Transmitter
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Princeton Lightwave, Inc.
2555 Route 130 South, Suite 1
Cranbury,NJ 08512 -3509 (609) 495-2600
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Igor Kudryashov
ikudryashov@princetonlightwave.com
2555 Route 130 South, Suite 1
Cranbury ,NJ 08512 -3509
(609) 495-2568

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Growing interest in precise measurements of methane concentration and distribution in the Earth's atmosphere is stimulating efforts to develop LIDAR systems in the spectral region of 16xx nm utilizing Path Differential Absorption techniques. The key element of such systems is a high energy optical source with good beam properties operating in the vicinity of a methane absorption line. A number of very promising architectures for designing high energy lasers at 1651 nm have been described recently, but the performance of the lasers developed in these earlier efforts has been limited by the lack of a sufficiently high-power tunable seed laser. We demonstrated in Phase I of this SBIR program a feasibility of a high power fiber-coupled, narrow linewidth, tunable seed laser at 1650nm. For this SBIR Phase II program, we propose to develop and to deliver a robust seed laser that is highly reliable, compact, and which ultimately will allow the realization of much higher performance high energy laser sources designed for methane detection.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a number of potential non-NASA commercial applications that will benefit from the development of a high-power tunable laser as proposed for this program. The detection of methane and other hydrocarbon gases is of critical importance in the energy industry, and laser sources developed for NASA systems will have direct relevance for related commercial requirements. As with NASA remote sensing applications, there are commercial applications for improved high power lasers in various types of lidar systems for measuring atmospheric properties such as wind and weather patterns, air pollution, and general trace gas analysis. High power laser sources are key elements of all range-finding and ladar systems and critically impact end system performance. The development of the proposed laser technology will serve broad applications in the bio-medical arena, with examples such as nerve and fertility stimulation. A wide portfolio of laser technologies are used for material treatment and processing. Most high power fiber lasers use seed lasers, and the seed laser proposed for development in this program will provide expanded process capability by increasing the performance of existing systems utilizing high power fiber lasers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Development of a new high power seed laser at 1651 nm will push the performance of LIDAR systems for methane detection to levels not currently possible, and it will allow for the deployment of significantly longer range systems with higher precision measurements of methane concentration and distribution in the Earth's atmosphere. This laser technology to be developed will also potentially provide new capabilities for measurements of other atmospheric constituents and the surface topography of the Earth and other planetary bodies anticipated for numerous NASA mission programs. A significant increase in laser seed power will lead to dramatic enhancements in the stability of operation for methane detection laser transmitters with consequent improvements in overall LIDAR system reliability. Moreover, the wide tuning range and higher efficiency of the proposed seed source can potentially replace several seed lasers that must be used at present for covering a wide spectral range. This simplification of the seed source will be important for missions in which size, weight, and power considerations are paramount. This laser will serve as an ideal source for LIDAR systems in the wavelength range near 1.65 μm and for active remote sensing optical instruments in general.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.01-9731
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL42P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Miniature DBR Laser Module for Lidar Instruments
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Photodigm, Inc.
1155 East Collins Boulevard, #200
Richardson,TX 75081 -2304 (972) 235-7584
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Annie Xiang
axiang@photodigm.com
1155 East Collins Boulevard, #200
Richardson ,TX 75081 -2304
(972) 235-7584 Ext: 2240

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The technical objectives of the phase II effort include the fabrication of precision DBR lasers and the prototype of compact hybrid optical module.

Task 1. 828nm DBR laser fabrication. Based on the performance of qualified epi material, the 828nm DBR architecture will be optimized. We will proceed to laser fabrication with current best practices. Task 2. Device reliability and lifetime testing We plan for accelerated lifetime testing of up to 128 devices to obtain the various activation energy describing device performance under different conditions. Task 3. Hybrid optical module design. Photodign will work with a subcontractorto to develop hybrid optical packaging. The optimized design will integrate the DBR laser with collimating lenses, built-in isolator and fiber coupling into a custom hybrid housing. Task 4. Hybrid optical module evaluation Primary characteristics of the hybrid optical module include high optical efficiency and narrow linewidth, which will be evaluated upon the delivery of prototype units. Task 5. Additional 815nm ? 820nm DBR laser fabrication. DBR laser fabrication is proposed at this wavelength for offering prototype devices for air borne LIDARs. Task 6. Prototype delivery and production readiness. Deliverables will include three prototype 828nm hybrid packaged DBR laser modules and three prototype 815-820nm DBR laser devices.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
)
The miniature integrated laser module would be the most compact DBR laser with embedded optics in the market. The narrow linewidth and high power laser module finds applications in spectroscopy, atomic physics, and fiber amplifiers. Its spectral stability is desirable in resolving hyperfine structures and in providing long coherent length. Its compactness is suitable for handheld instruments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's primary application for the compact integration laser module is the deployment in the autonomous field DIAL sensor networks for mapping atmospheric water vapor with high spatial and temporal resolution. This application is well aligned with the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) instrument development program through the implement of smaller and more affordable DIAL transmitters. Follow-on development of 815nm -820nm lasers shall enable the deployment in airborne and space-based Lidars.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.01-9914
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL34P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Solid State Lasers for Space-Based Water Vapor DIAL
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fibertek, Inc.
13605 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon,VA 20171 -4603 (703) 471-7671
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pat Burns
pburns@fibertek.com
13605 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon ,VA 20171 -4603
(703) 471-7671

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase II program will develop novel laser transmitters needed for planned airborne and space-based active remote sensing missions. This program will build on successful Phase I work to provide a Technology Readiness Level 4 (TRL-4) laboratory brassboard demonstrator of a new laser source for Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) measurements of atmospheric water vapor with secondary capability for methane characterization as well. Accurate measurements of both atmospheric constituents are critical to the understanding of global energy transport and climate change. Under our Phase I program, Fibertek successfully demonstrated the capability of a new laser source, a diode-pumped frequency-doubled Er:YAG laser to generate millijoule output near 823 nm that was tunable through water-vapor absorption lines for DIAL measurements. The new laser system offers simplicity and efficiency that will reduce risk for future airborne and space-based missions. Significantly, the new laser approach offers an upgrade path with reduction in size, weight, and power (SWaP) consumption over current state-of-the-art DIAL based on less-efficient non-linear parametric conversion of diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers. This new-generation technology reduces the size and weight of flight hardware to make it compatible with affordable, more capable airborne and satellite payloads. In Phase II we propose to build on our successful Phase I demonstration to develop a full scale water vapor laser transmitter source, meeting or exceeding requirements for planned DIAL instruments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Long-range lidar systems are entering production in all branches of the military. Increasingly these active systems require higher power for greater range and sensitivity. The requirement for eye safety dictates that these 3D imaging and range finding systems operate in the near infrared between 1450 and 1700 nm. The Er:YAG source with fundamental wavelength at 1645 nm developed under this SBIR program is well matched to requirements of planned 3D imaging lidars and rangefinders. With average power greater than 10 W, diffraction-limited beam quality and nanosecond pulse width, the proposed laser system has high utility for lidar systems for aircraft, ship and ground vehicle installation. Space-based lidar systems for DoD are also in the planning stages, and will benefit from the availability of the technology being developed under this program.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Fibertek is working closely with NASA LaRC and the Earth Sciences Technology Office (ESTO) to develop reliable, efficient laser sources meeting the requirements for advanced instruments for remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere on a global scale. The data provided by these sensors is critical in supporting and validating climate modeling. The novel near infrared laser with frequency conversion will enable lidar systems to be based initially on research aircraft and high-altitude UAVs for global sensing of the atmospheric water vapor and methane. The LaRC/ESTO HALO instrument planned for initial deployment in 2016 is an example of an opportunity for transition of the new technology into a fielded system. We anticipate partnering with NASA on future IIPs, ACT and EV programs to fully develop the high-performance systems built around the laser transmitter delivered under this SBIR program.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.02-9012
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CG35P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Microwave Technologies for Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Scalable Architectures for Distributed Beam-Forming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR)
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 190
Rockville,MD 20855 -2814 (301) 294-5221
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arvind Bhat
abhat@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 190
Rockville ,MD 20855 -2814
(301) 294-5254

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Conventional SAR operates in the Stripmap mode. Wide unambiguous swath coverage and high azimuth resolution pose contradictory requirements on the design of SAR systems. A promising technique to overcome this limitation is Digital Beam-Forming (DBF) on receive where the receiving antenna is split into multiple sub-apertures. This provides the capability of forming multiple beams via post-processing. DBF techniques applied to SAR systems can increase receiving antenna gain without a reduction of the imaged area and suppress interference signals. A highly capable DBSAR instrument design would consist of wideband Transmitter-Receiver Module (TRM), precise multi-channel timing and synchronization and reconfigurable processing engine that can host the SAR processing, calibration and control routines. IAI?s proposed approach is modular, scalable and meets the NASA goals of developing an innovative analog/digital hardware design for the implementation of distributed DBSAR architectures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most promising Non- NASA commercial applications are:
-Real-time digital processors.
-Multi-node Network emulators
-High bandwidth arbitrary waveform generator and data recorder
-Ground Penetration Radar (GPR).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our proposed technique can be used for a wide range of remote sensing applications for NASA and other parts of US government including:
-Extending EcoSAR capabilities to larger, space-borne, phased-array radar systems for biomass remote sensing.
-Wideband, Reconfigurable Radar systems for manned/ un-manned aircrafts
-Digital Receivers and Exciters (DREX)
-Radar Target Generators to validate radar systems before deployment
-Algorithm development platform for existing NASA radar platforms.
-Planetary subsurface sensing and imaging
-Foliage Penetration (FOPEN) SAR.
-Through Wall Radar
-Earth subsurface sensing and imaging

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Transmitters/Receivers
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Prototyping
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Processing
Microwave


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.02-9069
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CG33P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Microwave Technologies for Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robust Microfabricated Interconnect Technologies: DC to THz
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nuvotronics, LLC
7586 Old Peppers Ferry Loop
Radford,VA 24141 -8846 (800) 341-2333
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Benjamin Cannon
contracts@nuvotronics.com
2305 Presidential Drive
Durham ,NC 27703 -8039
(800) 341-2333 Ext: 97

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To meet the needs of future NASA Earth science objectives, significant advancements in the overall level of integration and functional density that is achievable in multi-band microwave radar and radiometer instruments are proposed. The targeted system is the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM), which is a technology development effort to measure Snow Water Equivalent that targets the requirements of the proposed Snow and Cold Land Processes Mission. During Phase I, we developed concepts for enhancing the WISM by incorporating signal multiplexing and active devices in the PolyStrata antenna feed that are not present in the baseline version of the instrument. On the Phase II program, we propose to demonstrate these enhancements to the WISM with deliverable hardware prototypes of such active multi-band feed antennas. Drastic improvements in system noise figure and overall size are made possible by integrating the first stage of LNAs into the PolyStrata feed antenna, eliminating additional cable and diplexer losses that occur in the current modular system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
DoD spaceborne polarimetric radiometer systems for missions similar to that of WindSat. Military multi-band radar applications, for example: guided missile seeker technology, UAV collision avoidance, and operation in degraded visual environments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
SnowEx and Snow and Cold Land Processes (SCLP) mission and other active and passive microwave Earth science remote sensing missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Electromagnetic
Microwave


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.02-9216
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP76P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Microwave Technologies for Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: ROC-Rib Deployable Ka-Band Antenna for Nanosatellites
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tendeg, LLC
686 S Taylor Ave Ste 108
Louisville,CO 80027 -3000 (303) 929-4466
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gregg Freebury
gregg@tendeg.com
686 S Taylor Ave Ste 108
Louisville ,CO 80027 -3000
(303) 929-4466

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In these days of tight budgets and limited funding, NASA is constantly looking for new ways to reduce development time and costs of future spacecraft. This is the driving spirit behind NASA's increasing interest in the CubeSat platform, and the vision that is guiding development and demonstration of higher-risk technologies that can eventually lead to low-cost atmospheric science from CubeSats. For example, a tantalizing next-generation CubeSat system would combine a high-gain deployable antenna with a high-frequency Ka-band transponder to support very high bandwidth communications on the order of 10s of Mbps and/or very high-resolution radiometric remote sensing of atmospheric phenomenon. To address this need, Tendeg proposes to develop a Ka-band deployable mesh antenna that can package within a 3U CubeSat volume and deploy to diameters of 0.8-1.5m. The antenna employs a backing structure that is a hybrid wrap-rib/perimeter-truss design. A net supports a reflective mesh while the entire assembly provides the structural depth and surface accuracy needed for Ka-band operation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Beyond NASA applications, the proposed deployable antenna technology could see use in other military and commercial applications where data up/downlink or passive RF sensing is also a considerable need. Terrestrial-based applications might include portable military and commercial communication networks that desire Ka-band operations and can benefit from lightweight, man-portable and deployable high-gain apertures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA target application for the proposed deployable antenna technology is future NASA CubeSat and SmallSat spacecraft for which communications up/downlink or passive RF remote sensing measurement resolution is a major bottleneck in the system design. In particular, the proposed technology will enable very high bandwidth communications on the order of 10s of Mbps and/or very high-resolution radiometric remote sensing of atmospheric phenomenon.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Analytical Methods
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Antennas
Prototyping
Composites
Actuators & Motors
Deployment
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Structures
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.02-9516
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP37P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Microwave Technologies for Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Loss Ferrite Components for NASA Missions
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Micro Harmonics Corporation
1320 Ohio Street, Suite H-1
Waynesboro,VA 22980 -2467 (434) 409-4044
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Porterfield
david@mhc1.com
1320 Ohio Street, Suite H-1
Waynesboro ,VA 22980 -2467
(434) 409-4044

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of this research is to develop high-frequency Faraday rotation isolators that exhibit significantly reduced loss, higher power handling and improved bandwidth over commercially available products. The bandwidth limitations of high-frequency circulators will be explored. It was demonstrated in the Phase I work that the bandwidth of these components can be substantially increased through impedance matching techniques. At the end of the Phase II program, Micro Harmonics will have developed a full line of isolators operating in bands from WR-12 through WR-3 and circulators working in bands from WR-15 through WR-5. In the phase I work our models were proven to be accurate. The approach is fundamentally sound, but there are significant technical challenges. These components will find immediate use in a broad range of systems used by NASA as well as the commercial sector.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed isolators and circulators are broadly used in scientific instruments for plasma diagnostics (ITER), chemical spectroscopy, biomaterial analysis, and radio astronomy. There are also a broad range of applications in military systems that include compact range radar, imaging systems, covert communications systems, and chemical and bio-agent detection systems. There are potential applications in biomedical systems for the real time analysis of skin diseases, portal security scanners, high frequency data links and industrial process control systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed isolators and circulators are broadly useful in a wide range of NASA systems including millimeter-wave and terahertz sources, detectors and receivers. Heterodyne receivers based on room temperature technology are a critical Sensor and Detector Technology for NASA's Submillimeter Missions such as Marvel, VESPER, MACO as well as earth observing satellites such as SIRICE. They find potential application in the frequency multiplier local oscillator (LO) chains in the high-resolution heterodyne array receivers at 1.9 THz that are being developed to support the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and the Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory (STO-2). They may also be useful in the development of the 4.7 THz multiplied local oscillator source for the observation of neutral oxygen.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Electromagnetic
Interferometric (see also Analysis)
Radiometric
Terahertz (Sub-millimeter)
Microwave
Lifetime Testing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.03-9136
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CG31P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Antimony-Based Focal Plane Arrays for Shortwave-Infrared to Visible Applications
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
QmagiQ
22 Cotton Road, Unit H, Suite 180
Nashua,NH 03063 -4219 (603) 821-3092
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mani Sundaram
msundaram@qmagiq.com
22 Cotton Road, Unit H, Suite 180
Nashua ,NH 03063 -4219
(603) 821-3092 Ext: 200

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop antimony-based focal plane arrays (FPAs) for NASA's imaging and spectroscopy applications in the spectral band from visible to shortwave-infrared (SWIR), viz. wavelengths from 0.5 - 2.5 microns. We will leverage recent breakthroughs in the performance of midwave and longwave infrared FPAs based on the InAs/GaSb/AlSb material system in which QmagiQ has played a key part. In these spectral bands, this novel sensor already offers performance comparable to mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) but at a fraction of the cost due to the leveraging of commercial growth and process equipment. Our goal is to extend that benefit into the shortwave infrared. Using the best material currently available and a novel bandgap-engineering design and process, we will fabricate FPAs and measure how the antimony-based sensor compares to state-of-the-art shortwave MCT in terms of quantum efficiency and dark current. In Phase I, we developed the basic building block - a high-performance SWIR photodiode. In Phase II, we will develop FPAs in a variety of formats and deliver them to NASA for evaluation for its astronomy and planetary missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) Hyperspectral imaging systems for inspection of agricultural produce and pharmaceutical drugs 2) FTIR imaging microscopy 3) Gas imaging (e.g. for the petrochemical industry) 4) Security and surveillance (day and night) 5) Thermography 6) Medical imaging 7) Missile defense 8) Space-based situational awareness

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) Space- and ground-based astronomy and astrophysics 2) NASA's earth-observing missions in the visible and shortwave-infrared 3) Chemical/spectral mapping of forests, vegetation and crops 4) Atmospheric mapping 5) Pollution monitoring 6) Temperature mapping of oceans and landmasses

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Thermal Imaging (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Thermal
Infrared
Multispectral/Hyperspectral


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.03-9391
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP46P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Type II SLS Materials Development for Space-based FPA Applications
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
IntelliEPI IR, Inc.
201 East Arapaho Road Suite 210
Richardson,TX 75081 -2401 (972) 234-0068
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Pinsukanjana
pinsu@intelliepiir.com
201 East Arapaho Road Suite 210
Richardson ,TX 75081 -2401
(972) 234-0068 Ext: 102

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase II SBIR proposes to further develop high performance (low dark current, high quantum efficiency, and low NEdT) infrared epitaxy materials based on Type II Strained Layer Superlattice (SLS) for large format space-based sensor applications. The epi materials will be grown with Sb-capable multi-wafer production Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) reactor at IntelliEPI IR. The initial goal includes achieving QE of at least 40% with LWIR spectral wavelength band near 12 um. The SLS detector design will be developed in consultation with the infrared detector group at JPL to ensure that this effort addresses NASA needs. In the superlattice engineered structure, many detector properties are determined once epitaxial growth is completed. The technical approach will be to develop improved epitaxial stack design with a goal to dramatically improve detector properties. This is based on existing high performance GaSb-based type-II SLS detector growth technology, with novel design, development of MBE growth to implement the design, and fabrication and characterization of devices from the epi grown material. The objective is to dramatically improve quantum efficiency in the detector structure. The Phaqse II effort will focus on FPA demonstration.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Type II SLS technology can serve as a platform for the next generation of space-based high performance and large format infrared FPAs. This will be a materials evolution of the on going SLS technology being developed at JPL. This SLS technology offers a unified platform for high-performance 5-14 um detection wavelengths. Substrate size scaling will support large format infrared imaging NASA needs with high sensitivity and high operating temperature sensors for space-based applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Improved Type II SLS technology offer thermal imagers at higher operating temperature, uniformity, and sensitivity from mid wave to long wavelength infrared based on scalable GaSb substrates. This opens the door for more military vehicles/platforms to be outfitted with these high performance cameras. Commercially, environmental or gas sensing can benefit from competitive cost scaling.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Thermal Imaging (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Thermal
Infrared
Long
Multispectral/Hyperspectral


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.04-9563
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CG23P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detector Technologies for UV, X-Ray, Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Highly Scalable SiC UV Imager for Earth & Planetary Science
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ozark Integrated Circuits, Inc.
700 West Research Center Boulevard
Fayetteville,AR 72701 -7175 (479) 935-1600
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anthony Francis
francis@ozarkic.com
700 West Research Center Boulevard
Fayetteville ,AR 72701 -7175
(479) 935-1600 Ext: 501

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Commercial silicon carbide (SiC)-based photonic sensors typically use p-i-n photodiode and reversed-biased Avalanche Photodiode (APD) detectors. These state-of-the-art SiC photodiodes use the wafer substrate as one node of the device, thereby making monolithic integration of the device with control or analysis circuitry difficult, if not impossible.

In Phase I, Ozark IC demonstrated that its new (patent-pending) photo detecting devices are suitable for integration in SiC-based low-voltage integrated circuit processes. By virtue of their construction, the photo-generation occurs efficiently and with very high gain, and the devices have been shown to operate over a wide voltage (10-15 V) and temperature range (-170 C to 400 C measured). Ozark IC's extensive library of SiC analog and mixed-signal IP and its expertise in extreme-environment IC design have been used to create the world's first fully integrated 2-D UV imager (up to 192 x 128 at > 10 frames per second); ready for fabrication in Phase II. The imagers will be tested across a wide range of temperatures to demonstrate their applicability to planetary exploration, earth observation and astronomy applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other non-NASA markets include Machine Vision, Disinfection, Industrial Controls, Safety, and Diagnostic/Inspection Systems. Deep UV imaging is of particular interest to semiconductor and scientific imaging markets. UV imaging for LAr neutrino detectors is also being investigated.

An Innovation for Manufacturing: The application of the proposed imager to Machine Vision has major implications for increased automation of inspection tasks that are critical for nanoscale manufacturing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The first obvious application of this technology is to one of NASA's many current and planned earth science missions that require space-borne instruments capable of measuring light in the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum.

1) For the Geo-CAPE mission, recommended by the NRC for the Decadal Survey, tropospheric ozone measurements in the UV range of 290 nm-340 nm are required. An instrument based on the proposed technique is very feasible and would offer significant advantages in performance, size and weight over a discrete SiC diode-based approach.

2) For planetary composition experiments such as ATLAS and NOW, an instrument capable of generating a faint object spectrograph in the 115 nm - 350 nm UV range is also possible using this technology.

3) For planetary exploration experiments such as the proposed Discovery and New Horizons missions which intend to image planets from orbit or as landers; such as those proposed for Venus, where the high temperature operation of the imager would be desirable.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Perception/Vision
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Optical
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Ultraviolet


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.05-8837
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CG38P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Particles and Field Sensors and Instrument Enabling Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electric Potential and Field Instrument for CubeSat (EPIC)
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Composite Technology Development, Inc.
2600 Campus Drive, Suite D
Lafayette,CO 80026 -3359 (303) 664-0394
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dana Turse
dana.turse@ctd-materials.com
2600 Campus Drive, Suite D
Lafayette ,CO 80026 -3359
(303) 664-0394 Ext: 112

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Our present understanding of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling is limited, partly due to the lack of broad statistical observations of the 3-dimensional (3D) electric field in the altitude region between 300 and 1000km. This understanding is of national importance because it is a necessary step toward developing the ability to measure and forecast the "space weather" that affects modern technology. The high cost of space access and short satellite lifetimes below 500 km make traditional satellites uneconomical for performing these measurements. Therefore, it is desirable to develop smaller and lower-cost sensor/satellite systems, such as CubeSats, so that the largest possible number of distributed measurements can be economically made in this region. The proposed project seeks to develop a 3D vector electric field instrument that can be accommodated in less than half of a 6U (10x20x30 cm) CubeSat. This instrument is enabled by CTD's game changing deployable composite boom technology that provides lightweight, stiff, straight, and thermally stable booms capable of being stowed within a CubeSat form factor. The proposed development will also provide the CubeSat community with the capability to include one or more deployable booms with lengths greater than 5 meters for future CubeSat missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The U.S. military has increasing interest in utilizing low-cost spacecraft platforms that can be rapidly launched for the purposes of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and space weather monitoring. The proposed instrument would have applicability for missions similar to the Air Force's Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS), which allows the U.S. military to predict the effects of ionospheric activity on signals from communication and navigation satellites, outages of which could potentially cause problems in battlefield situations. In addition, both military and commercial satellites could use gravity gradient booms, instrument booms, optical and antenna reflectors, sunshades, deorbiting systems, solar arrays, phased arrays, and solar sails based on this deployment technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed CubeSat E-field instrument will enable multipoint e-field measurements to be made economically in the region between 300 and 1000km. This is relevant to the scientific goals outlined in the 2013-2022 decadal survey in solar and space physics, as stated: "Determine the dynamics and coupling of the earth?s magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere and their response to solar and terrestrial inputs." It is also relevant to the NASA 2009 Heliophysics Roadmap, as outlined in the living with a star science queue: "Dynamic Geospace Coupling: Understand how magnetospheric dynamics provide energy into the coupled ionosphere-magnetosphere system." In addition, the proposed boom technology can be used for magnetometers, particle sensors, gravity gradient stabilization for small spacecraft, or for deploying solar sails, solar arrays and phased array antennas.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Processing Methods
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Polymers
Actuators & Motors
Deployment
Structures
Electromagnetic


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.07-9285
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CC52P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Airborne Measurement Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Instrument for Airborne Measurement of Carbonyl Sulfide
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Southwest Sciences, Inc.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe,NM 87505 -3993 (505) 984-1322
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alan Stanton
astanton@swsciences.com
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe ,NM 87505 -3993
(505) 984-1322

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this Phase II SBIR program, Southwest Sciences will continue the development of small, low power instrumentation for real-time direct measurement of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) in the atmosphere, especially targeting airborne measurements. The instrument is based on a room temperature interband cascade laser (ICL) operating in the 4800 - 4900 nm region. This laser has a substantially reduced (by a factor of 40) power requirement compared to quantum cascade lasers operating in the same region and should be better-suited for atmospheric field instruments. Phase I concentrated on characterizing the sensitivity and precision that can be achieved for OCS measurement, using this laser in a laboratory prototype. Phase I also demonstrated direct measurement of ambient carbonyl sulfide in the local outside air, at levels of about 450 parts per trillion. Phase II emphasizes development of an airborne-worthy prototype instrument that can be field tested during the Phase II performance period. Carbonyl sulfide is the most abundant naturally occurring sulfur species in the atmosphere. The lifetime of OCS in the troposphere is believed to be several years, allowing its transport into the lower stratosphere where it is photochemically oxidized to sulfate particles. Improved understanding of the tropospheric - stratospheric exchange of OCS is needed to gain a better understanding of its role in sulfate particle production. In turn, the sulfate aerosol layer may significantly influence the earth's energy budget through increased solar scattering. Existing instrumentation for measurement of OCS is bulky and expensive and is complicated by several indirect steps. In contrast, this R&D effort will result in an instrument that measures OCS directly, in real time, with time response of a few seconds or better. At the conclusion of Phase II, Southwest Sciences will manufacture and sell commercial instruments for OCS measurement to NASA and the broader atmospheric research community.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential customers for this instrumentation include government agencies active in atmospheric research (NASA, NOAA, DOE, NSF) and atmospheric researchers at universities. The instrumentation, if adapted for measurement of pollutant gases, could be of interest to EPA and industrial customers concerned with pollutant monitoring and control. Southwest Sciences will build these instruments on a custom manufacturing and sales basis after the conclusion of Phase II.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The direct outcome of the work will be a prototype instrument for measurement of carbonyl sulfide that could be used by NASA for measurements of this important sulfur species from airborne platforms or in ground-based measurements. The instrument platform, with substitution of suitable lasers and possible adjustment of the optical path length, could be adapted for measurement of other atmospheric species (including carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon gases, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other sulfur species).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.07-9654
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL48P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Airborne Measurement Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Multi-Wavelength Transceiver for In-Situ Validation of Airborne Remote Sensing Instruments
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ADVR, Inc.
2310 University Way, Building 1-1
Bozeman,MT 59715 -6504 (406) 522-0388
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Justin Hawthorne
hawthorne@advr-inc.com
2310 University Way, Building #1-1
Bozeman ,MT 59715 -6504
(406) 522-0388

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The overall goal of this Phase II SBIR effort is to develop a three-wavelength, backscatter transceiver for in situ validation of ongoing High Spectral Resolution Lidar measurements. The key innovation in the effort is the use of a multi-element, non-linear waveguide for highly efficient, three wavelength generation in a collinear geometry ideally suited for use in the backscatter nephelometer at the HSRL wavelengths currently under development with NASA Langley?s Aerosol Research Group Experiment. Developing an in-flight, backscatter measurement at the three HSRL wavelengths is a critical acquisition for the LARGE program in order both to validate and to establish a direct link between the existing suite of instruments flown to determine of the microphysical properties of aerosols and the remote HSRL measurement. The proposed in situ instrument will validate ongoing remote sensing measurements while further informing climate models through more accurate estimates of atmospheric aerosol distributions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
AdvR is targeting commercialization in two segments: OEMs and researchers from university and government labs. AdvR will focus efforts on delivering prototype transceivers to OEMs for eventual integration into their nephelometer product lines. Supporting revenue will come from direct sales to researchers developing their own in-situ measurement systems. Other applications potentially interested in the 3 wavelength source are environmental and pollution monitoring and laser inspection and diagnostics.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
AdvR is planning to continue developing the technology in close coordination with the NASA LARGE team. AdvR is targeting infusion with LARGE scientists in coordination with the HSRL program. The proposed transceiver is well suited to provide the link between remote Lidar measurements and existing in situ instruments. Missions similar to SABOR or NAAMES are suitable fits for the technology demonstration.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Waveguides/Optical Fiber (see also Optics)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Ultraviolet
Visible


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.07-9996
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL30P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Airborne Measurement Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: 3-Color DPAS Aerosol Absorption Monitor
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerodyne Research, Inc.
45 Manning Road
Billerica,MA 01821 -3976 (978) 663-9500
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zhenhong Yu
zyu@aerodyne.com
45 Manning Road
Billerica ,MA 01821 -3976
(978) 932-0265

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a highly sensitive and compact RGB DPAS aerosol absorption monitor for NASA's Airborne Measurement Program. It will measure aerosol light absorption simultaneous at three spectral regions: blue, green and red. The proposed measurement technique takes advantage of the current rapid development on high-power semiconductor lasers MEMS microphones. It will eventually weigh less than 25 pounds and consume approximately 300W electrical power. It will also be capable of being remotely controlled and being operated at a variety of sampling pressure conditions for the airborne measurements. Since majority of the electronic and optical components of the proposed system are commercially available except the home-designed acoustic cells, its total manufacturing cost could be less than $20,000 per unit.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We expect that the 3-color RGB DPAS aerosol absorption monitor developed under this program will significantly benefit the atmospheric science community in characterizing the radiative properties of ambient aerosols. The ability of the proposed instrument to simultaneously measure particle absorption with good time resolution and high precision in three colors will enable continuous measurements of the particle optical absorption that can be directly used by regional and global climate forcing models. In combination with the Cavity Attenuated Phase-Shift (CAPS) extinction monitor, which represents a dramatic improvement on current particle extinction measurement technology, single particle albedo of ambient aerosols could be directly determined. Since aerosol scattering of solar radiation causes atmospheric cooling, whereas absorption can cause atmospheric warming, direct measurements on single particle albedo of ambient aerosols are critical in understanding aerosol effect on the Earth radiative balance.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA need for this technology is to measure spectrally resolved light absorption by atmospheric aerosols for its Airborne Measurement program. At present, aerosol light absorption is measured by collecting sample on a filter subtract and measuring light extinction and scattering of the collected samples during the airborne measurements. This method suffers from a number of intrinsic errors. The proposed RGB DPAS technique will be far more sensitive than the filter-based techniques, and is capable of providing 1s data acquisition measurement. Additionally, past NASA programs such as EXCAVATE, APEX, UNA-UNA, and AAFEX have had as a major focus, on the measurement of black carbon emissions from civilian aircraft engines. Since mass absorption coefficient of black carbon is known at several visible wavelengths, the proposed DPAS aerosol absorption monitor can be used as a black carbon emission monitor.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Nanomaterials
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Acoustic/Vibration
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Visible


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.08-9386
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CA39P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface & Sub-surface Measurement Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Instrument for Measurement of Oceanic Particle Size Distribution from Submicron to Mesoplankton
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sequoia Scientific, Inc.
2700 Richards Road
Bellevue,WA 98005 -4200 (425) 641-0944
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Wayne Slade
wslade@sequoiasci.com
2700 Richards Road
Bellevue ,WA 98005 -4200
(425) 641-0944

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Particle size distribution (PSD) is a fundamental environmental measurement, with diverse biogeochemical applications including carbon cycle science, ecosystem and fisheries modeling, and harmful algal bloom (HAB) detection/prediction. There is optimism that estimates of PSD will be available from ocean color measurements (such as NASA's upcoming PACE mission), and will be able to help constrain global-scale ecosystem/carbon models and estimates of primary production. However, natural PSD variability is not well understood due to the challenges of routine measurement, and there exists little field data over large space and time scales. We propose to bridge this gap by developing an instrument for ship-based flow-through application that uses laser scattering from multiple wavelengths for estimation of the PSD across a wide range of particle sizes from 0.1 to 500 micron, covering a range from the smallest oceanic pico-plankton to larger meso-plankton.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Similar to the NASA Applications, the target market for the proposed instrument is a broad. Government agency-funded (including NSF, EPA, NOAA) researchers routinely use turbidity, pigment analysis, and cell counting for water quality monitoring and science applications. Adding the ability to make measurements of PSD at higher space-time resolution would be highly significant. One potential application with major societal relevance is monitoring of changes in PSD as a tool for detecting harmful algal blooms.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed instrument for measuring PSD in underway systems has wide applicability in the field of ocean optics and ocean biology and biogeochemistry. Existing methods commonly used in oceanography are time-consuming and expensive, thus the proposed system will be an attractive option for particle size measurement and advancing the state of the art in ocean color and biogeochemistry. NASA scientists and NASA-funded researchers--especially those working on developing phytoplankton functional group algorithms and/or increasingly-complex biogeochemical models--are currently hindered by a lack of ground truth PSD data. Given the current push within NASA programs in preparation for launch of the PACE ocean color mission and EXPORTS field study, development of this system is very timely for advancement of Carbon Cycle and Ecosystems research.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Biological Signature (i.e., Signs Of Life)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.09-8674
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP65P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Atomic Interferometry
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robust Frequency Combs and Lasers for Optical Clocks and Sensing
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vescent Photonics, Inc.
14998 West 6th Avenue, #700
Golden,CO 80401 -5025 (303) 296-6766
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Juan Pino
jpino@vescent.com
14998 West 6th Ave #700
Golden ,CO 80401 -5025
(303) 296-6766

