SBIR Select Phase I Solicitation STTR Phase I Solicitation  Abstract Archives

NASA 2015 SBIR Phase I Solicitation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A1.01-9678
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Structural Efficiency-Hybrid Nanocomposites
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid Nanocomposites for Efficient Aerospace Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cornerstone Research Group, Inc.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440-3638
(937) 320-1877

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bryan Pelley
pelleybm@crgrp.com
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton,  OH 45440-3638
(937) 320-1877

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA seeks to address the primary goals of the Advanced Air Vehicles program, improving safety and efficiency, through exploration of the value for hybrid composites to guide the direction for development and insertion of the materials into industry. Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG), University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI), and NanoSperse LLC have formed a team of experts in the aerospace composites industry to perform a systems-level value assessment for hybrid composites into target aircraft application areas during this Phase I project, and demonstrate actual material properties through a preliminary hybrid composite formulation, fabrication, and characterization activity. The result of the Phase I project will be direction for hybrid composites development. In Phase II and beyond, this team provides the necessary skills and capabilities –industry insight, materials formulation, nanomaterials dispersion, composites design, aerospace structures design, and composites manufacturing – to drive the technology into commercial application.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed multifunctional hybrid composite technology has high potential for application in public and private sector commercial aircraft systems. This project's technologies, developed for NASA systems and programs, would directly apply to aerospace systems designed, manufactured, and operated by other government and commercial enterprises. Government systems, such as the B1-B, currently utilize multifunctional nanocomposite films to simplify manufacturing processes and reduce maintenance, contributing significantly to life-cycle cost savings. Additional systems that would benefit from this incorporation of this technology and other hybrid composites would include fighters, bombers, transport aircraft, unmanned air vehicles, missiles, spacecraft, satellites, and marine systems operated by the Department of Defense. This technology's attributes enable multifunctional structures and coatings which should yield a high potential for private sector commercialization within commercial aviation platforms through increased efficiency and safety. With sufficient reductions in materials and manufacturing costs, these materials could also be adopted by the automotive, marine, and civil infrastructure industries.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Supporting several of NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate projects and the Advanced Composites Project, this project's technologies directly address requirements for acceleration of development and certification procedures for composite materials. This project's technologies provide an objective, value-driven roadmap for the development and integration of hybrid composite materials, leveraging scalable, certifiable design and manufacturing practices. This technology could be used by NASA to design, build, and test future aerospace research vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
Characterization
Processing Methods
Composites
Nanomaterials
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A1.01-9853
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Structural Efficiency-Hybrid Nanocomposites
PROPOSAL TITLE: Benefit Analysis of Hybrid CNT/CFRP Composites in Future Aircraft Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
90 Broadway 11th Floor
Cambridge, MA 02142-1050
(703) 369-3633

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Konstantine Fetfatsidis
kfetfatsidis@aurora.aero
90 Broadway, 11th Floor
Cambridge,  MA 02142-1050
(617) 229-6818

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
During Phase I, Aurora Flight Sciences and N12 Technologies propose to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the benefits of hybrid composites in future aircraft structures by leveraging analytical model and experimental results that Aurora has gathered during the development of its indigenous Orion unmanned aircraft system, which utilizes CFRP composites in the majority of its structure. Target areas that are critically loaded and/or include features such as embedded sensors and de-icing mechanisms, will be used to evaluate improvements in weight, lifecycle costs, performance, and reliability that CNTs can provide as a result of their multifunctionality. The analysis will be extended during Phase II to study the effect of hybrid composite utility on commercial aircraft (e.g. Boeing 737) using codes such as TASOPT that redesigns aircraft to optimize parameters including fuel efficiency and emissions. Phase II will also involve the design, build, and testing of hybrid composite specimens to prove out the benefits identified during Phase I. Relevant CNT data will be provided by N12 to ensure the greatest amount of accuracy in the benefit analysis. N12 is a spin-off from MIT Professor Brian Wardle's laboratory, that is capable of directly integrating vertically aligned CNTs with common aerospace-grade carbon prepreg materials and conventional processes used to manufacture primary aerospace structures (e.g. hand layup, automated fiber placement (AFP), automated tape layup (ATL)). N12 grows CNTs with controlled morphology and top-to-bottom alignment using an IP-protected continuous, high throughput process that is 1,000 times faster than common batch processes. These CNTs can similarly be transferred onto the surface of carbon prepreg materials in a continuous process that enables a seamless, low cost integration of CNT-reinforced CFRP prepreg with common manufacturing processes to enable future lightweight, multifunctional composite aircraft structures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aurora and other manufacturers, including Boeing, are working on next generation aircraft for commercial transport. One such aircraft is the D8 "double-bubble" concept that Aurora and MIT have studied as part of NASA's N+3 program. The D8 configuration, which assumes a mostly-CFRP composite structure, can provide significant improvements in fuel burn, noise levels, and NOx emissions relative to a best-in-class Boeing 737-800 narrow-body aircraft. Integrating a hybrid composite design can improve the strength of certain areas of the D8 with a reduction of CFRP plies, thus reducing weight and improving fuel efficiency. CNTs can also strengthen joints to improve safety while simultaneously reducing weight through minimized number of CFRP plies and mechanical fasteners. Furthermore, large wind turbine blades can also benefit from a hybrid CNT/CFRP material system capable of being laid down by AFP in a low-cost, reliable manner. As wind turbine blades increase in size to produce more energy, a larger quantity of CFRP is being used. The performance of these large wind turbine blades can be improved by CNT reinforcement and conductivity that helps to reduce weight through fewer plies, and minimize downtime of the overall wind turbine that might occur due to cracking, severe icing, and/or lightning strike damage. Minimizing wind turbine downtime will help to keep the cost of an environmentally energy source down.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed system analysis in this Phase I SBIR effort will quantify the benefits of hybrid CNT/CFRP composite materials that will enable future aircraft designs with improved performance, safety, and environmental impact. These outcomes will directly support NASA's Advanced Air Vehicles Program (AAVP), which includes various projects that seek to optimize materials, aircraft designs, and manufacturing processes for next generation aircraft. Some of these projects, which involve players such as Aurora and Boeing, include investigations of high aspect-ratio wings for improved fuel efficiency and tailored aeroelastic properties. In addition to aircraft, there are various other NASA applications that can benefit from hybrid CNT/CFRP designs. These applications include vehicle and habitat module structures that support NASA's Space Exploration program. Structures such as the Orion crew module and large cryogenic pressure vessels are mass and cost constrained and will benefit from a lightweight, damage tolerant, multifunctional material system.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Distribution/Management
Generation
Characterization
Thermal Imaging (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Processing Methods
Composites
Nanomaterials
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A1.02-9373
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamic Efficiency Drag Reduction Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Plasma Flow Control for Drag Reduction

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Technology Applications, Co.
P.O. Box 6971
Chesterfield, MO 63006-6971
(314) 373-3311

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris Nelson
ccnelsonphd@gmail.com
6712 183rd St. SW
Lynnwood,  WA 98037-4255
(425) 778-7853

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Fuel costs have historically been the largest single cost associated with aircraft operations; improved efficiency therefore translates directly to the bottom line. The worldwide aviation industry is a significant emitter of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases; the International Civil Aviation Organization puts it at 2% of the global anthropogenic total. The impact of these emissions is amplified even more, however, because they go directly into the upper troposphere. We propose an efficient plasma-based method for drag reduction which, when fully developed will directly translate to reduced fuel consumption and reduced emissions. The proposed Phase I effort will involve a combined experimental and numerical investigation aimed at a proof-of-concept implementation of the drag-reducing technology. In follow-on Phase II work, the ITAC-led team will work to expand the flight envelope over which the plasma-based method can be applied.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Since fuel costs have historically been the largest single cost of airline operations, any technology which offers significant drag reduction (and thus fuel savings) will be of great interest to aircraft manufacturers. Other potential areas of application include high speed rail (and also normal passenger rail). Operators of ground test facilities outside of NASA (whether DoD or privately held) might also be interested in this technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
When fully developed, a plasma-based drag reduction technology would be widely applicable within NASA. Any system with significant contributions to drag from attached turbulent boundary layers could potentially benefit from this approach. This would include not only flight vehicles, but also test facilities, which could take advantage of the reduced power required to maintain test conditions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A1.02-9438
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamic Efficiency Drag Reduction Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Drag Reduction through Pulsed Plasma Actuators

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South
College Station, TX 77845-6023
(979) 764-2218

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ashwin Balasubramanian
ashwin.balasubramanian@lynntech.com
2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South
College Station,  TX 77845-6023
(979) 764-2200

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Drag reduction is a fundamental necessity in all aerodynamic designs, as it directly affects aircraft fuel efficiency which in turn affects endurance, range, and flight speed. Skin-friction drag reduction technology has a very significant impact in the future design of all aircraft, propellers, turbine blades, and wind-turbines, just to name few applications. Experimental and Direct Numerical Simulations results provide evidence that spanwise waves, of appropriate frequency and amplitude in the turbulent boundary layer, produce substantial skin-friction drag reduction. The generation and control of the spanwise waves however has been a significant practical barrier to the implementation of this technology, due to the requirement for complex moving parts that are too heavy and expensive to be added to an aircraft wing. In fact their additional weight and complex installation would essentially reduce or negate the benefits of the drag reduction. Lynntech proposes to use a proprietary technology based on Pulsed Plasma actuators, which are light-weight, simple to build, and easy to control, to generate turbulent boundary layer perturbations that induce significant skin-friction drag reduction. The proposed technology can be embedded in the wing, or propeller blade, to be flush with the wall and be electrically powered, thus avoiding additional ducting and other adverse characteristics that make competing skin-friction drag reduction approaches impractical for aeronautical applications. Lynntech's approach could also be exploited for dual use: the plasma actuators, in a different flight regime, could also be used to delay flow separation and thus delay stall onset, without the need to install an additional system. The proposed technology has a very wide outreach because it addresses a fundamental issue in aerodynamics and could be applied equally well to increase efficiency of aircraft within NASA programs, civilian transport aircraft, and military vehicles.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Fuel efficiency for civilian transport aircraft is always of great interest to aircraft manufacturers and operators. Airline profitability depends, to no small extent, on the cost of fuel per mile flown. Reducing aerodynamic drag, through the use of better designs and new materials, is a well established trend. The proposed technology would introduce a revolutionary change in the way transport aircraft wings and bodies are designed, which would result in dramatic reduction in costs for operators. Savings could then be passed on to the general public. The environmental aspect of better fuel economy for transport aircraft is also of increasing importance to both operators and the public. Wind turbine blades are also affected by skin-friction drag; efficiency of the whole wind-power system greatly depends on the aerodynamic efficiency of the blade: wind turbines are halted by the control system every time the efficiency falls below a certain threshold, because the overall economic viability of the turbine is very sensitive to changing wind conditions. The proposed system is well suited for utilization in wind turbine-blades to increase their efficiency, thus increasing clean energy production. Similarly, automotive designs could be improved to realize increased fuel efficiency by using the proposed technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA conducts a very significant amount of research for atmospheric vehicles: thus technologies that directly address aerodynamic drag reduction are well aligned with the agency needs and goals. Skin-friction drag reduction through plasma actuators allows dramatic increase in fuel efficiency, which translates directly in the ability to fly longer, farther, faster and with reduced carbon emissions. Areas of research in which NASA is particularly active are alternative fuels and Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) research. Alternative fuels are being researched primarily to reduce carbon emissions in the atmosphere; improved aerodynamic efficiency would significantly increase the chance of making these alternative fuels viable alternatives, as it would lower the requirements on the engine and fuel systems. Small UAS are typically even more constrained, with respect to payload, due to their limited flight endurance. Reducing skin-friction drag would allow all UAS to fly longer or at reduced cost: long endurance UAS is an active area of research within NASA (e.g. Global Hawk). Improved aerodynamic efficiency does not affect terrestrial vehicles only: future planetary exploration missions could exploit efficient aerial vehicles to explore wider surface areas, faster.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A1.02-9677
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamic Efficiency Drag Reduction Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microblowing Technique for Drag Reduction

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cornerstone Research Group, Inc.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440-3638
(937) 320-1877

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bryan Pelley
pelleybm@crgrp.com
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton,  OH 45440-3638
(937) 320-1877

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA seeks to develop technologies for aircraft drag reduction which contribute to improved aerodynamic efficiency in support of national goals for reducing fuel consumption, operating costs, and emissions. The most significant opportunity for efficiency improvement is the reduction of turbulent skin friction drag. NASA research into the microblowing technique (MBT) has been shown to reduce skin friction drag by 50 to 70 percent in subsonic flow and 80 to 90 percent in supersonic flow, which can translate into significant fuel savings. While small-scale wind tunnel testing has been performed to prove the potential benefits of the MBT, additional research is required to develop a complete understanding of boundary layer dynamics, conduct large-scale experiments, and estimate system weight, efficiency, and cost impacts of implementing the MBT on an actual aircraft. Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG) will address these challenges and mature the MBT with the goal of significantly reducing skin friction drag for aircraft at both high subsonic (0.7 < M < 0.9) and low supersonic speeds (M < 3).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project's technologies, developed for NASA systems, would directly apply to systems operated by other government and commercial enterprises. Government systems that would derive the same benefits would include aircraft operated by the Air Force. Initially, implementation into transport aircraft such as the C-17 Globemaster III and tanker aircraft will provide the Air Force with the greatest opportunity for fuel savings, as these systems consume the majority of the fuel used by the Air Force. In addition, implementation would be the most similar on these aircraft as integration on commercial aircraft. The technology could also be used on future tactical, bomber, and reconnaissance platforms to extend range or increase payload weight fraction. This technology's attributes for reduced aircraft fuel consumption through turbulent skin friction drag reduction should yield a high potential for private sector commercialization for passenger and cargo aircraft. In addition, the MBT may apply to wind turbines, automobiles, and marine vehicles to improve energy efficiency.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Supporting NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) and the Fundamental Aeronautics Program, this project's technologies directly address requirements for materials and structures technologies contributing towards aircraft aerodynamic efficiency. These requirements fall within NASA's strategic goals to reduce the impact of aircraft on the environment. The MBT offers the potential for significant fuel savings and reduced emissions for commercial and DoD aircraft operating in both subsonic and supersonic flight regimes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Image Analysis
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Lasers (Cutting & Welding)
Contact/Mechanical
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A1.03-9122
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Emissions Propulsion and Power
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cryogenic and Non-Cryogenic Hybrid Electric Distributed Propulsion with Integration of Airframe and Thermal Systems to Analyze Technology Influence

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Empirical Systems Aerospace, Inc.
P.O. Box 595
Pismo Beach, CA 93448-9665
(805) 275-1053

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Benjamin Schiltgen
benjamin.schiltgen@esaero.com
P.O. Box 595
Pismo Beach,  CA 93448-9665
(805) 275-1053

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A design iteration of ESAero's ECO-150 split wing turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) concept is proposed to incorporate recent lessons learned in synergistic configuration opportunities, propulsion and thermal management system research and tool development, and aeropropulsive benefits reported by Lockheed Martin. Non-cryogenic and cryogenic/superconducting components will be included in three separate propulsion system architectures: one cooled via conventional "warm" coolant, one cryogenically cooled with a cryocooler system, and one cryogenically cooled with a liquid hydrogen blow-down system. The effort will begin with an interagency collaborative "Brainernet" brainstorming session to identify and assess technology and concept drivers and opportunities. Detailed configuration, aerodynamics, performance, and mission analysis will complement the effort, culminating in three flagship TeDP or hybrid electric distributed propulsion (HEDP) concepts which embody the propulsion-airframe-thermal integration (PATI) paradigm. A 2D and 3D CFD evaluation of the integrated propulsor will validate the physics-based aerodynamics and propulsor analysis tools. The lessons learned from the effort will establish a conceptual design roadmap for HEDP aircraft that are sensitive to PATI factors while also identifying path-critical technologies and design driving parameters for the propulsion and thermal management systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ESAero will leverage the resulting configurations and the applied design process and tools to support conceptual design groups in their research and development of HEDP aircraft. This effort will demonstrate the utility of ESAero's latest tool development endeavors, which contribute to a more efficient conceptual design process with consideration of PATI factors. The tools and design process can guide aerospace primes and AFRL toward the identification of feasible HEDP configurations and support component manufacturers interested in how their technology would affect the leading edge in HEDP design and performance. AFRL would benefit as they are conducting in-house studies and supporting ESAero in other related areas. IARPA and the FAA will also benefit, as the lessons learned will be distributed within the government FOUO. ESAero has indentified the government and industry partners to develop this type of technology near term (Boeing, General Electric, Lockheed Martin) and longer (NASA, AFRL, IARPA etc).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ECO-150R configurations, with all the solicited NASA, Industry, and AFRL involvement, will have high visibility. This has unquantifiable benefits to commercialization, exposure, and business growth. ESAero's objective is to create a "poster child" for tube and wing TeDP/HEDP for themselves, but it is possible that this vehicle could be adopted by NASA. By updating the ECO-150 to the level of other concepts such as the N3-X, which has fostered immense research and development from all sides of the industry, ESAero will secure itself as a vital partner for follow-on research. Many aspects of the synergistic concept still wait to be investigated and introduced to the conceptual design process, including performance requirement relaxation opportunities and propulsion-aided control algorithms (PACA). The design effort will also promote ESAero's design tools, particularly PANTHER, both in publicity and reputability. The conceptual design roadmap and component technology requirements will impart immediate and recurring value.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Superconductance/Magnetics
Distribution/Management
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Atmospheric Propulsion
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A1.03-9200
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Emissions Propulsion and Power
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Performance Carbon Nanotube Based Conductors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hyper Tech Research, Inc.
539 Industrial Mile Road
Columbus, OH 43228-2412
(614) 481-8050

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Tomsic
mtomsic@hypertechresearch.com
539 Industrial Mile Road
Columbus,  OH 43228-2412
(624) 481-8050

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal is for the development of conductors with improved electrical conductivity and/or ampacity better than copper or aluminum. Electrical conductors are key components for just about every power device or system. Copper is presently the conductor of choice, based on high performance, low cost, and ease of use. However, increasing demands for power and data push the need for more capacity, and the total contribution of electrical conductor weight to the system has become significant in aircraft, ships, rail, and automobiles. Thus, the development of a commercial, low-cost, light-weight, highly conductivity wire is an important objective to improve energy efficiency and reduce the weight/amp of power. In this Phase I and eventual Phase II we propose the development for carbon nanotube (CNT) metal based current carrying composites. We will focus on CNT additions to two base metals, Cu and Al, and the composites made with them as base metals. We will focus on composites that have a high density of carbon nanotubes. Our objective is developing methods to functionalize the connection between carbon nanotubes such that the connections have low resistance. We will focus on the properties of conductivity, and ampacity (maximum current which can be carried per area of cross section). Our focus will be demonstrating methods of improvement in Phase I and optimization of the best options in Phase II and also fabrication of long length wires in a Phase II effort.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The high performance (Amp/gm) carbon nanotube wires that can be developed in this SBIR Phase I and II will initially be more expensive than Cu and Al wires until the technology is fully developed and large scale manufacturing is put in place. The initial market applications will be where weight is at a premium and electrical wiring is needed. These include obvious industries like aircraft, outer space and military hardware, transportation (ships, trains, and autos), and wind turbine generators on tall towers. The secondary industries that are addressable include where high current densities are needed to obtain higher magnetic fields (above 2 tesla) which is similar to the market for superconductors that Hyper Tech is presently marketing and selling. Present superconductor wire applications are some of the early market applications where these high performance CNT wires could penetrate the marketplace. Such applications include motors, generators, fault current limiters, transformers, transmission cables, MRI, and High Energy Physics type applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Improved conductors that have a better amp/gm capacity can benefit many NASA applications where light weight power components are required such as generators, motors, transformers, inductors, power conditioning equipment, wiring for data transmission, actuators, MHD magnets, propulsion engines, magnetic shielding, and magnetic launch devices.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Distribution/Management
Generation
Composites
Nanomaterials
Actuators & Motors
Surface Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A1.03-9346
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Emissions Propulsion and Power
PROPOSAL TITLE: A New Cryocooler for MgB2 Superconducting Systems in Turboelectric Aircraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, LLC
16 Great Hollow Road
Hanover, NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anthony Dietz
ajd@creare.com
16 Great Hollow Road
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Turboelectric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft design space by decoupling power generation from propulsion. Resulting aircraft designs such as blended-wing bodies with distributed propulsion can provide the large reductions in emissions, fuel burn, and noise required to make air transportation growth projections sustainable. The power density requirements for these electric machines can only be achieved with superconductors, which in turn require lightweight, high-capacity cryocoolers. Creare has previously developed a Cryoflight turbo-Brayton cryocooler concept that exceeds the mass and performance targets identified by NASA for superconducting aircraft with high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials requiring cooling to 50 K. Here, we propose to extend the temperature range of our cryocooler with an innovative new cycle concept to provide cooling to 15 K for MgB2 superconductors, which offer price and performance advantages for certain superconducting machines. In Phase I of this project, we will evaluate the performance advantages of our concept through modeling and preliminary component designs. In Phase II, we will fabricate and test the highest-risk components to bring the overall TRL to 4. In Phase III, we will build and test a complete cryocooler to support extended performance testing with MgB2 systems. This development effort will provide an enabling technology for the superconducting systems needed to make turboelectric aircraft feasible.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Superconducting materials have the potential to revolutionize the way we generate, transmit, and consume power. Transformational initiatives that rely on superconducting technologies include power conditioning and power transmission systems, large-scale offshore wind turbines, high efficiency data centers, Navy ship systems, and turboelectric aircraft. While the latter is the target application for the proposed cryocooler, the other applications represent potential near-term markets for the technology. Companies are currently pursuing approaches based on either HTS or MgB2 superconducting materials. The low-temperature cryocooler proposed here will support MgB2 systems, which offer a number of advantages over HTS systems including lower cost and reduced losses in varying magnetic fields. The 15 K operating temperature of these systems makes the cryocooler a critical component of any solution. There is also a large potential market beyond superconducting applications, including cooling for laboratory and industrial-scale gas separation, liquefaction, cryogen storage and cryogen transportation systems, liquid hydrogen fuel cell storage for the automotive industry, and commercial orbital transfer vehicles and satellites.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our proposed cryocooler development effort will support NASA's long-term goal to increase aircraft efficiency and reduce aircraft emissions and noise. By providing a cryocooler capable of cooling MgB2 systems and optimized to meet the aggressive power density target required for aircraft, we will enable an alternative approach to HTS systems and allow a detailed evaluation of the relative advantages of HTS and MgB2 superconducting technologies. Such an evaluation is needed to clarify the road map for superconducting aircraft. While such aircraft are still two or three decades from production, supporting technology development needs to begin now if such aircraft are to become a viable alternative to the aircraft configurations in production today. The results of this SBIR project will support continuing NASA design trade studies, system demonstrations, and eventual superconducting aircraft demonstrations. Other NASA applications include space applications such as hydrogen cryogenic liquefaction and storage for planetary and extraterrestrial exploration missions, CEVs, extended-life orbital transfer vehicles, in-space propellant depots, and extraterrestrial bases. Terrestrial NASA applications include cooling for spaceport cryogen storage and transportation systems. The highly reliable and space-proven turbo-Brayton cryocooler is ideal for these applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A1.04-9175
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Quiet Performance
PROPOSAL TITLE: Shape Memory Alloy Adaptive Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Transition45 Technologies, Inc.
1739 North Case Street
Orange, CA 92865-4211
(714) 283-2118

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Edward Chen
transition45@sbcglobal.net
1739 North Case Street
Orange,  CA 92865-4211
(714) 283-2118

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase I effort will demonstrate and scale up an innovative manufacturing process that yields aerospace grade shape memory alloy (SMA) solids and periodic cellular structures. Bulk-sized SMA components and structures are extremely difficult to fabricate as castings due to the compositional sensitivity of these alloys. Remelting also leads to brittleness from the presence of deleterious phases and precipitates that form upon metal solidification. For cost effectiveness, structural integrity, and shape memory and/or superelastic behavior, SMA castings with the requisite composition-microstructure-properties are needed and will be developed in this work.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA commercial applications include armor applications, automotive and land vehicle components and structures, shipboard structures, sporting goods, biomedical implants, and building structures. Essentially, a practically limitless list of potential applications could be made if large-sized structure with the requisite aeroelastic properties can be manufactured affordably.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA commercial applications include aeroengine and airframe structural components, particularly those requiring aeroelastic behavior, light weight, acoustic dampening, and impact resistance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Processing Methods
Metallics
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Actuators & Motors
Structures
Atmospheric Propulsion
Surface Propulsion
Thermal
Active Systems
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A1.04-9178
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Quiet Performance
PROPOSAL TITLE: Adjoint Techniques and Acoustic Three Zone Method for the Accurate Design of Low Boom Maneuvers (ATAtZM-DLBM)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creative Aero Engineering Solutions
6285 East Spring Street, #304N
Long Beach, CA 90808-4020
(562) 443-7566

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alan Arslan
alan.arslan@aeroengineering.us
6285 E. Spring St. #304N
Long Beach,  CA 90808-4020
(562) 443-7566

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Under this collaborative effort, Creative Aero Engineering Solutions (CAES) and its partner, Wyle Laboratories, will integrate within our MDO framework the latest development of the three zone method, which is expected to eliminate the need for far-field results beyond 25 spans that typical Sonic-Boom prediction two-zone methods currently use. We will use the adjoint solution of the near-field pressure functional of the flowfield (more specifically sonic boom related functionals) to create new design variables, which will better characterize the design space more accurately and allow for more efficient low-boom configuration design. Subsequently, a similar methodology can be utilized for trajectory optimization (i.e. avoidance of focused booms at certain locations) during climb and descent of typical supersonic aircraft. We will use a different set of variables for such purposes (i.e. control surface deflections/thrust schedules). During Phase I we will establish the feasibility of the three zone approach within our MDO framework and verify the functionality of the design variables. Under Phase II, we will apply the new methodology to a NASA Low Boom configuration.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Ultimately, the primary non-NASA application will involve more accurate prediction of "boom" footprints of supersonic fighters being operated by Air-Forces around the world. Moreover, AFRL could use this technology for the design of its next generation fighters and bombers. Needless to say, when approved for export control (obviously only certain aspects of this technology could be), we will be able to commercialize the capability to numerous companies, including the prime airframers, and allied governments and their respective space agencies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The developed capability will allow NASA analysts to effectively couple an efficient procedure to characterize the design space of a low-boom supersonic transport with a very badly needed multizone method for the prediction of focused ground boom signatures and/or their mitigation maneuvers. Our team truly believes that the three zone method will allow NASA to focus more on the "nearfield" nature of the CFD flowfield (i.e. propulsion plumes with shocks and expansions) and less on requiring grid convergence studies for 2 to 20 body lengths in order to achieve proper ground signature predictions. Potential other NASA applications include the accurate prediction of a focused boom of an accelerating launch vehicle of a supersonic fighter jet. With commercial launches becoming more safe and commonplace (i.e. SpaceX and Orbital Sciences), one may expect closer proximity to inhabited zones in the future and therefore more accurate focused boom prediction. Finally, capsule reentry booms (i.e. Orion) will eventually need to be more accurately predicted as manned spaceflight becomes commonplace.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A1.04-9214
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Quiet Performance
PROPOSAL TITLE: Interferometric Correlator for Acoustic Radiation & Underlying Structural Vibration (ICARUSV)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Systems & Technologies, Inc.
12 Mauchly Building H
Irvine, CA 92618-2330
(949) 733-3355

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vladimir Markov
vmarkov@asatechinc.com
12 Mauchly, Bldg. H
Irvine, CA,  CA 92618-2330
(949) 733-3355

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Current methods for identification of aircraft noise sources, such as near-field acoustical holography and beam forming techniques, involve the use of pressure probes or microphone arrays to measure the radiated sound field. However, those techniques are intrusive, bandwidth limited, time consuming to implement, require extensive data processing and the resulting data may ultimately generate false results in the form of pseudo (noise) sources. Advanced Systems & Technologies Inc. proposes an optical non-contact sensor fusion concept which, for the first time, enables direct capture and observation of full-field non-stationary dynamic structural intensity (DSI) and unsteady radiated sound fields or transient flow fields around the structure of interest. DSI depicts the flow of energy in a structure and provides an unambiguous identification of structural noise sources and sinks. Additionally, the ability to capture and correlate the acoustic/flow field data with the structure borne intensity offers an unprecedented and rapid diagnostic capability for noise source characterization and evaluation of noise abatement systems. In addition to being non-intrusive the measurements are fast, can be made at operationally relevant bandwidths, which extend to the ultrasonic domain, and provide deeper insight into the complex structural dynamics which are the root cause of noise emission.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The parallel sensor architecture of the ICARUSV overcomes limitations in existing technology, introducing, for the first time, a true imaging modality to the laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). The ICARUSV concept and related instruments is thus anticipated to appeal to a broad spectrum of applications and industries where existing commercial single beam LDV's are currently employed. In addition to performing routine vibration measurements much more efficiently (orders of magnitude faster than LDV) the imaging modality of the ICARUSV is anticipated to find new diagnostic capability beyond those of traditional LDV, including aerospace, automotive, electronics and industrial plants applications. Numerous industries (automotive, aerospace, medical and computer electronics) employ LDV for modal vibration analyses. In addition to modal analysis, the ICARUSV would target the market represented by non-destructive testing in the marine, aviation and space industries and, in particular, the non-destructive inspection in manufacture and maintenance of deployed military systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ICARUSV contributes towards current and future noise reduction goals by providing a diagnostic tool for evaluation of a wide range of aircraft structures designed to effect noise reduction. Examples applications include testing of continuous mould line wing structures, drooped leading edge, active flow control, adaptive and flexible wing structures, smart cheverons, and toboggan fairings. Related applications include evaluation of engine noise reduction systems such as Ultra High Bypass engines, distortion-tolerant fans and variable fan nozzles. The ability to visualize energy flow paths between sources and sinks on the structure will elucidate the contribution of specific design features in determining these paths and suggest design modifications which mitigate or redirect this energy away from specific locations. ICARUSV also offers a new tool for identification of vehicle specific aero-elastic instabilities and for fundamental aeronautic studies related to ground testing, wind tunnel tests, and flight experiments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Aerobraking/Aerocapture
Tools/EVA Tools
Characterization
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A1.05-8776
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Physics-Based Conceptual Aeronautics Design Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Aerodynamic Analysis For Propulsion Airframe Integration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Research in Flight
1919 North Ashe Court
Auburn, AL 36830-2691
(334) 444-8523

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Burkhalter
burkhje@auburn.edu
211 Davis Hall
Auburn,  AL 36849-5338
(334) 444-8523

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Research in Flight is proposing to develop a fundamentally new, lower order, high fidelity solution approach for the aerodynamic analysis required for engine integration studies. This new approach is based on a new tool known as Flightstream. Flightstream is a surface vorticity based solver which uses an unstructured surface geometry, and a correlation for skin friction which is based on the surface vorticity. For lift and induced drag calculations, Fligthstream makes use of the Kutta Joukowski Theorem. The Kutta Joukowski Theorem has proven to be a remarkably accurate method for calculating loads for essentially all lifting configurations in which the flow is attached to the surface. Research in Flight has demonstrated many compelling capabilities of Flightstream to accurately predict the aerodynamic loads on a range of geometries including high lift configurations. This fundamentally new approach to aircraft outer mold line evaluation offers the speed and fidelity required for even optimization based design. The speed of Flightstream is comparable to traditional panel approaches yet the fidelity in calculating loads has been shown to be comparable to high fidelity CFD solutions. To further compliment the utility of FLightstream as a compelling design tool, Flightstream has been configured to operate seamlessly with NASA's Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) software. The primary function of the proposed activity will be to develop an automated approach to engine integration by coupling the compelling capabilities of Flightstream with optimization tools, rudimentary engine performance tools, and automated grid generation using VSP. The goals for the optimization will be related to aerodynamic performance and will include lift to drag and moment calculations in consultation with the technical point of contact at NASA. A report on the progress during Phase I will outline the process and will include preliminary results.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The traditional approach to aircraft design involves the development of a concept, initial analysis of the concept using lower order tools which include for example vortex lattice or panel approaches for aerodynamics. The fidelity of these tools is not always at a level which is sufficient to direct a trade study toward optimal configurations. Nevertheless, the results of these lower order studies are generally used to direct geometry development and higher order solutions are developed using Euler codes and Navier Stokes solvers. These higher fidelity solutions offer much more than just loads to the designer but often the higher fidelity solutions reveal inadequacies in the load calculations and some redesign work is initiated. To streamline this process, a tool is needed which can provide high fidelity load calculations at the speed of the lower fidelity tools. Flightstream offers this capability but does not yet have the capability to automatically optimize and engine integration into candidate designs. This proposed activity would provide this capability, working seamlessly with NASA's Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) to dramatically improve the efficiency of the commercial aircraft design process and offering, on average, better final designs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Research in Flight has been working with NASA Langley to demonstrate the capability of Flightstream as a design tool for subsonic aircraft. Fligthstream has been used to predict the high lift performance of the D8.5 geometry. The clean configuration of this geometry was tested at NASA Langley in wind tunnels. Both the clean configuration and the high lift configuration were analyzed by Research in Flight using Flightstream. This included the validation of Flightstream for similar geometries using the High Lift Prediction Workshop data for the DLR wind tunnel model. The fidelity of the solution for this data set was remarkable and demonstrated the baseline applicability of Flightstream to complex subsonic aircraft configurations. NASA Langley is now using Flightstream internally with confidence for geometries similar to the DLR including compressible flight regimes. The proposed activity will substantially enhance NASA's ability to robustly analyze and design a range of subsonic aircraft outer mold lines to include engine integration directly in the design process. This capability will substantially improve the speed and fidelity of the preliminary design process at NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Atmospheric Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A1.05-9104
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Physics-Based Conceptual Aeronautics Design Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Physics-Based Aeroanalysis Methods for Open Rotor Conceptual Design

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618-2302
(609) 538-0444

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Todd Quackenbush
todd@continuum-dynamics.com
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing,  NJ 08618-2302
(609) 538-0444

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Operating costs and fossil fuel consumption of civil transports can be reduced through use of efficient counter rotating open rotor (CROR) propulsion systems, thereby addressing both key industry needs and long-term NASA technical goals. To develop such next-generation systems, multiple design variables must be assessed and optimized efficiently within a conceptual design software environment. A blend of physics-based, low- and mid-fidelity tools featuring rapid turnaround time and ease of setup can provide this capability; implementation represents a serious technical challenge, though, and there is a high premium on developing tools that are both sufficiently accurate to capture current technology performance metrics while permitting the rapid re-calculations necessary for design trades. The proposed approach centers on a blend of enhanced features and novel departures for two complementary aeroanalysis methods: an evolved version of an established subsonic lifting surface free wake mdoel for propellers as a fast,'low-fidelity' tool; and a more computationally intensive, fully compressible Cartesian Grid Euler model as a 'mid-fidelity' tool. The projected Phase I will implement and test key modeling and formulation improvements for these methods to enable them to support the design of multi-stage open rotor configurations to meet current and projected performance targets.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The enhanced fast-turnaround, physics-based analysis and design tools will also be of great use to both civil aircraft manufacturers and DoD. The US Air Force is actively seeking more efficient future transport aircraft designs, and the proposed models can support those initiatives. Airframers and private industry can also utilize these tools in designing more efficient fxied wing aircraft. In addition, spinoffs to support design of propulsion systems for compound rotorcraft and UAVs are also possible.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed effort directly responds to NASA's SBIR solicitation goal of investigating the potential of advanced, innovative propulsion concepts to improve fuel efficiency and reduce the environmental footprint of future commercial transports. Propulsion systems such as open rotors can help meet aggressive, long range emission reduction targets in support of initiatives such as the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project. The proposed effort will also enhance analysis and conceptual design tools that can support support assessment of novel air vehicle designs using CROR propulsion.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Atmospheric Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A1.05-9471
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Physics-Based Conceptual Aeronautics Design Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Physics-based MDAO tool for CMC blades and vanes conceptual design

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
N&R Engineering
6659 Pearl Road, #201
Parma Heights, OH 44130-3821
(440) 845-7020

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ian Miller
imiller@nrengineering.com
6659 Pearl Road, #201
Parma Heights,  OH 44130-3821
(440) 845-7020

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed work will develop a reliability analysis tool consistent with conceptual-level design for ceramic matrix composite (CMC) turbine blades and vanes. The analysis software will comprise a suite of physics-based discipline specific analysis code modules and NASA's Fast Probability Integrator (FPI). The objective of this analysis tool is to develop optimal material properties, internal and external geometries for a cooled vane/blade using aerothermal, and structural (including creep) analyses. Structural constraints in the form of allowable mechanical/thermal stresses and material constraints in the form of minimum wall thickness and minimum bend radius will be applied. The structural stress analysis will be augmented with a creep module to determine an estimate for part life. The suggested benchmark system problem is a multi-disciplinary analysis of a NASA C3X turbine vane, 2 or 3D versions of the discipline specific models will be taken from the open literature and implemented as plug-in modules for NASA's Open MDAO framework. It is not the intention of this program to develop new MDAO architectures, rather the optimization drivers built into Open MDAO will be used.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A ceramic matrix composite blade leads to gains in specific fuel consumption by allowing higher operating temperatures, reductions in required cooling, and reductions in vehicle weight. A reliability analysis tool for CMC turbine blades has a high probability of being implemented by aero-turbine gas engine manufactures, such as GE Aviation, Pratt &Whitney, Rolls-Royce and Honeywell.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate has programs and projects regarding subsonic aviation and with goals of improved efficiency, emissions and noise are potential consumers of this effort from a technology development standpoint. Specifically, the development of a reliability analysis tool consistent with conceptual-level design for ceramic matrix composite turbine blades and vanes will facilitate the aforementioned NASA goal.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Ceramics
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A1.06-9338
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vertical Lift
PROPOSAL TITLE: Non-Contact Magnetic Transmission For Hybrid/Electric Rotorcraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
LaunchPoint Technologies, Inc.
5735 Hollister Avenue, Suite B
Goleta, CA 93117-6410
(805) 683-9659

