SBIR Select Phase I Solicitation  STTR Phase I Solicitation    Abstract Archives

NASA 2012 SBIR Phase I Solicitation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A1.01-8267
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation External Hazard Sensor Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development of a High Energy Amplifier for an Airborne Coherent Wind Turbulence Lidar Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SibellOptics
815 Beauprez Avenue
Lafayette, CO 80026-3419
(303) 913-1772

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steven Vetorino
svetorino@sibelloptics.com111
107 Sioux Drive
Berthoud,  CO 80513-1363
(970) 635-3145

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The capacity of coherent LIDAR systems to produce a continuous, real-time, 3D scan of wind velocities via detection of backscatter of atmospheric aerosols in clear-air conditions gives this technology a clear advantage over other atmospheric monitoring technologies. LIDAR has proven its value in a number of applications, including the detection of clear-air turbulence, wind shear, and aircraft wake vortices. Of particular interest under this NASA sub-topic is the development of an airborne Lidar system capable of detecting and measuring aircraft wake vortices and turbulence out ahead of the aircraft in order to improve aviation safety. To perform this task well a Lidar must have certain characteristics and be paired with a highly optimized wake and turbulence processing algorithm. The key development area for detection of turbulence at cruising altitude is Lidar transmit energy and pulsewidth. High energy output on the order of 1.0 mJ for low flying manned or unmanned aircraft (10,000 ft) and 10 mJ for commercial aircraft (30,000 ft) is required. Aerosol density decreases rapidly as a function of altitude and the backscatter coefficient at 30,000 ft is only 4x10-10 as opposed to 2x10-7 at sea-level. Furthermore, commercial airliner crews will need at least 30 seconds reaction time after turbulence is detected in order to take action, requiring the Lidar system to see 6.67 km ahead (assuming an average flight speed of 500 mph). Other key requirements of an airborne Lidar system involve the size and power consumption of the system. The limited space and available electrical power on an aircraft necessitate that a Lidar system be compact and efficient. In addition, the system must be able to be integrated onto the aircraft without inhibiting other flight systems. SIBELLOPTICS proposes a Phase 1 SBIR to develop and test an Er-doped polarization maintaining (PM), large mode area (LMA) fiber amplifier to boost transmitted Lidar power to greater than 1 mJ per pulse.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Windimager has been designed to be an extraordinarily flexible, general purpose, wind measurement platform with applications in a number of different industries, including: 1. Aviation. 2. Wind Energy Wind energy generation is one of the fastest growing industries in the world and LIDAR technology is gaining a great deal of momentum in this market segment. Windimager can perform both wind assessment and power operations improvement, replacing multiple LIDARS or anemometer towers. 3. Yachting Maritime markets potentially include ocean-going vessels as well as subscription wind data and weather sales to harbors and ports. There are four opportunities to address in this market: (1) the owners of luxury yachts, (2) the yacht manufacturers, (3) the yacht charter operators and (4) the harbor market where ships of all types operate. 4. Meteorology Environmental scientists have successfully used Lidar systems to accurately track the direction and dispersion of factory atmospheric emissions and volcanic ash, as well conduct studies of the formation of typhoons. 5. Homeland Security With its ability to monitor aerosol movements over large areas Windimager is an ideal platform to track the dispersion of atmospheric contaminants. 6. Firefighting Successful suppression of any large scale fire depends on an understanding of environmental factors which effect fire behavior. Wind speed and direction are among the most important environmental influences.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The major incentives for the detection, tracking, and measurement of turbulence and wake vortices are twofold: safety and efficiency. Turbulence has been shown to be the cause of at least 51 aviation accidents over the last 20 years. In the wake vortex and turbulence sensing mode Windimager will operate at a high PRF (as high as 20 kHz) and transmit a narrow pulse in order to sample the region with high transverse spatial resolution. The localized scan and high PRF will allow Windimager to measure a tighter array of radial wind velocities. In this mode Windimager will be able to detect turbulence out in front of the aircraft with enough range and spatial resolution to give warning to the crew.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A1.01-9536
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation External Hazard Sensor Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Surface-borne Time Of Reception Measurements (STORM)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Invocon, Inc.
19221 IH 45 South, Suite 530
Conroe, TX 77385-8746
(281) 292-9903

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Doug Heermann
heermann@invocon.com111
19221 I-45S, Ste 530
Conroe,  TX 77385-8746
(281) 292-9903

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Invocon has devised a method to determine the location of lightning strikes on structures to as close as 1" by combining simple sensors with highly capable electronics. This method measures a strike from multiple transducers to triangulate its location. Initial testing on metallic and composite structures has provided good results. The next step is to extend the wireless nature of the system to the transducers in order to simplify installation and use of the system. The proposed development is based on nearly 10 years of successfully development and flight testing of high-speed impact detection and evaluation systems combined with lightning detection and location research. It will also take advantage of Invocon's successful 20 year history of deploying highly synchronized wireless networks on aerospace vehicles.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
STORM is useful for monitoring non-NASA aircraft and spacecraft for lightning strikes and quickly determining the level of structural damage. This includes test aircraft used by commercial aircraft manufacturers to better understand the impact of lightning on composites as well as fleet aircraft for long term monitoring. STORM is also useful for detecting damage to large petrochemical tanks.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications include monitoring aircraft and spacecraft for lightning strikes. Launch vehicles can benefit from lightning detection and location in order to quickly assess damage prior to and during launch. Other applications include test instrumentation for studying lightning strikes on aircraft. NASA has expressed interest in a tool that is simple to install and use on aircraft. ATK has also expressed interest in STORM for monitoring its composite encapsulated rocket motors.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airship/Lighter-than-Air Craft
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Space Transportation & Safety
Ad-Hoc Networks (see also Sensors)
Transmitters/Receivers
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Fusion
Data Processing
Composites
Electromagnetic
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A1.01-9814
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation External Hazard Sensor Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: RIDES: Raman Icing Detection System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michigan Aerospace Corporation
1777 Highland Drive, Suite B
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-2285
(734) 975-8777

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Charles Richey
crichey@michiganaerospace.com111
1777 Highland Drive, Suite B
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-2285
(734) 975-8777

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Michigan Aerospace Corporation proposes to develop an integrated LIDAR instrument capable of identifying icing conditions while also providing air data sensing capabilities. The resulting Raman Icing Detection System (RIDES) will be an integrated air data sensing and icing condition detection instrument, providing a backup to the Pitot tubes potentially affected by icing, thus providing redundancy for critical information. The proposed solution will operate without protrusions into the flow, behind a flush mounted window on the skin of the aircraft, mitigating the risk of ice build-up during operation. This project will utilize MAC's extensive heritage of rugged LIDAR system design and construction.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Outside NASA, military and civil aviation is often affected by icing, sometimes severely (e.g., Comair flight 3272 in 1997, Air France flight 447 in 2009) and the ability to detect these conditions so as to avoid or at least account for them (activating de-icing systems, etc.) would be of tremendous safety value, suggesting a substantial market. Michigan Aerospace Corporation is already working on a NASA projects for clear-air turbulence (CAT) detection ahead of aircraft. Adding SLD to these optical air data system (OADS)-derived capabilities will lead to a powerful suite of optical instruments capable of measuring air data (air speed and direction along with air density and temperature) and warning of icing conditions and clear-air turbulence, all without protruding into the flow around the aircraft and without ports or probes that can clog with debris or ice up.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For NASA's own use, the system resulting from this effort will allow better studies of icing by giving clearer indications of the actual conditions outside a test aircraft in real time, providing safer and more accurate means of studying icing conditions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Interferometric (see also Analysis)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Ultraviolet
Visible


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A1.01-9846
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation External Hazard Sensor Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Convective Induced Turbulence (CIT) Detection via Total Lightning Sensing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Innovation Laboratory, Inc.
2360 Southwest Chelmsford Avenue
Portland, OR 97201-2265
(503) 242-1761

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jimmy Krozel
Jimmy.Krozel@gmail.com111
2360 SW Chelmsford Avenue
Portland,  OR 97201-2265
(503) 242-1761

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We proposes to build a prototype Convective-Induced Turbulence (CIT) hazard detection system based on total lightning sensing as an indicator of the location and severity of in-cloud CIT. Total lightning is the combination of cloud-to-ground and in-cloud lightning and has been shown to correlate well with storm dynamics. Total lightning activity will be measured globally at high temporal resolution from total lightning detectors onboard future geostationary satellites such as the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-Series (GOES-R) and the Lightning Imager (LI) on the Meteosat third generation satellites. Thus, we seek to investigate the relationship between in-cloud convective turbulence and total lightning measurements, and determine the skill of total lightning as an indicator of in-cloud CIT. We investigate how to use proxies for GLM lightning data to enhance the diagnosis of hazardous turbulence over the Continental United States (CONUS) where verification data is readily available from ground-based (radar-based) systems. This system will enhance safety of flight for aircraft in the CONUS as well as oceanic and global airspace. Such a technology would be useful to all aircraft that fly, from General Aviation (GA) aircraft to Unmanned Air Systems (UASs) to business jets and commercial jets.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A commercial product can be customized and implemented under contract to Airline Operations Centers (AOCs) for use by dispatchers and ATC coordinators, or for industry ATM R&D specialists. Airlines will find our data useful for flight planning and for safety warnings

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our proposed SBIR product helps Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) researchers study technologies and concepts that enhance aviation safety. The proposed product enables NASA researchers to evaluate the detection, identification, evaluation, and monitoring of in-flight CIT and lightning strikes hazards to aviation. An example of this would be the detection of moderate or severe turbulence detected by our system, distributed to other aircraft via electronic PIREPs, electronic flight bags, voice communication warnings, or other mechanisms to tactically adjust the flight levels of nearby aircraft prior to entering into an area of MoG CIT. Our Phase II system also provides in-cloud lightning activity, which aircraft could use for avoiding lightning strikes to the airframe. In our R&D plan, we consider multiple sensors in combination to improve hazard detection and quantification of hazard levels in our validation work; this may also provide opportunities for data fusion of total lightning strike, NTDA, DCIT, satellite, in situ measurements, and other data for use in NextGen safety related R&D analyses conducted by NASA. Our technology holds promise to be used as a global turbulence detection system when operating with satellite sensors, providing NASA the ability to advance turbulence sensing in oceanic and remote areas.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Data Fusion
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A1.02-8929
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Inflight Icing Hazard Mitigation Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Droplet-Sizing Liquid Water Content Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anasphere, Inc.
106 Pronghorn Trail
Bozeman, MT 59718-6081
(406) 994-9354

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Bognar
jbognar@anasphere.com111
106 Pronghorn Trail
Bozeman,  MT 59718-6081
(406) 994-9354

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Icing is a significant aviation hazard, and icing conditions continue to be difficult to precisely forecast or locate in real time. An in-situ sensor, which can be flown coupled with a radiosonde, is needed which can both measure supercooled liquid water content in clouds as well as characterize the droplet sizes. This sensor will support the calibration and validation of remote-sensing methods used to detect icing conditions, and can also be used on its own to support operational meteorology applications. Anasphere, Inc. proposes to develop a sizing supercooled liquid water content (SSLWC) sonde which will meet this need. It will be based on proven vibrating-wire technology which has been used for total water content measurements, but with an altogether different physical implementation that will enable droplet sizing. Phase I will involve the aerodynamic design of the SSLWC sonde, icing tunnel tests demonstrating key elements of its function, and a live flight test to gather information on the sonde's aerodynamic characteristics. Phase II will involve further tunnel tests, laboratory calibration development, design for manufacturability, and flight tests in icing conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Government agencies and universities studying clouds, precipitation, and related properties such as radiative transfer will be able to use this sensor. It will also be of use to companies developing remote sensing systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications for the sizing supercooled liquid water content sonde will include the calibration and validation of remote sensing technologies, both radar- and radiometer-based, used to remotely sense the presence of supercooled liquid water which is indicative of icing conditions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A1.03-8396
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Deck Interface Technologies for NextGen
PROPOSAL TITLE: Voice Activated Cockpit Management Systems: Voice-Flight NexGen

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Southern Air Aviation Inc.
2100 Palomar Airport Rd # 205
Carlsbad, CA 92011-4404
(619) 917-4299

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Doinita Serban
serban@southernairaviation.com111
2100 Palomar Airport Rd # 205
Carlsbad,  CA 92011-4404
(619) 917-4299

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 9

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Speaking to the cockpit as a method of system management in flight can become an effective interaction method, since voice communication is very efficient. Automated Speech Recognition in general, and aided and abetted now by Southern Air Aviation's Voice Activated Cockpit Management Systems including the innovative heuristic technology Voice-Flight NexGen (VFNG) has advanced significantly in recent years and is now ideally suited to this application. VFNG is speaker-independent, achieves a word recognition rate of 98% in high noise and up to 120Db, and permits the chaining of up to four commands in a single utterance and a correction of a misspoken command in the same utterance. All of these performance requirements are met within a 2% time-slice of a 1.2GHz Power PC processor and within 1 GB of memory. VFNG includes the following unique key capabilities, Grammar Development, Dictionary Development, Automated Batch Grammar Testing, Grammar Coverage Query, Phonetic Distance Analysis, and Co‐articulation Handling, Command Based Confidence Algorithm, Accent Tolerability Handling, State Based Dynamic Grammar, and Clipped Audio Recovery Processing. VFNG incorporates proprietary Julius based grammar and vocabulary of advanced performance and reduced recognition error together with an acoustic model derived from the VoxForge acoustic model. The VFNG-Emergency Failures (VFNG-E) system is used as the sole human/machine interface in flight in real emergency situations, in addition to the system having applications for simulator and ground training. This training system is remarkable in that it achieves very high recognition rates (98%) with a very large command set (131,000 unique words and thousands of word combinations) in challenging environmental conditions and operator profiles providing much added safety and efficiency to the pilot in the cockpit.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Voice-Flight NexGen Emergency Failures System (VFNG-E) Comprises VFNG Technology and Voice Activated Emergency Failure Recoveries Specific for Each Aircraft System Failure and Specific Command Configurations for Each Recovery. Voice-Flight NexGen Instrument System (VFNG-IFR) Comprises VFNG Technology and Voice Activated ILS and TACAN Control, Communications systems control, Frequency selection, Targeting and Assignment, Waypoint entry, Steer point entry. Voice-Flight NexGen Automated Navigation (VFNG-Nav) Comprises VFNG Technology and Voice Activated Autopilot control, TFLIR Control, Command Macros, Lights control, Transponder entry and control. Voice-Flight NexGen Automated Weather (VFNG-WX) Comprises VFNG Technology and Voice Activated Weather Display management, System information requests and updates.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Voice Activated Cockpit Management Systems represented by Voice-Flight:NexGen (VFNG) Technologies and Products have applications for NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) since it advances the boundaries of aeronautical knowledge for the benefit of the Nation and the broad aeronautics community, which includes the Agency's partners in academia, industry, and other government agencies. VFNG Products include integrated systems and support interfacing with multiple emerging applications and revolutionary concepts that will enable radical change to both the airspace system and the aircraft that fly within it, facilitating a safer, more environmentally friendly, and more efficient air transportation system. VFNG Technologies and Products will provide advanced levels of automated support and efficiency to air navigation service providers and aircraft operators enabling shortened routes for time and fuel savings, reduced traffic delays, increased capacity, and permitting controllers to monitor and manage aircraft with greater safety margins. This transformation has the aim of reducing gridlock in the sky and at airports. In conjunction with expanding air traffic management capabilities, VFNG technologies are being used for research to help define the boundaries for safe flight, noise reduction, efficiency, performance, and safety challenges that are required to ensure vehicles can support the NextGen vision.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Attitude Determination & Control
Command & Control
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Sequencing & Scheduling
Computer System Architectures
Knowledge Management
Transport/Traffic Control
Operating Systems
Programming Languages
Verification/Validation Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A1.03-8451
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Deck Interface Technologies for NextGen
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Formal Approach to User Interface Design using Hybrid System Theory

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimal Synthesis, Inc.
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos, CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bong-Jun Yang
jun.yang@optisyn.com111
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos,  CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Optimal Synthesis Inc.(OSI) proposes to develop an aiding tool for user interface design that is based on mathematical formalism of hybrid system theory. The correctness of information content of a user interface is ensured by a special observability test that takes into account of human cognition and psychology. A possible mismatch between an operational mode perceived by a human operator and the one active in a machine is detected via an algorithm that infers the intent of the human operator and generates an alert if a discrepancy from the mode of the machine is found. The developed tool is evaluated by considering standard operations in the national air space in the absence and the presence of a system fault.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The procedure and the tool developed will be applicable to any application in which an underlying machine can be described as a hybrid system. These include applications in transportation, biomedical engineering, electricity and power, mechanical devices, and many others as user interfaces are ubiquitous.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This R&D effort will develop a procedure for user interface design for the system that can be described as a hybrid system. While numerous applications fit the description, immediate impact will be on flight deck technologies under NASA aviation safety program and the design of ground station interface for unmanned air vehicles the integration of which into the National Airspace System is considered under Air Traffic Management Research and Development program.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Man-Machine Interaction
Command & Control
Quality/Reliability
Knowledge Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A1.03-9714
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Deck Interface Technologies for NextGen
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Resolution Autostereoscopic Cockpit Display

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dimension Technologies Inc
315 Mt Read Blvd
Rochester, NY 14611-1982
(585) 436-3530

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jesse Eichenlaub
jbe@dti3d.com111
315 Mt Read Blvd
Rochester,  NY 14611-1982
(585) 436-3530

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The utility of stereoscopic 3D image representation in many applications is now well established. It is not just a matter of stereo being better than 2D, but of stereo being necessary to interpret representations of complex data sets, physical phenomena, engineering designs and position in space. The US Air Force has long recognized the potential for 3D displays in the cockpit but until now the limitations of 3D display technology have prevented implementation. Interest in 3D image display has recently surfaced among SPAWAR and among agencies who use helicopters and firms that make camera systems for helicopters for use in power line inspection, law enforcement, and military applications. There is also interest in the use of plane mounted cameras in collision avoidance while taxiing on runways, where 3D display may be of benefit because it can show the pilot how much room there is between the plane and obstacles. 3D displays for these applications must be of the glasses free type, but current embodiments of such displays possess extremely low resolution, produce visual artifacts, and tend to produce very narrow viewing areas. Under a recent DOE SBIR Phase II contract DTI developed a new glasses free 2D/3D switchable display that avoids the resolution loss, visual artifacts, and viewing restrictions associated with all other autostereoscopic displays, providing full HD resolution in 3D as well as in a 2D viewing mode. DTI's believes that this new technology can lead to the first practical implementation of a 3D display in the cockpit. During this Phase I program DTI will investigate the adaptation of its 2D/3D displays to cockpit displays through compact design, ruggedizing, and the development of mechanical, electronic, computer, and software interfaces to an aircraft system. This investigation will lead to a high level design and specification for a prototype display that can developed in Phase II and delivered for testing in a cockpit or simulator.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The bright, rugged 2D/3D switchable displays developed under this program will have application in civilian and military aircraft and rotorcraft for situation awareness and hazard avoidance as well as a variety of military ground and ship based applications including situation awareness in the battlespace, simulation, training, and telemedicine. Commercial versions of the displays could find wide application in engineering, scientific visualization, medicine, advertising, and consumer electronics including game consoles, PC monitors, and home television.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Displays embodying the proposed technology would have wide application for improved situation awareness aboard aircraft and spacecraft, icluding hazard avoidance while taxiing and in the air, as well as air or space based human controlled or human assisted robotic applications such as manipulator arm operation on the International Space Station. DTI 3D displays would also be of benefit to NASA laboratories for engineering, scientific visualization, especially collaborative applications where complex representations of data must be presented, and in simulation and training for the operation of aircraft, spacecraft, and robotic systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Man-Machine Interaction
Mission Training
Display
Data Input/Output Devices (Displays, Storage)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A1.04-8628
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vehicle Level Diagnostics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fusion Enhanced Vehicle Level Diagnostic System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Global Technology Connection Inc
2839 Paces Ferry Road, Suite 1160
Atlanta, GA 30339-6224
(770) 803-3001

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Seungkoo Lee
slee@globaltechinc.com111
2839 Paces Ferry Road, Suite 1160
Atlanta,  GA 30339-6224
(770) 803-3001