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Vescent Photonics proposes to bring an environmentally robust, compact, high fidelity frequency comb to the commercial market. This will be comb based on a NIST design, augmented with a high bandwidth graphene modulator. Vescent will partner with MRADS, a CU spin-off commercializing high bandwidth graphene modulators for mode-locked lasers. These modulators will both improve performance of the NIST comb and also give Vescent the freedom to operate in the commercial market. These devices will be incorporated into the packages developed during this Phase I and will be a central component of the final deliverable: a pair of high fidelity frequency combs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A robust, commercially available frequency comb will have significant collateral benefit to civilian and defense applications. Frequency combs have found their way into the search for exoplanets, introduced powerful techniques for parallel spectroscopy of explosives and biochemical weapons, and provided coherent LIDAR as an alternative to laser ranging.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Frequency combs could be infused to future NASA CAL missions. In addition, combs from this Phase II could support JPL?s Massively Parallel, Cavity-Enhanced, Laser Spectroscopy for Planetary and Lunar Exploration (MCELS) program. Finally, frequency combs could be modified to provide calibration for ground telescopes searching for exo-planets (Astro-combs).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Transmitters/Receivers
Lasers (Communication)
Lasers (Guidance & Tracking)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
GPS/Radiometric (see also Sensors)
Inertial
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.09-9462
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP42P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Atomic Interferometry
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniature Optical Isolator
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Optics Corporation
1845 West 205th Street
Torrance,CA 90501 -1510 (310) 320-3088
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jae Choi
PSProposals@poc.com
1845 West 205th Street
Torrance ,CA 90501 -1510
(310) 320-3088 Ext: 466

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To address NASA's need for compact optical isolators, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to continue the development of a new Miniature Optical Isolator (MOI). The novel optical isolator design is based on enhanced magneto-optical (MO) effects in magnetic photonic crystals. The innovation in the technology is its capacity to engineer MO effects not only by choosing the right material but also by adjusting the lattice parameters of 1 dimensional photonic crystals. While occupying a very small volume (~0.1 cm^3), a MOI device will achieve high optical transmission (2 dB or less forward loss) and excellent optical isolation (40 dB) at target wavelengths at a low cost. Therefore, the MOI technology directly addresses NASA's requirements for a compact, robust optical isolator for applications in cold atom systems. In Phase I, POC demonstrated the feasibility of the MOI technology through modeling and analysis, as well as fabrication of a proof-of-concept prototype with basic performance parameters characterized. In Phase II, POC will further optimize the device and fabricate prototypes for validation of key performance metrics, as well as evaluate life cycle and environmental performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Metrology and inertial navigation are important in various military and civilian applications. Laboratory demonstrations already have shown that cold-atom systems are superior to any other technologies for navigation and timing applications. However, the biggest hurdle in transitioning this technology into field-deployable units is quite often the sheer volume and weight of the system. To take full advantage of the extraordinary performance of cold atom systems, miniaturization of individual components is necessary. Other than metrology and navigation, optical isolators also have significant commercial applications in diverse fields, such as optical telecommunication, magneto-optic imaging, and gas sensing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA applications of the proposed MOI system are in metrology, magnetometry, and inertial navigation. NASA applications inherently require miniaturization of all system components. Frequency stabilized lasers are currently used in atomic clocks. Next-generation magnetometers and inertial navigation sensors also need optical isolation of the laser sources. In any NASA application that requires frequency stabilized lasers, MOI devices can replace bulky optical isolators to reduce the volume by a factor of >100.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Inertial (see also Sensors)
Optical
Electromagnetic
Inertial
Interferometric (see also Analysis)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.10-8853
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CG37P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Systems for Sensors and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: A High Efficiency 30 K Cryocooler with Low-Temperature Heat Sink
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, LLC
16 Great Hollow Road
Hanover,NH 03755 -3116 (603) 643-3800
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Weibo Chen
wbc@creare.com
16 Great Hollow Road
Hanover ,NH 03755 -3116
(603) 643-3800 Ext: 2425

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future NASA planetary science missions have very limited access to solar power and therefore reducing the cryocooling system power input is even more critical than for earth-orbiting satellites. On this program, Creare proposes to develop and demonstrate an innovative Stirling cryocooler that efficiently produces refrigeration at 30 K and rejects heat at about 150 K. A key component of the proposed cryocooler, its regenerator, will be optimized on this program to obtain high efficiency over this operating temperature range. The innovation is a regenerator fabricated by a unique process to enhance its heat capacity near its target cooling temperature and, therefore, increase the overall thermal efficiency of the cryocooler. The proposed cryocooler is built on technologies developed for commercial Stirling cryocoolers that are extremely compact and efficient while rejecting heat at 300 K. In Phase I, we proved the feasibility of our approach by demonstrating the regenerator fabrication process and its high heat capacity near 30 K, and showing the high thermal efficiency of the 30 K cooler by design and analysis. In Phase II, we will fabricate a Stirling cryocooler that incorporates the regenerator with high heat capacity, optimize the cooler, and deliver the cryocooler to NASA for further performance characterization at the end of the program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed cryocooler requires minimal input power and is extremely compact making it ideal for small satellites. Military space applications for this cooling system include space-based surveillance for Operationally Responsive Space missions. Commercial versions of the cryocooler will operate at rejection temperatures of near 300 K with heat lift at temperatures of and below 30 K, a temperature range that is currently unachievable with commercial Stirling cryocoolers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful completion of this program will provide mission planners with a high performance, lightweight, and compact cryocooler that can meet requirements for a variety of missions. The cryocooler is efficient, reliable, and low cost. NASA applications include cooling MgB2 thin-film bolometers for applications in far-infrared instruments, sensors, shields, and telescopes for planetary science missions, as well as cooling for cubesats.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S2.01-9488
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP39P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Proximity Glare Suppression for Astronomical Coronagraphy
PROPOSAL TITLE: Improved Yield, Performance and Reliability of High-Actuator-Count Deformable Mirrors
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Boston Micromachines Corporation
30 Spinelli Place
Cambridge,MA 02138 -1070 (617) 868-4178
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Peter Ryan
pjr@bostonmicromachines.com
30 Spinelli Place
Cambridge ,MA 02138 -1070
(617) 868-4178 Ext: 206

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The search for life on earth-like extrasolar planets has emerged as a compelling long-term scientific goal for NASA. That goal has inspired innovative space-based coronagraphs that aim to collect spectral data from earth-like planets orbiting stars in distant solar systems. NASA's SBIR Solicitation topic Proximity Glare Suppression for Astronomical Coronography calls specifically for small stroke, high precision, deformable mirrors and associated driving electronics scalable to 10,000 or more actuators. This research aims to overcome the two major technical problems that affect yield and lifetime of the micro-electro-mechanical system deformable mirrors (MEMS DMs) that currently define the state of the art for high-resolution wavefront control: (1) keyhole voids occurring during manufacturing (reducing manufacturing yield) and (2) field emission damage that occurs during device operation (reducing operational lifetime). In this project, the technical solutions to these problems that were demonstrated in the Phase I project will be integrated into a full DM wafer-scale surface-micromachining batch production run to make the first 100% working 2048-element MEMS DM. As a byproduct of the process enhancements developed in Phase I research, this run will feature unprecedented surface smoothness and exceptional device reliability and lifetime in addition to high yield. The devices will be produced in a form factor that can be used with the heritage coating, packaging, and testing technologies. They will fit into existing packages and will be controllable with existing driver technology. Consequently, they will allow rapid insertion of these new high-reliability DM devices into appropriate NASA test beds.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High precision deformable mirrors and associated drive electronics have multiple commercial applications. The following applications apply to products produced by Boston Micromachines that will benefit from increased yield and reliability and improved performance.Space surveillance: BMC has success developing arrays up to 4096 elements for astronomy which can be used for space-based systems. These programs are funded by Department of Defense administrations with classified agendas.Optical communication:Lasercomm systems would benefit from this new architecture for long-range secure communication. Also, fiber optic communications can take advantage of our devices in an optical switching capacity.Microscopy: The capabilities of many non-adaptive optics-enabled microscopy modalities devices have reached their limits. By increasing reliability and yield, the component cost for deformable mirrors will enable users to purchase high-resolution equipment for use in detecting disease. Modalities affected include two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF), second- and/or third-harmonic generation (SHG/THG), and coherent anti-stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and super-resolution localization microscopy techniques.Pulse-Shaping: Laser science strives to create a better shaped pulse for applications such as laser marking and machining, and material ablation and characterization. The use of a high-actuator count array for these purposes will enable new science and more refined techniques.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Reliable, high precision deformable mirrors with high yield and precision and associated drive electronics has a few astronomical NASA commercial applications. The following applications apply to all Boston Micromachines Corp. (BMC) mirrors that benefit from new manufacturing processes developed which increase reliability.
Astronomy: Post applications in this sub-category can be broken into two categories: space telescopes and ground-based telescopes. In the case of space telescopes, there are a number of mission/mission concepts that require the wavefront control provided by the proposed enhanced reliability deformable mirrors. These include the Alpha Centauri Exoplanet Satellite (ACESat), Extrasolar Planet Imaging Coronograph (EPIC), Exoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer (EXCEDE) and the Centaur pathfinder mission. For ground-based telescopes, BMC has already had success developing arrays up to 4096 elements for the Gemini Planet Imager and multiple high-yield smaller devices to high contrast imaging testbeds at the Space Telescope Science Institute and the University of Nice. BMC can achieve similar results for larger arrays requiring high-density electronic equipment for other new and existing installations such as the planned Extremely Large Telescopes (Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) and the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT)).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Adaptive Optics
Mirrors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S2.01-9534
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP36P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Proximity Glare Suppression for Astronomical Coronagraphy
PROPOSAL TITLE: Switching Electronics for Space-Based Telescopes with Advanced AO Systems
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sunlite Science & Technology, Inc.
4811 Quail Crest Place
Lawrence,KS 66049 -3839 (785) 856-0219
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Haijiang Ou
eddieo@sunlitest.com
4811 Quail Crest Place
Lawrence ,KS 66049 -3839
(785) 856-0219

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A 32x32-channel multiplexing Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) driver, which can hold a voltage signal with a 16-bit resolution or beyond, is proposed. Such a driver will greatly reduce the operation power, and are compact and reliable. When the ASIC driver is vertically integrated with a Deformable Mirror (DM), the potential wiring failure will be eliminated. Furthermore, radiation resistance will be emphasized during ASIC design. During Phase I period, we had (1) verified the concept of the proposed floating driver for controlling an HV switch configured by a pair of transistors, (2) developed a high-voltage unity-gain buffer for tracing an isolated voltage signal, which is an essential tool towards developing switch arrays with high quality, (3) established the test methods for measuring switch parameters that directly impact the performance of a DM, (4) identified the main switch parameters, feedthrough and leakage, which are the primary impediments causing the drift of a stroke. All of the above made it possible for us to focus on (1) screen HV IC processes to find a qualified IC process with which a switch featuring low leakage can be fabricated, (2) apply decoupling technique to eliminate feedthrough, (3) manufacture an advanced 32x32 switch array with a voltage-resolution of 16-bit or beyond in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The first beneficiaries of the ASIC drivers are the DM manufacturers. With a vertically integrated ASIC driver, the fabrication of a DM will be greatly simplified as thousands of wire bonding and cabling will no longer be required. Thus, the yield and reliability will be improved. Furthermore, with a simplified architecture, DMs with tens thousands of actuators will become possible. Another main potential non-NASA application is the scanning microscopic fidelity imaging where a compact DM is used to correct optical aberrations in the field of bio-science. Non-NASA applications for deformable mirrors also include laser beam shaping, laser communication in free space and retinal imaging.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed ASIC driver, featuring a voltage-resolution of 16-bit or beyond, is specifically designed to drive a stacked DM, which NASA has been qualified in ground. It could provide a reliable, low power, monolithic DM driver that can be used by an exoplanet-imaging coronagraph. Thus, it could be found valuable in applications on those missions, such as ATLAST and WFIRST-AFTA.
Future space missions require more advanced DMs that the current market cannot supply. With the scalable ASIC drivers available, more advanced DMs could be produced in aspects of (1) higher actuator count to 128x128, (2) higher actuator count DMs with better yield, controllability, and reliability.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S2.02-9221
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP52P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Precision Deployable Optical Structures and Metrology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Dimensionally Stable Structural Space Cable
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ROCCOR, LLC
500 South Arthur, Unit 300
Louisville,CO 80027 -3000 (303) 200-0068
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bruce Davis
bruce.davis@roccor.com
500 S Arthur Ave Unit 300
Louisville ,CO 80027 -3000
(303) 200-0068

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is involved in an ongoing effort to design and demonstrate a full-scale (30-32m diameter) Starshade engineering demonstrator that meets the aggressive deployment dimensional repeatability and stability requirements for exoplanet detection. A key component of the Starshade structural system is a series of dimensionally stable composite cables (or spokes) that connect the center structural hub to the perimeter truss and largely determine the deployed shape and stiffness of the system much like a bicycle wheel. There are many challenges in developing the Starshade spoke. Perhaps most notable is that meeting the CTE requirement necessitates accurate control of fiber volume fraction (resin content) to less than 1%. Also challenging is that meeting the stiffness precision goal of less than 0.5% variation between cables demands that minimal fiber fraying and damage be allowed during the tow spreading and alignment process and that the net cross section be made in one step with no required post-processing. Furthermore, meeting the length precision goal requires uncommon assembly and end fitting bonding methodologies. Finally, there are challenges associated with integrating such high-performance cables into the Starshade while ensuring snag-free deployment and proper on-orbit operation. The DS3 Cable technology addresses all of these challenges with a highly tailorable thermoplastic-tape design that uses Dual Resin Bonding technology for strength and dimensional stability at the end fittings.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
-High-Frequency mesh-based antennas for CommSat applications (LEO CubeSat and GEO CommSat)

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
-Starshade for Exoplanet-Analysis Missions
-Tendon Actuated Lightweight In-Space MANipulators (TALISMAN) manipulator for Asteroid Rendezvous Mission (ARM)
-High-Frequency mesh-based antennas for Earth Science (e.g., SMAP follow-on mission)
-High-Frequency mesh-based antennas for Evolvable Mars Campaign (e.g. Human Mars)

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Composites
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Deployment
Structures
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S2.02-9994
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL31P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Precision Deployable Optical Structures and Metrology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Macro-Fiber Composite-Based Actuators for Space
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Extreme Diagnostics, Inc.
6960 Firerock Court
Boulder,CO 80301 -3814 (303) 523-8924
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Owen
rowen@extremediagnostics.com
6960 Firerock Court
Boulder ,CO 80301 -3814
(303) 523-8924

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR project creates a CubeSat-based on-orbit Validation System (CVS) that provides performance and durability data for Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) piezocomposite actuators operating in space and matures this precision deployment technology through validation tests in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). NASA customers include active structures like space-based deployable telescopes. Phases I/II advance MFC actuator materials to TRL 6 or better for space.
Implications of the innovation
While the piezocomposites needed for active control have flown and are space qualified, their performance has not been quantified under minimal thermal protection to enable large deployable precision structures like 10?30 m class space telescopes. Data is needed on the viability of piezocomposites as control actuators for deployables. MFC actuators also enable structural health monitoring (SHM) methods that expand the potential commercial market.
Technical objectives
CVS uses a nanosatellite for LEO tests. Nanosatellites provide low-cost rapid access to space-based testing. CVS leverages our previous NASA research and builds on the Phase I TRL 5 prototype, which is defined as a CubeSat payload. Our earlier work found an unexpected deviation in the behavior of MFC actuators reacting to thermal cycles like those experienced on-orbit. This atypical behavior could cause imprecise deployment in active space structures. We established Phase II feasibility by defining and controlling this behavior.
Research description
Phase I developed and validated performance evaluation and thermal compensation tools for MFC actuators subjected to thermal cycling, verified weight, size, and power estimates for a flight payload, and established that CVS will fit into a CubeSat. In Phase II we deliver a flight-ready nanosatellite.
Anticipated results
Phase II produces a ready-to-launch TRL 6 or higher nanosatellite compatible with JPL CREAM space environmental sensors. We plan a 6-12 month LEO mission.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA MFC actuator applications include small aperture adaptive optics for nanosatellite-based Earth imaging firms like PlanetLabs and nanosatellite space telescopes like ExoplanetSat. Modern tactical aircraft and hypersonic vehicles require that substantial portions of the structure withstand extreme environments that induce major thermal, mechanical and acoustic loads. A fundamental problem is the dependence of the deformation state of the structure (feedback effect) on these loads (heating, aerodynamic, acoustic)?this could be addressed by the proposed work. Active control is needed for jitter suppression and to compensate for thermal and mechanical disturbances. Commercial space companies need SHM to reduce time to launch and operation costs and improve safety. These needs are particularly important for re-useable vehicles, where information on structural integrity during all stages of flight is important for flight recertification, validation of vehicle operation models, and prediction of remaining service life. Other applications include Homeland Security structural analysis to mitigate threats (preparedness) and assess damage (response), smart structures, and SHM of civil infrastructures, land/marine structures, and military structures. Civil infrastructure includes wind turbines (alternative and renewable energy). SHM is an emerging industry driven by an aging infrastructure, malicious humans, and the introduction of advanced materials and structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
CVS is the first extensive spaceflight validation for piezocomposite actuator materials. CVS will establish operational limits, determine long-duration space environmental exposure trends, and evaluate thermal compensation options for the piezocomposite materials needed to control large-scale precision active space-structures like large deployable adaptive optical surfaces. Piezocomposite material applications include active control of composite reflectors (for example, see JPL Active Composite Reflector research), large sunshields, external occulters, large solar arrays for solar electric propulsion and other active structures. Examples include structures like the OCT Lightweight Materials and Structures long-duration deployables. Maintaining the shape of large, high-precision reflectors will be quite difficult; active reflectors that adjust their shape in situ will be cheaper and lighter. JPL CREAM compatibility provides a low-cost path to in-situ real-time space environment measurements that can, for example, unravel complex synergistic environment and interaction degradation effects on materials. Other CVS applications include active shape distortion compensation in non-reflector surfaces, e.g., struts, bipods, etc. Additionally, an active, mission-capable SHM system has a host of key applications like crew safety, ISS utilization, deep-space missions, vehicle mass reduction, and Mars and lunar exploration.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Space Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Composites
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Deployment
Telescope Arrays
Acoustic/Vibration
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S2.03-9856
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CM19P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Optical Systems and Fabrication/Testing/Control Technologies for EUV/Optical and IR Telescope
PROPOSAL TITLE: Large-Scale Molded Silicon Oxycarbide Composite Components for Ultra-Low-Cost Lightweight Mirrors
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Semplastics EHC, LLC
269 Aulin Avenue, Suite 1003
Oviedo,FL 32765 -4806 (407) 353-6885
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Easter
wgeaster@semplastics.com
269 Aulin Ave. Suite 1003
Oviedo ,FL 32765 -4806
(407) 353-6885

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Next-generation telescopes need mirrors that are extremely stable, lightweight, and affordable. Semplastics has developed a novel, innovative ceramic material which is lightweight, low-cost, and ideal for application as a mirror substrate. High-thickness, high-stiffness objects with excellent dimensional stability, low density, and low coefficient of thermal expansion can be manufactured in one piece through our energy-efficient process. Semplastics is proposing to extend prior research and manufacturing process development to produce larger-scale circular mirrors. This innovation will reduce mirror costs per square meter by an order of magnitude over current approaches based on glass or glass-ceramic solutions. As a part of the Phase II effort, Semplastics will deliver to NASA four large mirrors (up to 0.6m in diameter), sealed to address the residual surface porosity using one of two different coating systems, with ground and polished surfaces. At the end of Phase II, we will have matured and developed our production processes such that we are ready to establish the capability to produce mirrors of one meter diameter or larger.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications for this technology outside of NASA are numerous. In the short term, direct application of the process developed under Phase II to create optics can be used to manufacture mirrors for professional and amateur astronomy / telescopes, as well as adaptive mirrors for military, medical, and automotive applications. We have also identified a number of markets and customers for which there are longer-term applications of our ceramics and mirror technology, following some additional development after the end of the Phase II effort. Our lightweight, high stability materials technology has the potential to supplant older materials technologies (such as carbon fiber and heavier ceramics) in a number of industries, such as energy, automotive, and aerospace, in addition to potential military applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Several NASA activities benefit from improvements in mirror performance as well as a significant reduction in areal costs. Earth-observing and space-observing telescopes that are either balloon-borne or on-orbit have a constant need to reduce the cost and mass of their optical systems. In NASA?s search for extraterrestrial life, the mission is to locate stars with planets similar to Earth. Mirror technology is a significant key in determining whether an exoplanet's atmosphere has atmospheric water vapor or carbon dioxide as well as measuring other atmospheric chemicals. Other NASA programs with interest in improved mirror technology include the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractory Observatory (CLARREO), and the European Space Agency (ESA)/NASA dark-energy mission Euclid. WFIRST is a NASA observatory designed to perform wide-field imaging and surveys of the near infrared (NIR) sky. The CLARREO effort is a future Earth-observing mission that will establish climate benchmarks in order to assess optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The Euclid space observing mission will address questions related to the fundamental physics and cosmology on the nature and properties of dark energy, dark matter, and gravity. Reduced mirror areal costs translate directly to cost savings on these projects, increasing chances of success.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Polymers
Mirrors
Visible


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S2.04-9193
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CM48P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: X-Ray Mirror Systems Technology, Coating Technology for X-Ray-UV-OIR, and Free-Form Optics
PROPOSAL TITLE: BeatMark Software to Reduce the Cost of X-Ray Mirror Fabrication by Optimization of Polishing and Metrology Cycle
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Second Star Algonumerix
19 West Street
Needham,MA 02494 -1306 (781) 400-1323
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anastasia Tyurina
atyurina@sipan.org
19 West Street
Needham ,MA 02494 -1306
(781) 400-1323

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
For X-Ray optics, polishing the mirrors is one of the most costly steps in the fabrication of the system. BeatMark software will significantly decrease the cost of X-Ray mirror production. BeatMark will allow for parametrization of surface metrology data, which will be used as feedback for polishing parameter optimization and metrology experiment planning. By providing the parametrized optical surface description, BeatMark will optimize the costly polishing-and metrology cycle and enable numerical simulation of the performance of new X-Ray mirrors performed by NASA. BeatMark will help fulfill the requirements for sophisticated and reliable information about the expected surface slope and height distributions of prospective X-Ray optics before the optics are fabricated. As we demonstrated in Phase I, an optical surface can be thought of as a stationary uniform stochastic process and modeled with optimal Invertible Time Invariant Filters (InTILF). It was further shown that the modeling of one-dimensional (1D) slope measurements allows highly confident fitting of the X-Ray mirror metrology data with a limited number of parameters and a 10-15% reduction of required length of metrology profiles. Theoretically, a reduction of 50% is possible. In Phase II, we will conduct field tests to assess what reduction in metrology is practical and implementable. With the parameters of the InTILF model developed in Phase I, the surface slope profile of optics with a new specification can be forecast reliably. BeatMark will also process 2-D metrology data and provide a polishing optimization method, based on analysis of the mirror quality response to the polishing parameters. Our Phase I studies indicated that the optimal InTILF modeling describes the mirror surfaces with very few filter parameters and high spectral accuracy.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
When BeatMark has proven its effectiveness through practical implementation in Phase II, other applications for the software will include X-Ray mirror polishing for applications such as medical imaging and teletherapy for cancer treatment, UV mirrors polishing, surface metrology analysis for lithography and other manufacturing processes with tight tolerances for surface finish, imaging texture analysis, and composition analysis.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA application for the BeatMark software is to reduce the fabrication and testing time and cost for optics to be used in the X-Ray Surveyor Mission. By optimizing the polishing-and-metrology cycle, BeatMark will reduce the cost of manufacturing the mirrors, which will contribute to the approval and success of the mission. Other NASA applications include surface metrology for other X-Ray and ultraviolet optics for astronomy and communication applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Analytical Methods
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Process Monitoring & Control
Characterization
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Processing
Mirrors
X-rays/Gamma Rays
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S2.04-9683
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CG20P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: X-Ray Mirror Systems Technology, Coating Technology for X-Ray-UV-OIR, and Free-Form Optics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Manufacture of Monolithic Telescope with a Freeform Surface
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimax Systems, Inc.
6367 Dean Parkway
Ontario,NY 14519 -8939 (585) 217-0729
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Todd Blalock
tblalock@optimaxsi.com
6369 Dean Parkway
Ontario ,NY 14534 -8939
(585) 265-1020 Ext: 227

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Monolithic freeform telescopes offer the potential to positively address the size, weight and vibration concerns associated with flight telescope systems. We propose to prove feasibility that our optics manufacturing process is capable of producing of a freeform optical telescope system by manufacturing and testing five optical surfaces on five sides of a single high purity optical material. The resulting working monolithic telescope will include a high precision freeform surface. The capability of in adding of a freeform surface in a monolithic optical telescope design offers flexibility to create more compact designs, larger fields of view, and better-performing unobscured systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Exo-planet imaging systems -- The search for exo-planets by direct imaging require telescope systems that have a high angular resolution and low diffraction scattering. Since these exo-planets are many orders of magnitude less bright than there companion star the contrast (even when using focal plane masks) must be very high. Exo-planet imaging systems also require minimal scattering due to mid-spatial frequency errors on their primary and secondary mirrors. The specification for the Jovian planet finder optical system was less than 1 nm rms in the 4-50 cycles/aperture range. Cube and Nano-cube optical payloads -- CubeSats are very small satellites built to a standard dimension. The cube-shaped satellites are approximately four inches long, have a volume of about one quart and weigh about 3 pounds. These small satellites can be launched by a common deployment system. The low-cost and small size allows universities, companies, government agencies access to space-borne systems. Monolithic optical systems fit with this need to keep payloads simple, compact, and rugged.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Monolithic optical assemblies The idea of a solid optical system assembly is not a new one. However they have been created by gluing individual optical components together to make the assembly. Also spherical optics and still typically used. The Optimax innovation would combine the use of freeform optics and a true non-epoxy monolithic assembly for such instrumentation as spectrometers, biomedical devices, beam combiners, lasers, and interferometers. The stability, compactness, and maintenance free operation of monolithic optical system could be used universally; while freeform surfaces would improve optical performance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Prototyping
Processing Methods
Mirrors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S3.01-9281
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CC53P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Generation and Conversion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Large-Area, Multi-Junction, Epitaxial Lift-Off Solar Cells with Backside Contacts
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MicroLink Devices, Inc.
6457 Howard Street
Niles,IL 60714 -3301 (847) 588-3001
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris Youtsey
cyoutsey@mldevices.com
6457 Howard Street
Niles ,IL 60714 -3301
(847) 588-3001 Ext: 16

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this Phase II program we propose to develop a manufacturable production process to introduce backside contacts to MicroLink Devices? large-area, multi-junction epitaxial lift-off (ELO) solar cells. We will also develop new assembly processes to fabricate flexible Kapton sheets with backside contact ELO solar cells. This enables an important path for cost reduction using fully automated laydown and interconnect of solar panels. The new backside contact ELO solar cell technology has potential benefits for future NASA solar electric propulsion (SEP) programs using very large solar cell arrays. Backside contacts are used in the highest efficiency silicon solar cells manufactured by SunPower (>24% efficiency in production) but have never been successfully applied commercially to multi-junction solar cells. Benefits for large-area space solar cell include: higher device efficiency by reducing topside grid shadow and resistive losses, new approaches for panel assembly by placing contacts on backside of solar cell, and reduced arcing in high-voltage arrays by eliminating topside interconnects. The proposed technology builds on MicroLink Devices? low-cost, lightweight ELO solar cell technology and previous experience with backside contact solar cells for CPV applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many potential applications for this technology including commercial satellites and solar cell arrays for powering unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). New generations of commercial satellites can benefit directly from technology advances made for future SEP solar arrays, including the lower cost, light weight and flexibility of MicroLink IMM ELO solar cells, as well as new approaches to panel assembly enabled by backside contacts. Solar arrays for UAVs are also an emerging market for lightweight, flexible, high-efficiency solar cells. The assembly of UAV solar arrays can be greatly simplified by attaching backside contact solar cells and bypass diodes directly to Kapton sheets with predefined and patterned metal interconnects.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future NASA solar electric propulsion (SEP) systems will require entirely new solar cell technologies that are high efficiency, lightweight, flexible as well as low cost. The very large solar cell arrays will also need new approaches to panel assembly to reduce weight and stowage volume during launch. The backside contact ELO solar cells to be developed in this program are an enabling technology that addresses many of these requirements.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Conversion
Generation
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S3.01-9476
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CC45P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Generation and Conversion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Modular Double-Acting Free-Piston Stirling Convertor
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Converter Source, LLC
16922 South Canaan Road
Athens,OH 45701 -9461 (740) 592-5166
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Gedeon
dgedeon@convertersource.com
16922 South Canaan Road
Athens ,OH 45701 -9461
(740) 592-5166

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We will build and test a stirling-cycle convertor for generating electrical power from the heat output of a radioisotope heat source (GPHS), addressing evolving NASA requirements for highly reliable, robust, and easily adaptable configurations for space-power applications.

Our double-acting stirling cycle configuration combines a linear alternator with a moving piston/regenerator assembly into a self-contained module. A number of such modules can be connected together into several possible convertor layouts to scale power, achieve system redundancy and cancel vibration forces. This modular approach provides the system designer with unique packaging options not available with conventional stirling convertors. Our primary Phase II focus will be to build and test this core module within a simple three-module convertor configuration.

The part count per module is low and the design is amenable to mass production manufacturing methods. An intrinsic feature within the thermodynamic circuit prevents catastrophic piston over-stroke in the event the electrical load is interrupted. A potentially transformational passive reciprocating hydrodynamic gas bearing suspends the moving piston within its cylinder, eliminating wear and providing a highly effective piston seal. An optional hydrodynamic spin bearing system is available as a backup.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our convertor has the potential to be a lower-cost alternative to other Stirling machines and might find application as a generator using natural gas or renewable biofuels. The redundant convertor configurations could be beneficial for terrestrial remote power applications requiring high reliability (e.g. navigation or communications equipment in off-grid areas).

Operated as a cryocooler, the convertor could cool high-temperature superconducting magnetic bearings in industrial spindles and motors. The ability to cool a central load and reject heat at the periphery is ideal for zero-boiloff re-condensation of liquid nitrogen, volatile fuels and other substances.

The core hydrodynamic bearing technology could be applied to linear free-piston compressors for domestic refrigeration. The Department of Energy Office recently issued a new Roadmap report which prioritized accelerating the commercialization of high-efficiency appliance technologies. This Roadmap ranked the development of advanced compressor technologies for refrigerators and freezers as having the highest overall importance and potential impact.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Space Power Generation - The proposed innovation has the potential to support space power generation applications in the 75-500 W electrical power range using thermal input from one or more radioisotope heat sources, with waste heat radiated to space. Overall conversion efficiency is projected to be around 31% with a 640C heat source and 60C radiator. Other heat source/sink options and temperatures are possible depending on convertor efficiency requirements.

Cooling - The convertor is a reversible heat engine and can be run backwards to produce cooling in the cryogenic temperature range (50-100 K) from electrical input. By introducing staging lower temperatures are possible. NASA cooling applications include direct cooling of space sensors, vapor re-liquefaction for zero-boiloff fluid storage or cooling superconducting magnetic bearings in support of flywheel energy storage systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Conversion
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Quality/Reliability
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Tribology


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S3.02-8954
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CM56P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems for Robotic Science Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Performance Iodine Feed System
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Busek Company, Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick,MA 01760 -1023 (508) 655-5565
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Szabo
jszabo@busek.com
11 Tech Circle
Natick ,MA 01760 -1023
(508) 655-5565

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Busek is developing an advanced iodine feed system for Hall Effect Thrusters (HETs), ion engines, cathodes, and other plasma generators. The feed system features an innovative piezo driven valve that saves volume, mass, cost, and energy with respect to state of the art alternatives. The feed system also features a low mass plastic propellant tank that may be manufactured through additive processes. This allows low cost, complex shapes that can maximize the use of available space inside volume-restricted spacecraft. The feed system will be especially attractive for small spacecraft and CubeSats.

Iodine stores as a solid and sublimates at modest temperatures as the molecule I2, which allows many benefits with respect to traditional Hall effect thruster fuels such as xenon and krypton. These advantages include higher storage density, lower storage pressure, the ability to test high power systems at space-relevant conditions in modest facilities, the capability to store propellant in space without active regulation, and the capacity to transfer propellant at low-pressure conditions in space. In a space-limited spacecraft, using iodine instead of state of the art xenon could increase available delta-V by a factor of three (3) or more.

In Phase I, Busek developed a feed system featuring the advanced components, which was integrated into the iSAT spacecraft form factor. The system was then tested with an iodine compatible Hall effect thruster in relevant space conditions. In Phase II, an improved feed system will be designed, built and tested. Major Phase II technical objectives include developing an engineering model iodine resistant, piezo driven flow control valve, finalizing the feed system control architecture, identifying and evaluate commercial components to fill out the system, and building and characterizing the system. At the conclusion of the Phase II effort, engineering model valves will be delivered to NASA for further characterization.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed feed system supports many types of plasma generators used in space and on the ground. In the near term, the innovative feed system components are most likely to be used as part of a space propulsion system. Commercial and military applications for iodine propulsion include orbit raising, orbit circularization, inclination changes, station-keeping and repositioning. The next stage for commercial users is an all-electric satellite, where electric propulsion accomplishes all propulsion functions.

Beyond stored density and pressure, iodine has many additional benefits with respect to xenon. For instance, a fully-fueled, non-active system may be stored on the ground or on orbit for long periods of time. This reduces the cost of on-orbit spares, and minimizes down-time in the event of a failure. Low pressure on-orbit refueling is also feasible. Due to these and other advantages, iodine may be very attractive for commercial missions such as asteroid mining.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed feed system supports iodine Hall thrusters, ion engines, hollow cathodes, and other plasma generators currently under development for NASA. Possible near term applications include the Iodine Satellite (iSat), Lunar IceCube, and follow-on missions. The Phase II feed system will be ideally sized for a Hall thruster operating at power levels of 100 W to 600 W, and for gridded ion engines operating at similar or lower power levels. These thrusters would be used for orbit raising and interplanetary transfers. Missions of current interest include resource prospecting at the moon, Mars, asteroids, and NEOs. The technology is applicable to spacecraft of all sizes from CubeSats to Asteroid Redirect spacecraft to future MW-class cargo transports supporting human exploration.