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dave Paden
grants@launchpnt.com
5735 Hollister Avenue, Suite B
Goleta,  CA 93117-6410
(805) 683-9659

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Electric propulsion has the potential to revolutionize aircraft design and architecture. A distributed electric propulsion system for a VTOL aircraft can exploit aerodynamic benefits increasing the lift to drag ratio by 4 to 5 times (Fredericks et al, Intl Powered Lift Conf, Aug 2013) to that of conventional rotorcrafts. Basic physics principles can demonstrate that weight and efficiency optimized electric motors and propellers of the same power rating will rotate at different rpm making a transmission system/gearbox desirable. High speed electric motors have excellent specific power whereas low speed propellers are more efficient. In distributed propulsion systems there may be numerous individual propulsors making gearbox maintenance a significant effort that will detract from the potential cost savings of electric propulsion. We propose a magnetic transmission (magnetic gearbox) design that will allow optimal matching of high specific power electric motors to efficient propellers for use on electric or hybrid-electric air vehicles. The proposed magnetic transmission will have a mass of no more than an equivalent rated mechanical gearbox. Unlike conventional gears the magnetic transmission will have no lubrication requirements, gear tooth wear, will be immune to vibration fatigue in the gear teeth, and will have minimal acoustic noise. If overloaded the design will benignly "slip a tooth" and then re-engage. We propose to design, build and test a magnetic transmission optimized for specific torque, and compare the weight of the system to an optimal mechanical gearbox of the same power. We will also perform design studies to show how a magnetic gearbox could scale up to a helicopter main rotor gearbox.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
At first, rotorcraft applications would be the most obvious for our magnetic transmission technology because the maintenance cost of the system could be reduced while increasing reliability without impacting weight. Key rotorcraft manufacturers could start building technology demonstrators using our technology within the next several years either with hybrid electric or conventional drive systems if the basic development proposed in this Phase I effort is completed and the technology is proven effective. We have been in contact with various research groups working on electric and hybrid electric vehicles, and they have expressed interest in our motor and hybrid-electric drive technology. Terrafugia Inc. with their new TFX VTOL personal air vehicle design could benefit tremendously from this magnetic transmission technology, along with many other personal air vehicle concept designers. Terrafugia has discussed with us how noisy mechanical gearboxes are and would love an alternative.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has done significant research in electric and hybrid/electric propulsion. Non-contact magnetic transmission technology would be a key enabler for full sized aircraft propulsion systems in order to meet the specific power requirements. Furthermore, some NASA research areas are focused on cryo-cooled propulsion. The magnetic remanence of the rare earth magnets we will use in the magnetic trasnmission actually increases as the magnets are cooled down to 100 degrees K. This potentially results in a ~30% increase in torque capability for a magnetic gearbox that is cryo-cooled.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Actuators & Motors
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Atmospheric Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A1.06-9851
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vertical Lift
PROPOSAL TITLE: Vertical Lift by Series Hybrid Power

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
90 Broadway 11th Floor
Cambridge, MA 02142-1050
(703) 369-3633

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Van Livieratos
livieratos.van@aurora.aero
90 Broadway, 11th Floor
Cambridge,  MA 02142-1050
(617) 229-6853

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Multi-rotors (e.g. quad-copters) typically have direct electric drive, where the electric motor shaft is directly coupled to the propeller shaft. The benefit of this configuration is simple and high fidelity control. But electric drive for vertical lift typically relies on lithium polymer batteries for energy storage, and battery specific energy is extremely low compared to internal combustion fuels; Gasoline has about a 15X advantage over rechargeable batteries and diesel has about an 18X advantage. Current unmanned multi-rotor aircraft do not have the endurance or payload capability to act in place of manned observatory platforms (rechargeable batteries deliver at most two hours of endurance for multi-rotor aircraft with no payload). However, frequency response requirements tend to prohibit direct drive from an internal combustion engine. Aurora proposes to develop a reformulated Miller Cycle engine in Series Hybrid Architecture for use in small unmanned vertical lift aircraft to combine the benefits of both direct electric drive and internal combustion engine technology. The reformulated Miller Cycle will also confront the fuel mixing issues associated with sUAS sized small engines.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Passive Miller Cycle in a Series Hybrid Architecture could be integrated into a number of Tier 1 (<50 lb) UAV's and used to substantially increase the endurance and payload. Current unmanned multi-rotor aircraft do not have the endurance or payload capability to act in place of manned observatory platforms, but with a Passive Miller Cycle Series Hybrid, endurance and payload could meet the requirements that manned systems do today. The unmanned multi-rotor has many advantages over manned helicopter systems: - Takeoff and landing - Buy-in cost - Operating cost Two specific markets where unmanned multi rotors can augment existing manned helicopter operations are in Electronic News Gathering and law enforcement.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In this proposal, a reformulated Miller cycle is presented as a method for both increasing the endurance of small unmanned vertical lift aircraft and overcoming fuel mixing issues associated sUAS sized engines. With greater endurance and payload it is expected that a multi-rotor observatory platform would be suitable for many earth science missions: - Volcanic Plume research - Wildfire Tracking - Highly localized emission in urban environments

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Generation
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A1.07-9387
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Efficient Propulsion & Power
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Temperature "Smart" P3 Sensors and Electronics for Distributed Engine Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sporian Microsystems, Inc.
515 Courtney Way, Suite B
Lafayette, CO 80026-8821
(303) 516-9075

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kevin Harsh
harshk@sporian.com
515 Courtney Way, Suite B
Lafayette,  CO 80026-8821
(303) 516-9075

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Current engine control architectures impose limitations on the insertion of new control capabilities due to weight penalties and reliability issues related to complex wiring harnesses. NASA in collaboration with Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) has been conducting research in developing technologies to enable Distributed Engine Control (DEC) architectures. Realization of such future intelligent engines depends on the development of both hardware and software, including high temperature electronics and sensors to make smart components. NASA is particularly interested in the design and development of these applications for assessing the benefit they bring to the engine system. Compressor discharge pressure measurement has long been a key aspect of turbine engine control to manage stall margin. Given that, there is a need for a high-temperature, smart P3 sensor as a key building block for distributed engine controls. Given the current limitations of high temperature electronics, the business case for smart control elements (sensors and actuators) can be made in the fan/compressor section of the engine. The long-term objective of the proposed effort is to advance high-temperature P3 sensor technology for DEC applications through working with OEM partners and industry working groups to: (1) to iterate the current technology toward DEC formats/functions, (2) advance the digital electronics design/firmware and high temperature electronics, and (3) (through demonstration and stakeholder collaboration) present the viability (technical and business case) of the proposed sensor.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aero propulsion turbine engines, communally used in commercial and military jets, would benefit significantly by having a non-invasive, small mass, on engine component sensor allowing for visibility of the conditions in the turbine engine. The technology and sensor product described in this proposal would allow exactly that, while existing sensors fall well short of the application's demand. The conditions in this application are harsh, and sensors must be able to withstand high temperatures, high pressures, high flow rates, jet fuel, and exhaust. In order for existing and future aero propulsion turbine engines to improve safety, reduce cost, and emissions while controlling engine instabilities, more accurate and complete information is necessary. The technology described in this proposal would allow the next boundary in sensing technology to be achieved: direct measurement from the point of interest within the turbine. Commercial applications abound for the successful results of this proposal in commercial and military turbine engine industries, which are made up of companies such as GE, Pratt & Whitney and Rolls-Royce. Additional potential market areas include: marine propulsion, rail locomotives, land based power generation turbines, automotive, oil and gas refining, government and academic laboratories.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed sensor directly supports NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) research thrusts including vehicle safety, efficiency and carbon emission reduction. The sensor is also directly applicable to a planetary exploration mission to Venus since a high temperature sensor that does not require cooling will significantly reduce payload weight, volume, and complexity. Space propulsion systems, including chemical rockets, nuclear thermal propulsion, launch and station keeping, all exhibit high temperatures and would benefit from the proposed technology. Energy generation systems such as Stirling engines and fuel cells also have high operational temperatures that could be monitored by the proposed sensor. In situ resource utilization systems utilize high temperatures and pressures and would benefit from the proposed technology. Derivative sensor technology could potentially be applied for sensing conditions in thermal protection systems for alloy and ceramic matrix composite structural components.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Prototyping
Ceramics
Metallics
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Pressure/Vacuum
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A1.07-9813
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Efficient Propulsion & Power
PROPOSAL TITLE: Variable Fidelity AeroPropulsoServoElasticity Analysis Tool

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
701 McMillian Way Northwest, Suite D
Huntsville, AL 35806-2923
(256) 726-4800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris Talley
chris.talley@cfdrc.com
701 McMillian Way NW, Suite D
Huntsville,  AL 35806-2923
(256) 726-4800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CFDRC proposes to develop, validate, and demonstrate a variable-fidelity multi-physics framework for AeroPropulsoServoElastic (APSE) simulations of supersonic vehicles. The proposed effort will leverage previously developed AeroServoThermoElastic (ASTE) framework that will be advanced with newly developed non-intrusive efficient software integration methodology, and extended with the addition of an aircraft engine propulsion module to create an APSE analysis tool for next generation supersonic vehicles simulations. The developed framework will be verified against benchmark cases for accuracy and efficiency. Demonstration of the full capabilities of the technology will be conducted for a representative supersonic transport configuration in a supersonic flow environment. In Phase II, the capability of the framework will be extended by integrating additional NASA and industry preferred computational tools (both high fidelity and reduced order) to the framework. The usability of the framework will be improved by supporting NASA preferred input/output data formats, adding non-linear material models, support for NASA's open Multidisciplinary Design Analysis and Optimization (openMDAO) scripts and further improving the accuracy of the fluid and structure coupling. Validation and demonstration of the framework will be conducted on selected APSE problems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA potential customers and applications include DoD agencies such as U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy, DARPA, U.S. Army and Missile Defense agencies and contractors such as Lockheed Martin and Boeing for application involving development of flexible supersonic manned and unmanned air vehicles as well as global strike hypersonic vehicles. Other commercial applications include general multi-disciplinary analysis problems such as heat exchanger vibration, panel flutter of aerospace vehicles, turbo-machinery blade vibrations and many others.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology will provide an accurate and comprehensive analysis tool for coupled AeroPropulsoServoElastic (APSE) simulations of supersonic vehicles especially for the next generation and beyond (N+2) supersonic transport aircraft. The APSE tool will help in the design of supersonic aircraft that are safer, have better ride quality, and easier to fly. It will enable NASA to analyze interaction characteristics of fluid, structural, thermal, propulsive and controls fields of aerospace vehicles. NASA direct applications include supersonic vehicles, hypersonic re-entry vehicles, inflatable aerodynamic decelerators, hypersonic aircraft and spacecraft (X-51), NASA's Orion crew exploration vehicle, the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) vehicle, and many others. Ultimately, the framework will lead to improved performance and safety of aerospace vehicles and significantly reduce the dependence on flight tests and wind tunnel testing thereby reducing the time required to certify new NASA, military and commercial aircraft and spacecraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Structures
Atmospheric Propulsion
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A1.08-8885
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Testing and Measurement Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniaturized Dynamic Pressure Sensor Arrays with Sub-Millimeter (mm) Spacing for Cross-Flow Transition Measurements

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Interdisciplinary Consulting Corporation
5745 Southwest 75th, 364
Gainesville, FL 32608-5504
(352) 359-7796

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tai-An Chen
IC2.tchen@gmail.com
747 SW 2nd Ave, IMB #27, Suite #358
Gainesville,  FL 32601-6284
(937) 361-7711

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Interdisciplinary Consulting Corporation (IC2) and in partnership with the University of Florida (UF) propose a microfabricated, dynamic piezoelectric pressure sensor array with sub-mm spacing to enable high temporal and spatial resolution measurements of cross-flow transition in swept-wing, supersonic aircraft research. The proposal is in response to Subtopic A1.08 Ground Testing and Measurement Technologies, whereby the primary objective is "to develop innovative tools and technologies that enhance testing and measurement capabilities&#133;" More specifically, the proposed innovation addresses critically unmet measurement needs of the Commercial Supersonics Technology (CST) Project of the NASA Advanced Air Vehicles Program (AAVP). The proposed innovation is a highly miniaturized, dynamic piezoelectric pressure sensor array with sub-mm spacing for high bandwidth, high spatial resolution measurements of cross-flow transition. High-spatial resolution pressure sensors with sub-mm spacing provide a much-needed capability that does not currently exist among state-of-the-art offerings, enabling dynamic wall pressure measurement and identification of traveling and standing cross-flow modes. The proposed concept extends the basic design to high bandwidth, high-spatial resolution, dynamic pressure sensing via reduction in sensor geometry and integration of multiple sensors arrayed on a single chip. The end result is a miniaturized, highly-compact array of dynamic pressure sensors with backside contacts to enable a truly flush-mounted, smooth interface for flow measurement applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
External customers for dynamic pressure measurements include universities and industry aircraft manufacturers such as the Boeing Company. Particularly, those customers seeking or currently designing next generation, civilian or defense supersonic aircraft have an identical unmet measurement need as NASA Langley. Furthermore, in-flight flow-control (a rapidly growing area of research and development) requires compact accurate measurements of key fluid dynamic parameters such as wall shear stress and dynamic wall pressure. This is a potentially larger volume market with relatively high ASP but will require more development time to meet the tighter space constraints, tougher operating conditions and unique target specifications that such an application entails.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed instrumentation technology has the potential to be transportable across multiple NASA facility classes as well as implemented across government-owned, industry and academic institution test facilities. The target market is the research-grade instrumentation and measurement shear stress sensors market for the aerospace research and development industry. The target application for entry into NASA Aeronautics Test Program is as ground test wind-tunnel instrumentation for turbulent skin friction measurements and separation detection and control. cross-flow boundary layer transition measurements for swept wing models, such as is performed at NASA Langley. These measurements are critical to the proper design of swept wing geometry for the next generation of civilian supersonic aircraft. The design and operating conditions of these aircraft expose the vehicle to cross-flow instabilities that complicate the prediction and control of laminar flow and transition to turbulence. Accurate measurement of these cross-flow instability modes is not currently possible with existing technologies due to limited spatial resolution and sensor spacing constraints. Our proposed technology surmounts the constraints of existing technologies, enabling the required sensor spacing and resolution, thereby directly addressing the previously unmet need.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Pressure/Vacuum


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A1.08-9032
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Testing and Measurement Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Plenoptic Flow Imaging for Ground Testing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanohmics, Inc.
6201 East Oltorf Street, Suite 400
Austin, TX 78741-7509
(512) 389-9990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Lucente
mlucente@nanohmics.com
6201 East Oltorf Street, Suite 400
Austin,  TX 78741-7509
(512) 389-9990

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Instantaneous volumetric flow imaging is crucial to aerodynamic development and testing. Simultaneous volumetric measurement of flow parameters enables accurate capture of temporally dynamic or transient flow phenomena. Nanohmics, Inc. proposes to develop a high-speed, high-resolution plenoptic lightfield flow imaging system to capture a rapid time sequence of simultaneously measured density, velocity and pressure throughout a test volume seeded for laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The plenoptic imager leverages Nanohmics' existing AOI Plenoptic technology based on commercial-off-the-shelf components, providing a rapid route to commercialization. The proposed Nanohmics plenoptic flow imager is instantaneous and therefore able to capture rapidly evolving or oscillatory flow phenomena such as turbulence or vortices (unlike existing plane-scanning techniques). Our Phase II objectives include capture rates of 200,000 Hz or more, and volumetric resolution of over one million volume elements (voxels) &#150; well beyond existing volumetric flow imaging demonstrations. We will leverage two of Nanohmics' current core technologies: our AOI Plenoptic lightfield camera (currently at TRL 7) and our FlashLED illumination system (currently at TRL 6). Leveraging efficient computation hardware developed for plenoptic (wavefront sensing) applications, we will extend our existing plenoptic 3D processing algorithms and to enhance the extraction of volumetric flow density, and combine these with iterative application of fluid equations to extract volumetric velocity and pressure fields. The Phase I objective is to design and fabricate an instantaneous volumetric 3D plenoptic flow imaging system, tested in a wind tunnel seeded for laser-induced fluorescence. The Phase II objective includes increases in speed and resolution, and advancing to TRL 7.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Leveraging our on-going commercialization and sales of plenoptic imagers, we expect our cost-effective, high-performance plenoptic flow imaging system to be a valuable tool to government (including Department of Defense), commercial, and university aerodynamic R&D, for the development of faster and more efficient air vehicles, and for use in aerodynamic development and testing, including for future vehicles with non-traditional aerodynamic geometries or advanced propulsion or flow control surfaces. The plenoptic flow imaging system will allow researchers to see rapidly evolving volumetric flow features &#150; with time increments as small as 5 microseconds or less. Nanohmics spin-off &#150; Austin Optical Innovations &#150; will help reduce cost of our core plenoptic camera technology through commercialization, including for applications such as plenoptic wavefront sensing. Other potential applications go beyond aerodynamic measurement. A number of applications involve fluid flow that can be seeded or perhaps provide their own photon emissions, for example: visualizing flow and reactant concentration in chemical reaction vessels; semiconductor deposition processes like chemical vapor deposition (CVD).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A plenoptic flow imaging system would provide fast, instantaneous volumetric flow capture for use in aerodynamic development and testing, including for future NASA vehicles with non-traditional aerodynamic geometries or advanced propulsion or flow control surfaces. The plenoptic approach may be the only means for capturing volumetric flow data simultaneously, allowing researchers to see for the first time rapidly evolving volumetric flow features &#150; with time increments as small as 5 microseconds or less. Our cost-effective, high-performance plenoptic flow imaging system would be a valuable tool for aerodynamic research and the development of faster and more efficient air vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
3D Imaging
Image Analysis
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Lenses
Emitters
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A1.08-9052
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Testing and Measurement Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fast Pressure-Sensitive Paint System for Production Wind Tunnel Testing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc.
7610 McEwen Road
Dayton, OH 45459-3908
(937) 630-3012

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jim Crafton
jwcrafton@innssi.com
7610 McEwen Road
Dayton,  OH 45459-3908
(937) 630-3012

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 6
End: 9

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Significant advances in the use of fast responding Pressure-Sensitive Paint have recently been achieved as demonstrated by a multi-camera fast PSP test conducted in the 16 foot transonic wind tunnel at AEDC. The unsteady pressure results from this test demonstrated excellent accuracy and spatial resolution, establishing the technical readiness of the fast PSP sensor. During the program, two issues were identified that would significantly improve the fast PSP system performance, 1) real-time data processing, and 2) acquisition of both mean and unsteady data using a single entry. Here we propose the continued development of the fast PSP system by addressing these issues. To enable real-time data processing, a system composed of a computer with a large block of memory, a multi-core processer, and several high end video cards (GPUs) has been assembled. Modern GPUs include thousands of floating point processors and large blocks of memory which enable parallel computations to be executed on individual images. Fast PSP data is an ideal application of this technology as many of the computations can be performed on each image independently. Preliminary tests by ISSI have demonstrated improvements of a factor of three to thirty in processing time using this approach. Acquisition of both mean and unsteady pressure during a single tunnel entry would increase tunnel productivity and can be used to improve the accuracy of the unsteady pressure data. Unfortunately, fast PSPs are generally very temperature sensitive which limits their use in acquiring mean pressure data. ISSI has recently developed a fast PSP formulation with low temperature sensitivity. This formulation will be optimized for use in large wind tunnels and enable acquisition of mean and unsteady pressure data using a single PSP.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is considerable interest in measurements of unsteady pressure for evaluation of computational models and study of flow physics on hypersonic inlets, compressors, acoustics, and aeroelasticity. This system will provide advancement of the state-of-the-art in this field as the proposed research will develop a system for the measurement of continuous distributions unsteady pressure that requires no physical modifications to the model and produces data with high spatial resolution. ISSI has sold several production PSP systems world-wide. There is significant interest among these customers in fast responding PSP. ISSI is currently involved in discussions with several commercial aircraft manufactures regarding the potential of a fast responding PSP system for evaluation of landing bay acoustics. Development of this system for wind tunnel testing is seen as a first step in this process.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is considerable interest in measurements of unsteady pressure for evaluation of computational models and study of flow physics on hypersonic inlets, compressors, aeroelasticity, and rotorcraft aerodynamics. This system will provide advancement of the state-of-the-art in this field as the proposed research will develop a system for the measurement of continuous distributions unsteady pressure that require no physical modifications to the model and produces data with high spatial resolution. The fast PSP technology could be deployed to wind tunnels at Ames, Glenn, and Langley for testing on a variety of programs that have need of unsteady pressure measurements. Specific applications include Aircraft Acoustics, Flow Control, Supersonic Inlets, and Launch Vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Characterization
Image Analysis
Image Processing
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Fusion
Data Processing
Acoustic/Vibration
Pressure/Vacuum


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A1.08-9770
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Testing and Measurement Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: 3D Flow Field Measurements using Aerosol Correlation Velocimetry

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AeroMancer Technologies
2145 California Street Northwest, #308
Washington, DC 20008-1817
(202) 556-0625

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anand Radhakrishnan
anand@aeromancertech.com
2145 California St NW, #308
Washington,  DC 20008-1817
(202) 556-0625

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
AeroMancer Technology proposes to develop a 3D Lidar Global Airspeed Sensor (3D-GLAS) for remote optical sensing of three-component airspeeds in wind tunnel applications. Current methods of non-intrusive airspeed measurement include techniques such as Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) and Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV). However, some common drawbacks of all these standoff methods for 3D airspeed sensing are that they require precise alignment of separate transmitters and receivers; and it is expensive and unwieldy to extend these measurements to a large enough volume to be practical for use in medium and large wind tunnels. The proposed instrument uses range-resolved elastic backscatter data from a lidar beam that is scanned over the volume of interest to generate a 3D map of aerosol density in a short time span. Aerosol density fluctuations are cross-correlated between successive scans to obtain the displacements of the aerosol features along the three axes. Thereby, temporally and spatially resolved velocity measurements are possible at high resolution. In Phase 1, AeroMancer proposes to conduct a requirements analysis to identify the functional and operational needs of wind tunnel application and of the instrument. A signal link budget analysis tool of the proposed lidar will be developed to aid in instrument design and scaling. A conceptual design of the instrument will be developed, where the system architecture and main components will be identified. The preliminary design of the software for extraction of 3D airspeed information from the lidar data will be developed. The design studies will be supported using experimental tests with a previously developed lower-fidelity prototype of a different configuration.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Remote sensing of airspeed has broad applicability to research, development, test and evaluation in a variety of industries ranging from manned and unmanned air, land and sea vehicles for defense, wind tunnels for the automobile and racing industries, civilian aerospace, etc. Other commercial applications could include analyzing the effect of wakes on personnel and equipment at airports, offshore installations and building helipads, as well as measuring the flowfield in the vicinity of buildings and other structures. Other potential non-NASA applications include aerosol and particle research, atmospheric research, field surveys of wind profiles for wind turbines, etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A remote velocimetry system for measuring winds and turbulence can become an integral part of NASA ground test facilities such as wind tunnels, hover chambers and anechoic facilities. The ability to non-intrusively obtain three-component concurrent winds can be used to study key NASA challenges in aerodynamics, aeroacoustics and flight dynamics. In addition to airspeed sensing, the proposed instrument could also have potential NASA applications in spray characterization, aerosol transport and flow visualization.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Characterization
3D Imaging
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A2.01-8721
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Self-Nulling Schlieren Imaging for Aircraft in Flight

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Spectabit Optics, LLC
22941 Mill Creek Drive
Laguna Hills, CA 92653-1215
(949) 553-0688

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Benjamin Buckner
bbuckner@spectabit.com
22941 Mill Creek Drive
Laguna Hills,  CA 92653-1215
(714) 757-4187

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Schlieren imaging is an especially useful tool for studying shock waves created by aircraft, because shock waves create strong refractive index gradients that can be visualized. Until recently, the large and delicate instrumentation required for schlieren photography mostly restricted the technique's use to ground test facilities. Previous work has shown that full-scale schlieren images of an aircraft in flight can be synthesized by analyzing high-speed video of the aircraft flying across the sun. The solar schlieren method is especially useful for air-to-air schlieren photography, because an airborne observation platform provides a unique perspective view of the second aircraft. We propose to advance this technique via a new self-nulling schlieren imaging method which has the potential to substantially increase the sensitivity of the technique. This technology could be also used to study large-scale aerodynamic problems where conventional laboratory schlieren imaging is impossible.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial aviation industry is pursuing new designs for small supersonic jets that have low boom-shape profiles. A successful design will stimulate a market for supersonic air travel, and new aircraft are expected to roll out within the next decade. Flight tests will be necessary as a final critical check of aircraft performance, and schlieren imaging is very effective at visualizing the shock waves generated by aircraft. The proposed software provides a means to obtain schlieren images using image data collected by camera systems that are already in use aboard research aircraft. These developments will provide aircraft manufacturers with an inexpensive means of visualizing aircraft boom shape profiles in full-scale flight tests.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Flight tests are often used as a final critical validation of aerodynamic designs developed by computational and wind tunnel methods because the information obtainable in wind tunnels is subject to interference. Outdoor schlieren systems using the sun and moon as background edges make it possible to visualize shock waves, intense noise features, jet plumes, and other phenomena from full-sized aircraft in flight. The proposed software makes it possible to obtain schlieren images using relatively simple camera hardware that may be deployed aboard research aircraft. Applications exist in all forms of research and development associated with turbulent flow fields including aero optics, flow control, drag, boundary layer transition, and flow separation. A possible future application is characterizing wingtip vortices from aircraft. The proposed development of schlieren imaging software will be extremely important in flight tests, where few aero-optical instruments can visualize airflows around full-sized aircraft in a flight environment.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Characterization
Image Analysis
Image Processing
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A2.01-8787
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rugged, Compact, and Inexpensive Airborne Fiber Sensor Interrogator Based on a Monolithic Tunable Laser

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Freedom Photonics, LLC
41 Aero Camino
Santa Barbara, CA 93117-3104
(805) 967-4900

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Renner
drenner@freedomphotonics.com
41 Aero Camino
Santa Barbara,  CA 93117-3104
(805) 967-4900

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this program, Freedom Photonics will develop and build a robust, low C-SWaP laser source with improved performance over current technology, to be incorporated into improved FOS interrogator systems. The laser will be 40nm continuously tunable around C-band, with fast sweep rate. The laser interrogator module to be developed will be based on our advanced monolithic, fast-tunable laser and receiver technology, leading to ultra-low SWaP with smaller FOS laser interrogator module, two orders of magnitude smaller than existing technology, and interrogator mass less than 100 grams. The configuration will be rugged, compatible with fuel, fuel vapor, shock, and vibration.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
- Oil & Gas: Drill/tool shape and head position, well movement, ROV tether, flexible riser shape, Platform movement, Well health monitoring, well equipment integrity, Storage tank liquid level, liquid composition, distributed well temperature - Medical: Catheters, robotic surgery, Mattress deflection, body contour sensing, bone impact deflection Swallow strength - detection, prosthetic limb design and test, sport equipment safety, Inflammation, Heat Therapy, Cancer Treatment - Energy (other): Nuclear facility snake robots, nuclear tube deformation, Wind turbine blade and shaft deflection Wind turbine blade embedment - health monitoring, blade design and testing, Gas turbine temperature distribution

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
- 3D Shape Sensing: Antenna deflection, solar array deployment, space station snake robots - 2D Shape/Deflection Sensing: Wing deflection, morphing wings, engine nozzle shape, rocket shape - trajectory corrections - Strain Measurements: Distributed load monitoring, COPV failure prediction, failure precursor detection, composite material embedment, full scale testing, structural dynamics - Temperature Measurements: Cryogenic liquid level (rocket fuel), re-entry ablative material monitoring

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Lasers (Medical Imaging)
Acoustic/Vibration
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A2.01-8865
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Sensitivity Semiconductor Sensor Skins for Multi-Axis Surface Pressure Characterization

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanosonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke, VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hang Ruan
hruan@nanosonic.com
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke,  VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This NASA Phase I SBIR program would fabricate high sensitivity semiconductor nanomembrane 'sensor skins' capable of multi-axis surface pressure characterization on flight test vehicles, wind tunnel models as well as operational aerospace vehicles, using SOI (Silicon on Insulator) NM techniques in combination with our pioneering HybridSil&#174; ceramic nanocomposite materials. Such low-modulus, conformal nanomembrane sensor skins with integrated interconnect elements and electronic devices can be applied to new or existing wind tunnel models for multi-axis surface pressure analysis, or to lightweight UAVs as part of active flutter control systems. NanoSonic has demonstrated the feasibility of NM transducer materials in such sensor skins for the measurement of dynamic shear stress and normal pressure. Semiconductor NM sensor skins are thin, mechanically and chemically robust materials that may be patterned in two dimensions to create multi-sensor element arrays that can be embedded into small probe tips or conformally attached onto vehicle and model surfaces. Sensors may be connected to external support instrumentation either through thin film and ribbon cable interconnects, or potentially wirelessly using RF communication directly from electronic networks incorporated into the sensor skin material.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Primary customers would be university, government laboratory and aerospace industry researchers. Small, unmanned air vehicles large enough to carry the extra load associated with electronics and power, and operationally sophisticated enough to require air data sensors would be a likely first military platform use. Distributed pressure mapping on air vehicles as well as in biomedical devices and other systemsmay have merit. Further, the thin film shear sensor elements may be used as air flow or water flow devices in systems where either the low weight, low surface profile, lack of need for space below the flow surface, or high sensitivity at a low cost are needed.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The anticipated initial market of the NM sensor skin arrays is for flight testing and wind tunnel testing of flow models for NASA flight research centers. An appreciation of the instrumentation issues obtained by working with such centers would allow improvements in sensor materials, electronics and packaging, and potentially allow the transition of related products to operational vehicles. The commercialization potential of the NM technology developed through this NASA SBIR program lies in four areas, namely 1) NM sensor skin arrays for the measurement of multi-axis surface pressure, 2) Broader sensor skin arrays for the measurement of pressure, 3) Single-element air or water flow sensors, and 4) NM material itself.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A2.01-8933
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Optical Engine for Rugged, Compact, Inexpensive Airborne Fiber Sensor Interrogators

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Freedom Photonics, LLC
41 Aero Camino
Santa Barbara, CA 93117-3104
(805) 967-4900

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Milan Mashanovitch
mashan@freedomphotonics.com
41 Aero Camino
Santa Barbara,  CA 93117-3104
(805) 967-4900

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this program, we are proposing to develop a key optical element that is of interest for enabling next generation of miniaturized, low-cost NASA's FOSS interrogator systems. Through innovative photonic integration of key functions, the size and cost of the existing system will be reduced by an order of magnitude. This, in turn, will fulfill one of the key requirements of the solicitation, yielding a miniaturized fiber optic measurement system with low power suitable for migration to into platforms spanning from rockets, to small business class jets or UAS platforms.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
3D Shape Sensing (Aerospace, oil and gas, energy, medical) 2D Shape and Deflection Sensing (Aerospace, oil and gas, energy, medical) Strain measurement (Aerospace, oil and gas, energy, medical) Temperature measurement (Aerospace, oil and gas, energy, medical)

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Structural monitoring of aircraft and aerospace vehicles; Integrated sensor systems for monitoring strain, temperature, levels of liquids, 3D shape using a unified sensing system.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Waveguides/Optical Fiber (see also Optics)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Contact/Mechanical
Interferometric (see also Analysis)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A2.01-9132
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robust Sensor for In-Flight Flow Characterization

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tao of Systems Integration, Inc.
1100 Exploration Way
Hampton, VA 23666-1339
(757) 220-5040

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arun Mangalam
arun@taosystem.com
1100 Exploration Way
Hampton,  VA 23666-1339
(757) 220-5040

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Tao Systems proposes to develop a sensor system providing quantitative in-flight boundary layer flow characterization with fast response, low volume, minimal intrusion, high accuracy and robustness to weather conditions. Aviation loss of control (LOC) accidents often results from stalls and uncertain weather/flow conditions, often at low altitudes e.g., take-off/landing. We propose to develop a robust sensor system to assess stall conditions and surface boundary layer phenomena through the use of a low-weight system consisting of surface flow sensors that: (1) use a robust transduction mechanism, (2) is operable under adverse weather conditions, e.g., rain, (3) has a one-time lifetime calibration with a minimal maintenance schedule, (4) provides monotonic output with speed and flow angle, and (5) relatively insensitive to environmental parameters such as flight altitude, pressure, temperature, and density. This technology increases sensor robustness as output for control feedback for a wide range of flight regimes and flow conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ability to cruise efficiently at a range of altitude, enabled by a substantial increase in cruise lift-to-drag (L/D) ratios over today's high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft, is vital, providing sustained presence and long range. Aerodynamic load/moment sensors would enable the efficient, robust active control of adaptive, lightweight wings to optimize lift distribution to maximize L/D. Cost-effectively improving the energy capture and reliability of wind turbines would help national renewable energy initiatives. A standalone aerodynamic load/moment sensor could provide output for control feedback to mitigate the turbine blade lifetime-limiting time varying loads generated by the ambient wind, irrespective of rain and icing conditions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed innovation has commercial applications for the airline industry whose current focus is on safety and efficiency. All-weather air data systems are beneficial for aircraft health monitoring & warning systems. Faults related to aircraft air data systems have been a cause of loss-of-control accidents and incidents. For example, an airspeed sensing system fault is suspected of triggering a chain of events that resulted in the loss of Air France flight 447; faulty angle- of-attack sensing is suspected of causing uncommanded motion in the crash of Qantas Flight 72; and faulty air data calibration due to moisture was suspected of causing uncommanded motion resulting in a stall and subsequent crash of the B-2A bomber in Guam. Sensor redundancy is necessary but may not be sufficient to ensure safety and reliability of the flight systems, e.g., common mode failures across redundant sensors such as Pitot tube icing in all airspeed sensors. Therefore, all-weather air data systems with transduction mechanisms different from pressure-based Pitot tubes mitigates the common mode failure to ensure sufficient redundancy through independent air data measurements.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Attitude Determination & Control
Characterization
Acoustic/Vibration
Thermal
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A2.01-9411
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wireless Sensor Network for Flight Test

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Invocon, Inc.
19221 I-45 South, Suite 530
Conroe, TX 77385-8746
(281) 292-9903

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Kuhnel
mkuhnel@invocon.com
19221 I-45 South, Suite 530
Conroe,  TX 77385-8746
(281) 292-9903

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Flight test programs have always been challenged with having to add a sufficient number of transducers and instruments to make meaningful measurements without having an adverse impact on the operation and performance of the vehicle being tested. Transducer and instrumentation wiring is intrusive and labor intensive, often requires vehicle modifications to support, is subject to reliability concerns, and adds a significant amount of weight when hundreds of transducers are required. Invocon proposes a Wireless Sensor Network system that will significantly reduce or eliminate the wiring used today to transmit transducer data. Wireless sensor nodes will make the same measurements acquired today with wired transducers, and in some cases will use exactly the same transducer. The key difference is that transceiver units will collect data via RF communication from the wireless sensor nodes, eliminating the need for wired interconnectivity to relay data, and provide the opportunity to collect data from large numbers of sensors. An interface module collects the sensor data and converts the data into a format that facilitates data recording and/or transmission to a ground station via telemetry.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Perhaps the two most exciting aspects of this project from the commercialization point of view are the ability to produce a wireless sensor platform that can be used throughout the flight test community, and to produce a wireless network that can support hundreds of different measurement channels in a single platform. Beyond NASA, the flight test community in the USA also includes DoD organizations and commercial aircraft companies. Satellite environmental testing and similar lab testing activities are also strong candidates for wireless sensors because of the complexity of using large numbers of transducers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ease of integration, system flexibility, and scalability makes the wireless sensor system an attractive tool for the NASA flight test organizations, regardless of whether hundreds of channels of measurements are needed or only a few channels. These benefits can also be realized by the other NASA test organizations, such as wind tunnels, propulsion test facilities, and spacecraft and launch vehicle testing, where similar test and measurement challenges exist.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A2.01-9858
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: CloudTurbine: Streaming Data via Cloud File Sharing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cycronix
21 Surrey Lane
Laconia, NH 03246-6010
(603) 556-9181

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Matthew Miller
matt@cycronix.com
21 Surrey Lane
Laconia,  NH 03246-6010
(603) 556-9181