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Global Technology Connection, Inc. in conjunction with its partner, Vanderbilt University, is proposing to build a Fusion-enhanced Vehicle Diagnostics System (FVDS) framework to combine various information to help make go/no-go decisions from a safety point of view. Specifically single vehicle will be pursued by looking at each aircraft as a single entity. The system will ensure that the aircraft will make the next maintenance interval by catching errors in the shop and/or detecting emerging problems to maintain vehicle safety between major inspection intervals with an emphasis on the subsystems of airframe, avionics, and propulsion. The system will provide condition indicators, using model-based or data-driven approaches, from a subsystems' or components' point of view, and these will be fused, using the hybrid modeling based on Bayesian theory and/or graph theory, to provide overall safety from a system point of view. FVDS approach consists of a multi-level processing architecture that includes three levels of reasoners: 1. Individual Components and Line Replaceable Units that provide BIT test, sensor measurements and control commands to track the behavior of the particular component, and report faulty and abnormal conditions; 2. Subsystem reasoners to monitor the state of health of the airframe subsystem; and 3. System or Vehicle level reasoner to combine diagnostic and prognostic information from the individual subsystems, puts them on a time line, and also analyzes cascades of faults.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A system that provides fusion-enhanced diagnostic/prognostic reasoning will have several potential commercial applications including integrated vehicle health management systems and control systems for commercial airplanes (Boeing 737, 747, 787, etc.), manned or unmanned ground vehicles, ships, lifts, (nuclear) power stations, construction equipment (cranes, bulldozers, etc.), and others.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
An intelligent fusion-enhanced vehicle level diagnostic reasoning system will have many applications related to NASA's mission objectives. This system could be used in NASA's manned and unmanned aerial, land, space, and sea vehicles and stations to provide capability of automatic data processing and vehicle and/or subsystem/component level health assessment for maintenance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Space Transportation & Safety
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Fusion
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Simulation & Modeling
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A1.04-9767
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vehicle Level Diagnostics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Sensor-Free Health Management System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
4 Cambridge Center, 11th Floor
Cambridge, MA 02142-1494
(703) 369-3633

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffrey Chambers
jchambers@aurora.aero111
4 Cambridge Center, 11th Floor
Cambridge,  MA 02142-1494
(617) 229-7270

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The availability of an air vehicle to perform missions or generate sorties is negatively impacted by time spent on the ground due to scheduled servicing and maintenance. Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) helps maximize the availability of air assets by servicing the air vehicle based on actual condition as opposed to a fixed number of operating hours. Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) enables improved CBM on air vehicles by comparing in-situ sensor data to prognostic models of components and subsystems to predict wear as it occurs. Integration of these PHM systems with an autonomic logistics infrastructure can lead to even greater increases in sortie generation rates and decreases in maintenance cost and logistics burden by eliminating unnecessary preventative maintenance as well as identifying failures occurring outside the normal scheduled maintenance cycle. Aurora's innovative approach utilizes information from existing sensors (i.e., does not require additional sensors added to the vehicle, hence, 'sensor-free') to determine PHM. Current implementation of PHM is focused on new designs of manned aircraft to allow co-development of the PHM system and its specific sensors. Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have sensors and subsystems already installed that can provide the capability for a PHM retrofit on in-fleet systems. UAV specific subsystems, such as the autopilot, also provide the opportunity for new PHM capabilities beyond those considered in manned aircraft. Aurora proposes the Integrated Vehicle Health Management System (IVHMS). Aurora's IVHMS will compare models of the aircraft in different configurations to an estimate of the current state of the aircraft in order to generate a better understanding of the real-time operating condition of the vehicle and its constituent components. The IVHMS uses these capabilities to generate a vehicle-wide identification of systems in order to detect faults as they influence overall performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The initial Aurora IVHMS will be focused on as single UAS, such as BAMS, marketed as either a retrofit or for incorporation in the production process. Aurora believes the same IVHMS can, with minimal modifications, also be marketed as a retrofit to the existing Global Hawk fleet. The combined inventory of RQ-4 A,B, and N vehicles is expected to continue growing in the immediate future and will provide a steady market for the Aurora IVHMS as the process of developing Aurora IVHMS products for other UAS families begins. It is also expected that Aurora IVHMS will be an appealing addition to other UAS applications, such as Auroras own products like the Orion UAS.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Aurora IVHMS will use the BAMS/Global Hawk class UAS as the vehicle on which to base development. As such, NASA will have the opportunity to retrofit their Global Hawk with the Aurora IVHMS. Because NASA's Global Hawk is used in extreme flight environments, such as hurricane and severe storm research, such a PHM system would provide valuable vehicle state information. It is anticipated that other NASA vehicles would also benefit from the Aurora IVHMS system as it matures and is developed for other families of manned and unmanned air vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Man-Machine Interaction
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Sequencing & Scheduling
Structures
Atmospheric Propulsion
Inertial
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)
Pressure/Vacuum
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A1.06-8686
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Assurance of Flight-Critical Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Scalable Parallel Algorithms for Formal Verification of Software

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aries Design Automation, LLC
2705 W Byron Street
Chicago, IL 60618-3745
(773) 856-6633

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Miroslav Velev
miroslav.velev@aries-da.com111
2705 W Byron Street
Chicago,  IL 60618-3745
(773) 856-6633

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We will develop an efficient Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) based parallel Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) software package, and will also combine it with our GPU-based parallel SAT solver that we are currently developing in a NASA SBIR Phase II project in order to solve much larger and more complex Boolean formulas from formal verification than possible with either method alone. BDDs are a data structure that satisfies some simple restrictions, resulting in a unique representation of a Boolean function regardless of its actual implementation. This property of BDDs allows the efficient solution of many problems. The proposed tool will exploit multi-core CPUs and the thousands of stream cores in the latest GPUs, which were made accessible to programmers through specialized software development kits. These large numbers of stream cores in GPUs, and the possibility to execute non-graphics computations on them, open unprecedented levels of parallelism at a very low cost. In the last 8 years, GPUs had an increasing performance advantage of an order of magnitude relative to x86 CPUs. Furthermore, this performance advantage will continue to increase in the next 20 years because of the scalability of the chip manufacturing processes. The technical objectives will be to efficiently exploit the GPU parallelism in order to accelerate the execution of our prototype GPU-based parallel BDD package, and to implement hybrid approaches combining it with our GPU-based parallel SAT solver. BDDs and SAT solvers are orthogonal methods with different advantages, and a hybrid of the two will significantly increase both the speed and capacity when formally verifying complex software for space missions. We achieved at least 2 orders of magnitude speedup with our prototype GPU-based parallel BDD package in a previous Phase I, and expect to achieve at least 4 orders of magnitude speedup with our hybrid BDD-SAT tool by the end of Phase II, compared to the current state of the art.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential non-NASA commercial applications include: 1) Formal verification and testing of software and hardware, where the potential customers will be all major semiconductor and software companies. 2) Scheduling, planning, and solving of Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPs), where the potential customers will be all companies that use scheduling and planning tools. 3) Solving of Electronic Design Automation (EDA) problems, such as FPGA technology mapping and routing, power and timing analysis of circuits, and formal methods to check the robustness of radiation-hardened circuits, where the potential customers will be all EDA and semiconductor companies. 4) Formal methods for cryptanalysis, where the potential customers will be the Department of Defense, the NSA, and all companies that use cryptanalysis. 5) Formal methods for cyber security, such as for detection of security vulnerabilities and malicious intent in software, where the potential customers will be all companies that develop robust virus scanners based on formal methods, and companies that develop formal methods for detecting security vulnerabilities in software. Because of the potential for a very wide range of software obfuscations that can be used to hide malicious intent, future virus scanners will have to employ efficient formal methods to detect malware, and thus the importance of speed and scalability that will be possible with an efficient hybrid BDD-SAT tool.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Efficiently solving of challenging Boolean formulas is critical to NASA, as this will increase both the speed and scalability of the following applications: 1) formal verification and testing methods for complex mission software and hardware, including those of the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), the next generations of Mars Rovers, and other spacecraft; 2) formal methods to prove the correctness of radiation-hardening transformations for software and hardware; 3) logic synthesis of circuits; 4) Boolean methods for scheduling, planning, and solving of other Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPs); 5) formal methods for network coding that will increase both the bandwidth and reliability of space communications by using the existing communication equipment that is already deployed in space after updating the firmware; 6) reliability analysis of hardware, software, and mechanical systems; 7) power and timing analysis of circuits; 8) design of experiments; 9) design of error-correction codes; 10) technology mapping and routing for FPGAs and other reconfigurable circuits; 11) formal methods for cryptanalysis; and 12) cyber security---detecting security vulnerabilities and malicious intent in software.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Coding & Compression
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Project Management
Prototyping
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Computer System Architectures
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Development Environments
Operating Systems
Programming Languages
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A1.06-9011
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Assurance of Flight-Critical Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Scalable Semantics-Based Verification System for Flight Critical Software

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Runtime Verification Inc
60 Hazelwood Drive, Suite 230-2
Champaign, IL 61822-7460
(217) 418-0418

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Patrick Meredith
pmeredit@gmail.com111
60 Hazelwood Drive, Suite 230-2
Champaign,  IL 61822-7460
(217) 418-0418

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Modern flight-critical systems include hundreds of thousands to millions of lines of code. The Boeing 777, for instance, includes over 2 million lines of code. Future projects will only feature an increasing amount of source code, mostly written in the C programming language. The only way to completely ensure the safety of flight critical systems is through static, formal program verification. In order to effectively verify such large programs written in the C programming language, we propose a scaleable system for the verification of program written in C based on matching logic, or program verification logic. Matching logic has the benefit of being more scaleable than traditional Hoare/seperation logic verifiers because they build a large first order logic proof goal for entire functions at a time, while matching logic proceeds in program order, proving goals incrementally. Additionally, matching logic verifiers are based on operational semantics of the programming language in question. Operational semantics offer the benefit of being fully executable, so that one may increase belief that they are correct by testing typical compiler test suite programs, such as the GCC torture tests for the C language. Ultimately, our proposed research will result in a verifier that is both more scalable and more trustworthy than the competition.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We plan to market our completed tool to software companies, such as Microsoft and Google. Additionally, we have written confirmation from Dr. Shin'ichi Shirashi of Toyota-ITC that they would like to apply our tool in the automative industry, should this project be funded. We believe, especially with the movement to multicore architectures, multi-threaded systems being harder to verify, that all software companies, and potentially even students, can benefit from our work. We plan to allow a relatively cheap single user license download of the system, with a free license for open source projects. We believe that such a licensing structure allows for risk-free adaptation of our technology. From video games, to media players, to business applications, to Mars rover control programs, all may benefit from the increased ability to guarantee the operation of software components provided by our system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our matching logic verification system for the C programming language will lower the time to develop, and reduce the number of bugs in NASA software. Our verification will be one of the most comprehensive available, able to prove very difficult algorithms correct. It will be particularly useful in mission-critical and safety-critical systems, flights systems in particular, where bugs cannot be tolerated. This work is equally useful to any government agency, which produces software, but, in particular, to those with mission or safety critical code. We also believe that the term rewriter developed in this project will have uses as a faster replacement for Maude in some specific cases (e.g., no associative or commutative matching and where builtin data structures are desirable).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Space Transportation & Safety
Quality/Reliability
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Development Environments
Programming Languages
Verification/Validation Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A1.06-9149
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Assurance of Flight-Critical Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Formal Verification of Interactions of the RTOS, Memory System, and Application Programs at the PowerPC 750 Binary Code Level

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aries Design Automation, LLC
2705 W Byron Street
Chicago, IL 60618-3745
(773) 856-6633

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Miroslav Velev
miroslav.velev@aries-da.com111
2705 W Byron Street
Chicago,  IL 60618-3745
(773) 856-6633

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In the proposed project, we will formally verify the correctness of the interaction between a Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) and user processes under various operating scenarios, such as multitasking, interrupt handling, user and kernel mode switching. The formal verification will be done assuming execution on the PowerPC 750 architecture that is implemented in the radiation-hardened RAD750 flight-control computers utilized in many NASA space missions, and are planned to be used in future spacecraft, including the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle. A unique advantage of our project will be that the formal verification will precisely account for the bit-level semantics of all instructions, as well as the memory system, the bus, and devices on the bus, including multiple CPUs, and thus will allow us to precisely analyze all possible behaviors of the entire system, which is critical for aerospace applications. During Phase I we will lay the foundation for Phase II by: developing initial models of the memory system and the bus; formally defining the bit-level semantics of additional instructions from the PowerPC 750 architecture that we have not specified yet; identifying properties that we will prove to guarantee correct interaction of user processes with the target RTOS, the memory system, and the bus, including scenarios such as multitasking, interrupt handling, user and kernel mode switching; proving some of these properties; and identifying the most promising directions for Phase II work.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA applications will also benefit other government agencies, such as DoD, DoE, NIST, and NIH. Furthermore, all companies that either manufacture microprocessors or develop IP of microprocessors, as well as all their clients that develop safety-critical software, will be potential users of the resulting technology. As embedded microprocessors are increasingly used in safety-critical applications, many of them controlled by an RTOS, it will become the norm to formally verify the executables for such applications, as the correctness of a microprocessor alone will not be sufficient to guarantee correct execution of the software, and the absence of errors in the binary code will become a requirement. Additional applications will include the formal verification of executables for absence of security vulnerabilities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The tool flow and formal verification methods that we will develop will allow NASA to easily retarget the formal verification to any RTOS and user processes, represented as binary code, and to any new processor architecture, given formal definitions of its instruction semantics, memory system, bus, and devices on the bus. By reusing the formal definitions of all functional units for integer, logical, and floating-point instructions in the PowerPC 750 architecture that we have already defined in our NASA SBIR Phase II project titled Efficient Techniques for Formal Verification of PowerPC 750 Executables, it will be possible to formally specify the bit-level semantics of a new processor architecture in several months. Also, we will be able to use the formal definition of the bit-level instruction semantics of the architecture as a non-pipelined specification when formally verifying a new pipelined/superscalar/VLIW implementation processor for that architecture by applying our industrial tool flow for formal verification of pipelined processors. Thus, we will prove that the designs of new processors will implement the exact bit-level specification of the instruction semantics that is used to formally verify the correctness of the software and its interaction with the RTOS, the memory system, bus, and devices on the bus, including under scenarios such as multitasking, interrupt handling, user and kernel mode switching. These capabilities are critical for aerospace applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Analytical Methods
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Quality/Reliability
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Computer System Architectures
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Input/Output Devices (Displays, Storage)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing
Development Environments
Operating Systems
Programming Languages
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A1.06-9692
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Assurance of Flight-Critical Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Specification Editing and Discovery Assistant

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
GrammaTech, Inc.
531 Esty Street
Ithaca, NY 14850-3250
(607) 273-7340

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Cok
dcok@grammatech.com111
531 Esty Street
Ithaca,  NY 14850-3250
(607) 273-7340

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The project will prototype a specification editing and discovery tool (SPEEDY) for C/C++ that will assist software developers with modular formal verification tasks by - providing active user interface guidance in writing and editing software specifications, integrated into a common, open IDE (Eclipse) and - providing automated suggestions of specifications for given contexts, - built on an architecture that will unify source and machine code verification. The innovation is significant because - having machine-checkable specifications enables more automation of sound verification and less approximation in heuristic problem detection, - user interface features and underlying automation will aid all developers in generating, editing and checking specifications, and - the architecture will apply to both source code analysis alone and also to unified source and machine code verification for embedded systems. The prototype will be an extension and integration of (a) current specification languages, (b) previous Eclipse plug-ins GrammaTech has created, (c) recent research on UI aids to developers in writing specifications, (d) existing automated algorithms for suggesting specifications based on code analysis, and (e) existing tools and techniques for automatically checking logical encodings of C/C++ code and specifications. The tool will be packaged as a plug-in to Eclipse's C/C++ development environment. The result will be a tool that facilitates using formal methods by all software developers, improving efficiency and accuracy. The resulting specifications will also serve as machine-readable documentation of the software, simplifying and accelerating the task of independent V&V.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The natural market for SPEEDY is safety-critical embedded software development organizations. Such government and commercial organizations are a large part of GrammaTech's current customer base. We will initially focus our marketing efforts on specific current customers who manufacture or review avionics systems, medical devices, and other particularly safety-critical embedded systems (e.g. automotive software) – e.g., Bechtel, FDA, Halliburton, Lockheed-Martin, Honeywell. A second tier of relevant customers are development groups doing security analyses, security certification, and reverse engineering for understanding or maintenance.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The product will be used to assist NASA personnel in evaluating the safety and robustness properties of software in production or under review, including embedded Next-Generation avionics and space software. The product will support the needs of both software-development teams and IV&V groups. An example application is the annotation of a widely used library (e.g. the Core Flight Software library) to aid in its verification. Our first potential (NASA) adopters are GrammaTech's current NASA customers. The tool will be a natural companion to heuristic bug-finding and style-checking tools GrammaTech completed for NASA JPL (a JPL SBIR Success Story used for the Mars Science Laboratory software.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Quality/Reliability
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Development Environments
Programming Languages
Verification/Validation Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A2.01-8343
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration into the National Airspace System Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: The Phased Array Terrain Interferometer (PathIn): A New Sensor for UAS Synthetic Vision and Ground Collision Avoidance

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Remote Sensing Solutions, Inc.
3179 Main Street, Unit 3, P.O. Box 1092
Barnstable, MA 02630-1105
(508) 362-9400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Delwyn Moller
dkmoller@remotesensingsolutions.com111
2824 East Foothill BLVD
Pasadena,  CA 91107-3400
(626) 602-6186

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal introduces an innovative sensor concept for the mitigation of aircraft hazards due to reduced visibility in fog, drizzle and light rain and the detection of hazards/obstacles on runways. Specifically, this effort will build upon a developing synthetic vision system for landing piloted aircraft to: 1) customize the design and feasibility for targeted unpiloted autonomous systems (UAS), and 2) incorporate interferometry for terrain mapping and hazard detection. Dubbed "PathIn", the proposed sensor is comprised of a Ka-band digitally beamformed (DBF) radar interferometer that will serve as a complement to existing infrared (IR) and near-IR enhanced visualization systems and provide a real-time data interface for ground-collision avoidance systems. The proposed effort is aligned with the effort to integrate UAS into the National Airspace (NAS). The Phase 1 effort will assess the PathIn performance for sample UAS flight scenarios over variable terrain using a high-fidelity point target simulator to provide synthetic digital surface maps and obstacle detections. This will demonstrate the potential of the PathIn as a technology that can contribute toward safe UAS operation in the NAS and in the terminal area. In Phase II we will realize a prototype of the PathIn sensor, leveraging our extensive radar, interferometry and DBF experience and key technology capabilities. In particular a FPGA-based digital receiver system will be extended for real-time beamforming and interferometry. At the end of the Phase I, a technology readiness level of 3 will be achieved.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Low visibility conditions during aircraft landing presents significant hazards to the commercial and defense sectors. The need for a capable EFVS technology, the PathIn system in particular, has been expressed to RSS by large commercial entities such as Telephonics Corporation and Gulfstream Aerospace. RSS has investigated the early commercial market for the PathIn system, which is estimated at 500 units or $450M at the outset for Gulfstream alone. DOD & DARPA agencies heavy reliance on UAVs, requiring all weather landing capabilities for successful mission execution, has increased as well. Initial conversations with Army representatives yielded similar interest as with commercial entities. As part of the Phase I effort, RSS will seek to include the requirements of these organizations such that the resulting PathIn system meets their needs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's expanded reliance on UASs has dramatically increased the need for alternative airports to support mission scheduling. Limited available airports meeting FAA landing restrictions will have a more profound impact on mission planning, success and cost as longer duration aircraft use is increased. Challenges include low visibility conditions and the difficult scenario of long duration mission planning with weather forecasting uncertainty. With the capability of obstacle detection, RSS' proposed PathIn system would allow for the use of airports not previously acceptable, and do so during conditions such as fog and drizzle, which conventional infrared enhanced vision systems cannot provide adequate visibility through. By providing "improved sensing capability in the terminal area where higher density and more reliable operations are required for NextGen" this sensor stands to directly support NextGen.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Microwave


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A2.01-8409
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration into the National Airspace System Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: SPHERICAL COVERAGE DUAL MODE SENSOR FOR UAS SEPARATION ASSURANCE

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Epsilon Lambda Electronics Corporation
396 Fenton Lane, Suite 601
West Chicago, IL 60185-2687
(630) 293-7118

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Knox
bobk@epsilonlambda.com111
396 Fenton Lane, Suite 601
West Chicago,  IL 60185-2687
(630) 293-7118