The ability to flow iodine as a HET propellant is a the game changer. Iodine is efficient, compact, highly storable, and an order of magnitude cheaper than xenon. Full power thruster demonstrations and throttling in space conditions are feasible because iodine is efficiently pumped by liquid nitrogen cooled panels.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Material Handing & Packaging
Polymers
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Fuels/Propellants
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S3.02-9159
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CC61P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems for Robotic Science Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nitrous Ethane-Ethylene Rocket with Hypergolic Ignition
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pioneer Astronautics
11111 West 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood,CO 80215 -5516 (303) 980-0890
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Zubrin
zubrin@aol.com
11111 West 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood ,CO 80215 -5516
(303) 980-0890

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Nitrous Ethane-Ethylene Rocket with Hypergolic Ignition (NEERHI) engine is a proposed technology designed to provide small spacecraft with non-toxic, non-cryogenic, high performance, hypergolic propulsion. When passed over a warm catalyst bed, gaseous nitrous oxide and an ethylene-ethane gaseous blend combust instantly. A small 1 N thruster can be designed to provide small satellite propulsion systems with a specific impulse of approximately 300 seconds. Both propellants are self-pressurizing, capable of delivering feed line pressures in excess of 800 psi at room temperature, and 400 psi if cooled to 0?C. For longer duration missions, both nitrous oxide and an ethane-ethylene fuel blend do not require thermal heating to maintain a liquid state, and as such, can be stored on Earth or in space for in-definite periods of time with no parasitic power drain required to maintain a liquid propellant. Compared to other available chemical propulsion systems, a NEERHI system offers a cost effective solution as other hypergolic engines use hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide which are toxic and dangerous to handle, increasing ground costs. As an added capability, the NEERHI engine has the ability to operate as a monopropellant engine if the catalyst be is heated with a bipropellant reaction, increasing the lifetime of the catalyst bed and reducing heating loads on the engine. The fuel and oxidizer have nearly identical vapor pressure curves, allowing them to be stored in compact common-bulkhead tanks.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A NEERHI system can be used on any commercial satellite system that requires a simple, hypergolic, RCS propulsion unit but wishes to avoid the difficulties encountered when working with a nitrogen tetroxide and hydrazine system. The NEERHI can be used in the emerging cubesat industry, were the primary development teams are university students designing their first space system. A NEERHI engine would provide a safe and affordable system for universities that often have rigorous safety standards, and as such, avoid current hydrazine-based propulsion. In the new field of commercial crew development efforts, the SpaceX capsule currently uses the Draco rocket engine to provide attitude control. The Draco uses an MMH and NTO propellant combination. A NEERHI system could be built to replace these thrusters, and with a supply of Nitrous oxide onboard, future Dragon spacecraft could use the nitrous to produce breathing air instead of bringing along an additional system, taking up mass and space on the craft. A hypergolic and green propellant is the solution sought by all companies to phasing out the use of the dangerous hydrazine-based thrusters, and the NEERHI program could revolutionize the market.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A NEERHI system is capable of replacing any monopropellant or bipropellant space propulsion system currently used by NASA with a green propellant, self-pressurizing, cold-storable, hypergolic rocket system. The recent MAVEN mission, which uses a propulsion system based off of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, uses a total of 20 hydrazine monopropellant thrusters. A NEERHI system could be adapted to future missions to provide a greater specific impulse with a much lower ground cost due to the low toxicity of the propellants. Future lunar missions, which have historically used an NTO and MMH propellant engine, could use a NEERHI system to not only provide RCS thrust, but the nitrous oxide can also be used to produce a breathable atmosphere for any manned mission. The current technology roadmap for NASA also features a main propulsion unit for the micro-satellite, which could employ a NEERHI engine to provide delta-V maneuvers, station keeping, and even Earth-escape missions. Almost all satellite systems that don't have ion RCS systems could greatly benefit from the integration of a NEERHI unit to reduce the launch cost of the system.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
Fluids
Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Propulsion
Fuels/Propellants
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S3.02-9803
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CC40P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems for Robotic Science Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Micropump for MON-25/MMH Propulsion and Attitude Control
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Flight Works, Inc.
17905 Sky Park Circle, Suite F
Irvine,CA 92614 -6707 (949) 387-9552
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nadim Eid
nadim.eid@flightworksinc.com
17905 Sky Park Circle - Suite F
Irvine ,CA 92614 -6707
(949) 387-9552

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Flight Works is proposing to expand its work in micro-gear-pumps for hypergolic and ?green? propellants in order to develop and demonstrate a micropump for MON-25 and mono methyl hydrazine (MMH) bipropellant thrusters. MON-25, with 25% of nitric oxide (NO) and 75% nitrogen tetroxide (NTO, N2O4), allows lowering the oxidizer freezing point to -55 C, which is a close match to that of the fuel, MMH (which is around -51 C). While toxic, this propellant combination is hypergolic and allows operations over a wide range of temperatures, particularly in extremely cold environments as those envisioned for many future missions.

For NASA deep space and Moon/Mars missions, such as lunar lander and Mars ascent vehicles, the introduction of a micropump in the propulsion system provides significant performance benefits. For missions with high delta-Vs, the system wet mass is greatly reduced, or at fixed total wet mass, scientific payload mass increases. For example, in the case of a lunar lander (delta-V > 3,000 m/s), a two-stage configuration can be replaced by a pump-fed single-stage system of the same mass while the pressure-fed would have to be larger.

Flight Works is proposing to develop and characterize micropumps suitable for 5 lbf and 100 lbf MMH/MON-25 thrusters. These will be used to perform pump-fed MMH/MON-25 hot-fire test demonstrations of the technology under representative environmental conditions in order to reach a TRL 6 by the end of Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology is applicable to propulsion systems in general, such as those on commercial spacecraft (e.g. telecommunications market), for DoD spacecraft and missiles including in Divert Attitude Control Systems, and to on-orbit propellant management.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology offers the means of improving propulsion systems to be used over a wider range of temperatures than what is currently available. The propellant combination MMH/MON-25 allows for operational temperatures as low as -50 C. These propellants, combined with electrically driven micropumps, provide increased mission flexibility and performance. Trade studies show that it can be an enabler. For example, a single-stage can be used instead of two-stages for the Lunar Geophysical Network, a candidate New Frontiers lunar lander mission. The micropump can also be used in MMH/MON-3 systems. With the reduced vapor pressure of MON-3 compared to that of MON-25, the propulsion system can be further transformed into a low-pressure, low cost, more compact and lighter system while allowing high performance thrusters. Studies conducted for another candidate New Frontiers mission, the Trojan Asteroid mission, show the possibility to increase scientific instrument mass by as much as 76% or more depending on the selected (low) tank pressure.

In general, the micropump technology has applications in any NASA mission with challenging propulsion needs: scientific missions going in or out of gravity wells, e.g. Moon landers, Mars ascent vehicles, or deep space missions to asteroids or comets.

Flight Work?s strategy is to work closely with propulsion system integrators during the development phases so as to transfer the technology into operational products.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Fuels/Propellants
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S3.03-8858
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CC77P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Electronics and Management, and Energy Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wide Temperature, High Voltage and Energy Density Capacitors for Aerospace Exploration
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Powdermet, Inc.
24112 Rockwell Drive
Euclid,OH 44117 -1252 (216) 404-0053
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Haixiong Tang
htang@powdermetinc.com
24112 Rockwell Drive
Euclid ,OH 44117 -1252
(216) 404-0053 Ext: 102

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The technical approach proposed in the Phase II program builds on the encouraging results of the Phase I program, in the excellent energy storage performance over a broad temperature range. In this Phase II program, the proposal nanocomposite films will be feature as high energy density (>12 J/cc), dielectric breakdown strength (>600 MV/m), high wide operating voltage (hundred volt to kilovolt), high power density (>4 MW/cc) as well as high energy storage efficiency (>96%). The capacitor energy storage module fabricated from the developed films will be feature as high energy density (>5 J/cc), high wide operating voltage (hundred volt to kilovolt), high power density (>2 MW/cc), high radiation environment, high shock (up to a 1000Gpeak) and vibration (up to 60 Grms) resistance, safe and long cycle life of 1,000,000 cycles at room temperature and more than 100,000 cycles at 400?C for future NASA scientific mission in harsh environment. The This continued development will further prove feasibility of this technology and move the technology from space TRL level 3/4, demonstrated in the Phase I, to a TRL level 5/6 at the end of the Phase II, with parts that could be tested in NASA ion thruster propulsion discharge power system (4 kW, 200 VDC and 20 amps) by the end of the two-year Phase II if an applicable system is found for testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For the secondary military application, Powdermet's capacitor has wide applications in the fuzing system and pulse power devices, such as rail gun, laser, high power microwaves, electric vehicles and electromagnetic armor. The Air Force specifically has applications for high temperature capacitors to extend the temperature range of power electronics equipment.
For other industry applications, consumer electronics and wind turbines make up the other significant opportunities. There is an urgent need for new energy storage materials capable of absorbing and delivering large amounts of energy in short periods of time for pulse-power devices. The high energy density capacitors also have huge potential in defibrillators and X-ray generators, energy conversion in photovoltaics and integrated circuits. Downhole power electronics in oil and gas industry need to work at high temperatures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA Aerospace Market: The express purpose of the Phase I development nearing completion and our vision for Phase II development activities is to finalize the design and production of high performance capacitors working under extreme environment for aerospace exploration that will ultimately aid the NASA Mission in the following functional areas.
1. High voltage, radiation hardened, high temperature power passive components and energy storage device.
2. High power density/high efficiency power electronics and associated drivers for switching elements.
3. NASA systems ion thruster propulsion power supply as well as energy storage device.
4. NASA solar power system backups
5. Seeker, detection systems and other remote anti-personnel
6. Vehicle power assists

This advanced nanocomposite capacitors can be widely used in advanced power electronic and energy storage devices required by NASA for aerospace exploration, such as Titan missions, Lunar Quest, Advance aeronautic equipment and so on. The proposed nanocomposite capacitors can work at various operating temperature and voltage with high energy and power density where tradition power and energy storage device cannot be applied in. The high energy density capacitor will also make miniaturization of NASA power management systems and make the launch more efficiency.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Storage
Characterization
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Nanomaterials
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Lifetime Testing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S3.03-9105
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CC64P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Electronics and Management, and Energy Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Extreme Environment Compatible Ceramic Enhanced PEBB Devices (EE-PEBB)
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
QorTek, Inc.
1965 Lycoming Creek Road, Suite 205
Williamsport,PA 17701 -1251 (570) 322-2700
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ross Bird
rbird@qortek.com
1965 Lycoming Creek Road, Suite 205
Williamsport ,PA 17701 -1251
(570) 322-2700

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A critical element in the NASA/NRC Technology Roadmap is to develop Power Electronic Building Block (PEBB) devices that can function in Extreme Environments. NASA?s stated aim is to use high power density/high efficiency PEBB devices to streamline design and introduce size, weight, cost and efficiency savings. The formidable challenge is to design such PEBB devices that use materials that can function in Extreme Environment conditions. The proposed high power density/high efficiency PEBB solution employs ceramics, striction materials and wide bandgap semiconductors as to meet these Extreme Environment operation challenges. This design eliminates transformer magnetics and opto-isolators (required for galvanic isolation) and eliminates external circuits and components as to provide lower complexity, enhanced performance, and much higher SWaP specifications than currently available. These ?smart? PEBBs incorporating new design and novel materials can now provide NASA design engineers with a whole new level of self-monitoring capabilities as to include voltage, current and temperature self-sensing at the device junction level. These will enable robust prognostics, power reconfiguration, and advanced control methods to be rapidly developed and tested.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applications include ruggedized, high-temperature switching devices for electric vehicle (EV) applications and high temperature sustainable power electronics for down hole gas exploration. The EE-PEBB will be a smaller/less expensive solution than typical piecemeal power electronics circuits. All existing commercial applications would require external circuitry to condition both the input (gate drive) and output (sensor data) signals and in most cases isolate them. QorTek?s system will include all of the necessary circuitry in one modular package. QorTek plans to utilize its ongoing relationship with CREE to further facilitate commercializing a high temperature variant of the proposed technology specifically for emerging Green technology applications. EE-PEBBs can replace IGBTs and MOSTFETS in industrial communication applications including power conversion systems, inverter systems, power supplies, electric motor drive, and medical systems such as MRI machines are a few potential applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Extreme Environment Power Electronic Building Block (EE-PEBB) devices are applicable to deep space applications such as orbiters, landers, Heliophysics and earth observation platforms. QorTek?s new integrated sensing EE-PEBB devices are also an ideal solution for NASA missions such as inter-planetary probes, outer planetary exploration and deep space probes for use potentially down to cryogenic temperatures, as well as high temperatures Venus Integrated Weather Sensor (VIWS) or high radiation environment Van Allen belts or Europa. The planned design incorporates packaging in a modular formfactor that lends itself to new and existing platforms with seamless integration. The inherently radhard nature of sensors and WBG switches introduces further advantages for such missions, as they will reduce risks associated with harsh space environment installations. It would directly impact the ability to reduce the requirements for radioisotope heating units (RHUs) to maintain higher operating temperatures of the electronics and radiation shielding for the current technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Conversion
Prototyping
Ceramics
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Electromagnetic
Thermal
Active Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S3.04-9392
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CG28P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft and Sounding Rocket Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cloud Droplet Characterization System for Unmanned Aircraft
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mesa Photonics, LLC
1550 Pacheco Street
Santa Fe,NM 87505 -3914 (505) 216-5015
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrei Vakhtin
avakhtin@mesaphotonics.com
1550 Pacheco Street
Santa Fe ,NM 87505 -3914
(505) 216-5015

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Atmospheric clouds have strong impact on the global radiative budget. Cloud's radiative properties are strongly affected by droplet size distribution and number concentration. This SBIR project will develop an innovative, compact and inexpensive droplet measurement system (DMS), which will provide in situ measurement of droplet size distribution function and droplet number concentration in clouds. The DMS will be designed to meet the demanding requirements for deployment on small unmanned aerial research platforms including balloons, blimps and small UAVs. The Phase I study demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed method, identified the engineering challenges to be addressed in Phase II and outlined the strategy for further development of the technology. In Phase II a flight-ready compact, lightweight and low-power prototype system will be designed, constructed and field-tested. The Phase II development will provide a solid basis for further commercialization of the proposed technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed DMS will be of interest to research institutions and government agencies involved in atmospheric measurements. Flexibility and low cost of the proposed technology will make it compatible with a variety of airborne and ground based platforms and suitable for other applications such as characterization of atmospheric aerosols, volcanic ash plumes and industrial/agricultural sprays.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed DMS technology will address the NASA's need to add in situ cloud measurement capabilities to small unmanned aerial research platforms such as balloons, blimps and small UAVs. Deployment of the DMS implemented as a compact and lightweight economic package on small aerial platforms will result in reduced costs and improved coverage of the NASA's atmospheric measurement campaigns. Precise and extensive cloud characterization data will lead to better understanding of the contribution of atmospheric clouds to Earth's radiative budget and climate change. Other potential applications include characterization of atmospheric aerosols, particulate matter in volcanic ash plumes and fuel sprays.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Image Processing
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S3.04-9800
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CG17P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft and Sounding Rocket Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Precision Guided Parafoil System For Sounding Rocket Recovery
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
STARA Technologies, Inc.
1620 West Sunrise Boulevard
Gilbert,AZ 85233 -0544 (480) 850-1555
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Glen Bailey
glen.bailey@staratechnologies.com
1620 W Sunrise Blvd
Gilbert ,AZ 85233 -0544
(480) 850-1555 Ext: 1400

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The primary goal of the proposed STARA innovation is to develop and demonstrate a high altitude precision guided parafoil system that will enable NASA to control the final landing point of the sounding rocket payload, thus reducing system offset, recovery time, and recovery cost. Current recovery methods utilize unguided parachutes, which are susceptible to large uncertainties in recovery locations due to unforeseen variables. Using a precision guiding parafoil system deployed at high altitudes coupled with a steerable ballute would enable the landing of the payload at a defined location.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a number of potential non-NASA commercial application for the precision guided parafoil system: Commercial Space ? Ventures utilizing re-entry vehicles can use this technology to recover their capsules; High Altitude Ballooning ? With the recent considerable interest in high altitude ballooning for edge of space and ballistic rocket planes for suborbital tourism, our system could be used for the recovery of these systems; Emergency Response Applications ? Precision guided systems can be attractive to emergency responders that require delivery of food, equipment and supplies too difficult to reach locations; Industrial Applications ? This technology can be beneficial to any industry requiring high-altitude precision recovery and/or delivery of payloads to pre-defined locations; Military Applications ? Potential military applications for this technology would benefit any high-altitude precision recovery and/or delivery of payloads similar to sounding rockets that need to be delivered to pre-defined locations; Airborne Delivery System (ADS) for Terrestrial Return Vehicle (TRV) ? Enable precision landing of the Terrestrial Return Vehicle (TRV) that will enable on demand rapid return of experiments for the International Space Station (ISS) National Laboratory.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary purpose of the precision guided parafoil system is to enable delivery of large high-altitude payloads to pre-defined locations for easier recovery. The innovative addition of a steerable ballute to increase offset the target area will further improve the delivery of payloads to pre-defined location for easier recovery. Based on this mission there are a number of potential NASA applications for our proposed solution: - Sounding Rocket Recovery ? The precision guided parafoil system can be used for NASA sounding rocket missions as a means to lower costs and reduce resources necessary to carry out sounding rocket water recovery efforts ?Suborbital and/or Orbital rocket recovery ? enable precision landing of suborbital and/or orbital rockets ? International Space Station ? enable precision landing of payloads released from the International Space Station ? High-Altitude Balloons ? enable precision of landing of payloads release from high altitude balloons. Aircraft ?enable precision landing of payloads released from aircraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Aerodynamics
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Aerobraking/Aerocapture
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Navigation & Guidance
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Attitude Determination & Control
Prototyping
Actuators & Motors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S3.05-9717
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CG18P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Guidance, Navigation and Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Innovative Fiber-Optic Gyroscopes (FOGs) for High Accuracy Space Applications
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation
2363 Calle Del Mundo
Santa Clara,CA 95054 -1008 (408) 565-9004
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Behzad Moslehi
bm@ifos.com
2363 Calle Del Mundo
Santa Clara ,CA 95054 -1008
(408) 565-9004

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project aims to develop a compact, highly innovative Inertial Reference/Measurement Unit (IRU/IMU) that pushes the state-of-the-art in high accuracy performance from a FOG with drastically reduced optical and electronic package volumes. The proposed gyroscope is based on an innovative approach using Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF) coils that reduces the major gyro error sources and enables a radiation hard sensor in smaller volume compared to state-of-the-art.
Phase 1 addressed the feasibility of the PCF FOG concept, demonstration of critical components, performance/size tradeoffs, and preliminary designs of FOG-based IRU and IMU, leading to a prototype gyro to be designed and built in Phase 2. In particular, Phase 1 involved a comprehensive study of available state-of-the-art PCF and associated components. Based on this, three different PCFs were obtained and extensively tested for suitability in small gyro applications emphasizing tight bending diameters and temperature tests. The tests demonstrated that the technology is sufficiently developed to enable implementation of advanced PCF-based FOGs in the near future.
Phase 2 will (1) implement selected PCF for the gyro application, develop and evaluate components including the PCF coil, modulator and polarizers, and develop the required support infrastructure and tooling, (2) perform performance modeling and trade-offs followed by a complete PCF gyro design, (3) evaluate low-power solutions for the light source and electronics and preliminary valuation of unique electronic miniaturization designs, (4) deliver a tested and validated gyro sensor and electronics, and (5) design a compact open-loop PCF FOG-based 3-axis IRU system.
The Phase 2 strategy includes a development and integration plan, potential demonstration opportunities, program schedule, transition activities, and estimated costs. Our Phase 2 base work plan is designed to advance the TRL to 5, with TRL 6 being obtained in a Phase 2-X program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applications range from rate sensors and gyros used in commercial avionics to navigational inertial reference and measurement units needed for commercial small satellites and landing spacecraft, to gas and oil applications such as measurement-while-drilling (MWD) deployed in horizontal directional drilling. The proposed work will significantly benefit the commercial aviation industry as well as sensor arrays for medical applications and homeland security robotic disarming of bombs. Reducing the size, weight, power (and cost of these sensors and improving robustness against harsh environmental risk factors - all without loss of performance - is also critical for many advanced interceptor and satellite platforms that are of interest to DOD and advanced aerospace applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The overall objective set for this SBIR project is developing and demonstrating a Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF)-based FOG sensor with <2 cubic inch volume that can ultimately be packaged into a full Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) with < 28 cubic inch volume delivering high-end TG performance, or an IMU with a volume < 80 cubic inches for NG and high accuracy performance, as well as evaluating a drastically miniaturized, high density electronics package with form factors ultimately consistent with radiation hard (RH) components packaged small volume as may be required for NASA's smaller satellites and/or long life spacecraft missions. NASA applications include space missions, from High Earth Orbits (HEO) to lunar and beyond Earth exploration, such as asteroids, wherever measurement and correction of attitude, position, velocity and acceleration and/or accurate pointing performance are needed for, e.g., spacecraft formation flying and autonomous rendezvous with asteroid, space-based laser applications, high accuracy pointing systems for space telescope platforms, and the new generation of small satellites.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Waveguides/Optical Fiber (see also Optics)
Attitude Determination & Control
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
Inertial (see also Sensors)
Inertial
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S3.07-9425
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CG25P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Innovations for the Affordable Conductive Thermal Control Material Systems for Space Applications
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied Material Systems Engineering, Inc. (AMSENG)
2309 Pennsbury Court
Schaumburg,IL 60194 -3884 (630) 372-9650
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mukund Deshpande
m.deshpande@amseng.net
2309 Pennsbury Court
Schaumburg ,IL 60194 -3884
(630) 372-9650

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal is submitted to develop and validate the innovative concept for the affordable conductive thermal control material systems that are proven feasible during phase I efforts. The reproducibility and optimization of the material processing, the space environment stability, of the affordable multifunctional thermal control material system (TCMS) that can be applied to space hardware and can enables the hardware to carry higher leakage current are planned to receive attention in phase II study. The suggested efforts emphasize developments in two material science areas: the first one considers the development of intercalated boron nitride nano structure that includes nanotubes and nano mesh and the second area proposes the synthesis and processing of various compounds with proton and electron conductivity along with its plasma sprayable versions. The matured material system that integrates these technology aspects can allow higher leakage currents at affordable costs. Thus the envisioned affordable material systems validation efforts can provide the needed reliable TCMS in typical space environments in (LEO), (GEO) & beyond. The reliability goal for the affordable conductive TCMS are: a design life of > 10 years in LEO and > 15 years in GEO, and we anticipate the developments to mature by end of phase II ready for the hardware demonstration.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The DOD and Commercial missions need products that can benefit from this technology uniquely are:
DOD Cube Sats Program for High Radiation Environments, Survivable Second surface mirrors and TCMS that meet NRO hardening goals. Its affordable contributions to DOD and Commercial Cube Sat program can be timely and significant

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Phase II can have greatest impact on the NASA missions that need white (low aS/eT) conductive TCMS coatings with needed current carrying capability. The candidate missions that can benefit from this technology uniquely are: Cube Sats Program, W-FIRST, DAVINCI, PACE, LANDSAT 9. It may also provide unique benefits to future missions like Europa and Mars 2020. Its affordable contributions to Cube Sat program can be timely and significant.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Characterization
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Nanomaterials
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Lifetime Testing
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S3.07-9989
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP21P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing for Capillary Heat Transfer Devices and Integrated Heat Exchangers
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sheridan Solutions, LLC
745 Woodhill Drive
Saline,MI 48176 -1708 (734) 604-1120
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Sheridan
johns@sheridansolutions.com
745 Woodhill Drive
Saline ,MI 48176 -1708
(734) 604-1120

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase II development program will utilize a novel new 3D printing process to produce high performance heat exchangers embedded in CubeSat structures with integrated temperature monitoring sensors. The embedded heat exchanger is part of a multifunctional three dimensional CubeSat structure that will simultaneously accommodate thermal and mechanical loads, and offer radiation protection via multi-material laminates. In particular, Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing will be used to embed complex cooling channels in a three dimensional part.

Success in this program enables low cost production of CubeSat structures with both thermal management and structural integrity excellence. These structures can be applied in low earth orbit devices, where thermal management of small satellites is a principal concern, and also in deep space applications, where radiation shielding is a major problem.

The results of this enabling work will provide the engineering design and programmatic information necessary for implementation into a number of NASA space programs, including the planned mission to Europa

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This program produces high performance heat exchangers embedded in structures with integrated temperature monitoring sensors. The embedded heat exchanger is part of a multifunctional three dimensional structure that will simultaneously accommodate thermal and mechanical loads, and offer radiation protection via multi-material laminates.

Non-NASA commercial application of this technology has started with aerospace and defense companies who are already customers. These firms are early adopters of additive manufacturing because it enables lightweight designs and the production of parts with complex geometries. Additionally, aerospace and defense manufacturers frequently incorporate high value materials, and additive manufacturing allows them to maintain fine control of material properties and reduce raw material waste.

There are very few additive approaches for fabricating metallic load-bearing structure with embedded multi-functional capability. Traditional fusion based welding and/or thermomechanical processes used for fabricating metallic structure would destroy delicate instruments. The solid-state nature of UAM is unique in that it preserves the strength of aerospace aluminum alloys, permits structures with dissimilar materials, and allows sensitive sensors, such as thermocouples, to be placed inside of metallic structure.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Embedding three-dimensional heat exchangers as part of a multi-functional structure directly addresses the top priority goal described in the 2015 NASA Technology Roadmap TA12: Materials, Structures, Mechanical Systems, and Manufacturing. That top level goal is to: Develop materials to increase multi-functionality and reduce mass and cost (radiation protection/mass reduction challenges). Provide innovative designs and tools for robustness and superior structural integrity for deep space and science missions (reliability/ mass reduction challenges). Design and develop robust, long-life mechanisms capable of performing in the harsh environments (reliability challenge). Advance new processes and model-based manufacturing capabilities for more affordable and higher performance products (mass reduction/affordability challenge).

Cube Sat components will have very small masses, and their temperatures are highly sensitive to variations in the component power output and spacecraft environmental temperature. The advanced thermal devices developed here will be capable of maintaining components within their specified temperature ranges, with excellent reliability of single piece structures, while concurrently minimizing added weight.

The technology being developed in this effort directly addresses the two overarching themes of NASA's technology plan, critical attributes and technology themes required by every mission architecture: multifunctional and lightweight.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Processing Methods
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Thermal
Active Systems
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S3.08-9455
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CM35P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Slow and Fast Light
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fast Light Enhanced Active Gyroscopes, Accelerometers and Fiber- Optic Sensors
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Digital Optics Technologies, Inc.
1645 Hicks Road, Suite R
Rolling Meadows,IL 60008 -1227 (847) 358-2592
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nicholas Condon
condon.optidot@gmail.com
1645 Hicks Road, Suite R
Rolling Meadows ,IL 60008 -1227
(847) 358-2592

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The fast-light effect, produced by anomalous dispersion, has emerged as a highly promising mechanism for enhancing the sensitivity of many devices. It is a potentially disruptive technology with the prospect of revolutionizing the field of precision metrology. We will develop this technology in two parallel paths: A rubidium vapor Raman laser-based Active Fast Light Optical Gyroscope/Accelerometer (AFLOGA), and a fiber Brillouin laser based Active Fast Light Fiber-Optic Sensor (AFLIFOS). Both of these systems will be capable of acting as gyroscopes and accelerometers simultaneously. In addition, the AFLIFOS will be a very sensitive sensor for strain and temperature. In final form, the Superluminal Inertial Measurement Units (SIMU) produced with these technologies should be more than four orders of magnitude more sensitive than current state-of-the-art inertial measurement units. In Phase II, we will demonstrate, test, and characterize a laboratory-scale AFLOGA, then use the knowledge gained to design, construct, and test a compact AFLOGA that will fit within a 10 cm by 30 cm by 30 cm case. A design for a complete, six-axis SIMU will be developed with a footprint comparable to commercial inertial measurement units, but with dramatically higher sensitivity. In parallel, we will design, construct, and test a laboratory-scale AFLIFOS system. Finally, a theoretical investigation will be carried out to develop a Master Equation based model for quantum noise limit on the enhancement in sensitivity using a superluminal laser sensor. Northwestern University will serve a subcontractor for this project.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The gyroscopes, accelerometers, and sensors developed in this program will enable improved navigation accuracy at reduced SWaP cost, much as they do in NASA space vehicles. In addition, they can be used in atmospheric and terrestrial vehicles and ordnance for positioning and navigation in GPS-denied environments, a critical need for many military applications. The improved SWaP performance of these systems would be particularly useful in UAV navigation. High-sensitivity accelerometers can also be used in improved vibration sensors, with an array of applications in seismometry and subsurface explosion detection for nuclear non-proliferation applications. Improved strain and displacement sensors would also have a wide array of applications in monitoring the structural health of buildings and infrastructure.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The gyroscopes and accelerometers developed in this program will have substantially improved sensitivity and reduced SWaP compared to conventional technology. These will find use for navigation of NASA space vehicles of all sorts, where SWaP concerns and precise navigation are critical. These technologies may also enable an array of new scientific missions, such as gravitational mapping of subsurface geologic features and gravity wave detection. An ultrasensitive gyroscope may also enable a critical test of general relativity via measurement of the gravitational frame dragging effect to an unprecedented accuracy. An ultra-sensitive fiber-optic sensor may be enable precise measurement of strain, temperature,and other effects under conditions relevant to NASA missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Navigation & Guidance
Attitude Determination & Control
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Acoustic/Vibration
Inertial
Interferometric (see also Analysis)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S4.02-9372
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP47P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Robotic Mobility, Manipulation and Sampling
PROPOSAL TITLE: Industrial Electrostatic-Gecko Gripper
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Somatis Sensor Solutions
411 South Hewitt Street
Los Angeles,CA 90013 -2215 (213) 477-0710
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nicholas Wettels
nwettels@perceptionrobotics.com
411 South Hewitt Street
Los Angeles ,CA 90013 -2215
(213) 477-0710

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Perception Robotics is developing an innovative product, the Electrostatic Gecko Gripper? (ESG Gripper), for the industrial automation market. This unique gripping solution overcomes the shortcomings of vacuum grippers by eliminating the need for a compressed air system and offering more rapid actuation, thus achieving significant cost savings and throughput improvements in customers? manufacturing processes. The ESG gripper couples an electrostatic Perception Robotics is developing an innovative product, the ?Electrostatic Gecko Gripper(ESG Gripper), for the industrial automation market. This unique gripping solution overcomes the shortcomings of vacuum grippers by eliminating the need for a compressed air system and offering more rapid actuation, thus achieving significant cost savings and throughput improvements in customers manufacturing processes. The ESG gripper couples an electrostatic adhesive with an adhesive element inspired by gecko feet. When the electrostatic and gecko adhesives work together, a positive feedback cycle is created that, depending on surface type, can be greater than the sum of its parts. As the gecko adhesive engages, it brings the electrostatic adhesive closer to the surface, thus increasing its adhesive force; in turn, the electrostatic adhesive helps engage more of the fibrillar stalks of the gecko adhesive. Previous experimental results have shown that the combination adhesive technology can provide up to 5.1x greater adhesion that an electrostatic or gecko-like adhesive alone.

This body of work will result in two hardware and software deliverables for transfer to NASA:
1.A piezoelectrically driven rig to automate and normalize the post-treatment process for improving the gecko adhesive (Q3CY1)
2.An improved industrial electrostatic gecko gripper with sensing and control software for an industrial robot. This factory-ready unit will position us well for production of a flight-ready version in Phase III. (Q4CY2)

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Industrial manufacturing is rife with applications in which gripping an object is challenging or impossible with conventional grippers due to the shape or fragility of the object. Current solutions often rely on complex and expensive vision systems, vacuum or custom grippers, and/or repetitive, injury-prone manual labor. The ESG Gripper provides a simple and cost-effective solution to these situations.

While there is a wide range of potential applications for adhesive gripping solutions in industrial automation, we have identified solar panels and glass manufacturing as the primary target markets due to the industries? versatility, expansiveness, and expressed interest in our solution. Other potential markets include aerospace and automobile manufacturing, packaging and warehousing, hazardous materials handling, palletizing applications, and medical device manufacturing. As an example, we will validate our work at the 2016 Amazon Picking Challenge to attract the interest of Amazon for pick-and-place tasks (see http://amazonpickingchallenge.org/).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA?s interest in this technology stems from Subtopic: S4.02 Robotic Mobility, Manipulation and Sampling. This technology could benefit several NASA initiatives including in-space assembly, satellite service and salvage, space debris mitigation & elimination, gripping mechanisms for free-flyers (e.g. AstroBee) and spacecraft inspection.

Of specific interest is the ISS Remote Inspection System (IRIS) being developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, 2015). This system utilizes gecko-inspired adhesive feet to anchor IRIS to the micro-gravity environment of the ISS. The development of the ESG gripper would result in a significant performance increase in the adhesion of the feet in a low-cost, low-energy package. Another candidate JPL target for this technology is the In-Space Telescope Assembly project or other in-space assembly programs, as the gripper can function as an end-of-arm-tool (EOAT) for manipulation of large, flat objects such as positioning and holding of solar panels to a backbone truss.