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose a novel technology to leverage rapidly evolving cloud based infrastructure to improve time constrained situational awareness for real-time decision making. Our "CloudTurbine" innovation eliminates the distinction between files and streams to distribute live streaming sensor and video data over cloud file sharing services. Streaming and static data have long been considered separately, with unique mechanisms for data transmittal and viewing of each. Files are the greatest common denominator linking static data across all computers. However, real-time streaming data distribution is widely presumed to be sensor-centric; i.e. up-front requirements to "keep up" with live data trump all other considerations. A great unification of cloud based services for static data has recently occurred. There are now many providers of "file sharing" cloud based services. The paradigm for all is simple: (1) put data in a local file folder, (2) it automatically shows up at other linked systems via a cloud service. Wouldn't it be nice if one could unify an approach to streaming data that leveraged this file-sharing cloud infrastructure? That is precisely what we propose. Building upon a functional prototype, we propose to characterize, evaluate, refine and adapt CloudTurbine technology to NASA and commercial applications. CloudTurbine is a streaming data interface to and from standard file sharing cloud services. It delegates much of the data transmittal, security, and server resources to the cloud service provider. It provides robust continuous streaming for high data and frame rates while trading off manageable amounts of delivery latency (on the order of seconds). In so doing, it eliminates the distinction between files and streams, and enables a simple, cost effective new paradigm for streaming data middleware.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA applications include scientific sensor applications such as environmental and Earth observation systems, a DataTurbine compatible enhancement for scientific researchers at http://dataturbine.org, smartphone photo/video sharing, and a new paradigm for streaming data content delivery networks. CloudTurbine addresses many significant needs of the expanding "Internet of Things" market, such as secure cost effective home appliance, utility and energy use monitoring.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
CloudTurbine significantly enhances the NASA "Virtual Presence" technology for flight research, wind tunnel testing, and other forms of collaborative data monitoring. It provides secure video distribution using existing cloud and web infrastructure. It brings the power and advantages of modern cloud computing to streaming data for flight operations. It is synergistic and compatible with both DataTurbine and WebScan systems, and leverages the investment and utility of these legacy technologies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Outreach
Display
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Fusion
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A2.01-9961
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test and Measurements Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Novel Laser Ultrasound Visualization Tool for Non-destructive Evaluation of Composite Aircraft Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AlphaSense, Inc.
510 Philadelphia pike
Wilmington, DE 19809-0000
(302) 998-1116

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
PENGCHENG LV
pengcheng@alphasense.net
510 Philadelphia pike
Wilmington,  DE 19809-0000
(302) 998-1116

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this proposal, AlphaSense details the development of a novel laser ultrasound visualization system non-destructive evaluations of composite aircraft structures. The key innovations of this proposal include the following: a) Defect detection and identifications based on direct visualizations of the ultrasound propagation characteristics in the testing articles, b) The application of laser generated ultrasound signals for damage detection and structural integrity evaluations, and c) The implementation of a fully integrated and self-contained portable sensor system. With such innovations, the merits of the proposed sensor and its advantages over other techniques are listed below: a) Compact, lightweight, and portable, b) Capable of detecting a wide variety of defects, c) Compatible with complex shapes and configurations, d) High sensitivity and good spatial resolution, e) High measurement throughput, and f) Easy and safe to the operators.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Military market sector: used by military overhaul facilities and maintenance depots for defect detection and structural integrity evaluations. Commercial market sectors: used in the automobile, aerospace, heavy machinery, power and construction industries for defect detection and structural integrity evaluations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
used in various NASA aeronautical test facilities to collect the needed structure integrity information to safely expand the flight and test envelops of various aerospace vehicles and components.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A2.02-8604
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Onboard Model Checking for Small Scale Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Autopilots

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimal Synthesis, Inc.
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos, CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bong-Jun Yang
jun.yang@optisyn.com
Optimal Synthesis Inc., 95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos,  CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Optimal Synthesis Inc. proposes to develop a formal verification and validation approach to small-scale Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) autopilots. The UAV autopilots are modeled as hybrid systems and further abstracted into a finite state machine to which a computational model checking tool is applied to verify the safety property of the autopilot. The abstraction is performed by rechability computation. While traditional reachability computation has been limited to low-dimensional systems, the abstraction approach developed by Purduer University approximates the hybrid system and exhibit significant improvement in computational efficiency. This forms the basis for onboard model-checking for safety. The proof of concept is planned to be demonstrated in the Phase I using simulation studies, and ensuring hardware-in-the-loop simulation and flight demonstration are planned in the Phase II research.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The developed V&V will have direct impact on certification practice and standard by FAA. These days, many small-scale UAV accidents frequently show up in the public media, raising a public concern for the safety of UAV operations in the civil airspace. The concern for UAV safety has also grown in parallel with ever-increasing demand for allowing UAVs into civil airspace driven by UAV markets and economic potentials. The V&V tool will help to establish the standards and certification methods for those newly emerging UAVs, and hence benefits the regulation agencies of the government as well as UAV industries aspiring access to the commercial markets. As dictated by UAV mishap rate that remains much higher than manned counterpart, the safety assurance and reliable UAS operations has a high priority in military domains. Therefore, the developed V&V tool will greatly benefit the military V&V domains.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The V&V technology is a key component in many NASA programs. In particular, the developed tool directly supports the NASA strategic thrust of Assured Autonomy for Aviation Transformation. As specific programs, the V&V tool supports the UAS integration into the National Airspace System (NAS) in the Integrated Aviation Systems Program (IASP) by reducing the barriers associated with the safety assurance and certification for UAS operations in the NAS. The real-time V&V features of the developed tool also support the Flight Demonstration and Capabilities Project (FDC). The V &V is also a technical challenge in increasingly autonomous operations in the NAS that is a concern in the Airspace Operations and Safety Program (AOSP). In particular, the V&V is targeted for demonstration with small-scale UAVs that has direct relevance with low-altitude UAV operations and their traffic management.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Verification/Validation Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A2.02-9001
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Verification and Validation of Adaptive Learning Control System Towards Safety Assurance and Trusted Autonomy

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 190
Rockville, MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Devendra Tolani
dtolani@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 190
Rockville,  MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-4630

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In order to fulfill the present and future aerospace needs of the nation, there has been a growing interest in adaptive systems incorporating learning algorithms. Before such adaptive systems can be adopted for use in safety-critical aerospace applications, they must be certified to meet specified reliability and safety requirements. Intelligent Automation Inc. (IAI) in collaboration with Wright State University (WSU) proposes to develop a novel systematic verification and validation framework for adaptive learning flight control systems towards real-time safety assurance and trusted autonomy. A Neural Network (NN) based adaptive controller is designed as an add-on to a previously certified baseline linear controller to enhance robustness to modeling uncertainty and fault-tolerance to system faults. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, an integrity monitoring scheme for the adaptive controller will be developed to detect potential controller malfunctions and unstable learning conditions caused by unanticipated hazardous conditions. The proposed architecture can potentially maximize the use of advanced adaptive controller with high performance capabilities, while ensuring the safety of the overall flight control system in the presence of unanticipated hazards. In Phase I, the algorithms will be demonstrated using a real-time quadrotor test environment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed approach can potentially be used for many safety critical applications, including military and commercial aircraft, U.S. air transportation systems, unmanned aerial vehicles, autonomous robots, nuclear power plants, etc. It will lead to benefits in the form of improved safety, survivability, and superior control performance of safety-critical systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many potential NASA applications for this innovation, for instance, intelligent adaptive flight control systems, adaptive engine control, space exploration applications including mated flight vehicle coordination, docking, and control of autonomous robots, flyers, and satellites. The national Research Council has identified intelligent and adaptive systems as one of the five common threads for the "51 high-priority R&T challenge". Adaptive systems technologies have been identified explicitly to be the key enabler for intelligent flight controls, advanced guidance and adaptive air traffic management systems for improving safety and maintenance. Successful experimental results developed by NASA researchers have suggested the significant potential of intelligent adaptive control systems. These systems must be certified before they can be adopted for use in safety-critical aerospace applications. Conventional V&V methods are for not suitable for adaptive learning systems, and rigorous novel V&V methods must be developed before intelligent adaptive systems become part of the future.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Verification/Validation Tools
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A2.02-9059
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Collision-avoidance radar for small UAS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
UAVradars, LLC
2029 Becker Drive
Lawrence, KS 66047-1620
(316) 461-1181

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lei Shi
leishiku@ku.edu
2029 Becker Drive
Lawrence,  KS 66047-1620
(316) 461-1181

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In the near future unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) will be utilized for many societal and commercial applications. However, the hurdle of operation safety in the form of avoiding airborne collisions must first be overcome. Radar is ideally suited for this purpose due to their all weather capability to provide accurate position and velocity data. UAVradars LLC is proposing a small, lightweight, and low-power radar system designed specifically to give small UAS (UAS < 50 lbs) airborne situation awareness capability. The proposed radar is based on previous R&D funded by NASA LEARN at the University of Kansas from 2012 &#150; 2014. This effort resulted in a brassboard proof-of-concept radar system that was successfully flight tested onboard a Cessna 172. The brassboard system was then miniaturized demonstrating the feasibility of reducing its size, weight and power consumption. The proposed SBIR objectives focuses on three technical objectives needed to commercialize this radar. Objective 1 is to develop a FPGA controller/processor that can replace the user laptop allowing UAS flight testing in phase II. Objective 2 is to move the radar operation to the ISM band to avoid FCC complications (supporting NASA's goal to simplify certification needs) and to adaptively allocate the radar operating frequency to maximize detection performance. Objective 3 is to encode each radar's transmit with a random phase allowing multiple radar carrying UASs to operate within the same area without cross-jamming one another. By performing these tasks, the resulting phase I radar system will meet NASA's need for UAS technology that would allow humans to safely operate multiple UAS with minimal oversight, and provide the foundation for UAS external perception/cognition and multi-vehicle cooperation. Phase I will result in simulation, hardware in the loop testing, and analysis of all three objectives leveraging the existing prototype miniature radar system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial UAS market worldwide is already a multibillion dollar industry in which the U.S. is lagging. Some commercial uses include agriculture, film/photography, academia, package delivery, law enforcement, and by hobbyists for recreation. The Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) has predicted a multibillion dollar U.S. economy for commercial UAS in the next ten years. However, to achieve this possibility, UAS operation must first be made safe. The proposed radar system will be a critical sensor in achieving the necessary safety level due to its all weather, stand-alone (not reliant on a wireless data link), detection capability. Therefore, any commercial application for UAS is essentially a commercial application of the radar system. This could include precision agriculture, the movie industry, pipeline monitoring, search and rescue, border patrol, package delivery, and many more. By phase III, UAVradars will work towards developing sensor and autopilot integration with the radar system providing a complete airborne collision-avoidance package to make these applications even more commercially viable. In the meantime, a marketing strategy for promoting the radar system during each technical development stage is being formulated so that the product can be commercialized as soon as possible and allows for multiple revenue streams.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA currently has multiple UAS applications/technology development programs which could benefit from the proposed situation awareness radar system. NASA's Autonomous Robust Avionics (AuRA) would benefit from the radar's ability to reduce operator workload. In Phase II & III the radar will be integrated with an adaptive flight controller such as the one being developed at the University of Kansas from which the proposed radars obtains its detection range requirements. Either as a stand-alone sensor or integrated with other devices, the situation awareness provided by the radar could greatly affect the rules and regulations for remotely operated aircraft in the national airspace (ROA in the NAS) which NASA, the FAA, and other agencies are collaborating on. NASA Earth Science Capability Demonstration (ESCD) could utilize the radar to allow UAS to carry out dangerous missions such as remote sensing in hostile environments. Finally, since radars are capable of operating in outer space and the proposed situation awareness radar has strict limitations on size, weight, and power, there could be a potential space mission application.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Perception/Vision
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Characterization
Prototyping
Interferometric (see also Analysis)
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)
Radio
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A2.02-9071
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: A low cost, secure radio communications system for UAVs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
sci_zone
17133 Inavale
Holland, MI 49424-5656
(505) 205-8315

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrew Santangelo
andrew_santangelo@mac.com
17133 Inavale
Holland,  MI 49424-5656
(505) 205-8315

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
sci_Zone, Inc is seeking to develop the LinkStar-AV, an inexpensive, secure, and reliable satellite based radio system for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). The LinkStar-AV architecture treats the radio system as a secure node on the internet through the GlobalStar satellite communications network, providing continuous coverage between the UAS and ground. Control and monitoring is provided by an adapted version of our QS/Vehicle Management System (VMS), which is used on a range of commercial aircraft and certified under DO-178B (Level D). The on-board flight processor of the LinkStar-AV radio manages software via the Xen Hypervisor providing an added level of reliability, safety and security from malicious attacks. For the Phase I research program we shall develop the prototype of the LinkStar-AV1p hardware, implement a secure link to stream data from the UAS to the QS/VMS ground control station via LinkStar, and develop a prototype of the communications and control software for use on UAS. We will also update QS/VMS ground server and flight software as required to allow it to work with the LinkStar-AV1p radio. The goal by the end of the Phase I is to demonstrate the technology and its feasibility, and present a plan for implementation and commercialization.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed innovations of the LinkStar-AV system have broad applications over a wide range of government, commercial, and research based vehicles - both UAS, general aviation and commercial aircraft. Due to the scope of the proposed effort we will have a wide ranging customer base including commercial UAS developers and fabricators, DARPA, the Navy, AFRL, GE Aviation, Rockwell Collins, Honeywell, NASA, partner subcontractors and the university community. In addition we see the "prosumer" community utilizing the LinkStar-AV technologies due to its added security and range.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed innovations of the LinkStar-AV system have broad applications for both UAS and general aviation and commercial aircraft, near space balloons and satellites. The software architecture is flexible and can also be applied to other NASA based communications systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Ad-Hoc Networks (see also Sensors)
Coding & Compression
Transmitters/Receivers
Computer System Architectures
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A2.02-9086
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development and Flight Testing of an Automated Upset Recovery System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Barron Associates, Inc.
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901-2496
(434) 973-1215

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Neha Gandhi
barron@bainet.com
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville,  VA 22901-2559
(434) 973-1215

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Loss of control (LOC) due to upset is one of the main causes of accidents in manned aircraft and is already emerging as a significant causal factor in unmanned aircraft accidents. On manned aircraft, recovery from an upset condition relies on the skill and training of an expert pilot. Due to reduced situational awareness and delays introduced by the command and control link, it is unlikely that a remote UAS operator will be able to serve this function. An advanced system capable of perception, cognition, and decision making is necessary to replace the need for an operator with upset recovery expertise and to mitigate the LOC risk on UAS. Barron Associates has recently developed a two-stage architecture that generates safe and effective recovery maneuvers for a large set of upset conditions including full stall and fully-developed spin modes. The proposed research will design an upset detection system and integrate the system with the existing two-stage recovery architecture to yield a comprehensive autonomous upset recovery system. The decision about when to activate each stage of a recovery is difficult to make at design-time due to insufficient aerodynamic data and the inability to model all of the off-nominal precipitating factors that cause upsets. The proposed upset detection system does not rely on design-time characterization; instead, a rigorous statistical testing framework combines numerous pieces of information including vehicle attitude, rotational rate, and controller performance to answer the question: Has an upset occurred? Key Phase I goals include: upset detection algorithm development, integration of upset detection with existing recovery architecture, evaluation of system performance in simulation, and real-time hardware-in-the-loop demonstration using a commercially available autopilot.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In order to safely fulfill their rolls in government and commercial sectors, UAS will need to meet performance expectations for mission completion, reliable operation, and safe coexistence with other aircraft in the national airspace. The proposed system will address this need and increase the reliability, safety and autonomy of a UAS. Government agency UAS applications include: (1) Department of Defense military and intelligence-gathering operations, (2) FBI and local law-enforcement operations in urban areas, and (3) Department of the Interior land management oversight. In the commercial sector, applications include the use of UAS for delivery, remote inspection, and photography. The proposed system will interface with a popular open-source auto-pilot software suite providing direct access to a significant market of current SUAS users. Following successful completion of the research plan, the proposed system can be licensed to manufacturers of UAS airframes and autopilots. The proposed system can also be used to support single-pilot or remote-pilot operation of manned aircraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA research programs with a focus on achieving multi-vehicle operation and autonomous operation with less human oversight are application areas that directly benefit from the proposed system.The system directly addresses the Integrated Aviation Systems Program's focus area of "high level machine perception, cognition, and decision making" while also supporting the focus area of enabling "humans to operate multiple UAS with minimal oversight." Specifically, the system will enable UASs to make intelligent decisions about the safety of their current flight condition and what, if any, corrective action should be taken. This approach imparts high level perception, cognition, and decision making capabilities to the UAS reducing the need for close supervision by a human operator. In addition, considering its potential role in "reducing flight risk in areas of attitude and energy aircraft state awareness", the system also addresses the interests of the Real-Time System-Wide Safety Assurance (RSSA) research area of the Airspace Operations and Safety Program (AOSP).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Attitude Determination & Control
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Sequencing & Scheduling
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A2.02-9371
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Human Automation Teaming Testbed for Multi-UAS Management (M-HATT)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Human Automation Teaming Solutions, Inc.
18645 Sherman Way, Suite 215
RESEDA, CA 91335-8626
(818) 697-5283

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nhut Ho
nhutho@hats.solutions
18645 Sherman Way, Suite 215
Reseda,  CA 91335-8626
(818) 697-5283

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Addressing barriers to widespread Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) operations in the NAS is a key goal of NASA research and development (R&D). One such barrier is the lack of tools enabling operators to team with automation to operate multiple UAS with minimal human oversight. This, in turn, requires a flexible testbed enabling research into key human automation teaming (HAT) areas (e.g., seamless sharing/trading of control between human and automation, trust calibration with highly autonomous systems, transparency, and understanding limitations of automation as a teammate). We propose to develop a ground station that serves as a Human Automation Teaming Testbed for management of Multiple UAS (M-HATT). M-HATT will facilitate R&D into HAT requirements by providing a testbed with: a) an architecture interoperable with NASA's Live Virtual Constructive &#150; Distributed Environment (LVC-DE) and international standards (e.g., 4586), and designed with sound properties (modular, flexible, extensible, and scalable); b) tools to configure new experiments without requiring substantial code changes; and c) human-centered interfaces and tools for tuning properties of automation. These capabilities will enable human systems integration (HSI) researchers to rapidly gain insights into challenging HAT research questions. In Phase I, we will define M-HATT requirements and create a proof of concept demonstration. In Phase II, we will implement M-HATT software components, and collaborate with NASA HSI researchers to use M-HATT to perform simulation studies and flight tests, and develop a commercialization plan.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
M-HATT is a design and evaluation tool for new technologies developed by manufacturers of: 1) Small and large UASs (e.g., Aerovironment, General Atomics, Boeing, and Lockheed), and UAS avionics systems (e.g., communications and navigation) such as Honeywell and General Dynamics; 2) Organizations that have public oriented research interests in studies of regulatory, liability, and socio-policy-economic implications of autonomous UAS operations, such as the FAA, MITRE, and academic institutions; 3) Companies intending to use UAS technologies for package delivery or emergency response applications, such as Google, Amazon, and UPS. These companies will need to develop and test UAS ground control stations tailored to their operations; and 4) Organizations that have made large investment in UAS technologies and deployed them in military missions (e.g., DoD and CIA). These organizations are leading R&D efforts for using autonomy to increase the number of UASs controlled by a single operator. Their labs are actively researching resulting HAT issues, and will need for a testbed such as M-HATT to conduct simulations for training or evaluations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
M-HATT is designed to play a key role in all future NASA projects that involve UAS research. In the near term (~1-5 years), M-HATT will provide NASA's UAS HSI researchers the capability to develop MOPS for SAA performance, HSI design guidelines for ground control stations, and HAT concepts with the existing LVC-DE. In near- and mid- terms (~1-10 years), M-HATT will assist the development of the Unmanned Traffic Management (UTM) infrastructure throughout NASA's envisioned four UTM Builds. Other NASA programs that can leverage M-HATT for UAS simulation and flight tests, and to accelerate the investigation of research issues, include: 1) Trusted Autonomous Systems Program, which seeks methods for calibrating trust using a test case involving autonomous UAS operations; 2) Reduced Crew/Single Pilot Operations (RC/SPO), which seeks ways to team a ground dispatcher/pilot, and automation while engendering appropriate trust between them; and 3) AutoMax, an initiative researching automated management of future airspace operations including autonomous operations and autonomy technologies for unmanned vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Man-Machine Interaction
Perception/Vision
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Command & Control
Teleoperation
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A2.02-9479
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fully-Automated, Agricultural Application using Unmanned Aircraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618-2302
(609) 538-0444

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Wachspress
dan@continuum-dynamics.com
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing,  NJ 08618-2302
(609) 538-0444

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Interest in civilian use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) has increased greatly in recent years and is expected to grow significantly in the future. NASA is involved in UAS research that would greatly benefit from advancing the ability of UAS to make real-time decisions based on sensor data with little human oversight. This SBIR effort is designed to develop and demonstrate this capability by installing and executing an onboard system on an existing UAS platform to provide a fully-automated, agricultural application process managed entirely by EPA-approved software. This is a high-value civilian application particularly suited to UAS given the dangers posed by maneuvering manned aircraft at extremely low altitudes. The SBIR effort will be performed by installing a modified version of Continuum Dynamics, Inc. (CDI) AGDISP&#169; agricultural chemical application software onboard a specially modified Dragonfly Pictures Inc. (DPI) DP-14 Field Hawk UAS. The project would see the development of an onboard sensing and management system to fully-automate the process for agricultural application in a manner that meets EPA regulations for chemical deposition and FAA requirements for airworthiness. Phase I will establish feasibility by demonstrating an ability to perform the required onboard sensing, communication between the UAS and management software, and execution of the software-determined flight path and spraying strategy based on chemical deposition patterns determined by the software for prevailing environmental conditions. Phase II would see the design, development and implementation of the fully-automated system along with a flight demonstration.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The DoD is seeing growing use of UAS in surveillance and urban operations where the ability to extract information in-flight and utilize this information in decision-making with minimal human oversight is critical. The number of trained operators of DoD unmanned aircraft systems is currently being vastly outstripped by requirements for operating an ever-increasing fleet of UAS aircraft. UAS operators are currently being forced to work longer and longer shifts with no alleviation in sight. The technology developed during this effort directly supports addressing this need, providing advancements in the ability for autonomous control of UAS platforms that will reduce the level of direct piloting required. Private industry will also benefit greatly from this current effort. First, this SBIR will provide advancements in fully-autonomous, application-specific, UAS platforms. Autonomous control is critical to the eventual expansion of the customer base beyond those with piloting experience to the general public at large. Thus this area of research supports an enormous leap in commercialization potential. Second, the proposed effort also has a component addressing FAA-certification requirements for autonomously-controlled UAS. This is currently a critical barrier to the commercial use of UAS in the U.S.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed effort directly responds to the goals cited in the solicitation to develop technologies that provide the ability of UAS to extract information in-flight and utilize this information in decision making. This SBIR effort also directly supports current NASA/industry initiatives to establish airworthiness standards for FAA-certification that will provide a roadmap for future implementation of UAS in commercial applications within the U.S. Specifically, this SBIR effort dovetails with a NASA/DPI partnership to utilize DPI's unmanned tandem DP-14 Field Hawk helicopter to study civil airworthiness certification for use in the national airspace through demonstration of precision agricultural application, a mission that is particularly suited to UAS given the significant dangers faced by manned aircraft maneuvering at extremely low altitudes. The proposed SBIR effort complements and directly supports this NASA/DPI effort by adding demonstration of a fully-autonomous, flight path management system onboard the UAS tailored toward a specific task, in this case agricultural application. This adds two key elements that must be demonstrated before UAS can be applied in commercial applications within the U.S., addressing both a need for technical advancement related to autonomous control and decision-making as well as a need to develop airworthiness FAA-certification requirements for autonomous aircraft operations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Attitude Determination & Control
Command & Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A2.02-9594
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Mission Planner for Dynamic Precision Based Navigation of Unmanned Aircraft Teams

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
540 Fort Evans Road, Suite 300
Leesburg, VA 20176-4098
(800) 405-8576

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Capozzi
bcapozzi@mosaicatm.com
540 Fort Evans Road
Leesburg,  VA 20176-4098
(509) 637-0058

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this proposed research and development project, we investigate and design an innovative system that solves the key problem of multi-vehicle cooperation and interoperability. Our approach is based upon the principles and techniques of Performance Based Navigation (PBN) and Required Navigation Performance (RNP) concepts and is adjusted for other separation, safety, and weather effects. We design the architecture for a system that simultaneously maintains the efficiency and success of a multi-vehicle mission while also detecting and resolving potential loss of separation and conflicts within the NAS. The challenge is that for a variety of missions, teams of unmanned vehicles can perform the mission efficiently in particular configurations, but simultaneously the team of vehicles must be aware of and accommodate themselves, external traffic, potential intruders, environmental constraints, terrain, and so forth. Our software based system, UA-Teamer, provides the architecture and solutions to achieve mission success and the efficiency promised that multi-vehicle teams can accomplish while maintaining system safety. Our primary technical objectives are: i) Demonstrate a common set of flight path planning parameters built using PBN and other constraints enabling UA to interoperate and cooperate as a team; ii) Produce an algorithmic software approach that selects a best fit flight path set for a UA team mission that involves heterogeneous UAs; and iii) Show that the planners can response to conformance monitoring needs for re-planning and contingencies. The project includes a feasibility demonstration and human factors research into the display of optional trajectory sets for the UA team.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The UA-Teamer system has application to UAVs that are used or could be employed in the following market sectors: Defense/military (all Services), Government Agencies (e,g., as Homeland Security, FBI, Forestry Department), Law Enforcement Sector, First Responders, in addition to commercial companies with services that may involve future multi-UA missions. Potential applications for the UA-Teamer system include agricultural applications, disaster response (e.g. fire mapping), wildlife surveys, forest health monitoring, oil spills monitoring, mine exploration, remote imaging and mapping, and reconnaissance. UA-Teamer may have use in low attitude traffic management as well as by approaches in high density small aircraft that are envisioned under an air taxi or personal vehicle concepts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The multi-UA planner, UA-Teamer, could provide great value to the R&D efforts of NASA in the Integrated Aviation Systems Program and vehicular autonomy programs, specifically in the areas involving multi-vehicle cooperation and interoperability. Additionally, the final product may aid programs under aerospace safety and integration, UAS in the NAS, and programs which may someday utilize multi-UA missions, such as hurricane surveillance. The UA-Teamer system allows for simultaneously maintaining the efficiency and success of multi-vehicle missions while also detecting non-compliance of mission plans and resolving potential problems such as loss of separation and conflicts within the NAS through mission replanning. This system is critical to facilitating the safe use of multiple UAVs in the NAS. UA-Teamer provides essential developments in the areas of algorithms/control software systems, telemetry tracking, and air transportation safety.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Man-Machine Interaction
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Sequencing & Scheduling
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Data Input/Output Devices (Displays, Storage)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A2.02-9634
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flight Testing of Resource allocation for Multi-Agent Planning (ReMAP) System for Unmanned Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Area-I
1590 North Roberts Road, Suite 102
Kennesaw, GA 30144-3636
(678) 594-5227

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Kuehme
dkuehme@areai.aero
1590 North Roberts Road, Suite 102
Kennesaw,  GA 30144-3636
(678) 594-5227

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Area-I, Incorporated personnel have led the design, fabrication, and flight testing of fourteen unmanned aircraft, one manned aircraft, and numerous advanced guidance, control, and avionics packages. Area-I has continued this tradition in its development of the Resource allocation for Multi-Agent Planning, or ReMAP, guidance and navigation system for unmanned aircraft. The ReMAP system, whose core function is to significantly reduce operator workload by providing mission-driven autonomy to unmanned aircraft in single- and multi-agent scenarios, has already undergone extensive hardware-in-the-loop simulation-based evaluations and the work proposed herein will further mature the ReMAP technology through actual flight-based evaluations on Area-I aircraft. Core capabilities provided by the ReMAP system include: 1) A small, lightweight, inexpensive avionics package that provides real-time mission-driven guidance capabilities to unmanned air vehicles 2) A system architecture that is platform and autopilot agnostic and can therefore be utilized by a wide array of aircraft with varying performance levels 3) A multi-agent planning and control algorithm to allow multiple aircraft to coordinate and thereby maximize mission capabilities and results 4) Aircraft and obstacle avoidance capabilities, including ADS-B In integration, providing autonomous avoidance maneuvers or operator warnings 5) A mission planning toolbox to provide situational awareness and mission management to operators, usable as a stand-alone system or integrated with existing mission planning tools such as NASA's Airborne Science Mission Tools Suite

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ReMAP system has a large number of end-use applications, including multiple aircraft platforms and mission types. Our strong industry support, shows the significant impact the ReMAP system may have on UAS applications and provides a clear path to commercialization. The system may be commercialized as a stand-alone system, or coupled as an add-on to COTS autopilot systems. Area-I may also commercialize turn-key, ReMAP enabled aircraft as well as multi-agent mission support.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ReMAP system provides a unique ability to enhance two of NASA's mission directorates: the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) and the Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The system improves the goals of the ARMD through the development of a system that promotes the safe integration of unmanned aircraft systems into the National Airspace System (NAS) and is in line with the goals of the NextGen system. The majority of others'work performed in multi-agent systems has been largely academic and often solves very specific or theoretical problems. The goal of the ReMAP development, however, has been to provide a successful and operationally relevant product that may be used in a wide variety of applications. The result is a system that has a significant potential impact on the SMD to support a variety of missions, both present and future.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Man-Machine Interaction
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Ad-Hoc Networks (see also Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A2.02-9727
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Modular Swarm Optimization Framework Enabling Multi-Vehicle Coordinated Path Planning

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Heron Systems, Inc.
20945 Great Mills Road
Lexington Park, MD 20653-5304
(301) 866-0330

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kenneth Kroeger
ken.kroeger@heronsystems.com
2121 EISENHOWER AVE STE 401
ALEXANDRIA,  AK 22314-4688
(571) 257-8403

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The advancement of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) with computing power and communications hardware has enabled an increased capability set for multi-vehicle collaborative operations. By cooperatively allocating unmanned resources, vehicle tasking, and planning the subsequent vehicle paths, the efficiency of UAS operations can be maximized. Heron Systems proposes the Multi-Agent Cooperative Engagement (MACE) framework that enables collaborative resource allocation, task allocation, and path planning for unmanned systems operating in dynamic environments subject to diverse communication conditions. This Phase 1 work will focus on the path planning portion of MACE, as path planning is an integral part of collaborative efforts in nearly every real world application. The path planning architecture will define key modules to plan paths to a global objective, assess potential obstacles, and avoid collisions while maintaining progress towards the global objective. The framework will be constructed in a modular fashion to allow a plug-and-play capability for the resource/task allocation as well as the various components of the path planning pipeline, giving end users the flexibility to explore other methods for UAS collaboration. At the conclusion of Phase 1, the MACE path planning capability will be demonstrated using Heron Systems' previously developed flexible UAS simulation suite and ISAAC software, promoting high fidelity hardware-in-the-loop simulation/stimulation testing with COTS hardware components.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercially, MACE promises to dramatically improve the efficiency of operations of many envisioned UAS applications. Of particular interest are those in the areas of precision agriculture and pipeline/electrical grid inspection. Heron Systems will build a service delivery model tailored for precision agriculture supporting rapid surveying of fields and follow-on tasking based on real-time findings. Similarly, a second product line will tailor to the needs of long distance pipeline and electrical grid operators, supporting inspection requirements. Heron Systems is principally targeting the commercial market. Collaborative UAS capabilities can enable game changing opportunities for the government market broadly. For example, the US military would benefit from collaborative small UAS packages where size, weight, power and cost are scaled down to support high capability in a near disposable package. This could enable front-line ISR missions or even kinetic events in support of squad level operations, amongst many other possibilities. Ongoing persistent surveillance missions could be enhanced by allowing for teams of heterogeneously equipped assets to work together to increase the amount and/or quality of the surveillance data captured. The Department of Agriculture and Environmental Protection Agency could benefit from collaborative teams performing agricultural surveys and environmental inspections/monitoring. These and many more opportunities will be pursued.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Heron Systems identifies the UAS National Air Space (NAS) integration project as the principle NASA mission to benefit from MACE. Collaborative UAS capabilities can support several ongoing initiatives either directly or by offering capabilities that empower further opportunities. MACE is well suited to benefit the ongoing effort to integrate UAS into the NAS. Methods for determining suitable paths in the presence of both cooperating and non-cooperating aircraft are vital for safe integration. Additionally, MACE can provide NASA with a framework for enabling safe terminal area operations where collaborative control can be used to guide entering and exiting UAS into safe, predictable flight patterns while in the terminal area.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Attitude Determination & Control
Command & Control
Sequencing & Scheduling
Teleoperation
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A2.02-9786
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Command and Control Software for Single-Operator Multiple UAS Missions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Opto-Knowledge Systems, Inc. (OKSI)
19805 Hamilton Avenue
Torrance, CA 90502-1341
(310) 756-0520

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris HolmesParker
Chris.HolmesParker@oksi.com
19805 Hamilton Ave
Torrance,  CA 90502-1341
(310) 756-0520

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Existing command and control (C2) paradigms for UAS platforms are extremely limited and cumbersome, requiring at least a single operator per UAS, if not more than one operator for each UAS (as is the case with many scientific and commercial UAS platforms). For example, UAS platforms such as the ScanEagle or the Sierra require at least one operator to handle the routing / navigation tasks for the aircraft and another operator to handle and operate the mission-specific payload. In this setting, the UAS platforms actually become a force-divider instead of a force-multiplier. The requirement of multiple operators for each individual UAS platforms is problematic for commercial applications where the high cost of human operators would inhibit many key applications such as package delivery from becoming financially viable. To address these issues, Opto-Knowledge Systems Inc (OKSI) and Analytical Graphics Inc (AGI) are joining forces to design, demonstrate, and deliver a robust multiple Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) semi-autonomous command and control tool that will enable a single human operator to manage multiple UAS platforms concurrently. Though there has been significant research into the single-operator multiple UAS control paradigm, there are currently no existing commercially available tools for this application. This work is aimed at shoring up this gap by creating the Single-Operator Multiple Autonomous Vehicle (SOMAV) command and control tool that will be integrated with AGI's Systems Tool Kit (STK) software and sold commercially at the end of the Phase-II program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
UAS Communication Networks): Recent advancements (e.g., Aerial Communications Node platforms) have resulted in UAS-based aerial communications platforms that are able to provide up to 10 times more coverage than traditional ground-based communications towers, and that are able to dynamically move to address changing customer needs. There has recently been a great deal of talk about bringing these capabilities to the civilian communications sector. This forms a complex UAS route coordination problem: Given a set of UAS platforms and a dynamic set of customers that have changing bandwidth requirements and move throughout the environment (e.g., traveling from work to home, or 50000 people being packed into a stadium on gameday), how should the UAS platforms optimize their routes and coverage areas in order to optimize the total bandwidth coverage available to customers? The SOMAV module will readily address this routing and coordination problem in a way that concurrently maximizes coverage over a mobile set of customers and minimizes the total fuel consumed by the fleet of UAS communications nodes. SOMAV will provide high fidelity simulation and modeling of the entire UAS fleet and the RF communications links between the ground-based users and the UAS communications nodes including effects due to radio and antenna characteristics, weather, terrain, and communication protocol.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NAS Integration and Air Traffic Control (NASA NextGen Program): For the past decade, NASA has been working to develop NextGen Air Traffic Control (ATC) Management capabilities that will provide increased efficiency and throughput of the National Air Space (NAS) to meet growing system demands. The SOMAV STK module for multiple-UAS command and control directly promotes these efforts in several ways. First, it provides a high-fidelity simulation environment for testing potential ATC routing algorithms, particularly those for systems of UAS platforms. Second, our tool reduces human operator workload by pushing much of the low-level control onto the UAV platforms themselves and having the routing/coordination performed autonomously. Reducing operator burden is listed as a specific goal of within Topic A2.02 Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technology of this SBIR effort. Third, our UAS routing and coordination tool will automatically optimize separation assurance for the UAS platforms in each team, which relates to the goal of safely and seamlessly integrating UAS platforms into NextGen. Fourth, the proposed module directly promotes autonomous operation for systems of UAS platforms using machine intelligence for decision-making. Finally, the UAS coordination tool addresses NASA's goal of advancing the state-of-the-art in autonomous navigation under uncertain conditions (e.g., collision/hazard avoidance) and cooperative task completion.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Man-Machine Interaction
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Process Monitoring & Control
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A3.01-8620
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: A SMART NAS Toolkit for Optimality Metrics Overlay

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Resilient Ops, LLC
4 Albamont Road
Winchester, MA 01890-3418
(650) 248-8285

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bala Chandran
bala.chandran@resilientops.com
4 Albamont Rd
Winchester,  MA 01890-3418
(650) 248-8285

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovation proposed is a plug-and-play module for NASA's proposed SMART NAS (Shadow Mode Assessment using Realistic Technologies for the NAS) system that computes and displays metrics related to how close to optimal a simulated scenario is performing under various system objectives in a multi-objective setting. The module, called TOMO (Toolkit for Optimization Metrics Overlay) is a large-scale optimization model that computes trajectories of aircraft under Trajectory Based Operations (TBO) that optimize system performance under various objectives such as delays, fuel burn, and environmental impacts. The toolkit is designed to be used either in shadow mode or in post-operations analysis. This capability within SMART NAS would allow a scenario's performance to be normalized against an achievable best case and will facilitate a meaningful comparison of the performance of scenarios with different types of demand, weather, and operating constraints. TOMO will also feature a "simultaneous playback" mode, in which a user can simultaneously compare the simulated scenario with an optimized version for each potential objective. TOMO is based on a new class of algorithms for solving large-scale TFM problems by separating TFM optimization into two problems---a master problem that checks for capacity violations and allocates resources to competing aircraft, and a sub-problem solved by each individual aircraft that generates 4-d trajectories for each flight. The master problem exchanges dual prices that signal congestion across ATC resources to guide the sub-problems to an optimal solution. This "agent-based" optimization approach is well-suited to be used within a large-scale agent-based simulation framework.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
TOMO could directly be applicable within EUROCONTROL's simulation environment ESCAPE or to assist with near-term metrics calculation within the FAA. Given that the FAA has identified metrics and analysis as a key NextGen enabler, TOMO could find application within simulation environments used within FAA's NEIC (NextGen Integration and Evaluation Capability).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The core application of the work in this project will be to further NASA's goals to enable the testing of advanced concepts within SMART NAS prior to deployment. If successful, it is envisioned that TOMO will provide SMART NAS users metrics that would allow cleaner comparisons across scenarios, speeding up the process of evaluating different concepts. In the short term, TOMO could be deployed within a system such as FACET to provide optimization-based metrics for existing scenario simulations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A3.01-8953
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Airport Gate Activity Monitoring Tool Suite for Improved Turnaround Prediction

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimal Synthesis, Inc.
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos, CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Veera Vaddi
vaddi@optisyn.com
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos,  CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of this research is to create a suite of tools for monitoring airport gate activities with the objective of improving aircraft turnaround. Airport ramp areas are the most crowded and cluttered spaces in the entire National Airspace System (NAS). Activities related to turnaround of the aircraft from the gate represent a significant source of delay and therefore impact the predictability of NAS operations. Optimal Synthesis Inc., seeks to leverage its expertise in monitoring aircraft in the ramp areas using video surveillance data and advanced computer vision algorithms towards building an advanced gate activity monitoring that will in turn enable a gate turnaround prediction tool. The tool suite will specifically identify the various stages of turnaround such as refueling, luggage unloading/loading, catering, and deicing. It will further create a probabilistic model of the times associated with each of these events, that will be used for predicting the future sequence of events and their predicted times of completion. Phase I research will demonstrate the core ideas of gate activity recognition using state-of-the-art computer vision and machine learning algorithms. Phase II research will elevate the technology readiness level of this tool suite to work with real-time video surveillance streams.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Low cost airport activity monitoring techniques are of considerable interest to FAA and airports in general. Moreover, computer vision based activity monitoring techniques are of significant interest in several areas such as warehouses, commercial office buildings, train stations, and bus stations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed gate activity monitoring tool suite can be used in the following NASA applications: - The gate monitoring tool suite directly caters to objectives of the Networked ATM sub-project under the SMART NAS project. It increase gate operations predictability and reduce total cost of National Airspace System operations. - Development of TBO concepts and enabling technology solutions that leverage revolutionary capabilities and that enable capacity, throughput, and efficiency gains within the various phases of gate-to-gate operations. - The proposed suite of tools can enable autonomy/autonomous technologies and concepts for trajectory management and efficient/safe traffic flows.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Perception/Vision
Process Monitoring & Control
Image Analysis
Image Processing
Data Fusion
Knowledge Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A3.01-9007
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: 360-Degree Analysis Engine for Autonomous NAS Operations and Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Frederick Wieland
fwieland@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 190
Rockville,  MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5268

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA researchers have been studying ground-based conflict detection and resolution for at least ten years. Under the tool proposed herein, these researchers will be able to evaluate both the performance impact and the environmental impact. The environmental impact is important for obtaining approval to move the ground-based conflict detection and resolutions algorithms to higher Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs). Besides helping advance the AAC and tAAC algorithms, NASA researchers can experiment with autonomous operations in the NAS under a variety of different traffic loads (including UAS traffic), weather patterns, and even degrees of autonomy&#151;from full autonomy to autonomous operations that are restricted to certain classes of airspace (such as class A). Insights gained by these experiments in the virtual world will help the community understand the benefits&#151;and potential limits&#151;of future autonomous operations in the NAS. Some of the research questions that can be answered by such a tool include the following. To what extent does the noise footprint of an automated separation assurance algorithm hinder its acceptance by the public? To what extent is fuel burn reduced by using automated separation assurance? How great a flight density can an automated separation assurance function allow? Under what conditions might an automated separation assurance algorithm require manual intervention?