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Proposed is a dual-mode sensor for use aboard unmanned aircraft for safe operation in the NAS that: 1. Incorporates high resolution Millimeter Wave radar with high resolution Electro-Optical sensor. 2. Achieves complete real time, full time spherical coverage around the UAS platform by employing two hemispherical dual mode sensors, one directed forward and one directed to the rear.[which exceeds the detection range and field-of-regard (FOR) for all nearby air platforms in FAA Regulation 7610.4 and other requirements from DOD/FAA documents]. 3. Utilizes multiple coherent transceivers. 4. Meets SWaP and cost requirements for most UASs, including price (less than $3000 in quantity), size (less than 1 cubic feet), weight (less than 2 lb) and power (less than 10W). 5. Leverages as needed the Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B), which will be implemented by the FAA in the NAS. 6. Considers aircraft that operate without ADS-B. 7. Performs multiple functions; including autonomous detection, tracking, predicting of future track and specification of collision avoiding maneuvers. 8. Is self-contained, with sensor capability combined with on-board computing and flight control system, yet can be operated with sense and avoid interoperability.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are numerous applications in commercial, military and civil aviation that could be met by UAS and/or UAV if they are certified for operation in the NAS. These involve security, surveillance, search and rescue and deliveries. Unmanned vehicles of all types are being used for DOD, Homeland Security, and Commercial uses.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is broadly anticipating future needs of the aviation industry and operations in the US National Air Space with this topic because UAS can play an increasing role in the needs of the country and its citizens if able to operate freely.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Project Management
Prototyping
3D Imaging
Display
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Electromagnetic


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A2.01-8521
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration into the National Airspace System Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Uninhabited Aerial System Safety Analysis Model (USAM)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vivek Kumar
vkumar@i-a-i.com111
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville,  MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-4761

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The National Airspace System (NAS) in the United States will become a complex array of commercial and general aviation aircraft, unmanned aircraft systems, reusable launch vehicles, rotorcraft, airports, air traffic control, weather services, and maintenance operations, among others. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) projects that by 2025 air traffic will increase by more than 50 percent with 1.1 billion passengers a year and more than 85,000 flights every 24 hours contributing to further delays and congestion in the sky. This increased system complexity necessitates the application of systematic safety risk analysis methods to understand and eliminate where possible, reduce, and/or mitigate risk factors. The product of this effort is the development of an Uninhabited Aerial System (UAS) safety analysis model, which hereafter is called USAM. The USAM effort proposed herein is an extension of current efforts underway by the UAS community, and it extends these efforts by incorporating UAS scenarios and encounter geometries to populate existing safety analysis models, thereby producing credible future UAS safety metrics

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Federal Aviation Adminstration (FAA). The FAA will require a system to methodically compute the probabilities of hull loss, separation violations, collisions, and the risk to the public, before approving any change to the NAS which allows UAS flights. A tool such as USAM plus other extant FAA analysis techniques will be needed to compute such an assessment. Other government and commercial. Any government agency or commercial organization considering using UAS in the civilian airspace for their work—including the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Defense, local police departments, UAS manufacturers, UAS users, and so forth—will need a tool like USAM to assess the risk of each mission before flying them. With the information provided by USAM, such agencies can modify their flight plans if necessary or modify the parameters of the mission to ensure that the computed safety probabilities are within tolerable limits.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
USAM will represent a valuable analysis tool that NASA researchers can use to assess the safety component of their proposed future NAS configurations, including future NextGen improvements. We believe that, in the very near future, all safety assessments will have to include a UAS component. The reason that they do not already require a UAS component is that a tool such as USAM does not exist. With the existence of USAM, safety analysis including UAS vehicles will become a possible, and ultimately required, part of all future NextGen analyses. The demand, therefore, by the research community for USAM is expected to be high.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A2.01-8625
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration into the National Airspace System Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: WINDSUN: Weather INformation Display Systems for UAS in the NAS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aptima, Inc.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801-1765
(781) 935-3966

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ronald Storm
rstorm@aptima.com111
3100 Presidential Drive, Suite 220
Fairborn,  OH 45324-7139
(937) 490-8018

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is leading a large-scale effort to conduct research, develop standards, and integrate technologies to facilitate the insertion of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS). One area of development to support this effort is the adaptation of existing weather technologies for manned cockpits for use in UAS ground control stations (GCSs). However, the lack of a defined concept of operations (ConOps) and specific GCS technologies for UAS integration in the NAS present challenges for proposed weather information systems. Aptima proposes to develop WINDSUN (Weather Information Display System for UAS in the NAS) as a flexible system architecture and innovative library of platform-agnostic interaction methods to support integration with various ConOps and GCS technologies. A successful Phase I effort will include: (1) a use case with a ConOps to define the core set of tasks around which the design is built; (2) an innovative system architecture that is adaptable to multiple workflows; (3) user interface designs for interaction and visualization; (4) a demonstrable proof of concept physical prototype; and (5) transition plans (implementation, evaluation, and commercialization) for WINDSUN. Phase II efforts, including (1) GCS integration, (2) experimental evaluation, and (3) transition to operational environments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
WINDSUN will appeal to groups external to NASA involved in researching the safety and efficiency of civil UAS operations as well as operating UAS for such purposes as border patrol and agriculture. More specifically, our proposed solution will be an appealing decision support display for commercial markets that require novel information displays that allow users to choose which information to display, add layers of information, and manipulate the display so that it improves situation awareness for safely navigating in the NAS. Across non-government organizations, there is a large market for avionics and related technologies, such as navigation and information systems. As new display technologies are developed, WINDSUN could be acquired by either the manufacturers themselves (e.g., Boeing, Honeywell, Lockheed Martin) or sold as a stand-alone product to those purchasing GCS information displays and technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
WINDSUN, a decision support display system for providing relevant weather information to human UAS operators and ground control crew members, addresses a relevant, high-priority issue: safe and efficient civil UAS operations in the NAS. New and improved interface displays and interaction methods will be required to support decision making and situational awareness during both mission planning and en-route operations. Initially, Aptima intends to infuse the WINDSUN research effort into the UAS Integration in the NAS Project of the Integrated Systems Research Program (ISRP) in order to address performance and safety challenges associated with an integrated airspace. Research and development conducted on this SBIR will contribute to this project in many ways, namely by developing novel weather information displays for GCSs that present the most relevant information, use intelligent cueing to direct the operator's attention, and allow the operator to manipulate the weather information.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Man-Machine Interaction
Display
Data Input/Output Devices (Displays, Storage)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A2.01-9777
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration into the National Airspace System Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: A High Performance System With Explicit Incorporation of ATC Regulations to Generate Contingency Plans for UAVs with Lost Communication

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Signal Processing, Inc.
13619 Valley Oak Circle
Rockville, MD 20850-3563
(240) 505-2641

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chiman Kwan
chiman.kwan@signalpro.net111
13619 Valley Oak Circle
Rockville,  MD 20850-3563
(240) 505-2641

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose a comprehensive and systematic contingency plan generation framework to deal with lost communication in UAVs. ATC regulations are explicitly incorporated into our system. Our proposed framework was motivated by our recent work for the Naval Air Station at Patuxent River. In should be noted that our earlier framework was very general, as we have designed a system which can deal with many types of pop-up threats such as enemy attacks, internal system faults, external interferences, etc. Currently, we have been focusing on generating contingency plans for engine out problems for the Navy. In this NASA Phase 1, we will focus on generating contingency plans for lost communication. Our proposed approach has one key component known as Risk Management Plan (RMP), which assesses mission risk of a given air task order (ATO) and provides solutions for known or unknown threats throughout the course of the mission. Four sub-plans are used to support RMP: Situation Analysis (SA), Preparedness & Prevention Plan (PPP), Incident Response Plan (IRP), and Rescue & Recovery Plan (RRP). We propose to apply case based reasoning (CBR) in two modules (PPP and IRP) to generate contingency flight paths, contingency points, safe points, and incident response rules. In CBR, we can easily incorporate ATC regulations, which can be formulated as used cases in the CBR.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The market for military applications is quite large, as Army, Navy, Air Force and other agencies are using UAVs more than ever. We expect the market size will be at 20 million dollars over the next decade. Commercial UAVs are gaining momentum. The size of this market is not small and hard to estimate. We expect the aggregate market size will be similar to that of military applications (20 million over the next decade).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA market is relatively small as compared to military applications. Our contingency plan generation tool will be useful for air traffic control. It will help minimize disasters caused by lost comm in UAVs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Intelligence
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Sequencing & Scheduling
Quality/Reliability
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Support
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A2.01-9782
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration into the National Airspace System Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Weather Information Services supporting Civilian UAS Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Innovation Laboratory, Inc.
2360 Southwest Chelmsford Avenue
Portland, OR 97201-2265
(503) 242-1761

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jimmy Krozel
Jimmy.Krozel@gmail.com111
2360 SW Chelmsford Avenue
Portland,  OR 97201-2265
(503) 242-1761

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We build a system that supports the weather information needs of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) planning to fly in the National Airspace System (NAS). This weather information service will supply information to UAS Ground Control Stations (GCSs) from the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) 4D Weather Data Cube, the Single Authoritative Source (SAS) for aviation weather information, and associated modules which will determine the impacts that weather will have on the UAS. A centralized distribution system, based on a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), provides weather and constraint information to airlines and pilots (including UAS operators) - the design follows JPDO guidelines. In NextGen, the design goal is for all aircraft flying in the NAS (including UASs) to have a consistent set of weather constraints.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
DoD, local law enforcement, commercial, and other parties are very much interested in UAS systems flying in the NAS. Our weather information services will be desired by all these users to have year round safe operations in all weather conditions in the NAS.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1. Integrated Systems Research Program (ISRP) Concept Exploration - demonstrate feasibility of a SOA solution, based on centralized ATCSCC point of access for information 2. Airspace Systems Program (ASP) - ASP needs to demonstrate how UASs can be integrated with traditional air traffic, and how traffic flow management can address UAS challenges 3. Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) - AvSP must address UAS safety concerns, and having all aircraft (civilian and UAS) in synch with weather constraints is a requirement.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Teleoperation
Data Fusion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A2.01-9845
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration into the National Airspace System Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: FACET as a Collaborative, Open Source UAS Research Platform

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Innovation Laboratory, Inc.
2360 Southwest Chelmsford Avenue
Portland, OR 97201-2265
(503) 242-1761

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jimmy Krozel
Jimmy.Krozel@gmail.com111
2360 SW Chelmsford Avenue
Portland,  OR 97201-2265
(503) 242-1761

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We build a tool that accelerates Research and Development (R&D) aimed at introducing Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS). In the proposed effort, FACET will form the basis of a collaborative R&D platform, an environment where users can share open source software modules (software and data sets developed to reside outside the FACET Application Programmers Interface (API)) between users at the same or different universities, so that each user can benefit from the open source software and data contributions of others. Thus, when a student who has never used FACET before enters into a collaborative study of UAS integration in the NAS, he/she is able to download open source software and data to get going on rich R&D experiment without having to start from scratch. A student can download weather data sets, Special Use Airspace (SUA) data, air traffic demand data, UAS models (e.g., Base of Aircraft Data (BADA)) and flight plans, metrics, or anything that is posted on the open source library, to get a "running start" with R&D. When completing innovative modules outside the API, the student can post software to the open source repository for others to benefit. This collaborative environment will also allow for FACET-based research to be performed in a distributed manner – where simulations at one university may be run with models and parameters provided by other users at different universities, and the results posted back to the common repository for all users to share. This open-source collaborative platform is demonstrated on R&D problems aimed at introducing

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed software has application to FAA and military systems as well. Because NextGen encompasses all government agencies through the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO), many forms of government, e.g., Army, Air Force, FAA, NASA and Homeland Security must work together in JPDO NextGen investigations, and our open source platform suits such a collaboration. FAA, JPDO, and military have all expressed a high level of interest in the introduction of UASs into the NAS. Each organization will want to use our system to understand their own metrics, impacts, and safety issues associated with this problem.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
- Integrated Systems Research Program (ISRP) – ISRP needs to quickly explore as many alternatives for controlling UASs in the NAS as possible. This includes modeling and simulation of new missions and trajectories of UASs in the NAS, Separation Assurance (SA) strategies, understanding Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), estimating/quantifying NAS-wide system properties (safety, efficiency, environmental impact, etc), and understanding the impacts of various procedures and policies associated with UASs operating in the NAS. The approach we advocate is to perform such ISRP R&D on an open-source, collaborative NAS simulation platform, so that a large quantity of R&D efforts may proceed in parallel and leverage each other to explore the largest trade space possible. - Airspace Systems Program (ASP) – For ASP, our proposed system allows for concept exploration of how UAS introduction in the NAS will affect traffic flow management efficiency and safety and capacity in NextGen. - Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) - For AvSP our proposed SBIR product helps researchers study safety-related issues associated with the introduction of UASs in the NAS.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Man-Machine Interaction
Command & Control
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A3.01-9764
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Structural Efficiency - Airframe
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aeroelastically Tailored Wing Structures (ATWIST)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
4 Cambridge Center, 11th Floor
Cambridge, MA 02142-1494
(703) 369-3633

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Benjamin Smith
bsmith@aurora.aero111
4 Cambridge Center, 11th Floor
Cambridge,  MA 02142-1494
(617) 229-6781

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aurora will develop a novel composite sandwich structure that is capable of providing a coupled bending-torsional stiffness with nonlinear elastic effects, capable of achieving a tailored aeroelastic response over a wide range of flight conditions. Such a structure will make use of an additive manufactured core with highly tailored and optimized cellular substructure. The cellular structure will be functionally graded in the spanwise and chordwise directions to provide a coupled bending-torsional stiffness response. Fiber reinforced composite facesheets will provide strength. Utilizing the core structure to couple the bending-torsional stiffness of the composite may allow the composite to remain balanced and symmetric, thus avoiding induced stresses and/or warping during manufacturing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A manufacturable, low-weight composite sandwich structure with coupled bending-torsional stiffness can be implemented to achieve aeroelastic tailoring in many high-aspect ratio aircraft, including next generation commercial transport aircraft and long-endurance UAS vehicles, including Aurora's own Orion UAS.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA programs developing next-generation aircraft, such as the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project, would benefit from the technology developed in this SBIR program to achieve passive aerodynamic tailoring of wing structures. A similar approach could be implemented using DMLS to create all-metal structures with highly tailored cellular substructures to produce thin, aeroelastically tailored wings for supersonic aircraft, including The Supersonic Project's research in airframe aerodynamic efficiency.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A3.01-9938
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Structural Efficiency - Airframe
PROPOSAL TITLE: Innovative Structural and Material Concepts for Low-Weight Low-Drag Aircraft Design

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ZONA Technology, Inc.
9489 East Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale, AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Satyajit Ghoman
satya@zonatech.com111
9489 East Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale,  AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The overall objective of this multi-phase project is to explore, develop, integrate, and test several innovative structural design concepts and new material possibilities that will fully leverage the expertise of the ZONA/Boeing Team for enhancing the current state-of-the-art of aircraft design. The technical objectives specific to the Phase I of this effort are threefold. First, a suitable anisotropic composite material will be identified and further studied for its suitability to the design objectives of this research. A baseline SUGAR aircraft configuration will be thoroughly studied for exploring design possibilities as well as to provide a benchmark for comparing performance improvements achieved by optimization studies performed during later stages. Secondly, the skin of the baseline SUGAR wings will then be modified to comprise of the anisotropic composite material, and the FE model will be modified to comprise of (1) distributed multiple control surfaces for AAW-type optimization in Design Route 1, and (2) variable camber continuous trailing edge flaps (VCCTEF) for control output optimization in Design Route 2. The updated FE models will then be used to further optimize the composite layup sequence as well as skin thicknesses. Thirdly, the distributed control surfaces and the VCCTEF on SUGAR high aspect ratio wing will be separately optimized for control input to achieve load alleviation and drag reduction. These two separate optimization processes of Design Route 1 and Design Route 2 will be performed iteratively to achieve an optimum low-drag low-weight design. Finally, once the optimum designs are obtained, a detailed performance review will be conducted to quantify the benefits of the non-conventional design technologies explored. A material fabrication feasibility study will also be performed.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Because of its highly integrated design and analysis capability for designing non-conventional structural concepts with aeroelastic constraints, high fidelity structural and aerodynamic analyses, and ability to perform nonlinear trim optimizations, ZONA has discovered that the proposed research and related function evaluation process has a unique competitive edge in the commercial and military aircraft design market. The structural and materials concepts explored in Phase I + II of this effort can be effectively extended for application towards many categories of flight vehicles including blended wing-bodies, joined-wings, sub/supersonic transports, morphing aircraft, space planes, reusable launch vehicles, and similar revolutionary concepts pursued. Hence, the proposed research and its outcomes will be highly needed for designing the next generation of civil as well as military aircraft to meet the stringent future performance goals.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's current research efforts in aircraft design focus on many performance improvement goals such as aircraft weight minimization, aerodynamic drag reduction, and improvements in fuel efficiency of the next generation sub/supersonic commercial aircraft. These design drivers call for investigation of unconventional and revolutionary design concepts. The ZONA/Boeing team's innovative modular design process will enable the physics-based structural, aerodynamic, and aeroelastic analyses of such complex configurations, thereby greatly improving the current knowledge-base of NASA's Fundamental Aerodynamics Program. By performing a detailed design optimization of non-conventional SUGAR aircraft, ZONA/Boeing team will further the knowledge of such structural and configurational concepts as strut-braced high-aspect ratio wings, distributed multiple control surfaces, variable camber continuous trailing edge flaps, etc. The outcome of Phase I + II effort will largely expand NASA's technology portfolio by analyzing the non-conventional aircraft concepts to meet the future performance goals. The research performed in this effort can be easily extended to other relevant ongoing NASA projects, such as X-56A MUTT aircraft wings, HALE aircraft etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Composites
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A3.02-8545
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Quiet Performance
PROPOSAL TITLE: Plasma Fairings for Quieting Aircraft Landing Gear Noise

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Technology Applications Co.
P.O. Box 6971
Chesterfield, MO 63006-6971
(314) 373-3311

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mehul Patel
mppatel@itacllc.com111
P.O. Box 6971
Chesterfield,  MO 63006-6971
(480) 247-6611

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A major component of airframe noise for commercial transport aircraft is the deployed landing gear. The noise from the gear originates due to complex, unsteady bluff body flow separation from gear components and the subsequent multiple interactions of unsteady wakes with downstream undercarriage elements. The object of this SBIR effort is to develop and advance a novel 'plasma fairing' technology for quieting landing gear noise. The concept deals with the use of single dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma actuators to reduce noise associated with bluff body separation around the gear. SDBD plasma actuators will be employed either in the form of spanwise-orientated actuators or plasma streamwise vortex generators (PSVGs) to suppress surface pressure fluctuations, and consequently flow-induced noise, on a representative landing gear model. Our Phase I effort will involve a combination of numerical and experimental studies to be conducted at Innovative Technology Applications Company, LLC and the University of Notre Dame, respectively, in order to advance the design and optimization of 'plasma fairings' from a simple geometry (tandem circular cylinder) to a more complex/realistic landing gear geometry (e.g., the Gulfstream G550 nose gear). A combination of DES numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiments is expected to provide a clear demonstration of the plasma fairing performance for noise reduction, while providing a clear path forward for Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA applications for the plasma actuators include design of revolutionary subsonic and hypersonic aerospace vehicles for commercial and military (DoD) purposes, use in turbomachinery systems, noise-control on landing gears of commercial aircraft, design of smart wind turbine rotor blades, drag reduction on ground vehicles, smart helicopter rotor blades, tip-casing clearance flow control for reduced turbine losses, control of flow surge and stall in compressors, and turbulent transition control experiments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This research aims to directly address NASA technical challenge for Quiet Low-Speed Performance under the Fixed Wing Project, that is, to reduce perceived community noise by 71 dB with minimal impact on vehicle weight and performance. While the main thrust of the proposed research is to develop plasma fairings for reducing noise on an aircraft landing gear, these can be effectively configured to reduce noise caused by the wing flap and slats as well. Other potential NASA applications of the proposed plasma flow control concepts include lift enhancement and drag reduction on aircraft wings, high angle-of-attack operation using plasma actuators as lifting devices, enhanced performance and efficiency of propulsion (S-ducts, inlets) and aerodynamic (control surfaces) systems at both on- and off-design conditions, and improved cycle efficiency of NASA's air-breathing propulsion systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Actuators & Motors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A3.02-8690
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Quiet Performance
PROPOSAL TITLE: Substrucured, Meshless and Parametric Modeling of Vibroacoustic Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Comet Technology Corporation
1796 Stonebridge Dr N
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-8593
(734) 973-1600