This technology is also particularly well-suited for satellite servicing and salvage, as the combined gecko and electrostatic gripping mechanisms are able to grip smooth rigid surfaces as well as thermal blankets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Tools/EVA Tools
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Fasteners/Decouplers
Contact/Mechanical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S4.04-9151
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP54P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme Environments Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Dual Axis Controller for Extreme Environments
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Motiv Space Systems, Inc.
350 North Halstead Street
Pasadena,CA 91107 -3122 (626) 737-5988
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Greg Levanas
greg.levanas@motivss.com
350 North Halstead Street
Pasadena ,CA 91107 -3122
(626) 389-4137

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Dual Axis Controller for Extreme Environments (DACEE) addresses a critical need of NASA's future exploration plans to investigate extreme environments within our solar system. These destinations include asteroids, comets, Phobos and Deimos, Titan, Ganymede, Mars and the Moon. Feasibility of these proposed missions is improved if subsystems can be designed to be more robust in operations and survivability such as to reduce the burden of the overall system and preserve critical resources (i.e. power and mass). In the case of DACEE, the ability to operate a functional electro-mechanical subsystem at temperatures at or below -190C addresses one of NASA's technology hurdles.
In Phase 1, a two-axis compact brushless/stepper motion control design was completed with extreme cold operations maintained as the primary design driver. Individual components of the design were evaluated for risk in achieving these goals. The highest risk components were thermally tested. The results of these tests almost completely retired the risk of one component, pending further evaluation, and identified a coherent development path to remedy power regulation needs at extreme temperatures.
The objectives of Phase 2 are to deliver a prototype flight-like electromechanical instrument mechanism which includes the fully developed 100 krad tolerant DACEE. This subsystem will have been cryogenically tested and characterized. The motors, gear boxes, and actuated components will be selected by leveraging the best in family for cryogenic operations. The specification of the mechanism will pay close attention to design criteria compatible with achieving significant lifetime actuation cycles based upon appropriate material selections and lubrication approaches.
The objective of the Phase 2 activity is to produce a complete instrument mechanism prototype with motion control electronics capable of surviving 100 million revs at the motor.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Outside of NASA's interest, creating a low power, small form factor dual axis controller is very attractive. GEO communication satellites maintain a large number of control interfaces for the ever evolving complicated deployment schemes developed for extending antennas and supporting a variety of hosted payloads. Many satellites include pumps for cooling loops which require similar control needs. Some of the existing control systems are very outdated and the cost of maintaining legacy electronic systems is becoming increasingly expensive. Providing a robust, rad tolerant, low power commercial control solution based upon the DACEE development could save manufacturers a reasonable amount of cost, power, and mass which could better be allocated for providing additional data services.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The applications for the DACEE within NASA's exploration roadmap are numerous. While each investigation has its own unique observational instrumentation needs, the operations contained within those instruments share commonality. For operations which adjust lenses, open covers, pan and tilt, deploy hinges, etc., a stepper or brushless motor control drive capable of delivering between to 1-3 amps @ ~30V covers a broad spectrum of applications. Coupled with the benefits of small form factor and low power means the DACEE can be mounted in or near the instrumentation itself simplifying system level interfacing and control needs. With an expanded operational thermal range the DACEE preserves valuable spacecraft resources by not consuming excess power for heaters or requiring extra mass for radiation protection. The DACEE can operate on weather balloons where temperatures tend to become very cold and challenge typical electronic operational ranges. The DACEE can also be operated in-situ for instruments that may be deployed by future Mars rovers. Again the small size is conducive for space station observatories that need to perform typical scanning and tracking operations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Prototyping
Actuators & Motors
Deployment


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S4.04-9341
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP48P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme Environments Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Extreme Environment Electronics Based on Silicon Carbide
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
United Silicon Carbide, Inc.
7 Deer Park Drive, Suite E
Monmouth Junction,NJ 08852 -1921 (732) 355-0550
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Matthew O'Grady
mogrady@unitedsic.com
7 Deer Park Drive, Suite E
Monmouth Junction ,NJ 08852 -1921
(732) 355-0550 Ext: 315

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Radiation tolerant, extreme temperature capable electronics are needed for a variety of planned NASA missions. For example, in-situ exploration of Venus and long duration Europa-Jupiter missions will expose electronics to temperatures up to 500 ?C and radiation of 3 Mrad (Si) total dose. During this program, United Silicon Carbide will extend the capability of its SiC JFET integrated circuit (IC) fabrication technology to produce electronics compatible with such extreme environments.

Silicon Carbide (SiC) junction field effect (JFET) based electronics are ideal for these environments due to their radiation tolerance and their high performance and reliability over an extremely wide operating temperature range. SiC electronics can be used in applications ranging from low power, low noise mixed signal electronics for precision actuator control, sensor interfaces, and guidance and navigation electronics to power electronics for power management and distribution and power processing units. SiC based electronics will have longer storage and operating lifetimes when compared to existing silicon electronics. Use of SiC integrated circuits will also lower system mass, volume, and power by reducing or eliminating the need for cooling and radiation shielding.

In Phase I, we showed the feasibility of our approach by measuring SiC JFET IC device characteristics at 500 ?C; performing a 500 hour, 500 ?C reliability test; and using TCAD simulations to further explore the devices behavior at high temperature and when subjected to radiation. In Phase II, we will fully develop the extreme environment capable SiC IC fabrication technology and use it to fabricate an integrated circuit which will be characterized at 500 ?C and before and after radiation exposure. Following Phase II, we will provide access to the process technology and related design intellectual property through a commercial fabrication service so that NASA and others can fully leverage its capability.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Extreme environment electronics also have applications in the areas of defense, aerospace, scientific research, energy exploration, and industrial controls. DoD needs radiation tolerant electronics for space and missile defense applications and high temperature electronics for electronic aircraft controls being developed to replace hydraulic systems. Distributed engine control developments enabled by SiC electronics have direct applicability in commercial jet engines where there is a continual push for increased fuel efficiency. Scientific applications include nuclear physics research and instrumentation for nuclear facilities. High temperature electronics are needed for improved downhole tools for geothermal energy exploration, development, and production. There is also a well-established market for extreme temperature pressure sensors in which SiC electronics can increase performance by buffering the sensor signal within the high temperature environment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Extreme environment electronics based on SiC are capable of operation in the extreme radiation and temperature conditions that will be encountered during exploration of the solar system on missions such as the planned Venus In-Situ Explorer and proposed Europa-Jupiter missions.

SiC IC technology developed in this program can also be used with existing discrete SiC power devices to implement scalable, high operating temperature, radiation hard power management and distribution systems and power processing units for satellites and other spacecraft.

Earth based applications include distributed engine control systems. These systems have been the subject of research and development for several decades but their implementation has been prevented by the lack of available extreme temperature electronics technology. The commercially viable, high temperature capable electronics technology developed in this program will fill this need leading to new research and ultimately a new generation of engine controls for improved aircraft performance and efficiency.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Conversion
Distribution/Management
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S4.05-9420
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP44P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Contamination Control and Planetary Protection
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development of a Hermetically Sealed Canister for Sample Return Missions
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics, Ltd.
Building 3, Suite 1005 63 Flushing Avenue Unit 150
Brooklyn,NY 11205 -1070 (212) 966-0661
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kris Zacny
zacny@honeybeerobotics.com
Building 3, Suite 1005 63 Flushing Avenue Unit 150
Brooklyn ,NY 11205 -1070
(510) 207-4555

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of this project is to develop hermetic sealing technologies which can be used for the return of samples from planetary bodies such as Mars, the Moon, Comets and Asteroids, with a primary focus on induction brazing as a means of sealing a Mars Sample Return Orbiting Sample (OS) after it has been recovered by the MSR Orbiter spacecraft.

During Phase 1, Honeybee Robotics investigated several techniques for providing hermetic sealing such as Knife Edge, Shape Memory Alloy, C-ring, O-ring and Induction Brazing. These were identified as promising hermetic sealing approaches which can be applied to Sample Return (SR) missions, such as the Flagship Mars SR, New Frontiers (NF) Comet SR and the Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin SR, identified by the NRC Decadal Survey as the primary missions for the next decade. The sealing system would be used to store samples of rocks, soils, atmospheric gas, ice or icy-soil.

Based on Phase 1, we determined that a brazing approach is the optimum method of sealing planetary samples and should be used as a primary seal. Knife edges and O-rings should be pursued as secondary and redundant (backup) seals, respectively. Therefore, we propose to design and fabricate hermetic sealing canisters and test their hermeticity to achieve leak rates of 10-7 atm cc/sec He. The canisters will be exposed to dust and thermal cycles to reach TRL 5/6 at the end of the Phase 2.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Terrestrial uses of robust hermetically sealed containers might include telerobotic inspection and sampling of hazardous materials: chemical, biological, or nuclear. Tele-operated robots can go into many hazardous areas which humans cannot. These robots could be outfitted with canisters with hermetic seals which function in the presence of dirt, dust and chemicals. The canisters could be robotically filled with hazardous material, and hermetically sealed using the induction brazing technique. For example, when using a double walled cylinder approach, the outer contaminated sleeve could be separated, leaving the internal chamber sealed and safe for human handling and laboratory analysis.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future robotic astrobiology and geology missions such as Mars Sample Return, as well as Lunar, Comet and Asteroid sample return missions will benefit greatly from the ability to hermetically seal samples in a dusty environment. A robust sample canister that is dust tolerant will greatly reduce the complexity of support equipment that may otherwise be required to clean containment vessels prior to sealing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Process Monitoring & Control
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Simulation & Modeling
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S5.01-8794
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CA58P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Large-Scale Numerical Simulation
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Scheduling-Based Framework for Efficient Massively Parallel Execution
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
EM Photonics
51 East Main Street, Suite 203
Newark,DE 19711 -4685 (302) 456-9003
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Fox
fox@emphotonics.com
51 E Main Street, Ste 203
Newark ,DE 19711 -4685
(302) 456-9003

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Modeling and simulation on high-end computing systems has grown increasingly complex in recent years as both models and computer systems continue to advance. The majority of coding and debugging time is not spent defining the problem physics but instead in balancing computations between multiple heterogeneous devices, handling communication of data, managing distributed memory systems, and providing fault-tolerance. Often, the resulting programs are barely readable as the details of the work being performed are obscured by hardware-specific setup and communication code that dominates a program's codebase. Even worse, the code used to balance computation, manage data communication, and provide fault-tolerance is re-implemented in each piece of an application even though it performs the same tasks across those sections of the software. This makes software more difficult to maintain and upgrade, and hinders porting to new hardware platforms as they become available. The time spent improving, modifying, or debugging these device specific code paths and common code sections could be better spent improving kernel performance or adding new features.
To address the problem of separating physical science from computing science, we are developing a solution that decouples the problem definition from the platform-specific implementation details. This is accomplished by dividing the computation into distinct tasks, each of which takes some defined input data and produces some output data. These tasks can then be connected into a task graph by defining their dependencies on each other. This task graph describing a particular code can then be used to automatically manage data and schedule work across heterogeneous devices without requiring further user intervention. Therefore, to make use of new hardware, the user need only port any tasks that might take advantage of the new hardware, and all scheduling, data management, and synchronization required are handled automatically.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Most HPC software will be able to benefit from this technology, particularly applications meant to scale to large computer systems and/or target heterogeneous hardware configurations. Expected application domains include electromagnetics simulations, computational chemistry, oil and gas exploration, and financial modeling. It also includes any domains that involve large-scale sparse linear algebra operations, large-scale image processing, and other physics-based and multi-disciplinary modeling applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
These tools could be used to reduce software development and maintenance time and improve the computational performance and scalability of a variety of high-performance computing applications. Specifically, we intend to initially focus on applying this technology to GEOS-5 for earth modeling, this framework can also benefit other earth modeling packages. Another application area of this technology is CFD solvers such as Fun3D and OVERFLOW. It can also be an enabler for the High-End Computing Capability (HECC) project, by enhancing both usability and performance of applications able to take advantage of heterogeneous compute architectures. Additionally, it permits more flexibility in hardware design and purchasing for high-end computing systems by reducing the effort required to port applications to new hardware architectures, such as GPUs and Xeon Phis.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Image Analysis
Image Processing
Computer System Architectures
Data Processing
Development Environments
Programming Languages


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S5.01-9614
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CA33P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Large-Scale Numerical Simulation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Accelerating Memory-Access-Limited HPC Applications via Novel Fast Data Compression
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Accelogic, LLC
1633 Bonaventure Boulevard
Weston,FL 33326 -4040 (954) 888-4711
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Juan Gonzalez
juan.gonzalez@accelogic.com
1633 Bonaventure Boulevard
Weston ,FL 33326 -4040
(954) 888-4711

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A fast-paced continual increase on the ratio of CPU to memory speed feeds an exponentially growing limitation for extracting performance from HPC systems. Breaking this memory wall is one of the most important challenges that the HPC community faces today. In Phase I we introduced aggressive innovations enable the injection of unprecedented acceleration into vast classes of memory-access-bound HPC codes via ultra-fast software-based data compression. Groundbreaking speedup on a fully functional NPBCG prototype was delivered to NASA, thus validating the tremendous potential of our approach. The proposed approach is based on a revolutionary theory of compression spearheaded by Accelogic (Compressive Computing), which is able to provide enormous compressive gains for the typical floating point data of HPC applications.
In Phase II we will build on our success with the NPBCG benchmark, and move boldly into tackling the acceleration of a real-life high-profile code, namely NASA?s Cart3D, improving its performance by a paradigm-shifting 2x to 4x end-to-end wall-clock time acceleration by the end of Phase II. Our firm has accumulated crucial know-how and has synthesized its expertise into a powerful industrial-quality process for software acceleration that will be used to ensure success on completing Phase II objectives. In Phase II we also plan on injecting a second NASA code with basic Compressive Computing techniques, and providing it with base levels of acceleration of ~1.3-2x. We will choose this second code from a pool of high-profile codes that have already signed up as early adopters for this project: FUN3D, USM3D, Enzo, and WRF. The work on a second NASA code will also serve as the ultimate field test of the broadness and ease-of-infusion of the proposed technology.
We have secured complementary funds in the amount of $500,000 to increase resources and ensure that the proposed Phase II proposed will be successfully accomplished.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The resulting technology will increase the efficiency of memory access in most modern computer architectures, thus directly enabling unprecedented speedups in memory-access-bound HPC applications. With a significant fraction of HPC codes belonging to this "memory-bound" category, numerous scientists, developers, researchers, and complete industries will benefit, in areas as varied as aerospace, climate research, molecular dynamics, chemistry, weather forecasting, energy, civil engineering, geophysics, and life sciences, among others.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The impact of the proposed technology spans most areas of importance to NASA's scientific missions, including: aerospace, weather forecasting, cosmology, combustion, climate research, and chemistry, among others. To this date, five of the Top NASA HPC applications have enlisted as partners of the project to become early adopters of the technology. This fact speaks clearly about the interest that the NASA community has shown on the potential uses and benefits of infusing the knowledge generated from this project into NASA. Furthermore, once the technology is fully operational, it will benefit tens of thousands of users, who will see substantially increased performance in their regular, day-to-day runs, as well as in their massive, supercomputer-based production runs. One of the lead developers of NASA's Top Codes mentions that this technology "can be considered critical in achieving the next generation of so-called exascale software applications, [and] in turn, these efforts will enable scientific and engineering breakthroughs previously considered computationally intractable".

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
3D Imaging
Image Processing
Computer System Architectures
Data Input/Output Devices (Displays, Storage)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S5.02-9041
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CS06P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Earth Science Applied Research and Decision Support
PROPOSAL TITLE: ModelLab: A Cloud-Based Platform to Support Advanced Geospatial Modeling of Earth Observation Data
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Azavea, Inc.
340 North 12th Street, Suite 402B
Philadelphia,PA 19107 -1102 (215) 925-2600
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Cheetham
cheetham@azavea.com
340 North 12th Street, Suite 402B
Philadelphia ,PA 19107 -1102
(215) 701-7713

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In order to promote and facilitate broader use of NASA and other Earth observation data sources, the Phase I research focused on development of a cloud-based distributed computation platform for building, storing, and executing complex geospatial models. Widespread access to frequent, high-resolution Earth observation imagery has created the need for innovative tools like ModelLab that will help individuals and organizations to effectively access, analyze, edit, and visualize remotely sensed data in transformative new ways without years of specialized training or ongoing investments in proprietary software and technology infrastructure. The Phase II production application will be built as an on-demand, browser-based service that provides a unique assemblage of online authoring tools, searchable libraries of geospatial modeling functions, educational materials, distributed computing capabilities enabled by the open source GeoTrellis framework, and access to NASA and other sensor data that can be applied to contemporary geospatial challenges in a broad range of domains. Further, it will both simplify and shorten the development process for a host of model-driven software applications by providing developers with a growing catalog of well-crafted models to build and innovate from. Specific goals for Phase II include adding a searchable gallery of geospatial models that can be harnessed to perform specific tasks, enhancing the user experience, adding support for user data upload, extending the data repository with national and global-scale datasets, providing access to NASA APIs, enabling multi-band processing capabilities, and performing iterative testing with an expanded Advisory Team and a larger group of students and potential customers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The combined user base for the ModelLab touches on aspects of virtually every government, academic, nonprofit, and commercial discipline and includes millions of individuals in organizations around the world. Broad commercialization will focus on direct sales to government, commercial, and nonprofit organizations that need to process and analyze large environmental datasets for applications ranging from climate change and risk assessment to watershed management and regional planning. Local governments in particular will provide a major marketing opportunity. Therefore, outreach efforts will be directed at the GIS, Water, Transportation, and Planning/Zoning Departments within these government units that are most likely to be facing critical geospatial data processing challenges. In addition to direct sales, OEM and licensing agreements with satellite and mapping firms will integrate ModelLab?s modeling capabilities with third-party products and services.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed ModelLab will support NASA applications across three critical areas of interest. First, it will address NASA's need for creative new methodologies that can harness computing power necessary to process large geospatial datasets efficiently. Efficiency in this context is largely a matter of faster processing times, and the proposed project promises to increase these speeds significantly for geospatial modeling. Second, it can assist the Langley Research Center's GIS Team, which is recognized as a leader in GIS technology. ModelLab will be designed for integration with existing geospatial data processing toolkits from both commercial and academic sources that can be aligned with Langley objectives on a project-by-project basis. Finally, ModelLab will be a tremendous addition to NASA?s Earth science education resources by providing a catalogue of geospatial models that can be used to support internal research, classroom study, and public outreach activities with available NASA datasets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Outreach
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Display
Image Analysis
Image Processing
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing
Development Environments


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S5.05-9573
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CM31P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Fault Management Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fault Management Technologies - Metrics Evaluation and V&V
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Qualtech Systems, Inc.
100 Corporate Place
Rocky Hill,CT 06067 -1803 (860) 257-8014
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sudipto Ghoshal
sudipto@teamqsi.com
100 Corporate Place Suite 220
Rocky Hill ,CT 06067 -1803
(860) 761-9341

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Functional robustness, resulting from superior engineering design, along with appropriate and timely mitigating actions, is a key enabler for satisfying complex mission goals, and for enhancing mission success probability. Fault Management (FM) is a crucial mechanism to ensure system functionality from system design through the operational phase of a mission. FM is implemented with spacecraft hardware, on-board autonomous software that controls hardware, software and information redundancy, ground-based software and procedures. Given that most NASA missions require highly complex systems, at least a basic level of fault detection and isolation capability is almost always added on to them to protect against thousands of potential failure modes. It is therefore imperative to treat FM like any other engineering discipline and formalize the tools, metrics and best practices to ensure a uniformly high quality of implementation of FM across all NASA missions. The proposal to utilize recent advances in the theory and practice of FM, and in particular in the theory and practice of FM metrics, to enhance the ability of system and FM engineers and operators to measure and document the value, cost and risks associated with the FM design. This SBIR is aims to utilize existing capabilities of TEAMS toolset and extending it as necessary to enable it to compute a range of FM metrics, quantitative assessment of an FM design and V&V of the FM activities. As schedule and resource pressures build, there comes a need to reduce the amount of planned testing while guaranteeing a degree of confidence in FM design. By defining a methodical approach to identifying and assigning priorities to tests, one can define a minimum set of tests required to certify FM (i.e., incompressible test list). This SBIR also seeks to develop a Prioritized Validation Test Suite that ensures that critical risks are detected and appropriate FM Mitigation Strategies are employed to minimize the risk.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
DoD institutions such as the Missile Defense Agency, Air Force and Navy that use SHM and FM in many applications can benefit from the metrics implemented in TEAMS. Applications that can benefit include aircraft, spacecraft, launch vehicles, ships, submarines, and command and control systems. FM performance metrics will help determine the efficacy as well as identify the gaps for FM on the TEAMS based CBM+ solution being developed onboard the LCS by QSI along with Lockheed Martin (LM), General Dynamics and NAVSEA. In addition, UAVs, UMGs and other unmanned submersible vehicle markets where the FM aspects of system design is required to be highly efficient and cost-effective because of the natural budgetary pressures, could also be potential targets for the proposed technology. QSI is working with LM on leveraging TEAMS technology for FM for actuation processes with the KMAX unmanned helicopters with potential application to other LM unmanned aerospace and marine vehicles. Technology developed through this effort will also be critical to measure the current performance of those FM systems as well as identify potential deficiencies under different failure scenarios. Outside of the DoD, electrical power and nuclear power utilities also require rigorous modeling techniques such as those developed here. The automotive industry is also now adopting more formal methods than in the past, largely drawn from aerospace applications but adapted to the automotive context.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's system design and engineering community, especially those who are involved with Systems Health and Fault Management (FM) have a vision of ensuring that FM design is an established rigorous discipline with consistent processes and methodologies that can be applied across all NASA platforms. The proposed effort has significant range of applications across various NASA multi-disciplinary engineering centers that are in charge of System Design where FM is an integral part of the System Design process. Quantifying SHM/FM in terms of standard and recognized metrics has been proven in practice in the Space Launch System (SLS), managed by Marshall Space Flight Center. The metrics developed here for TEAMS are perfectly general to any system that uses FM. The QSI team has close relationship with the NASA MSFC SHM team responsible for the design of the FM system who are also current users of the TEAMS software. Likewise, other immediate applications of this technology will be with the Orion Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program, managed by Johnson Space Center, and the Ground Systems Development and Operations Program, the operations and launch facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida. Other strong users of TEAMS, with strong FM programs include Glenn Research Center, Ames Research Center, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The aviation programs at ARC and at Langley Research Center are also likely long-term beneficiaries of this project.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Quality/Reliability
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Knowledge Management
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S5.05-9897
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP25P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Fault Management Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Model-Based Off-Nominal State Isolation and Detection System for Autonomous Fault Management
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Okean Solutions, Inc
1463 East Republican Street, 32A
Seattle,WA 98112 -4517 (206) 383-0181
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ksenia Kolcio
ksenia@okeansolutions.com
1463 East Republican Street, 32A
Seattle ,WA 98112 -4517
(206) 383-0181

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed model-based Fault Management system addresses the need for cost-effective solutions that enable higher levels of onboard spacecraft autonomy to reliably maintain operational capabilities. The system will provide onboard off-nominal state detection and isolation capabilities that are key components to assessing spacecraft state awareness. The ability to autonomously isolate spacecraft failures to component levels will enable faster recovery thereby reducing down time. Model-based systems can provide better fault coverage than traditional limit-checking systems. The proposed system in particular will result in a relatively compact software package because it relies only on modeling nominal behavior; fault models are not needed. Thus this approach has the capability to detect any off-nominal behavior including un-modeled faults. Health information produced by the FM system can be used to make resource allocation and planning and scheduling decisions by ground operations or by other on-board autonomy agents. The system can be built and tested standalone potentially reducing FM developmental and testing costs. The FM system provides an evolutionary approach to full onboard autonomy as it can first be implemented and tested in ground-based systems and then migrated onboard spacecraft. Onboard fault management will be crucial to NASA mission success particularly during critical times where the situation changes rapidly and unpredictably with no opportunity for operator support.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The need for robust and reliable onboard fault management will increase dramatically as spacecraft systems become more autonomous. The DoD's drive to increase situational awareness has already pushed it into exploration of autonomy-enabling architectures, including improved fault detection and isolation techniques, which will only increase as spacecraft autonomy moves into the broader spacecraft industry. The solution consists of diagnostic algorithms that utilize models provided by the users. The system can thereby be targeted for virtually any mission class. The proposed model-based FM solution is particularly well suited for spacecraft with modular HW/SW architectures. These new architectures will require updated approaches to FM and tools to support them. Potential non-NASA customers include: Large, medium and small prime contractors DoD Labs (NRL, AFRL) FFRDCs/UARCs (Aerospace Corporation, JHU/APL) Non-US organizations (ESA, JAXA, CNES, DLR). This technology is particularly suited for modular architectures such as the Space Missile Command's Modular Space Vehicle (MSV).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The need for the proposed capabilities is emerging as NASA seeks to provide higher quality fault management systems for its missions. The model-based fault detection and isolation system could support current and future programs with applications on the ground, in support of recovery operations, and in space, providing onboard autonomous fault detection and isolation. The fault management core diagnostic algorithms are general in nature and do not need tailoring to specific programs. User-supplied models allow customization to a particular target. Thus the developed system will be applicable to a very broad range of NASA mission classes from small to large, near-Earth to interplanetary, risk-adverse, and experimental. In particular missions such as Europa and Mars 2020 would greatly benefit from this technology. Ultimately, NASA and industry partner fault management products will enjoy a larger customer base. The potential market includes a wide range of customers from systems engineering, mission planning, and operations groups in all NASA centers especially ARC, JPL, and MSFC.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Intelligence
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Processing
Simulation & Modeling
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.01-8695
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL94P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact, Rugged and Low-Cost Atmospheric Ozone DIAL Transmitter
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bridger Photonics, Inc.
2310 University Way, Building, 4-4
Bozeman,MT 59715 -6504 (406) 585-2774
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Brasseur
brasseur@bridgerphotonics.com
2310 University Way, Bldg. 4-4
Bozeman ,MT 59715 -6504
(406) 585-2774 Ext: 106

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Real-time, high-frequency measurements of atmospheric ozone are becoming increasingly important to understand the impact of ozone towards climate change, to monitor and understand depletion of the ozone layer, to further understand its role in atmospheric chemistry, and to assess its impact on human health and the productivity of agricultural crops. Expansions of tropospheric ozone measurement efforts, such as NASA?s TOLNet program, are critical to improve our understanding these effects. In response to this need, Bridger Photonics Inc proposes developing the most efficient, compact, rugged, low-power consumption and cost-effective UV ozone differential absorption lidar (DIAL) transmitter available. The proposed transmitter will enable widespread deployment of ozone DIAL systems capable of continuous range-resolved atmospheric ozone measurements from ground-based and airborne platforms to advance NASA?s Earth science mission. To achieve this design goal, Bridger will apply innovations proven out during its Phase I effort and developed previously for its MIR series laser product. The overall project goal is to design, construct, and test an autonomous, production-grade prototype, two-wavelength ozone LIDAR transmitter. The proposed transmitter will enable state-of-the-art continuous ozone LIDAR measurements without the need for a skilled operator. It will also provide a long maintenance-free interval (> 2 years), and will cost under $200k per transmitter. Successful completion of this Phase II program will allow Bridger to demonstrate a simultaneous DIAL, brassboard transmitter with pulse energies >200 ?J in both DIAL wavelengths capable of autonomous operation, without degradation, for 3 months.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The pump laser for the proposed design would be the most compact and high energy kilohertz-rate Nd:YAG laser on the market. Bridger envisions a wide variety of applications for this laser including gas sensing lidar, hard-target ranging, ablation applications including mass spectrometry, nonlinear spectroscopy and as general purpose OPO pump. To date Bridger?s MIR Series has been sold primarily to laser ablation mass spectrometry customers, but Bridger has experienced interest from customers for hard-target ranging and nonlinear spectroscopy applications. Within the lidar market both NOAA and the EPA would be potential customers for the complete UV transmitter to advance their ozone monitoring initiatives. Other commercial markets include detection of illicit methamphetamine labs, on-site pollution detection, verification of carbon sequestration sites, methane pipeline monitoring, and chemical weapons detection. The proposed transmitter could easily be adapted to detect a host of other gasses, most of which are detected in the short wave infrared and mid-infrared spectral regions and are well suited to a seeded version of Bridger?s existing OPO.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA?s primary application for the proposed transmitter would be for widespread deployment of ground-based and airborne sensors to map ozone concentrations with high spatial and temporal resolution. This will allow NASA to carry out its Earth Science missions with smaller and/or more affordable DIAL transmitters enabling NASA programs to meet multiple mission needs and make the best use of limited resources. Our system will be highly useful for both integrated column and range-resolved measurements due to its short pulse durations and scalable high energies. Additionally, our base pump laser can be frequency down-converted into the SWIR spectral band rather than frequency up converted to the ultra-violet band. This will enable compact single-mode, high-energy pulses for profiling other important greenhouse gases and pollutants such as CH4, CO2, H2O, CO, NO2, and many others. Finally, the base pump laser when frequency doubled into the visible region will enable compact single-mode, high-energy pulses for profiling of cloud and aerosol backscatter, ice mass and phytoplankton measurements, and direct-detection Doppler LIDAR wind measurements.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.01-9021
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CG34P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Power Tunable SeedLaser for Methane LIDAR Transmitter
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Princeton Lightwave, Inc.
2555 Route 130 South, Suite 1
Cranbury,NJ 08512 -3509 (609) 495-2600
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Igor Kudryashov
ikudryashov@princetonlightwave.com
2555 Route 130 South, Suite 1
Cranbury ,NJ 08512 -3509
(609) 495-2568

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Growing interest in precise measurements of methane concentration and distribution in the Earth's atmosphere is stimulating efforts to develop LIDAR systems in the spectral region of 16xx nm utilizing Path Differential Absorption techniques. The key element of such systems is a high energy optical source with good beam properties operating in the vicinity of a methane absorption line. A number of very promising architectures for designing high energy lasers at 1651 nm have been described recently, but the performance of the lasers developed in these earlier efforts has been limited by the lack of a sufficiently high-power tunable seed laser. We demonstrated in Phase I of this SBIR program a feasibility of a high power fiber-coupled, narrow linewidth, tunable seed laser at 1650nm. For this SBIR Phase II program, we propose to develop and to deliver a robust seed laser that is highly reliable, compact, and which ultimately will allow the realization of much higher performance high energy laser sources designed for methane detection.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a number of potential non-NASA commercial applications that will benefit from the development of a high-power tunable laser as proposed for this program. The detection of methane and other hydrocarbon gases is of critical importance in the energy industry, and laser sources developed for NASA systems will have direct relevance for related commercial requirements. As with NASA remote sensing applications, there are commercial applications for improved high power lasers in various types of lidar systems for measuring atmospheric properties such as wind and weather patterns, air pollution, and general trace gas analysis. High power laser sources are key elements of all range-finding and ladar systems and critically impact end system performance. The development of the proposed laser technology will serve broad applications in the bio-medical arena, with examples such as nerve and fertility stimulation. A wide portfolio of laser technologies are used for material treatment and processing. Most high power fiber lasers use seed lasers, and the seed laser proposed for development in this program will provide expanded process capability by increasing the performance of existing systems utilizing high power fiber lasers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Development of a new high power seed laser at 1651 nm will push the performance of LIDAR systems for methane detection to levels not currently possible, and it will allow for the deployment of significantly longer range systems with higher precision measurements of methane concentration and distribution in the Earth's atmosphere. This laser technology to be developed will also potentially provide new capabilities for measurements of other atmospheric constituents and the surface topography of the Earth and other planetary bodies anticipated for numerous NASA mission programs. A significant increase in laser seed power will lead to dramatic enhancements in the stability of operation for methane detection laser transmitters with consequent improvements in overall LIDAR system reliability. Moreover, the wide tuning range and higher efficiency of the proposed seed source can potentially replace several seed lasers that must be used at present for covering a wide spectral range. This simplification of the seed source will be important for missions in which size, weight, and power considerations are paramount. This laser will serve as an ideal source for LIDAR systems in the wavelength range near 1.65 μm and for active remote sensing optical instruments in general.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.01-9731
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL42P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Miniature DBR Laser Module for Lidar Instruments
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Photodigm, Inc.
1155 East Collins Boulevard, #200
Richardson,TX 75081 -2304 (972) 235-7584
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Annie Xiang
axiang@photodigm.com
1155 East Collins Boulevard, #200
Richardson ,TX 75081 -2304
(972) 235-7584 Ext: 2240

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The technical objectives of the phase II effort include the fabrication of precision DBR lasers and the prototype of compact hybrid optical module.