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Air Transportation and Safety, Analytical Methods, Algorithms/Control Software and Systems, Simulation and Modeling

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aviation consultants, the FAA itself, and other professionals can use this tool to gain a better understanding of the role of autonomous operations in the NAS. Suppose, for example, a UAS manufacturer is considering a particular autonomous algorithm that they want to include in their design. Using this tool, the manufacturer can determine whether the vehicle will fly correctly in the presence of a future autonomous NAS, and therefore whether the investment in building the aircraft will yield a positive net return. The FAA can use this tool to become acquainted with a partially or fully autonomous NAS operation, to determine to what extent autonomy should be introduced, and on what timetable and what the expected benefits will be. This information is important for producing an autonomy roadmap that will allow FAA program managers to specify the steps, and timetable, needed to further transform the NAS.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A3.01-9208
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Trajectory-Based Operations (TBO) Cost Estimation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Innovation Laboratory, Inc.
2360 Southwest Chelmsford Avenue
Portland, OR 97201-2265
(503) 242-1761

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jimmy Krozel
Jimmy.Krozel@gmail.com
2360 SW Chelmsford Ave
Portland,  OR 97201-2265
(503) 242-1761

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Innovation Laboratory, Inc., proposes to build a tool to estimate airline costs under TBO. This tool includes a cost model that explicitly reasons about traffic demand and weather conditions in the National Airspace System (NAS), mathematical models for weather translation and ATM-impact, line of flight impacts of delay propagation, large quantities of historical NAS and airline data ("Big Data"), and fixed and variable cost accounting.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Many forms of government and industry must work together in NextGen investments. Our cost models transform historical and current weather data into ATM impacts for the purpose of cost estimation. Additionally, airline customers can use our cost estimation models to make informed decisions on the routing, diversion, or cancellation of flights.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA can use this cost estimation tool to address the cost/benefits of TBO. Also, it can be linked to traffic flow management (TFM) optimization algorithms to assess the costs to airlines of TFM strategies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Project Management
Data Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A3.01-9499
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Networked ATM for Efficient Routing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robust Analytics
2053 Liza Way
Gambrills, MD 21054-2007
(410) 980-3667

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Peter Kostiuk
peter.kostiuk@robust-analytics.com
2053 Liza Way
Gambrills,  MD 21054-2007
(410) 980-3667

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Uncertainties in weather forecasts and traffic congestion sometimes result in inefficient planned flight paths for aircraft operating in the National Airspace System (NAS). Over the past several years, NASA developed two decision support tools to identify opportunities for efficient re-routes. The Dynamic Weather Routing (DWR) system uses information generated on the ground to identify candidate flights for re-routing and the airline operations center (AOC) sends the proposed change to the flight deck for subsequent negotiation with air traffic control (ATC). The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) system is flight deck-based, using information available on the aircraft and software in the electronic flight bag (EFB) to suggest alternative routes. DWR successfully completed operational tests at ZFW and American Airlines and TASAR will soon begin operational evaluations at Alaska Airlines and Virgin America. Our concept proposes a more capable architecture that can take full advantage of emerging communications technologies to integrate AOC and flight deck capabilities. This approach offers a more robust, extensible architecture that can be tailored to an individual airline's operational model while simultaneously offering an upgrade path for adding more capability over time. Our solution aims to combine the best features of DWR and TASAR and adds more capability via enhanced data communications. Our solution fully integrates with the AOC but retains full access to the superior information from the flight deck. This enables our architecture to use the best available data, allocate data processing and analytical functions to where they can be performed most efficiently, and allows the airline to choose where it wants decision making to occur.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our concept has immediate application to airlines that want to improve operating efficiency and reduce costs and fuel consumption. A recent benefit study of DWR conducted by LMI estimated that a lower bound estimate of benefits from DWR alone would be at least $800 per aircraft, or over $3 million annually (Stouffer, et. al.). Our concept offers the potential for greater benefits by identifying more opportunities and increases the probability of successfully executing the improved route. Our approach also increases the number of airlines that would be interested as it offers a flexible solution that can be tailored to the airline preferred operating mode. Our concept provides a convenient mechanism for deploying the solution in the AOC using existing software services provided by our Sabre partner, or another provider of similar services. For some airlines, an EFB solution might be preferred and our concepts supports that implementation at low cost.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our concept offers NASA two applications with significant value both near term and in the ATM+2 environment. In the near term, our architecture will identify improvements to existing NASA technologies such as DWR and TASAR. Our concept shows how to add benefits with the potential for improved communications technologies and increased cockpit access to low cost, reliable wireless. Strategically, our concept offers an early success for the Networked ATM subproject under the SMART NAS project. By developing an architecture that includes AOCs, our team offers NASA an alternate pathway to deployment of its ATM technology, without the delays and constraints of the FAA's Acquisition Management System and associated institutional barriers. In the longer term, our architecture offers the potential to add more functionality by providing a networked ATM solution that integrates communications, data collection, and optimized analysis that will support advanced concepts, including TBO and real time system wide safety assurance. Our architecture would support more extensive trajectory negotiation during a flight, which is a necessary complement to pre-departure trajectory negotiations. We offer an evolutionary pathway that generates near-term airline benefits at low cost. That success will encourage additional investments in advanced ATM concepts such as TBO.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A3.01-9583
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: TFM Performance Monitoring and Review System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
540 Fort Evans Road, Suite 300
Leesburg, VA 20176-4098
(800) 405-8576

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Hall
whall@mosaicatm.com
540 Fort Evans Road
Leesburg,  VA 20176-4098
(617) 620-9078

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A wide variety of flow management techniques is employed every day in the NAS, from strategic Ground Delay Programs (GDP's) with national scope to local Miles-In-Trail (MIT) restrictions that affect traffic over a specific fix. The choice of the flow management technique to employ and the timing, extent, and other parameters associated with the technique are determined by controller judgment informed by experience. However, experience is only as useful as the information that can be assimilated from it, and in the case of flow management decisions the available information is limited and biased. We propose to research and prototype a system that will provide controllers with the metrics they need to understand how their past decisions fared. Our proposal in this Phase I SBIR is to perform the research to determine how well such metrics could be made to function. Phase II would extend the work to implement metrics that could be used within NASA efforts and later transitioned to the FAA for its use. The proposed metrics do not attempt to determine what the "correct" level of restrictions would have been. The appropriate amount of restriction to apply in any situation is a matter of judgment that must weigh the certainty of the information on which it is based as well as the outcomes that would result from errors in either direction. Rather, the metric would quantify the restrictions' performance in hindsight. To quantify performance of a GDP, for instance, it would measure the degree to which tactical flow management had to make up for excessive airborne demand for the airport, and the degree to which insufficient demand was available to fill the airport's capacity. Second-order effects the metric would quantify include the degree to which the traffic originating in-center, in tier one, in tier two, and farther away gained or lost priority relative to each other, indicative of the GDP's timing relative to the timing of the demand/capacity imbalance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The two anticipated non-NASA commercial applications are applications for ANSP's such as the FAA, and applications for airspace users such as major commercial airlines. Both applications are anticipated to help the customer refine their approach to flow management. Large commercial airlines that dominate operations at an airport at times run ground delay programs on their own to avoid the need for an ANSP-run GDP. UPS and others have experimented with more tactical flow management as well, such as by coordinating airspeeds and spacing to try to deliver an efficient flow of aircraft to the destination while minimizing fuel burns. In undertaking either type of flow management, the airline must weigh the tradeoffs in their decisions of when to start restrictions, when to end restrictions, the level of the restrictions, and the flights to be involved in the restrictions. ANSP's have to make the same types of decisions, but for a broader set of operators and with less detailed knowledge of each flight's operating and financial characteristics. In both cases, the ability to measure past performance is critical to improving performance in the future. The results of our proposed research will be applicable to helping both types of organizations to improve flow management decisions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This work is central to NASA's mission to understand and to improve the safety and efficiency of the National Airspace System (NAS). Flow management is critical to maintaining the safety of the NAS, but when overdone results in large but unquantified costs to the system. The results of this work would lead to metrics that would quantify the costs and risks in the NAS due to overly or insufficiently restrictive flow management. The main product to be used by NASA from this research will be a system to measure these inefficiencies in flow management actions taken across the NAS. The quantification of the need for more research into flow management techniques, decision aids, and related systems will be greatly improved by the product of the proposed research. Further, the design of solutions to the flow management problems identified will be guided by the product's findings. The proposed product would allow NASA to understand not only how great the inefficiencies in the real world are, but it would also be embeddable in simulation tools such as SMART-NAS for measurement of the inefficiencies of proposed improvements to the NAS. Without a solid understanding of the problems inherent in the operation of the NAS, it is very difficult to identify solutions that need to be developed. The product to be developed from this research will provide NASA a clear understanding of the problems, which will point the way to effective solutions needed to further NASA's objectives.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Man-Machine Interaction
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Sequencing & Scheduling
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Fusion
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A3.02-8660
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace System (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Framework for Autonomous Trajectory-Based Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Resilient Ops, LLC
4 Albamont Road
Winchester, MA 01890-3418
(650) 248-8285

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bala Chandran
bala.chandran@resilientops.com
4 Albamont Rd
Winchester,  MA 01890-3418
(650) 248-8285

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovation proposed is a framework for autonomous Traffic Flow Management (TFM) under Trajectory Based Operations (TBO) for Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The concept, called DRIFT-UAS (Distributed Resilient Framework for Trajectory Management of Unmanned Aerial Systems), is a cloud-based system that consists of algorithms and an information-sharing framework that would enable autonomous trajectory planning and strategic deconflicting of trajectories of manned and unmanned aircraft, while optimizing system-wide objectives such as safety, efficiency, and equity. DRIFT-UAS envisions four information signals that are exchanged in a cloud-based environment. The signals are (a) trajectory intent from an aircraft to DRIFT-UAS, (b) trajectory feedback (e.g., level of congestion on the proposed route as well as nearby routes in time and space) from DRIFT-UAS to the aircraft (c) loading projections from DRIFT-UAS to NAS ATC resources, and (d) capacity signals derived from weather forecasts, dynamic airspace restrictions, or acceptable loading levels at various NAS resources. The signals are processed by a centralized MDM (Master De-conflicting Module) to generate a trajectory feedback signal, and ATGMs (Autonomous Trajectory Generation Modules) autonomously generate trajectories for aircraft based on the feedback signal. DRIFT-UAS is based on a new class of algorithms for solving large-scale TFM problems by separating TFM optimization into two problems---a master problem, equivalent to the MDM that checks for capacity violations and allocates resources to competing aircraft, and a sub-problem, equivalent to the ATGM solved by each individual aircraft that generates 4-d trajectories for each flight. The master problem exchanges dual prices that signal congestion across ATC resources to guide the sub-problems to an optimal solution.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Outside of achieving NASA's and the FAA's goals for NextGen, DRIFT-UAS's algorithms provide a platform for similar large-scale optimization of autonomous entities in a distributed environment. Examples of such environments include robotic pickers at warehouses, in which large groups of robots autonomously perform missions in the presence of system-wide costs and capacity constraints.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The core application of the work in this project will be to further NASA's and the FAA's goals to enable safe and efficient Trajectory Based Operations for UASs. If successful, it is envisioned that DRIFT-UAS will provide the platform though which all aircraft (unmanned or otherwise) would strategically interact with the ATC system to signal trajectory intent and receive feedback on delays and congestion. DRIFT-UAS would also serve as a centralized repository for trajectory intent and ATC capacity. In the short to medium term, the platform could be integrated within a simulation environment such as SMART-NAS to help simulate the behavior of a large number of UAS systems to test various TBO concepts.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A3.02-8745
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace System (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: 3D Flash LIDARAll Weathr Safety

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc.
135 East Ortega Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101-1674
(805) 966-3331

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brad Short
bshort@asc3d.com
135 E. Ortega Street
Santa Barbara,  CA 93101-1674
(805) 966-3331

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ASC has developed non-scanning 3D Flash LIDARTM imagers for UAS situational awareness and autonomous landing. This sensing technology is the most advanced LIDAR technology available for UAV guidance and landing site determination. ASC's array technology has allowed for compact LIDAR cameras that collect full frame 3D point clouds in a single FLASH (Flash LIDAR). The 3D days will improve the mobility, efficiency and safety of air transportation systems. ASC's Flash LIDAR is the LIDAR in the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) for Morpheus. The 3D Flash LIDAR captured the 3D data used in landing site selection and hazard avoidance during the Morpheus autonomous landing demonstrations. ASC will use a miniaturized version, of the core 3D Flash LIDAR technology used for ALHAT, to develop an autonomous landing and hazard avoidance sensor for UAVs operating in national airspace. The sensor will be capable of a number of autonomous navigation functions, but the Phase I effort will focus on demonstrating unique functions of the sensor. The first demonstration will address safe Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operation in the first and last 50 ft under diverse weather conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) has been developing 3D Flash LIDAR for many commercial applications for autonomous vehicles and collision avoidance. Commercial applications include collision avoidance to save pedestrians and prevent vehicle damage, Mid-Air Refueling, Surveillance, Terrain Mapping, Autonomous Navigation for unmanned ground, air and surface vehicles. The 3D maps created by the system will be useful to avoid automobile accidents and guide robots for Hazard Material Detection and Handling.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) has been developing 3D Flash LIDAR for space applications. The commercial versions of the sensor has be used in docking applications with the International Space Station (ISS) and space qualified versions are under development for the OSIRIS-REx asteroid rendezvous mission as well as the Commercial Crew Transport Capability (CCtCap). The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) sensor used ASC's 3D Flash LIDAR for the autonomous landing demonstrations with Morpheous. Potential NASA Applications include: -Airport Safety -UAV autonomous landing and collision avoidance -Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) -Commercial Resupply (CRS) to the International Space Station -Commercial Crew Transport Capability (CCtCap) -Planetary Entry Decent & Landing and ALHAT -Rover Mobility and Navigation -Space Situational Awareness

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
3D Imaging
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A3.02-8949
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace System (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Autonomous Airport Operations for Safe and Efficient Use of Airports

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimal Synthesis, Inc.
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos, CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Victor Cheng
vcheng@optisyn.com
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos,  CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The concepts of Virtual Towers and Autonomous Airport Operations emerged as cost-effective options in early conceptualization of the Next-Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) for relieving traffic demand at major airports by providing control tower services at nearby uncontrolled airports. These concepts have the benefit of saving the tower construction cost and the cost for otherwise staffing the towers with a full cadre of controllers. More recently, the threat of sequestration forced the FAA to announce closure of 149 airport towers; though the closure plan was rescinded, these concepts again appear as viable alternatives for providing control-tower services at reduced costs. Virtual Towers and Autonomous Airport Operations are in fact related concepts. On one hand, Virtual Towers depend on automation to allow a small crew of controllers to manage traffic at multiple airports, and the increase in automation moves the concept towards Autonomous Airport Operations as automation becomes more capable. On the other hand, Autonomous Airport Operations should have controllers available as a fall-back option in a Virtual Tower environment to ensure safety when abnormal conditions emerge. The proposed research seeks to develop practical concepts for Autonomous Airport Operations, and apply state-of-the-art automation technologies to enable such operations. The automation technologies include a computer-based ATC agent that can monitor and plan traffic movement, issue clearances, and communicate with the pilots over the radio using advanced speech processing technologies. In addition, low-cost surveillance systems based on machine vision will be explored to provide the necessary traffic information around the airport and on the airport surface.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In the near term, improvements of the speech agent technology from this SBIR will be applied to OSI's existing SESIA system for marketing to the simulation community within NASA, the FAA, and DoD organizations. It will also benefit air traffic control training facilities, including the FAA Academy located at the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center in Oklahoma City, OK, and DoD training facilities such as the Naval Air Technical Training Center (NATTC) in Pensacola, FL. Similarly, improvements of the machine-vision-based surveillance system will be applied to OSI's existing VBASS system for marketing to airports as a low-cost surveillance platform. In the far term, the complete AAO automation platform and its component technologies will form the basis of airport automation systems to promote for airport applications, with the ultimate goal of realizing AAO as envisioned by the NASA program.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Autonomous Airport Operations (AAO) has already been identified as a research topic of interest to the Safe Autonomous System Operations (SASO) Project of NASA's Airspace Operations and Safety Program (AOSP). The AAO Concept of Operations (ConOps) will provide useful input for the NASA research. The AAO system platform research product will be delivered to NASA by the end of Phase II, to support its in-house AAO research involving human-in-the-loop experiments; the platform will allow NASA to study different implementation of the automation algorithms and operational procedures.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Man-Machine Interaction
Perception/Vision
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Image Analysis
Image Processing
Transport/Traffic Control
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A3.02-8950
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace System (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Generic FMS Platform for Evaluation of Autonomous Trajectory-Based Operation Concepts

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimal Synthesis, Inc.
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos, CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Veera Vaddi
vaddi@optisyn.com
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos,  AK 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of this research is to create a generic advanced Flight Management System (FMS) platform that could be used for evaluation of autonomous trajectory-based operation concepts. The research addresses the following deficiencies: most FMSs have limited advanced features; are specific to a single aircraft type; expensive and protected by FMS manufacturers. The proposed FMS platform will enable users to deploy a wide array of autonomy enabling FMS features by the click of a button. Some of the proposed features include: (i) air-ground & inter-aircraft trajectory negotiation, (ii) 4D Trajectory-Based Operations (4DTBO), (iii) high-fidelity wind modeling for improved predictability, (iii) trajectory planning options based on environmental and efficiency considerations, and (iv) advanced guidance modes such as Required Time of Arrival (RTA) and 4DFMS. A key feature of the proposed research is the integration of this platform and its features with NASA's Multi-AirCraft Simulation (MACS) platform. Phase I research will identify the complete array of features for possible inclusion in this platform. Moreover, Phase I will demonstrate select features through the interface to MACS. Phase II research will elevate the technology readiness level suitable for deployment in Human-In-The-Loop simulation pilot stations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed FMS platform is ideal for experimental FMS testbed. As such it could be of interest to Universities, research labs, and other small businesses pursuing research in air-traffic management. It could also be of interest to Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) operators for simulating the interactions of UAS with other aircraft in the National Airspace System. Trajectory-Based Operations realized by autonomous cars could be the answer to congested city traffic. The concepts, architectures, and evaluation tools developed under this research would be very much applicable to futuristic road traffic management system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed FMS platform can be used in the following NASA applications: - Networked cockpit management - Autonomicity (or self-management) -based architectures for the entirety, or parts, of airspace operations - Verification and validation tools for increasingly autonomous operations. - Autonomy/autonomous technologies and concepts for trajectory management and efficient/safe traffic flows. - It can be used to augment the capabilities of NASA's Multi AirCraft Simulation (MACS). New features such as RTA, 4DFMS, and High-Fidelity Wind Models will enhance the suite of FMS features available for evaluation in HITL simulations. - It can be used for shadow mode evaluation of NextGen FMS concepts under the SMART NAS project. - FMS features such as Interval Management (IM) enable self-separation and contribute towards autonomous National Airspace System.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Man-Machine Interaction
Command & Control
Teleoperation
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A3.02-8996
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace System (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Application of Imaging Sensors for UAS Command and Control for Evolving Towards Autonomous Operations of UAS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerospace Innovations, LLC
4822 George Washington Memorial Highway, Suite 200
Yorktown, VA 23692-2768
(757) 875-5144

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dung Nguyen
chi@ai-llc.com
4822 George Washington Memorial Hwy, Suite 200
Yorktown,  VA 23692-2768
(757) 875-5144

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NextGen will undoubtedly include unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) as legislated under the Federal Aviation Administration Modernization and Reform Act of 2012. The FAA is currently developing the regulatory framework for safely integrating small UAS (sUAS) into routine national airspace System (NAS) operations. The introduction of UAS in the NAS offer advantages over manned aircraft for applications which can be hazardous to human pilots, are long in duration, require greater precision, and require rapid response. Startup UAS companies have proposed using UAS for remote sensing, disaster response, delivery of goods, agricultural support, and many other beneficial applications. One significant aspect in an efficient NAS is the development of autonomous capabilities for UAS and the technologies that supports the safe implementation UAS autonomy. AI proposes to support NASA's UAS autonomy effort by developing an imaging sensor based command and control system that takes advantage of the 3-axis accelerometers that are in smart devices prevalent in the consumer electronics market for autonomous UAS operations. The paradigm shift from human piloted system to an autonomously operated aircraft will require both successful development of sensor technology and image processing techniques to allow for the systematic translation in the human to machine interface. While the majority of current UAS operators are trained UAS pilots, the availability of these specialized pilots may not meet the demand that is anticipated for future commercial UAS companies. Additionally, more intuitive piloting controls are needed to enable wide spread adaption of this technology and the subsequent evolution to a more autonomous operation. The work described in this proposal will provide the foundation to enable development of a UAS with intuitive flight controls

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Demand for more intuitive and autonomous control system for UAS will increase in the future as more applications are being developed for UAS in the NAS. Technologies that will help UAS operators perform their intended functions while maintaining the equivalent level of safety will be essential for their acceptance and inclusion in the NAS. Development of a low-cost airworthy all weather imaging sensor system can be incorporated into commercial UAS to help maintain safe operations in the terminal and enroute area in the NextGen. Safe, reliable, autonomously operating UAS can reduce the cost of monitoring infrastructure that span across physical distance, challenging terrain, and normally inaccessible places. While the paradigm may shift at different rates, it is clear that the development of autonomous functions will help pave the way to a better defined national airspace where piloted and unmanned system can coexist to increase the productivity of our national economy and improve the human condition where UAS will be working to monitor our safety and provide assistance when needed. Image processing techniques to improve the sensing capabilities is desired across many disciplines and within other non-NASA agencies. The ability to derive information from pixels in low visibility or inclement weather is important to the Department of Defense, NOAA, National Weather Service, Department of Interior, and agencies where imagery is a critical source for information mining.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential NASA commercial application exists in continued development of autonomy in UAS for the integration in NextGen. NASA researchers could use the resulting designs and/or prototypes of this research to extend their current work in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to develop and evaluate the efficacy of newer, more human-centric autonomous control systems for UAS. Additionally, the identification and evaluation of operational functions will help NASA in developing a hierarchical taxonomy of autonomy of UAS functions. The results of the image processing techniques can also be used in manned aviation systems and potentially for interplanetary robotic missions where autonomy would provide more independent, but safer exploration of unknown environments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Image Processing
Data Processing
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Electromagnetic
Visible
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A3.02-9077
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace System (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Autonomous, Safe Take-Off and Landing Operations for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in the National Airspace

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Near Earth Autonomy, Inc.
5001 Baum Boulevard, Suite 750
Pittsburgh, PA 15213-1856
(412) 513-6110

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sanjiv Singh
ssingh@nearearth.aero
5001 Baum Boulevard, Suite 750
Pittsburgh,  PA 15213-1856
(412) 855-3675

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Unmanned aerial systems (UAS's) and in particular intelligent, autonomous rotorcraft and fixed-wing aircraft have the potential to significantly impact modern society. A few examples of their utility include aerial surveying in difficult-to-access terrain, precision agriculture, package delivery, moviemaking, infrastructure inspection, fire fighting, search and rescue, etc. Recently there has been a lot of interest in autonomous air vehicles for cargo delivery to improve cost and time associated with shipping goods. Finally, much of the technology for autonomy could be used as a pilot's aid to help in difficult tasks such as landing a helicopter on an oil rig in the high seas or in the personal air vehicles of the future which are envisioned to be operated by people without significant pilot training. While the technology for unmanned air vehicles operating day in and day out without constant human supervision is maturing steadily, much remains to be done to make these vehicles commonplace. We have identified a number of challenges that must be addressed for these vehicles to safely and efficiently conduct their tasks in the National Airspace System (NAS). Civilian applications of UASs must ensure that they can: 1. sense and avoid other vehicles and follow air traffic commands, 2. avoid the terrain and land without operator intervention, 3. react to contingencies such as engine out and lost link scenarios, and 4. be reliable and cost-effective. We propose to a combination of software algorithms and low-cost, low SWAP sensors that simultaneously solves the navigation and obstacle detection problem, especially as relates to operation in cluttered environments. That is, in this program we will show that it is possible for small autonomous air vehicles to reliably and safely fly in the first and last 50 feet of operation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other Government agencies, both military and civilian, will comprise a much larger market for the technology. The UAS market is forecast to explode into hundreds-of-thousands of units within just a few years of the FAA establishing the appropriate regulatory procedures for the operation of UAS in the NAS. An enhance capability for safe, autonomous take-off and landing will fuel the market's forecast growth. Technology ensuring the safe operation of UAS, particularly during the first and last 50 ft. of flight, will contribute to testing that verifies the safety of UAS operations as well as providing regulators, legislators, and the general public with increased confidence in UAS operations. UAS are already in high demand, and they are being used in an increasing number of applications. Military UAS requirements are well documented and tens-of-thousands of UAS are already in use worldwide. The ability to take-off and land in tactical cluttered environments will allow UAS to be used more extensively in support of forward units. Additionally, the commercial market is forecast to grow to as many as 160,000 UAS. As soon as UAS operation in the national airspace is fully implemented, the cargo transportation market, in particular, is forecast to be the largest market segment. Autonomous precision take-off and landing will be a key enabling technology in realizing this market.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of technology that enables autonomous and safe UAS operations during the critical (near earth) phases of take-off and landing will directly contribute to NASA's testing and validation of technologies and concepts for UAS operations in the NAS. Additionally, Near Earth's technology will provide an enhanced capability, enabling more comprehensive UAS flight-testing for NASA's collaborative efforts with the FAA to accommodate UAS operations in NextGen. As the capabilities mature and are integrated into more air vehicles, they will also be of direct use to NASA in their flight testing of ground-based air navigational aids and guidance systems located in remote areas. The proposed autonomous technology will enable greater utilization of UAS in other NASA areas, particularly for experimentation and testing in the various research centers, for example expanding the utilization of UAS in the Ames FINESSE volcano research. The mature technology will ultimately enable greater use of UAS in space. A UAS that knows its position and is able to set down, avoiding obstacles in a cluttered environment can be used to accomplish repairs both inside and outside a spacecraft, as well as performing exploration of planetary surfaces. In essence, the successful development of the technology specified in this solicitation will enable NASA and any of its contractors involved with autonomous systems to accomplish testing with increased safety and decreased cost.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Perception/Vision
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A3.02-9153
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace System (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Verification & Validation of Complex Autonomy Concepts Using the Cloud

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Crown Consulting, Inc.
1400 Key Boulevard, Suite 1100
Arlington, VA 22209-1577
(703) 650-0663

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Cobb
pcobb@crownci.com
1400 Key Boulevard, Suite 1100
Arlington,  VA 22209-1577
(650) 533-8727

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Crown Consulting, Inc. proposes a new method of concept verification and validation for autonomous operations and identifying emergent behaviors. This method integrates several Internet technologies to enable massively parallel execution of National Airspace System (NAS) simulations in a cloud environment, vastly increasing the number of Monte Carlo simulation runs that can be executed in a given time, thus enabling broad assessments of safety, performance, and workload across thousands of scenarios representing wide ranges of conditions. Potential uses include verification and validation of concepts for autonomous UAS operations, validation of advanced NAS concepts, identifying emergent behavior, data mining and discovery, and development of SMART NAS Phase I will establish feasibility by demonstrating greatly reduced run time by running thousands of simulation cases at a time; automated system performance and safety evaluation; and capabilities for rapid analysis of safety, performance, and workload related to NAS operations.. The proposed effort will establish baseline scenarios, identify a suitable configuration of the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), implement an interface for creating a large set of scenarios, set up ACES for a cloud environment, create an interface for executing Monte Carlo runs in the cloud, demonstrate use as an automated cloud-based analysis tool, and define a SMART NAS Testbed for Phase II. The Phase II effort will establish requirements to support near-term applications, define a system architecture and design, and conduct prototype testing and demonstration. Potential applications of this concept to meet NASA needs include analysis of UTM and other concepts for managing UAS operations, prognostic safety assessments, NAS performance assessments, amplifying the capabilities of existing simulation models, exploring applications of autonomy, and real-time evaluation of traffic flow management strategies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA applications for this innovation include: - Evaluations by FAA and system developers of concepts for UAS operations - Validation and FAA certification of new concepts for prognostic safety assessment and system-wide prognostic safety assurance system development - Use by system developers to evaluate tradeoffs and alternative designs of complex automated or autonomic systems - Use by industry and other government agencies to amplify the capabilities of existing simulation models to explore an order of magnitude greater range of variables and input conditions - Exploring industry and government applications of autonomy, including identifying safety issues, assessing performance, and evaluating algorithms - Exploration by system developers of concepts for real-time evaluation of strategy options by autonomic system, enabling adaptability to unforeseen conditions or events Potential customers include researchers in government, industry, and academia exploring UAS uses, new system concepts, safety assurance methods, and autonomy; FAA offices, industry, and operators involved in certification of new systems or procedures; government agencies involved in operation of UAS or other new system concepts; entities concerned with development of complex systems and uses of autonomy (e.g., autonomous ground vehicles); and UAS civil operators such as precision agriculture, commercial package delivery, energy, survey, real estate, and similar applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA Commercial applications include licensing the results of the research and leveraging them in Space Act Agreements for the following: - Developing UTM and other concepts for UAS operations: Monte Carlo and deterministic simulations to explore Rules of the Road under wide ranges of conditions and to support air traffic management (ATM) concept development. - Prognostic safety assessments and concepts: Monte Carlo and deterministic simulations to support validation and certification of new concepts for prognostic safety assessments and system-wide prognostic safety assurance system development. - NAS performance assessments: Monte Carlo and deterministic simulations to evaluate performance of ATM and other system concepts for use in the NAS, as well as to develop a screening model based on a response-surface representation of NAS performance under a range of conditions. - Amplifying the capabilities of existing simulation models: Use with existing simulation models to explore an order of magnitude greater range of variables and conditions. - Applications of autonomy: Monte Carlo and large-scale deterministic simulations to identify potential safety issues, assess performance, and evaluate algorithms for proposed applications of autonomy. - Real-time evaluation of traffic flow management (TFM) strategies: Use of extremely fast parallel simulations for real-time evaluation of TFM strategies, enabling adaptability to unforeseen conditions or events.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A3.02-9395
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace System (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Auto-Suggest Capability via Machine Learning in SMART NAS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Innovation Laboratory, Inc.
2360 Southwest Chelmsford Avenue
Portland, OR 97201-2265
(503) 242-1761

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jimmy Krozel
Jimmy.Krozel@gmail.com
2360 SW Chelmsford Ave
Portland,  OR 97201-2265
(503) 242-1761

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We build machine learning capabilities that enables the Shadow Mode Assessment using Realistic Technologies for the NAS (SMART NAS) system to synthesize, optimize, and "auto-suggest" optimized Traffic Management Initiatives (TMIs). Multi Level Multi View (MLMV) machine learning is used to identify similar historical situations (days, scenarios, or airport conditions) in the NAS. TMIs used in historically similar situations are locally modified to optimize the parameters of the TMI to be used in the current day situation. SMART NAS is used to evaluate TMIs and to present fast time simulations to the end user to review the TMI and associated performance metrics before implementation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A commercial product can be customized and implemented under contract to AOCs for use by dispatchers and ATC coordinators. In such applications, when the ATSP is deciding on taking a certain TMI action, for instance, as discussed in a CDM telecom, the AOC user can run forward in time through the remainder of the schedule for the day to see if delays will propagate, if the ATM-Wx impacts will cause cancellations, or if crew curfew limits will be negatively affected.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's Airspace Operations and Safety Program (AOSP) projects, including: Traffic Flow Management (TFM) optimization, Trajectory-Based Operations (TBO), Super Density Operations (SDO), Integrated Arrival/Departure/Surface Operations (IADS), Weather Integrated Decision Making (Wx Integration), Dynamic Weather Routes (DWR), Interval Management (IM), Efficient Descent Advisor (EDA), Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC), Choke Point Analysis, Network Enabled ATM, and Fully Automated ATM/Airspace Operations System (AutoMax).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Man-Machine Interaction
Command & Control
Process Monitoring & Control
Data Fusion
Data Processing
Knowledge Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A3.02-9408
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace System (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Convective Induced Turbulence Detection in Oceanic Trajectory-Based Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Innovation Laboratory, Inc.
2360 Southwest Chelmsford Avenue
Portland, OR 97201-2265
(503) 242-1761

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jimmy Krozel
Jimmy.Krozel@gmail.com
2360 SW Chelmsford ave
portland,  OR 97201-2265
(503) 242-1761

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a Convective-Induced Turbulence (CIT) hazard detection system for Oceanic Trajectory-Based Operations (TBO) based on satellite-based observations of lightning and other supporting data. The system is based on total lightning sensing as an indicator of the location and severity of in-cloud CIT. Total lightning activity will be measured over oceanic airspace at high temporal resolution from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-Series (GOES R) in 2016. This opens up a unique research and business opportunity; we seek to investigate the relationship between CIT and total lightning measurements, and determine the skill of total lightning as an indicator of CIT. We will be able to provide turbulence estimates for oceanic flights and automatically warn airline dispatchers of upcoming weather hazards in TBO over oceanic airspaces.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
FAA Command Center and Flight Information Regions (FIRs) controlling Oceanic Airspace in the Atlantic and Pacific will benefit from this SBIR. Airlines with Oceanic flights in the Atlantic and Pacific can integrate our data into their Airline Operations Center (AOC) workstations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's Airspace Operations and Safety Program (AOSP) will benefit from this innovation: * Promote autonomy of the NAS by providing timely data processing of CIT hazard detection and proximity warnings relative to a 4-D Trajectory (4DT) in Oceanic TBO * Create a shared situational awareness between the flight deck, dispatchers, and air traffic control on the dynamically changing CIT weather hazard * Promote weather-integrated tactical flight rerouting by automatically providing information about the lateral and vertical options for finding clear air safe from CIT hazards Several NASA projects can benefit from this SBIR effort: Weather Integration, Weather Hazard Modeling (Oceanic CWAM), TASAR, Oceanic In-Trail Procedures (ITP), and ATD-3.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Data Fusion
Data Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A3.02-9414
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace System (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Anomaly Detection to Improve Airspace Safety and Efficiency

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Metron, Inc.
1818 Library Street
Reston, VA 20190-5602
(703) 787-8700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gregory Godfrey
godfrey@metsci.com
1818 Library Street
Reston,  VA 20190-5602
(703) 787-8700