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Satha Raveendra
rraveendra@cometacoustics.com111
1796 Stonebridge Dr N
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-8593
(734) 239-5757

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aerospace structures are often subjected to a broad spectrum of mechanical and/or aerodynamic excitations and, therefore, there is a real need for the development of a modeling technique which can be used for the vibroacoustic analysis, with high fidelity and adequate spatial and spectral resolutions, of complex systems over the entire frequency range. A dynamic system typically exhibits distinctively different response characteristics as frequency increases. In recognizing the complicated behavior of a structure, the modeling methods in dynamic analysis are usually classified into low, mid, and high frequency models. A substructure-based modeling technique, based on enhanced Fourier Spectral Element Method (FSEM), that is applicable all frequencies, is proposed for the modeling of complex dynamic systems. This method also does not require meshing as is traditionally used in discretization methods such as finite and boundary element methods.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed development will also extend and enhance the computational modeling capabilities in many industries such as automotive, naval, heavy equipment and consumer products. Customers often equate quality of a product with its sound and vibration performance. As a result of elevated demand for quieter products from customers together with the increased government regulations, manufactures of products with noise problem in all industries are searching for effective ways to make products with improved noise characteristics. For example, in automotive industry, the increased use of multi-media and telemetric devices demands quieter vehicle interiors and the manufacturers and suppliers of interior products not only need to consider functionality, but also the noise control capability of the products. Consequently, there is increasing demand for tools based on computer simulation that can be used to guide design at the early design stage. Furthermore, the software can be adapted to evaluate and improve radiated noise from engines, exhaust, tires, etc. It can be used to evaluate and improve consumer products such as compressors, air conditioners, hair dryers, vacuum cleaners, and washing machines.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Engineering tools that increase the quality of the environment and life of instruments are very important. For example, the development of space vehicles and space stations requires the prediction of vibration levels to assess the fatigue life of critical components and noise levels to ensure the comfort and functionality levels of crew members. The software product developed as part of the proposed project will enable NASA to effectively evaluate and apply noise and vibration control procedures spanning the entire frequency spectrum. It will also substantially reduce the effort involved in the design of products since the proposed development offers a truly unique and far-advanced modeling capability and unparalleled ease-of-use at mid-frequencies without involving any secondary artificial or derived model variables. The software will also enhance NASA's ability to evaluate the acoustic environment and resulting vibration in the payload bay of launch vehicles, diffuse sound field excitation on payloads during rocket launch, ground qualification, and structural integrity of airframes. Manufacturers of aircraft engines and components will also find the software useful for analysis and design.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Acoustic/Vibration


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A3.02-8760
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Quiet Performance
PROPOSAL TITLE: Identification of Landing Gear Aeroacoustic Noise Sources with the Synthetic Array Technique

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Technology Applications Co.
P.O. Box 6971
Chesterfield, MO 63006-6971
(314) 373-3311

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris Nelson
ccnelson@ITACLLC.com111
P.O. Box 6971
Chesterfield,  MO 63006-6971
(425) 778-7853

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this program, Innovative Technology Applications Company (ITAC), LLC and collaborators propose to advance "synthetic phased array" technology to improve understanding of noise from landing gear. The technology, initially developed in a previous NASA SBIR project for trailing edge noise, will be applied to improve beamforming analysis methods, facilitate the design of more effective microphone arrays, and significantly enhance the understanding and characterization of noise sources from landing gear. The proposed approach involves the use of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) to generate data on the nearfield unsteadiness in jet flows. The nearfield noise is then numerically propagated to the farfield phased array microphone locations. Beamforming analysis methods will be used to predict noise source locations, and these predictions will then be compared with the original LES results. Discrepancies between the phased array prediction and the LES flowfield results will be used to guide development of new and improved phased array source models, as well as develop improved methods for positioning Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings (FWH) integration surfaces around complex noise-generating configurations such as landing gear. When fully developed, this technique offers the potential for significant benefits. First, it will empower experimental aeroacoustics researchers to customize the layout of microphone arrays for a given experimental configuration. Similarly, this approach offers the potential to customize the analysis of the recorded data they take for optimum accuracy. Beyond this, the improved FWH and beamforming methods that will be developed using this technique will benefit any experiment which makes use of phased arrays of microphones. Finally, the work will add to the overall understanding of landing gear noise.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Beyond NASA's interests, the Department of Defense and airplane prime contractors also have a strong interest in technologies that lead to quieter aircraft. The Navy, in particular, has a strong interest in finding ways to reduce aircraft noise related to carrier operations. ITAC will work to market the proposed synthetic phased array technology to all the various industries which make use of phased microphone arrays. These include, aircraft engine manufacturers, airframe manufacturers, the automotive industry, the wind power industry, and high-speed rail companies, just to name a few.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The design and development of noise prediction, measurement, and control methods for commercial aircraft is a major focus of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program in Aeroacoustics. NASA technical challenge-Quiet Low-Speed Performance under the Fixed Wing Project is to reduce perceived community noise by 71 dB with minimal impact on vehicle weight and performance. As a result, the prospect of improved phased microphone array technology due to the application of the proposed synthetic array methods will be of interest to a broad spectrum of experimental aeroacoustics researchers at NASA. Our proposed project deals with the development of a 'synthetic phased array' technology which focuses on improving the understanding of noise from aircraft landing gear, however, the improved beamforming methods and array designs made possible by the proposed technique can be applied to any experimental problem for which phased microphone arrays are suitable. Thus, the range of noise source identification applications extends from landing gear to supersonic jets, rocket nozzles, flaps and slats, wake vortices, and wind turbines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Fluids
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A3.02-9498
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Quiet Performance
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Temperature Liners for Broadband Noise Reduction

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cornerstone Research Group, Inc.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440-3638
(937) 320-1877

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Hermiller
hermillerjm@crgrp.com111
2750 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton,  OH 45440-3638
(937) 320-1877

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Core noise will become a larger component of engine noise overall, as more efficient design trends of fan and jet noise reduction technologies are implemented. The necessity to keep weight and material costs low, as well as the complex geometry and high temperatures involved with the combustion region, make the production of acoustic liners a difficult task. CRG will develop and produce a prototype acoustic liner test sample for the combustion region that will address all of these issues. CRG will use its Sialyte(TM) material and simple manufacturing processes to produce a lightweight, inexpensive liner, that contains inherent high-temperature resistant properties. Sialyte(TM) is a low-cost material system developed for use in high-temperature and high-pressure applications. CRG will tailor Sialyte(TM) liner properties to demonstrate fabrication control of Sialyte(TM) open-cell foams or combination with Sialyte(TM) honeycomb. These materials will provide broadband acoustic attenuation in relevant frequency ranges, as well as tailoring material properties for mechanical and thermal performance requirements. The Sialyte(TM) liner will conform to complex, curved geometries and will withstand the high temperatures and stresses in the combustion region. CRG will demonstrate performance of TRL 4 in Phase I.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Government systems that would derive the same benefits would include but not be limited to turbine engine combustor sections, solid and liquid rocket motors, automobile exhaust systems, and other future applications that will require simultaneous noise suppression and high temperature performance operated by the Department of Defense. This technology's attributes for turbine engine combustor sections should yield a high potential for private sector commercialization for easily manufacturable, highly tailorable acoustic liners for combustor sections by GE Aviation, Pratt & Whitney, Rolls-Royce, and Honeywell to name a few.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Supporting NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program, this project's technologies directly address requirements for noise reduction concepts for commercial and military aircraft engine systems. This project's technologies offer improved core noise reduction in a lightweight, tailorable package at a substantially lower cost than current systems. CRG's lightweight, inexpensive, tailored Sialyte(TM) liners may have broad applicability for NASA in aerospace applications where noise and high temperatures are of concern.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Isolation/Protection/Radiation Shielding (see also Mechanical Systems)
Conversion
Distribution/Management
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Fluids
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
Ablative Propulsion
Atmospheric Propulsion
Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Propulsion
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine
Acoustic/Vibration
Thermal
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A3.03-9094
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Emissions/Clean Power
PROPOSAL TITLE: FINE-FILAMENT MAGNESIUM DIBORIDE SUPERCONDUCTOR WIRE FOR TURBOELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEMS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hyper Tech Research, Inc.
539 Industrial Mile Road
Columbus, OH 43228-2412
(614) 481-8050

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Matthew Rindfleisch
mrindfleisch@hypertechresearch.com111
539 Industrial Mile Road
Columbus,  OH 43228-2412
(614) 481-8050

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The availability of low AC loss magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconducting wires enables much lighter weight superconducting stator coils than with any other metal or ceramic superconductor. This, together with Hyper Tech's capability to fabricate long piece-length (potentially 60 km) wires, in turn enables lighter superconducting motors/generators, essential components in the turboelectric aircraft propulsion system envisioned in next generation Air Vehicle Technologies. To that end, this proposed SBIR Phase I program focuses on developing MgB2 multifilament wires with the smallest practical filament size achievable (10 m or less) as a means to reducing AC losses due to hysteresis, eddy current, and coupling losses. Two recent advancements at Hyper Tech greatly increase the odds of success: 1) The emergence of a novel MgB2 wire manufacturing method that incorporates a magnesium-infiltration process (precursor materials are magnesium wire and powder boron) that has produced a 10-fold enhancement in critical current density over that of present state-of-the-art wires made by the conventional method involving magnesium-boron powder mixtures, and 2) Improved capability in wire drawing to fabricate fine multifilament strands.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Manufacturers of large electrical systems desire to increase the efficiency, and decrease the size of their systems in order to reduce costs. Presently major manufacturers of MRIs, transformers, motors, generators, and fault current limiters are pursuing MgB2 superconductor wires to achieve these objectives. More recently there has been a growing global market for a new class of large machines requiring high power density (from 4 to 20 MW) including wind and wave turbine generators, aircraft turbo-generators, offshore oil platform motors, marine propulsion and generation systems and portable emergency power systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Besides stator coils, magnesium diboride superconductors can benefit NASA applications for many applications where light weight power components that are required for generators, motors, transformers, inductors, power conditioning equipment and ADR coils. Other magnet applications that magnesium diboride wires can be considered for are magnetic bearings, actuators, MHD magnets, propulsion engines, magnetic shielding in space, and magnetic launch devices.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Superconductance/Magnetics
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A3.04-8470
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamic Efficiency - Drag Reduction Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development of a Plasma Injector for Supersonic Drag Reduction

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eagle Harbor Technologies, Inc.
119 West Denny Way, Suite 210
Seattle, WA 98119-4205
(206) 402-5241

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Angus Macnab
macnab@eagleharbortech.com111
119 West Denny Way, Suite 210
Seattle,  WA 98119-4205
(206) 402-5241

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Methods to reduce the turbulent viscous skin friction stand out as paramount to increasing the energy efficiency, and therefore the aerodynamic efficiency of supersonic aircraft. Eagle Harbor Technology (EHT) proposes to develop and optimize a MHD plasma injector, which will be used to efficiently reduce the viscous skin friction in supersonic aircraft. EHT has developed similar MHD plasma injection technologies, which have been applied to a number of different fusion energy science, aerospace thruster, and basic research investigations. Here, we aim to computationally investigate and verify the dominant physical mechanisms for MHD plasma drag reduction; develop a proof of concept plasma injector demo, which conforms to necessary power and efficiency requirements for an onboard flight-relevant system; and use insights gained through our computational investigations to optimize the performance of our MHD plasma injector for maximum aerodynamic efficiency. This investigation will focus on flight-relevant Reynolds and magnetic Reynolds numbers at low supersonic (M<~3) speeds. Phase II research will couple the plasma injector to a scale model airframe for detailed in-situ supersonic wind tunnel testing. The phase II research will produce a fully realized working plasma injector prototype that conform to power requirements of an on-board power system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This plasma injector technology can be applied to several fields outside of aeronautics and astronautics. In particular, a great deal of this technology was developed for fusion energy science applications, and basic plasma physics research as plasma sources. As such, we expect this development effort to create spin-off technologies, which can be applied to these fields. These plasma injectors could additionally be tooled to function at standard temperatures and pressures and be used in plasma medicine to aid in wound healing and scar reduction or to plasma processing technologies. Finally, the development of technical capabilities in simulating the interaction of plasmas, partially ionized plasmas and neutral gasses can be used by all of the sub-fields mentioned above to develop insight into the behavior of these plasmas without the expense of experimental and laboratory testing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The target application for this work is to develop a plasma injector, which will be used to increase the aerodynamic efficiency in supersonic (M<~3) aircraft. The plasma injector works by modifying the turbulent viscous skin layer surrounding supersonic vehicles to reduce the mach wave shock front and resulting turbulence. This plasma injector technology can be applied to most supersonic aircraft and re-entry vehicles. Beyond drag reduction and sonic boom mitigation, plasma injection technology could eventually be developed as a steering mechanism during the critical period of re-entry of spacecraft and during hypersonic flight. The technology underlying plasma injectors is very similar to plasma thruster technology, so oportunities exhist for cross-fertilization between the two sub specialties. Finally, the insight gained through detailed extended MHD simulations can be applied to geospace environmental modeling and several astrophysics applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A3.04-8924
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamic Efficiency - Drag Reduction Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Energy-Deposition to Reduce Skin Friction in Supersonic Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physics, Materials, and Applied Mathematics Research, LLC
1665 E. 18th Street, Suite 112
Tucson, AZ 85719-6808
(520) 903-2345

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nathan Tichenor
ntichenor@physics-math.com111
200 Discovery Dr. Suite 102
College Station,  TX 77843-7546
(979) 862-1795

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has drawn attention to an impending need to improve energy-efficiency in low supersonic (M<~3) platforms. Aerodynamic efficiency is the foundation of energy-efficient flight in any regime, and low drag is one of the fundamental characteristics of aerodynamic efficiency. For supersonic aircraft, drag can be broadly decomposed into four components: viscous or skin friction drag, lift-induced drag, wave or compressibility drag, and excrescence drag. The relative impact of these four drag forces depends upon vehicle-specific characteristics and design. However, viscous skin friction drag stands out as particularly significant across most classes of flight vehicles. Therefore, effective techniques to reduce skin friction drag on a vehicle will have a major and far-reaching impact on flight efficiency for low supersonic aircraft. In an effort to address the need for increased aerodynamic efficiency of low supersonic vehicles, PM&AM Research, in collaboration with Texas A&M University, propose to demonstrate the feasibility of depositing energy using basic, well-demonstrated techniques along the surface in supersonic flow to control/compress/forcibly-move the boundary layer fluid by creating a low-density "bubble-like" region, thereby reducing the viscous skin friction. If successful, this solution will reduce the drag experienced by a low supersonic platform, allowing vehicles to exhibit increased aerodynamic efficiency.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our technology could be used to improve the aerodynamic efficiency of a wide range of supersonic Government and industry platforms including commercial and military access to space vehicles, supersonic cruise vehicles, and high-speed delivery platforms, among others.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our technology could be used to improve the aerodynamic efficiency of a wide range of supersonic NASA programs, including access to space platforms and prototype aircraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Actuators & Motors
Lasers (Weapons)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A3.04-8942
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamic Efficiency - Drag Reduction Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Silicon Carbide Semiconductor Surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge (SSDBD) Device for Turbulent Skin Friction Drag Reduction and Flow Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street, Suite 301
Dayton, OH 45431-1262
(937) 266-9570

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sivaram Gogineni
sgogineni@spectralenergies.com111
5100 Springfield Street, Suite 301
Dayton,  OH 45431-1262
(937) 266-9570

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed research effort explores the use of a nanosecond pulse driven offset semiconducting surface dielectric barrier discharge (SSDBD) device for the control of high speed, near surface air flows and the reduction of skin friction drag. With the nanosecond discharge, very high field strengths are applied and then the field is turned off before glow-to-filamentary transition occurs. The semiconducting surface array suppresses the backward breakdown that has previously been shown to produce a cancelling backward jet leading to very little thrust for conventional nanosecond driven devices. The embedded semiconductors achieve this by conducting the backward current through the surface and thus eliminating the backward breakdown. This allows all the momentum produced in the forward direction to be delivered to the surrounding boundary layer flow field. Conventional sinusoidal driven Surface DBD's are capable of generating surface jets with velocities up to ~10 meter per second, limited by glow-to-filamentary transition of the discharge. The proposed SBIR work will explore the possibility of increasing the surface jet velocity by more than a factor of five. In addition, the SSDBD can be driven at a very high repetition rate, producing high repetition sequential surface jets and total thrust that are expected to be orders of magnitude higher than possible with conventional sinusoidal DBD configurations. These surface jets are expected to provide new methods for the control of boundary layer interactions including separation, transition to turbulence, and drag through the introduction of time varying momentum at selected locations close to the surface.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential flow control capabilities of the nanosecond pulse driven, offset semiconducting surface dielectric barrier discharge (SSDBD) device are not limited to NASA flight vehicles. In particular, the manipulation and control of subsonic instabilities such as stationary crossflow vortices by discrete roughness elements in the form of plasma bumps could potentially delay laminar-to-turbulent transition, greatly reducing viscous drag. In addition, the use of this device should be able to control boundary layer separation which would reduce viscous drag, and fatigue caused by cyclic loading due to airframe vibration.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential flow control applications of interest to NASA, based on the delay or early initiation of laminar-to-turbulent transition by manipulating near wall instability mechanisms, includes steering moments, reduced viscous drag, enhanced mixing, and reduced heat transfer. The SSDBD device may also be useful for reducing viscous drag, heat transfer, and fatigue caused by cyclic loading due to airframe vibration. These specific applications are achievable by controlling shock-induced boundary layer separation encountered in compression ramp geometries.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Characterization
Image Analysis
Image Processing
Actuators & Motors
Atmospheric Propulsion
Thermal


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A3.05-8413
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Controls/Dynamics - Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Turbine Engine Performance Estimation using Particle Filters

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimal Synthesis, Inc.
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos, CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bong-Jun Yang
jun.yang@optisyn.com111
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos,  CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Development of a nonlinear particle filter for engine performance is proposed. The approach employs NASA high-fidelity C-MAPSS40K engine model as the central element, and addresses the issue of lack of observability of some of the engine health parameters in previous Kalman filter formulations. Proposed approach does not require linearity of the dynamics or Gaussian noise assumptions for satisfactory operation. The feasibility of real-time implementation of the proposed approach will be demonstrated using commercial, off-the-shelf General Purpose Graphical Processing Units. Phase I feasibility demonstration will show that the particle filter formulation of the engine performance monitoring system can overcome the limitations of previously employed approaches. Phase II research will develop a prototype implementation for hardware-in-loop simulations and eventual flight test.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The real-time, nonlinear integrated engine performance monitoring system developed under the proposed research can be used for diagnostics and maintenance of commercial and military aircraft engines, and other gas-turbine engines. It can also be used for detecting engine performance variations and subsystem failures in flight, leading to improved commercial and military aviation safety.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA programs that the proposed research has a direct relevance to include Model-Based Engine Control under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program, Gas Path Health Management and Robust Propulsion Control under the Aviation Safety Program, and Fault Management Technologies under the Space Launch Systems program.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing
Atmospheric Propulsion
Simulation & Modeling
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A3.05-8427
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Controls/Dynamics - Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Active Combustion Control Valve

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
WASK Engineering, Inc.
3905 Dividend Drive
Cameron Park, CA 95682-7230
(530) 672-2795

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Phillipsen
paulp@waskengr.com111
3905 Dividend Drive
Cameron Park,  CA 95682-7230
(530) 672-2795

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Over the past decade, research into active combustion control has yielded impressive results in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities and widening the operational range of gas-turbine combustors. Active Combustion Instability Control (ACIC) controls the combustion process such that the heat release profile is modulated to dampen the naturally occurring thermoacoustic instabilities. A major challenge to effective implementation of active combustion control is the availability of valves and actuators that provide adequate flow modulation control authority. The majority of the published work revolves around valves designed to modulate the main combustor flow. At present these valves are not designed to operate in a harsh environment and as such are required to be located outside the main flow path, reducing their control authority. To effectively meet the challenge, valves and sensors that are smaller, more responsive and robust must be developed. Ultimately the control valves are co-located with the fuel injection manifold. The trade-off for the harsh environment operation is the ability to maximize the flow modulation control authority. The objective of this research is to integrate the required control authority into an operational environment. This research initiates the development of a light weight fast-acting fuel control valve for harsh environment operation. The valve will allow the precise time dependent fuel control required for lean-burn combustor operability. In this Phase I research a proof-of-concept valve is designed, fabricated and cold-flow tested using commercially-available driver circuitry to uncover potential performance benefits and demonstrate feasibility of the approach for further development.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Operational gas turbine combustors, including augmentors, are prone to thermoacoustic instabilities. Therefore, companies such as GE, PW and Rolls Royce, are actively investigating ACIC. The valves developed for the lean-burn combustor fuel control can also be used to provide the control authority required to implement ACIC techniques into existing product lines of not only the gas turbine manufactures listed above, but other engine manufacturers as well.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA, specifically the Controls and Dynamics branch at GRC, is actively engaged in Active Combustion Instability Control research. NASA is currently focusing on low emission lean-burn combustor design along with the application of ACIC techniques to increase the operating range of said combustors. The proposed harsh environment valves enable the application of the ACIC techniques due to the fact that the actuators, being closed-coupled to the fuel injector, have the required flow modulation control authority to implement the control schemes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Process Monitoring & Control
Actuators & Motors
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Active Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A3.05-8475
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Controls/Dynamics - Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight Small-Scale Turbine Generator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Metis Design Corporation
1501 Mariposa St Suite 416
San Francisco, CA 94107-2367
(617) 447-2172