Task 1. 828nm DBR laser fabrication. Based on the performance of qualified epi material, the 828nm DBR architecture will be optimized. We will proceed to laser fabrication with current best practices. Task 2. Device reliability and lifetime testing We plan for accelerated lifetime testing of up to 128 devices to obtain the various activation energy describing device performance under different conditions. Task 3. Hybrid optical module design. Photodign will work with a subcontractorto to develop hybrid optical packaging. The optimized design will integrate the DBR laser with collimating lenses, built-in isolator and fiber coupling into a custom hybrid housing. Task 4. Hybrid optical module evaluation Primary characteristics of the hybrid optical module include high optical efficiency and narrow linewidth, which will be evaluated upon the delivery of prototype units. Task 5. Additional 815nm ? 820nm DBR laser fabrication. DBR laser fabrication is proposed at this wavelength for offering prototype devices for air borne LIDARs. Task 6. Prototype delivery and production readiness. Deliverables will include three prototype 828nm hybrid packaged DBR laser modules and three prototype 815-820nm DBR laser devices.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
)
The miniature integrated laser module would be the most compact DBR laser with embedded optics in the market. The narrow linewidth and high power laser module finds applications in spectroscopy, atomic physics, and fiber amplifiers. Its spectral stability is desirable in resolving hyperfine structures and in providing long coherent length. Its compactness is suitable for handheld instruments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's primary application for the compact integration laser module is the deployment in the autonomous field DIAL sensor networks for mapping atmospheric water vapor with high spatial and temporal resolution. This application is well aligned with the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) instrument development program through the implement of smaller and more affordable DIAL transmitters. Follow-on development of 815nm -820nm lasers shall enable the deployment in airborne and space-based Lidars.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.01-9914
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL34P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Solid State Lasers for Space-Based Water Vapor DIAL
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fibertek, Inc.
13605 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon,VA 20171 -4603 (703) 471-7671
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pat Burns
pburns@fibertek.com
13605 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon ,VA 20171 -4603
(703) 471-7671

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase II program will develop novel laser transmitters needed for planned airborne and space-based active remote sensing missions. This program will build on successful Phase I work to provide a Technology Readiness Level 4 (TRL-4) laboratory brassboard demonstrator of a new laser source for Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) measurements of atmospheric water vapor with secondary capability for methane characterization as well. Accurate measurements of both atmospheric constituents are critical to the understanding of global energy transport and climate change. Under our Phase I program, Fibertek successfully demonstrated the capability of a new laser source, a diode-pumped frequency-doubled Er:YAG laser to generate millijoule output near 823 nm that was tunable through water-vapor absorption lines for DIAL measurements. The new laser system offers simplicity and efficiency that will reduce risk for future airborne and space-based missions. Significantly, the new laser approach offers an upgrade path with reduction in size, weight, and power (SWaP) consumption over current state-of-the-art DIAL based on less-efficient non-linear parametric conversion of diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers. This new-generation technology reduces the size and weight of flight hardware to make it compatible with affordable, more capable airborne and satellite payloads. In Phase II we propose to build on our successful Phase I demonstration to develop a full scale water vapor laser transmitter source, meeting or exceeding requirements for planned DIAL instruments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Long-range lidar systems are entering production in all branches of the military. Increasingly these active systems require higher power for greater range and sensitivity. The requirement for eye safety dictates that these 3D imaging and range finding systems operate in the near infrared between 1450 and 1700 nm. The Er:YAG source with fundamental wavelength at 1645 nm developed under this SBIR program is well matched to requirements of planned 3D imaging lidars and rangefinders. With average power greater than 10 W, diffraction-limited beam quality and nanosecond pulse width, the proposed laser system has high utility for lidar systems for aircraft, ship and ground vehicle installation. Space-based lidar systems for DoD are also in the planning stages, and will benefit from the availability of the technology being developed under this program.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Fibertek is working closely with NASA LaRC and the Earth Sciences Technology Office (ESTO) to develop reliable, efficient laser sources meeting the requirements for advanced instruments for remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere on a global scale. The data provided by these sensors is critical in supporting and validating climate modeling. The novel near infrared laser with frequency conversion will enable lidar systems to be based initially on research aircraft and high-altitude UAVs for global sensing of the atmospheric water vapor and methane. The LaRC/ESTO HALO instrument planned for initial deployment in 2016 is an example of an opportunity for transition of the new technology into a fielded system. We anticipate partnering with NASA on future IIPs, ACT and EV programs to fully develop the high-performance systems built around the laser transmitter delivered under this SBIR program.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.02-9012
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CG35P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Microwave Technologies for Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Scalable Architectures for Distributed Beam-Forming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR)
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 190
Rockville,MD 20855 -2814 (301) 294-5221
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arvind Bhat
abhat@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 190
Rockville ,MD 20855 -2814
(301) 294-5254

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Conventional SAR operates in the Stripmap mode. Wide unambiguous swath coverage and high azimuth resolution pose contradictory requirements on the design of SAR systems. A promising technique to overcome this limitation is Digital Beam-Forming (DBF) on receive where the receiving antenna is split into multiple sub-apertures. This provides the capability of forming multiple beams via post-processing. DBF techniques applied to SAR systems can increase receiving antenna gain without a reduction of the imaged area and suppress interference signals. A highly capable DBSAR instrument design would consist of wideband Transmitter-Receiver Module (TRM), precise multi-channel timing and synchronization and reconfigurable processing engine that can host the SAR processing, calibration and control routines. IAI?s proposed approach is modular, scalable and meets the NASA goals of developing an innovative analog/digital hardware design for the implementation of distributed DBSAR architectures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most promising Non- NASA commercial applications are:
-Real-time digital processors.
-Multi-node Network emulators
-High bandwidth arbitrary waveform generator and data recorder
-Ground Penetration Radar (GPR).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our proposed technique can be used for a wide range of remote sensing applications for NASA and other parts of US government including:
-Extending EcoSAR capabilities to larger, space-borne, phased-array radar systems for biomass remote sensing.
-Wideband, Reconfigurable Radar systems for manned/ un-manned aircrafts
-Digital Receivers and Exciters (DREX)
-Radar Target Generators to validate radar systems before deployment
-Algorithm development platform for existing NASA radar platforms.
-Planetary subsurface sensing and imaging
-Foliage Penetration (FOPEN) SAR.
-Through Wall Radar
-Earth subsurface sensing and imaging

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Transmitters/Receivers
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Prototyping
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Processing
Microwave


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.02-9069
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CG33P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Microwave Technologies for Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robust Microfabricated Interconnect Technologies: DC to THz
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nuvotronics, LLC
7586 Old Peppers Ferry Loop
Radford,VA 24141 -8846 (800) 341-2333
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Benjamin Cannon
contracts@nuvotronics.com
2305 Presidential Drive
Durham ,NC 27703 -8039
(800) 341-2333 Ext: 97

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To meet the needs of future NASA Earth science objectives, significant advancements in the overall level of integration and functional density that is achievable in multi-band microwave radar and radiometer instruments are proposed. The targeted system is the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM), which is a technology development effort to measure Snow Water Equivalent that targets the requirements of the proposed Snow and Cold Land Processes Mission. During Phase I, we developed concepts for enhancing the WISM by incorporating signal multiplexing and active devices in the PolyStrata antenna feed that are not present in the baseline version of the instrument. On the Phase II program, we propose to demonstrate these enhancements to the WISM with deliverable hardware prototypes of such active multi-band feed antennas. Drastic improvements in system noise figure and overall size are made possible by integrating the first stage of LNAs into the PolyStrata feed antenna, eliminating additional cable and diplexer losses that occur in the current modular system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
DoD spaceborne polarimetric radiometer systems for missions similar to that of WindSat. Military multi-band radar applications, for example: guided missile seeker technology, UAV collision avoidance, and operation in degraded visual environments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
SnowEx and Snow and Cold Land Processes (SCLP) mission and other active and passive microwave Earth science remote sensing missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Electromagnetic
Microwave


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.02-9216
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP76P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Microwave Technologies for Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: ROC-Rib Deployable Ka-Band Antenna for Nanosatellites
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tendeg, LLC
686 S Taylor Ave Ste 108
Louisville,CO 80027 -3000 (303) 929-4466
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gregg Freebury
gregg@tendeg.com
686 S Taylor Ave Ste 108
Louisville ,CO 80027 -3000
(303) 929-4466

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In these days of tight budgets and limited funding, NASA is constantly looking for new ways to reduce development time and costs of future spacecraft. This is the driving spirit behind NASA's increasing interest in the CubeSat platform, and the vision that is guiding development and demonstration of higher-risk technologies that can eventually lead to low-cost atmospheric science from CubeSats. For example, a tantalizing next-generation CubeSat system would combine a high-gain deployable antenna with a high-frequency Ka-band transponder to support very high bandwidth communications on the order of 10s of Mbps and/or very high-resolution radiometric remote sensing of atmospheric phenomenon. To address this need, Tendeg proposes to develop a Ka-band deployable mesh antenna that can package within a 3U CubeSat volume and deploy to diameters of 0.8-1.5m. The antenna employs a backing structure that is a hybrid wrap-rib/perimeter-truss design. A net supports a reflective mesh while the entire assembly provides the structural depth and surface accuracy needed for Ka-band operation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Beyond NASA applications, the proposed deployable antenna technology could see use in other military and commercial applications where data up/downlink or passive RF sensing is also a considerable need. Terrestrial-based applications might include portable military and commercial communication networks that desire Ka-band operations and can benefit from lightweight, man-portable and deployable high-gain apertures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA target application for the proposed deployable antenna technology is future NASA CubeSat and SmallSat spacecraft for which communications up/downlink or passive RF remote sensing measurement resolution is a major bottleneck in the system design. In particular, the proposed technology will enable very high bandwidth communications on the order of 10s of Mbps and/or very high-resolution radiometric remote sensing of atmospheric phenomenon.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Analytical Methods
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Antennas
Prototyping
Composites
Actuators & Motors
Deployment
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Structures
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.02-9516
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP37P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Microwave Technologies for Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Loss Ferrite Components for NASA Missions
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Micro Harmonics Corporation
1320 Ohio Street, Suite H-1
Waynesboro,VA 22980 -2467 (434) 409-4044
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Porterfield
david@mhc1.com
1320 Ohio Street, Suite H-1
Waynesboro ,VA 22980 -2467
(434) 409-4044

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of this research is to develop high-frequency Faraday rotation isolators that exhibit significantly reduced loss, higher power handling and improved bandwidth over commercially available products. The bandwidth limitations of high-frequency circulators will be explored. It was demonstrated in the Phase I work that the bandwidth of these components can be substantially increased through impedance matching techniques. At the end of the Phase II program, Micro Harmonics will have developed a full line of isolators operating in bands from WR-12 through WR-3 and circulators working in bands from WR-15 through WR-5. In the phase I work our models were proven to be accurate. The approach is fundamentally sound, but there are significant technical challenges. These components will find immediate use in a broad range of systems used by NASA as well as the commercial sector.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed isolators and circulators are broadly used in scientific instruments for plasma diagnostics (ITER), chemical spectroscopy, biomaterial analysis, and radio astronomy. There are also a broad range of applications in military systems that include compact range radar, imaging systems, covert communications systems, and chemical and bio-agent detection systems. There are potential applications in biomedical systems for the real time analysis of skin diseases, portal security scanners, high frequency data links and industrial process control systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed isolators and circulators are broadly useful in a wide range of NASA systems including millimeter-wave and terahertz sources, detectors and receivers. Heterodyne receivers based on room temperature technology are a critical Sensor and Detector Technology for NASA's Submillimeter Missions such as Marvel, VESPER, MACO as well as earth observing satellites such as SIRICE. They find potential application in the frequency multiplier local oscillator (LO) chains in the high-resolution heterodyne array receivers at 1.9 THz that are being developed to support the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and the Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory (STO-2). They may also be useful in the development of the 4.7 THz multiplied local oscillator source for the observation of neutral oxygen.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Electromagnetic
Interferometric (see also Analysis)
Radiometric
Terahertz (Sub-millimeter)
Microwave
Lifetime Testing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.03-9136
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CG31P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Antimony-Based Focal Plane Arrays for Shortwave-Infrared to Visible Applications
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
QmagiQ
22 Cotton Road, Unit H, Suite 180
Nashua,NH 03063 -4219 (603) 821-3092
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mani Sundaram
msundaram@qmagiq.com
22 Cotton Road, Unit H, Suite 180
Nashua ,NH 03063 -4219
(603) 821-3092 Ext: 200

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop antimony-based focal plane arrays (FPAs) for NASA's imaging and spectroscopy applications in the spectral band from visible to shortwave-infrared (SWIR), viz. wavelengths from 0.5 - 2.5 microns. We will leverage recent breakthroughs in the performance of midwave and longwave infrared FPAs based on the InAs/GaSb/AlSb material system in which QmagiQ has played a key part. In these spectral bands, this novel sensor already offers performance comparable to mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) but at a fraction of the cost due to the leveraging of commercial growth and process equipment. Our goal is to extend that benefit into the shortwave infrared. Using the best material currently available and a novel bandgap-engineering design and process, we will fabricate FPAs and measure how the antimony-based sensor compares to state-of-the-art shortwave MCT in terms of quantum efficiency and dark current. In Phase I, we developed the basic building block - a high-performance SWIR photodiode. In Phase II, we will develop FPAs in a variety of formats and deliver them to NASA for evaluation for its astronomy and planetary missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) Hyperspectral imaging systems for inspection of agricultural produce and pharmaceutical drugs 2) FTIR imaging microscopy 3) Gas imaging (e.g. for the petrochemical industry) 4) Security and surveillance (day and night) 5) Thermography 6) Medical imaging 7) Missile defense 8) Space-based situational awareness

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) Space- and ground-based astronomy and astrophysics 2) NASA's earth-observing missions in the visible and shortwave-infrared 3) Chemical/spectral mapping of forests, vegetation and crops 4) Atmospheric mapping 5) Pollution monitoring 6) Temperature mapping of oceans and landmasses

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Thermal Imaging (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Thermal
Infrared
Multispectral/Hyperspectral


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.03-9391
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP46P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Type II SLS Materials Development for Space-based FPA Applications
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
IntelliEPI IR, Inc.
201 East Arapaho Road Suite 210
Richardson,TX 75081 -2401 (972) 234-0068
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Pinsukanjana
pinsu@intelliepiir.com
201 East Arapaho Road Suite 210
Richardson ,TX 75081 -2401
(972) 234-0068 Ext: 102

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase II SBIR proposes to further develop high performance (low dark current, high quantum efficiency, and low NEdT) infrared epitaxy materials based on Type II Strained Layer Superlattice (SLS) for large format space-based sensor applications. The epi materials will be grown with Sb-capable multi-wafer production Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) reactor at IntelliEPI IR. The initial goal includes achieving QE of at least 40% with LWIR spectral wavelength band near 12 um. The SLS detector design will be developed in consultation with the infrared detector group at JPL to ensure that this effort addresses NASA needs. In the superlattice engineered structure, many detector properties are determined once epitaxial growth is completed. The technical approach will be to develop improved epitaxial stack design with a goal to dramatically improve detector properties. This is based on existing high performance GaSb-based type-II SLS detector growth technology, with novel design, development of MBE growth to implement the design, and fabrication and characterization of devices from the epi grown material. The objective is to dramatically improve quantum efficiency in the detector structure. The Phaqse II effort will focus on FPA demonstration.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Type II SLS technology can serve as a platform for the next generation of space-based high performance and large format infrared FPAs. This will be a materials evolution of the on going SLS technology being developed at JPL. This SLS technology offers a unified platform for high-performance 5-14 um detection wavelengths. Substrate size scaling will support large format infrared imaging NASA needs with high sensitivity and high operating temperature sensors for space-based applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Improved Type II SLS technology offer thermal imagers at higher operating temperature, uniformity, and sensitivity from mid wave to long wavelength infrared based on scalable GaSb substrates. This opens the door for more military vehicles/platforms to be outfitted with these high performance cameras. Commercially, environmental or gas sensing can benefit from competitive cost scaling.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Thermal Imaging (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Thermal
Infrared
Long
Multispectral/Hyperspectral


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.04-9563
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CG23P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detector Technologies for UV, X-Ray, Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Highly Scalable SiC UV Imager for Earth & Planetary Science
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ozark Integrated Circuits, Inc.
700 West Research Center Boulevard
Fayetteville,AR 72701 -7175 (479) 935-1600
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anthony Francis
francis@ozarkic.com
700 West Research Center Boulevard
Fayetteville ,AR 72701 -7175
(479) 935-1600 Ext: 501

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Commercial silicon carbide (SiC)-based photonic sensors typically use p-i-n photodiode and reversed-biased Avalanche Photodiode (APD) detectors. These state-of-the-art SiC photodiodes use the wafer substrate as one node of the device, thereby making monolithic integration of the device with control or analysis circuitry difficult, if not impossible.

In Phase I, Ozark IC demonstrated that its new (patent-pending) photo detecting devices are suitable for integration in SiC-based low-voltage integrated circuit processes. By virtue of their construction, the photo-generation occurs efficiently and with very high gain, and the devices have been shown to operate over a wide voltage (10-15 V) and temperature range (-170 C to 400 C measured). Ozark IC's extensive library of SiC analog and mixed-signal IP and its expertise in extreme-environment IC design have been used to create the world's first fully integrated 2-D UV imager (up to 192 x 128 at > 10 frames per second); ready for fabrication in Phase II. The imagers will be tested across a wide range of temperatures to demonstrate their applicability to planetary exploration, earth observation and astronomy applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other non-NASA markets include Machine Vision, Disinfection, Industrial Controls, Safety, and Diagnostic/Inspection Systems. Deep UV imaging is of particular interest to semiconductor and scientific imaging markets. UV imaging for LAr neutrino detectors is also being investigated.

An Innovation for Manufacturing: The application of the proposed imager to Machine Vision has major implications for increased automation of inspection tasks that are critical for nanoscale manufacturing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The first obvious application of this technology is to one of NASA's many current and planned earth science missions that require space-borne instruments capable of measuring light in the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum.

1) For the Geo-CAPE mission, recommended by the NRC for the Decadal Survey, tropospheric ozone measurements in the UV range of 290 nm-340 nm are required. An instrument based on the proposed technique is very feasible and would offer significant advantages in performance, size and weight over a discrete SiC diode-based approach.

2) For planetary composition experiments such as ATLAS and NOW, an instrument capable of generating a faint object spectrograph in the 115 nm - 350 nm UV range is also possible using this technology.

3) For planetary exploration experiments such as the proposed Discovery and New Horizons missions which intend to image planets from orbit or as landers; such as those proposed for Venus, where the high temperature operation of the imager would be desirable.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Perception/Vision
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Optical
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Ultraviolet


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.05-8837
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CG38P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Particles and Field Sensors and Instrument Enabling Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electric Potential and Field Instrument for CubeSat (EPIC)
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Composite Technology Development, Inc.
2600 Campus Drive, Suite D
Lafayette,CO 80026 -3359 (303) 664-0394
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dana Turse
dana.turse@ctd-materials.com
2600 Campus Drive, Suite D
Lafayette ,CO 80026 -3359
(303) 664-0394 Ext: 112

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Our present understanding of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling is limited, partly due to the lack of broad statistical observations of the 3-dimensional (3D) electric field in the altitude region between 300 and 1000km. This understanding is of national importance because it is a necessary step toward developing the ability to measure and forecast the "space weather" that affects modern technology. The high cost of space access and short satellite lifetimes below 500 km make traditional satellites uneconomical for performing these measurements. Therefore, it is desirable to develop smaller and lower-cost sensor/satellite systems, such as CubeSats, so that the largest possible number of distributed measurements can be economically made in this region. The proposed project seeks to develop a 3D vector electric field instrument that can be accommodated in less than half of a 6U (10x20x30 cm) CubeSat. This instrument is enabled by CTD's game changing deployable composite boom technology that provides lightweight, stiff, straight, and thermally stable booms capable of being stowed within a CubeSat form factor. The proposed development will also provide the CubeSat community with the capability to include one or more deployable booms with lengths greater than 5 meters for future CubeSat missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The U.S. military has increasing interest in utilizing low-cost spacecraft platforms that can be rapidly launched for the purposes of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and space weather monitoring. The proposed instrument would have applicability for missions similar to the Air Force's Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS), which allows the U.S. military to predict the effects of ionospheric activity on signals from communication and navigation satellites, outages of which could potentially cause problems in battlefield situations. In addition, both military and commercial satellites could use gravity gradient booms, instrument booms, optical and antenna reflectors, sunshades, deorbiting systems, solar arrays, phased arrays, and solar sails based on this deployment technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed CubeSat E-field instrument will enable multipoint e-field measurements to be made economically in the region between 300 and 1000km. This is relevant to the scientific goals outlined in the 2013-2022 decadal survey in solar and space physics, as stated: "Determine the dynamics and coupling of the earth?s magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere and their response to solar and terrestrial inputs." It is also relevant to the NASA 2009 Heliophysics Roadmap, as outlined in the living with a star science queue: "Dynamic Geospace Coupling: Understand how magnetospheric dynamics provide energy into the coupled ionosphere-magnetosphere system." In addition, the proposed boom technology can be used for magnetometers, particle sensors, gravity gradient stabilization for small spacecraft, or for deploying solar sails, solar arrays and phased array antennas.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Processing Methods
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Polymers
Actuators & Motors
Deployment
Structures
Electromagnetic


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.07-9285
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CC52P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Airborne Measurement Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Instrument for Airborne Measurement of Carbonyl Sulfide
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Southwest Sciences, Inc.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe,NM 87505 -3993 (505) 984-1322
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alan Stanton
astanton@swsciences.com
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe ,NM 87505 -3993
(505) 984-1322

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this Phase II SBIR program, Southwest Sciences will continue the development of small, low power instrumentation for real-time direct measurement of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) in the atmosphere, especially targeting airborne measurements. The instrument is based on a room temperature interband cascade laser (ICL) operating in the 4800 - 4900 nm region. This laser has a substantially reduced (by a factor of 40) power requirement compared to quantum cascade lasers operating in the same region and should be better-suited for atmospheric field instruments. Phase I concentrated on characterizing the sensitivity and precision that can be achieved for OCS measurement, using this laser in a laboratory prototype. Phase I also demonstrated direct measurement of ambient carbonyl sulfide in the local outside air, at levels of about 450 parts per trillion. Phase II emphasizes development of an airborne-worthy prototype instrument that can be field tested during the Phase II performance period. Carbonyl sulfide is the most abundant naturally occurring sulfur species in the atmosphere. The lifetime of OCS in the troposphere is believed to be several years, allowing its transport into the lower stratosphere where it is photochemically oxidized to sulfate particles. Improved understanding of the tropospheric - stratospheric exchange of OCS is needed to gain a better understanding of its role in sulfate particle production. In turn, the sulfate aerosol layer may significantly influence the earth's energy budget through increased solar scattering. Existing instrumentation for measurement of OCS is bulky and expensive and is complicated by several indirect steps. In contrast, this R&D effort will result in an instrument that measures OCS directly, in real time, with time response of a few seconds or better. At the conclusion of Phase II, Southwest Sciences will manufacture and sell commercial instruments for OCS measurement to NASA and the broader atmospheric research community.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential customers for this instrumentation include government agencies active in atmospheric research (NASA, NOAA, DOE, NSF) and atmospheric researchers at universities. The instrumentation, if adapted for measurement of pollutant gases, could be of interest to EPA and industrial customers concerned with pollutant monitoring and control. Southwest Sciences will build these instruments on a custom manufacturing and sales basis after the conclusion of Phase II.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The direct outcome of the work will be a prototype instrument for measurement of carbonyl sulfide that could be used by NASA for measurements of this important sulfur species from airborne platforms or in ground-based measurements. The instrument platform, with substitution of suitable lasers and possible adjustment of the optical path length, could be adapted for measurement of other atmospheric species (including carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon gases, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other sulfur species).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.07-9654
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL48P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Airborne Measurement Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Multi-Wavelength Transceiver for In-Situ Validation of Airborne Remote Sensing Instruments
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ADVR, Inc.
2310 University Way, Building 1-1
Bozeman,MT 59715 -6504 (406) 522-0388
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Justin Hawthorne
hawthorne@advr-inc.com
2310 University Way, Building #1-1
Bozeman ,MT 59715 -6504
(406) 522-0388

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The overall goal of this Phase II SBIR effort is to develop a three-wavelength, backscatter transceiver for in situ validation of ongoing High Spectral Resolution Lidar measurements. The key innovation in the effort is the use of a multi-element, non-linear waveguide for highly efficient, three wavelength generation in a collinear geometry ideally suited for use in the backscatter nephelometer at the HSRL wavelengths currently under development with NASA Langley?s Aerosol Research Group Experiment. Developing an in-flight, backscatter measurement at the three HSRL wavelengths is a critical acquisition for the LARGE program in order both to validate and to establish a direct link between the existing suite of instruments flown to determine of the microphysical properties of aerosols and the remote HSRL measurement. The proposed in situ instrument will validate ongoing remote sensing measurements while further informing climate models through more accurate estimates of atmospheric aerosol distributions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
AdvR is targeting commercialization in two segments: OEMs and researchers from university and government labs. AdvR will focus efforts on delivering prototype transceivers to OEMs for eventual integration into their nephelometer product lines. Supporting revenue will come from direct sales to researchers developing their own in-situ measurement systems. Other applications potentially interested in the 3 wavelength source are environmental and pollution monitoring and laser inspection and diagnostics.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
AdvR is planning to continue developing the technology in close coordination with the NASA LARGE team. AdvR is targeting infusion with LARGE scientists in coordination with the HSRL program. The proposed transceiver is well suited to provide the link between remote Lidar measurements and existing in situ instruments. Missions similar to SABOR or NAAMES are suitable fits for the technology demonstration.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Waveguides/Optical Fiber (see also Optics)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Ultraviolet
Visible


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.07-9996
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL30P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Airborne Measurement Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: 3-Color DPAS Aerosol Absorption Monitor
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerodyne Research, Inc.
45 Manning Road
Billerica,MA 01821 -3976 (978) 663-9500
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zhenhong Yu
zyu@aerodyne.com
45 Manning Road
Billerica ,MA 01821 -3976
(978) 932-0265

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a highly sensitive and compact RGB DPAS aerosol absorption monitor for NASA's Airborne Measurement Program. It will measure aerosol light absorption simultaneous at three spectral regions: blue, green and red. The proposed measurement technique takes advantage of the current rapid development on high-power semiconductor lasers MEMS microphones. It will eventually weigh less than 25 pounds and consume approximately 300W electrical power. It will also be capable of being remotely controlled and being operated at a variety of sampling pressure conditions for the airborne measurements. Since majority of the electronic and optical components of the proposed system are commercially available except the home-designed acoustic cells, its total manufacturing cost could be less than $20,000 per unit.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We expect that the 3-color RGB DPAS aerosol absorption monitor developed under this program will significantly benefit the atmospheric science community in characterizing the radiative properties of ambient aerosols. The ability of the proposed instrument to simultaneously measure particle absorption with good time resolution and high precision in three colors will enable continuous measurements of the particle optical absorption that can be directly used by regional and global climate forcing models. In combination with the Cavity Attenuated Phase-Shift (CAPS) extinction monitor, which represents a dramatic improvement on current particle extinction measurement technology, single particle albedo of ambient aerosols could be directly determined. Since aerosol scattering of solar radiation causes atmospheric cooling, whereas absorption can cause atmospheric warming, direct measurements on single particle albedo of ambient aerosols are critical in understanding aerosol effect on the Earth radiative balance.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA need for this technology is to measure spectrally resolved light absorption by atmospheric aerosols for its Airborne Measurement program. At present, aerosol light absorption is measured by collecting sample on a filter subtract and measuring light extinction and scattering of the collected samples during the airborne measurements. This method suffers from a number of intrinsic errors. The proposed RGB DPAS technique will be far more sensitive than the filter-based techniques, and is capable of providing 1s data acquisition measurement. Additionally, past NASA programs such as EXCAVATE, APEX, UNA-UNA, and AAFEX have had as a major focus, on the measurement of black carbon emissions from civilian aircraft engines. Since mass absorption coefficient of black carbon is known at several visible wavelengths, the proposed DPAS aerosol absorption monitor can be used as a black carbon emission monitor.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Nanomaterials
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Acoustic/Vibration
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Visible


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.08-9386
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CA39P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface & Sub-surface Measurement Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Instrument for Measurement of Oceanic Particle Size Distribution from Submicron to Mesoplankton
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sequoia Scientific, Inc.
2700 Richards Road
Bellevue,WA 98005 -4200 (425) 641-0944
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Wayne Slade
wslade@sequoiasci.com
2700 Richards Road
Bellevue ,WA 98005 -4200
(425) 641-0944

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Particle size distribution (PSD) is a fundamental environmental measurement, with diverse biogeochemical applications including carbon cycle science, ecosystem and fisheries modeling, and harmful algal bloom (HAB) detection/prediction. There is optimism that estimates of PSD will be available from ocean color measurements (such as NASA's upcoming PACE mission), and will be able to help constrain global-scale ecosystem/carbon models and estimates of primary production. However, natural PSD variability is not well understood due to the challenges of routine measurement, and there exists little field data over large space and time scales. We propose to bridge this gap by developing an instrument for ship-based flow-through application that uses laser scattering from multiple wavelengths for estimation of the PSD across a wide range of particle sizes from 0.1 to 500 micron, covering a range from the smallest oceanic pico-plankton to larger meso-plankton.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Similar to the NASA Applications, the target market for the proposed instrument is a broad. Government agency-funded (including NSF, EPA, NOAA) researchers routinely use turbidity, pigment analysis, and cell counting for water quality monitoring and science applications. Adding the ability to make measurements of PSD at higher space-time resolution would be highly significant. One potential application with major societal relevance is monitoring of changes in PSD as a tool for detecting harmful algal blooms.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed instrument for measuring PSD in underway systems has wide applicability in the field of ocean optics and ocean biology and biogeochemistry. Existing methods commonly used in oceanography are time-consuming and expensive, thus the proposed system will be an attractive option for particle size measurement and advancing the state of the art in ocean color and biogeochemistry. NASA scientists and NASA-funded researchers--especially those working on developing phytoplankton functional group algorithms and/or increasingly-complex biogeochemical models--are currently hindered by a lack of ground truth PSD data. Given the current push within NASA programs in preparation for launch of the PACE ocean color mission and EXPORTS field study, development of this system is very timely for advancement of Carbon Cycle and Ecosystems research.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Biological Signature (i.e., Signs Of Life)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.09-8674
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP65P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Atomic Interferometry
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robust Frequency Combs and Lasers for Optical Clocks and Sensing
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vescent Photonics, Inc.
14998 West 6th Avenue, #700
Golden,CO 80401 -5025 (303) 296-6766
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Juan Pino
jpino@vescent.com
14998 West 6th Ave #700
Golden ,CO 80401 -5025
(303) 296-6766

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Vescent Photonics proposes to bring an environmentally robust, compact, high fidelity frequency comb to the commercial market. This will be comb based on a NIST design, augmented with a high bandwidth graphene modulator. Vescent will partner with MRADS, a CU spin-off commercializing high bandwidth graphene modulators for mode-locked lasers. These modulators will both improve performance of the NIST comb and also give Vescent the freedom to operate in the commercial market. These devices will be incorporated into the packages developed during this Phase I and will be a central component of the final deliverable: a pair of high fidelity frequency combs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A robust, commercially available frequency comb will have significant collateral benefit to civilian and defense applications. Frequency combs have found their way into the search for exoplanets, introduced powerful techniques for parallel spectroscopy of explosives and biochemical weapons, and provided coherent LIDAR as an alternative to laser ranging.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Frequency combs could be infused to future NASA CAL missions. In addition, combs from this Phase II could support JPL?s Massively Parallel, Cavity-Enhanced, Laser Spectroscopy for Planetary and Lunar Exploration (MCELS) program. Finally, frequency combs could be modified to provide calibration for ground telescopes searching for exo-planets (Astro-combs).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Transmitters/Receivers
Lasers (Communication)
Lasers (Guidance & Tracking)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
GPS/Radiometric (see also Sensors)
Inertial
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.09-9462
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP42P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Atomic Interferometry
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniature Optical Isolator
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Optics Corporation
1845 West 205th Street
Torrance,CA 90501 -1510 (310) 320-3088
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jae Choi
PSProposals@poc.com
1845 West 205th Street
Torrance ,CA 90501 -1510
(310) 320-3088 Ext: 466

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To address NASA's need for compact optical isolators, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to continue the development of a new Miniature Optical Isolator (MOI). The novel optical isolator design is based on enhanced magneto-optical (MO) effects in magnetic photonic crystals. The innovation in the technology is its capacity to engineer MO effects not only by choosing the right material but also by adjusting the lattice parameters of 1 dimensional photonic crystals. While occupying a very small volume (~0.1 cm^3), a MOI device will achieve high optical transmission (2 dB or less forward loss) and excellent optical isolation (40 dB) at target wavelengths at a low cost. Therefore, the MOI technology directly addresses NASA's requirements for a compact, robust optical isolator for applications in cold atom systems. In Phase I, POC demonstrated the feasibility of the MOI technology through modeling and analysis, as well as fabrication of a proof-of-concept prototype with basic performance parameters characterized. In Phase II, POC will further optimize the device and fabricate prototypes for validation of key performance metrics, as well as evaluate life cycle and environmental performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Metrology and inertial navigation are important in various military and civilian applications. Laboratory demonstrations already have shown that cold-atom systems are superior to any other technologies for navigation and timing applications. However, the biggest hurdle in transitioning this technology into field-deployable units is quite often the sheer volume and weight of the system. To take full advantage of the extraordinary performance of cold atom systems, miniaturization of individual components is necessary. Other than metrology and navigation, optical isolators also have significant commercial applications in diverse fields, such as optical telecommunication, magneto-optic imaging, and gas sensing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA applications of the proposed MOI system are in metrology, magnetometry, and inertial navigation. NASA applications inherently require miniaturization of all system components. Frequency stabilized lasers are currently used in atomic clocks. Next-generation magnetometers and inertial navigation sensors also need optical isolation of the laser sources. In any NASA application that requires frequency stabilized lasers, MOI devices can replace bulky optical isolators to reduce the volume by a factor of >100.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Inertial (see also Sensors)
Optical
Electromagnetic
Inertial
Interferometric (see also Analysis)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S1.10-8853
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CG37P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Systems for Sensors and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: A High Efficiency 30 K Cryocooler with Low-Temperature Heat Sink
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, LLC
16 Great Hollow Road
Hanover,NH 03755 -3116 (603) 643-3800
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Weibo Chen
wbc@creare.com
16 Great Hollow Road
Hanover ,NH 03755 -3116
(603) 643-3800 Ext: 2425

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future NASA planetary science missions have very limited access to solar power and therefore reducing the cryocooling system power input is even more critical than for earth-orbiting satellites. On this program, Creare proposes to develop and demonstrate an innovative Stirling cryocooler that efficiently produces refrigeration at 30 K and rejects heat at about 150 K. A key component of the proposed cryocooler, its regenerator, will be optimized on this program to obtain high efficiency over this operating temperature range. The innovation is a regenerator fabricated by a unique process to enhance its heat capacity near its target cooling temperature and, therefore, increase the overall thermal efficiency of the cryocooler. The proposed cryocooler is built on technologies developed for commercial Stirling cryocoolers that are extremely compact and efficient while rejecting heat at 300 K. In Phase I, we proved the feasibility of our approach by demonstrating the regenerator fabrication process and its high heat capacity near 30 K, and showing the high thermal efficiency of the 30 K cooler by design and analysis. In Phase II, we will fabricate a Stirling cryocooler that incorporates the regenerator with high heat capacity, optimize the cooler, and deliver the cryocooler to NASA for further performance characterization at the end of the program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed cryocooler requires minimal input power and is extremely compact making it ideal for small satellites. Military space applications for this cooling system include space-based surveillance for Operationally Responsive Space missions. Commercial versions of the cryocooler will operate at rejection temperatures of near 300 K with heat lift at temperatures of and below 30 K, a temperature range that is currently unachievable with commercial Stirling cryocoolers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful completion of this program will provide mission planners with a high performance, lightweight, and compact cryocooler that can meet requirements for a variety of missions. The cryocooler is efficient, reliable, and low cost. NASA applications include cooling MgB2 thin-film bolometers for applications in far-infrared instruments, sensors, shields, and telescopes for planetary science missions, as well as cooling for cubesats.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S2.01-9488
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP39P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Proximity Glare Suppression for Astronomical Coronagraphy
PROPOSAL TITLE: Improved Yield, Performance and Reliability of High-Actuator-Count Deformable Mirrors
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Boston Micromachines Corporation
30 Spinelli Place
Cambridge,MA 02138 -1070 (617) 868-4178
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Peter Ryan
pjr@bostonmicromachines.com
30 Spinelli Place
Cambridge ,MA 02138 -1070
(617) 868-4178 Ext: 206