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As the air transportation system becomes increasingly autonomous over the next twenty years, there will be an increasing need for monitoring capabilities that operate in the background to identify anomalous behaviors consistent with either safety or efficiency deficiencies. Today, these behaviors are largely detected after an incident has occurred. In July 2013, an Asiana Boeing 777 flew too low approaching San Francisco International Airport (SFO), its tail hitting a seawall and crashing into the runway. Three people died and 180 were injured. Since the weather was clear and visibility unimpeded, part of the instrument landing system (the glideslope transmitter) was offline for service, thus requiring pilots to land visually. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) found that the Asiana pilots' reliance on the automated flight systems was a key factor in that crash. Further analysis by the Wall Street Journal revealed that foreign pilots required more "go-arounds" at SFO than U.S. pilots in the six weeks prior to the Asiana Airlines crash (i.e., when the glideslope transmitter was down), indicating a greater difficulty in executing the landing via visual approach. This type of anomalous behavior could have been detected prior to the crash. All of the data was available, but no one was looking at it to see these consistent, yet anomalous behaviors. Metron proposes to develop a semi-autonomous background monitoring system to apply this type of data mining and data discovery to recent historical track repositories in order to identify opportunities for improvements to safety and efficiency in airspace operations. Metron proposes a statistical approach that uses historical flight data to develop models of normal behavior, and then apply statistical methods to identify outliers under one or more indicators. Metron has used similar approaches for anomaly detection systems developed and delivered to operational customers in the land and maritime domains.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For Non-NASA commercial applications, we plan to use the proposed work to extend our technical base of kinematic modeling and anomaly detection (which is land- and sea-oriented) to include air operations. This will allow us to break into new areas within agencies such as NGA that are already using our technology for land and sea. Much of our technical base was developed as a kinematic component of Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) for the Navy, where it is important to understand the behavior of commercial shipping. We would use the extension of this work into the air domain to develop a similar capability for the Air Force, providing capabilities for them to interact more safely and effectively within the context of civilian airspace.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The long-term goal of this A3 Airspace Operations and Safety work is facilitating the development of autonomy in the future National Airspace System (NAS) through the modeling of how human behavior influences the details of flight path selection. The short-term goal is to improve the current NAS by identifying flights deemed "anomalous" by a suite of indicators designed to assess flight efficiency and safety. The transition path for NASA priorities begins with ATAC's flight repository, the source of the data for this project. ATAC's mission is to consolidate, to cleanse, and to otherwise add value to NAS data&#151;the indicators we propose to develop for this project are designed to aid that mission. In preparation for a Phase II, we will work with ATAC to transition our short-term technology to an FAA NextGen program (e.g., Collaborative Air Traffic Management Technologies (CATMT)), and leverage these in-roads to begin transitioning our deeper human-behavior modeling effort.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Process Monitoring & Control
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Fusion
Data Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A3.02-9466
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace System (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Weather Aware Route Planning (WARP)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel H. Wagner Associates, Inc.
559 West Uwchlan Avenue, Suite 140
Exton, PA 19341-3013
(610) 280-3835

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Eanes
james.eanes@va.wagner.com
2 Eaton Street, Suite 500
Hampton,  VA 23669-4054
(757) 727-7700

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this SBIR project, Daniel H. Wagner Associates, Inc., will design and demonstrate the feasibility of a system for integrating environmental data into flight planning and execution for Unmanned Air Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS). The Weather Aware Route Planning (WARP) system will provide weather-based Indicators and Warnings (I&W) and navigational recommendations for UAS in order to improve their autonomy, safety, and energy efficiency. Using all available environmental and navigational data, WARP will assess environmental impacts to planned/executing flight plans and generate alerts and recommendations for those plans based on expected environmental impacts. Operating within a ground-based control center, WARP will incorporate position and environmental data from existing and emerging Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) sources. Using a combination of rules-based/heuristic and computationally-intensive approaches, WARP will assess environmental impacts to individual UAS flight plans and provide I&W and recommendations for each UAS to avoid negative environmental impacts and take advantage of positive environmental impacts. WARP will assist ground-based pilots, and eventually UAS autonomous controllers, in performing safer and more efficient flight.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial (Phase III) customers for WARP outside of NASA include a host of government agencies (e.g., FAA, DHS, DoD, DoT, etc.) and prime contractors (e.g., ITT, Raytheon, Leidos, etc.) working on UAS and their associated C2 systems, within the NAS and operating anywhere in the world. Specifically within DoD, we are very familiar with Raytheon and Leidos, since we are working with them on a DARPA project for distributed data fusion among UAS. We have recently secured Phase III funding for our Multi-Sensor Data Fusion System (MSDFS), which transitioned search effectiveness optimization and evaluation modules into three Navy programs of record (PoRs). We have also licensed data fusion systems for unmanned vehicles and border security, and search optimization systems for mine warfare and underwater search, and transitioned several route and area search optimization and evaluation systems into Navy PoRs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is a key partner in the development and maturation of NextGen technologies. Specifically, the Integrated Systems Research Program (ISRP) matures and integrates NextGen technologies into major vehicle/operational systems (http://www.aeronautics.nasa.gov/programs_isrp.htm), and the UAS Integration in the NAS Project (http://www.aeronautics.nasa.gov/isrp/uas/index.htm) within ISRP is focusing on demonstrating effective UAS operations in relevant test environments. In Phase I, we will begin discussions with this NASA program in order to pursue potential Phase II-E and/or Phase II-X partnerships to help develop UAS and Command and Control (C2) performance standards regarding environmental conditions and to integrate WARP (upon successful prototype development in Phase II) into a realistic test environment, such as their planned live virtual constructive (LVC) distributed environment (DE).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Navigation & Guidance
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Man-Machine Interaction
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A3.02-9593
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace System (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Probabilistic Trajectory Constraint Modeler

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
540 Fort Evans Road, Suite 300
Leesburg, VA 20176-4098
(800) 405-8576

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
George Hunter
ghunter@mosaicatm.com
540 Fort Evans Road
Leesburg,  VA 20176-4098
(530) 677-2046

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Air traffic control research, air traffic control operations and user operations rely on simulators that predict the future time history of three-dimensional aircraft trajectories. Such predicted trajectories are fundamental inputs to a wide variety of planning, monitoring and control tasks, including airline seasonal fleet planning, pre-departure flight planning, real-time airspace and airport load forecasting, traffic sequencing and spacing, separation assurance, weather routing, runway assignment, etc. Clearly trajectory simulators are core components of many air traffic applications; it is important that they be as accurate, as efficient and as manageable as possible. We propose an innovative trajectory constraint modeling utility that leads to improvements in all three areas. Regarding trajectory simulator accuracy, there are several categories of error sources that contribute to trajectory prediction uncertainty. One key, and overlooked, source is flight plan nonconformance. Flights often fail to follow their flight plan due to various constraints that are encountered, such as altitude holding, speed control, path stretching and reroutes. It is important to model these constraints both for flight time forecasting as well as load forecasting. Such constraints are not deterministic and their variance is a major contributor to trajectory prediction error. Therefore our constraint modeler produces probabilistic constraint forecasts which, in turn, support probabilistic trajectory prediction. Advanced air traffic applications not only require trajectory predictions that (i) are as accurate as possible, but also that (ii) provide an indication of their error as well, which can vary substantially. Traditionally, predictors have produced deterministic trajectories and their uncertainty is often ignored. We also discuss in our proposal how our trajectory constraint modeler supports significant improvements in efficiency and manageability of trajectory predictors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Beyond NASA, potential applications for this work lie with operators ranging from major airlines to charters and air taxi services, the Federal Aviation Administration and international Air Navigation Service Providers (ANSPs). In fact we already have provided an initial version of an empirical trajectory predictor to an operator with great success. This product is useful for operators both for seasonal fleet planning, predeparture flight planning and real-time flight following. With more accurate flight times, operators can make more efficient use of their fleet and provide more accurate arrival times to their customers. More accurate flight times also improves the operator flight planning process. For instance, operators can compute more accurately the required fuel loading for their flights. This can reduce their takeoff weight, thus reducing their overall fuel burn and environmental impact. For their dispatch and flight following tasks, operators will have more accurate predictions of the future progress of a flight as it progresses along its route. In addition to operators, our Probabilistic Trajectory Constraint Modeler will be a valuable component for the Federal Aviation Administration and international Air Navigation Service Providers (ANSPs) for improved traffic flow planning.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our 4D Probabilistic Trajectory Constraint Modeler has several valuable applications for NASA. First, it will be an important addition to existing trajectory predictors. No modifications are required as our Probabilistic Trajectory Constraint Modeler will be used to enhance the accuracy of the input flight plan data. The result will be more accurate trajectory forecasting which will improve the efficiency, benefits and acceptance of NASA air traffic control and air traffic management tools. Also, because our modeler provides the probabilistic information about the constraints, it support probabilistic trajectory prediction which will be important in the next generation decision support tools. Finally, our Probabilistic Trajectory Constraint Modeler supports extremely fast trajectory prediction. Such a trajectory predictor will enable entirely new optimization approaches for traffic planning tools.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Quality/Reliability
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A3.02-9595
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace System (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wind Shift Detection Model

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
540 Fort Evans Road, Suite 300
Leesburg, VA 20176-4098
(800) 405-8576

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jonathan Cunningham
jcunningham@mosaicatm.com
540 Fort Evans Road
Leesburg,  VA 20176-4098
(518) 598-6686

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
On a daily basis, airport managers manually analyze current and future weather conditions to determine whether their facility will be negatively impacted. While not the only weather factor, one of the more important factors is wind, specifically wind shifts. Every morning the runway configuration for an airport is set based on the expected dominant wind flow across the area in order to maximize the efficiency of the terminal area. If the wind does not change direction over the course of the day, the airport is able operate at its optimum level, barring any other impactful weather event. If the wind does shift its direction, a change in the airport's runway configuration is required. This decision of when to change the runway configuration, however, is not always easy, and often times it can be a difficult and sometimes costly one. If the configuration of the runway is changed too late or too early in relation to the time of the wind shift, the throughput at the airport will decrease. To support this decision, a wind shift detection model is proposed. This model will utilize operational weather products, including the Localized Aviation MOS Product (LAMP) and the High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR), to produce a probabilistic estimate of when a wind shift is expected to occur. By automating the process of detecting wind shifts, it improves the efficiency of the airport by allowing airport managers to focus on configuring the airport rather than when the wind shift will occur. To determine the accuracy and feasibility of the model for use in real-time operations, it will be tested at number of airports around the NAS, specifically for historical scenarios when an unexpected wind shift negatively impacted operations. Phase II will look at adding a live weather data feed to the, incorporating traffic data, as well as integrating the model within the Airport Runway Configuration Management (ARCM) concept.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful development and implementation of the Wind Shift Detection model can provide useful information to airlines and other flight operators about potential airport configuration changes. This will allow dispatchers to proactively file flight plans for aircraft account for the anticipated change in active runways. Additionally, this research will result in innovative techniques and methods to automatically translate weather forecasts into interpretable information. These methods could be utilized by public and private weather data companies to increase the value and marketability of the services that they provide.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Upon successful completion of this Phase I SBIR, the most appropriate application of the Wind Shift Detection Model, will be further research on ATM operational improvements. Specifically, the FAA's Surface Trajectory Based Operations project is currently evaluating the Airport Runway Configuration Management (ARCM) concept, a decision support tool for optimizing runway configuration plans. Though wind is just one aspect of the ARCM concept, it is a significant one. By integrating the wind shift detection model with the ARCM concept, more accurate airport configuration recommendations will be able to be produced. Additionally, with the Wind Shift Detection Model able to provide an automated translation of weather forecasts, it directly supports the Airport Arrival Rate (AAR) Decision Support (AARDS) capability included in the Collaborative Air Traffic Management Technologies (CATM-T) Work Package 4 (WP4).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A3.02-9598
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomy of the National Airspace System (NAS)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Modeling of Ramp Operations including Departure Status at Secondary Airports

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
540 Fort Evans Road, Suite 300
Leesburg, VA 20176-4098
(800) 405-8576

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steve Atkins
atkins@mosaicatm.com
540 Fort Evans Road
Leesburg,  VA 20176-4098
(978) 692-9484

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project addresses three modeling elements relevant to NASA's IADS research and ATD-2 project, two related to ramp operations at primary airports and one related to departure status at secondary airports. Departure scheduling requires departure status information from secondary airports that lack surface surveillance. We propose a method using aircraft transponder activation and data science modeling to estimate earliest takeoff time and runway. Fast-time simulations of IADS concepts require models of how ramp controllers manage near-gate aircraft movements; and how flight operators will interact with collaborative departure scheduling concepts. We propose to develop a model, with defined interfaces to be usable in any NASA simulation platform, for conflict/congestion-free aircraft movements in alleyways, coordinated to allow efficient, simultaneous movements. We will also offer a model for flight operator's swapping gate delays to free needed gates and prioritize their schedules. These models are also relevant to NASA's SARDA and SMART NAS projects. We will document the model designs, deliver all source code, and, in Phase 2, publish models under and Open Source license.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary potential application for this work outside of NASA is with the FAA. The method for providing departure status information from secondary airports could be deployed NAS-wide. Every large airport is surrounded by smaller airports that increasingly are placing demand on shared departure resources. Whatever IADS technologies the FAA deploys beyond IDAC, they will benefit from having the information provided by this concept. Like NASA, the FAA must study and evaluate IADS technologies. The models of ramp operations and flight operator participation in airport collaborative surface/departure concepts will enable higher-fidelity simulation studies, reducing concept risk and providing more accurate benefits estimates. Other research organizations conducting IADS research will also benefit from these modes, which we intend to offer under an Open Source license in Phase 2. The models of flight operator behavior could lead to commercial products to aid flight operators in interacting with surface CDM systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed SBIR will complete work that is highly beneficial to NASA, work that can directly benefit NASA's IADS research, ATD-2 project, SARDA research, and SMART NAS goals. The method for estimating departure times and runways at secondary airports could be used at airports near DFW to support NASA's IADS research. It could also be used as part of the ATD-2 project, wherever NASA chooses to focus that research. The modeling of ramp operations and flight operator behaviors can be used to improve fast-time simulation capabilities that are used to study ATD-2 and other IADS concepts and by NASA's SARDA research. Furthermore, these models can be included in NASA's SMART NAS model repository, to benefit any SMART NAS users that require high fidelity models of these aspects of NAS operations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Sequencing & Scheduling
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A3.03-8717
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Future Aviation Systems Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Transported Turbulence during Climb, Cruise and Descent

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
WxOps, Inc.
425 South Street, Suite 3904
Honolulu, HI 96813-5064
(808) 638-0921

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gary Ellrod
gary.ellrod@gmail.com
20 Kettle Pond Lane
Granby,  CT 06035-2934
(860) 808-6470

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We address Clear Air Turbulence events which are not identified by the current CAT prediction formulation and commercial products in an effort to reduce damage and injury encountered during long-range commercial flights over oceanic areas. Such events are not uncommon, and occur in areas that are free of clouds, are not located near jet stream/upper frontal shear zones associated with the Ellrod-Knox diagnostic index, and are at large distances from possible "near-cloud" turbulence associated with convective storms. A Transported Turbulence Product (TTP) is proposed which follows the forensic analysis procedures used to evaluate potential causes for such encounters during CAT incident investigations. Should our proposed method prove viable, dispatchers will be able to warn pilots prior to entry into high probability areas for such Transported Turbulence. The timely warnings will allow material and personnel in the cabin to be secured during transit.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The aerospace industry is actively pursuing inflight Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) equipment for cockpit solutions as now allowed by FAA regulations. The proposed methods for user tracking of long-range air transport & plume evolution will be useful both on the ground and in flight. The Common Operating Environment will reduce error of interpretation and user workload both on the ground and in the cockpit, which is especially important for icing hazard avoidance during ETOPS (FAA requirement for alternate landing sites in event of depressurization). We plan to offer Transported CAT forecast products and services commercially, and will extend these techniques to volcanic aerosol and radionuclide hazards. Based upon benefits demonstrated at Hawaiian Airlines, any reductions in injury and/or improvements in airline performance will help reduce operations and insurance costs, and will promote sales and competition in the international commercial air transport industry.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The methods developed will be useful to aviation and scientific personnel for NASA Flight Operations during Field Experiments, especially for topics involving the tracking and detection of atmospheric trace constituents. Since we are focusing on advection of hazard tracers with warning times on the order of hours, the approach may extend the value of dated NASA observations (hours since collection) without the requirement for real time data delivery. The TTP is delivered in Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) formats which allow immediate import into NASA geobrowser open source technologies. Virtual Globe applications will allow NASA applications for other atmospheric hazards including volcanic aerosols and radionuclides, and is ideal for assembly and analysis of field experiment data on both terrestrial and extra-terrestrial globes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 A3.03-8942
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Future Aviation Systems Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Big Data Driven Architecture for Real Time Systemwide Safety Assurance

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ATAC
2770 De La Cruz Boulevard
Santa Clara, CA 95050-2624
(408) 736-2822

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Schade
jes@atac.com
2770 De La Cruz Blvd.
Santa Clara,  CA 95050-2624
(408) 736-2822

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has the aim of researching aviation Real-time System-wide Safety Assurance (RSSA) with a focus on the development of prognostic decision support tools as one of its new aeronautics research pillars. The vision of RSSA is to accelerate the discovery of previously unknown safety threats in real time and enable rapid mitigation of safety risks through analysis of massive amounts of aviation data. Our innovation supports this vision by designing a hybrid architecture combining traditional database technology and real-time streaming analytics in a Big Data environment. The innovation includes three major components: a Batch Processing framework, Traditional Databases and Streaming Analytics. It addresses at least three major needs within the aviation safety community. First, the innovation supports the creation of future data-driven safety prognostic decision support tools that must pull data from heterogeneous data sources and seamlessly combine them to be effective for NAS stakeholders. Second, our innovation opens up the possibility to provide real-time NAS performance analytics desired by key aviation stakeholders. Third, our proposed architecture provides a mechanism for safety risk accuracy evaluations. To accomplish this innovation, we have three technical objectives and related work plan efforts. The first objective is the determination of the system and functional requirements. We identify the system and functional requirements from aviation safety stakeholders for a set of use cases by investigating how they would use the system and what data processing functions they need to support their decisions. The second objective is to create a Big Data technology-driven architecture. Here we explore and identify the best technologies for the components in the system including Big Data processing and architectural techniques adapted for aviation data applications. Finally, our third objective is the development and demonstration of a proof-of-concept.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Enable key FAA operational facility safety personnel to have performance dashboards driven by Big Data-based, near real-time analytics to alert them when the NAS or regional areas are experiencing or could experience safety risk. Allow airlines to turn vast amounts of FOQA data and other information gathered from operations into "actionable" information by improving turnaround time for analysis and expanding the range of questions that can be asked of the data sets that they do maintain. Enable airline safety personnel to monitor and predict their fleet and pilot safety performance to better predict where accidents might happen using the large amount of FOQA and/or other airlines' data that the airlines have been collecting. Enable international Air Navigation Service Provider safety personnel to monitor and predict system threats.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Provide a Big Data technology-driven architecture with safety prognostics capability in supporting RSSA that can address safety risk/hazard identification techniques on large quantities of historical NAS data and streaming live aviation data. Assist ATM researchers directly by enhancing the capabilities of the ATM Data Warehouse with these techniques. Allow ongoing data mining efforts to utilize Big Data technology to enhance the performance of these safety algorithms, dramatically allowing for faster discovery of more safety or performance anomalies and eventually predicting safety risk and precursors in near real time. Enhance the capabilities of SMART-NAS for researchers to quickly examine the system-wide safety implications of new concepts and technologies, and address the design and operational mitigations of safety risks.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Computer System Architectures
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Fusion
Data Input/Output Devices (Displays, Storage)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing
Knowledge Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H1.01-9186
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Regolith ISRU for Mission Consumable Production
PROPOSAL TITLE: Task-Specific Asteroid Simulants for Ground Testing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Deep Space Industries Inc.
18711 South Egret Bay Boulevard, #603
Houston, TX 77058-3826
(703) 623-9616

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Lewis
jsl@u.arizona.edu
3002 Rye Court
Anacortes,  WA 98221-3219
(360) 873-8781

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We will design, prototype, and test a variety of asteroid simulants needed to validate most aspects of asteroid ISRU processes. These include physical simulants for excavation, transfer, and preparation (including comminution); chemical/mineralogical/volatile simulants for processing tests such as volatiles extraction, metals extraction, and oxygen production; and simulants to evaluate scientific and commercial instrumentation. The need for task-specific asteroid simulants is illustrated by the history of ill-designed and ill-applied lunar simulants, and current practices for asteroid simulants, which are marked by ad-hoc improvisation that frequently results in an inability to compare results among experiments or reliably repeat experiments for confirmation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Asteroid mining is a new commercial application that begs for appropriate asteroid simulants. Companies such as DSI need to test instrumentation for proximity operations, mineralogical assay, excavation techniques and equipment, volatiles extraction, metals and oxygen production, and hazards (such as dust) mitigation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Simulants are needed in order to adequately test equipment prior to launch to an actual asteroid. The simulant may need to adequately reproduce the physical characteristics of an asteroid to validate sampling techniques, anchoring methods, or to test hazards such as dust production. A simulant may need to reproduce the appearance and spectrum of an asteroid, in any of several wavelength ranges. It may need to replicate the mineralogy and possibly the volatiles content to test related instrumentation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Resource Extraction


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H1.01-9278
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Regolith ISRU for Mission Consumable Production
PROPOSAL TITLE: Demonstration of "Optical Mining" For Excavation of Asteroids and Production of Mission Consumables

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ICS Associates, Inc.
11404 Camaloa Avenue
Lake View Terrace, CA 91342-6810
(818) 422-0514

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joel Sercel
sercel@icsassociates.com
11404 Camaloa Avenue
Lake View Terrace,  CA 91342-6810
(818) 422-0514

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase-1 project will demonstrate the feasibility of an innovative breakthrough in ISRU methods that we call "Optical Mining". Optical mining is an approach to simultaneously excavating carbonaceous chondrite asteroid surfaces and driving water and other volatiles out of the excavated material and into an enclosing inflatable bag without the need for complex or impractical robotics. In optical mining, highly concentrated sunlight is delivered to the surface of the asteroid through a mechanically simple but optically sophisticated system of reflective non-imaging optics. The highly concentrated optical energy ablates the surface in a controlled way analogous to how intense lasers can ablate surfaces constantly exposing new material and forcing water out of the ablated material. Optical mining is part of a mission concept that ICS Associates has developed called Apis (Asteroid Provided In-Situ Systems). Apis is a commercially viable approach to the extraction, processing, and delivery of water from asteroids to in-space assets. Mission system studies show that Apis can extract up to 100MT of water from an accessible near Earth asteroid and deliver it to Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (LDRO) based on the launch of just one modest sized spacecraft from a single Falcon 9 rocket. The Apis mission concept depends on the completion of the proposed SBIR work. In this Phase-1 SBIR we will develop a facility to simulate and demonstrate key aspects of optical mining to show the mission system feasibility of Apis and provide a breakthrough in ISRU and space transportation for NASA. We will do this by upgrading an existing xenon arc lamp and vacuum system and using the optical energy from the lamp to simulate optical mining on asteroid materials in vacuum. We will perform experiments to validate the process by optically ablating the surfaces of meteorite samples and asteroid simulations under carefully controlled and observed conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed work is designed to create an industrial revolution in space in which propellant and other consumables for commercial processes in space are supplied from near Earth asteroids instead of from the surface of the Earth. Our mission system studies show that such propellant, if minded from highly-accessible Near Earth Objects (NEOs) can be used to supply propellant for reusable solar thermal orbit transfer vehicles that fly on recirculating routes between LEO, GEO, and a propellant depot in LDRO. These reusable solar thermal OTVs, which we call Worker Bees, more than double the effective throw capability of launch vehicles by eliminating the need for high energy upper stages and allowing rockets to launch their payloads to LEO instead of to high-energy transfer orbits. The proposed Phase 1 SBIR will perform a critical proof of concept that enables this vision, creates a commercial market in space for asteroid mining products, and allows the development of commercial OTVs supplied from asteroid ISRU.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed work will support NASA's plans for human exploration by providing mission consumables and propellant for all missions of the Evolvable Mars Campaign including: human exploration missions to Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (LDRO), human exploration missions to near Earth asteroids in their native orbits, exploration of the Moon, and exploration of Mars. Completion of the proposed work demonstrating the physics and chemistry of optical mining will enable NASA to fly the extremely exciting "Apis" mission. Requiring only a modest-sized spacecraft launched to a low positive C3 compatible with a single Falcon 9 rocket, Apis is capable of providing NASA with propellant and mission consumables in cis-lunar space. The proposed SBIR work will demonstrate a key aspect of the Apis mission, namely the process of "Optical Mining" to excavate asteroid surfaces by ablation, drive water from the ablated materials, collect the evolved water as ice in cold storage bags, and return up to 100MT (metric tonnes) of water to LDRO or other depot location. Optical mining could also be used to extract the volatile materials from the target of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) and convert that material to consumables and propellant in cis-lunar space to support human exploration.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Space Transportation & Safety
Conversion
Distribution/Management
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
In Situ Manufacturing
Mirrors
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H1.01-9564
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Regolith ISRU for Mission Consumable Production
PROPOSAL TITLE: Small Body Regolith Extraction System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Grainflow Dynamics, Inc.
1141 Catalina Drive, PMB 270
Livermore, CA 94550-5928
(925) 447-4293

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Otis Walton
walton@grainflow.com
1141 Catalina Drive, PMB 270
Livermore,  CA 94550-5928
(925) 447-4293

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project will develop a specialized flexible microgravity subsurface drilling and regolith extraction system which could extract significant quantities of regolith from depths between 1m and 3m below the surface through a small (~2.6cm diameter) entrance drill hole. Such a drill system could selectively extract just the fine-fraction of regolith from depths which have not been exposed to significant space-weathering (e.g. by utilizing its unique oversize-particle-rejecting drill-head feeder). The flexible drill system could be utilized to create horizontal wells for direct insitu extraction of volatiles on the moon, for instance, without removing the bulk of the regolith (e.g. see Walton et al 2014a, b) or it could excavate subsurface volumes of regolith of the order of 0.5m3 through a single small entrance hole, for small body applications. If the near-surface regolith on a small body is primarily comprised of small particulates, with say at least 70% by mass being particles smaller than 2mm, then such a system could create a subsurface excavation on the order of 0.3m3 to 0.4m3 during a sunlit operating time duration of less than 100hrs (assuming the bulk density of the regolith is on the order of 1g/cc). Microgravity capable storage and transfer vessels and conveying lines (demonstrated in previous phase-1 SBIR projects, Walton et al 2012; 2014) could be utilized to store, dispense, or transfer the material in continuous or batch modes to other equipment for processing (i.e., the microgravity storage vessels could act as a buffer volume to provide a uniform rate of delivery for a continuous process, or they could dispense material in batches, as needed). The entire regolith extraction system is enclosed with minimal loss of volatiles and no extraneous debris after initiation of the drill-hole.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Deep Space Industries, Shackleton Energy, and Planetary Resources are three of the relatively new commercial entities planning to make use of extraterrestrial resources. These entities and others seeking to utilize resources on small solar system bodies could benefit from the tools being developed here. The drill-head feeder developed here also overcomes a well-known problem with conventional vertical screw conveying, namely, that the vortex or swirl-action of the material near the entrance to a screw conveyor can prevent material from entering the conveyor, often causing vertical screw-conveyors to operate in a 'feed-starved' mode unless they are 'force-fed'. The feeder/drill-head design developed here accomplishes the function of force-feeding the attached screw-augers so that they are not feed-starved. Eight out of ten suppliers of large industrial conveying equipment which includes vertical screw conveyors, only offer them with separately powered horizontal screw conveyor-feeders, to supply material to a force-fed transfer point where the vertical screw conveyor picks up the material fed into it, and elevates it. The other two suppliers of large vertical screw-like conveyors (Olds Elevator and Siwertell) both utilize rotating scoops at the bottom of their vertical conveyors to gather material and force it into the vertical conveying pipe. The drill-head feeders developed here could greatly simplify feeding of vertical screw conveyors and improve their performance.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Subsurface access, material extraction, transport and storage are important for fulfillment of both Science and Exploration mission goals. Microgravity material handling is significantly different than our terrestrial engineering, mining and material-processing experience. The material handling equipment and components developed under this project resembles some terrestrial drilling, and material-transport, storage and handling equipment, but also offer significant improvements in both function and robustness for microgravity applications over more conventional drilling or excavation approaches. These new tools could facilitate development of robust ISRU processing operations under microgravity. Access to unweathered subsurface material is crucial for evaluation of both the origin of a body and for extraction of resources. The ability of extract a significant quantity of subsurface material without exposure to the space environment and without the addition of any diluting gases offers a significant benefit over alternatives that have been proposed. In addition to the prototype regolith extraction and handling equipment, the simulation tools developed and calibrated for predicting their performance, could also be utilized by NASA programs designing future microgravity missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Resource Extraction


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H1.01-9667
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Regolith ISRU for Mission Consumable Production
PROPOSAL TITLE: Planetary Volatiles Extractor for In Situ Resource Utilization

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics, Ltd.
Building 3, Suite 1005 63 Flushing Avenue Unit 150
Brooklyn, NY 11205-1070
(212) 966-0661

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kris Zacny
zacny@honeybeerobotics.com
398 West Washington Blvd, Suite 200
Pasadena,  CA 91105-2000
(510) 207-4555

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Under previous SBIR Phase 1, we demonstrated MISME system to TRL 3. This system can be used on Mars, the Moon, as well as Asteroids (a Spider concept with self- anchoring approach was developed). We propose to focus this Phase I on the two approaches of water extraction: Sniffer and Corer. At the end of the Phase 1, we will trade all 3: Sniffer, Corer, MISME and select one for further development in Phase 2. After the Sniffer and the Corer tests, a trade study will be conducted to compare Sniffer vs Corer vs MISME approaches. The trade study will include figure of merits (e.g. extraction efficiency etc), potential for scaling production up, easy of deploying on more than one planetary body, as well as mission implementation challenges and risks. During this time we will also work closely with our COTR to determine mission preferences. The end result will be selection of the best approach. During this trade study we will also consider different properties of planetary regoliths as well as environmental conditions that would affect excavation and processing (e.g. poorly sorted particle size distribution and agglutinates on the Moon which make regolith very cohesive, perchlorates and clays on Mars which make soil very sticky etc).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The system could be used by several commercial companies that are interested in In Situ Resource Utilization for financial gain. These include Planetary Resources and Deep Space Industries targeting Asteroids and Shackleton Energy Corp, targeting the Moon. Brining water from the Moon or NEOs could be very profitable given that launching water from space costs ~$20,000/liter. The major market for water could be human consumption (e.g. once Bigelow Space Hotels are established) or refueling of existing satellites. The latter is of particular interest, since satellites come to the end of their life not because of electronics, or power, but because there are running out of fuel for station keeping. NASA and industry have been developing in space refueling technology, the first step in enabling refueling of satellites in space. Other non-NASA applications include robotic acquisition of volatiles as well as soil and liquid samples from hazardous environments &#150; chemical spills, nuclear waste, oil spills.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications would satisfy goals of HEOMD and SMD. In particular, Planetary Volatiles Extractor could be initially used as a reconnaissance tool to map and characterize volatiles distribution around the area before deploying ISRU plant. Depending on the required water (or other volatiles) production per day, the PVEx could be used to extract water to support human habitats or for LOX/LH2 propulsion system to enable return of humans or samples back to Earth or a journey to outer reaches of Space. Because of the system flexibility, the PVEx could be deployed on any extraterrestrial body that contains volatiles or hydrated minerals: Mars, the Moon, Europa, Enceladus, Asteroids, Comets, Phobos and Deimos. For example if the system were to be deployed on the Moon or Near Earth Objects, the water produced by the system could be returned to ISS.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Composites
Metallics
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Fuels/Propellants


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H1.01-9764
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Regolith ISRU for Mission Consumable Production
PROPOSAL TITLE: Carbonaceous Asteroid Volatile Recovery (CAVoR) system

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pioneer Astronautics
11111 West 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood, CO 80215-5516
(303) 980-0890

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Berggren
mberggren@pioneerastro.com
11111 W. 8th Ave, Unit A
Lakewood,  CO 80401-5516
(303) 980-0231

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Carbonaceous Asteroid Volatile Recovery (CAVoR) system extracts water and volatile organic compounds for propellant production, life support consumables, and manufacturing from in-situ resources in support of advanced space exploration. The CAVoR thermally extracts ice and water bound to clays minerals, which is then combined with small amounts of oxygen to gasify organic matter contained in carbonaceous chondrite asteroids. In addition to water, CAVoR produces hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide that comprise precursors to produce oxygen for propellant and breathing gas and to produce organic compounds including fuels and plastics. Additional CAVoR byproducts include nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus compounds that have potential uses as buffer gas for life support and reagents for more-advanced asteroid materials processing. Process residues are thermally stabilized by the CAVoR system, which renders them suitable as bulk shielding, as feed to mineral separation and concentration, or as raw material for manufacture of structural components. The CAVoR is a low-pressure, non-catalytic, batch process aimed toward maximum recovery of valuable constituents in a difficult operating environment using steel or other light-weight reactor alloys. Key elements of the CAVoR will be systematically developed and demonstrated through a progression from an Earth laboratory environment to experiments in zero-g flights and ISS with appropriate scale up and performance validations leading to implementation on a Near Earth Asteroid (NEA). Hardware designs to achieve required sealing and operating performance over long durations in microgravity will be derived in part from Pioneer's heritage in lunar and Mars ISRU. A combination of modeling and experimentation will be used to overcome the lack of current well-established state-of-the-art process methods and conditions for resource recovery from Near Earth Asteroids.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The autothermal steam reforming technology proposed for the CAVoR has applications in the recovery of water and energy values from terrestrial wastes and resources. Steam reforming technology has mostly been applied to feed matter containing only small amounts of inorganic matter. The efficient use and recovery of process heat to be established during the CAVoR program will enable non-catalytic autothermal steam reforming technology to be applied to feeds such as contaminated soils, low-grade hydrocarbon feeds, oil shale, un-sorted municipal waste, and other organic materials. By so doing, many otherwise refractory, hazardous compounds can potentially be broken into syngas constituents for use as fuels rather than being incinerated with no economic gain. The relatively low-temperature residue from autothermal steam reforming will be de-agglomerated, rendered sterile, and made suitable for down stream physical separations and byproduct recovery. The CAVoR technology will be poised for entry into the growing market demand for waste volume reduction and low-grade fuels resources. The device solves a variety of industrial and municipal waste challenges with minimal environmental impact. The primary CAVoR steam reforming technology does not require exotic chemicals or catalysts for the production of water and syngas. Only small amounts of catalysts or sorbents are required for contaminant removal and conventional downstream fuels synthesis.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary application of the Carbonaceous Asteroid Volatile Recovery (CAVoR) system is to provide a compact, high performance apparatus for the extraction and recovery of water and organic matter in support of propellant production, breathing gas, and life support. These capabilities are key to extending NASA's mission beyond low earth orbit to include long-duration space habitation, lunar, and Mars colonization missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Resource Extraction
Fuels/Propellants


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H1.01-9984
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Regolith ISRU for Mission Consumable Production
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microwave Extraction of Water from Boreholes in Regolith

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Space Resources Extraction Technology
3708 Nolen Avenue Southeast
Huntsville, AL 35801-1033
(256) 520-4242

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Edwin Ethridge
edwin.ethridge@rocketmail.com
3708 Nolen Ave SE
Huntsville,  AL 35801-1033
(256) 520-4242

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Space Resources Extraction Technology, Inc. is developing and testing microwave technology for extracting water (along with other volatiles) from planetary permafrost. This in-space water will be used for human habitation, radiation protection, and to produce in-space rocket propellant. Utilization of In-space resources will save the high launch costs and higher costs to deliver payloads to other planetary surfaces. To greatly reduce Earth launch mass, propellant to return from the Martian surface will be manufactured with in-situ resources (i.e. water, CO2) on the surface of Mars for manned exploration missions. A microwave probe can penetrate deep below the surface and extract water (vapor) below water depleted layers near the surface and where water ice is more concentration. We will test the efficiency of water extraction radiating microwave energy with our microwave probes in simulated Martian permafrost simulant under vacuum (i.e. 5 torr). We have shown that microwaves will penetrate regolith, heating in-situ. As the regolith heats, water ice sublimes to water vapor that will flow out of the regolith and can be funneled through a conduit in the probe to a remote cold trap. Microwave water extraction has been demonstrated in our lab by beaming microwaves with a microwave horn. We will validate that the process works with microwave probes and water extraction rates will be measured. It is a simple vapor transport process, efficient, less complex, and a lower mass method for volatiles prospecting and water mining. The process will eliminate the need for excavation and associated mining equipment, it can save the mass/costs to deliver excavation, mining and regolith handling equipment to Mars as well as the Moon. This method would reduce the cost/mass that has to be delivered to the moon ($1M/kg) and Mars ($10M/kg).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We have identified a unique terrestrial application of our technology. The "Rapid Water Extraction, Drying, and Condensation Technologies for Textiles" is the subject of an industrial call for proposals RFP #69807 by NineSigma (2014). We are working to define how our process will reduce the energy and increase the water recovery for this environmentally friendly industrial textile drying requirement. This is especially important for the state of California. Many people do not have an abundant, reliable, and affordable sources of potabe drinking water. As the human population surpasses 6 billion, water is becoming a precious commodity. Also military or expeditionary missions on Earth where water is scarce could utilize our technology to recover water providing potable water. Our technology could be used to thaw permafrost for repairing utilities in frozen ground. Microwaves have been used to remove hazardous chemical from contaminated soil. Our microwave probe would be a more useful means for getting the microwaves deeper into the ground to optimize the heating of soil for chemical removal.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has plans to prospect and to demonstrate mining of in-situ water from the lunar poles. The water will be used for human habitation and for rocket propellant (oxygen) to ascent from the moon. Use of in-space resources will greatly reduce launch mass as well as the cost/mass that has to be delivered to the surface of the moon ($1M/kg) and Mars ($10M/kg. Any manned mission to Mars will require the use of Martian water for habitation (water and oxygen) and to produce the propellant for ascent from Mars. A potentially related application of microwave water sublimation recovery technology is to increase the water recovery efficiency from the water waste stream on long duration human exploration missions. 1500 characters