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rory Keogh
rkeogh@metisdesign.com111
205 Portland St
Boston,  MA 02114-1708
(415) 572-1843

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovation is a propulsion technology that will help achieve NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP) goals of reducing emissions and increasing fuel efficiency for high speed flight. NASA's objective to achieve increase the specific power of high efficiency electric components to make a 10 mega-watt onboard power generation and/or utilization feasible for propulsion requires the development of sub-scale technologies to support the development and validation of newer turbo-electric aircraft and embedded boundary layer electric propulsion systems. Compact and lightweight generators scaling from the kW to MW class are needed to transition high speed aircraft to hybrid electric propulsion systems. Metis Design Corp is developing a lightweight, small-scale, gas turbine generator that draws on recent innovations in the fields of permanent magnet generators and turbomachinery, which has a target power density over twice the state-of-the-art and the potential to scale to 100's of kW. The proposed turbine engine uses a lightweight, two-spool configuration that eliminates the need for the heavy reduction gearbox required by state-of-the-art systems. Phase I of this SBIR will develop a preliminary design of the turbine generator sub-system and develop a detailed design, fabricate and test the innovative generator hardware. A follow-on phase II effort will develop a detailed design, fabricate and test the complete turbine generator sub-system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There will be many commercial applications for this technology beyond NASA. First would likely be for DoD Aerospace applications such as hybrid electric aircraft, UAVs and UCAVs. Outside of DoD there are other commercial applications such as auxiliary power units (APUs) for business jets, regional jets and commercial rotor-craft. Potential automotive application include lightweight range extenders for hybrid electric vehicles. The technology is also suitable for distributed electricity generation and co-generation applications requiring low capital cost.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Once this system is completed through Phase I and II SBIR research, it will be ready for deployment within several NASA applications. Of direct immediate relevance would be for the development and validation of sub-scale hybrid electric propulsion systems for high speed aircraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Generation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A3.06-9348
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Physics-Based Conceptual Design Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid-Electric Aircraft TOGW Development Tool with Empirically-Based Airframe and Physics-Based Hybrid Propulsion System Component Analysis

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Empirical Systems Aerospace, Inc.
P.O. Box 595
Pismo Beach, CA 93448-9665
(805) 275-1053

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrew Gibson
andrew.gibson@esaero.com111
P.O. Box 595
Pismo Beach,  CA 93448-9665
(805) 275-1053

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Hybrid-Electric distributed propulsion (HEDP) is becoming widely accepted and new tools will be required for future development. This Phase I SBIR proposal creates a turbo-electric, hybrid electric propulsion system sizing and weight synthesis tool specifically designed for use in an MDAO framework. It will offer significant flexibility regarding placement of the propulsive devices for top-level hybrid design, including over-wing, under-wing, split-wing, fuselage pylon-mounted, and other configurations. The user will supply power required, fan speed, fan torque, TOGW estimation, desired power split between engines and batteries, and selection for propulsion system locations. Sizing and weight analysis for electric motors, generators, speed controllers, gearboxes, cables, transformers, batteries, and cooling systems will be considered including structural considerations for heavily modified aircraft components for each system. The outputs will be hybrid electric propulsion system weight, sizes for the sub-system components, and revised HEDP specific TOGW calculation. The overall goal of this proposal is to provide a tool within a framework for top-level and conceptual hybrid electric propulsion studies. Additionally, the fidelity of the current NASA models is based on empirical-data and extrapolations. This proposed tool will employ physic-based models with empirical corrections, when needed. A Phase II and future commercialization plan have been identified.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A commercial application for top-level distributed propulsion sizing tool would be very attractive, as the industry is pressing toward hybrid-electric distributed propulsion (HEDP) concepts as new technologies for electric components and batteries develop. This product will leverage its ability to customize the propulsion system locations, such as under-wing, over-wing, split-wing, and fuselage pylon-mounted. This tool could also be improved as part of a Phase II effort to include fan and engine tools into a full HEDP tool, and in so doing, become significantly more attractive for commercialization. AFRL would benefit as they are conducting in-house studies and supporting ESAero in other related areas. IARPA and the FAA will also benefit, as the tool will be distributed within the government FOUO. ESAero has identified the government and industry partners to develop this type of technology both near term (Boeing, General Electric, Lockheed Martin) and long term (NASA, AFRL, IARPA etc.).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential NASA applications for this proposed effort will focus on integrating this tool into a larger MDAO framework for turbo-electric, hybrid electric aircraft design synthesis, benefitting multiple NRA projects, and other direct NASA efforts, both internal and external. Several nuances native to the turbo-electric or hybrid electric distributed propulsion are electric component weight and structure, electric component cooling, and electric cabling requiring a tool such as the one proposed for initial aircraft design synthesis. These new hurdles have not been addressed in previous textbook methods or efforts, but play a significant role in determining the feasibility of these new aircraft configurations. One of the major benefits to a decoupled energy management system using distributed propulsion is the freedom in placing the propulsors. The user can determine where; the options will include under-wing, over-wing, split-wing, fuselage pylon-mounted, and others. Each configuration will inherently have vastly different structural and cooling considerations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Superconductance/Magnetics
Distribution/Management
Generation
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Composites
Fluids
Metallics
Nonspecified
Actuators & Motors
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Structures
Verification/Validation Tools
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Heat Exchange
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A3.07-8351
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fast Responding Pressure-Sensitive Paint for Large-Scale Wind Tunnel Testing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc.
2766 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440-3638
(937) 429-4980

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jim Crafton
jwcrafton@innssi.com111
2766 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton,  OH 45440-3638
(937) 429-4980

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 7
End: 9

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed work focuses on implementing fast-response pressure-sensitive paint for measurements of unsteady pressure in rotorcraft applications. Significant rotorcraft problems such as dynamic stall, rotor blade loads in forward flight, and blade-vortex interaction all have significant unsteady pressure oscillations that must be resolved in order to understand the underlying physics. Installation of pressure transducers is difficult and expensive on rotorcraft models, and the resulting data has limited spatial resolution. Application of a fast-responding pressure-sensitive paint should provide unsteady surface pressure distributed over the blade surface. Fast PSP measurements have been demonstrated at NASA Langley on a 2-meter rotor model in hover and in forward flight by the ISSI/OSU team using two single camera systems. More recently, measurements were conducted in forward flight using multiple cameras and lasers at two azimuthal positions. We propose expanding this system for production testing. This will be accomplished by adding remote control of the system interrogation region using remote focus/zoom/aperture lenses and pan/tilt stages combined with Ethernet hardware to control the systems remotely. Motion blur will be addressed using both a rotating mirror and de-convolution software. Data processing software will be customized to allow scripting of repetitive operations to speed up data processing. Finally, a temperature measurement capability will be added to the system to allow temperature corrections to be applied to the PSP data. These modifications to the system will improve accuracy and productivity during testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is considerable interest in measurements of unsteady pressure for evaluation of computational models and study of flow physics on hypersonic inlets, compressors, aeroelasticity, and rotorcraft aerodynamics. This system will provide advancement of the state-of-the-art in this field as the proposed research will develop a system for the measurement of continuous distributions unsteady pressure that requires no physical modifications to the model and produces data with high spatial resolution. ISSI has sold several production PSP systems world-wide. There is significant interest among these customers in fast responding PSP. ISSI is currently involved in discussions with several commercial aircraft manufactures regarding the potential of a fast responding PSP system for flight testing. Development of this system for wind tunnel testing is seen as a first step in this process.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is considerable interest in measurements of unsteady pressure for evaluation of computational models and study of flow physics on hypersonic inlets, compressors, aeroelasticity, and rotorcraft aerodynamics. This system will provide advancement of the state-of-the-art in this field as the proposed research will develop a system for the measurement of continuous distributions unsteady pressure that require no physical modifications to the model and produces data with high spatial resolution. This technology could be deployed to wind tunnels at Ames, Glenn, and Langley for testing on a variety of programs that have need of unsteady pressure measurements. Specific applications include Rotorcraft Aerodynamics, Open Rotor, and Supersonic Inlets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Characterization
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Image Processing
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Processing
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Acoustic/Vibration
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Pressure/Vacuum
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A3.07-8856
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Order Aeromechanics Model Support for Rotorcraft Conceptual Design

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618-2302
(609) 538-0444

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert McKillip, Jr.
bob@continuum-dynamics.com111
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing,  NJ 08618-2302
(609) 538-0444

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Conceptual design tools for rotorcraft are used to size vehicles for intended flight operations, as well as reveal trends on the relative benefits certain configuration choices have on the resulting aircraft performance. This information is useful for indicating potentially valuable areas for further technology development that would enhance rotorcraft capabilities. These tools must therefore contain models of subcomponents that are sufficiently accurate to capture current rotorcraft technology performance metrics, but with suitably simplified models to permit rapid re-calculation as befits an optimization scheme. If subcomponent models are insufficient or lacking, they may be built up using simplified models or empirical relations derived from more detailed, comprehensive codes. This approach permits the rapid analysis turn-around required of a sizing program while still capturing the trending information available from the more detailed analysis tool. In the proposed Phase I program, CDI plans to use its full-span free wake analysis tool, the CHARM Module, to investigate approaches for adding this analysis capability to rotorcraft conceptual design software, specifically to extend options for aerodynamic performance modeling, computation of handling qualities metrics, and assessment of acoustic emissions. NASA has recently made available a sizing code named NDARC (for NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft), which has a modular framework to permit the inclusion of different or additional subcomponent models in its operation as proposed here for development. Phase I will investigate the addition of these features in that conceptual design code as a convenient demonstration of the viability of this approach.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Industry and other government users of NDARC would benefit from the added analysis capabilities, while CDI would extend its analytical tools for rotorcraft modeling and assessment to other NDARC users.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed additions to NDARC would expand its analysis options and provide additional assessment of preliminary rotorcraft designs for their handling qualities and acoustic footprint. These metrics may be incorporated back within NDARC to provide an additional internal criterion for the design optimization process.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A3.08-8846
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Efficiency - Turbomachinery Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Passive Wireless Temperature Sensor for Harsh Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
WIRELESS SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
1020 GLEN ARBOR DRIVE
ENCINITAS, CA 92024-2443
(408) 234-3741

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
JOHN CONKLE
jconkle@wisen-tech.com111
1020 GLEN ARBOR DRIVE
ENCINITAS,  CA 92024-2443
(408) 234-3741

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Wireless Sensor Technologies has for several years been developing a passive Wireless Temperature Sensor (WTS) for gas turbine engine and other harsh environment applications under the under sponsorship of the Air Force (Non-destructive Test Program) and the Navy (SBIR Topic N08-004). Once productized, the functional and operational goals for the sensor as they relate to the gas turbine engine are to: ? Measure the surface temperature of the Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings (YSZ TBC's) typically applied to turbine blades in the hot section of the gas turbine engines ? Measure temperature at specific locations on the surface of the combustor liner to determine both radial and circumferential temperature variations (pattern factor) o Thin film passive wireless sensors will be arrayed in an annular ring around the combustor to determine pattern factor in an effort to sense the uniformity of combustion downstream from the fuel injectors. ? Measure the surface temperature of any area of interest using a weldable coupon version of the wireless temperature sensor ? Measure heat flux across the section thickness of thermal barrier coatings by pairing several of the proposed wireless temperature sensors (for the surface temperature measurement of TBC's. This program will characterize the longterm drift and reliability of the WTS and in Phase 2 result in a sensor with a TRL level of 6 to 7.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The wireless temperature sensor technology is directly applicable to the following application areas: 1. Jet Engine Development Instrumentation &#150; a. Jet Engine Manufacturers (Pratt Whitney, GE, Rolls Royce, Honeywell), b. Military Test Labs 2. Gas Turbine Engine Powered Aircraft, Condition-based Maintenance Instrumentation &#150; a. Jet Engine Manufacturers (Pratt Whitney, GE, Rolls Royce, Honeywell), b. Commercial Jet Airplane Manufacturers &#150; Boeing, Airbus, c. Military Jet Manufacturers, c. Helicopter Manufacturers 3. Other gas turbine engine development and continuous health monitoring &#150; a. Jet aircraft APU, b. Public utility power generation. 4. Public Infrastructure Health Monitoring &#150; Homeland Security and regional public agencies

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Wireless Temperature Sensor is directly applicable to NASA commercial applications including in situ instrumentation that can be used to characterized unsteady flow in three-dimensional flow fields as found in the combustors of gas turbine engines. The sensor is also extremely robust, allowing it to be used in other areas including transition ducts and engine rotors and stators.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Metallics
Actuators & Motors
Exciters/Igniters
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Ablative Propulsion
Atmospheric Propulsion
Launch Engine/Booster
Thermal
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A3.08-9001
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Efficiency - Turbomachinery Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Temperature Sensors Using Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanowires

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
HARP Engineering, LLC
2779 SW 103 St.
Gainesivlle, FL 32608-9077
(480) 205-1202

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kate Caldwell
caldwell.kate@gmail.com111
3614 NW 97th Blvd
Gainesville,  FL 32606-5063
(480) 205-1202

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA requires new instrumentation technologies that can be applied to measure dynamic quantities such as acceleration and flow velocity under extreme temperatures where traditional sensing methodologies cannot be applied. The proposed Phase I SBIR research effort will seek to create accelerometers and flow sensors that can be applied to measure signals at temperatures in excess of 900F. In order to accomplished this proposed task we will develop new sensor modalities built on vertically aligned ZnO nanowires. ZnO is a piezoelectric materials that is not ferroelectric and thus it has an intrinsic polarization and no Curie temperature where traditional piezoelectric materials cease to function. The proposed objective of this program is to advance the field of sensing through the development of a novel nanostructured sensor for the measurement of acceleration and wall shear-stress at high temperature. The proposed sensor will provide the ability to make measurements at spatial resolutions previously unrealized through the patterned growth of the nanowire arrays thus providing a smaller footprint and an opportunity for numerous sensors on a single chip. The nanowire synthesis process is solution based and scalable allowing sensors to be built for a fraction of the cost of the complex lithography based methods of current MEMS technologies. These advances will allow researchers to study complex flows and dynamics such as those in turbomachinery under operational temperatures not conducive to current sensing technologies. Our results will seek devices with previously unrealized dimensions and properties that will impact numerous fields of science including the efficiency of turbomachinery.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of a first of its kind nano-sensor will make a broad range of impacts to the scientific community. Wall shear-stress sensors can measure a variety of important flow parameters including the flow velocity through an enclosed region, viscous drag, turbulent flow, and flow separation. Due to the use of nanofabrication techniques, the sensor can be made small enough to be applied in a variety of applications including in vitro blood flow sensors for making cardiovascular measurements allowing for a better understanding of vascular pathology. Additionally, because the geometry of the ZnO nanowire array can be controlled at the nanometer level during fabrication, the sensor can be designed for use in a variety of other systems, including flow measurements in the micro channels of fuel cells, detection and control of flow separation in aircraft skins, or its use as a biological fuel cell to convert blood flow into usable electrical energy for drug delivery or other biosensors. The proposed sensor will allow researchers to investigate fluid flow using sensors on scales never before studied, therefore leading to fundamental advances in science. Furthermore, the device would not necessarily need to be used for a sensor but could be used as an actuator for a nano-pump or active flow control. Due to the unique manufacturing process for the proposed sensors the technology proposed here would have far reaching applications and commercialization potential.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has a critical need for new sensor technology that can improve the efficiency of turbomachinery, which would produce dramatic reductions in aircraft fuel burn, noise, and emissions, as well as an ability to achieve mission requirements for, Subsonic, Rotary Wing, and High Speed Project flight regimes. In order to achieve this efficiency enhancement new sensor modalities are required which can provide flow measurements with high spatial and temporal resolution at temperatures exceeding 900F. The proposed SBIR program will develop a new nanostructured sensor technology for the measurement of wall shear at temperatures far beyond the combustor exit temperature. The results will impact a wide range of NASA programs including fundamental research efforts under the Aeronautical Sciences Project.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Airship/Lighter-than-Air Craft
Air Transportation & Safety
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Characterization
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Nanomaterials
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Acoustic/Vibration


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A3.08-9070
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Efficiency - Turbomachinery Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Novel Plasma-Based Compressor Stall Control System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Kaszeta
rwk@creare.com111
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 640-2441

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Modern aircraft gas turbine engines utilize highly loaded airfoils in both the compressor and turbine to maximize performance while minimizing weight, cost, and complexity. However, high airfoil loading increases the likelihood of flow separation at lower mass flow rates. Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma actuators have been shown to be a very promising technique for compressor stall control. DBD devices can either be installed directly on rotor/stator surfaces or the compressor end walls to control rotor tip flow. A fundamental challenge in driving DBD actuators is providing appropriate electrical waveforms to the devices. Creare proposes the development of an innovative DBD actuator charging circuit topology which enables (1) low voltage DC power distribution, (2) a modular approach to achieving total power delivery, (3) use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components, and (4) resolution of impedance matching issues associated with other DBD charging circuit topologies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to military and NASA customers, a fully developed active flow control technology for turbomachinery may also prove useful in commercial applications in which separation phenomena are known to cause performance issues, including turbine engines (for both power generation and aircraft use) and aerial vehicles. The implementation of an effective and efficient compressor stall control system can greatly improve the operational envelopes for both existing retrofitted compressors, as well as enable new compressor designs with significantly lower stall limits.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology supports NASA's mission to help improve the performance of commercial aviation through development of advanced gas turbine engine systems. The technology also has the potential for enabling improved gas turbine engine performance for applications as far-reaching as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) proposed for extraterrestrial exploration. An efficient DBD actuator system can provide active stall control for compressor blading and low-pressure turbine blades. Implementation of a practical DBD actuator system, including the necessary driving and control electronics, should allow significantly improved low mass flow operation of turbine engines, as well as greatly increased operational envelopes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Actuators & Motors
Atmospheric Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A3.09-8860
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground and Flight Test Techniques and Measurement Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: DURA-Peel, DURACON-Based Removable High Accuracy IR Thermography Coatings

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Technologies Corporation
57 Maryanne Drive
Monroe, CT 06468-3209
(203) 874-3100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Changkuan Ju
cju@aboutmtc.com111
57 Maryanne Drive
Monroe,  CT 06468-3209
(203) 502-8682

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Fiber reinforced composite materials are used extensively in aerospace applications due to their high stiffness and strength to weight ratio, and superior thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic and fatigue properties. However, given their demanding operational environment, composite aerospace and aircraft structures are prone to damage and manufacturing related flaws. An accurate assessment of composite structural performance and system life management strategies requires quantitative information on the aforementioned damage states of the components. Recent advances in infra-red (IR) sensing and data processing technologies have enabled real-time thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) methodologies to finally become viable for accurate diagnostics and prognostics of composite structures. The success of these thermography methods, however, depends strongly on the characteristics of the surface of the composite components. Materials Technologies Corporation (MTC) proposes to develop a specialized, spray-on and peel-off coating technique which would facilitate high accuracy quantitative thermoelastic analysis through improved IR response and thus enable on-going in-situ diagnostics and prognostics during component lifecycle without necessitating disassembly and off-line inspection. A major benefit of the product would be to facilitate usage of less expensive inspection systems that can take advantage of the advanced high emissivity coatings.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial applications are numerous. Almost all industries including aerospace, automotive, and energy sectors would need coating enhanced IR-NDE inspection systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For NASA, the proposed coatings would help in the Low-Cost and Reliable Access to Space (LCRATS) program. Specifically, it can be used for determining structural integrity of bonded assemblies; and non-intrusive inspection of Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV), Orion heat shield and painted surfaces. It will facilitate detecting and pinpointing corrosion under painted surfaces; identifying composite defects and evaluating integrity; non-destructive measurement and evaluation of COPV; and damage inspection and acceptance testing of Orion heat shield.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Infrared
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 A3.09-9350
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground and Flight Test Techniques and Measurement Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Investigative Research, FMECA and PHM Modeling of Hybrid-Electric Distributed Propulsion System Architectures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Empirical Systems Aerospace, Inc.
P.O. Box 595
Pismo Beach, CA 93448-9665
(805) 275-1053