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The search for life on earth-like extrasolar planets has emerged as a compelling long-term scientific goal for NASA. That goal has inspired innovative space-based coronagraphs that aim to collect spectral data from earth-like planets orbiting stars in distant solar systems. NASA's SBIR Solicitation topic Proximity Glare Suppression for Astronomical Coronography calls specifically for small stroke, high precision, deformable mirrors and associated driving electronics scalable to 10,000 or more actuators. This research aims to overcome the two major technical problems that affect yield and lifetime of the micro-electro-mechanical system deformable mirrors (MEMS DMs) that currently define the state of the art for high-resolution wavefront control: (1) keyhole voids occurring during manufacturing (reducing manufacturing yield) and (2) field emission damage that occurs during device operation (reducing operational lifetime). In this project, the technical solutions to these problems that were demonstrated in the Phase I project will be integrated into a full DM wafer-scale surface-micromachining batch production run to make the first 100% working 2048-element MEMS DM. As a byproduct of the process enhancements developed in Phase I research, this run will feature unprecedented surface smoothness and exceptional device reliability and lifetime in addition to high yield. The devices will be produced in a form factor that can be used with the heritage coating, packaging, and testing technologies. They will fit into existing packages and will be controllable with existing driver technology. Consequently, they will allow rapid insertion of these new high-reliability DM devices into appropriate NASA test beds.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High precision deformable mirrors and associated drive electronics have multiple commercial applications. The following applications apply to products produced by Boston Micromachines that will benefit from increased yield and reliability and improved performance.Space surveillance: BMC has success developing arrays up to 4096 elements for astronomy which can be used for space-based systems. These programs are funded by Department of Defense administrations with classified agendas.Optical communication:Lasercomm systems would benefit from this new architecture for long-range secure communication. Also, fiber optic communications can take advantage of our devices in an optical switching capacity.Microscopy: The capabilities of many non-adaptive optics-enabled microscopy modalities devices have reached their limits. By increasing reliability and yield, the component cost for deformable mirrors will enable users to purchase high-resolution equipment for use in detecting disease. Modalities affected include two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF), second- and/or third-harmonic generation (SHG/THG), and coherent anti-stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and super-resolution localization microscopy techniques.Pulse-Shaping: Laser science strives to create a better shaped pulse for applications such as laser marking and machining, and material ablation and characterization. The use of a high-actuator count array for these purposes will enable new science and more refined techniques.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Reliable, high precision deformable mirrors with high yield and precision and associated drive electronics has a few astronomical NASA commercial applications. The following applications apply to all Boston Micromachines Corp. (BMC) mirrors that benefit from new manufacturing processes developed which increase reliability.
Astronomy: Post applications in this sub-category can be broken into two categories: space telescopes and ground-based telescopes. In the case of space telescopes, there are a number of mission/mission concepts that require the wavefront control provided by the proposed enhanced reliability deformable mirrors. These include the Alpha Centauri Exoplanet Satellite (ACESat), Extrasolar Planet Imaging Coronograph (EPIC), Exoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer (EXCEDE) and the Centaur pathfinder mission. For ground-based telescopes, BMC has already had success developing arrays up to 4096 elements for the Gemini Planet Imager and multiple high-yield smaller devices to high contrast imaging testbeds at the Space Telescope Science Institute and the University of Nice. BMC can achieve similar results for larger arrays requiring high-density electronic equipment for other new and existing installations such as the planned Extremely Large Telescopes (Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) and the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT)).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Adaptive Optics
Mirrors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S2.01-9534
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP36P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Proximity Glare Suppression for Astronomical Coronagraphy
PROPOSAL TITLE: Switching Electronics for Space-Based Telescopes with Advanced AO Systems
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sunlite Science & Technology, Inc.
4811 Quail Crest Place
Lawrence,KS 66049 -3839 (785) 856-0219
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Haijiang Ou
eddieo@sunlitest.com
4811 Quail Crest Place
Lawrence ,KS 66049 -3839
(785) 856-0219

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A 32x32-channel multiplexing Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) driver, which can hold a voltage signal with a 16-bit resolution or beyond, is proposed. Such a driver will greatly reduce the operation power, and are compact and reliable. When the ASIC driver is vertically integrated with a Deformable Mirror (DM), the potential wiring failure will be eliminated. Furthermore, radiation resistance will be emphasized during ASIC design. During Phase I period, we had (1) verified the concept of the proposed floating driver for controlling an HV switch configured by a pair of transistors, (2) developed a high-voltage unity-gain buffer for tracing an isolated voltage signal, which is an essential tool towards developing switch arrays with high quality, (3) established the test methods for measuring switch parameters that directly impact the performance of a DM, (4) identified the main switch parameters, feedthrough and leakage, which are the primary impediments causing the drift of a stroke. All of the above made it possible for us to focus on (1) screen HV IC processes to find a qualified IC process with which a switch featuring low leakage can be fabricated, (2) apply decoupling technique to eliminate feedthrough, (3) manufacture an advanced 32x32 switch array with a voltage-resolution of 16-bit or beyond in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The first beneficiaries of the ASIC drivers are the DM manufacturers. With a vertically integrated ASIC driver, the fabrication of a DM will be greatly simplified as thousands of wire bonding and cabling will no longer be required. Thus, the yield and reliability will be improved. Furthermore, with a simplified architecture, DMs with tens thousands of actuators will become possible. Another main potential non-NASA application is the scanning microscopic fidelity imaging where a compact DM is used to correct optical aberrations in the field of bio-science. Non-NASA applications for deformable mirrors also include laser beam shaping, laser communication in free space and retinal imaging.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed ASIC driver, featuring a voltage-resolution of 16-bit or beyond, is specifically designed to drive a stacked DM, which NASA has been qualified in ground. It could provide a reliable, low power, monolithic DM driver that can be used by an exoplanet-imaging coronagraph. Thus, it could be found valuable in applications on those missions, such as ATLAST and WFIRST-AFTA.
Future space missions require more advanced DMs that the current market cannot supply. With the scalable ASIC drivers available, more advanced DMs could be produced in aspects of (1) higher actuator count to 128x128, (2) higher actuator count DMs with better yield, controllability, and reliability.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S2.02-9221
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP52P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Precision Deployable Optical Structures and Metrology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Dimensionally Stable Structural Space Cable
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ROCCOR, LLC
500 South Arthur, Unit 300
Louisville,CO 80027 -3000 (303) 200-0068
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bruce Davis
bruce.davis@roccor.com
500 S Arthur Ave Unit 300
Louisville ,CO 80027 -3000
(303) 200-0068

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is involved in an ongoing effort to design and demonstrate a full-scale (30-32m diameter) Starshade engineering demonstrator that meets the aggressive deployment dimensional repeatability and stability requirements for exoplanet detection. A key component of the Starshade structural system is a series of dimensionally stable composite cables (or spokes) that connect the center structural hub to the perimeter truss and largely determine the deployed shape and stiffness of the system much like a bicycle wheel. There are many challenges in developing the Starshade spoke. Perhaps most notable is that meeting the CTE requirement necessitates accurate control of fiber volume fraction (resin content) to less than 1%. Also challenging is that meeting the stiffness precision goal of less than 0.5% variation between cables demands that minimal fiber fraying and damage be allowed during the tow spreading and alignment process and that the net cross section be made in one step with no required post-processing. Furthermore, meeting the length precision goal requires uncommon assembly and end fitting bonding methodologies. Finally, there are challenges associated with integrating such high-performance cables into the Starshade while ensuring snag-free deployment and proper on-orbit operation. The DS3 Cable technology addresses all of these challenges with a highly tailorable thermoplastic-tape design that uses Dual Resin Bonding technology for strength and dimensional stability at the end fittings.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
-High-Frequency mesh-based antennas for CommSat applications (LEO CubeSat and GEO CommSat)

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
-Starshade for Exoplanet-Analysis Missions
-Tendon Actuated Lightweight In-Space MANipulators (TALISMAN) manipulator for Asteroid Rendezvous Mission (ARM)
-High-Frequency mesh-based antennas for Earth Science (e.g., SMAP follow-on mission)
-High-Frequency mesh-based antennas for Evolvable Mars Campaign (e.g. Human Mars)

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Composites
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Deployment
Structures
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S2.02-9994
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL31P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Precision Deployable Optical Structures and Metrology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Macro-Fiber Composite-Based Actuators for Space
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Extreme Diagnostics, Inc.
6960 Firerock Court
Boulder,CO 80301 -3814 (303) 523-8924
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Owen
rowen@extremediagnostics.com
6960 Firerock Court
Boulder ,CO 80301 -3814
(303) 523-8924

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR project creates a CubeSat-based on-orbit Validation System (CVS) that provides performance and durability data for Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) piezocomposite actuators operating in space and matures this precision deployment technology through validation tests in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). NASA customers include active structures like space-based deployable telescopes. Phases I/II advance MFC actuator materials to TRL 6 or better for space.
Implications of the innovation
While the piezocomposites needed for active control have flown and are space qualified, their performance has not been quantified under minimal thermal protection to enable large deployable precision structures like 10?30 m class space telescopes. Data is needed on the viability of piezocomposites as control actuators for deployables. MFC actuators also enable structural health monitoring (SHM) methods that expand the potential commercial market.
Technical objectives
CVS uses a nanosatellite for LEO tests. Nanosatellites provide low-cost rapid access to space-based testing. CVS leverages our previous NASA research and builds on the Phase I TRL 5 prototype, which is defined as a CubeSat payload. Our earlier work found an unexpected deviation in the behavior of MFC actuators reacting to thermal cycles like those experienced on-orbit. This atypical behavior could cause imprecise deployment in active space structures. We established Phase II feasibility by defining and controlling this behavior.
Research description
Phase I developed and validated performance evaluation and thermal compensation tools for MFC actuators subjected to thermal cycling, verified weight, size, and power estimates for a flight payload, and established that CVS will fit into a CubeSat. In Phase II we deliver a flight-ready nanosatellite.
Anticipated results
Phase II produces a ready-to-launch TRL 6 or higher nanosatellite compatible with JPL CREAM space environmental sensors. We plan a 6-12 month LEO mission.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA MFC actuator applications include small aperture adaptive optics for nanosatellite-based Earth imaging firms like PlanetLabs and nanosatellite space telescopes like ExoplanetSat. Modern tactical aircraft and hypersonic vehicles require that substantial portions of the structure withstand extreme environments that induce major thermal, mechanical and acoustic loads. A fundamental problem is the dependence of the deformation state of the structure (feedback effect) on these loads (heating, aerodynamic, acoustic)?this could be addressed by the proposed work. Active control is needed for jitter suppression and to compensate for thermal and mechanical disturbances. Commercial space companies need SHM to reduce time to launch and operation costs and improve safety. These needs are particularly important for re-useable vehicles, where information on structural integrity during all stages of flight is important for flight recertification, validation of vehicle operation models, and prediction of remaining service life. Other applications include Homeland Security structural analysis to mitigate threats (preparedness) and assess damage (response), smart structures, and SHM of civil infrastructures, land/marine structures, and military structures. Civil infrastructure includes wind turbines (alternative and renewable energy). SHM is an emerging industry driven by an aging infrastructure, malicious humans, and the introduction of advanced materials and structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
CVS is the first extensive spaceflight validation for piezocomposite actuator materials. CVS will establish operational limits, determine long-duration space environmental exposure trends, and evaluate thermal compensation options for the piezocomposite materials needed to control large-scale precision active space-structures like large deployable adaptive optical surfaces. Piezocomposite material applications include active control of composite reflectors (for example, see JPL Active Composite Reflector research), large sunshields, external occulters, large solar arrays for solar electric propulsion and other active structures. Examples include structures like the OCT Lightweight Materials and Structures long-duration deployables. Maintaining the shape of large, high-precision reflectors will be quite difficult; active reflectors that adjust their shape in situ will be cheaper and lighter. JPL CREAM compatibility provides a low-cost path to in-situ real-time space environment measurements that can, for example, unravel complex synergistic environment and interaction degradation effects on materials. Other CVS applications include active shape distortion compensation in non-reflector surfaces, e.g., struts, bipods, etc. Additionally, an active, mission-capable SHM system has a host of key applications like crew safety, ISS utilization, deep-space missions, vehicle mass reduction, and Mars and lunar exploration.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Space Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Composites
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Deployment
Telescope Arrays
Acoustic/Vibration
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S2.03-9856
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CM19P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Optical Systems and Fabrication/Testing/Control Technologies for EUV/Optical and IR Telescope
PROPOSAL TITLE: Large-Scale Molded Silicon Oxycarbide Composite Components for Ultra-Low-Cost Lightweight Mirrors
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Semplastics EHC, LLC
269 Aulin Avenue, Suite 1003
Oviedo,FL 32765 -4806 (407) 353-6885
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Easter
wgeaster@semplastics.com
269 Aulin Ave. Suite 1003
Oviedo ,FL 32765 -4806
(407) 353-6885

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Next-generation telescopes need mirrors that are extremely stable, lightweight, and affordable. Semplastics has developed a novel, innovative ceramic material which is lightweight, low-cost, and ideal for application as a mirror substrate. High-thickness, high-stiffness objects with excellent dimensional stability, low density, and low coefficient of thermal expansion can be manufactured in one piece through our energy-efficient process. Semplastics is proposing to extend prior research and manufacturing process development to produce larger-scale circular mirrors. This innovation will reduce mirror costs per square meter by an order of magnitude over current approaches based on glass or glass-ceramic solutions. As a part of the Phase II effort, Semplastics will deliver to NASA four large mirrors (up to 0.6m in diameter), sealed to address the residual surface porosity using one of two different coating systems, with ground and polished surfaces. At the end of Phase II, we will have matured and developed our production processes such that we are ready to establish the capability to produce mirrors of one meter diameter or larger.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications for this technology outside of NASA are numerous. In the short term, direct application of the process developed under Phase II to create optics can be used to manufacture mirrors for professional and amateur astronomy / telescopes, as well as adaptive mirrors for military, medical, and automotive applications. We have also identified a number of markets and customers for which there are longer-term applications of our ceramics and mirror technology, following some additional development after the end of the Phase II effort. Our lightweight, high stability materials technology has the potential to supplant older materials technologies (such as carbon fiber and heavier ceramics) in a number of industries, such as energy, automotive, and aerospace, in addition to potential military applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Several NASA activities benefit from improvements in mirror performance as well as a significant reduction in areal costs. Earth-observing and space-observing telescopes that are either balloon-borne or on-orbit have a constant need to reduce the cost and mass of their optical systems. In NASA?s search for extraterrestrial life, the mission is to locate stars with planets similar to Earth. Mirror technology is a significant key in determining whether an exoplanet's atmosphere has atmospheric water vapor or carbon dioxide as well as measuring other atmospheric chemicals. Other NASA programs with interest in improved mirror technology include the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractory Observatory (CLARREO), and the European Space Agency (ESA)/NASA dark-energy mission Euclid. WFIRST is a NASA observatory designed to perform wide-field imaging and surveys of the near infrared (NIR) sky. The CLARREO effort is a future Earth-observing mission that will establish climate benchmarks in order to assess optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The Euclid space observing mission will address questions related to the fundamental physics and cosmology on the nature and properties of dark energy, dark matter, and gravity. Reduced mirror areal costs translate directly to cost savings on these projects, increasing chances of success.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Polymers
Mirrors
Visible


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S2.04-9193
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CM48P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: X-Ray Mirror Systems Technology, Coating Technology for X-Ray-UV-OIR, and Free-Form Optics
PROPOSAL TITLE: BeatMark Software to Reduce the Cost of X-Ray Mirror Fabrication by Optimization of Polishing and Metrology Cycle
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Second Star Algonumerix
19 West Street
Needham,MA 02494 -1306 (781) 400-1323
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anastasia Tyurina
atyurina@sipan.org
19 West Street
Needham ,MA 02494 -1306
(781) 400-1323

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
For X-Ray optics, polishing the mirrors is one of the most costly steps in the fabrication of the system. BeatMark software will significantly decrease the cost of X-Ray mirror production. BeatMark will allow for parametrization of surface metrology data, which will be used as feedback for polishing parameter optimization and metrology experiment planning. By providing the parametrized optical surface description, BeatMark will optimize the costly polishing-and metrology cycle and enable numerical simulation of the performance of new X-Ray mirrors performed by NASA. BeatMark will help fulfill the requirements for sophisticated and reliable information about the expected surface slope and height distributions of prospective X-Ray optics before the optics are fabricated. As we demonstrated in Phase I, an optical surface can be thought of as a stationary uniform stochastic process and modeled with optimal Invertible Time Invariant Filters (InTILF). It was further shown that the modeling of one-dimensional (1D) slope measurements allows highly confident fitting of the X-Ray mirror metrology data with a limited number of parameters and a 10-15% reduction of required length of metrology profiles. Theoretically, a reduction of 50% is possible. In Phase II, we will conduct field tests to assess what reduction in metrology is practical and implementable. With the parameters of the InTILF model developed in Phase I, the surface slope profile of optics with a new specification can be forecast reliably. BeatMark will also process 2-D metrology data and provide a polishing optimization method, based on analysis of the mirror quality response to the polishing parameters. Our Phase I studies indicated that the optimal InTILF modeling describes the mirror surfaces with very few filter parameters and high spectral accuracy.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
When BeatMark has proven its effectiveness through practical implementation in Phase II, other applications for the software will include X-Ray mirror polishing for applications such as medical imaging and teletherapy for cancer treatment, UV mirrors polishing, surface metrology analysis for lithography and other manufacturing processes with tight tolerances for surface finish, imaging texture analysis, and composition analysis.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA application for the BeatMark software is to reduce the fabrication and testing time and cost for optics to be used in the X-Ray Surveyor Mission. By optimizing the polishing-and-metrology cycle, BeatMark will reduce the cost of manufacturing the mirrors, which will contribute to the approval and success of the mission. Other NASA applications include surface metrology for other X-Ray and ultraviolet optics for astronomy and communication applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Analytical Methods
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Process Monitoring & Control
Characterization
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Processing
Mirrors
X-rays/Gamma Rays
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S2.04-9683
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CG20P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: X-Ray Mirror Systems Technology, Coating Technology for X-Ray-UV-OIR, and Free-Form Optics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Manufacture of Monolithic Telescope with a Freeform Surface
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimax Systems, Inc.
6367 Dean Parkway
Ontario,NY 14519 -8939 (585) 217-0729
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Todd Blalock
tblalock@optimaxsi.com
6369 Dean Parkway
Ontario ,NY 14534 -8939
(585) 265-1020 Ext: 227

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Monolithic freeform telescopes offer the potential to positively address the size, weight and vibration concerns associated with flight telescope systems. We propose to prove feasibility that our optics manufacturing process is capable of producing of a freeform optical telescope system by manufacturing and testing five optical surfaces on five sides of a single high purity optical material. The resulting working monolithic telescope will include a high precision freeform surface. The capability of in adding of a freeform surface in a monolithic optical telescope design offers flexibility to create more compact designs, larger fields of view, and better-performing unobscured systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Exo-planet imaging systems -- The search for exo-planets by direct imaging require telescope systems that have a high angular resolution and low diffraction scattering. Since these exo-planets are many orders of magnitude less bright than there companion star the contrast (even when using focal plane masks) must be very high. Exo-planet imaging systems also require minimal scattering due to mid-spatial frequency errors on their primary and secondary mirrors. The specification for the Jovian planet finder optical system was less than 1 nm rms in the 4-50 cycles/aperture range. Cube and Nano-cube optical payloads -- CubeSats are very small satellites built to a standard dimension. The cube-shaped satellites are approximately four inches long, have a volume of about one quart and weigh about 3 pounds. These small satellites can be launched by a common deployment system. The low-cost and small size allows universities, companies, government agencies access to space-borne systems. Monolithic optical systems fit with this need to keep payloads simple, compact, and rugged.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Monolithic optical assemblies The idea of a solid optical system assembly is not a new one. However they have been created by gluing individual optical components together to make the assembly. Also spherical optics and still typically used. The Optimax innovation would combine the use of freeform optics and a true non-epoxy monolithic assembly for such instrumentation as spectrometers, biomedical devices, beam combiners, lasers, and interferometers. The stability, compactness, and maintenance free operation of monolithic optical system could be used universally; while freeform surfaces would improve optical performance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Prototyping
Processing Methods
Mirrors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S3.01-9281
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CC53P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Generation and Conversion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Large-Area, Multi-Junction, Epitaxial Lift-Off Solar Cells with Backside Contacts
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MicroLink Devices, Inc.
6457 Howard Street
Niles,IL 60714 -3301 (847) 588-3001
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris Youtsey
cyoutsey@mldevices.com
6457 Howard Street
Niles ,IL 60714 -3301
(847) 588-3001 Ext: 16

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this Phase II program we propose to develop a manufacturable production process to introduce backside contacts to MicroLink Devices? large-area, multi-junction epitaxial lift-off (ELO) solar cells. We will also develop new assembly processes to fabricate flexible Kapton sheets with backside contact ELO solar cells. This enables an important path for cost reduction using fully automated laydown and interconnect of solar panels. The new backside contact ELO solar cell technology has potential benefits for future NASA solar electric propulsion (SEP) programs using very large solar cell arrays. Backside contacts are used in the highest efficiency silicon solar cells manufactured by SunPower (>24% efficiency in production) but have never been successfully applied commercially to multi-junction solar cells. Benefits for large-area space solar cell include: higher device efficiency by reducing topside grid shadow and resistive losses, new approaches for panel assembly by placing contacts on backside of solar cell, and reduced arcing in high-voltage arrays by eliminating topside interconnects. The proposed technology builds on MicroLink Devices? low-cost, lightweight ELO solar cell technology and previous experience with backside contact solar cells for CPV applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many potential applications for this technology including commercial satellites and solar cell arrays for powering unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). New generations of commercial satellites can benefit directly from technology advances made for future SEP solar arrays, including the lower cost, light weight and flexibility of MicroLink IMM ELO solar cells, as well as new approaches to panel assembly enabled by backside contacts. Solar arrays for UAVs are also an emerging market for lightweight, flexible, high-efficiency solar cells. The assembly of UAV solar arrays can be greatly simplified by attaching backside contact solar cells and bypass diodes directly to Kapton sheets with predefined and patterned metal interconnects.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future NASA solar electric propulsion (SEP) systems will require entirely new solar cell technologies that are high efficiency, lightweight, flexible as well as low cost. The very large solar cell arrays will also need new approaches to panel assembly to reduce weight and stowage volume during launch. The backside contact ELO solar cells to be developed in this program are an enabling technology that addresses many of these requirements.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Conversion
Generation
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S3.01-9476
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CC45P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Generation and Conversion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Modular Double-Acting Free-Piston Stirling Convertor
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Converter Source, LLC
16922 South Canaan Road
Athens,OH 45701 -9461 (740) 592-5166
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Gedeon
dgedeon@convertersource.com
16922 South Canaan Road
Athens ,OH 45701 -9461
(740) 592-5166

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We will build and test a stirling-cycle convertor for generating electrical power from the heat output of a radioisotope heat source (GPHS), addressing evolving NASA requirements for highly reliable, robust, and easily adaptable configurations for space-power applications.

Our double-acting stirling cycle configuration combines a linear alternator with a moving piston/regenerator assembly into a self-contained module. A number of such modules can be connected together into several possible convertor layouts to scale power, achieve system redundancy and cancel vibration forces. This modular approach provides the system designer with unique packaging options not available with conventional stirling convertors. Our primary Phase II focus will be to build and test this core module within a simple three-module convertor configuration.

The part count per module is low and the design is amenable to mass production manufacturing methods. An intrinsic feature within the thermodynamic circuit prevents catastrophic piston over-stroke in the event the electrical load is interrupted. A potentially transformational passive reciprocating hydrodynamic gas bearing suspends the moving piston within its cylinder, eliminating wear and providing a highly effective piston seal. An optional hydrodynamic spin bearing system is available as a backup.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our convertor has the potential to be a lower-cost alternative to other Stirling machines and might find application as a generator using natural gas or renewable biofuels. The redundant convertor configurations could be beneficial for terrestrial remote power applications requiring high reliability (e.g. navigation or communications equipment in off-grid areas).

Operated as a cryocooler, the convertor could cool high-temperature superconducting magnetic bearings in industrial spindles and motors. The ability to cool a central load and reject heat at the periphery is ideal for zero-boiloff re-condensation of liquid nitrogen, volatile fuels and other substances.

The core hydrodynamic bearing technology could be applied to linear free-piston compressors for domestic refrigeration. The Department of Energy Office recently issued a new Roadmap report which prioritized accelerating the commercialization of high-efficiency appliance technologies. This Roadmap ranked the development of advanced compressor technologies for refrigerators and freezers as having the highest overall importance and potential impact.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Space Power Generation - The proposed innovation has the potential to support space power generation applications in the 75-500 W electrical power range using thermal input from one or more radioisotope heat sources, with waste heat radiated to space. Overall conversion efficiency is projected to be around 31% with a 640C heat source and 60C radiator. Other heat source/sink options and temperatures are possible depending on convertor efficiency requirements.

Cooling - The convertor is a reversible heat engine and can be run backwards to produce cooling in the cryogenic temperature range (50-100 K) from electrical input. By introducing staging lower temperatures are possible. NASA cooling applications include direct cooling of space sensors, vapor re-liquefaction for zero-boiloff fluid storage or cooling superconducting magnetic bearings in support of flywheel energy storage systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Conversion
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Quality/Reliability
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Tribology


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S3.02-8954
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CM56P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems for Robotic Science Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Performance Iodine Feed System
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Busek Company, Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick,MA 01760 -1023 (508) 655-5565
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Szabo
jszabo@busek.com
11 Tech Circle
Natick ,MA 01760 -1023
(508) 655-5565

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Busek is developing an advanced iodine feed system for Hall Effect Thrusters (HETs), ion engines, cathodes, and other plasma generators. The feed system features an innovative piezo driven valve that saves volume, mass, cost, and energy with respect to state of the art alternatives. The feed system also features a low mass plastic propellant tank that may be manufactured through additive processes. This allows low cost, complex shapes that can maximize the use of available space inside volume-restricted spacecraft. The feed system will be especially attractive for small spacecraft and CubeSats.

Iodine stores as a solid and sublimates at modest temperatures as the molecule I2, which allows many benefits with respect to traditional Hall effect thruster fuels such as xenon and krypton. These advantages include higher storage density, lower storage pressure, the ability to test high power systems at space-relevant conditions in modest facilities, the capability to store propellant in space without active regulation, and the capacity to transfer propellant at low-pressure conditions in space. In a space-limited spacecraft, using iodine instead of state of the art xenon could increase available delta-V by a factor of three (3) or more.

In Phase I, Busek developed a feed system featuring the advanced components, which was integrated into the iSAT spacecraft form factor. The system was then tested with an iodine compatible Hall effect thruster in relevant space conditions. In Phase II, an improved feed system will be designed, built and tested. Major Phase II technical objectives include developing an engineering model iodine resistant, piezo driven flow control valve, finalizing the feed system control architecture, identifying and evaluate commercial components to fill out the system, and building and characterizing the system. At the conclusion of the Phase II effort, engineering model valves will be delivered to NASA for further characterization.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed feed system supports many types of plasma generators used in space and on the ground. In the near term, the innovative feed system components are most likely to be used as part of a space propulsion system. Commercial and military applications for iodine propulsion include orbit raising, orbit circularization, inclination changes, station-keeping and repositioning. The next stage for commercial users is an all-electric satellite, where electric propulsion accomplishes all propulsion functions.

Beyond stored density and pressure, iodine has many additional benefits with respect to xenon. For instance, a fully-fueled, non-active system may be stored on the ground or on orbit for long periods of time. This reduces the cost of on-orbit spares, and minimizes down-time in the event of a failure. Low pressure on-orbit refueling is also feasible. Due to these and other advantages, iodine may be very attractive for commercial missions such as asteroid mining.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed feed system supports iodine Hall thrusters, ion engines, hollow cathodes, and other plasma generators currently under development for NASA. Possible near term applications include the Iodine Satellite (iSat), Lunar IceCube, and follow-on missions. The Phase II feed system will be ideally sized for a Hall thruster operating at power levels of 100 W to 600 W, and for gridded ion engines operating at similar or lower power levels. These thrusters would be used for orbit raising and interplanetary transfers. Missions of current interest include resource prospecting at the moon, Mars, asteroids, and NEOs. The technology is applicable to spacecraft of all sizes from CubeSats to Asteroid Redirect spacecraft to future MW-class cargo transports supporting human exploration.

The ability to flow iodine as a HET propellant is a the game changer. Iodine is efficient, compact, highly storable, and an order of magnitude cheaper than xenon. Full power thruster demonstrations and throttling in space conditions are feasible because iodine is efficiently pumped by liquid nitrogen cooled panels.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Material Handing & Packaging
Polymers
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Fuels/Propellants
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S3.02-9159
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CC61P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems for Robotic Science Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nitrous Ethane-Ethylene Rocket with Hypergolic Ignition
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pioneer Astronautics
11111 West 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood,CO 80215 -5516 (303) 980-0890
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Zubrin
zubrin@aol.com
11111 West 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood ,CO 80215 -5516
(303) 980-0890

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Nitrous Ethane-Ethylene Rocket with Hypergolic Ignition (NEERHI) engine is a proposed technology designed to provide small spacecraft with non-toxic, non-cryogenic, high performance, hypergolic propulsion. When passed over a warm catalyst bed, gaseous nitrous oxide and an ethylene-ethane gaseous blend combust instantly. A small 1 N thruster can be designed to provide small satellite propulsion systems with a specific impulse of approximately 300 seconds. Both propellants are self-pressurizing, capable of delivering feed line pressures in excess of 800 psi at room temperature, and 400 psi if cooled to 0?C. For longer duration missions, both nitrous oxide and an ethane-ethylene fuel blend do not require thermal heating to maintain a liquid state, and as such, can be stored on Earth or in space for in-definite periods of time with no parasitic power drain required to maintain a liquid propellant. Compared to other available chemical propulsion systems, a NEERHI system offers a cost effective solution as other hypergolic engines use hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide which are toxic and dangerous to handle, increasing ground costs. As an added capability, the NEERHI engine has the ability to operate as a monopropellant engine if the catalyst be is heated with a bipropellant reaction, increasing the lifetime of the catalyst bed and reducing heating loads on the engine. The fuel and oxidizer have nearly identical vapor pressure curves, allowing them to be stored in compact common-bulkhead tanks.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A NEERHI system can be used on any commercial satellite system that requires a simple, hypergolic, RCS propulsion unit but wishes to avoid the difficulties encountered when working with a nitrogen tetroxide and hydrazine system. The NEERHI can be used in the emerging cubesat industry, were the primary development teams are university students designing their first space system. A NEERHI engine would provide a safe and affordable system for universities that often have rigorous safety standards, and as such, avoid current hydrazine-based propulsion. In the new field of commercial crew development efforts, the SpaceX capsule currently uses the Draco rocket engine to provide attitude control. The Draco uses an MMH and NTO propellant combination. A NEERHI system could be built to replace these thrusters, and with a supply of Nitrous oxide onboard, future Dragon spacecraft could use the nitrous to produce breathing air instead of bringing along an additional system, taking up mass and space on the craft. A hypergolic and green propellant is the solution sought by all companies to phasing out the use of the dangerous hydrazine-based thrusters, and the NEERHI program could revolutionize the market.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A NEERHI system is capable of replacing any monopropellant or bipropellant space propulsion system currently used by NASA with a green propellant, self-pressurizing, cold-storable, hypergolic rocket system. The recent MAVEN mission, which uses a propulsion system based off of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, uses a total of 20 hydrazine monopropellant thrusters. A NEERHI system could be adapted to future missions to provide a greater specific impulse with a much lower ground cost due to the low toxicity of the propellants. Future lunar missions, which have historically used an NTO and MMH propellant engine, could use a NEERHI system to not only provide RCS thrust, but the nitrous oxide can also be used to produce a breathable atmosphere for any manned mission. The current technology roadmap for NASA also features a main propulsion unit for the micro-satellite, which could employ a NEERHI engine to provide delta-V maneuvers, station keeping, and even Earth-escape missions. Almost all satellite systems that don't have ion RCS systems could greatly benefit from the integration of a NEERHI unit to reduce the launch cost of the system.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
Fluids
Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Propulsion
Fuels/Propellants
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S3.02-9803
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CC40P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems for Robotic Science Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Micropump for MON-25/MMH Propulsion and Attitude Control
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Flight Works, Inc.
17905 Sky Park Circle, Suite F
Irvine,CA 92614 -6707 (949) 387-9552
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nadim Eid
nadim.eid@flightworksinc.com
17905 Sky Park Circle - Suite F
Irvine ,CA 92614 -6707
(949) 387-9552

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Flight Works is proposing to expand its work in micro-gear-pumps for hypergolic and ?green? propellants in order to develop and demonstrate a micropump for MON-25 and mono methyl hydrazine (MMH) bipropellant thrusters. MON-25, with 25% of nitric oxide (NO) and 75% nitrogen tetroxide (NTO, N2O4), allows lowering the oxidizer freezing point to -55 C, which is a close match to that of the fuel, MMH (which is around -51 C). While toxic, this propellant combination is hypergolic and allows operations over a wide range of temperatures, particularly in extremely cold environments as those envisioned for many future missions.

For NASA deep space and Moon/Mars missions, such as lunar lander and Mars ascent vehicles, the introduction of a micropump in the propulsion system provides significant performance benefits. For missions with high delta-Vs, the system wet mass is greatly reduced, or at fixed total wet mass, scientific payload mass increases. For example, in the case of a lunar lander (delta-V > 3,000 m/s), a two-stage configuration can be replaced by a pump-fed single-stage system of the same mass while the pressure-fed would have to be larger.

Flight Works is proposing to develop and characterize micropumps suitable for 5 lbf and 100 lbf MMH/MON-25 thrusters. These will be used to perform pump-fed MMH/MON-25 hot-fire test demonstrations of the technology under representative environmental conditions in order to reach a TRL 6 by the end of Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology is applicable to propulsion systems in general, such as those on commercial spacecraft (e.g. telecommunications market), for DoD spacecraft and missiles including in Divert Attitude Control Systems, and to on-orbit propellant management.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology offers the means of improving propulsion systems to be used over a wider range of temperatures than what is currently available. The propellant combination MMH/MON-25 allows for operational temperatures as low as -50 C. These propellants, combined with electrically driven micropumps, provide increased mission flexibility and performance. Trade studies show that it can be an enabler. For example, a single-stage can be used instead of two-stages for the Lunar Geophysical Network, a candidate New Frontiers lunar lander mission. The micropump can also be used in MMH/MON-3 systems. With the reduced vapor pressure of MON-3 compared to that of MON-25, the propulsion system can be further transformed into a low-pressure, low cost, more compact and lighter system while allowing high performance thrusters. Studies conducted for another candidate New Frontiers mission, the Trojan Asteroid mission, show the possibility to increase scientific instrument mass by as much as 76% or more depending on the selected (low) tank pressure.