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Prototyping
Resource Extraction
Pressure & Vacuum Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H2.01-8819
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Chemical Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: ORSC Methane Ascent/Descent Engine Technology Development

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Special Aerospace Services
3005 30th Street
Boulder, CO 80301-1304
(303) 625-1010

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tim Bulk
tbulk@specialaerospaceservices.com
3005 30th Street
Boulder,  CO 80301-1304
(303) 625-1010

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Special Aerospace Services (SAS) is proposing a new and innovative ascent/descent engine using methane as its propellant. This engine will utilize the concepts of the Oxidizer Rich Staged Combustion (ORSC) cycle of the RD-8 to improve on performance over existing hardware. This SBIR program will leverage existing work SAS has done in conjunction with DARPA to on the RD-8 preburner to design and analyze a new engine with the benefits of the RD-8, but being able to use methane as the propellant. Additive manufacturing will be used to build the components of the engine to reduce cost and limitations in design.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications include research by DARPA and other government agencies such as the U.S. Air Force. Interests may include providing an upper stage for Super Strypi, or as an application with DARPA's ALASA program. Additional Non-NASA commercial applications include micro-lander applications, orbit debris removal systems, and exploratory interplanetary missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has the opportunity to support the development of an ascent/descent methane engine for use in exploration missions that will greatly expand the capability for the agency. Opportunities for NASA include small autonomous and rendezvous space tug engine for orbital debris removal, Mars sample ascent and descent engine, micro-lander applications, and other interplanetary missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Space Transportation & Safety
Prototyping
Metallics
Fuels/Propellants
Spacecraft Main Engine
Simulation & Modeling
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H2.01-8863
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Chemical Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: In-Space LOX/Methane Pintle Propulsion Engine (LMPPE) Evaluation and Demonstration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
KT Engineering Corporation
238 Business Park Boulevard, Building 23B Suite J
Madison, AL 35758-7553
(256) 461-8522

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pete Markopoulos
pete.markopoulos@kte-aerospace.com
238 Business Park Blvd, Bld 23b Ste J
Madison,  AL 35758-7553
(256) 461-8522

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
KTE's proposed innovation is the LOx/Methane Pintle Propulsion Engine or (LMPPE), which can offer higher reliability, lower cost and higher performance than conventional impinging injector-based combustion devices for in space propulsion systems. The concept can be used in both pump and pressure-fed engine architectures. The LMPPE builds upon the Catalytically Initiated Combustor (CIC) igniter technology previously demonstrated to a high TRL coupled with a low cost pintle main injector that has potential to provide a path for a LOx/Methane upper stage engine that is dynamically stable offering high performance with a wide throttle capability over a range of propellant inlet conditions. The CIC based pintle propulsion engine also offers attractive packaging advantages and improved reliability and operability while reducing development costs and risks for upper-stage engines. The pintle propulsion approach requires looser tolerances of the components and can be successfully fabricated from a number of additive manufacturing approaches. This multi-functional capability will further reduce cost and improve reliability in launch or in-space vehicles by increasing component production rates and reducing part count. The focus of the proposed effort is to prove the feasibility of this novel oxygen/methane pintle engine. The in-space engine can be designed to operate at lower chamber pressures, lending itself to the use of composite and additive manufactured components. The design offers an inherent combustion stability allowing simpler combustion chamber designs and ease of fabrication due to the omission of complex acoustic damping devices. Therefore, an expensive development programs can be avoided due to the very low risk of combustion instability.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed program is an enabler to the Radially Segmented Launch Vehicle (RSLV) system currently under development by KT Engineering. KTE has been developing an integrated earth-to-orbit space transportation system, ground infrastructure, and a business concept that challenge aerospace paradigms regarding vehicle design, hardware fabrication, and operations. Several US Government customers, including the US Air Force, US Army, DARPA, and other DOD agencies have, along with NASA, invested over $20M to develop the RSLV to support a wide range of payloads, from nano-sat size to Delta II and EELV-class missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The engine has the potential to be utilized with an efficiently optimized nozzle in a planetary ascent/descent pressure-fed system with a vacuum specific impulse of up to 360 sec with throttling capability for future exploration of Mars. The proposed program addresses the need to support investments on key technologies and design concepts that may transform the path for future exploration of Mars or other near earth objects. Additionally the LMPPE can be used on KTE's Radially Segmented Launch Vehicle (RSLV) family of earth-to-orbit launch vehicles that will provide transportation for NASA payloads ranging from nano-sats to Delta II class planetary missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Simulation & Modeling
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H2.01-8906
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Chemical Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Cost, Lightweight Transpiration-Cooled LOX/CH4 Engine

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ultramet
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331-2210
(818) 899-0236

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arthur Fortini
art.fortini@ultramet.com
Ultramet
Pacoima,  CA 91331-2210
(818) 899-0236

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The specific impulse of a rocket engine increases as the chamber pressure increases, but so does the heat flux to the chamber wall. Ultimately, this defines the maximum operating pressure for the engine. For regeneratively cooled engines, even those using film cooling, the practical limit has been reached, and further increases in chamber pressure are simply not possible. Transpiration cooling does not have this limitation. Furthermore, because a transpiration-cooled engine pumps only a tiny fraction of the fuel through the wall, a smaller and hence lighter pump can be used, which will significantly reduce the dry mass. Finally, because transpiration cooling can keep the wall much cooler than regenerative cooling with film cooling, a transpiration-cooled engine can use less refractory (i.e., lighter weight) materials, thereby achieving additional reductions in dry mass. The net results are significant increases in the thrust-to-weight ratio and specific impulse and a significant decrease in the dry mass of the system. The perceived limitation of transpiration cooling with a porous wall is coking and blockage of the pores if a carbon-based fuel such as methane is used. In previous work using LOX/H2 propellant, Ultramet showed that with minimal transpiration flow, the wall temperature can be kept well below the point at which methane would form coke. In this project, Ultramet will work with Purdue University to build on previous success with transpiration cooling in LOX/H2 engines and design a lightweight LOX/LCH4 engine in the 10,000- to 25,000-lbf thrust range. The transpiration model will be physics-based and applicable to both LOX/LCH4 and LOX/H2. Key component demonstrators will be fabricated and used to collect empirical data on the thermal, structural, and hydraulic characteristics of the wall architecture. Transpiration rates on subscale hardware will be verified through flow testing, and empirical data will be used to verify the predicted lack of coking.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications for this technology include upper stage booster engines, main engines for smaller commercial or military launch vehicles, and main engines on air-launched vehicles for delivering payloads to low Earth orbit. Larger engines in the 500,000-lbf thrust class can be used for lower stages on commercial and military heavy-lift vehicles. Because the technology is not propellant-specific, it can also be applied to LOX/LH2 and LOX/RP-1 engines in addition to LOX/LCH4.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA applications will be for high-performance, high-thrust O2/CH4 rocket engines in the 10,000- to 25,000-lbf thrust class, which can be used on booster upper stages, as well as for ascent/descent engines for Mars and lunar landers. Smaller engines in the 1000-lbf thrust class can be used for Earth departure stages and orbital maneuvers of large spacecraft. Larger engines in the 500,000-lbf thrust class can be used for lower stages on heavy-lift launch vehicles. This technology can be applied to LOX/H2, LOX/LCH4, and LOX/RP-1 engines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Processing Methods
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Metallics
Launch Engine/Booster
Spacecraft Main Engine
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H2.01-9172
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Chemical Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Bulk Nano-structured Materials for Turbomachinery Components

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Transition45 Technologies, Inc.
1739 North Case Street
Orange, CA 92865-4211
(714) 283-2118

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Edward Chen
transition45@sbcglobal.net
1739 North Case Street
Orange,  CA 92865-4211
(714) 283-2118

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase I effort seeks to exploit some of the tremendous benefits that could be attained from a revolutionary new approach to grain refinement in bulk metals. Specifically, preforms of high temperature Ni-base superalloys will be produced in this work with fine grain (FG) to ultra fine grain (UFG) micro-/nano-structures for higher strength. Despite their excellent corrosion resistance and ability to retain strength under extreme operating conditions, the relatively low strength of IN625 and Monel 400 have prevented their more widespread use. Thus, grain refinement methods that incorporate severe plastic deformation (SPD) offer the opportunity to increase the strength of these alloys. Most SPD work to date, however, have only been successfully performed on small, laboratory scale samples given the special (expensive) tools and high pressures needed.. Thus, the present work will demonstrate a new, production level grain refinement technology to produce microstructurally enhanced IN625 and Monel 400 material with higher strength capability for in-space propulsion applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential Non-NASA applications include military and commercial rocket/in-space and airbreathing propulsion system components, industrial gas turbine components, industrial pump and valve components that use superalloys for corrosion resistance, and biomedical implants.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications include low and high temperature rocket/in-space and airbreathing propulsion system components requiring high strength.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Processing Methods
Metallics
Nanomaterials
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Structures
Ablative Propulsion
Atmospheric Propulsion
Launch Engine/Booster
Spacecraft Main Engine
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H2.01-9267
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Chemical Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Thermo-Catalytic Ignition of Cryogenic Oxygen-Methane

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Plasma Processes, LLC
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville, AL 35811-1558
(256) 851-7653

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Timothy McKechnie
timmck@plasmapros.com
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville,  AL 35811-1558
(256) 851-7653

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Liquid oxygen and methane propellants for in space chemical propulsion of future space exploration vehicles is desired for increased performance and elimination of toxicity of conventional hypergolic storable propellants. LOX/LCH4 propulsion systems may reduce space vehicle design complexity and inert mass by utilizing commodities common with other vehicle systems (e.g., oxygen for life-support systems, methane for solid-oxide fuel cell power). Methane can be produced through the Sabatier process from CO2 and water recovered from spacecraft life support systems and, or in-situ resource utilization technologies. SpaceX, Blue Origin, and other companies are developing methane/oxygen engines for launch vehicles. All types of liquid oxygen/liquid methane engines need to be provided with safe and reliable ignition systems. The majority of current ignition systems use heavy spark torch igniters. Spark torch igniter systems require high voltage electronics to generate the spark which may interfere with other spacecraft electronics. Catalytic ignition significantly reduces energy requirements in comparison with other methods. Plasma Processes proposes an investigation of thermo-catalytic ignition of cryogenic methane-oxygen and the development of an ignition system using innovative nanocrystal catalysts on high temperature metal foams. This catalyst was successfully used for ignition of advanced non-toxic AF-M315E monopropellant in a 100lbf class engine.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Replacement Engine for banned Russian engines (RD-180), Commercial Crew Vehicles (Boeing CST-100, Space-X Dragon), Commercial Cargo vehicles (Orbital Cygnus, Space-X Dragon), RCS for launch vehicles, Apogee/Upper stage engines.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Propulsion for ORION MPCV, Commercial Crew Vehicles (Boeing CST-100, Space-X Dragon), Commercial Cargo vehicles (Orbital Cygnus, Space-X Dragon), RCS for launch vehicles, Apogee/Upper stage engines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Prototyping
Processing Methods
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Metallics
Nanomaterials
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H2.01-9296
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Chemical Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Additively Manufactured Monolithic LOx/Methane Vortex RCS Thruster

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Parabilis Space Technologies, Inc.
1145 Linda Vista Drive #111
San Marcos, CA 92078-3820
(855) 727-2245

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher Grainger
chris@parabilis-space.com
1145 Linda Vista Drive, #111
San Marcos,  CA 92078-3820
(855) 727-2245

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Parabilis Space Technologies (Parabilis), in collaboration with Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC), proposes to use additive manufacturing technology to fabricate a complete liquid oxygen (lox) and liquid methane Reaction Control System (RCS) thruster in response to solicitation H2.01, In-Space Chemical Propulsion. The thruster will be fabricated as a monolithic part that includes the injectors, combustion chamber, and nozzle. This thruster design will leverage a propulsion architecture especially amenable to additive manufacturing: ORBITEC's revolutionary Vortex Combustion Cold-Wall (VCCW) technology. Through additive manufacturing, Parabilis will reduce the cost, increase reliability, decrease complexity, and significantly reduce CAD-to-part design cycle time. Lox-methane is an attractive propellant combination for future NASA missions, however significant technical challenges remain. This proposed innovation provides novel solutions to challenges for lox-methane rocket engines as requested by the H2.01 solicitation. Specifically, this proposal includes innovations for RCS class thrusters, including advances in additive manufacturing, propellant injectors, and combustion chamber design. Additionally, the use of VCCW technology will likely mitigate adverse effects of multiphase or intermittent gas phase operation. Due to the low wall temperatures inherent to VCCW technology, the proposed thruster will provide almost no additional thermal loading to the main vehicle structure. The proposed thruster should obtain a vacuum specific impulse significantly in excess of 325 s for vacuum operation. Phase I development objectives include preliminary design of the thruster and cold flow testing of a thruster prototype that will be used to test the applicability of several additive manufacturing techniques. By the end of Phase I testing the technology will be at a TRL 4 level.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lox/methane is an attractive propellant combination for commercial launch vehicles. Potential customers for a Lox/methane RCS engine include United Launch Alliance (ULA), SpaceX, and Firefly among others. Each of these organizations has boosters and/or upper stages that utilize the Lox/methane propellant combination in development.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed thruster innovations are applicable to a number of proposed future NASA missions such as Mars exploration and sample return. Future launch vehicles utilizing Lox/methane as their main propulsion system can utilize the proposed innovation as complementary reaction control system thrusters. Additionally the technology can be scaled for use as a kick stage or orbital insertion engine. This proposed innovation meets NASA's 2014 Strategic Goal of enabling advances in manufacturing technologies for aerospace applications, by utilizing advanced additive manufacturing techniques. Additionally NASA Strategic Objective 1.1, in-space propulsion is well aligned with this innovation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
Characterization
Prototyping
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Fuels/Propellants
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H2.01-9299
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Chemical Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Additive Manufacturing Applied to LOX - Methane Turbopumps

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Florida Turbine Technologies, Inc.
1701 Military Trail, Suite 110
Jupiter, FL 33458-7887
(561) 427-6337

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alex Pinera
APinera@fttinc.com
1701 Military Trail, Suite 110
Jupiter,  FL 33458-7887
(561) 427-6277

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Florida Turbine Technologies' (FTT) proposes an Additively Manufactured Modular Pump (AMMP) to provide a major leap forward in the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of combined Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies to dramatically reduce the cost, development lead time and subsequent deployment of a scalable, modular turbopump for rocket engine developers. This Phase I program will take the initial steps that will result in a test-ready, 10,000 pound thrust (10k) class LOX-Methane turbopump by the end of Phase II. Not only will this design demonstrate the significant savings in cost and time that can be realized with AM technologies, the proposed concept is designed to be inherently throttleable, will demonstrate high speed, high margin impellers, eliminates many traditional sources of leakage, and operates with propellant lubricated bearings.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications include not only all turbopumps for other agencies such as the Air Force (Next Generation EELV vehicles), DARPA (XS-1), etc., but all pumps used in industrial and commercial applications. The AM based design solutions identified for turbopumps can be leveraged into commercial pump applications with similar benefits of increased reliability and performance with reduced cost.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA application include all future and existing liquid propellant engine turbopump including those for boosters and upperstage engines. Specifically the technology could be applied to a new upperstage engine for the new SLS Use Upperstage. Application of AM based turbopump designs developed as part of this SBIR will provide increased performance and reliability with reduced cost for future turbopumps.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Prototyping
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Atmospheric Propulsion
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H2.01-9651
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Chemical Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Enabling Pump Technologies for Deep Throttle Ascent/Descent Engine Operation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Barber-Nichols, Inc.
6325 West 55th
Arvada, CO 80002-2707
(303) 327-8630

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scott Sargent
ssargent@barber-nichols.com
6325 West 55th Ave
Arvada,  CO 80002-2707
(303) 421-8111

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Methane fueled ascent / descent space engines in the 10,000 to 25,000 lbf thrust class require deep throttle capability, placing unique challenges on the turbopumps. Previous engine throttle-ability studies have required both LOX and fuel turbopumps to operate at ratios of volumetric flow rate to shaft speed (Q/N) of 0.2 to over 1 for 10:1 engine throttle operation. Such operational ranges are particularly difficult for pump axial inducers and vaned radial diffusers. Both are prone to fluid separation and stall at low Q/N operation and excessive passage blockage due to cavitation at high Q/N values. The proposed innovation combines two separate technologies to address the inherent design shortcomings of the inducer and diffuser under operation at both low and high Q/N extremes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Industrial applications for this innovation are wide ranging. The emerging energy market for liquid natural gas (LNG) stands to benefit from this technology. Specifically, the boost and transfer pumps required for LNG utilization in trains and other heavy equipment propulsion systems often require inducers to ensure that as much LNG can be extracted from mobile storage tanks as possible. This innovation can aid in reducing the amount of heel left in these storage tanks by decreasing the inducer NPSH required for safe operation and long life. The ability to transfer LNG efficiently is receiving increasing importance due to the significant operational cost advantages over traditional gasoline and diesel systems. Barber-Nichols Inc. currently does substantial business in the manufacture of cryogenic pumps for applied research, industrial gas products, and energy production. This innovation could be incorporated into any of these pumps to increase inducer performance, reliability and life.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed innovation has application in any pump fed rocket engine requiring throttle operation. Of particular interest would be the potential ability for variable speed inducer to eliminate the need for boost pumps on cryogenic rocket engines. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion applications, conventional upper stage liquid rocket engines, and liquid booster class engines could all benefit from this technology. Cryogenic fluid transfer pumps especially those envisioned for on-orbit propellant depots where propellants may be near saturation conditions could benefit greatly from this innovation by enabling improved pump efficiency.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fuels/Propellants
Spacecraft Main Engine
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H2.01-9859
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Chemical Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Small-Scale, Methane-Fueled Reaction Control Engines for In-Space Propulsion

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ventions, LLC
1142 Howard Street
San Francisco, CA 94103-3914
(415) 543-2800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Adam London
adam.london@ventions.com
1142 Howard Street
San Francisco,  CA 94103-3914
(415) 543-2800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Given increasing interest in high-performance, Methane-fueled reaction control engines in the 5-100lbf thrust class, Ventions proposes the design, fabrication and hot-fire testing of a nominal 50lbf engine that is batch fabricated in a low-cost manner using a novel manufacturing process. The proposed approach leverages several years of DARPA and NASA funded work by Ventions in the successful development and ground / flight testing of such configurations, and allows for the realization of complex regenerative cooling passages and injector geometries previously unattainable by conventional fabrication methodologies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Beyond NASA missions, one can envision several non-NASA applications in the ever-growing world of commercial space. Specific examples of such commercial space missions are likely to include reaction / attitude control for large booster stages and nano launch vehicles, as well upper stage or orbit insertion propulsion. Additionally, beyond space applications, the proposed technology is also applicable in terrestrial energy markets utilizing LNG in "closed" LNG / Oxygen cycles to eliminate NOX production and simplify CO2 capture and sequestration.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The 50lbf reaction control engines proposed herein can readily be scaled up or down to thrusts in the 10-250lbf range, hence, it is expected to have numerous applications for NASA missions. This is particularly true if the primary propulsion for the spacecraft is also LOX / Methane based, thereby allowing for the secondary RCE propulsion to tap off the main tankage and / or residuals. Specific examples of these applications are likely to include reaction control for human-rated spacecraft, and for lander and ascent vehicles for planetary or lunar missions (either human or large science spacecraft / rovers). Additionally, the technology is also suitable for primary ascent or descent propulsion for smaller spacecraft missions such as lunar landers, Mars hoppers, or the like thereof.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H2.02-8968
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Long Life Bearings for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Florida Turbine Technologies, Inc.
1701 Military Trail, Suite 110
Jupiter, FL 33458-7887
(561) 427-6337

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tim Miller
TMiller@fttinc.com
1701 Military Trail, Suite 110
Jupiter,  FL 33458-7887
(561) 427-6350

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Florida Turbine Technologies, Inc. will investigate novel hybrid bearing concepts to provide near infinite life, providing a significant leap forward in bearing technology for future high-speed long life rocket engine turbopumps. Development of long life bearing technology for turbomachinery for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion engine turbopumps will be critical for mission success. For a typical Mars mission, the turbopump may be required to operate for 100 minutes or longer. FTT's hybrid bearing approach addresses a key concern associated with the slow transient condition of the nuclear reactor, which requires pump operation while the reactor heats up and cools down. During this period, the pumps will be required to operate at low speed for a significant period. In addition to solving the low-speed transient condition of the main pumps, the NTP boost pump will be required to operate with significant damping with the capability of ingesting and pumping up to 55% vapor and will require an innovative damped bearing solution to ensure long life of the rotor and bearing assembly.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential Non-NASA commercial applications of the technology developed under this SBIR include any long life cryogenic pump application including ground based refueling station applications used to transfer liquid natural gas from the storage tank to the vehicle tank.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications for the bearing technology developed under this SBIR include low heat leak cryogenic circulators and transfer pumps for propellant depot, upper stage engine recirculation pumps, cryogenic stage turbopumps and boost pumps, including the NTP application. Additional applications for this bearing technology include small, light-weight, cryogenic; Hydrogen, Methane, Oxygen propellant boost pumps for chemical rocket engine applications as well as propellant loading ground support equipment.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Superconductance/Magnetics
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Actuators & Motors
Structures
Tribology
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Spacecraft Main Engine
Lifetime Testing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H2.02-9101
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Zirconium Carbide Tie-Tubes for NTP

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Plasma Processes, LLC
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville, AL 35811-1558
(256) 851-7653

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John O'Dell
scottodell@plasmapros.com
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville,  AL 35811-1558
(256) 851-7653

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) has been identified as a critical technology needed for human missions to Mars due to its increased specific impulse (Isp) as compared to traditional chemical propulsion systems. To achieve this high Isp, NTP reactors must operate at extremely high temperatures (i.e., >2400K) for long periods of time. However, many of the best materials for some reactor components (i.e., support rods, control drums, and the reflector) cannot operate at these high temperatures. Therefore, high temperature insulators that are chemically inert, neutronically acceptable, and structurally stable are desired. The Rover and Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program identified zirconium carbide (ZrC) as a leading candidate for NTP insulator materials. However, the inherent brittleness and high melting temperature of ZrC make fabrication of complex components such as long, hexagonal tie-tubes extremely difficult. Recently, advanced Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) forming techniques have been developed for producing near-net-shape components from Ultra High Temperature Ceramic (UHTC) materials such as tantalum carbide (TaC) and hafnium carbide (HfC). Building on this success, advanced VPS processing techniques will be developed for producing long, hexagonal ZrC based tie-tube support rods for NTP.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial sectors that will benefit from this technology include medical, power generation, electronics, defense, aerospace, chemicals, and corrosion protection. Specific applications include protective coatings, x-ray targets, valves, non-eroding throats and thrusters for propulsion, and crucible/furnace components.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications that would directly benefit from this technology include Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) and Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Initial NTP systems will have specific impulses roughly twice that of the best chemical systems, i.e., reduced propellant requirements and/or reduced trip time. The proposed Phase I and Phase II efforts would greatly assist NASA with achieving the promise of NTP and NEP. Potential NASA missions include rapid robotic exploration missions throughout the solar system and piloted missions to Mars and other destinations such as near earth asteroids.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Spacecraft Main Engine
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H2.02-9127
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Passive Technology to Improve Criticality Control of NTP Reactors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ultra Safe Nuclear Corporation
186 Piedra Loop
Los Alamos, NM 87544-3834
(505) 672-9750

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paolo Venneri
pvenneri@ultrasafe-nuclear.com
186 Piedra Loop
Los Alamos,  NM 87544-3834
(858) 342-4837

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of this SBIR is to investigate passive technology that will enable criticality control of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) reactor during a burn with little to no mechanical movement of the circumferential control drums. Specifically, this work will study passive reactor design features that mitigate and counteract the effects of 135Xe, the dominant fission product contributing to reactivity transients in a moderated NTP reactor. Examples of passive reactor design features to be studied include tuning temperature reactivity feedback mechanisms, employing burnable poisons, and suppressing the build-up of 135Xe. By minimizing or eliminating the need for mechanical movement of the circumferential control drums during a NTP burn, the passive technology studied in this SBIR will greatly simplify controlling a NTP reactor and increase the overall performance of the NTP system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
While these systems are being designed for NTPs, the knowledge gained and systems developed can also be applied to terrestrial systems. Specifically, this technology can be applied to terrestrial nuclear systems that need to be small and compact and have to operate in remote locations for extended periods of time where increased reliability throughout the reactor's lifetime is necessary.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology will be crucial for the successful implementation of thermal spectrum NTP systems, specifically LEU fueled NTP systems. They can also be applied to other space nuclear systems for power production. The technology proposed here would enable not only the extension of core lifetimes without having control systems with a large reactivity worth, but will also be able to suppress fluctuations in reactivity. This will allow the use of automated systems to manage and operate nuclear power systems in support of NASA missions to other planetary bodies, asteroids, or space stations where there is a need for large amounts of power and an absence of sunlight or other energy sources to supply it.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H2.02-9359
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Extreme Temperature Radiation Tolerant Instrumentation for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Engines

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arkansas Power Electronics International, Inc.
535 West Research Center Boulevard
Fayetteville, AR 72701-6959
(479) 443-5759

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Fraley
jfraley@apei.net
535 W. Research Center Blvd.
Fayetteville,  AR 72701-6959
(479) 443-5759

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of this proposal is to develop and commercialize a high reliability, high temperature smart neutron flux sensor for NASA Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) systems. Arkansas Power Electronics International (APEI) and International Femtoscience (FemtoSci) technology offers the following: (1) 600+ degC ambient operation of a full wireless smart sensor system (2) Extreme-environment electronics utilizing wide band gap integrated circuits and advanced magnetic components (3) CVD nano-diamond neutron flux sensor for near-core measurements, capable of operation to >700 degC (4) Harsh environment packaging technologies to ensure reliable operation at 700 degC (5) Radiation hard, high temperature electronics will offer high reliability nuclear propulsion instrumentation, as well as provide solutions for terrestrial nuclear power generation instrumentation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In nuclear power plants, a neutron monitoring system is used to monitor power generation and, for the safety function of the neutron monitoring system, to provide trip signals to the reactor protection system to initiate reactor scram under an excessive neutron flux increase condition or neutron flux fast rising condition. The system also provides power information for the operation and control of the reactor to the plant process computer system. Newer nuclear power plant designs have increasing reactor temperatures and neutron flux rates; for example, the Generation IV type reactors contain the Very-High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), which is graphite moderated and helium cooled. The reactor outlet temperature on such designs may approach 1000 degC, as soon as the appropriate materials technology has been developed to accommodate the increasingly harsh environment. Such high temperature reactors will need to have a neutron monitoring system as well, and the DND smart sensor system can find many applications here, replacing current lower temperature neutron sensing solutions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The United States' National Space Policy specifies that NASA shall begin sending crewed missions beyond the moon by 2025, and sending crewed missions to Mars by mid-2030s. In order to accomplish these tasks, nuclear thermal rockets have been identified as the propulsion system of choice; the technology proposed here would find extensive application in the field of nuclear powered space flight. The smart neutron sensor can enable increased safety, efficiency, and control for nuclear thermal propulsion engines. Additionally, this technology will be applicable for fission surface power systems. These power systems utilize nuclear fission to generate electricity, and are intended for use in environments where solar power is not a viable option, such as a Martian outpost, or where the weight of solar cells would greatly increase the cost of a surface power station, such as a lunar outpost. The neutron smart sensor can again find application in these harsh environments, where their installation could again address the safety and control concerns for the nuclear power plant.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Transmitters/Receivers
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Telemetry (see also Control & Monitoring)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Radiometric
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H2.03-8803
SUBTOPIC TITLE: High Power Electric Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Energetic Ion Mitigation for High Power Plasma Cathodes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ElectroDynamic Applications, Inc.
P.O. Box 131460
Ann Arbor, MI 48105-1570
(734) 786-1434

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher Davis
davis@edapplications.com
P.O. Box 131460
Ann Arbor,  MI 48105-1570
(734) 786-1434

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovation proposed is a hollow cathode that integrates mitigation methods to suppress wear to the keeper. Recent advances in the magnetic topology in Hall thrusters has eliminated erosion of the thruster walls. As such the life limiting component of Hall thrusters has shifted to the cathode lifetime. Under a previous investigation aimed at understanding the impact of high energy ions in high current hollow cathodes, we mapped the energy spectra of cathode derived ions for both a barium oxide hollow cathode and a LaB6 hollow cathode. Energetic ions were clearly present and their intensity and peak energy tended to increase with increasing discharge current. Preliminary mitigations experiments showed promise in the use of an externally applied magnetic field as a way to reduce the peak energy of the emitted ion flux. The overall goal of this proposal is to produce a hollow cathode with integrated energetic ion mitigation technology. This cathode will be tested in magnetic field environments characteristic of Hall and gridded ion engines. It will provide a good body of experimental evidence of how to successfully mitigate cathode erosion for the high powered thrusters currently under development. Additionally, an energetic ion mitigation method could be directly integrated into the cathode design for the recently proposed Asteroid Retrieval Mission (ARM) which is currently baselined to use 4-5 10 kW class magnetically shielded Hall thrusters.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The cathode mitigation technology is generally applicable to Hall and ion thrusters used for both government and commercial satellite orbit raising, orbit transfer, and station keeping. In particular, the mitigation technology supports Air Force and other DoD onboard electric propulsion interests. The technology would also be a life extender for commercial sector satellite makers. Commercial GSO market expects to launch of order 21 satellites per year and commercial NGSO of order 13 launches per year over the next 10 years. Electric propulsion is an onboard propulsion option for these vehicles and in this regard there is a stable market for this cathode life extension technology. The approach investigated here does not constitute a significant modification to the cathode rather it's essentially a retrofit featuring a novel, adaptable technology. This would in turn save costs to satellite venders by reducing development time of long life cathodes based on this technology proposed.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The direct application of long life, high current hollow cathodes is that of supporting NASA missions involving high power electric propulsion. This includes those high power missions, which are envisioned to support human operations in space as well as aggressive space science mission. For example, an energetic ion mitigation method could be directly integrated into the cathode design for the recently proposed Asteroid Retrieval Mission (ARM) which is currently baselined to use 4-5 10 kW Hall thrusters. It should be pointed out that the presence of energetic ions is not germane to high current cathodes though as was observed in the NSTAR long duration test. In this regard, the technology developed from this effort would also eliminate this failure mechanism for cathodes presumably over essentially all operating ranges.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H2.03-9179
SUBTOPIC TITLE: High Power Electric Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rapid Manufacturing of High Power Electric Propulsion Components

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Transition45 Technologies, Inc.
1739 North Case Street
Orange, CA 92865-4211
(714) 283-2118

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Edward Chen
transition45@sbcglobal.net
1739 North Case Street
Orange,  CA 92865-4211
(714) 283-2118

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A flexible, lower cost approach to the rapid manufacture of high power electric propulsion components is desirable. Today's near-net fabrication technologies are extremely limited in terms of design flexibility due to reduction-based fabrication approaches. While modern additive manufacturing approaches show great promise, these still require significant development for use with higher temperature materials such as refractory metals. Considering this need for design flexibility as well as shorter development cycles, reduced costs, and minimized variance in making high power electric propulsion components, an innovative technology for rapid manufacturing that can be used with high temperature materials will be demonstrated in this work. Specifically, an additive manufacturing/metal injection molding manufacturing technology will be developed to produce a protoytpe article for a high power electric propulsion component made from a refractory alloy.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential Non-NASA Commercial Applications of this technology include military and commercial launch, in-space, and air-breathing propulsion system components, especially those requiring sophisticated internal passageways, made from high temperature materials such as refractory metals. Other possible applications are components and structures for power generation (industrial gas turbines and nuclear reactors), industrial pump and valve for corrosion resistance (petrochemical industry), and biomedical implants.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA Commercial Applications of this technology include launch, in-space and air-breathing propulsion system components, especially those requiring sophisticated internal passageways, made from high temperature materials such as refractory metals.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Prototyping
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Metallics
Nanomaterials
Structures
Launch Engine/Booster
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H2.04-8862
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management for In-Space Transportation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Pulsating Heat Pipe for Cryogenic Fluid Management

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Madison CryoGroup, LLC
8540 Greenway Boulevard, #203
Middleton, WI 53562-4705
(608) 338-8387

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Maddocks
jamesmaddocks@att.net
8540 Greenway Blvd. #203
Middleton,  WI 53562-4705
(608) 265-4246

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A passive Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP) system is proposed to distribute cooling over broad areas with low additional system mass. The PHP technology takes advantage of the large latent heat associated with phase change of a working fluid that is confined to small capillaries to carry heat efficiently from evaporator regions to a condenser that is attached to the cold head of the cryocooler. This system will have an advantage over other distributed cooling approaches because it will be modular and can interface with any cooler that provides the required cooling power at the load temperature. The cooler may be a Stirling cooler, Pulse Tube cooler, reverse-Brayton cooler, Joule Thompson cooler, or some hybrid combination of these. Because the fluid flow is driven by fluid phase change caused by a temperature difference between the evaporators and the condenser, the loop is self-regulating. Flow is induced only when there is a thermal load. Also, because surface tension forces are dominant in the small capillaries of the PHP, this technology is suited for use in microgravity.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are also Missile Defense Agency applications, such as surveillance systems incorporating LWIR focal planes that require cooling of focal planes and optics to temperatures less than 40K. In addition, there are many commercial applications such as cooling superconducting power lines, superconducting magnets for power generation and energy storage and MRI magnets for medical applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The PHP has many possible applications within NASA. These include distributed cooling systems for zero boil off cryogenic storage tanks, in particular for actively cooled shields that may be used to eliminate the need for internal mixing with spray bars. The PHP could also be used to provide distributed cooling for radiation shields and large optical elements used in infrared space science missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Heat Exchange
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H2.04-8901
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management for In-Space Transportation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Parahydrogen-Orthohydrogen Catalytic Conversion for Cryogenic Propellant Passive Heat Shielding

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ultramet
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331-2210
(818) 899-0236

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Matthew Wright
matt.wright@ultramet.com
Ultramet
Pacoima,  CA 91331-2210
(818) 899-0236

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Hydrogen Properties for Energy Research (HYPER) laboratory at Washington State University (WSU) recently demonstrated a Cryocatalysis Hydrogen Experiment Facility (CHEF) to characterize parahydrogen-orthohydrogen catalysts for passive heat shielding. Current passive heat shields utilize boiloff vapors from liquid hydrogen (LH2) tanks to refrigerate and eliminate boiloff from liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks. Catalyzing the endothermic parahydrogen-orthohydrogen conversion is estimated to increase the refrigeration capacity of the hydrogen as much as 50% and effectively reduces the amount of hydrogen required to maintain zero boiloff of LOX. In this project, Ultramet will partner with the HYPER laboratory at WSU to synthesize, characterize, and compare ruthenium- and iron-based catalysts for optimal thermal properties and processing when applied to lightweight fiber blanket material for bulk application in passive heat shielding. In Phase I, a design matrix of catalysts will be characterized over a range of porosities and activities. Ultramet will perform surface area analysis of the catalyst granules prior to single-blind heat shielding tests in CHEF at the HYPER laboratory. In Phase II, the properties of the leading catalysts will be optimized for phase and porosity, the properties of the leading blanket material will be applied to a COMSOL modeling program already developed by the HYPER lab to design a prototype blanket, and a manufacturing plan will be developed. Potential Phase II and III teaming partners are United Launch Alliance (ULA) and Boeing, both of which have expressed interest in the technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Parahydrogen-orthohydrogen catalysts are reversible, and the proposed catalytic heat exchangers can be used for hydrogen liquefaction and refrigeration systems. Any system utilizing passive heat shielding, including terrestrial hydrogen storage dewars and tankers, stands to benefit from this technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed catalytic heat exchanger can be used for passive heat shielding and catalytic pressurization on NASA spacecraft and propellant depots. Any vehicle employing LH2 in either space or terrestrial applications can benefit. Specifically, vapor-shielded stages such as Centaur, used on Delta IV, Atlas V, and potentially SLS, stand to benefit. Rocket engines incorporating regeneratively cooled combustion chambers, such as the RL-10, can incorporate this technology for decreased wall temperature. Promising near-term applications are parahydrogen-orthohydrogen conversion beds in hydrogen liquefiers and cryocoolers. The microstructure coupled with electromagnetic field varying will provide optimal thermal advantage to weight comparisons. In-space cryogen boiloff is the largest at-launch expense for space travel, and this technology can increase the refrigeration capacity of hydrogen boiloff vapors nearly 50% for passive heat shielding applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Fuels/Propellants
Simulation & Modeling
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Heat Exchange
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H2.04-9218
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management for In-Space Transportation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Vapor Cooled Structure MLI: Efficient Vapor Cooling of Structural Elements