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Benjamin Schiltgen
benjamin.schiltgen@esaero.com111
P.O. Box 595
Pismo Beach,  CA 93448-9665
(805) 275-1053

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Hybrid-Electric distributed propulsion (HEDP) is becoming widely accepted and new tools will be required for future development with validation and demonstrations during ground and eventually flight testing. To monitor the overall HEDP system health in real time, a virtual requirement to flight qualify any architecture hardware components, reliability centered maintenance (RCM) applied to prognostics and health management (PHM) will yield significant improvement in HEDP system reliability, availability, safety and cost. This work will identify the tools and create a generic methodology for the PHM of a HEDP system based on RCM and failure mode data of likely HEDP architecture components. The proposed work will notionally design a PHM system into a HEDP system architecture, with feedback systems from each component within the stated architecture, as well as potential mitigation strategies for component failure modes. Specific attention will be applied to understanding of the reliability, availability, and safety for the HEDP components. Heating, arching, unexpected voltage drop, and other potential electronic pitfalls will be identified and mitigated. ESAero will leverage their component databases, experience with HEDP component architectures, aircraft design, and vendor relationships while General Atomics (GA) will provide expertise in PHM with their HealthMap software.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential non-NASA commercial applications for this proposed SBIR effort will be similar to the NASA commercial applications, specifically during conceptual design for HEDP system architectures. This tool would provide valuable performance, health, and reliability information during top-level design as well as provide a significant boost for further aircraft design development. The ESAero/GA team proposing this work is in a unique position because the subcontractor, General Atomics, is the best path for immediate commercialization as a manufacturer of RPAs, RPA payloads, and propulsion systems for the Air Force. The HEDP PHM methodologies and models to be developed during this work are directly applicable to multiple AFRL, NASA and IARPA programs, along with some private industry work with particularly Lockheed Martin and Boeing. The first HEDP aircraft targeted could include GA's offerings, or something similar in performance and size for flight testing and demonstration activities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential NASA commercial applications for this proposed SBIR effort will be twofold: during the conceptual design phase for HEDP architectures, a PHM system will provide a method for determining the health and functionality of these new electronic systems as they are integrated into the HEDP architecture, and eventually, the conceptual design process, directly benefitting NASA's work in HEDP and anticipated future testing activities, whether ground or flight. These methodologies will provide a valuable tool during initial design as well as provide a significant boost for further HEDP aircraft design development. Another area which could benefit NASA is to back away from HEDP specific PHM and re-configure the methodology and models for targeted PHM on any given subsystem related to HEDP, as a single component could be considered another "subsystem" in the view of the aircraft PHM. This could even include land-based monitoring devices.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Intelligence
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Distribution/Management
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Input/Output Devices (Displays, Storage)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Acoustic/Vibration
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Contact/Mechanical
Electromagnetic
Inertial
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)
Pressure/Vacuum
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Thermal
Development Environments
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Lifetime Testing
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H1.01-8963
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Utilization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Temperature Trash Gasification Reactor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 West 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033-1916
(303) 940-2347

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Nabity
nabity@tda.com111
12345 West 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge,  CO 80212-1916
(303) 940-2313

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Converting in-situ resources into propellants, energy storage reactants, or other useful products at the site of exploration, known as in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), instead of transporting these supplies from Earth can significantly reduce the cost and risk of human exploration while at the same time enabling new mission concepts and long term exploration sustainability. NASA needs innovative gasification reactors to convert trash into useful intermediate products such as carbon dioxide and water, which can ultimately be used to make methane and oxygen for propulsion and energy generation applications. Unfortunately, partial oxidation reactors and incinerators that might be used to reduce trash to useful products operate at high temperatures and also create ash, tar and other undesirable by-products. TDA Research has developed a low temperature (< 135 degrees C) ozone oxidation process that efficiently and cleanly converts trash into carbon dioxide and water. These intermediate products can then be delivered to a Sabatier reactor for the production of methane and oxygen. However, our reactor was designed for use on the moon or Mars whereas future spacecraft will need systems able to function in zero-g and micro-g environments. Therefore, TDA proposes to develop a trash gasification reactor that uses our ozone oxidation process and will work in the absence of gravity. In this project we will conduct the analysis and experiments to design the reactor.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Agencies and communities other than NASA also need to reuse or recycle trash and sterilize water and medical equipment, which can be accomplished with ozone. The Army needs portable systems to eliminate trash and purify grey water for reuse. Ozone can also effectively remove organic contaminants from surfaces that would have once been cleaned with chlorocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons; materials now banned from use. For example, ozone can be used to clean hydrocarbons from semiconductors, magnetic disks, medical devices, flight hardware, etc. which would be damaged by high temperature cleaning processes.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project will develop a trash gasification reactor to generate CO2 and water that can be used for in situ synthesis of propellants. The ability to convert trash to propellants is critical to the success of long term space missions. As yet no technologies have been developed that meet all of the demanding criteria required by such a process, and our low temperature trash gasification reactor is critical to such missions. A successful Phase II project will lead to Phase III support for the development of flightweight hardware.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Waste Storage/Treatment
In Situ Manufacturing
Resource Extraction
Fuels/Propellants


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H1.01-9162
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Utilization
PROPOSAL TITLE: EMG System for Production of Methane From Carbon Dioxide

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sustainable Innovations, LLC
160 Oak Street
Glastonbury, CT 06033-2336
(860) 652-9690

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Trent Molter
trent.molter@sustainableinnov.com111
160 Oak Street
Glastonbury,  CT 06033-2336
(860) 652-9690

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Sustainable Innovations, LLC, is developing an Electrochemical Methane Generator (EMG), which comprises a novel method of converting CO2 and H2O to hydrocarbon fuels (such as methane) and O2. When powered by a renewable energy source, such as solar or wind power, it can provide a method for producing high quality fuels in a distributed fashion. This is accomplished by harvesting CO2 from the atmosphere and processing it electrochemically to release methane fuel and water. Sustainable Innovations' EMG technology has the potential to lead to a global sustainable energy infrastructure and could also play a pivotal role in achieving both the energy and the life support needs of extraterrestrial bases. For example, the Martian atmosphere, which is predominately CO2, can be directly used as a feedstock for the production of both fuel and water. The water can then be recycled to produce breathing oxygen.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology can be used to produce a variety of fuels and commodity chemicals from waste carbon dioxide in distributed form. This can be used to generate chemical intermediates in industrial processes wile simultaneously managing carbon dioxide emissions. Fuels and commodity chemicals that can be produced include methane, methanol, ethanol, formic acid, oxalic acid, formaldehyde and others.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology provides the opportunity to manage carbon dioxide and oxygen in life support applications, generate potable water, and produce fuels in a distributed fashion making it ideal for an ISRU application.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Distribution/Management
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Storage
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Resource Extraction
Fuels/Propellants
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H1.01-9285
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Utilization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Efficient Conversion of Carbon Dioxide into Methane using 3rd Generation Ionic Liquids

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AZ Technology Inc
7047 Old Madison Pike, Suite 300
Huntsville, AL 35806-2188
(256) 837-9877

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Paley
steve.paley@aztechnology.com111
7047 Old Madison Pike Suite 300
Huntsville,  AL 35806-2188
(256) 837-9877

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This work directly addresses a technology of interest listed in Section 9, sub-section H1.01 In-Situ Resource Utilization, specifically "Highly efficient reactors for carbon monoxide/carbon dioxide (CO/CO2) conversion into methane (CH4)." The proposal will investigate combining recent work that demonstrates outstanding CO2 sorption by third generation ionic liquids (ILs) without an increase in viscosity (even in the presence of water) with adaptations of recently developed methodology for electrochemically reducing and polymerizing CO2 in an aqueous IL to polyethylene. The intention is to demonstrate that this methodology is an excellent candidate for creating a highly efficient reactor for carbon dioxide conversion to methane. Unlike conventional electrolytes, ILs generally have very low vapor pressures. This will make it possible for them to be used in the much lower pressure Martian atmosphere without the problem of evaporation. Our goal is to build on the results achieved by other research groups by using our own knowledge and years of experience working with ILs, including electrochemistry, to efficiently reduce CO2. We will prepare the task-specific 3rd generation ILs and then measure their electrochemical properties; i.e., conductivity, electrochemical window, etc. These are currently unknown but are important in order to ascertain whether these ILs are suitable for this application. Anticipating this will be the case, we will then test various electrodes, including TiO2 and silver cathodes, to determine which gives the most selective reduction of CO2 to methane. The efficiency of the process (including power requirements) will be quantified and compared to the Sebatier and Fischer-Tropsch processes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) extraction is a highly efficient but costly industrial process. It is anticipated that increasing the CO2 in the bulk phase ionic liquid (IL) electrolyte will not lead to large increases in the bulk phase viscosity which is a critical issue in previous studies with IL/CO2 equilibriums. If so, the low viscosity of the saturated IL media will make them excellent candidates for improving supercritical fluid extraction efficiencies and reducing capital costs; scCO2 and ILs are environmentally friendly alternatives to replace traditional solvents. The IL could be integrated into both upstream and downstream syngas production in gas-to-liquid type plants. Application in the water gas shift reactor layout could provide a low temperature route for electrochemically controlling the CO:H2 ratio and impurity of the feed stream into the Fischer-Tropsch reactor which is critical to the operating costs. Downstream processing and recycling could be enhanced as well by replacing or working in tandem with methyldiethanol amine units for increased waste gas absorption and carbon recycle efficiency. The same downstream recycle system could easily be scaled down and adapted for lower capacity carbon sequestering. This has the potential to work in tandem with scCO2 technology to improve syngas production while also reducing costs and improving efficiency for scCO2 separation units.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed electrochemical reduction of CO2 using 3rd generation ionic liquids will provide a means to produce methane from atmospheric CO2 in low pressure and temperature environments such as those found on Mars. The product selectivity and efficiency is thought to be governed by the mass diffusion profile in the electrochemical cell. Consequently, methane quality and conversion rates can be optimized to space applications by the proposed characterization of electrode interfaces. The low volatility, low vapor pressure and anticipated viscosity when loaded with CO2 makes 3rd generation ionic liquids an excellent choice for investigation of applications in both space and terrestrial environments. Since one of NASA's main goals is to produce methane propellant from the CO2 found in the Martian atmosphere, we also propose to determine the effects of small quantities of Martian dust. Any practical space hardware operating on Mars will be designed to capture CO2 directly from the Martian atmosphere. There will no doubt be some sort of filter mechanism in line, but some contaminants are likely to get into the IL. Our group has considerable experience working with meteorites. We will use powder from well characterized Martian meteorites to provide the dust contamination.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Characterization
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Resource Extraction
Fluids
Metallics
Organics/Biomaterials/Hybrids
Fuels/Propellants
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H1.01-9302
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Utilization
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Two-Stage Waste Gasification Reactor for Mars In-Situ Resource Utilization

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerodyne Research, Inc.
45 Manning Road
Billerica, MA 01821-3976
(978) 663-9500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hsi-Wu Wong
hwwong@aerodyne.com111
45 Manning Road
Billerica,  MA 01821-3976
(978) 663-9500

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to design, build, and test a two-stage waste processing reactor for space applications. Our proposed technology converts waste from space missions into hydrogen, water, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide that can be used for energy production and/or life support. This innovative reactor technology employs a pyrolysis reactor as the first step, followed by a chemical looping gasification reactor as the second step. The two-stage process is more suitable than the traditional one-step gasification process, because solid residues associated with the waste, such as ash and tar, are contained in the pyrolysis unit. The utilization of metal oxides that can be readily obtained at the site of exploration as an oxidizer in the gasification (second) step instead of traditional oxidizers such as oxygen or steam further saves the valuable resources that can be used for life support systems or other space applications. If successful, our innovation can fully utilize natural (metal oxides) and discarded (wastes from space missions) materials that may exist during space exploration, thus saving the valuable oxygen or water that can be used for life support systems or other space applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other government agencies can also benefit from our proposed technology. The proposed technology will be of interest to DOD for military deployments in remote areas where water and/or energy resources are scarce. The proposed pyrolysis-chemical looping technology can provide a more environmental friendly alternative to convert waste plastics and biomass into synthesis gas&#150;carbon dioxide produced from the process can be easily separated from the combustion air and almost no NOx and SOx emissions will be resulted from the process. As a result, government agencies and other commercial sectors involving synthesis gas production or alternative energy technologies from waste will also benefit from our proposed effort.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The target NASA application for our technology is in-situ production of useful compounds using discarded waste and natural mineral resources in space. Our innovation, if successful, fully utilizes resources readily available during space exploration, and is inline with NASA's vision of ISRU &#150; to harness and utilize resources at the site of exploration and to create products that significantly reduce the mass, cost, and risk of near-term and long-term space exploration. We anticipate the proposed technology can be readily used for Mars exploration, since hematite (mineral form of Fe2O3) is believed to be widely available on Mars. Other space missions in need of water or power generation may also benefit from our technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Waste Storage/Treatment
Conversion
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H1.01-9513
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Utilization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Non Thermal Plasma Assisted Catalytic Reactor for CO2 Methanation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South
College Station, TX 77845-6023
(979) 764-2218

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mahesh Waje
mahesh.waje@lynntech.com111
2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South
College Station,  TX 77845-6023
(979) 764-2200

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In situ production of methane as propellant and oxygen as life support consumables from the atmospheric CO2 and water on Mars is a key enabling technology required for sustainable and affordable human exploration of Mars. Sabatier reaction for catalytic methanation of CO2 with H2 is a commercially well known process achieving conversions in excess of 99% at temperature of ~350?C. However, application of this technology for Mars missions requires significant improvements in terms of mass and durability of the Sabatier reactor. Conventional catalytic approaches are insufficient to address the catalyst durability issues and its tolerance to impurities such as H2S and halogenated compounds, which may be present in small quantities in Martian CO2. Lynntech proposes a novel low power, low temperature, impurity tolerant non thermal plasma assisted catalysis for the methanation of CO2. Lynntech will develop a multi-channel reactor design based on parametric study in Phase I. The Phase II of the project will build a full scale Sabatier reactor for NASA application.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Sabatier technology can be used for CO2 sequestration or as an intermediate processing technique for fuel or chemical production in the commercial market. The primary and sub-markets for Lynntech's Sabatier technology are as follows: (1) CO2 sequestration with SNG formation for a number of areas including power plants and petrochemical industry. (2) CO removal (specific methanation) technology for purification of reformate or hydrogen streams from fuel reformation. (3) Reformation processes such as dry reforming of methane with CO2. The plasma assisted catalytic reactor design has several applications in following areas: (1) Gas purification (such as impurity removal from biogas, natural gas, LPG, etc.), (2) Diesel exhaust gas purification for NOx and SOx abatement, (3) Fuel reformation for hydrogen generation and (4) Sluggish catalytic reactions requiring high activation energies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lynntech's non thermal plasma assisted Sabatier reactor technology provides an energy efficient, low temperature and durable product for the generation of methane from CO2 for following NASA applications: (1) Propellant production on Mars from the Martian CO2, (2) Atmospheric revitalization of the cabin environment for utilization of CO2 in the cabin.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In Situ Manufacturing
Resource Extraction
Fuels/Propellants


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H1.01-9614
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Utilization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Highly Efficient Solid Oxide Electrolyzer & Sabatier System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paragon Space Development Corporation
3481 East Michigan Street
Tucson, AZ 85714-2221
(520) 903-1000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christine Iacomini, PhD
ciacomini@paragonsdc.com111
3481 E. Michigan Street
Tucson,  AZ 85714-2221
(520) 382-4824

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Paragon Space Development Corporation&#174; (Paragon) and ENrG Incorporated (ENrG) are teaming to provide a highly efficient reactor for carbon monoxide/carbon dioxide (CO/CO2) conversion into methane (CH4). The system is a gravity-independent, compact, leak-tight, Solid Oxide Electrolyzer (SOE) system with embedded Sabatier reactors (ESR). Utilizing Corning Incorporated (Corning) Intellectual Property (IP), ENrG and Paragon can leverage an all-ceramic, efficient, and low mass solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) that remains leak-tight after hundreds of thermal cycles. Paragon proposes that incorporation of the all-ceramic technology into our SOE/ESR system will result in a robust design solution that will: 1) be thermally shock tolerant and capable of hundreds of on-off cycles at faster cycles than compared to the metal-to-ceramic SOE designs, 2) be lighter, smaller, and require less power than existing designs, 3) allow for high (>90%) single pass utilization of feedstock, and 4) achieve a thermodynamic efficiency of up to 80%. Our Phase I effort includes laboratory tests to determine the feasibility of employing the all-ceramic SOFC design as both an electrolyzer cell and an ESR to improve single pass utilization of the feed stock and deter carbon deposition. Integrating cells that operate as either an electrolyzer or a Sabatier reactor simplifies operations, lowers hardware complexity, and increases reliability. The proposed system can perform multiple functions without modifications, making it a readily deployable technology for various missions from ISRU on the Moon and Mars to regenerating 100% of a crew's oxygen while in transit.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
SOE/ESR oxygen regeneration systems can be utilized in underwater research facilities, submarines, high altitude aircraft, or emergency bunkers. Hazardous material handlers, rescue personnel, or other professionals performing in extreme environments would benefit greatly from a self-contained oxygen supply system that requires no external supply of consumables. Also, SOE operated as fuel cell-spinoffs include power systems for regions or as relief systems during high energy-use periods of the day.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
SOE/ESRs can be used to produce oxygen from in situ planetary resources and to regenerate 100% of the oxygen needs of a crew from crew-produced CO2 and H2O vapor. The SOE/ESR can be designed to satisfy various missions, regardless of destination or the technology chosen for using the extraterrestrial resources (e.g., hydrogen vs carbothermal lunar regolith reduction). Furthermore, SOE/ESR development would allow inclusion in several of the commercial and civil vehicles under development. A point underscored by Paragon's existing relationships with many of the key players.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Remediation/Purification
Waste Storage/Treatment
In Situ Manufacturing
Ceramics
Fuels/Propellants


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H2.01-8639
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Load-Bearing Tank-Applied Multi-Layer Insulation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sierra Lobo, Inc.
102 Pinnacle Dr.
Fremont, OH 43420-7400
(419) 499-9653

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Haberbusch
mhaberbusch@sierralobo.com111
102 Pinnacle Dr.
Fremont,  OH 43420-7400
(419) 499-9653

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed load-bearing, tank-applied, multi-layer insulation system consists of a set of highly reflective radiation shields made from 1 mil thick aluminized Mylar that is supported from a "pop-up tent like" support frame. In addition, the support frame carries the mass of an actively cooled shield and outer MLI blanket enabling ultra low heat leak storage of cryogenic fluids. The support frame is conveniently mounted to the top and bottom center tank penetrations, eliminating any direct supports to the cryogen tank itself, which reduces the heat leak to near the theoretical minimum. The novel design approach is significantly better than conventional MLI, which does not possess the required structural or thermal capabilities required. The technical approach is to integrate low-risk, high Technology Readiness Level (TRL) (TRL 7-9) components into a new and unique low-cost, light-weight, high-strength, thermally efficient MLI system. This approach enables the system to meet and exceed all requirements for reduced heat leak, low-mass, and high strength to withstand flight loads. The NASA Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Program will directly benefit from the development of the proposed MLI system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The advanced insulation techniques being proposed by Sierra Lobo can be used in nearly any industrial, commercial, or medical application currently requiring storage of liquid cryogens such as helium, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Such fluids are routinely used in the medical industry, metals processing, semiconductor manufacture and as well as many non-NASA government agencies. The targeted applications for the Department of Defense include Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUV) that carry liquid oxygen and potentially liquid hydrogen, liquid hydrogen powered ground transportation systems, space platforms using electric propulsion (xenon, hydrogen), space-based chemical lasers (hydrogen, helium), orbit transfer vehicles (hydrogen, oxygen), and orbital propellant depots/space stations (hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen). The Department of Energy applications include reducing heat leak into liquid helium cooled superconducting magnets for particle acceleration systems. Commercial market applications include cryogenic storage dewars for medical and process systems and over-the-road dewars for transporting cryogenics, especially the lower temperature cryogens, liquid hydrogen and helium.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Application of this technology would significantly reduce the losses associated with the storage of cryogenic fluids. The advanced insulation techniques being proposed by Sierra Lobo will directly benefit NASA's Advanced Space Exploration Program. Cryogenic fluids such as hydrogen, methane, and oxygen are required for many current and future space missions that will use life-support, propulsion, and power systems. The targeted NASA applications for long term cryogenic propellant storage, in-space as well as on the lunar surface, include space transportation orbit transfer vehicles, upper stages, space power systems, spaceports, spacesuits, lunar habitation systems, and in situ propellant systems. In addition, NASA spaceport operations and propulsion test facilities are both heavily dependent upon a wide range of cryogenic systems. Improving the efficiency of these systems at these facilities using advanced insulation techniques will directly benefit the programs they support through reduced operating costs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Storage
Fuels/Propellants
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H2.01-8810
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Small Scroll Pump for Cryogenic Liquids