In general, the micropump technology has applications in any NASA mission with challenging propulsion needs: scientific missions going in or out of gravity wells, e.g. Moon landers, Mars ascent vehicles, or deep space missions to asteroids or comets.

Flight Work?s strategy is to work closely with propulsion system integrators during the development phases so as to transfer the technology into operational products.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Fuels/Propellants
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S3.03-8858
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CC77P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Electronics and Management, and Energy Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wide Temperature, High Voltage and Energy Density Capacitors for Aerospace Exploration
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Powdermet, Inc.
24112 Rockwell Drive
Euclid,OH 44117 -1252 (216) 404-0053
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Haixiong Tang
htang@powdermetinc.com
24112 Rockwell Drive
Euclid ,OH 44117 -1252
(216) 404-0053 Ext: 102

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The technical approach proposed in the Phase II program builds on the encouraging results of the Phase I program, in the excellent energy storage performance over a broad temperature range. In this Phase II program, the proposal nanocomposite films will be feature as high energy density (>12 J/cc), dielectric breakdown strength (>600 MV/m), high wide operating voltage (hundred volt to kilovolt), high power density (>4 MW/cc) as well as high energy storage efficiency (>96%). The capacitor energy storage module fabricated from the developed films will be feature as high energy density (>5 J/cc), high wide operating voltage (hundred volt to kilovolt), high power density (>2 MW/cc), high radiation environment, high shock (up to a 1000Gpeak) and vibration (up to 60 Grms) resistance, safe and long cycle life of 1,000,000 cycles at room temperature and more than 100,000 cycles at 400?C for future NASA scientific mission in harsh environment. The This continued development will further prove feasibility of this technology and move the technology from space TRL level 3/4, demonstrated in the Phase I, to a TRL level 5/6 at the end of the Phase II, with parts that could be tested in NASA ion thruster propulsion discharge power system (4 kW, 200 VDC and 20 amps) by the end of the two-year Phase II if an applicable system is found for testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For the secondary military application, Powdermet's capacitor has wide applications in the fuzing system and pulse power devices, such as rail gun, laser, high power microwaves, electric vehicles and electromagnetic armor. The Air Force specifically has applications for high temperature capacitors to extend the temperature range of power electronics equipment.
For other industry applications, consumer electronics and wind turbines make up the other significant opportunities. There is an urgent need for new energy storage materials capable of absorbing and delivering large amounts of energy in short periods of time for pulse-power devices. The high energy density capacitors also have huge potential in defibrillators and X-ray generators, energy conversion in photovoltaics and integrated circuits. Downhole power electronics in oil and gas industry need to work at high temperatures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA Aerospace Market: The express purpose of the Phase I development nearing completion and our vision for Phase II development activities is to finalize the design and production of high performance capacitors working under extreme environment for aerospace exploration that will ultimately aid the NASA Mission in the following functional areas.
1. High voltage, radiation hardened, high temperature power passive components and energy storage device.
2. High power density/high efficiency power electronics and associated drivers for switching elements.
3. NASA systems ion thruster propulsion power supply as well as energy storage device.
4. NASA solar power system backups
5. Seeker, detection systems and other remote anti-personnel
6. Vehicle power assists

This advanced nanocomposite capacitors can be widely used in advanced power electronic and energy storage devices required by NASA for aerospace exploration, such as Titan missions, Lunar Quest, Advance aeronautic equipment and so on. The proposed nanocomposite capacitors can work at various operating temperature and voltage with high energy and power density where tradition power and energy storage device cannot be applied in. The high energy density capacitor will also make miniaturization of NASA power management systems and make the launch more efficiency.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Storage
Characterization
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Nanomaterials
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Lifetime Testing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S3.03-9105
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CC64P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Electronics and Management, and Energy Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Extreme Environment Compatible Ceramic Enhanced PEBB Devices (EE-PEBB)
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
QorTek, Inc.
1965 Lycoming Creek Road, Suite 205
Williamsport,PA 17701 -1251 (570) 322-2700
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ross Bird
rbird@qortek.com
1965 Lycoming Creek Road, Suite 205
Williamsport ,PA 17701 -1251
(570) 322-2700

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A critical element in the NASA/NRC Technology Roadmap is to develop Power Electronic Building Block (PEBB) devices that can function in Extreme Environments. NASA?s stated aim is to use high power density/high efficiency PEBB devices to streamline design and introduce size, weight, cost and efficiency savings. The formidable challenge is to design such PEBB devices that use materials that can function in Extreme Environment conditions. The proposed high power density/high efficiency PEBB solution employs ceramics, striction materials and wide bandgap semiconductors as to meet these Extreme Environment operation challenges. This design eliminates transformer magnetics and opto-isolators (required for galvanic isolation) and eliminates external circuits and components as to provide lower complexity, enhanced performance, and much higher SWaP specifications than currently available. These ?smart? PEBBs incorporating new design and novel materials can now provide NASA design engineers with a whole new level of self-monitoring capabilities as to include voltage, current and temperature self-sensing at the device junction level. These will enable robust prognostics, power reconfiguration, and advanced control methods to be rapidly developed and tested.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applications include ruggedized, high-temperature switching devices for electric vehicle (EV) applications and high temperature sustainable power electronics for down hole gas exploration. The EE-PEBB will be a smaller/less expensive solution than typical piecemeal power electronics circuits. All existing commercial applications would require external circuitry to condition both the input (gate drive) and output (sensor data) signals and in most cases isolate them. QorTek?s system will include all of the necessary circuitry in one modular package. QorTek plans to utilize its ongoing relationship with CREE to further facilitate commercializing a high temperature variant of the proposed technology specifically for emerging Green technology applications. EE-PEBBs can replace IGBTs and MOSTFETS in industrial communication applications including power conversion systems, inverter systems, power supplies, electric motor drive, and medical systems such as MRI machines are a few potential applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Extreme Environment Power Electronic Building Block (EE-PEBB) devices are applicable to deep space applications such as orbiters, landers, Heliophysics and earth observation platforms. QorTek?s new integrated sensing EE-PEBB devices are also an ideal solution for NASA missions such as inter-planetary probes, outer planetary exploration and deep space probes for use potentially down to cryogenic temperatures, as well as high temperatures Venus Integrated Weather Sensor (VIWS) or high radiation environment Van Allen belts or Europa. The planned design incorporates packaging in a modular formfactor that lends itself to new and existing platforms with seamless integration. The inherently radhard nature of sensors and WBG switches introduces further advantages for such missions, as they will reduce risks associated with harsh space environment installations. It would directly impact the ability to reduce the requirements for radioisotope heating units (RHUs) to maintain higher operating temperatures of the electronics and radiation shielding for the current technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Conversion
Prototyping
Ceramics
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Electromagnetic
Thermal
Active Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S3.04-9392
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CG28P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft and Sounding Rocket Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cloud Droplet Characterization System for Unmanned Aircraft
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mesa Photonics, LLC
1550 Pacheco Street
Santa Fe,NM 87505 -3914 (505) 216-5015
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrei Vakhtin
avakhtin@mesaphotonics.com
1550 Pacheco Street
Santa Fe ,NM 87505 -3914
(505) 216-5015

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Atmospheric clouds have strong impact on the global radiative budget. Cloud's radiative properties are strongly affected by droplet size distribution and number concentration. This SBIR project will develop an innovative, compact and inexpensive droplet measurement system (DMS), which will provide in situ measurement of droplet size distribution function and droplet number concentration in clouds. The DMS will be designed to meet the demanding requirements for deployment on small unmanned aerial research platforms including balloons, blimps and small UAVs. The Phase I study demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed method, identified the engineering challenges to be addressed in Phase II and outlined the strategy for further development of the technology. In Phase II a flight-ready compact, lightweight and low-power prototype system will be designed, constructed and field-tested. The Phase II development will provide a solid basis for further commercialization of the proposed technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed DMS will be of interest to research institutions and government agencies involved in atmospheric measurements. Flexibility and low cost of the proposed technology will make it compatible with a variety of airborne and ground based platforms and suitable for other applications such as characterization of atmospheric aerosols, volcanic ash plumes and industrial/agricultural sprays.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed DMS technology will address the NASA's need to add in situ cloud measurement capabilities to small unmanned aerial research platforms such as balloons, blimps and small UAVs. Deployment of the DMS implemented as a compact and lightweight economic package on small aerial platforms will result in reduced costs and improved coverage of the NASA's atmospheric measurement campaigns. Precise and extensive cloud characterization data will lead to better understanding of the contribution of atmospheric clouds to Earth's radiative budget and climate change. Other potential applications include characterization of atmospheric aerosols, particulate matter in volcanic ash plumes and fuel sprays.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Image Processing
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S3.04-9800
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CG17P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft and Sounding Rocket Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Precision Guided Parafoil System For Sounding Rocket Recovery
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
STARA Technologies, Inc.
1620 West Sunrise Boulevard
Gilbert,AZ 85233 -0544 (480) 850-1555
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Glen Bailey
glen.bailey@staratechnologies.com
1620 W Sunrise Blvd
Gilbert ,AZ 85233 -0544
(480) 850-1555 Ext: 1400

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The primary goal of the proposed STARA innovation is to develop and demonstrate a high altitude precision guided parafoil system that will enable NASA to control the final landing point of the sounding rocket payload, thus reducing system offset, recovery time, and recovery cost. Current recovery methods utilize unguided parachutes, which are susceptible to large uncertainties in recovery locations due to unforeseen variables. Using a precision guiding parafoil system deployed at high altitudes coupled with a steerable ballute would enable the landing of the payload at a defined location.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a number of potential non-NASA commercial application for the precision guided parafoil system: Commercial Space ? Ventures utilizing re-entry vehicles can use this technology to recover their capsules; High Altitude Ballooning ? With the recent considerable interest in high altitude ballooning for edge of space and ballistic rocket planes for suborbital tourism, our system could be used for the recovery of these systems; Emergency Response Applications ? Precision guided systems can be attractive to emergency responders that require delivery of food, equipment and supplies too difficult to reach locations; Industrial Applications ? This technology can be beneficial to any industry requiring high-altitude precision recovery and/or delivery of payloads to pre-defined locations; Military Applications ? Potential military applications for this technology would benefit any high-altitude precision recovery and/or delivery of payloads similar to sounding rockets that need to be delivered to pre-defined locations; Airborne Delivery System (ADS) for Terrestrial Return Vehicle (TRV) ? Enable precision landing of the Terrestrial Return Vehicle (TRV) that will enable on demand rapid return of experiments for the International Space Station (ISS) National Laboratory.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary purpose of the precision guided parafoil system is to enable delivery of large high-altitude payloads to pre-defined locations for easier recovery. The innovative addition of a steerable ballute to increase offset the target area will further improve the delivery of payloads to pre-defined location for easier recovery. Based on this mission there are a number of potential NASA applications for our proposed solution: - Sounding Rocket Recovery ? The precision guided parafoil system can be used for NASA sounding rocket missions as a means to lower costs and reduce resources necessary to carry out sounding rocket water recovery efforts ?Suborbital and/or Orbital rocket recovery ? enable precision landing of suborbital and/or orbital rockets ? International Space Station ? enable precision landing of payloads released from the International Space Station ? High-Altitude Balloons ? enable precision of landing of payloads release from high altitude balloons. Aircraft ?enable precision landing of payloads released from aircraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Aerodynamics
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Aerobraking/Aerocapture
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Navigation & Guidance
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Attitude Determination & Control
Prototyping
Actuators & Motors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S3.05-9717
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CG18P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Guidance, Navigation and Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Innovative Fiber-Optic Gyroscopes (FOGs) for High Accuracy Space Applications
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation
2363 Calle Del Mundo
Santa Clara,CA 95054 -1008 (408) 565-9004
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Behzad Moslehi
bm@ifos.com
2363 Calle Del Mundo
Santa Clara ,CA 95054 -1008
(408) 565-9004

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project aims to develop a compact, highly innovative Inertial Reference/Measurement Unit (IRU/IMU) that pushes the state-of-the-art in high accuracy performance from a FOG with drastically reduced optical and electronic package volumes. The proposed gyroscope is based on an innovative approach using Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF) coils that reduces the major gyro error sources and enables a radiation hard sensor in smaller volume compared to state-of-the-art.
Phase 1 addressed the feasibility of the PCF FOG concept, demonstration of critical components, performance/size tradeoffs, and preliminary designs of FOG-based IRU and IMU, leading to a prototype gyro to be designed and built in Phase 2. In particular, Phase 1 involved a comprehensive study of available state-of-the-art PCF and associated components. Based on this, three different PCFs were obtained and extensively tested for suitability in small gyro applications emphasizing tight bending diameters and temperature tests. The tests demonstrated that the technology is sufficiently developed to enable implementation of advanced PCF-based FOGs in the near future.
Phase 2 will (1) implement selected PCF for the gyro application, develop and evaluate components including the PCF coil, modulator and polarizers, and develop the required support infrastructure and tooling, (2) perform performance modeling and trade-offs followed by a complete PCF gyro design, (3) evaluate low-power solutions for the light source and electronics and preliminary valuation of unique electronic miniaturization designs, (4) deliver a tested and validated gyro sensor and electronics, and (5) design a compact open-loop PCF FOG-based 3-axis IRU system.
The Phase 2 strategy includes a development and integration plan, potential demonstration opportunities, program schedule, transition activities, and estimated costs. Our Phase 2 base work plan is designed to advance the TRL to 5, with TRL 6 being obtained in a Phase 2-X program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applications range from rate sensors and gyros used in commercial avionics to navigational inertial reference and measurement units needed for commercial small satellites and landing spacecraft, to gas and oil applications such as measurement-while-drilling (MWD) deployed in horizontal directional drilling. The proposed work will significantly benefit the commercial aviation industry as well as sensor arrays for medical applications and homeland security robotic disarming of bombs. Reducing the size, weight, power (and cost of these sensors and improving robustness against harsh environmental risk factors - all without loss of performance - is also critical for many advanced interceptor and satellite platforms that are of interest to DOD and advanced aerospace applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The overall objective set for this SBIR project is developing and demonstrating a Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF)-based FOG sensor with <2 cubic inch volume that can ultimately be packaged into a full Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) with < 28 cubic inch volume delivering high-end TG performance, or an IMU with a volume < 80 cubic inches for NG and high accuracy performance, as well as evaluating a drastically miniaturized, high density electronics package with form factors ultimately consistent with radiation hard (RH) components packaged small volume as may be required for NASA's smaller satellites and/or long life spacecraft missions. NASA applications include space missions, from High Earth Orbits (HEO) to lunar and beyond Earth exploration, such as asteroids, wherever measurement and correction of attitude, position, velocity and acceleration and/or accurate pointing performance are needed for, e.g., spacecraft formation flying and autonomous rendezvous with asteroid, space-based laser applications, high accuracy pointing systems for space telescope platforms, and the new generation of small satellites.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Waveguides/Optical Fiber (see also Optics)
Attitude Determination & Control
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
Inertial (see also Sensors)
Inertial
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S3.07-9425
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CG25P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Innovations for the Affordable Conductive Thermal Control Material Systems for Space Applications
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied Material Systems Engineering, Inc. (AMSENG)
2309 Pennsbury Court
Schaumburg,IL 60194 -3884 (630) 372-9650
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mukund Deshpande
m.deshpande@amseng.net
2309 Pennsbury Court
Schaumburg ,IL 60194 -3884
(630) 372-9650

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal is submitted to develop and validate the innovative concept for the affordable conductive thermal control material systems that are proven feasible during phase I efforts. The reproducibility and optimization of the material processing, the space environment stability, of the affordable multifunctional thermal control material system (TCMS) that can be applied to space hardware and can enables the hardware to carry higher leakage current are planned to receive attention in phase II study. The suggested efforts emphasize developments in two material science areas: the first one considers the development of intercalated boron nitride nano structure that includes nanotubes and nano mesh and the second area proposes the synthesis and processing of various compounds with proton and electron conductivity along with its plasma sprayable versions. The matured material system that integrates these technology aspects can allow higher leakage currents at affordable costs. Thus the envisioned affordable material systems validation efforts can provide the needed reliable TCMS in typical space environments in (LEO), (GEO) & beyond. The reliability goal for the affordable conductive TCMS are: a design life of > 10 years in LEO and > 15 years in GEO, and we anticipate the developments to mature by end of phase II ready for the hardware demonstration.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The DOD and Commercial missions need products that can benefit from this technology uniquely are:
DOD Cube Sats Program for High Radiation Environments, Survivable Second surface mirrors and TCMS that meet NRO hardening goals. Its affordable contributions to DOD and Commercial Cube Sat program can be timely and significant

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Phase II can have greatest impact on the NASA missions that need white (low aS/eT) conductive TCMS coatings with needed current carrying capability. The candidate missions that can benefit from this technology uniquely are: Cube Sats Program, W-FIRST, DAVINCI, PACE, LANDSAT 9. It may also provide unique benefits to future missions like Europa and Mars 2020. Its affordable contributions to Cube Sat program can be timely and significant.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Characterization
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Nanomaterials
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Lifetime Testing
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S3.07-9989
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP21P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing for Capillary Heat Transfer Devices and Integrated Heat Exchangers
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sheridan Solutions, LLC
745 Woodhill Drive
Saline,MI 48176 -1708 (734) 604-1120
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Sheridan
johns@sheridansolutions.com
745 Woodhill Drive
Saline ,MI 48176 -1708
(734) 604-1120

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase II development program will utilize a novel new 3D printing process to produce high performance heat exchangers embedded in CubeSat structures with integrated temperature monitoring sensors. The embedded heat exchanger is part of a multifunctional three dimensional CubeSat structure that will simultaneously accommodate thermal and mechanical loads, and offer radiation protection via multi-material laminates. In particular, Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing will be used to embed complex cooling channels in a three dimensional part.

Success in this program enables low cost production of CubeSat structures with both thermal management and structural integrity excellence. These structures can be applied in low earth orbit devices, where thermal management of small satellites is a principal concern, and also in deep space applications, where radiation shielding is a major problem.

The results of this enabling work will provide the engineering design and programmatic information necessary for implementation into a number of NASA space programs, including the planned mission to Europa

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This program produces high performance heat exchangers embedded in structures with integrated temperature monitoring sensors. The embedded heat exchanger is part of a multifunctional three dimensional structure that will simultaneously accommodate thermal and mechanical loads, and offer radiation protection via multi-material laminates.

Non-NASA commercial application of this technology has started with aerospace and defense companies who are already customers. These firms are early adopters of additive manufacturing because it enables lightweight designs and the production of parts with complex geometries. Additionally, aerospace and defense manufacturers frequently incorporate high value materials, and additive manufacturing allows them to maintain fine control of material properties and reduce raw material waste.

There are very few additive approaches for fabricating metallic load-bearing structure with embedded multi-functional capability. Traditional fusion based welding and/or thermomechanical processes used for fabricating metallic structure would destroy delicate instruments. The solid-state nature of UAM is unique in that it preserves the strength of aerospace aluminum alloys, permits structures with dissimilar materials, and allows sensitive sensors, such as thermocouples, to be placed inside of metallic structure.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Embedding three-dimensional heat exchangers as part of a multi-functional structure directly addresses the top priority goal described in the 2015 NASA Technology Roadmap TA12: Materials, Structures, Mechanical Systems, and Manufacturing. That top level goal is to: Develop materials to increase multi-functionality and reduce mass and cost (radiation protection/mass reduction challenges). Provide innovative designs and tools for robustness and superior structural integrity for deep space and science missions (reliability/ mass reduction challenges). Design and develop robust, long-life mechanisms capable of performing in the harsh environments (reliability challenge). Advance new processes and model-based manufacturing capabilities for more affordable and higher performance products (mass reduction/affordability challenge).

Cube Sat components will have very small masses, and their temperatures are highly sensitive to variations in the component power output and spacecraft environmental temperature. The advanced thermal devices developed here will be capable of maintaining components within their specified temperature ranges, with excellent reliability of single piece structures, while concurrently minimizing added weight.

The technology being developed in this effort directly addresses the two overarching themes of NASA's technology plan, critical attributes and technology themes required by every mission architecture: multifunctional and lightweight.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Processing Methods
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Thermal
Active Systems
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S3.08-9455
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CM35P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Slow and Fast Light
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fast Light Enhanced Active Gyroscopes, Accelerometers and Fiber- Optic Sensors
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Digital Optics Technologies, Inc.
1645 Hicks Road, Suite R
Rolling Meadows,IL 60008 -1227 (847) 358-2592
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nicholas Condon
condon.optidot@gmail.com
1645 Hicks Road, Suite R
Rolling Meadows ,IL 60008 -1227
(847) 358-2592

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The fast-light effect, produced by anomalous dispersion, has emerged as a highly promising mechanism for enhancing the sensitivity of many devices. It is a potentially disruptive technology with the prospect of revolutionizing the field of precision metrology. We will develop this technology in two parallel paths: A rubidium vapor Raman laser-based Active Fast Light Optical Gyroscope/Accelerometer (AFLOGA), and a fiber Brillouin laser based Active Fast Light Fiber-Optic Sensor (AFLIFOS). Both of these systems will be capable of acting as gyroscopes and accelerometers simultaneously. In addition, the AFLIFOS will be a very sensitive sensor for strain and temperature. In final form, the Superluminal Inertial Measurement Units (SIMU) produced with these technologies should be more than four orders of magnitude more sensitive than current state-of-the-art inertial measurement units. In Phase II, we will demonstrate, test, and characterize a laboratory-scale AFLOGA, then use the knowledge gained to design, construct, and test a compact AFLOGA that will fit within a 10 cm by 30 cm by 30 cm case. A design for a complete, six-axis SIMU will be developed with a footprint comparable to commercial inertial measurement units, but with dramatically higher sensitivity. In parallel, we will design, construct, and test a laboratory-scale AFLIFOS system. Finally, a theoretical investigation will be carried out to develop a Master Equation based model for quantum noise limit on the enhancement in sensitivity using a superluminal laser sensor. Northwestern University will serve a subcontractor for this project.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The gyroscopes, accelerometers, and sensors developed in this program will enable improved navigation accuracy at reduced SWaP cost, much as they do in NASA space vehicles. In addition, they can be used in atmospheric and terrestrial vehicles and ordnance for positioning and navigation in GPS-denied environments, a critical need for many military applications. The improved SWaP performance of these systems would be particularly useful in UAV navigation. High-sensitivity accelerometers can also be used in improved vibration sensors, with an array of applications in seismometry and subsurface explosion detection for nuclear non-proliferation applications. Improved strain and displacement sensors would also have a wide array of applications in monitoring the structural health of buildings and infrastructure.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The gyroscopes and accelerometers developed in this program will have substantially improved sensitivity and reduced SWaP compared to conventional technology. These will find use for navigation of NASA space vehicles of all sorts, where SWaP concerns and precise navigation are critical. These technologies may also enable an array of new scientific missions, such as gravitational mapping of subsurface geologic features and gravity wave detection. An ultrasensitive gyroscope may also enable a critical test of general relativity via measurement of the gravitational frame dragging effect to an unprecedented accuracy. An ultra-sensitive fiber-optic sensor may be enable precise measurement of strain, temperature,and other effects under conditions relevant to NASA missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Navigation & Guidance
Attitude Determination & Control
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Acoustic/Vibration
Inertial
Interferometric (see also Analysis)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S4.02-9372
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP47P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Robotic Mobility, Manipulation and Sampling
PROPOSAL TITLE: Industrial Electrostatic-Gecko Gripper
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Somatis Sensor Solutions
411 South Hewitt Street
Los Angeles,CA 90013 -2215 (213) 477-0710
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nicholas Wettels
nwettels@perceptionrobotics.com
411 South Hewitt Street
Los Angeles ,CA 90013 -2215
(213) 477-0710

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Perception Robotics is developing an innovative product, the Electrostatic Gecko Gripper? (ESG Gripper), for the industrial automation market. This unique gripping solution overcomes the shortcomings of vacuum grippers by eliminating the need for a compressed air system and offering more rapid actuation, thus achieving significant cost savings and throughput improvements in customers? manufacturing processes. The ESG gripper couples an electrostatic Perception Robotics is developing an innovative product, the ?Electrostatic Gecko Gripper(ESG Gripper), for the industrial automation market. This unique gripping solution overcomes the shortcomings of vacuum grippers by eliminating the need for a compressed air system and offering more rapid actuation, thus achieving significant cost savings and throughput improvements in customers manufacturing processes. The ESG gripper couples an electrostatic adhesive with an adhesive element inspired by gecko feet. When the electrostatic and gecko adhesives work together, a positive feedback cycle is created that, depending on surface type, can be greater than the sum of its parts. As the gecko adhesive engages, it brings the electrostatic adhesive closer to the surface, thus increasing its adhesive force; in turn, the electrostatic adhesive helps engage more of the fibrillar stalks of the gecko adhesive. Previous experimental results have shown that the combination adhesive technology can provide up to 5.1x greater adhesion that an electrostatic or gecko-like adhesive alone.

This body of work will result in two hardware and software deliverables for transfer to NASA:
1.A piezoelectrically driven rig to automate and normalize the post-treatment process for improving the gecko adhesive (Q3CY1)
2.An improved industrial electrostatic gecko gripper with sensing and control software for an industrial robot. This factory-ready unit will position us well for production of a flight-ready version in Phase III. (Q4CY2)

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Industrial manufacturing is rife with applications in which gripping an object is challenging or impossible with conventional grippers due to the shape or fragility of the object. Current solutions often rely on complex and expensive vision systems, vacuum or custom grippers, and/or repetitive, injury-prone manual labor. The ESG Gripper provides a simple and cost-effective solution to these situations.

While there is a wide range of potential applications for adhesive gripping solutions in industrial automation, we have identified solar panels and glass manufacturing as the primary target markets due to the industries? versatility, expansiveness, and expressed interest in our solution. Other potential markets include aerospace and automobile manufacturing, packaging and warehousing, hazardous materials handling, palletizing applications, and medical device manufacturing. As an example, we will validate our work at the 2016 Amazon Picking Challenge to attract the interest of Amazon for pick-and-place tasks (see http://amazonpickingchallenge.org/).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA?s interest in this technology stems from Subtopic: S4.02 Robotic Mobility, Manipulation and Sampling. This technology could benefit several NASA initiatives including in-space assembly, satellite service and salvage, space debris mitigation & elimination, gripping mechanisms for free-flyers (e.g. AstroBee) and spacecraft inspection.

Of specific interest is the ISS Remote Inspection System (IRIS) being developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, 2015). This system utilizes gecko-inspired adhesive feet to anchor IRIS to the micro-gravity environment of the ISS. The development of the ESG gripper would result in a significant performance increase in the adhesion of the feet in a low-cost, low-energy package. Another candidate JPL target for this technology is the In-Space Telescope Assembly project or other in-space assembly programs, as the gripper can function as an end-of-arm-tool (EOAT) for manipulation of large, flat objects such as positioning and holding of solar panels to a backbone truss.

This technology is also particularly well-suited for satellite servicing and salvage, as the combined gecko and electrostatic gripping mechanisms are able to grip smooth rigid surfaces as well as thermal blankets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Tools/EVA Tools
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Fasteners/Decouplers
Contact/Mechanical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S4.04-9151
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP54P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme Environments Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Dual Axis Controller for Extreme Environments
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Motiv Space Systems, Inc.
350 North Halstead Street
Pasadena,CA 91107 -3122 (626) 737-5988
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Greg Levanas
greg.levanas@motivss.com
350 North Halstead Street
Pasadena ,CA 91107 -3122
(626) 389-4137

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Dual Axis Controller for Extreme Environments (DACEE) addresses a critical need of NASA's future exploration plans to investigate extreme environments within our solar system. These destinations include asteroids, comets, Phobos and Deimos, Titan, Ganymede, Mars and the Moon. Feasibility of these proposed missions is improved if subsystems can be designed to be more robust in operations and survivability such as to reduce the burden of the overall system and preserve critical resources (i.e. power and mass). In the case of DACEE, the ability to operate a functional electro-mechanical subsystem at temperatures at or below -190C addresses one of NASA's technology hurdles.
In Phase 1, a two-axis compact brushless/stepper motion control design was completed with extreme cold operations maintained as the primary design driver. Individual components of the design were evaluated for risk in achieving these goals. The highest risk components were thermally tested. The results of these tests almost completely retired the risk of one component, pending further evaluation, and identified a coherent development path to remedy power regulation needs at extreme temperatures.
The objectives of Phase 2 are to deliver a prototype flight-like electromechanical instrument mechanism which includes the fully developed 100 krad tolerant DACEE. This subsystem will have been cryogenically tested and characterized. The motors, gear boxes, and actuated components will be selected by leveraging the best in family for cryogenic operations. The specification of the mechanism will pay close attention to design criteria compatible with achieving significant lifetime actuation cycles based upon appropriate material selections and lubrication approaches.
The objective of the Phase 2 activity is to produce a complete instrument mechanism prototype with motion control electronics capable of surviving 100 million revs at the motor.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Outside of NASA's interest, creating a low power, small form factor dual axis controller is very attractive. GEO communication satellites maintain a large number of control interfaces for the ever evolving complicated deployment schemes developed for extending antennas and supporting a variety of hosted payloads. Many satellites include pumps for cooling loops which require similar control needs. Some of the existing control systems are very outdated and the cost of maintaining legacy electronic systems is becoming increasingly expensive. Providing a robust, rad tolerant, low power commercial control solution based upon the DACEE development could save manufacturers a reasonable amount of cost, power, and mass which could better be allocated for providing additional data services.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The applications for the DACEE within NASA's exploration roadmap are numerous. While each investigation has its own unique observational instrumentation needs, the operations contained within those instruments share commonality. For operations which adjust lenses, open covers, pan and tilt, deploy hinges, etc., a stepper or brushless motor control drive capable of delivering between to 1-3 amps @ ~30V covers a broad spectrum of applications. Coupled with the benefits of small form factor and low power means the DACEE can be mounted in or near the instrumentation itself simplifying system level interfacing and control needs. With an expanded operational thermal range the DACEE preserves valuable spacecraft resources by not consuming excess power for heaters or requiring extra mass for radiation protection. The DACEE can operate on weather balloons where temperatures tend to become very cold and challenge typical electronic operational ranges. The DACEE can also be operated in-situ for instruments that may be deployed by future Mars rovers. Again the small size is conducive for space station observatories that need to perform typical scanning and tracking operations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Prototyping
Actuators & Motors
Deployment


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S4.04-9341
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP48P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme Environments Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Extreme Environment Electronics Based on Silicon Carbide
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
United Silicon Carbide, Inc.
7 Deer Park Drive, Suite E
Monmouth Junction,NJ 08852 -1921 (732) 355-0550
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Matthew O'Grady
mogrady@unitedsic.com
7 Deer Park Drive, Suite E
Monmouth Junction ,NJ 08852 -1921
(732) 355-0550 Ext: 315

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Radiation tolerant, extreme temperature capable electronics are needed for a variety of planned NASA missions. For example, in-situ exploration of Venus and long duration Europa-Jupiter missions will expose electronics to temperatures up to 500 ?C and radiation of 3 Mrad (Si) total dose. During this program, United Silicon Carbide will extend the capability of its SiC JFET integrated circuit (IC) fabrication technology to produce electronics compatible with such extreme environments.

Silicon Carbide (SiC) junction field effect (JFET) based electronics are ideal for these environments due to their radiation tolerance and their high performance and reliability over an extremely wide operating temperature range. SiC electronics can be used in applications ranging from low power, low noise mixed signal electronics for precision actuator control, sensor interfaces, and guidance and navigation electronics to power electronics for power management and distribution and power processing units. SiC based electronics will have longer storage and operating lifetimes when compared to existing silicon electronics. Use of SiC integrated circuits will also lower system mass, volume, and power by reducing or eliminating the need for cooling and radiation shielding.

In Phase I, we showed the feasibility of our approach by measuring SiC JFET IC device characteristics at 500 ?C; performing a 500 hour, 500 ?C reliability test; and using TCAD simulations to further explore the devices behavior at high temperature and when subjected to radiation. In Phase II, we will fully develop the extreme environment capable SiC IC fabrication technology and use it to fabricate an integrated circuit which will be characterized at 500 ?C and before and after radiation exposure. Following Phase II, we will provide access to the process technology and related design intellectual property through a commercial fabrication service so that NASA and others can fully leverage its capability.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Extreme environment electronics also have applications in the areas of defense, aerospace, scientific research, energy exploration, and industrial controls. DoD needs radiation tolerant electronics for space and missile defense applications and high temperature electronics for electronic aircraft controls being developed to replace hydraulic systems. Distributed engine control developments enabled by SiC electronics have direct applicability in commercial jet engines where there is a continual push for increased fuel efficiency. Scientific applications include nuclear physics research and instrumentation for nuclear facilities. High temperature electronics are needed for improved downhole tools for geothermal energy exploration, development, and production. There is also a well-established market for extreme temperature pressure sensors in which SiC electronics can increase performance by buffering the sensor signal within the high temperature environment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Extreme environment electronics based on SiC are capable of operation in the extreme radiation and temperature conditions that will be encountered during exploration of the solar system on missions such as the planned Venus In-Situ Explorer and proposed Europa-Jupiter missions.

SiC IC technology developed in this program can also be used with existing discrete SiC power devices to implement scalable, high operating temperature, radiation hard power management and distribution systems and power processing units for satellites and other spacecraft.

Earth based applications include distributed engine control systems. These systems have been the subject of research and development for several decades but their implementation has been prevented by the lack of available extreme temperature electronics technology. The commercially viable, high temperature capable electronics technology developed in this program will fill this need leading to new research and ultimately a new generation of engine controls for improved aircraft performance and efficiency.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Conversion
Distribution/Management
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S4.05-9420
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP44P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Contamination Control and Planetary Protection
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development of a Hermetically Sealed Canister for Sample Return Missions
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics, Ltd.
Building 3, Suite 1005 63 Flushing Avenue Unit 150
Brooklyn,NY 11205 -1070 (212) 966-0661
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kris Zacny
zacny@honeybeerobotics.com
Building 3, Suite 1005 63 Flushing Avenue Unit 150
Brooklyn ,NY 11205 -1070
(510) 207-4555

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of this project is to develop hermetic sealing technologies which can be used for the return of samples from planetary bodies such as Mars, the Moon, Comets and Asteroids, with a primary focus on induction brazing as a means of sealing a Mars Sample Return Orbiting Sample (OS) after it has been recovered by the MSR Orbiter spacecraft.