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Quest Thermal Group
6452 Fig Street Unit A
Arvada, CO 80004-1060
(303) 395-3100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scott Dye
scott.dye@questthermal.com
6452 Fig St., Unit A
Arvada,  CO 80004-1060
(303) 395-3100

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Human exploration requires new technologies for advanced in-space propulsion systems. Improvements in cryogenic propellant storage are a critical need. NASA's Technology Roadmaps call "Zero Boil Off storage of cryogenic propellants for long duration missions" the #2 technical challenge for future NASA missions. Heat leak through tank mounts such as struts and skirts is an increasingly large part of the total heat flow into modern, well insulated tanks. Quest Thermal has developed several innovative, advanced thermal insulation systems, offering high performance for specific applications such as on-orbit (IMLI), in-air (LRMLI) or launch ascent (Launch Vehicle MLI). Quest Thermal proposes to design and develop an innovative system capable of vapor cooling structural members such as skirts and struts. Vapor Cooled Structure &#150; MLI (VCSMLI) should provide unique properties, utilizing boiloff propellant to effectively cool otherwise non insulated structures. Quest Thermal Discrete Spacer Technology offers the unique ability to provide controlled layer spacing to act as a simple, efficient flow chamber for utilization of boiloff vapor cooling. Vapor Cooled Structure MLI is a novel system that uses discrete spacers to create and support a sealed vapor transport inner layer within a high performance IMLI system reducing heat leak by nearly 50%. This Phase I program will develop a new insulation system that will be modeled and analyzed to predict heat flux reduction. A specialized vapor cooled structure with a custom spacer will be designed. VCSMLI will be fabricated, installed on a skirt-mounted tank, and performance measured with and without vapor cooling.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Vapor cooled insulation technology might be helpful on future cryogenic space-bourne instruments, which require ultra-low heat leak and boil off.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's Technology Roadmaps call "Zero Boil Off storage of cryogenic propellants for long duration missions" the #2 ranked technical challenge for future NASA missions, and new technologies are necessary for improved cryogenic propellant storage and transfer to support NASA's exploration goals. Heat leak through tank mounts such as struts and skirts is an increasingly large part of the total heat flow into modern, well insulated tanks. Specifically, NASA has a high priority for: * Simple mass efficient techniques for vapor cooling of structural skirts (aluminum, stainless, or composites) on large upper stages containing liquid hydrogen and liquid methane (can include hydrogen catalyst). Improved cryogenic insulation that can incorporate vapor cooling to reduce the heat flux through struts and skirts would benefit overall cryogenic fluid management, and help towards achieving zero boil off.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Active Systems
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H2.04-9337
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management for In-Space Transportation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fabric, Inflated, Insulating Shroud for Cryogenic In-Space Transportation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paragon Space Development Corporation
3481 East Michigan Street
Tucson, AZ 85714-2221
(520) 382-1723

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chad Bower
cbower@paragonsdc.com
813 14th Street, Suite B
Golden,  CO 80401-1877
(520) 382-1705

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Paragon Space Development Corporation (Paragon) and our subcontractor, Thin Red Line Aerospace (TRLA) propose a unique solution for an inflated shroud system that provides launch, ascent, on-orbit, and transit protection to a large cryogenic tank. The system consist of an outer inflated shroud that surrounds nested, concentric integrated ballistic/radiation shields separated by a series of loops via tension that are deployed by gas released between the perforated layers causing gentle inflation upon reaching the vacuum of space. Battens within the shroud maintain its form even when unpressurized, and the frustum is protected with soft-goods thermal protection; the shroud is not jettisoned but rather carried into space to act as the outer micro-meteoroid orbital debris (MMOD) bumper and insulation layer. The tension based loop system allows tailored separation of the layers for optimal MMOD and thermal protection. The loops support small tensile loads and have a high length-to-cross-sectional-area ratio reducing conduction between layers for performance near idealized MLI; improving on foam spacers, scrim, or other compression standoffs. Tank supports and plumbing pass through cutouts in the deployed system with little effect to thermal or ballistic protection. The architecture can encapsulate a tank or support deep space radiation cooled conical or complex geometry shields. Paragon and TRLA are confident this unique multifunctional system concept will lead to a higher performance, lower cost, and lower mass solution than is currently possible with existing shrouds, MMOD, and insulation systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The United Launch Alliance has already expressed interest in this concept both as a stand alone inflated payload shroud and as an enabling technology for on-orbit assembly or propellant storage for large cryogenic systems for exploration class missions. Additionally, the proposed system would be ideal for inflatable on orbit tourist habitats, as protection of interstage propellant tanks and commercial satellites and for storage of collected insitu resources in commercial lunar or asteroid resource gathering operations. It also may have applicability to provide self rigidized structures with integrated ballistic protection for the Department of Defense (DoD).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed system will allow less that 0.5 W/m^2 of heat penetration to a cryogen enhancing the prospect of passive zero-boil-off cryogenic propellant tanks while providing launch tolerance and integrated MMOD protection. Successful development results in a low risk, low mass, shroud solution that can be applied to nearly any mission and is especially useful in support of soft or hard sided habitation modules or propellant tanks, including cryogens, to protect them from the thermal and MMOD environments of space. Compared to existing systems, this technology reduces the cost, schedule, and risk associated with the MMOD and thermal aspects of space operations. The system will be mature enough to be considered for future propellant depots, on-orbit storage of upper stages, space stations, and manned habitats both in space and in near-vacuum planetary missions such as a return to the Moon, Mars orbit, Phobos/Deimos or asteroid missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Isolation/Protection/Radiation Shielding (see also Mechanical Systems)
Deployment
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Structures
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H2.04-9559
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management for In-Space Transportation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Launch Vehicle - Load Responsive MLI: High Performance during Launch Ascent, In-Air, On-Orbit and On-Mars

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Quest Thermal Group
6452 Fig Street Unit A
Arvada, CO 80004-1060
(303) 395-3100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scott Dye
scott.dye@questthermal.com
6452 Fig St., Unit A
Arvada,  CO 80004-1060
(303) 395-3100

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Human exploration requires new technologies for advanced in-space propulsion systems. Improvements in cryogenic propellant storage are a critical need. NASA's Technology Roadmaps call "Zero Boil Off storage of cryogenic propellants for long duration missions" the #2 technical challenge for future NASA missions. Quest Thermal has developed several innovative, advanced thermal insulation systems, offering high performance for specific applications such as on-orbit (IMLI), in-air (LRMLI) or launch ascent (Launch Vehicle MLI). Quest Thermal proposes to design and develop an innovative, multifunctional thermal insulation system for cryogenic propellants on launch vehicles operating during launch ascent, while on-orbit and when in-air/on-Mars surface. Launch Vehicle &#150; Load Responsive MLI (LV-LRMLI) should provide unique properties, including ability to withstand direct exposure to aerodynamic free stream during ascent, high performance in-Mars atmosphere and very high performance in-space/on-orbit. A novel system integrating durable Launch Vehicle outer layers (for high performance on-orbit) with Load Responsive inner layers (for high performance in-Earth atmosphere and on-Mars), could withstand launch profiles and achieve both 0.5 W/m2 on-orbit and 5 W/m2 on-Mars surface performance goals. LV-LRMLI Phase I would review aerodynamic and aerothermal data and determine requirements. Structural/thermal modeling and analysis of LV-LRMLI will be done. Test fixtures will be designed and built that simulate launch loads. LV-LRMLI prototypes will be fabricated and tested with simulated aerodynamic loads and heat flux measured. This Phase I program would model, design, build and test a prototype LV-LRMLI system, validating aerodynamic durability and high thermal performance both on-orbit and in-Mars atmosphere, and demonstrating feasibility.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Ball Aerospace & Quest are discussing with Boeing & ULA application of advanced insulation on their launch vehicles, including using Cellular Load Responsive MLI or Vacuum Cellular MLI for SLS. ULA is interested in development of LVMLI for use on the Delta cryogenic second stage, a reduction in LH2 boil off in half is needed for certain missions. LVMLI needs technology maturation before implementation and integration into ULA platforms. Boeing, Ball and Quest are discussing using Load Responsive MLI to insulate Boeing's Phantom Eye LH2 fueled vehicle, and to insulate LNG fuel tanks for aircraft. LV-LRMLI could significantly improve upper stage insulation, reducing cryopropellant boiloff losses and increasing payload capacity for commercial missions with long coast times. A high performance insulation to replace SOFI would be of interest to Prime contractors, enabling improved performance for Atlas Centaur, Delta and SLS cryogenic upper stages. Advanced insulation technology for space cryogenic applications has relevance to terrestrial commercial/industrial applications. Reducing thermal conductivity and heat leak could have significant impact on commercial and home appliances, dramatically reducing energy use for high energy efficiency. One early focus market is refrigerator-freezers, where Quest Superinsulation could provide novel design concepts such as thin walls allowing a fresh design and look; increased interior space; and much lower energy usage.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has a high priority need for a lightweight, multifunctional cryogenic insulation system (including attachment methods) that can survive exposure to the free stream during the launch/ascent environment in addition to high performance less than 0.5 W/m2 on orbit or <5 W/m2 on Mars surface (with a warm boundary of 220 K). Improved cryogenic insulation for launch vehicles, that can withstand direct exposure to the free stream during launch ascent, and can provide higher thermal performance to reduce boiloff losses of cryogenic propellants, is both an immediate need for current launch vehicles (e.g., Atlas and Delta) as well as a future need for new launch vehicles (Space Launch System) and cryogen storage for In Situ Resource Utilization derived cryogens produced on Mars. The novel Launch Vehicle &#150; Load Responsive MLI (LV-LRMLI) insulation system proposed here might offer durability to the free stream, SOFI replacement, high thermal performance in-air prelaunch, high performance in-Mars atmosphere, and very high thermal performance in-space/on-orbit. LV-LRMLI could help meet cryogenic fluid management goals, reducing propellant boiloff and enhancing the capabilities of current space transportation systems as well as future systems (LH2 storage for SLS for chemical propulsion for future Nuclear Thermal Propulsion vehicles), and insulation for future ISRU derived fuel storage.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Space Transportation & Safety
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Structures
Fuels/Propellants
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H2.04-9987
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management for In-Space Transportation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Light Weight Insulated Spherical Cryotank

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gloyer-Taylor Laboratories, LLC
112 Mitchell Boulevard
Tullahoma, TN 37388-4002
(931) 455-7333

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zachary Taylor
zachary.taylor@gtlcompany.com
41548 Eastman Drive
Murrieta,  CA 92562-7051
(951) 600-9999

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
GTL proposes a dramatic improvement in launch and space vehicle technology for NASA space and exploration missions. The modified BHL (mBHL) technology provides significant reductions in weight while exceeding the helium permeability requirements needed to meet NASA long term cryogenic propellant storage requirements. The proposed effort builds upon a substantial DARPA investment in BHL cryotank technology for shorter storage duration mission applications and takes the next step, extending the technology to long-term storage cryogenic propellant applications. The phase I effort conducts trade studies to identify and define the optimum metal laminate coating technology that can be incorporated into a BHL cryotank composite. The proposed effort will also evaluate several lightweight multifunctional insulation design concepts synergistic with mBHL technology and identify optimum solutions to be incorporated in the phase II program. With the proposed development of mBHL, the advantages of the technology will be achieved for long term cryogenic propellant storage, providing the means to significantly lower cryotank mass, reduce permeability and provide a significant improvement in propellant tank insulation performance reducing propellant boil off, thereby enhancing NASA's ability to achieve its exploration and science mission goals for less cost.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications for the mBHL composite technology includes both storable and cryogenic spacecraft propellant and pressurant tanks, including commercial and DoD vehicles and applications. The mBHL technology provides a dramatic weight reduction over existing metal isogrid cryotanks resulting in a significant performance and cost advantage. The mBHL could provide significant advantages to Atlas, Delta, Falcon, Virgin Galactic and Stratolaunch launch vehicles. DOD applications include pressurant, storable and cryogenic propellant tanks for planned spacecraft systems. The Army, Navy and Air Force could apply these technologies to enhance the US tactical and strategic weapon systems capabilities and performance. The DOD has a significant need to extend the stand off distance and reach of weapon systems aka tomahawk, boost glide vehicle and future hypersonic missiles. These commercialization applications represent the largest potential market for the mBHL technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful development and test of the mBHL composite tank system would provide significant weight and cost savings for cryogenic propellant tank applications. The mBHL technology offers a four times weight improvement over metal isogrid cryotanks. When fully qualified for use in long-term cryopropellant storage requirements, mBHL technology could be used for space propellant storage tanks, Mars missions and space/launch vehicles. The mBHL could be applied directly to all NASA launch vehicle initiatives including the Space Launch System development and commercial space transportation initiatives. Including the commercial cargo and crew program and space exploration programs. NASA would reap significant benefits from supporting the implementation and commercialization of the mBHL technology into the commercial US launch vehicles industry. Including systems built by Lockheed, Boeing, Orbital Sciences and Space-X. Incorporating mBHL into NASA space vehicle systems would achieve significant performance and cost advantages that support NASA exploration requirements.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Processing Methods
Composites
Polymers
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Structures
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Fuels/Propellants


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H3.01-8848
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring for Spacecraft Cabins
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Airborne Particulate Monitor for Spacecraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerosol Dynamics Inc.
935 Grayson Street
Berkeley, CA 94710-2640
(510) 649-9360

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Susanne Hering
susanne@aerosol.us
935 Grayson Street
Berkeley,  CA 94710-2640
(510) 649-9360

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Currently there are no tools to monitor the size or concentration of nanometer to submicrometer particles aboard spacecraft cabins. Yet there are many sources aboard the spacecraft known to generate particles in this ultrafine size range. Our technology provides a means to make this measurement in a compact, low power, unit that may be made suitable for spacecraft. With a newly developed, self-sustaining water-based condensation particle technology, particles from the nanometer to micrometer size range are enlarged through water condensation and counted optically. Yet, unlike other condensation-based counters, our unit recovers all of the evaporated water within the wick itself. It needs no water reservoirs, and can be operated in any orientation. All water transport is by capillary action, and gravity is not needed. Coupled with a size selection device it can provide data on mean particle size. Measurable concentrations are from 1 to 1 million particles per cubic centimeter. We aim to adapt our existing technology to the long-term, zero-gravity, robust monitoring needed by NASA. Specific objectives are to verify a prototype self-sustaining condensation particle counting system that can be operated in any orientation; that can detect and count individual particles from 10 to 2000 nm; that contains the controls and on-board diagnostics to ensure long-term performance; and whose critical components are compatible with an ultimate package weighing less than 2 kg, and requiring less than 4 watts of power.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Because it is tippable, and emits no toxic fumes, this instrument would be uniquely suitable for measuring concentrations on moving platforms, inside aircraft, on school buses, or in indoor environments such as offices and schools. It would be used for community monitoring networks, and by aerosol research laboratories as a handy, non-toxic measurement.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA will use this instrument to monitor airborne particle environmental in manned spacecraft. Such data is needed (1) to establish the levels and sources of airborne particulate to which crew are exposed, and (2) to provide a signature of background levels to enable earlier detection of smoke particles from fires.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Space Transportation & Safety


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H3.01-8900
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring for Spacecraft Cabins
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis for In Situ Water Analysis

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Leiden Measurement Technology, LLC
773 East El Camino Real, #161
Sunnyvale, CA 94087-2919
(408) 351-6720

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nathan Bramall
n.bramall@leidentechnology.com
773 E El Camino Real#161
Sunnyvale,  CA 94087-2919
(510) 301-8980

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this Small business Innovate Research (SBIR) project, Leiden Measurement Technology, LLC (LMT) will develop a portable microfludic analysis instrument for measurement of inorganic ions present in potable water supplies, thermal control system cooling water, and human waste water. A primary goal of the Phase I effort is to identify and demonstrate the most viable development path to advance current state-of-the-art NASA microfluidic analytical instrument technology into a user-friendly, compact, and automated instrument platform for use on the International Space Station. In this SBIR Phase I effort, LMT will advance current state-of-the-art technologies by performing a proof-of-concept demonstration of Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis (MCE) with Capacitively-Coupled Contactless Detection (C4D) for the rapid separation, detection and quantification of inorganic ions specified in NASA Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines (SWEG). The specific objectives of this Phase I R&D effort are: 1) Design and build a prototype C4D for use with MCE. 2)Assemble a MCE breadboard system for proof-of-concept demonstration of separation of inorganic ions using the C4D prototype.3) Demonstrate the separation of inorganic cations listed in the SWEG using the MCE C4D breadboard. 4)Use the data collected with the prototype to define requirements and develop a design for a Phase II instrument.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Chemical separation and analysis of inorganic ions from aqueous matrices is a fundamental need in many industries including: pharmaceutical, chemical, food and beverage, environmental, and medical, and biotech. Our SBIR developed compact automated instrument system is particularly suited for the measurement of trace levels of inorganic contaminates in drinking water. The innovative power of our system stems from automation and robustness, which greatly improves portability and allows use in remote regions across the globe. As an automated system for medical applications, our instrument will provide point-of-use technology for the identification and quantification of inorganics (and organics) in biological fluids with lab-on-a-chip analysis. The instrument is well suited for numerous potential commercial applications where separation and of inorganic species is required including: soil analysis, materials science, in situ resource recovery, monitoring of contamination from process systems and catalyst beds.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed SBIR effort directly satisfies important needs described in NASA SBIR 2015 Subtopic H3.01 Environmental Monitoring for Spacecraft Cabins - Measurement of Inorganic Species in Water. The technology developed will provide new water quality analysis capabilities designed for measurement of inorganic species/contaminates on board the International Space Station and other spacecraft. This directly addresses the NASA Human Exploration and Operations Directorate goals by providing technology to enable the safe and extended use of the International Space Station. The proposed technology is also highly relevant the needs of Human-Robotic Space Exploration and Space Life & Physical Science Research Applications. The instrument will prove improved and enhanced technology to overcome analytical constraints that may be encountered in future Science Exploration missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H3.01-9305
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring for Spacecraft Cabins
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reagent Regenerative Microgravity Compatible Inorganic Ion Analyzer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South
College Station, TX 77845-6023
(979) 764-2218

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jinseong Kim
jinseong.kim@lynntech.com
2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South
College Station,  TX 77845-6023
(979) 764-2200

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There is limited capability for water quality analysis onboard current spacecraft. Several hardware failures have occurred onboard ISS which demonstrate the need for measurement of inorganic contaminants. Monitoring capability is of interest for identification and quantification of inorganic species in potable water, thermal control system cooling water, and human wastewater. Needed attributes for such multi-ion analyzers to be used in NASA manned space exploration missions include: minimal sample preparation, use of small sample volumes, little or no need for reagent resupply, instrument of minimum size and weight, high sensitivity, accuracy and reliability, in situ calibration, and operation in microgravity and partial gravity. Lynntech proposes to develop a reagent-regenerative, microgravity-compatible, compact-sized ion analyzer, which has desirable attributes of no sample preparation, low weight, small volume, high sensitivity, no reagent resupply, and operation in microgravity and partial gravity, which will impact the reduction of its equivalent system mass. In the Phase I Lynntech will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach with a breadboard system. An automated prototype will be delivered to NASA during Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful development of the reagent-regenerative, microgravity-compatible, compact-sized ion analyzer (RMCIA) as a portable device will have a high commercial applicability to a wide range of industries where water quality assurance and control is important, such as semiconductor industries, food and drink industries, and pharmaceutical industries, and where water quality analysis of inorganic pollutants in both environmental and potable water sources is critical, such as municipal utilities and remote potable water production.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Direct NASA applications of the reagent-regenerative, microgravity-compatible, compact-sized ion analyzer (RMCIA) include the on-board water quality monitor to frequently analyze the crew water supply in order to quickly indicate if the Exploration Water Recovery System (EWRS) is not functioning properly. The multi-analyte capability will expand the applications to measurements on typical ionic species in humidity condensate, potable water, wastewater, byproducts of water treatment such as brines, and biomedical and science samples for manned space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The expected results of the Phase I project will provide a strong technical base for Phase II follow-on research and development work, so as to apply this technology to NASA's roadmap in the discipline area of Advanced Environmental Monitoring & Control (AEMC) of the theme of Advanced Human Support Technologies (AHST).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H3.01-9673
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring for Spacecraft Cabins
PROPOSAL TITLE: Spacecraft Potable Water Monitor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Spectral Sciences, Inc.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803-3304
(781) 273-4770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bridget Tannian
btannian@spectral.com
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington,  MA 01803-3304
(781) 273-4770

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Securing a supply of potable water is essential for human survival, and doing so aboard the ISS presents challenges distinct from terrestrial water safety challenges. Repeated recycling is the primary means of replenishing water aboard the ISS in order to minimize the need for costly re-supply of water. There is a critical need to continually monitor impurities in the water supply aboard the ISS in a manner that minimizes the sample volume. Existing technology can measure inorganic contaminants at concentrations established as safe in the Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines, but these methods are inappropriate for the ISS due to the required size and power of the equipment, the size of water sample required for testing, or some combination of these. Spectral Sciences, Inc. proposes to develop a novel water quality monitoring technology using x-ray fluorescence (XRF). In the proposed method, a small volume of water is diverted into a sampling chamber for XRF analysis, which takes place over a period of several minutes. XRF from the sample is detected by an energy-dispersive detector. The concentrations of contaminant elements in the sample are determined simultaneously from the fluorescence spectrum and compared to pre-determined threshold concentrations. After analysis, the water sample is returned to the main plumbing, and a warning is issued if any contaminant is present above the threshold concentration. This process would be entirely automated and require no crew interaction. The instrument would use commercially available parts common in portable XRF analyzers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology has potential non-NASA commercial applications for any instance in which a persistent automated analyzer for trace metals in water is required. Its advantage over current technologies (such as mass spectroscopy) is the reduction in required manpower. Potential applications include (1) screening soil and water in the neighborhood of landfills and industrial plants for toxicity, (2) the monitoring of industrial and nuclear facilities, (3) monitoring of hazardous waste transporters, (4) disaster management, and (5) damage assessment by first responders in the case of a spill or accident. We also see potential non-NASA usage for the developing world. Current environmental regulations are loose and as populations begin to demand clean water, instrumentation to monitor heavy metal content on-site without expensive, operator-intensive mass spectrometer equipment will be needed. Two examples of heavy metal pollution within the water supply of developing nations are wastewater generated from recycling of circuit boards and industrial manufacturing of printed circuits. Semiconductors and textiles processing is another source of heavy metal water pollutants.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The International Space Station (ISS) water monitor will be a unique instrument with design elements that pertain primarily to ISS requirements. It will also serve as a prototype water quality monitoring system for future manned mission systems. It will be especially important for any planned long-duration missions. One prominent example would be a human mission to Mars. The proposed automated in-line heavy metal water supply monitor will operate continuously without the need for extractive sampling. The Phase I product consists of a laboratory-scale test unit and calibration curves for the analysis software. This will serve as the foundation for the engineering work which will take place as part of a Phase II effort.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Quality/Reliability
Fluids
Ionizing Radiation
X-rays/Gamma Rays
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H3.01-9921
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring for Spacecraft Cabins
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rapid Concentration for Improved Detection of Microbes in ISS Potable Water

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
InnovaPrep, LLC
132 East Main Street
Drexel, MO 64742-0068
(816) 619-3375

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrew Page
apage@innovaprep.com
132 E. Main
Drexel,  MO 64742-0068
(816) 619-3375

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Providing a reliable supply of safe drinking water is a critical requirement for space exploration. Systems that provide recycled, treated water aboard the International Space Station, & that will supply water aboard future spacecraft, are inherently complex and can be susceptible to biofilm formation and microbial contamination. Further, it has been noted that pathogenicity and virulence of microbes can increase in microgravity environments. These factors, along with the high consequence of sickness in the remote space environment, make rapid & reliable methods of detecting microbes at low levels a critical need. Rapid microbiological detection systems have taken dramatic steps forward in the last two decades and today detection of even a single organism is possible in less than one hour. Unfortunately, development of rapid detection methods has far outpaced development of sample concentration techniques, which are necessary to enable detection of low microbial concentrations in drinking water. Currently, without sample concentration, rapid detection techniques alone produce results that are hundreds to thousands of times less sensitive than the minimum desired detection limit for microbial water contaminates. InnovaPrep proposes development of a rapid microbial concentration system designed for use aboard the International Space Station. The system will concentrate microbes from up to 5 Liters of potable water into volumes as small as 200 &#956;L &#150; providing concentration factors as high as 15,000X. It will be based on technologies developed and commercialized by InnovaPrep, but will contain innovations to allow for operation in microgravity. Large volumes of potable water are processed through a hollow fiber membrane filter concentration cell as microbes are captured within the lumen of the fibers. Following capture, the microbes are efficiently eluted using a novel Wet Foam Elution process and then delivered to a rapid detection system for analysis.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In the proposed format, the Hydrosol Concentrator for microgravity (HC-ug) will have direct application to the microbial water monitoring needs of the International Space Station and all national and international space agencies and missions. Further, because small sample sizes are generally a requirement of rapid microbial detection systems, and because required microbial detection limits for drinking water are extremely low, this need is not anticipated to decrease in the near future. In addition to the needs of the space agency community, many components of the technology developed in the proposed project will also have application to earth-based microbial water monitoring applications. The small, zero-power format of the HC-&#956;g system will lend itself to development of fieldable concentration devices for applications such as DoD water monitoring needs in austere and remote environments, and to field sampling and analysis for outbreak investigations in remote locations and when sending samples to a laboratory is not acceptable. Water monitoring in developing countries is an important need that could benefit greatly from low-cost, fieldable kits that allow for delivery of a concentrated sample to rapid detection kits. InnovaPrep is already working to identify aligned opportunities within US DoD, the national and international drinking water and water utilities marketplace, world health applications, and recreational and environmental water applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Hydrosol Concentrator for microgravity (HC-ug) will be an important tool for improving potable water monitoring for microbial contamination on the International Space Station and other NASA spacecraft. As is noted by Yamaguchi et al in a review of current research on microbial monitoring of crewed habitats in space and by Oubre in a comparison study of real-time PCR platforms, rapid environmental microbial monitoring will be required to enable continued success in long-duration space habitation. Per Table 5.2-4 of SSP 50260, International Space Station Medical Operations Requirements Documents, the US On-orbit Segment of the ISS requires analysis of 30 microbial samples in the first 90 days of a mission. After 90 days an additional two samples is required per month. Further, as noted by Yamaguchi, manned missions to Mars, which may be realized within the next two decades, may further increase the need for rapid, reliable microbial monitoring technologies. Because speed of analysis, instrumentation size, and instrumentation and per sample costs are generally tied to sample size, and because required microbial detection limits for drinking water are extremely low, it is likely that concentration will always be a critical component of any detection method appropriate for this application. The proposed HC-ug system holds significant promise for filling this key component of the rapid microbial detection need for NASA for the foreseeable future.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Food (Preservation, Packaging, Preparation)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H3.02-9111
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Bioregenerative Technologies for Life Support
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rapid Activation of Biological Wastewater Treatment Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pancopia, Inc.
1100 Exploration Way, Suite 302Q
Hampton, VA 23666-6264
(757) 344-8607

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Cumbie
bill@pancopia.com
1100 Exploration Way, Suite 302Q
Hampton,  VA 23666-6264
(757) 344-8607

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
RESEARCH PROPOSED: Pancopia proposes development and testing of a novel inoculum combining three high performance biologics with the capability to remove high levels of organic carbon and nitrogen from wastewater, capable of preservation for a year, and which can be used to rapidly and reliably start up a biological wastewater system. Phase 1 feasibility criteria for proposed novel inoculum are removal of 85% of organic carbon and 85% conversion of ammonium (50% oxidized to nitrogen gas and remaining 50% converted to nitrite/nitrate) with a startup time of less than 45 days. PROBLEM/OPPORTUNITY: Properly configured biological wastewater systems can treat wastewater containing high organic carbon and nitrogen and produce a high quality effluent using minimal consumables. However, such systems can be difficult to startup rapidly and reliably. Developing a reliable inoculum to permit rapid startup of biological wastewater systems that treat high levels of organics and nitrogen would make such treatment viable. PLAN/PROCESS OUTLINE: Two types of new, novel inocula will be developed, tailored to treat wastewater with high organic carbon and nitrogen. One inoculum will use live cultures stored dormant for 45 days before being used to start the reactor. The second inoculum will use lyophilized cultures stored for 45 days before being used to start the reactor. Two reactors will be used to test each inoculum; with one of the two reactors receiving inoculum added to the wastewater and the other reactor receiving inoculum embedded in a biofilm scaffold designed to promote growth and attachment of the organisms. BENEFITS: Phase 2 target criteria are development of an inoculum capable of removing 95% of organic carbon, and 95% conversion of ammonium (75% removed as nitrogen gas and remaining 25% converted to nitrite/nitrate) when treating ersatz EPB wastewater with a startup time of less than 15 days.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Currently the wastewater treatment industry is being revolutionized by a new type of treatment that can remove nitrogen from wastewater at less than half the present cost. The combination of simultaneous nitrification/denitrification (SND) coupled with deammonification has moved out of the research phase and is being implemented in plants throughout the world with the Blue Plains WWTP in Washington, DC being one of the early adopters. Although this technology is starting to be used, it is still in its infancy with less than 50 full-scale installations worldwide. Unfortunately, one of the primary organisms, anammox, necessary for this type of treatment has an extremely slow growth rate and it can take up to a year to start up a plant unless it receives seed from another plant. Even with seeding, plants generally take 50 days or more to start. Developing an inoculum to rapidly and reliably start up a mixed SND/deammonification system has great commercial possibilities. The Chesapeake Bay watershed is an excellent example of the possible economic potential of this new technology. The Bay's watershed has 539 treatment plants that are under or are coming under mandate to remove nitrogen. The estimated cost for nitrogen removal in 2002 was $8.2 billion for these plants. Development of a process to rapidly and reliably start up mixed SND/deammonification plants has the potential to be extremely profitable and be the source of significant environmental improvement.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA application for the proposed inoculum is the capability of rapidly and reliably starting up a biological wastewater system. This innovative inoculum will ultimately be capable of shortening the start up time of a wastewater treatment system to 15 days while enabling the to plant to remove high levels of organic carbon and nitrogen. It may be possible to use the inoculum to remotely start a wastewater treatment system, thus permitting the system to be operational at the time of occupancy of the station. A secondary application of the inoculum is for use as a backup in the event of failure of the wastewater system. This capability would be useful in cases of toxic shock, equipment failure, operator error, etc. Another application of the inoculum is its use as a standardized base to ensure reliable, uniform treatment. Use of a standard inoculum would lessen variability during treatment and simplify process control. A standard inoculum would permit different researchers to better compare research results. It would also simplify testing potential new wastewater constituents to determine how they may affect treatment

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Waste Storage/Treatment


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H3.02-9680
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Bioregenerative Technologies for Life Support
PROPOSAL TITLE: Solar Plant Growth System for Food Production in Space Exploration Missions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Sciences, Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Takashi Nakamura
nakamura@psicorp.com
6652 Ownes Drive
Pleasanton,  CA 94588-3334
(925) 743-1110

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), in collaboration with Vencore Services and Solutions, Inc. (Vencore) and Utah State University (USU), proposes to develop a Solar Plant Growth System for Food Production in Space Exploration Missions. In the proposed system solar light is collected by the reflector optics and only the photosynthetically active radiation spectra (PAR: 400 nm < &#955; < 700 nm) are transmitted to the plant growth chamber. The PAR spectra transmitted to the plant growth chamber are distributed over the plant growth area at optimum intensities for plant growth. The non-plant growing spectra (non-PAR) are not reflected by the dichroic PAR reflector and transmitted to energy conversion devices such as low-bandgap photovoltaic (PV) cells for electric power generation. The electric power generated can be used for supplemental lighting and/or facility operation. In the proposed program we will develop a ground-based prototype plant growth system by integrating (i) the solar plant lighting technology developed by Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) with (ii) state of the art plant growth technologies for food production in space. In Phase I, a laboratory prototype plant growth system consisting of: solar concentrator; optical fiber cable; lighting panel; plant growth chamber; and plant watering module will be developed, and functionality tests and performance evaluation will be conducted. Based on the results of Phase I an engineering prototype solar plant growth system will be developed and tested in a ground based facility.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The solar lighting system discussed in this proposal can be used for household, commercial or industrial lighting. In addition, industry and educational institutions that are currently using electric lamps for plant lighting will likely deploy the proposed system. In 2009, PSI developed a prototype solar lighting system for agricultural transplants with USDA SBIR funding. In this program we provided solar lighting within the protected transplant growing chamber. This technique can be applied to controlled production of pharmaceuticals using transgenic plants or specialized native plants. An interesting application of the optical fiber based (Optical Waveguide) solar lighting system is for "Vertical Farming." Vertical Farming' could provide fresh vegetables in urban areas in the off season, if an efficient light delivery system is available. To date, Vertical Farming with electric lighting has been limited by the inefficiency of solar photovoltaic cells and the associated low conversion efficiency of electric lights. By using the solar lighting system based on Optical Waveguide lighting, the deficiency of Vertical Farming can be eliminated. A solar based light delivery system would eliminate the need for the greenhouse and make all parts of the growth system highly productive. The work described in this proposal has the potential to fundamentally change our ability to produce fresh food from local suppliers on a year round basis.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Solar Plant Growth System for Food Production is for application to: 1) onboard a crewed spacecraft such as the Deep Space Habitat or ISS where compact and efficient solar photosynthetic life support is required; and 2) a Lunar, NEO or Mars base where large scale food production and life support are implemented. The conventional concept for plant lighting is to employ electric lamps such as fluorescent, or high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps or light emitting diodes (LED). With this conventional system concept, it is difficult to achieve high photosynthetic food production without causing unmanageable parasitic heat loading. For the proposed system, only the PAR spectra are delivered to the plant growth chamber by a compact flat lighting panel, thereby reducing most of the parasitic heat generation in the habitat. The proposed solar lighting system can also be utilized to supply solar thermal power to the habitat by changing the PAR mirror to the full spectral reflective mirror. Thermal power delivered to the habitat can be used for: habitat thermal control; manufacturing; and material processing. PSI has demonstrated such applications of the solar power system in our previous NASA program related to ISRU. The system concept discussed in this proposal has many other NASA applications such as material recycling such as nutrient re-use, and pollution removal from water (rhizofiltration) in human habitat.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomass Growth
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Food (Preservation, Packaging, Preparation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H3.03-8782
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Cabin Atmosphere Quality and Thermal Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multifunctional Dust Filters for Crew Cabin Air Purification

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Modification, Inc.
2809-K Merrilee Drive
Fairfax, VA 22031-4409
(703) 560-1371

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Krishnaswamy Rangan
kris@matmod.com
2809-K Merrilee Dr
Fairfax,  VA 22031-4409
(703) 560-1371

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In the crew compartment of a spacecraft, dust that is self-generated or from other activities pose a respiratory irritant, especially within a small, confined space. Therefore air cabin filtration technologies should be improved for future spacecrafts to efficiently remove the range of particulate matter sizes (nano to micron size). It is also desirable to have the new particulate air filters that can be efficiently remove volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) and self-regenerated. This will reduce the logistics burden of carrying additional replacement filters on-board. In the proposed Phase I effort, smart fibrous filters with both particle and VOC removal capacities will be developed. The new particulate filters will be much more efficient than the current HEPA filters and also capable of self-regenerating. The Phase I effort will focus on demonstration of the 'proof of concept' that fibrous filters can filter and remove the ultrafine (<0.5 &#956;m) particulates and destructively adsorb organic chemicals such as acetone. The technical approach will also involve regeneration of filters using a low-energy process. In the Phase II project, selective filtration membranes will be designed and modified to fit the NASA's current cabin air filtration systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Proposed air filters can find applications in a wide range of fields trapping particles including home land security (radiation particles), bioterrorism (Chemical/Bio agents), medical (aviation flu), industry (diesel filter) and domestic (Air filters).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Air-borne particulates and toxic organic chemicals pose a threat to the crew members' lungs and can also damage sensitive equipment. The proposed technology can efficiently remove particulates and volatile organics encountered in a spacecraft cabin from the atmosphere. The air filters developed in this project can be incorporated into NASA's next generation "Indexing Media Filtration System" for Long Duration Space Missions and Orion space crafts.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Remediation/Purification
Coatings/Surface Treatments


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H3.03-8856
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Cabin Atmosphere Quality and Thermal Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Robust, Gravity-Insensitive, High-Temperature Condenser

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, LLC
16 Great Hollow Road
Hanover, NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Weibo Chen
wbc@creare.com
16 Great Hollow Road
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Regenerative life support systems and in situ resource utilization systems are vital for NASA's future space exploration missions to maximize self-sufficiency and minimize the resupply of consumables. One of the critical needs for these systems is a gravity-insensitive condenser to collect water in a high-temperature gas stream from these systems, as requested by Topic H03.3. To this end, Creare proposes to develop a gravity-insensitive, high-temperature condenser. The condenser has capillary structures to cool the gas stream, separate the condensate, and drain the liquid water. The condenser has design features to ensure its operation is insensitive to gravity. The entire condenser is constructed from metals that have excellent resistance to chemical attack from contaminants and biofilm growth, and are suitable for operating at high temperature. The capillary structures in the condenser are removable and can be regenerated during scheduled maintenance if it becomes necessary. The proposed condenser builds on the gravity-insensitive phase separator technology Creare developed for aircraft applications. In Phase I, Creare will design, build, and demonstrate a proof-of-concept condenser. In Phase II, Creare will build and characterize a laboratory condenser for a specific target mission and deliver it to NASA for further performance characterization.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The gravity-insensitive, high-temperature condenser technology has applications in military and commercial aircraft environmental control systems and fuel cell systems, as well as cryogenic distillation systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed robust, gravity-insensitive, high-temperature condenser technology is ideal for water reclamation in regenerative life support systems and in situ resource utilization systems, such as solid waste oxidation and water recovery systems, Sabatier systems for cabin oxygen, and water regeneration and in situ resource utilization systems on Mars. Other applications include condensers for water recovery in fuel-cell systems and two-phase thermal management systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H3.03-9079
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Cabin Atmosphere Quality and Thermal Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Designer Fluid for use in a Single Loop Variable Heat Rejection Thermal Control System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mainstream Engineering Corporation
200 Yellow Place
Rockledge, FL 32955-5327
(321) 631-3550