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Air Squared Inc.
3001 Industrial Ln. #3
Broomfield, CO 80020-7153
(513) 238-9778

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bryce Shaffer
bryce@airsquared.com111
3001 Industrial Ln. #3
Broomfield,  CO 80020-7153
(513) 238-9778

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovation is a compact, reliable, light weight, electrically driven pump capable of pumping cryogenic liquids, based on scroll pump technology. This pump will fulfill several needs stated in SBIR Research Topic, H2.01: Cryogenic Fluid Management Technologies. Zero gravity cryogenic control devices (spray bars and mixers), require cryogenic liquids to be pumped efficiently. Propellant conditioning and densification technologies require compact, efficient pumps. Broad area cooling of cryopropellant shields can be facilitated by the pumping of a cold gas such as helium in a loop from a cryocooler to a shield. Various methods of liquefaction of oxygen such as passive radiative cooling can be enabled by cryogenic pumping. Other aerospace applications such as a fuel pump for liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft. A compact, reliable, and light weight pump for cryogenic liquids currently does not exist. Our subcontractor, Ball Aerospace and Technologies, has identified the need for such a pump several years ago, but has not found a suitable available product. Scroll pumps have several advantages over other pump technology, including being compact, light weight, reliable and efficient. The pump can be hermetically isolated from the drive motor by the use of a magnetic coupler, allowing the pump to be hermetically sealed. Because of the orbital motion, the scrolls can be placed in a metal bellows that are sealed to the housing which isolates the liquid via a vacuum enclosure for thermal isolation. The bearings can be placed on thermally isolating arms, so they do not need to operate at cryogenic temperatures. Scroll pumps have considerable technical heritage relevant to this application. Air Squared has developed and successfully tested scroll pumps for liquids and for cryogenic gasses. Air Squared has developed several compact pumps for pumping air which has similar viscosity and compressibility to liquid hydrogen.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
United Launch Alliance (ULA) is currently developing an integrated fluid system (IVF) to recover and use boil off hydrogen and oxygen from its Centaur upper launch vehicle. An enabling component of this system would be a positive displacement cryogenic pump. The cold propellant gases would be pumped to a pressure of approximately 200 PSI and stored in tanks for use as reaction control system fuel or tank pressurization. The small size and pressure capability of the scroll pump would be well suited for this application. A strong demand exists for small cryogenic pumps for use in liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft. The Boeing Company and AeroViroment, Inc. have developed and flown hydrogen fueled, unmanned aircraft as reconnaissance platforms. Typically, these aircraft fuel systems require the hydrogen to be delivered at a pressure of 90 PSIG, currently this done by making the operating pressure of the tanks at minimum of 90 PSIG. This results in tanks that can operate with a safety margin above this pressure. If the tanks could operate at a lower pressure, such as 30 PSIG, the tank walls could be thinner and lighter. The estimated weight savings of a pumped system for the Boeing Phantom Eye hydrogen fueled aircraft is over 400 pounds per aircraft. The scroll pump would be an important discriminator in aircraft performance.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Launch Vehicle &#150; Load Responsive Multi-Layer Insulation (LV-LRMLI) could provide a high performance thermal insulation for Launch Vehicles with an integrated lightweight vacuum shell, able to withstand aerodynamic forces during launch, and substantially reducing cryopropellant boil-off. LV-LRMLI could provide benefit to NASA with increased launch vehicle mission capabilities such as longer duration cryogenic powered missions, longer coast times for orbital transitions, higher payload capacity to GSO, enhancements to the workhorse Atlas V and Delta IV launch vehicle families, applicability to upcoming cryogenic upper stage designs such as Advanced Common Evolved Stage and Space Launch System. A small, cryogenic scroll pump would have several NASA cryopropellant applications. It would enable efficient, low boil off or zero boil off cryogenic systems by circulating cryogenic helium gas from a cryocooler to broad area thermal shields surrounding the tanks. This would eliminate the need for high efficiency heat exchangers that are required with ambient temperature circulator pumps. The pump would also enable thermodynamic vent systems in which cryopropellants are dropped in pressure and temperature and heat exchanged with liquid pumped in a circulation loop with the tank. NASA Marshall has done considerable work with such systems involving spray bar tank heat exchanger and destratifiers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Fuels/Propellants
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H2.01-9033
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Reliable, Efficient Cryogenic Propellant Mixing Pump With No Moving Parts

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Weibo Chen
wbc@creare.com111
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 640-2425

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Refueling spacecraft in space offers tremendous benefits for increased spacecraft payload capacity and reduced launch cost. A key technology challenge for space refueling is the storage of liquid cryogenic fuel in space. To meet this need, we propose to develop a reliable, compact, efficient cryogenic mixing pump with no moving parts. The mixing pump will prevent thermal stratification of the cryogen and simplify pressure control for storage tanks. The mixing pump uses an innovative thermodynamic process to generate fluid jets to promote fluid mixing, eliminating the need for mechanical pumps. Our innovative mechanism will be able to self-prime and generate a high-pressure rise. The device will significantly enhance the reliability of pressure control systems for storage tanks. In Phase I, we will prove the feasibility of our approach through building and testing a proof-of-concept mixing pump and developing an analytical model to optimize the mixing pump design. In Phase II, we will build and test a laboratory-scale cryogenic mixing pump and demonstrate its performance in a representative cryogenic environment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology developed in this project has applications in reliable two-phase pumps for cryogenic fluids and refrigerant flows. Applications include cryogenic two-phase cooling systems for superconductors. The technology also has applications in thermal management systems for advanced electronics and photonics systems, as well as advanced environmental control systems for future military vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology developed in this project will enable reliable long-term and short-term cryogenic propellant storage in space for refueling. The mixing pump will enable effective pressure control for cryogenic tanks by maintaining a fluid uniform temperature. Its high reliability will significantly enhance the effectiveness of the pressure control mechanism. The device developed in this project can also be used as a two-phase cryogenic pump with no impellers or pistons to enable reliable cryogen transfer for space applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H2.01-9199
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Net Shape Molding of Monolithic Complex-shaped Damage-Tolerant Cryo-Insulators

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied Analytic Research
929 South High Street, Suite 188
West Chester, PA 19382-5466
(610) 388-1264

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ray Armat
rarmat@appliedanalytic.com111
Box 1
Mendenhall,  PA 19357-0001
(610) 388-1264

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Passive thermal control of cryogenic systems using foam insulations can help achieve Zero Boil-Off (ZBO). There is as much thermal energy transferred to Cryo tanks during the ascent phase as there is during 6 days of orbital operations using MLIs. Spray on Foam Insulation (SOFI) still suffers from drawbacks both at chemistry and interfacial (bonding) levels. Currently, strong lightweight polymeric foam insulators cannot be (net shape) molded into larger complex shapes, using commercial foaming practices. The proposed Phase 1 research studies feasibility of an inventive (unprecedented) combination of processing and "green" foaming agents to "net-shape" mold low density robust (damage/MMOD tolerant) polymeric insulation foams into "monolithic" complex shapes (such as spherical or cylindrical shells, valve fittings). These can protect polymer matrix composite (PMC) tanks (such as COPVs) against external damages, hence enabling reliable, reusable cryogenic storage designs. An added advantage of this invention is the "clean" decomposition of the blowing agent and development of an environmentally "green" insulative "net-shape" foaming technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1- Thermal/acoustic Insulative jackets for electronics, hot gas ducts, and fuel lines in commercial or military aircraft and vehicles. 2- Structural Insulation for complex-shaped medical, pharmaceutical or lab assemblies exposed to cryogenic conditions, such as cryogenic mills. 3- A promising large volume application is in cryogenic insulation and storage of liquid hydrogen in hydrogen-fueled vehicles

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
- Passive thermal control for Zero Boil-Off (ZBO) storage of cryogens for ground, in-space depot, short and long term missions. - Dual-purpose thermal insulation/mechanical protection in reliable reusable designs such as protection of polymer matrix composite (PMC) structures (like COPVs). - Lightweight multifunctional thermal management structures that could be applicable to crewed lunar surface landers and habitats. - An environmentally "green" insulation foam technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Space Transportation & Safety
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Polymers
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H2.01-9374
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Cooled Shield - Integrated MLI: Passive or Active Cooled System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Quest Thermal Group
6452 Fig St., Unit A
Arvada, CO 80004-1060
(303) 395-3100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scott Dye
sdye@quest-corp.com111
6452 Fig St., Unit A
Arvada,  CO 80004-1060
(303) 395-3100

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Cryogenic propellants are important to NASA's missions. Improvements in cryogenic propellant storage and transfer are critical to future long duration NASA spacecraft and missions. Advanced Cooled Shield - IMLI (ACS-IMLI) is an innovative ultra high performance system in which an Advanced Cooled Shield is fully integrated into the IMLI layer structure, reducing mass, forming a single robust system, with integrated cooled gas distribution in a cooled shield layer, eliminating heat flux through thermal shield tank standoffs or supports, and operable in both passive (vapor cooled shield) and active (broad area cooled shield) modes. NASA's TA-02 Roadmap calls "Zero Boil Off storage of cryogenic propellants for long duration missions" the #2 ranked technical challenge for NASA mission objectives and needs. Quest Thermal Group has developed IMLI, an advanced thermal insulation that uses proprietary discrete spacer technology to reduce heat flux. IMLI's unique structure is able to self support various loads, including a thin, lightweight vacuum shell for in-air operation, high strength ballistic layers for MMOD shielding, an external Broad Area Cooling Shield with cooling tubing, or an integrated thermal shield within the layers. IMLI's layer structure gives it unique capabilities, such as an embedded conductive, sealed thermal barrier. In this Phase I program, an ACS-IMLI system would be modeled, analyzed, designed, fabricated, installed on a cryotank, and tested for structural strength and thermal performance. Advanced Cooled Shield &#150; IMLI (ACS-IMLI) could provide a lower mass, single insulation system, operable in both passive (vapor cooled) and active (cryocooled) modes, with 3 &#150; 4X lower heat flux than IMLI alone. ACS-IMLI could help meet NASA's cryogenic fluid management requirements such as Zero Boil Off for cryogenic propellant storage and transfer.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ACS-IMLI could enable substantially improved performance for cryogenic launch vehicles such as Centaur, DCSS, ACES and SLS. Quest has had discussions with ULA's Advanced Programs, with interest expressed in IMLI and IMLI incorporating a thermal shield. Reducing cryopropellant boiloff allows longer coast times and higher payload capacity enhancements for the workhorse Atlas Centaur and Delta launch vehicle families. It could be incorporated into upcoming cryogenic upper stage designs such as ULA's ACES and human rated launch vehicles, aid with Zero Boil Off for orbital fuel depots, and help preserve cryogens for commercial satellites and space-borne instruments. ACS-IMLI improved thermal insulation could be useful in preserving cryogens for various industrial uses, such as insulation for dewars for LHe, LH2, LN2 and LOX used for commercial, medical, industrial and research processes. ACS-IMLI insulation for dewars would use passive cooling from cryogen boiloff to cool the thermal barrier, reducing heat flux through the insulation. Large tanks storing commercial/industrial cryogens, such as LNG, might benefit from ACS-IMLI performance. ACS-IMLI might also prove beneficial for the storage and transport of hydrogen powered aircraft and ground vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Passive and active thermal insulation improvements are critical to NASA goals for long duration missions, and are part of NASA's Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration Mission. Advanced Cooled Shield - Integrated Multi-Layer Insulation (ACS-IMLI), with an Advanced Cooled Shield integrated into the IMLI layer structure, could provide substantial improvements to both passive and active thermal insulation systems. ACS-IMLI could offer a more robust thermal shield than presently available, lower mass, new opportunities to manage cooled vapor distribution and heat shield operation, as well as substantially higher thermal performance than traditional MLI. ACS-IMLI could benefit NASA by advancing this novel passive and active insulation technology. ACS-IMLI could enable longer duration cryogenic powered missions, longer coast times for orbital transitions, higher payload capacity to GSO, enhancements to the workhorse Atlas V and Delta IV launch vehicle families, applicability to upcoming cryogenic upper stage designs such as ACES and Space Launch System, aid with Zero Boil Off for orbital fuel depots, preserving cryogens for NASA spacecraft and space-borne instruments, helping enable future NASA extended missions. ACS-IMLI should offer good performance, robust and repeatable insulation systems, lower installed cost, and both passive and active cooled modes customizable for specific vehicle requirements.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fuels/Propellants
Active Systems
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H2.01-9448
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Speed Compressor for Subcooling Propellants

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Barber-Nichols, Inc.
6325 West 55th
Arvada, CO 80002-2707
(303) 327-8630

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Preuss
jpreuss@barber-nichols.com111
6325 West 55th Ave.
Arvada,  CO 80002-2707
(303) 421-8111

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Propellant densification systems for LH2 require compression systems that develop significant head. In the past this has required multiple stages of compressors running at high speed on grease-packed ball bearings with very limited life, large heat leak and questionable rotordynamic stability. This project will utilize foil bearings with an innovative feature that will greatly increase bearing life/rotordynamic stability, drastically reduce number of stages and cost while increasing efficiency.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Numerous private companies are building pump fed rocket engines that could utilize this technology in turbopumps. BNI has also built grease-packed ball bearing cryogenic H2 circulators for neutron sources and flux reactors at facilities around the world. In each of these applications longer bearing life along with the possibility of attaining even higher speeds are seriously needed. There are also numerous applications involving cryogenic H2, He or CH4 expanders and compressors in superconducting magnet cooling and refrigeration that could greatly benefit from this technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential applications for this technology at NASA are widespread. In addition to propellant densification for use in liquid rocket engines at launch, there are also applications that involve long term in-space storage of the propellants to be used on vehicles over months or years. By subcooling the propellant it drastically reduces boil-off of the cryogens over time and thus improves storage life. The applications include on-vehicle propellant storage for long range mission and propellant depots that are planned for space. This technology also makes sense for rocket engine turbopumps. LOX and LH2 turbopumps utilizing these bearings could greatly increase life over the ball bearings currently used which will be especially appealing for the long range missions planned for the future.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fuels/Propellants
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H2.02-8607
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Cost Manufacturing Technique for Advanced Regenerative Cooling for In-Space Cryogenic Engines

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Analytical Services, Inc. (ASI)
350 Voyager Way
Huntsville, AL 35806-3200
(256) 562-2100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joseph Sims
simsj@asi-hsv.com111
350 Voyager Way
Huntsville,  AL 35806-3200
(256) 562-2191

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of the proposed effort is to demonstrate feasibility of using selective laser melting (SLM, an emerging manufacturing technique) to manufacture a subscale combustion chamber liner that features an advanced regenerative cooling technique that combines high performance with low pressure drop. SLM enables the ability to "print" the advanced regenerative liner in mere hours, despite the liner's inherent flow passage complexity. This reduction in manufacturing lead time, combined with the fact that SLM manufacturing costs are driven almost exclusively by the amount of raw powder used during fabrication, results in a substantial cost reduction for future regeneratively-cooled rocket engines. Considering that the proposed regenerative cooling approach features heat transfer coefficients 3-10 times higher and pressure drops 2-10 times lower than traditional axial channels, the proposed effort demonstrate one of the highest performing, lowest cost combustion chambers in the world.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We will also try to capitalize on the Air Force's interest in large booster engines, such as the recently-terminated 3GRB demonstration program. As Congress works to remove the threat of sequestration, we anticipate that the Air Force will return to previous levels of R&D investment, which may enable us to insert this technology into those future programs. NASA, Air Force and Army decision makers are all focused upon the development of a small, low-cost launch vehicle capable of carrying nanosatellites and microsatellites to orbit. A booster engine that featured a low pressure-drop cooling scheme like this one would offer higher performance than the ablative designs being considered.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Mars ascent vehicle (MAV) main engine is one potential opportunity, since the pressure drop penalty incurred by using this cooling approach is minimal. A low-cost, high-performance chamber made from relatively ordinary materials could easily replace the radiation-cooled, refractory/precious metal spacecraft engines. The next generation engine (NGE) will likely be an advanced expander cycle upper stage engine, and represents a NASA and Air Force opportunity for this technology. An expander cycle engine would benefit greatly from the reduced pressure drop, either by an increase in chamber pressure and thrust or in MCC and turbomachinery life. The Space Launch System (SLS) Program is another opportunity, particularly since the expendable boosters will be competed. PWR, our commercialization partner, is working to define booster concepts, and their engines, that would also benefit from a low-cost, high-performance regenerative cooling scheme. Since we have partnered with them on this technology, it presents an unusually good commercialization opportunity.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Processing Methods
Metallics
Atmospheric Propulsion
Launch Engine/Booster
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine
Surface Propulsion
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H2.02-8782
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fine Grained Tungsten Claddings for Cermet Based NTP Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Plasma Processes, LLC.
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville, AL 35811-1558
(256) 851-7653

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scott O'Dell
scottodell@plasmapros.com111
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville,  AL 35811-1558
(256) 851-7653

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In October 2011, NASA initiated the Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) program to evaluate the feasibility and affordability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). A critical aspect of the program is to develop a robust, stable nuclear fuel. One of the nuclear fuel configurations currently being evaluated is a cermet-based material comprised of uranium dioxide particles encased in a tungsten matrix. To prevent excessive fuel loss from reaction with the hot hydrogen gas passing through the cooling channels, both the internal surfaces of the cooling channels and the exterior of the fuel element must be clad with a hydrogen compatible material such as tungsten. To reduce the potential for uranium hydride formation that can lead to grain boundary separation and cracking, the diffusion of hydrogen into the cermet must be minimized. Therefore, fine-grained tungsten claddings are needed. Recently, advanced electrochemical processing techniques (EL-Form&#61666;) have been developed that enable the tailoring of refractory metal microstructures through process parameter manipulation and/or alloy additions. Therefore, these innovative electrochemical forming techniques will be used to produce fine-grained, hermetic tungsten claddings for both the internal and external surfaces of cermet based nuclear fuel elements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial sectors that will benefit from this technology include medical, power generation, electronics, defense, aerospace, chemicals, and corrosion protection. Specific applications include protective coatings for gamma detectors, x-ray targets, valves, non-eroding throats and thrusters for propulsion, crucible/furnace components, and electrochromic glass.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications that would directly benefit from this technology include Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) and Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Initial NTP systems will have specific impulses roughly twice that of the best chemical systems, i.e., reduced propellant requirements and/or reduced trip time. The proposed Phase I and Phase II efforts would greatly assist NASA with achieving the goals of the NCPS project. Potential NASA missions include rapid robotic exploration missions throughout the solar system and piloted missions to Mars and other destinations such as near earth asteroids.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Processing Methods
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Metallics
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H2.02-8976
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight Pump Technology for Advanced Green Monopropellants

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Systima Technologies, Inc.
1832 180th Street South East
Bothell, WA 98012-6454
(425) 487-4020

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Luccio
paul.luccio@systima.com111
1832 180th Street SE
Bothell,  WA 98012-6454
(425) 487-4020