During Phase 1, Honeybee Robotics investigated several techniques for providing hermetic sealing such as Knife Edge, Shape Memory Alloy, C-ring, O-ring and Induction Brazing. These were identified as promising hermetic sealing approaches which can be applied to Sample Return (SR) missions, such as the Flagship Mars SR, New Frontiers (NF) Comet SR and the Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin SR, identified by the NRC Decadal Survey as the primary missions for the next decade. The sealing system would be used to store samples of rocks, soils, atmospheric gas, ice or icy-soil.

Based on Phase 1, we determined that a brazing approach is the optimum method of sealing planetary samples and should be used as a primary seal. Knife edges and O-rings should be pursued as secondary and redundant (backup) seals, respectively. Therefore, we propose to design and fabricate hermetic sealing canisters and test their hermeticity to achieve leak rates of 10-7 atm cc/sec He. The canisters will be exposed to dust and thermal cycles to reach TRL 5/6 at the end of the Phase 2.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Terrestrial uses of robust hermetically sealed containers might include telerobotic inspection and sampling of hazardous materials: chemical, biological, or nuclear. Tele-operated robots can go into many hazardous areas which humans cannot. These robots could be outfitted with canisters with hermetic seals which function in the presence of dirt, dust and chemicals. The canisters could be robotically filled with hazardous material, and hermetically sealed using the induction brazing technique. For example, when using a double walled cylinder approach, the outer contaminated sleeve could be separated, leaving the internal chamber sealed and safe for human handling and laboratory analysis.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future robotic astrobiology and geology missions such as Mars Sample Return, as well as Lunar, Comet and Asteroid sample return missions will benefit greatly from the ability to hermetically seal samples in a dusty environment. A robust sample canister that is dust tolerant will greatly reduce the complexity of support equipment that may otherwise be required to clean containment vessels prior to sealing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Process Monitoring & Control
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Simulation & Modeling
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S5.01-8794
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CA58P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Large-Scale Numerical Simulation
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Scheduling-Based Framework for Efficient Massively Parallel Execution
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
EM Photonics
51 East Main Street, Suite 203
Newark,DE 19711 -4685 (302) 456-9003
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Fox
fox@emphotonics.com
51 E Main Street, Ste 203
Newark ,DE 19711 -4685
(302) 456-9003

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Modeling and simulation on high-end computing systems has grown increasingly complex in recent years as both models and computer systems continue to advance. The majority of coding and debugging time is not spent defining the problem physics but instead in balancing computations between multiple heterogeneous devices, handling communication of data, managing distributed memory systems, and providing fault-tolerance. Often, the resulting programs are barely readable as the details of the work being performed are obscured by hardware-specific setup and communication code that dominates a program's codebase. Even worse, the code used to balance computation, manage data communication, and provide fault-tolerance is re-implemented in each piece of an application even though it performs the same tasks across those sections of the software. This makes software more difficult to maintain and upgrade, and hinders porting to new hardware platforms as they become available. The time spent improving, modifying, or debugging these device specific code paths and common code sections could be better spent improving kernel performance or adding new features.
To address the problem of separating physical science from computing science, we are developing a solution that decouples the problem definition from the platform-specific implementation details. This is accomplished by dividing the computation into distinct tasks, each of which takes some defined input data and produces some output data. These tasks can then be connected into a task graph by defining their dependencies on each other. This task graph describing a particular code can then be used to automatically manage data and schedule work across heterogeneous devices without requiring further user intervention. Therefore, to make use of new hardware, the user need only port any tasks that might take advantage of the new hardware, and all scheduling, data management, and synchronization required are handled automatically.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Most HPC software will be able to benefit from this technology, particularly applications meant to scale to large computer systems and/or target heterogeneous hardware configurations. Expected application domains include electromagnetics simulations, computational chemistry, oil and gas exploration, and financial modeling. It also includes any domains that involve large-scale sparse linear algebra operations, large-scale image processing, and other physics-based and multi-disciplinary modeling applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
These tools could be used to reduce software development and maintenance time and improve the computational performance and scalability of a variety of high-performance computing applications. Specifically, we intend to initially focus on applying this technology to GEOS-5 for earth modeling, this framework can also benefit other earth modeling packages. Another application area of this technology is CFD solvers such as Fun3D and OVERFLOW. It can also be an enabler for the High-End Computing Capability (HECC) project, by enhancing both usability and performance of applications able to take advantage of heterogeneous compute architectures. Additionally, it permits more flexibility in hardware design and purchasing for high-end computing systems by reducing the effort required to port applications to new hardware architectures, such as GPUs and Xeon Phis.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Image Analysis
Image Processing
Computer System Architectures
Data Processing
Development Environments
Programming Languages


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S5.01-9614
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CA33P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Large-Scale Numerical Simulation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Accelerating Memory-Access-Limited HPC Applications via Novel Fast Data Compression
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Accelogic, LLC
1633 Bonaventure Boulevard
Weston,FL 33326 -4040 (954) 888-4711
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Juan Gonzalez
juan.gonzalez@accelogic.com
1633 Bonaventure Boulevard
Weston ,FL 33326 -4040
(954) 888-4711

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A fast-paced continual increase on the ratio of CPU to memory speed feeds an exponentially growing limitation for extracting performance from HPC systems. Breaking this memory wall is one of the most important challenges that the HPC community faces today. In Phase I we introduced aggressive innovations enable the injection of unprecedented acceleration into vast classes of memory-access-bound HPC codes via ultra-fast software-based data compression. Groundbreaking speedup on a fully functional NPBCG prototype was delivered to NASA, thus validating the tremendous potential of our approach. The proposed approach is based on a revolutionary theory of compression spearheaded by Accelogic (Compressive Computing), which is able to provide enormous compressive gains for the typical floating point data of HPC applications.
In Phase II we will build on our success with the NPBCG benchmark, and move boldly into tackling the acceleration of a real-life high-profile code, namely NASA?s Cart3D, improving its performance by a paradigm-shifting 2x to 4x end-to-end wall-clock time acceleration by the end of Phase II. Our firm has accumulated crucial know-how and has synthesized its expertise into a powerful industrial-quality process for software acceleration that will be used to ensure success on completing Phase II objectives. In Phase II we also plan on injecting a second NASA code with basic Compressive Computing techniques, and providing it with base levels of acceleration of ~1.3-2x. We will choose this second code from a pool of high-profile codes that have already signed up as early adopters for this project: FUN3D, USM3D, Enzo, and WRF. The work on a second NASA code will also serve as the ultimate field test of the broadness and ease-of-infusion of the proposed technology.
We have secured complementary funds in the amount of $500,000 to increase resources and ensure that the proposed Phase II proposed will be successfully accomplished.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The resulting technology will increase the efficiency of memory access in most modern computer architectures, thus directly enabling unprecedented speedups in memory-access-bound HPC applications. With a significant fraction of HPC codes belonging to this "memory-bound" category, numerous scientists, developers, researchers, and complete industries will benefit, in areas as varied as aerospace, climate research, molecular dynamics, chemistry, weather forecasting, energy, civil engineering, geophysics, and life sciences, among others.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The impact of the proposed technology spans most areas of importance to NASA's scientific missions, including: aerospace, weather forecasting, cosmology, combustion, climate research, and chemistry, among others. To this date, five of the Top NASA HPC applications have enlisted as partners of the project to become early adopters of the technology. This fact speaks clearly about the interest that the NASA community has shown on the potential uses and benefits of infusing the knowledge generated from this project into NASA. Furthermore, once the technology is fully operational, it will benefit tens of thousands of users, who will see substantially increased performance in their regular, day-to-day runs, as well as in their massive, supercomputer-based production runs. One of the lead developers of NASA's Top Codes mentions that this technology "can be considered critical in achieving the next generation of so-called exascale software applications, [and] in turn, these efforts will enable scientific and engineering breakthroughs previously considered computationally intractable".

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
3D Imaging
Image Processing
Computer System Architectures
Data Input/Output Devices (Displays, Storage)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S5.02-9041
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CS06P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Earth Science Applied Research and Decision Support
PROPOSAL TITLE: ModelLab: A Cloud-Based Platform to Support Advanced Geospatial Modeling of Earth Observation Data
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Azavea, Inc.
340 North 12th Street, Suite 402B
Philadelphia,PA 19107 -1102 (215) 925-2600
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Cheetham
cheetham@azavea.com
340 North 12th Street, Suite 402B
Philadelphia ,PA 19107 -1102
(215) 701-7713

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In order to promote and facilitate broader use of NASA and other Earth observation data sources, the Phase I research focused on development of a cloud-based distributed computation platform for building, storing, and executing complex geospatial models. Widespread access to frequent, high-resolution Earth observation imagery has created the need for innovative tools like ModelLab that will help individuals and organizations to effectively access, analyze, edit, and visualize remotely sensed data in transformative new ways without years of specialized training or ongoing investments in proprietary software and technology infrastructure. The Phase II production application will be built as an on-demand, browser-based service that provides a unique assemblage of online authoring tools, searchable libraries of geospatial modeling functions, educational materials, distributed computing capabilities enabled by the open source GeoTrellis framework, and access to NASA and other sensor data that can be applied to contemporary geospatial challenges in a broad range of domains. Further, it will both simplify and shorten the development process for a host of model-driven software applications by providing developers with a growing catalog of well-crafted models to build and innovate from. Specific goals for Phase II include adding a searchable gallery of geospatial models that can be harnessed to perform specific tasks, enhancing the user experience, adding support for user data upload, extending the data repository with national and global-scale datasets, providing access to NASA APIs, enabling multi-band processing capabilities, and performing iterative testing with an expanded Advisory Team and a larger group of students and potential customers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The combined user base for the ModelLab touches on aspects of virtually every government, academic, nonprofit, and commercial discipline and includes millions of individuals in organizations around the world. Broad commercialization will focus on direct sales to government, commercial, and nonprofit organizations that need to process and analyze large environmental datasets for applications ranging from climate change and risk assessment to watershed management and regional planning. Local governments in particular will provide a major marketing opportunity. Therefore, outreach efforts will be directed at the GIS, Water, Transportation, and Planning/Zoning Departments within these government units that are most likely to be facing critical geospatial data processing challenges. In addition to direct sales, OEM and licensing agreements with satellite and mapping firms will integrate ModelLab?s modeling capabilities with third-party products and services.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed ModelLab will support NASA applications across three critical areas of interest. First, it will address NASA's need for creative new methodologies that can harness computing power necessary to process large geospatial datasets efficiently. Efficiency in this context is largely a matter of faster processing times, and the proposed project promises to increase these speeds significantly for geospatial modeling. Second, it can assist the Langley Research Center's GIS Team, which is recognized as a leader in GIS technology. ModelLab will be designed for integration with existing geospatial data processing toolkits from both commercial and academic sources that can be aligned with Langley objectives on a project-by-project basis. Finally, ModelLab will be a tremendous addition to NASA?s Earth science education resources by providing a catalogue of geospatial models that can be used to support internal research, classroom study, and public outreach activities with available NASA datasets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Outreach
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Display
Image Analysis
Image Processing
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing
Development Environments


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S5.05-9573
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CM31P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Fault Management Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fault Management Technologies - Metrics Evaluation and V&V
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Qualtech Systems, Inc.
100 Corporate Place
Rocky Hill,CT 06067 -1803 (860) 257-8014
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sudipto Ghoshal
sudipto@teamqsi.com
100 Corporate Place Suite 220
Rocky Hill ,CT 06067 -1803
(860) 761-9341

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Functional robustness, resulting from superior engineering design, along with appropriate and timely mitigating actions, is a key enabler for satisfying complex mission goals, and for enhancing mission success probability. Fault Management (FM) is a crucial mechanism to ensure system functionality from system design through the operational phase of a mission. FM is implemented with spacecraft hardware, on-board autonomous software that controls hardware, software and information redundancy, ground-based software and procedures. Given that most NASA missions require highly complex systems, at least a basic level of fault detection and isolation capability is almost always added on to them to protect against thousands of potential failure modes. It is therefore imperative to treat FM like any other engineering discipline and formalize the tools, metrics and best practices to ensure a uniformly high quality of implementation of FM across all NASA missions. The proposal to utilize recent advances in the theory and practice of FM, and in particular in the theory and practice of FM metrics, to enhance the ability of system and FM engineers and operators to measure and document the value, cost and risks associated with the FM design. This SBIR is aims to utilize existing capabilities of TEAMS toolset and extending it as necessary to enable it to compute a range of FM metrics, quantitative assessment of an FM design and V&V of the FM activities. As schedule and resource pressures build, there comes a need to reduce the amount of planned testing while guaranteeing a degree of confidence in FM design. By defining a methodical approach to identifying and assigning priorities to tests, one can define a minimum set of tests required to certify FM (i.e., incompressible test list). This SBIR also seeks to develop a Prioritized Validation Test Suite that ensures that critical risks are detected and appropriate FM Mitigation Strategies are employed to minimize the risk.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
DoD institutions such as the Missile Defense Agency, Air Force and Navy that use SHM and FM in many applications can benefit from the metrics implemented in TEAMS. Applications that can benefit include aircraft, spacecraft, launch vehicles, ships, submarines, and command and control systems. FM performance metrics will help determine the efficacy as well as identify the gaps for FM on the TEAMS based CBM+ solution being developed onboard the LCS by QSI along with Lockheed Martin (LM), General Dynamics and NAVSEA. In addition, UAVs, UMGs and other unmanned submersible vehicle markets where the FM aspects of system design is required to be highly efficient and cost-effective because of the natural budgetary pressures, could also be potential targets for the proposed technology. QSI is working with LM on leveraging TEAMS technology for FM for actuation processes with the KMAX unmanned helicopters with potential application to other LM unmanned aerospace and marine vehicles. Technology developed through this effort will also be critical to measure the current performance of those FM systems as well as identify potential deficiencies under different failure scenarios. Outside of the DoD, electrical power and nuclear power utilities also require rigorous modeling techniques such as those developed here. The automotive industry is also now adopting more formal methods than in the past, largely drawn from aerospace applications but adapted to the automotive context.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's system design and engineering community, especially those who are involved with Systems Health and Fault Management (FM) have a vision of ensuring that FM design is an established rigorous discipline with consistent processes and methodologies that can be applied across all NASA platforms. The proposed effort has significant range of applications across various NASA multi-disciplinary engineering centers that are in charge of System Design where FM is an integral part of the System Design process. Quantifying SHM/FM in terms of standard and recognized metrics has been proven in practice in the Space Launch System (SLS), managed by Marshall Space Flight Center. The metrics developed here for TEAMS are perfectly general to any system that uses FM. The QSI team has close relationship with the NASA MSFC SHM team responsible for the design of the FM system who are also current users of the TEAMS software. Likewise, other immediate applications of this technology will be with the Orion Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program, managed by Johnson Space Center, and the Ground Systems Development and Operations Program, the operations and launch facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida. Other strong users of TEAMS, with strong FM programs include Glenn Research Center, Ames Research Center, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The aviation programs at ARC and at Langley Research Center are also likely long-term beneficiaries of this project.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Quality/Reliability
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Knowledge Management
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 S5.05-9897
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP25P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Fault Management Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Model-Based Off-Nominal State Isolation and Detection System for Autonomous Fault Management
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Okean Solutions, Inc
1463 East Republican Street, 32A
Seattle,WA 98112 -4517 (206) 383-0181
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ksenia Kolcio
ksenia@okeansolutions.com
1463 East Republican Street, 32A
Seattle ,WA 98112 -4517
(206) 383-0181

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed model-based Fault Management system addresses the need for cost-effective solutions that enable higher levels of onboard spacecraft autonomy to reliably maintain operational capabilities. The system will provide onboard off-nominal state detection and isolation capabilities that are key components to assessing spacecraft state awareness. The ability to autonomously isolate spacecraft failures to component levels will enable faster recovery thereby reducing down time. Model-based systems can provide better fault coverage than traditional limit-checking systems. The proposed system in particular will result in a relatively compact software package because it relies only on modeling nominal behavior; fault models are not needed. Thus this approach has the capability to detect any off-nominal behavior including un-modeled faults. Health information produced by the FM system can be used to make resource allocation and planning and scheduling decisions by ground operations or by other on-board autonomy agents. The system can be built and tested standalone potentially reducing FM developmental and testing costs. The FM system provides an evolutionary approach to full onboard autonomy as it can first be implemented and tested in ground-based systems and then migrated onboard spacecraft. Onboard fault management will be crucial to NASA mission success particularly during critical times where the situation changes rapidly and unpredictably with no opportunity for operator support.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The need for robust and reliable onboard fault management will increase dramatically as spacecraft systems become more autonomous. The DoD's drive to increase situational awareness has already pushed it into exploration of autonomy-enabling architectures, including improved fault detection and isolation techniques, which will only increase as spacecraft autonomy moves into the broader spacecraft industry. The solution consists of diagnostic algorithms that utilize models provided by the users. The system can thereby be targeted for virtually any mission class. The proposed model-based FM solution is particularly well suited for spacecraft with modular HW/SW architectures. These new architectures will require updated approaches to FM and tools to support them. Potential non-NASA customers include: Large, medium and small prime contractors DoD Labs (NRL, AFRL) FFRDCs/UARCs (Aerospace Corporation, JHU/APL) Non-US organizations (ESA, JAXA, CNES, DLR). This technology is particularly suited for modular architectures such as the Space Missile Command's Modular Space Vehicle (MSV).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The need for the proposed capabilities is emerging as NASA seeks to provide higher quality fault management systems for its missions. The model-based fault detection and isolation system could support current and future programs with applications on the ground, in support of recovery operations, and in space, providing onboard autonomous fault detection and isolation. The fault management core diagnostic algorithms are general in nature and do not need tailoring to specific programs. User-supplied models allow customization to a particular target. Thus the developed system will be applicable to a very broad range of NASA mission classes from small to large, near-Earth to interplanetary, risk-adverse, and experimental. In particular missions such as Europa and Mars 2020 would greatly benefit from this technology. Ultimately, NASA and industry partner fault management products will enjoy a larger customer base. The potential market includes a wide range of customers from systems engineering, mission planning, and operations groups in all NASA centers especially ARC, JPL, and MSFC.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Intelligence
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Processing
Simulation & Modeling
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 Z1.01-9890
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CC37P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Modeling and Measurements for Propulsion and Power
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electrospray Propulsion Engineering Toolkit (ESPET)
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Spectral Sciences, Inc.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington,MA 01803 -3304 (781) 273-4770
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rainer Dressler
rdressler@spectral.com
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington ,MA 01803 -3304
(781) 273-4770

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To accelerate the development of scaled-up Electrospray Propulsion emitter array systems with practical thrust levels, Spectral Sciences, Inc. (SSI), in collaboration with Busek Co. Inc., and CFD Research Corporation, proposes the development of an Electrospray Propulsion Engineering Toolkit (ESPET). The innovation is a multi-scale engineering tool that extends experimental and detailed high-level physics characterization of microfluidic components to full-scale ESP microfluidic network performance. The innovation includes a central database of critical microfluidic properties. It is designed to allow ESP system engineers to efficiently narrow down the system component trade space and thereby substantially reduce the development time of advanced ESP systems. ESPET takes an engineering model approach that breaks the ESP system down into multiple microfluidic components or domains that can be described by analytical microfluidic solutions and specific parameters of the domain. Phase I was a successful proof of concept on the microfluidics of the Busek 100 micro class ESP system. In Phase II, full development of ESPET for arbitrary ESP designs will occur. The Phase II Work Plan includes construction of a microfluidics properties database, the development of the domain models and network solver, and the testing and validation against data produced by current ESP system developers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
SmallSat technology is bringing the space vehicle deployment cost within reach of a much larger market including small commercial enterprises like Cosmogia Inc., Dove-2 remote sensing mission for NOAA, research and educational initiatives like University of Florida's SwampSat demonstrator, and developing countries without a major space program, such as Poland's BRITE-PL for celestial observations. As the ESP technology becomes more generally available and new applications are envisioned, engineering software tools like ESPET will be essential to tailoring the thruster design to mission requirements. ESPET may also be extended to microfluidic system designs of miniaturized electrospray ionization sources for portable mass spectrometers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For NASA to gain high-value science from SmallSat technology requires lightweight, miniaturized, precision impulse bit, fuel efficient propulsion systems that extend mission time and greatly enhance SmallSat utility. While a broad range of chemical and EP systems are under consideration for SmallSat thrusters, micro-fabricated electrospray (ESP) arrays have been clearly identified as an emerging technology for efficient and high precision propulsion systems, with scalability that also makes them attractive for applications on larger spacecraft. ESPET will accelerate the development of ESP systems that meet NASA requirements. ESPET will provide NASA with a tool for quick comparison of various fuels and thruster configurations. It will provide designers with estimates of thruster fuel and power efficiency, stability of output thrust, and potential for contamination effects. It will also enable them to develop accurate thruster control systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Attitude Determination & Control
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 Z1.02-9037
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CP55P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Solid-State Thermal-to-Electric Power Generation
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Efficiency Thermionic Power Generator
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanohmics, Inc.
6201 East Oltorf Street, Suite 400
Austin,TX 78741 -7509 (512) 389-9990
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steve Savoy
ssavoy@nanohmics.com
6201 East Oltorf Street, Suite 400
Austin ,TX 78741 -7509
(512) 389-9990

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Planetary missions (e.g., Pioneer, Cassini, or Voyager) and applications with moderate power draw and increased mobility requirements (e.g., Curiosity) have successfully employed radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) as thermal-to-electric power converters. While ~100 We-class radioisotope power sources continue to be in demand, new higher power electric generators (≥500 We) will enable, and enhance, numerous robotic space applications and are ideally suited for upcoming Discovery- through Flagship-class missions. These ≥500 We generators will require both increased source power and increased conversion efficiencies. State-of-the-art thermoelectric generators, for instance, achieve ~7% efficiency, and recent laboratory results are paving a route toward ~15% efficiency. Alternatively, promising results from Lee et al1 and other groups have shown that thermionic thermal-to-electric (TTEC) generators are capable of achieving high conversion efficiency (>25%) at temperatures ≥1200 ?C by leveraging modern microfabrication techniques. An additional benefit is that the high-quality ?waste heat? from these thermionic systems is rejected at ~800 ?C, which opens the door to its use as a topping stage for more traditional converters, including thermoelectrics, dramatically raising the ceiling on total system conversion efficiency. To further advance NASA?s high-power solid-state thermal-to-electric conversion capabilities, Nanohmics Inc., working in collaboration with The Boeing Company (Huntington Beach, CA) and Sandia National Labs? Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) proposes to demonstrate a high-efficiency thermionic thermal-to-electric converter (TTEC) module based on nanostructured, high survivability emission materials. TTEC realization will open up new opportunities for deep space planetary science missions, and future manned spaceflight voyages that are no longer tethered to the sun by photovoltaics.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA space power systems, The TTEC could be used as a novel power system for future U.S. Navy and the U.S. Air Force hypersonic vehicles. Additionally, two key markets that present large commercial opportunities are microwave vacuum electronics, and combined cycle power generation. Combined power systems, sometime referred to as combined heat and power (CHP), can generate electricity from the waste heat not used when burning fossil fuels to generate electricity. There is significant interest in developing new thermionics technologies for combined cycle and CHP because of the opportunity to greatly improve the efficiency of these systems. The combined power systems and CHP markets provide a considerable emerging commercial opportunity and is predicted to reach $3.5 billion by 2019 and grow at a considerable rate (CAGR of 20.2%) as by 50% of the U.S. power production is expected to come from natural gas-fired combined cycle plants by 2038. Likewise, microwave vacuum electronics continue to be used for high power radars, radio, and other applications across the military, medical, and space exploration communications. There are over 200,000 vacuum electronic devices used by the DoD alone, and the Navy expects them to be used in radar and electronic warfare systems for many decades to come. Because of their continued use within DoD and other areas, the market for these devices was estimated to be greater than $1 billion for 2015.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Nanohmics Inc. is developing a novel high efficiency Thermionic Thermal-to-Electric Converter (TTEC) product that uses innovative nanostructured low-work-function emitters capable of high current thermionic electron emission. The primary NASA application of this innovation is for space craft power systems. Within NASA, two key potential customers are the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) program and the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC). The target application of the TTEC are high power (500 We class or greater) power systems, and specifically RPSs. RPS systems such as Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) would benefit greatly if the TTEC technology is proven to have higher efficiency and low power degradation rates. Currently, RTGs are used by NASA for deep space missions where solar cell power systems are not practical. If the TTEC can be demonstrated to operate at the same temperature and efficiency as the thermoelectric devices used in RTGs, it has the potential of being a better choice for radioisotope power generation systems on future spacecraft. At the higher end of power generation requirements such as manned mission in the ~ 2025-2030 timeframe, thermionics may reduce Mars round-trip mission times from two to three years, to less than one year. A high temperature thermionic device could be used to help realize this goal using fission energy as the power source.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 Z2.01-9669
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CM25P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Large-Scale Polymer Matrix Composite (PMC) Structures, Materials, and Manufacturing Processes
PROPOSAL TITLE: Infusion Resins for Automated Dry Fiber Placement Products
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied Poleramic, Inc.
6166 Egret Court
Benicia,CA 94510 -1269 (707) 747-6738
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Hayes
hayesb1@sbcglobal.net
6166 Egret Court
Benicia ,CA 94510 -1269
(707) 747-6738

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As the size of composite parts exceed that of even the largest autoclaves, new out-of-autoclave processes and materials are necessary to achieve the same level of performance as autoclave cured composites. As an alternative to OOA prepreg systems, infusion of dry fiber preforms made by automated dry fiber placement (ADFP) can mitigate out-time issues and shelf-life problems combined with lower cost manufacturing. Although improvements in ADFP products have continued, use and application of these ADFP products have been limited due to the necessary balance of processing and performance of the infusion resin. This is a result of not only the low permeability of the ADFP product preforms but also the inadequate damage tolerance and micro-crack sensitivity of the developed composites. Accordingly, Applied Poleramic, Inc. proposes to develop a novel low viscosity, long pot-life infusion resin for use with ADFP product preforms that results in cured performance similar to that of unidirectional Hexcel 8552 prepreg parts. Specifically, the infusion resin will be capable of significantly lower infusion temperature (less than 150 ⁰F) as compared to current commercial infusion resins along with improved fracture toughness. This innovative epoxy infusion resin will enable large complex composite structures to be developed using ADFP product preforms with lower manufacturing risk, reduced production time, higher part quality, and a new level of performance not attainable with current commercial infusion resins. Ultimately, the technology will lead to a new generation of low cost composite materials, critical to future NASA space programs and missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Opportunities for commercial applications come from NASA funded crew and cargo space transportation partners, commercial aircraft, rotorcraft, satellite, and transportation structures. This OOA infusion composite technology will be targeted for future large structural parts in which layup and manufacturing time has excluded the use of traditional prepreg materials due to out-time concerns. Also, applications may include parts which have traditionally utilized aerospace prepreg materials.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This composite technology can provide cost, performance, and design advantages where traditional prepreg and OOA prepreg materials have been used or specified such as future production of spacecraft, large space structures, space stations, satellite, orbiters, landers, rovers, and habitats. Some specific programs include the Orion (MPCW) and future MMSEVs. The technology may also find use for cryogenic tanks where thin-ply ADFP product preforms would be resistant to micro-cracking.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Air Transportation & Safety
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Composites
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 Z4.01-8766
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CA59P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Small Spacecraft in Deep Space: Power, Navigation, and Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cubesat SEP Power Module
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ExoTerra Resource, LLC
10579 Bradford Rd
Littleton,CO 80127 -4247 (303) 565-6898
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael VanWoerkom
m_vanwoerkom@exoterraresource.com
10579 Bradford Rd
Littleton ,CO 80127 -4247
(303) 565-6898

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As electronics continue to shrink, the capabilities of CubeSats continue to expand. This offers the possibility of entirely new mission classes for space exploration. However, CubeSats small surface area limits their power availability. Typical CubeSat arrays are <100 W. The low power limits their capability, particularly as increased distance from the sun reduces power further. The low power limits instrument selection, telecommunications options, and electric propulsion usage.
To resolve these issues, ExoTerra has developed a CubeSat Solar Electric Propulsion Power Module. The module incorporates a lightweight deployable solar array with up to 296 W (BOL) of power. The module efficiently delivers the power to a micro Hall Effect Thruster at nearly 300 V via a direct drive power distribution card. The specific power of over 140 W/kg and power density of over .17 W/cm3 efficiently packages the module into a 6U CubeSat. When not needed for electric propulsion, the card steps the voltage down to either 28 or 12 V to deliver high power for either instrument or telecommunications use.
ExoTerra builds on the Phase I prototype and functional testing effort by building a qualification unit of the array and direct drive electronics in Phase II. During the period of performance, we initiate functional and environmental testing to push towards commercializing the technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The high power arrays have multiple commercial applications as well. CubeSats have the potential to replace large monolithic satellites with constellations of microsatellites. The high specific power benefits CubeSats and Microsats generically through reduced weight and launch volume. This capability can enable the use of higher power payloads or telecommunications. The arrays also form the foundation of a CubeSat SEP module that can provide high dV rideshare compatible propulsion for the first time. This enables CubeSats to alter their trajectory from their drop-off orbit and maintain their ideal orbit once they arrive for coordinated constellations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology enables multiple NASA mission opportunities. CubeSats offer the potential for low cost exploration throughout the inner solar system. With the higher power availability, CubeSat missions can power high deltaV Electric Propulsion to perform interplanetary trajectories. Once at the target, the arrays enable high power instruments such as lidar for imaging and long range telecommunications to send the data back. The lightweight arrays also enable CubeSat missions to be conducted further from the sun in low flux regions such as near earth asteroids and even Mars.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Distribution/Management
Generation
Deployment


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 Z5.01-9128
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CA48P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Payload Technologies for Assistive Free-Flyers
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robotic Arm for Assistive Free-Flyers
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Energid Technologies
One Mifflin Place, Suite 400
Cambridge,MA 02138 -4946 (888) 547-4100
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Douglas Barker
doug.barker@energid.com
One Mifflin Place Suite 400
Cambridge ,MA 02464 -4946
(888) 547-4100

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Energid Technologies will develop a lightweight robot arm for attachment to new Assistive Free-Flyers (AFFs). The arm leverages Energid's existing hardware designs to reduce weight and improve performance. It enables novel modes of maneuvering and control. The arm includes a sensor suite that enables precise control of the arm and will serve to support a variety of other applications. Multiple arms may be attached to one AFF and cooperatively operated. To control the arms and base, Energid's Actin software toolkit will be extended and applied to enable use of the arms in perching and acrobatic modes, with one end-effector fixed in perching mode and momentum conservation integral to the control during acrobatic mode. Included will be powerful simulation software that, by leveraging Energid's commercial Actin software, will be cross platform, fast, and feature rich. The simulation, modeling both the AFF and the arms, will support design validation efforts as well as mission planning and testing. It will seamlessly transition between simulating terrestrial test beds and fielded AFFs in a microgravity environment. The simulation will include articulated dynamics, contact dynamics, sensors, and the aerodynamics of the AFF and arm. The full system will be validated using a custom hardware testbed.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Energid, through its Robai subsidiary, manufactures and sells the Cyton robots on which the new arm for AFFs is based. These robots are bundled with the Actin software underpinning the control and simulation software used for this project. Energid has sold approximately 300 Cyton robots to customers in many fields and markets. This contract will enable Energid to extend the Cyton into new markets, particularly for use with terrestrial quadcopters, where the lightweight low-power design will find wide application. In addition, Energid will license the control and simulation software improvements made to its Actin software toolkit. Actin is delivered as libraries and header files that can be compiled into new software. This form of Energid's technology has found application in software for space, manufacturing, entertainment, agriculture, and oil exploration. Energid will license the new software and provide services to support it.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The arm Energid proposes will advance the application of AFFs by enabling them to both sense and manipulate the environment. The ability to perch will save power and extend the life of the AFF. The simulation software, which includes both vehicle dynamics and sensors will support NASA and other researchers in exploring algorithms and missions before fielding those plans. The value provided through these applications will lead to additional work for Energid from NASA. Energid will provide support for the arm and simulation software's application on upcoming missions both as a prime contractor and as a supporting subcontractor to large NASA prime contractors.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-2 Z6.01-9993
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX15CL32P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Metallic Materials and Processes Innovation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing for Efficient Space Vehicles
SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sheridan Solutions, LLC
745 Woodhill Drive
Saline,MI 48176 -1708 (734) 604-1120
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Sheridan
johns@sheridansolutions.com
745 Woodhill Drive
Saline ,MI 48176 -1708
(734) 604-1120

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of this Phase II SBIR program is to demonstrate the application of Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM) solid state metal 3D printing to create new and innovative of metal matrix composites for selective reinforcement and lightweighting. Our intent is to enable Space Launch System structures with superior mechanical properties and increased reliability, and validate these advancements with third party testing. Specifically, this effort will develop lightweight and multifunctional composite components in aerospace aluminum alloys, selectively reinforced with metal matrix composite, and study the effect of embedding on structural integrity using UAM-embedded mechanical strain gauges.

With NASA guidance, the project team Phase II plan is to select and develop functional prototypes of Space Launch System structures to illustrate efficient space vehicle concepts. A demonstration unit will be delivered to NASA for testing at the completion of the Phase II contract.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The initial application of high performance UAM-enabled structures will likely be in NASA, defense and commercial space structure programs, in that order. This estimate recognizes the high performance technology leading nature of the organizations and their missions. The project team already services aerospace customers. Agreements with these customers uniformly prohibit publication of the details of our work with them.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The project team intends to develop Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM) manufacturing processes supporting the Space Launch System to create structures with superior mechanical properties and increased reliability. UAM-enabled structures are an important enabler for minimized touch labor and final assembly steps, increased reliability and reduced cost. UAM, by its nature, enables improved lead times by directly printing parts in one machine at one time, eliminating part movements from process to process (and vendor to vendor).

The solid state UAM bond in conjunction with an additive / subtractive system allow for custom structures to be manufactured with reinforcing members in any three-dimensional configuration. These composites can be created directly on existing structures manufactured through other processes, resulting in launch structures with lower mass and improved process lead time.

The solid state nature of the UAM bond allows for combining any metal combination without formation of brittle intermetallics. This enables layer by layer material changes for complex graded metal structures. This can directly lead to lighter structures with increased structural efficiency by combining multiple functions in one component.

The UAM application has potential for manufacturing in space. Processes that melt the substrate material are dangerous for the operator especially during long-duration space flight. UAM has no high energy beams, splatter, or molten metal.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING (NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.)
Processing Methods
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Metallics
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Structures
Heat Exchange
Diagnostics/Prognostics