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
J Cutbirth
mcutbirth@mainstream-engr.com
200 Yellow Place
Rockledge,  FL 32935-5327
(321) 631-3550

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The efficient thermal control of vehicles is essential to the success of every single NASA mission. All vehicles have very tight requirements for the thermal control systems while simultaneously placing incredibly stringent demands upon them. These demands are getting even more intense given the shift towards variable heat rejection, which is essential in missions reaching beyond the lower earth orbit. Specifically, the thermal control fluid must maintain excellent thermal properties for heat rejection under peak conditions while at the same time remain liquid at extremely low temperatures down to -90 Celsius. Currently used fluids either do not meet the low temperature requirement (glycol/water mixture) or do not have thermal properties conducive to a compact, efficient system (Galden). Mainstream has identified several promising next generation thermal fluids using computation chemical techniques. In the Phase I, Mainstream will experimentally evaluate the thermal properties of promising single chemicals and chemical mixtures. These data will be used to determine the overall benefit to a thermal control system in terms of thermal performance and pumping power. In Phase II, Mainstream will perform more long term durability, compatibility and performance studies in a simulated test-loop representative of conditions encountered on NASA spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to an attractive market with NASA as a customer, these fluids will have far reaching effects in other commercial markets as well. These applications include freeze protection, process cooling, refrigeration coil defrosting and sub-ambient dehumidification.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This program will result in a fluid or family of fluids providing a significant benefit to NASA in enabling efficient variable heat rejection thermal control systems. The fluids will be formulated at Mainstream complete with any necessary additive packages to ensure stability, materials compatibility and safety. The commercial market for these fluids within NASA is immense and includes essentially every spacecraft which would require a single phase thermal control loop.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing
Fluids
Lifetime Testing
Active Systems
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Heat Exchange
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H3.03-9254
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Cabin Atmosphere Quality and Thermal Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Oxygen Recovery From Carbon Dioxide Through Electrolysis

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Giner, Inc.
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Badawi Dweik
bdweik@ginerinc.com
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton,  MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0520

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Giner, Inc. proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of developing an improved electrochemical process for the removal CO2 from cabin air, while also providing for recycling of water and provision of O2. This new process seeks to more efficiently combine the current functions of standard water electrolysis for breathing O2 production and the Sabatier process for removal of cabin CO2. It represents a major innovation and paradigm shift, rather than a minor enhancement of existing processes. The process will be accomplished using a novel electrochemical CO2 reduction electrocatalyst in conjunction with a proton-exchange membrane electrochemical cell. This technology is expected to have direct applications for Human Exploration and Development of Space missions as a means for the management and removal of excess respired carbon dioxide space cabins and enhanced closed-loop operations on long duration missions. The proposed process will enhance the closed-loop by recycling considerable amounts of water and will provide launch-mass saving. The proposed process not only will reduce CO2, but will also produce water and organic fuel; the water will be electrolyzed to O2 and the liquid fuel of will be captured and stored for use. The Phase I technical objectives are to demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel specialty cathode catalyst for carbon dioxide reduction that results in the production of water and methanol, develop an efficient cathode electrode structure, fabricate a complete electrochemical reactor, and to operate the reactor under a wide variety of conditions. The Phase I concludes with a design for a complete, integrated system for oxygen generation and carbon dioxide and water recycling.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Carbon dioxide is a product of combustion, and has been identified as one of the principal factors behind global warming. Removal of CO2 from stack emissions by means of adsorption processes, followed by conversion into a useful organic product such as methanol, would have a large economic potential. The specific commercial product to be developed under the proposed program would be an electrochemical reactor that produces methanol. The methanol could be used as an industrial chemical, as a fuel for automobiles, or as a fuel for fuel cells. A system similar to the NASA system could be beneficial in other closed environments, such as submarines.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The directly relevant NASA application includes a compact module, which can be integrated into the Orbiter's Environmental Control and Life Support System water reclamation systems to manage the respired carbon dioxide inside the spaceship and recycle water. Possible additional NASA applications include the production of fuels from indigenous materials (carbon dioxide) available on the surfaces of planets such as Mars. This will help, as future missions are required to utilize resources on Mars and will result in cost savings, as these materials will not have to be transported from earth.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Waste Storage/Treatment
Prototyping
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H3.03-9701
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Cabin Atmosphere Quality and Thermal Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nautilus Centripetal Capillary Condenser

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
UMPQUA Research Company
P.O. Box 609
Myrtle Creek, OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-7770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Wheeler
rwheeler@urcmail.net
P.O. Box 609
Myrtle Creek,  OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-2661

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A Nautilus Centripetal Capillary Condenser (NCCC) is proposed for the microgravity compatible removal of water from a saturated air stream. Successful development of this technology will result in a device that effectively dries a hot, moist airstream to a dew point of no more than 10 degrees Celsius with no entrained water droplets in the dry air effluent. Non-mechanical inertial forces are employed to collect liquid water condensate via centripetal action along a spiral flow path. A continuously varying groove shape along the outer edge of the spiral geometry uses capillary forces to assist liquid transfer to a collection region near the device center. The proposed technology is an integration of conventional finned condenser operation combined with static phase separation and capillary transport phenomena. Droplet entrainment is prevented via surface adhesion and reduced exit gas velocities. Condensate and dry air exit along separate pathways, each orthogonal to the spiral flow plane.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Condensate collection from saturated gas streams is a unit process widely employed throughout various industries and laboratory environments. The efficient capture of high value or potentially hazardous liquids from process gas streams or air exhaust is required for profitable and/or environmentally friendly operations. Here NCCC technology may find application for primary condensate recovery.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA application will be as Flight Hardware for deployment in support of future manned missions. Separation and recovery of the valuable water resource from Environmental Control and Life Support process air streams is required to extend mission durations and help make feasible crewed space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Low power, microgravity compatibility of the NCCC technology is of fundamental importance in various manned exploration mission phases including Mars transit.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Remediation/Purification


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H4.01-8817
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Survival Systems for Launch, Entry, Abort
PROPOSAL TITLE: In-Suit Waste Management Technologies

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Omni Measurement Systems, Inc
808 Hercules Drive
Colchester, VT 05446-5839
(802) 497-2253

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Harvie
mharvie@omnimedicalsys.com
808 Hercules Drive
Colchester,  VT 05446-5839
(802) 497-2253

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 7
End: 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There is no acceptable urine or fecal containment waste management system for long duration missions for use by crew members confined to pressurized space suits available. Omni's proposed solution is to integrate its new patent pending urine collection and containment system technology, ProRen FLO (Prosthetic Renal Flow System), combined with Omni fecal collection and containment options into a In-Suit waste management System Garment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Urine and fecal incontinent civilian patients. Waste management for military and civilian personnel using CBRN (chemical-biological-radiological-nuclear) protection suits. Including Ebola virus protection gear.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Pressure suit waste management (urine and fecal) for astronauts.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Space Transportation & Safety
Medical
Physiological/Psychological Countermeasures
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Waste Storage/Treatment
Mission Training


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H4.01-9899
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Survival Systems for Launch, Entry, Abort
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight, Compact Survival Rafts

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kennon Products, Inc.
2071 North Main Street
Sheridan, WY 82801-2071
(307) 674-6498

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Weitz
mark@kennoncovers.com
2071 North Main Street
Sheridan,  WY 82801-2071
(307) 751-9151

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An advanced, lightweight inflation system is proposed that will reduce weight to at least 1/2, and down to 1/10 that of current inflation systems. A novel ingress system is also proposed that will greatly aid the boarding of survival rafts especially stressed, injured, frightened or otherwise complromise people in the water. Weight losses and fabrication advances in the inflatable portion of a raft package, being developed under a separate effort, promise to reduce overall package weight to a total package reduction of 2/3, with a goal of 12 pounds or less for a 6 person raft.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Emergency inflatables for commercial and military aviation applications, including life preservers, life rafts, and evacuation slides.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Life rafts. Inflatable life preservers. Compressed gas applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Textiles
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H4.02-9073
SUBTOPIC TITLE: EVA Space Suit Pressure Garment Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Self-Healing, Self-Diagnosing Multifunctional Hybridsil Composites for EVA Space Suit Pressure Garment Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanosonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke, VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vince Baranauskas
vince@nanosonic.com
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke,  VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Through the proposed NASA SBIR program, NanoSonic will work with ILC Dover to design, empirically optimize, and integrate multifunctional self-healing and self-diagnosing HybridSil composites for lighter weight EVA space suit pressure garment systems with enhanced durability and reliability. To that end, NanoSonic will create multifunctional, highly flexible HybridSil polymeric armor composites composed of high strength, electrically conductive fabrics embedded within highly flexible inorganic copolymer matrices containing dispersed, VOC-free self-healing polymeric capsules. NanoSonic's multifunctional, single-ply HybridSil space suit composites will be tailored for use within existing space suit layups and afford significant weight savings by enabling the use of less layers to achieve given a performance goal such as micrometeoroid and orbital debris protection, thermal control / insulation, and radiation protection. The proposed HybridSil composites will build from NanoSonic's pioneering laceration, abrasion, and puncture resistance drysuit, wetsuit, and fire protective fabric technologies. A nimble Phase III transition of optimized multifunctional HybridSil fabrics will be afforded by NanoSonic's established roll-to-roll flexible composite manufacturing infrastructure.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Initial applications will include use within space suit pressure garments while immediate secondary applications will include a broad spectrum of military and civilian protective garment and equipment applications. Additional non-NASA post applications will include utility within a broad spectrum of secondary protective jumpsuits and higher performance interior vehicle trim materials.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The principal objective of the NASA SBIR is to provide ILC Dover with a feedstock of next-generation multifunctional HybridSil flexible composites that may be used both in tandem and in place of legacy materials to afford space suit pressure garments that have enhanced durability, reliability, and less mass for long-duration missions requiring extensive extra-vehicular activity.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fire Protection
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Processing Methods
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Textiles


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H4.02-9511
SUBTOPIC TITLE: EVA Space Suit Pressure Garment Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Pressure EVA Glove (HPEG)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Final Frontier Design
313 7th Avenue, Suite 3L
Brooklyn, NY 11215-4141
(347) 512-0082

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Theodore Southern
ted@finalfrontierdesign.com
313 7th Avenue, Suite 3L
Brooklyn,  NY 11215-4141
(347) 512-0082

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Final Frontier Design's (FFD) High Pressure EVA Glove (HPEG) is a game changing technology enabling future exploration class space missions. The high operating pressure allows astronauts to conduct EVAs without a pre breathe penalty, greatly increasing efficiency. The HPEG increases astronaut comfort and reduces fatigue by allowing for a large Range of Motion with low joint torque throughout. In its current configuration, the glove has shown no signs of hand or fingernail trauma, representing a lower injury risk than current technology. Further, mass reductions from new materials and processes ensure that the HPEG will weigh significantly less than current technology. Sizing capabilities of the HPEG are also a technical improvement over current methods. FFD can establish all tooling, flat patterns, and restraint components from laser hand scans, deriving complex anthropomorphic geometries to exactly match the contours of the hand at the palm and fingertips, while customized flat pattern sizing occurs parametrically according to pre-defined hand anchor/reference points. Phase I of the HPEG will include 2 build rounds, with preliminary testing to take place unmanned during the contract, and a deliverable to include a single pressure garment and outer garment of the glove.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
EVA is not currently a commercial requirement beyond NASA, so the direct application of the HPEG beyond NASA is limited. However, FFD has identified several spin off technologies enabled by this glove development that are directly related to the research proposed here, including: -IVA Space Suit / Pilot Gloves: FFD has recognized the need for high performance pressurized gloves for IVA/LEA applications, and look to incorporate the technologies of the HPEG into their IVA suit -Firefighter's Gloves: the multilayer firefighter's glove is currently a limiting factor in firemen's turnout gear, with crude sizing, limited tactility, and basic patterning. FFD is currently developing next generation firefighter's gloves using patterning technology found in the HPEG -Dry Suit Diving Gloves: pressure tight and thermally insulating dry suit diving gloves represent a new market for glove performance and materials advancement.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA requires high performance, high pressure EVA gloves for future exploration class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Glove efficacy directly translates to astronaut efficiency in many instances, and current glove technology has proven to be both limiting and the source of injury for astronauts, in addition to being expensive. The HPEG represents a cost effective and performance enabling, next generation EVA space suit glove solution for NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H4.02-9792
SUBTOPIC TITLE: EVA Space Suit Pressure Garment Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Contact Stress Design Parameters for Titanium Bearings

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Air-Lock, Inc.
Wampus Lane
Milford, CT 06460-4861
(203) 878-4691

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Battisti
battistib@airlockinc.com
108 Gulf Street
Milford,  CT 06460-4861
(203) 878-4691

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In response to NASA 2015 SBIR Topic H4.02, Air-Lock proposes to define the maximum allowable contact stress for Titanium bearings. The modulus of Titanium is lower than legacy spacesuit bearing materials (Stainless Steel). Due to this, Titanium bearings are more susceptible to deflection under man and plug load scenarios. Bearing deflection causes a limited number of balls to absorb the full load and results in higher, localized, contact stresses. Localized contact stress is believed to be the main contributor to the bearing race degradation observed during NASA's 2014 oxygen compatibility testing. In Phase 1, we will correlate analytical contact stress data with sample bearing test data. This correlation will characterize bearing wear and degradation relative to ball contact stress. Multiple test iterations will be performed to clearly identify the contact stress that degrades a titanium race. We will also determine if there are commercial surface treatments (coatings) that may enhance Titanium wear resistance. At the conclusion of Phase 1, we shall have identified the maximum allowable bearing contact stress. This data point will serve as a valuable design guideline for future bearing designs and should yield reduced certification and development costs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Air-Lock's core business focuses on providing life support hardware to enhance human performance in hazardous environments. Along with servicing the space industry, Air-Lock provides this life support hardware to the aerospace, military and fire fighter industries. Similar to our spacesuit products, weight reduction and low profiles are design drivers for aerospace, military and fire fighter life support hardware. A key staple of core products for those industries are quick disconnects (QDs) that utilize bearing ball locking mechanisms. Understanding the role ball contact stresses play relative to component wear and degradation can be implemented across these QD product lines; yielding lighter weight, improved wear resistant assemblies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Phase 1 deliverable is the definition of the maximum allowable contact pressure/stress for Titanium Bearings and what influence coatings, materials and lubricants may have on that stress. This definition and the process to arrive at the definition will help reduce development and certification cycle time associate to spacesuit and pressure suit bearings as well as disconnects that employ ball locking retention mechanisms. These savings can reduce risk and cost by making it feasible for bearings to go into the Preliminary Design Review process at a very high TRL. Relative to present and future NASA applications, we believe the EMU Program, advanced EVA spacesuits (Z-Series) and the Orion Ascent Entry Pressure Suits can benefit from this work.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Processing Methods
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Metallics
Tribology
Destructive Testing
Lifetime Testing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H4.03-9054
SUBTOPIC TITLE: EVA Space Suit Power, Avionics, and Software Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: E VA Space Suit Power, Avionics, and Software Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cybernet Systems Corporation
3885 Research Park Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-2217
(734) 668-2567

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Charles Cohen
proposals@cybernet.com
3885 Research Park Drive
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-2217
(734) 668-2567

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is interested in a reliable, robust, and low Size Weight and Power (SWAP) input device that will allow for EVA astronauts to navigate display menu systems. The resulting input device should provide mouse-like functionality and need minimal hand use. Cybernet proposes a solution that does not require any hand or glove control. Instead, we propose an input device that uses purposes eye-blinks, eye motions, and limited vocal commands for display menu navigation. Our reasoning is that the astronaut, especially on EVA, needs a method of accessing display menus in a minimally intrusive way. Their hands are usually occupied, and so using them for mouse-like gestures is impractical. Taking a cue from Google Glass, and based on our previously developed eye tracking system and voice interaction system developed separately for NASA, we are confident we can create a system that takes purposes eye blinks and motions that allows the astronaut to navigate display menus without interfering with other work. Specifically, during the Phase I we will create a feasibility demonstration that does the following: eye gaze, purposive eye blinks, and limited vocabulary voice commands. The combination of the above three input methods should be relatively easy to learn and use (i.e. minimal practice) and should not interfere with normal EVA operations. What is needed, though, is a small camera/microphone that is located within the astronaut's helmet that continually has a view of one or both of the astronaut's eyes. During the Phase I we will implement a feasibility proof of the above input methods and research appropriate hardware. During the Phase II we will acquire hardware similar for a full prototype system that will enable us to demonstrate low SWAP, as well as measure accuracy and utility.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We will leverage the work from this SBIR effort to update the NaviGaze product into the profoundly disable home care system first through satisfying the needs of those in Beachwood Homes, and then nation and worldwide. NaviGaze enables the use of Windows-based computers and applications without a mouse, relying instead on head movement and eye-blinks to control the cursor. The main customers are those with limited mobility due to disability.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The major goal of this project is to research and develop an input device that provides astronauts performing EVAs mouse-like functionality to navigate display menus. The concept demonstrated to the sponsor in this Phase I is intended to show the sponsor that we have shown feasibility through use of eye gaze detection, eye blink detection, voice recognition and speech understanding. This technology will then be refined and integrated into a complete prototype system in Phase II that is sensitive to size, weight, and power limitations. Some of the main tasks include the plan for integration into an astronaut's helmet, updated interface controls, and mechanical/hardware integration design. These development tasks will guide us toward a solution that is both practical and useful. The proposed project will expand the capabilities of Cybernet's core gesture technology to support human-computer interaction, especially for the disabled.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Command & Control
Image Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H4.03-9399
SUBTOPIC TITLE: EVA Space Suit Power, Avionics, and Software Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact Wireless EVA Communications System (CWECS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innoflight, Inc.
9985 Pacific Heights Boulevard, Suite 250
San Diego, CA 92121-4310
(858) 638-1580

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joseph Koeniger
jkoeniger@innoflight.com
9985 Pacific Heights Boulevard, Suite 250
San Diego,  CA 92121-4310
(858) 638-1580

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Extravehicular Activity (EVA) systems are critical to every foreseeable human exploration mission for in-space microgravity EVA and for planetary surface exploration. Innoflight proposes developing a Compact Wireless EVA Communications System (CWECS) as a replacement and advancement of the Space-to-Space EVA Mobility Unit (EMU) Radio (SSER). The CWECS goals are to: (a) provide backward-compatibility with the existing SSCS network and SSER; (b) provide enhanced communication between the EMU and space vehicle (or ISS or future space habitat) via 802.11n, including high-speed telemetry from the EMU to the spacecraft; and (c) provide personal area network (PAN) coverage for wireless biomed devices and sensors within the EMU. The Phase I will leverage Innoflight's DeSCReeT IF-SDR, which uses cutting edge radiation-tolerant components as the foundation of a software-defined radio, and transform it into an integrated unit supporting SSCS, 802.11n and PAN. The end result of the Phase I will be a system-level design for the CWECS that meets all SWaP, radiation and waveform requirements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Innoflight will work with JSC to understand the opportunities to pursue opportunities to offer EVA technologies to commercial spaceflight companies, such as Virgin Galactic, and international space agencies, such as ESA or JAXA. Furthermore, deep-space high-speed wireless capabilities will be of interest for autonomous spacecraft. Innoflight has experience with Air Force Research Laboratories, Space Vehicles (AFRL/RV), and Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC), Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), and Innoflight will pursue these customers interested in wireless network capabilities for fractionated and swarming spacecraft concepts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The current SSER is provided by NASA as GFE. To provide back-compatibility to EMU / EVA space suits efforts that use the GFE SSER Innoflight proposes build an SSER-compliant variant of CWECS. This will enable consideration in upcoming EMU block upgrades for ISS operations, and using the ISS and the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) as enabling capabilities for a Mars surface mission. Furthermore, for advanced EVA concepts, including the Exploration EVA, the CWECS will be repackaged into smaller form factor and weight. Deep-space high-speed wireless capabilities will be of interest to the Jet Propulsion Laboratories (JPL) and their robotics efforts. The NASA SBIR program is ideal vehicle to provide cost savings and/ or cost avoidance for an EMU program overdue for innovation but with budget constraints that prohibit a large scale program to advance the space suit design.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Tools/EVA Tools
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Network Integration
Transmitters/Receivers
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H4.03-9650
SUBTOPIC TITLE: EVA Space Suit Power, Avionics, and Software Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Audio ADC

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Silicon Technologies, Inc.
4568 South Highland Drive, Suite 300
Holladay, UT 84117-4233
(801) 913-4332

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tracy Johancsik
twolf@silicontechnologiesinc.com
4568 South Highland Drive
Salt Lake City,  UT 84117-4233
(801) 913-4332

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
With the availability of small geometry SOI processes, STI has shown that it is possible to design and fabricate improved high performance, analog circuits with excellent rad-hard characteristics using Rad-Hard by Design and Process (RHBD and RHBP) techniques. STI has demonstrated rad hard design techniques by designing circuits using several SOI process for Phase I SBIRs including projects for the Air Force, the Navy and DARPA. STI proposes to use these proven techniques to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a Rad-hard ADC with 48ksps and 18 bit resolution using a 40nm SOI process from GlobalFoundries. The proposed architecture that Silicon Technologies Inc. proposes to implement, is a single loop, fifth order, Sigma Delta Modulator with a five bit Flash ADC for the quantizer. Designing analog circuits which are immune to radiation environments is difficult as ionizing radiation and even single ionizing particles can generate charges in semiconductor circuits. Previous research at STI successfully concentrated on the invention of an improved method to design rad-hard analog circuits called ADONIS. ADONIS is a structured approach which uses a cell matrix method where the designer places symbols representing circuit elements at locations that give optimum analog performance critical for small geometries. This allows a designer to view the schematic and layout simultaneously with immediate access to circuit parameters for SPICE simulations. In addition STI will use a new technique for maximizing the throughput of small geometry circuits for Ebeam Direct Write (EBDW). This new design technology called "1D" was invented by Dr. Michael Smayling, presently a consultant for STI. STI has developed an analog extension to the technology, Straight Line Analog, which will be used in this project. This technology has the benefit of providing EBDW at significantly smaller cost than previous whole wafer EBEAM in addition to improved manufacturing uniformity.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
With the advent of commercial spaceflight through commercial enterprises and other nations, there is a growing market for space ready audio devices, including this analog to digital converter. In addition, there is a need for a device for military and nuclear audio applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Low cost, low power audio analog to digital converter for all audio applications in space including the new EVA Space Suit and other audio systems. Device is radiation hardened using Silicon on Insulator CMOS with in inherent radiation hardness exceeding 1Mrad and protected from radiation caused latch-up. ADC shall be designed using 1D design technology allowing long term part availability at reduced costs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Ad-Hoc Networks (see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H5.01-8614
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deployable Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Composite Truss (ACT) Printing for Large Solar Array Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
San Diego Composites, Inc.
9550 Ridgehaven Court
San Diego, CA 92123-5606
(858) 751-0450

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Quinn McAllister
qmcallister@sdcomposites.com
9220 Activity Rd
9220 Activity Rd,  CA 92126-4407
(858) 751-0450

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
San Diego Composites has developed a game-changing concept for the in-situ manufacture of advanced composite structures from aboard a spacecraft. This concept uses a combination of proven composite manufacturing processes, such as filament winding, pultrusion, and UV curing resins systems. The system has the capability to "print" advanced composite truss (ACT) structures from raw materials carried up during launch. This concept minimizes launch volume allowing for space for other mission-critical equipment, and allows for the deployment of much larger structures than the current state-of-the art. Deployed structures using SDC's continuous Advanced Composite Truss (ACT) printing system would be limited in length only by the ultimate structural capabilities of the material and truss structure. While the application addressed for this particular proposal deals with structures in the hundreds of feet, this concept could be extended to create structures in excess of 1000s of feet if tailored for a different given integration platforms. There are many advantages to this methodology. First of all, the entire produced structure is load carrying without fasteners, joints, or secondary materials. Secondly, high modulus fibers can be used as the primary load carrying material creating the efficient structure from a stiffness/weight perspective. Another advantage of the process is that it can be programmable for "printing" the optimized structures. Also, the structures are manufactured and cured in space after all of the high vibration loading associated with launch are over. SDC's continuous ACT printing method can also be integrated with the deployment strategy for a solar sail or array. This would maximize the use of the hardware and help to justify the light-weight machine.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The need for a low-cost, light-weight, space deployable structure is far broader than the proposed scope of this Phase I project. SDC recognizes the high potential for continuous ACT structures to be an enabling technology for future satellite and ISS or other future space station structures. Long-term low-earth orbit satellites could utilize these structures minimize launch volume/weight. This type of deployable structure could be applied and tailored to each mission's specific structural needs, with the process being easily scalable and reprogrammable. Continuous ACT printed structures could be used as in-situ structural repairs for the ISS, additional deployable structure for solar arrays for all types of space crafts, as well as numerous other structural applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SBIR Phase I project focus is on the near-term Asteroid Redirect Mission which requires deployable structure capabilities. SDC will demonstrate feasibility of continuous ACT structure printing for use with deployable structures based on the ARM system design and mission objectives. The ultimate intent of the Phase I project is to develop and evaluate a new, novel deployable structure mechanism with mission and structure tailorability. SDC has aligned the schedule and scope of the SBIR project with NASA's proposed ARM development roadmap. A Phase II SBIR will develop the continuous ACT printing process by developing a prototype machine to perform the manufacturing. The Phase II will also see improved analysis and design techniques with the manufacturability, strength-to-weight ratio, and structural capabilities of the structures at the heart of the development effort. According to NASAs current plans for ARM, the mission will be developed in the early 2020 decade, for which SDC is confident that working continuous ACT printing machine will be available for deployable structures. Further development plans for continuous ACT printed structures include all space missions that require deployable structures for SEP, as well as in-situ structural repairs for any and all spacecraft such as the ISS.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
In Situ Manufacturing
Composites
Actuators & Motors
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Structures
Photon Sails (Solar; Laser)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H5.01-8958
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deployable Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: X-Boom

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Analytical Mechanics Associates, Inc.
21 Enterprise Parkway, Suite 300
Hampton, VA 23666-1568
(757) 865-0000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Abrams
j.abrams@ama-inc.com
2460 W. 26th Ave, STE 440-C
Denver,  CO 80211-5337
(303) 953-1016

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed X-Boom is an innovation on rollable boom design directly relevant to NASA SBIR topic H5.01, Deployable Structures. The X-boom is a rollable Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) boom with an open and symmetrical cross-section. X-boom exhibits superior strength when compared to other open section state of the art (SOA) rollable booms and reduced system integration complexity when compared to both open and closed section SOA rollable booms.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
X-Boom applications for commercial space and the DoD are equivalent to NASA. For commercial space, CubeSats are an emerging market. The inherent scalability of X-Boom could provide capability to CubeSats for the deployment of solar array systems, instruments, and antennas. Further, X-Boom can be deployed to establish a gravity gradient.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Deployable booms have significant flight heritage and will have sustained prominence in future spacecraft design. Potential X-Boom applications include solar array systems, deployable Gossamer Structures (e.g. solar sails, sun shades, and deorbiting systems), antennas, and CubeSats.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Deployment
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H5.01-9228
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deployable Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robust, Highly Scalable Solar Array System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ROCCOR, LLC
500 South Arthur, Unit 300
Louisville, CO 80027-3000
(720) 300-8167

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Lake
mark.lake@roccor.com
500 S Arthur Ave
Louisville,  CO 80027-3000
(303) 819-4585

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Solar array systems currently under development are focused on near-term missions with designs optimized for the 30-50 kW power range. However, NASA has a vital interest in developing much larger solar arrays (up to 1 MW of power) for Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) missions. Scaling to this size will require fundamental changes in many aspects of the solar array system design as embodied by NASA's Compact Telescoping Array (CTA) reference configuration. To address this emerging need for larger scale practical solar array systems, and to evolve NASA's CTA design into a design that is practical to manufacture and flight qualify, Roccor proposes the mega-watt-class ROC-Array. The ROC-Array is a CTA-derivative design that yields improved packaged volume and deployed frequency through a tension-stiffened hierarchical structure. Exploiting structural hierarchy through the use of tension guy wire elements and next-generation deployable boom systems will afford an improved packaging efficiency, increased stiffness, and reduced mass. Performance enhancements will be achieved by replacing the solid wall telescoping mast in the CTA reference design with a deployable tension-stiffened boom structure.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
While the proposed ROC-Array technology is tailored to best serve the needs of horizon missions for high-power NASA and military satellites, scaled versions of the proposed technology have broad applicability within the space deployables market. Specifically, the proposed technology could enable larger-scale systems that may otherwise not be achievable using conventional space deployable technologies, and scaled versions can bring value in reduced cost/complexity over competing designs for lower-power applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The value proposition for the proposed ROC-Array technology is to enable the next-generation of large-scale space deployable solar arrays with considerably higher performance (e.g., reduced mass, increased mechanical properties, increased packaging efficiency and increased scale-ability) at reduced system complexity and cost. Of critical importance to NASA, the proposed technology could enable future space exploration missions in which Solar Electric Propulsion is a key element of mission design.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Composites
Deployment
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H5.01-9640
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deployable Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact Telescoping Array Design and Development

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Angstrom Designs, Inc.
P.O. Box 2032
Santa Barbara, CA 93120-4914
(805) 876-4138

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Casey Hare
casey.p.hare@angstromdesigns.com
5551 Ekwill Street
Santa Barbara,  CA 93111-2355
(805) 876-4138

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has significant interest in developing solar electric propulsion technology (SEP) and has identified SEP as enabling for many of NASA's near-term and long-term missions, including the asteroid redirect mission (ARM). Large, scalable solar arrays are critical to enabling SEP missions, and could also serve many other sub-sections of the civil, commercial, and defense space markets. A recently published paper by NIA and NASA shows the Compact Telescoping Array (CTA) concept, which possesses the potential for 60 kW/m3 at 1 MW of power with an elegantly simple design concept derived in part from the international space station (ISS) solar array. The potential performance of CTA, including packing density, scalability and structural efficiency, is excellent. This array technology appears to be an excellent path forward for many current mission needs. Since the vast majority of CTA's subsystems can be implemented with elements that possess significant flight heritage, it is expected that significant progress can be made under SBIR funding to prepare CTA for infusion in the market. The proposed work advances the conceptual work begun by Mikulas, Pappa, Warren and Rose. Angstrom Designs, partnered with ATK space, proposes to explore combining flight-heritage sub-systems to progress the CTA concept, increase the TRL of the overall design, and establish the path for successful commercial infusion.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The entire space community is interested in high performance solar arrays. CTA offers great promise for mass efficiency, compact stowage, scalability to high power, and variability to fit different spacecraft busses and fairings. Benefits over the current state of practice will be most significant for large wings, so early commercialization efforts will focus on the needs of larger satellites in higher orbits, such as MEO-orbit GPS satellites and GEO-orbit communications satellites. These applications are equally relevant for non-NASA customers such as Air Force and private, commercial prime contractors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The path to commercialization is straightforward, via our commercialization partner ATK. ATK has significant interest in commercializing CTA technology and post-Phase II commercialization would be in the form of sales directly from ATK. The most direct commercialization would come in the form of a demo-wing for a NASA SEP mission such as ARM/ARRM or an earlier demonstration on ISS, where it could also function to provide supplemental power. NASA's interest in large arrays and SEP will not end with ARM, so larger, more powerful, follow-on missions will in interested in the capabilities of CTA, including manned and unmanned missions to Mars.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Generation
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Deployment
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Structures
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H5.01-9790
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deployable Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Active Gravity Offloading System for Deployable Solar Array Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ATA Engineering, Inc.
13290 Evening Creek Drive South, Suite 250
San Diego, CA 92128-4695
(858) 480-2000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cory Rupp
crupp@ata-e.com
1687 Cole Boulevard, Suite 125
Golden,  CO 80401-3321
(303) 945-2368

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Large, lightweight, deployable solar array structures have been identified as a key enabling technology for NASA with analysis and design of these structures being the top challenge in meeting the overall goals of the NASA Space Technology Roadmap. Deployment ground testing of these structures is a uniquely difficult task as the intent is to validate 0g performance and integrity in a 1g testing environment. Existing gravity offloading test support equipment use passive offloading in which offloader tracking is driven by the deployment of the array itself. This approach introduces strong coupling between the test article and the offloader equipment, which affects deployment dynamics and hence accuracy of the simulated 0g response. ATA Engineering proposes to improve existing gravity offloader equipment through the development of an actively controlled system that minimizes the mechanical coupling between the test array and the offloader system. This active system will make use of position sensors to provide data for necessary corrective action as well as analytical models of the offloader and test article to provide predictive capabilities. When paired with actuators on the offloader system, the combined predictor-corrector system will substantially improve ground test 0g simulations. Phase I of this SBIR project will demonstrate increased realism of 0g test conditions by producing demonstration hardware that incorporates the suite of sensors and actuators with an analytical model of the offloader system. In Phase II, an active offloader system will be designed, built, and used to test a state-of-the-art solar array system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A significant commercial market exists for the proposed gravity offloading technology in the qualification of non-NASA spacecraft. Most notably, U.S. military reconnaissance satellites (SIGINT/COMINT) are believed to require extremely large antenna arrays to conduct their missions. We believe that, as with NASA's future lightweight deployable structures, Department of Defense and commercial spacecraft will also push the limits of current ground test capabilities and stand to benefit from a capability to simulate 0-g conditions during qualification testing. ATA has significant experience in the analysis and testing of these components and has experienced the challenges associated with dynamic testing using conventional gravity offloading technology first hand.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Envisioned NASA missions over the coming decades involve ambitious destinations such as near-earth asteroids, the Moon, and Mars, and activities such as sample return and deep space exploration. These missions will require a new paradigm of very large, yet lightweight, structural systems for deployable components such as solar arrays, antennas, instrument booms, solar sails, trusses, and inflatable habitats. Qualifying these unprecedented structures will require new testing approaches, such as the proposed gravity offloading system which could be used in deployment, structural dynamics, and durability testing. The need for this technology is imminent as NASA has recently selected SEP spacecraft concepts for further study in adapting them to the agency's Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM). The NASA Technology Demonstration Missions SEP Project is currently seeking information from potential vendors regarding the development of 25 kW advanced, flexible-blanket solar array systems for SEP flight demonstration missions. The envisioned technology demonstrator, which will first be evaluated aboard the International Space Station (ISS), must also be extensible to power levels greater than 100 kW. Examples of planned NASA missions and activities that could also benefit from the technology include Starshade, Sunjammer, activity simulation in sub-g extraterrestrial environments, and astronaut training as a potential replacement for underwater training.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Quality/Reliability
Deployment
Structures
Lifetime Testing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H5.01-9816
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deployable Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight Inflatable Structural Airlock (LISA)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
701 McMillian Way Northwest, Suite D
Huntsville, AL 35806-2923
(256) 726-4800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Essam Sheta
essam.sheta@cfdrc.com
701 McMillian Way NW
Huntsville,  AL 35806-2922
(256) 726-4800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Innovative light-weight airlock technologies are required to integrate with any deep space and surface platform hosting Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). The CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) team proposes an inflatable airlock structure that employs unique fabric architecture capable of delivering the lowest mass and greatest versatility of any competing design. The proposed fabric inflatable airlock design features a completely integrated air beam inter-wall to passively generate the wall stiffness required for airlock depressurization&#151;without the mass and bulk of aluminum pressure hulls or complexity of multi-structure adaptations of competing inflatable habitat architectures. The design is a modification of Thin Red Line Aerospace's (TRLA) patented Ultra High Performance Pressure Vessel (UHPV), the only fabric pressure vessel design with fully determinate load paths which allows for true mass optimization. This unique architecture utilizes a matrix of braided fiber tendons to contain the structure's global pressure loads. The underlying woven fabric and gas barrier envelopes are thereby only exposed to minimal local shell loads where they bulge outwards between adjacent tendons. Working in pure tension in the absence of load coupling, the tendon array architecture has been shown to be statically determinate and auto-stabilizing under extreme deflection. The proposed fabric inflatable airlock stows compactly for transport to the habitat further reducing logistic costs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications include many potential venues including underwater habitats, deep sea emergency escape systems (submarine), portable storage tanks for oil transport, high altitude air ships, aerostats, compressed air energy storage, remote fuel depot stations, remote water storage tanks for forest fire control, deep space antenna reflectors for ground stations, antenna radomes, emergency shelters, and troop shelters with integrated ballistic protection.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed inflatable airlock design will have immediate application in expanding the utility of any human space exploration architecture while benefiting from system cost and payload volume reduction. The proposed technology will find direct application within NASA and industry in ongoing inflatable structures programs such as lunar surface habitation architecture and rover vehicles. Other NASA applications include habitats, large-scale space hangars for on-orbit assembly, design and analysis of space-based inflatable structures such as telescopes, inflatable aerodynamic decelerators, antenna reflectors, cryogenic propellant tanks, debris shields, rescue vehicles, and barometric chambers

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Tools/EVA Tools
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Deployment
Structures
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:15-1 H5.02-8903
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme Temperature Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rapid Manufacturing of Durable, Cost-Effective Ceramic Matrix Composites for High Temperature Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ultramet
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331-2210
(818) 899-0236

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Timothy Stewart
tim.stewa