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Systima will develop an innovative light weight self-pressurizing pump (SPP) technology to provide a constant-pressure supply of monopropellant to a spacecraft or tactical propulsion system. The SPP does not require a helium tank and higher operating pressure have a negligible impact on the system mass. Since the SPP has a lower weight than comparable propellant pressurization systems, it provides an opportunity for reducing launch costs, increasing spacecraft or tactical system payload capacity and significantly enhancing delta velocity/V. This technology can be used with hydrazine, HAN-based, or ADN-based propellants as there are no known limitations on the monopropellant that can be used in the system. The self-pressurizing lightweight pump for advanced monopropellants offers significant advantages in applications where a large V is required, such as large spacecraft or in applications where high-pressure is needed, such as liquid ACS or DACS thrusters. The Phase I and Phase II SBIR will focus on development of the system for operation with the HAN-based monopropellant AF-M315E.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Green monopropellants offer significant advantages in performance and reduced handling infrastructure for commercial and military vehicles and payloads and allow for modular designs for enhanced response capabilities. There is no limitation to the commercial or military satellite applications to which this technology can be applied; it is suitable to nearly any satellite, large or small, intended for low earth orbit or for geosynchronous orbit, etc. In addition, the reduced toxicity and handling infrastructure could be especially of interest to re-usable space vehicles, rapid access to space applications and shipboard missile systems. It is also possible that this technology could be applied to torpedo propulsion systems and emergency power generation systems to provide greater safety and improved handling costs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Green propellant delivery systems offer safer handling without the risk of exposure of toxic chemicals to personnel or the environment. They offer improved vehicle performance, reduced costs, and permit shorter launch processing times. There is no limitation to the NASA satellite applications to which this technology can be applied; it is suitable to nearly any satellite, large or small, intended for low earth orbit or for geosynchronous orbit, etc. In addition, the reduced toxicity and handling infrastructure could be especially of interest to re-usable space vehicles and rapid access to space applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fuels/Propellants
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine
Surface Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H2.02-9050
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lifetime Improvement of Large Scale Green Monopropellant Thrusters via Novel, Long-Life Catalysts

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Busek Company Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Tsay
mtsay@busek.com111
11 Tech Circle
Natick,  MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Busek proposes to develop a high performance, non-toxic storable, "green" monopropellant thruster suitable for in-space reaction control propulsion. The engine will deliver 100N (~25lbf) vacuum thrust with specific impulse exceeding 240sec. Estimated Isp-density is on the order of 348 sec-g/cc, a 48% increase from the state-of-the-art hydrazine systems. The most important feature that sets this thruster apart from other similar devices will be the use of an innovative, long-life catalyst. This proprietary catalyst, constructed without any bed plate or ceramic substrate, was recently demonstrated in Busek's 0.5N micro thruster. It has shown the ability to suppress catalyst-related performance degradation problems that often plague green monopropellant thrusters. The proposed Phase I program will focus on developing a 5N green monopropellant thruster by scaling up the long-life catalyst design from the 0.5N thruster. Both empirical and modeling works are proposed to validate the scaling theory. Thruster performance will be evaluated based on hot-firing test results that include c* and vacuum thrust measurements. The Phase I findings will lead to the design of a full-scale, 100N green monopropellant thruster to be developed in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Market size for green monopropellant thrusters is very large. In addition to NASA, all branches of the military have potential interests in such propulsion for tactical or in-space applications. The non-toxic storable feature of the propellants makes them prime candidates for preloaded systems that can accommodate speedy launch operations. Because the proposed thruster has the potential for extended life without performance degradation, developers of small satellites will likely consider it for both reaction control and primary propulsion. This versatility will help broaden market access. A successful Phase II program will lead to direct sales or licensing of the green monopropellant thruster and its novel, long-life catalyst.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications of the green monopropellant rocket include missions to the moon, NEO and Mars. As with SOA reaction control rockets the green monoprop is radiation-cooled and restart-able, making it a simple yet reliable propulsion option. Storability and reliability are important factors especially for missions supporting NASA's manned spaceflight. The low toxicity of the propellants will benefit both the ground crew and the astronauts. Without the need for excessive safety measures, overall operational cost can be reduced. The proposed technology is easily scalable in the 0.1-100N thrust range, which opens the door for small- and nano-satellite applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fuels/Propellants
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H2.02-9578
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Floating Seal For Turbopumps

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Florida Turbine Technologies, Inc.
1701 Military Trail, Suite 110
Jupiter, FL 33458-7887
(561) 427-6337

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ken Head
KHead@fttinc.com111
1701 Military Trail Suite 110
Jupiter,  FL 33458-7887
(561) 427-6288

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Cryogenic engines for in-space propulsion require innovative technologies to provide long-life, lightweight, and reliable turbopump designs. One area open for improvement is seals for rotating-to-static hardware. Florida Turbine Technologies, Inc. (FTT) is proposing the use of a floating seal for turbopump applications. The floating seal would allow lower leakages than current state-of-the-art seals, such as labyrinth seals. The floating seal also has the added benefit of maintaining low leakages throughout transients and rotor displacements, since the floating seal's clearance tracks with the rotor axial movement and is independent of radial movement. Plus, the floating seal is a non-contacting seal with high pressure and speed capability; this increases its reliability relative to contacting face seals or labyrinth seals operating at the same conditions and leakages. The floating seal is proposed to work with the cryogenic liquid propellants used in upper stage engines, liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen. The feasibility of the floating seal for turbopump applications will be determined through detailed 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. 1D parametric studies to vary the seal geometry and boundary conditions will also be performed. The concerns of axial instability and increased turbopump axial length will be addressed during Phase I.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA potential applications include similar uses in the Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL) Hydrocarbon Boost technology demonstrator engine, in the low or high speed oxygen turbopumps. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne could benefit from implementing the floating seal into the RS-68 Oxygen and Hydrogen turbopumps to isolate turbine gases from the bearings and minimize hydrogen leakage onto both turbine disks. Outside of space propulsion, the floating seal could be incorporated into industrial pumps for nuclear power coolant, oil and water transfer pumps or water injection applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's potential application of the innovation would be in cryogenic rocket turbopumps, such as those fed with liquid hydrogen. The floating seal could be located along vertical portions of turbine disks or the shroud or hub of pump impellers &#150; wherever large pressure drops and low leakages are needed. The seal could be used in place of labyrinth seals, brush seals, carbon face seals, and inter-propellant seals. Under FTT's Teaming Agreement with Aerojet, FTT is responsible for design and analysis of the turbopump as well as component hardware manufacturing. Current potential applications include the Affordable Upper Stage Engine also under development with target applications on NASA's SLS family of rockets. FTT is also exploring turbomachinery opportunities to support the nano/micro satellite launch market. Finally, Aerojet is in the process of acquiring Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne from United Technologies Corporation which will open up additional product lines for the floating seal, such as the RS-25 high pressure fuel and oxidizer turbopumps.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Launch Engine/Booster
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H2.02-9727
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Composite Rocket Nozzle Extension

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Orbital Technologies Corporation
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717-1961
(608) 827-5000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Gustafson
gustafsonr@orbitec.com111
1212 Fourier Dr.
Madison,  WI 53717-1961
(608) 229-2725

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ORBITEC proposes to develop and demonstrate an Integrated Composite Rocket Nozzle Extension (ICRNE) for use in rocket thrust chambers. The ICRNE will utilize an innovative bonding approach to join a high-temperature composite nozzle extension to a regeneratively cooled metallic nozzle. The ICRNE technology will allow high-temperature composite materials to be directly integrated into a regeneratively-cooled nozzle section or thrust chamber made out of high-strength metallic alloys, thereby eliminating the heavy bolted flange joint that is currently used to attach high-temperature nozzle extensions. The resulting weight reduction will increase the thrust-to-weight ratio of the rocket engine. The ICRNE will also eliminate the need for multiple seals in the bolted flange joints, thus increasing reliability. The focus of the proposed Phase 1 effort will be to demonstrate the ICRNE technology by manufacturing and evaluating test specimens. A prototype ICRNE will also be designed and analyzed. In Phase 2, a prototype ICRNE unit will be fabricated, installed, and hot fire tested on an existing rocket engine. This proposal responds to Subtopic H2.02 In-Space Propulsion Systems, specifically "high temperature materials, coatings and/or ablatives or injectors, combustion chambers, nozzles, and nozzle extensions" for non-toxic, cryogenic, and nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Beyond the needs of NASA, the DOD also requires advanced nozzle technology for new upper stage engines and boosters. If successful, the ICRNE technology can be used to join dissimilar materials for a very broad range of applications in many industries, including wing leading edges for high speed transport aircraft, airbreathing engines, turbines, industrial burners, and corrosion-resistant structures for naval vessels.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ICRNE technology addresses the needs of Subtopic H2.02 In-Space Propulsion Systems, which requests "high temperature materials, coatings and/or ablatives or injectors, combustion chambers, nozzles, and nozzle extension." We expect the ICRNE technology to have direct and immediate application for RCS thrusters, OMS engines, upper stage engines, planetary ascent and descent engines, and new booster engines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Processing Methods
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Atmospheric Propulsion
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H2.02-9789
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nitrous Oxide Ethane Ethylene Engine

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pioneer Astronautics
11111 West 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood, CO 80215-5516
(303) 980-0890

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Zubrin
zubrin@aol.com111
11111 West 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood,  CO 80215-5516
(303) 980-0890

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Nitrous Oxide Ethane-Ethylene (NEE) engine is a proposed technology designed to provide spacecraft with non-toxic non-cryogenic high-performance propulsion. With the NEE engine, nitrous oxide is used as an autogenously pressurizing oxidizer, and a mixture of ethane and ethylene is used in the same manner as fuel. Initially, the ethane and ethylene mixture have the same vapor pressure as the nitrous oxide. By utilizing the autogenous pressurization capabilities of these propellants instead of an additional pressurization system greater system simplicity and reliability can be attained. Achievable specific impulse with pure N2O is about 315 s, which can be raised above 325 s by dissolving some O2 in the N2O. Catalytic ignition can be achieved by using a ruthenium reactor to exothermically dissociate N2O. Since both propellants can exist as a liquid in the same temperature range, no thermal separation is required, and the two propellants can be stored together in compact common bulkhead tanks, and freezing is not an issue down to -90C. Pioneer Astronautics has demonstrated monopropellant nitrous oxide thrusters with a specific impulse of 190 s. Using such nitrous oxide monopropellant engines for low thrust RCS together with the NEE for ??V and larger thrust reaction control propulsion, it will be possible to build spacecraft propulsion systems that are completely storable and non-toxic, with only two propellant fluids required. In the proposed program, we will demonstrate a NEE engine.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications would include myriad of the propulsion chores for small satellites and large satellites as well, if designers of larger satellites wanted to take advantage of the compactness and non-toxicity of the NEE propulsion system. The NEE engine could be used for onboard spacecraft propulsion or for dedicated upper and transfer stages supporting every type of mission. The NEE engine is the highest performing non-toxic storable propellant combination that exists, and with a performance that matches the increasingly shunned toxic hypergols, is sure to find many customers in every niche from microsatellites to missiles and launch vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NEE propulsion would have many commercial spacecraft applications. The NEE would enable the first non-toxic storable stage, and as such would find many customers who would value it as a cost-effective alternative to the current choice of toxic hypergol or cryogenic propulsion. With its high performance and indefinite space storability, the NEE engine would be ideal as a lunar ascent/descent reaction control propulsion system. The NEE is particularly advantageous if used on manned spacecraft such as the lunar ascent/descent vehicle, the MPCV, or vehicles used in conjunction with manned spacecraft (such as free-flying inspection telerobots used in support of the ISS or MPCV), as in that case the N2O can be used for NEE bipropellant ??V propulsion, nitrous oxide monopropellant low-thrust RCS, and to provide a storable reserve supply of crew breathing gas.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Space Transportation & Safety
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H2.02-9810
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Acoustic Resonance Reaction Control Thruster (ARCTIC)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Orbital Technologies Corporation
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717-1961
(608) 827-5000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scott Munson
munsons@orbitec.com111
1212 Fourier Dr.
Madison,  WI 53717-1961
(608) 229-2770

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ORBITEC proposes to develop and demonstrate the innovative Acoustic Resonance Reaction Control Thruster (ARCTIC) to provide rapid and reliable in-space impulse without the use of toxic hypergols, delicate catalyst beds, or cumbersome spark systems. The ARCTIC thruster will exceed current reliability standards, reduce RCS complexity, and provide system-level benefits by minimizing weight, decreasing power requirements, and improving serviceability. The Phase I work will focus on the development and testing, both at sea level and vacuum conditions, of a prototype ARCTIC thruster, as well as the design of flight-weight ARCTIC thruster for Phase II implementation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Beyond the needs of NASA, it is expected that ARCTIC-based propulsion systems could be developed for governmental customers such as the USAF's Reusable Booster System (RBS) program as well as commercial customers such as Sierra Nevada's Dream Chaser program and Boeing's Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer demonstrator. The same acoustic resonance technology could be used in applications including rocket engine igniters, OMS & DAC thrusters, and pre-burners. AFRL is already incorporating ORBITEC's acoustic resonance igniter technology into the Hydrocarbon Boost program. Furthermore, ORBITEC has incorporating the acoustic resonance igniter into its propulsion systems and demonstrated the concept in a sounding rocket flight. Ground-based commercial applications for this technology may include industrial burners and large-scale, power-generating gas turbines.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ARCTIC addresses the needs in NASA's technology roadmap, specifically Technology Area 1.4.1, which calls for low-cost, high thrust-to-weight RCS thrusters that use non-toxic propellants. By eliminating cat beds, hypergols, and spark systems, ARCTIC will be developed into a safe, low-cost, long-life RCS thruster to support NASA's exploration activities. This versatile thruster can be used with a wide range of fluids, including indigenous spacecraft propellants and in situ space resources.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fuels/Propellants
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H2.03-8644
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Technologies for Propulsion Testing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Polymer Derived Rare Earth Silicate Nanocomposite Protective Coatings for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanosonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke, VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vince Baranauskas
vince@nanosonic.com111
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke,  VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of this Phase I SBIR program is to develop polymer derived rare earth silicate nanocomposite environmental barrier coatings (EBC) for providing next-generation corrosion resistance and thermal insulation to Aerojet's Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) systems. The NTP environmental barrier coatings will be developed from NanoSonic's innovate inorganic polymeric nanocomposite resins that crosslink to dimensionally stable gels under ambient conditions and gracefully transition to high temperature corrosion and thermally insulative resistant coatings at elevated temperatures. Through a synergism of nanoparticle &#150; rare earth silicate load transfer pathways, NanoSonic's proposed EBC topcoat technology will readily absorb and dissipate high velocity impact threats while providing exceptional thermal shock resistance necessary for enhanced survivability of nickel-chromium based alloys within current and future NTP rocket engine rocket thrust chambers and nozzles. Working with team members Aerojet and the University of Washington, NanoSonic will molecularly engineer a family of rare earth silicate polymeric precursors that are specifically optimized for rocket engines within Aerojet's NTP space technology program. For the proposed effort, NanoSonic, the University of Washington and Aerojet have created an SBIR research team to rapidly identify, optimize and transition next-generation polymer derived rare earth silicate coatings specifically optimized to extend the operational utility of NTP rocket thrust chambers and nozzles. Within this teaming partnership, NanoSonic will continuously synthesize and optimize rare earth polymeric precursor coatings whereas the University of Washington will test coated nickel-chromium based alloys within flow conditions simulating NTP rocket exhaust. ANSYS thermal modeling will be employed to interpret and jointly optimize promising rare earth silicate coatings with Aerojet.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Broad secondary commercial and DoD applications exist for NanoSonic's proposed polymer derived rare earth silicate EBCs. Of particular interest is the foreseen return-on-investment for aerospace, marine and automotive engine components and subcomponents integrating NanoSonic's EBCs for enhanced thermal insulation, corrosion and erosion durability. Additionally, NanoSonic's polymer derived EBC coating technology may serve as an integral enabling technology for the use of fiber reinforced polymeric composites in closer proximity to engine systems by providing highly efficient, thin (<75 microns) insulative coatings.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NanoSonic's polymer derived rare earth silicate coating technology will serve as a paradigm breaking alternative to line-of-sight vacuum assisted EB-PVD coatings and have broad utility within an array of NASA platforms. Since the technology is spray deposited using legacy HVLP equipment under ambient conditions, literally any rocket propulsion component may be coated during a continuous or semi-continuous process during vehicle construction, as well as retrofitted on existing large area, irregularly shaped structures in need of enhanced high temperature thermal, corrosive and erosion protection. Direct NASA benefits include improved lifetime and performance gains for nozzle, throat and core rocket engine components within aeronautical and space propulsion systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
Fire Protection
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Metallics
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Atmospheric Propulsion
Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Propulsion
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H2.03-9637
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Technologies for Propulsion Testing
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Speed Diagnostic Measurements of Inlet and Exhaust Flows

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Southwest Sciences, Inc.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505-3993
(505) 984-1322

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joel Silver
jsilver@swsciences.com111
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe,  NM 87505-3993
(505) 984-1322

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The development of rocket-based and turbine-based combined cycle engines are a high priority for transportation into space. In order to test components and systems, and certify life cycles for these engines, non-intrusive flow diagnostics are required. In particular, high-speed measurements of pressure, velocity, and temperature profiles across both inlet and outlet ducts of these engines would provide a better understanding of engine performance. Southwest Sciences, Inc. proposes to develop a high-speed, non-intrusive monitor to measure such flows. This fiber optic sensor is based on a novel approach derived from wavelength modulation spectroscopy, in which high bandwidth measurements can be acquired and processed with simple electronics. Phase I will focus on validating the proposed technique and in Phase II, a fully operational prototype will be constructed, tested and delivered to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA customers include the Air Force for research and development on advanced engine concepts. Commercial customers include jet engine manufacturers, who also do significant amounts of engine development and research. Additionally, a number of academic researchers could find this type of diagnostic sensor useful for their own laboratory programs, primarily for combustion, but also for any general high speed gas diagostic need.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Laser-based platforms provide an efficient, non-intrusive approach for measuring flow properties in both ground facilities and flight platforms. Our new approach permits very high frequency sampling rates, enabling detailed characterization and verification of advanced engine designs. This technology has the potential to be miniaturized for use at scales suitable for hypersonic vehicles applications. This technology can enable a broad set of new, non-intrusive techniques capable of measuring boundary layer and core flow properties in real time to characterize critical vehicle/engine parameters such as air mass capture, stability limits, conditions leading to inlet unstart, and the progress of combustion. These qualities relate directly to the development of the rocket- and turbine-based combined cycle engines being developed by NASA as discussed in the Solicitation, as well to unassisted hypersonic engines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Atmospheric Propulsion
Pressure/Vacuum
Thermal


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H3.01-8665
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Technologies for Atmosphere Revitalization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Passive Moisture Removal Using High Performance Graphene Oxide Membranes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanotrons
12A Presidential Way
Woburn, MA 01845-1040
(781) 935-1200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jian Zhang
jzhang@agiltron.com111
15 Presidential Way
Woburn,  MA 01801-1040
(781) 935-1200

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Extended crewed space exploration requires high efficiency dehumidifier for atmosphere revitalization. The ideal dehumidifier is expected to operate with little to no energy costs under near-ambient pressure and temperature. Current commercial membrane dehumidifiers are mostly designed to operate at high input pressure to provide driving force for water transport, which requires a lot of energy to compress moisturized air and not suitable for space applications. Nanotrons will develop high performance nano-enabled dehumidification membrane with extremely high moisture/gas selectivity and water permeability, as well as energy efficiency 10 times that of current commercial dehumidifier. The target goals are moisture to air selectivity of >10,000, a water permeation flux of >2kg/(m2?h) and a energy factor of 28L/kWh. In phase I of this program, Nanotrons will demonstrate proof of concept and production feasibility of the proposed membrane. Phase II of this program will deliver highly compact spiral wound membrane modules for applications in space exploration, industrial processing gas moisture removal, or house air conditioning.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
It is known to be desirable to remove excess moisture in buildings to prevent the accumulation of mold and for the comfort of occupants of the building. Moisture is particularly a problem in foundation areas of concrete structures in which the moisture can penetrate through concrete walls and floors into occupied spaces of the building. Also after heating and cooling, humidity control is the next major element of indoor air quality control. Removing humidity is a major driver of the energy requirement for conditioning the air. The proposed high energy-saving moisture removal technology will have many opportunities for these applications. Another application of this technology is natural gas dehydration. Dehydration prevents the formation of gas hydrates and reduces corrosion. Unless gases are dehydrated, liquid water may condense in pipelines and accumulate at low points along the line, reducing its flow capacity.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Extended crewed space exploration requires high efficiency moisture removal for atmosphere revitalization. The proposed Passive Moisture Removal Membrane has immediate application in the current NASA vision for space exploration. A high energy-saving moisture removal module based on this membrane will provides water recovery capability for long duration missions (lunar habitat and Mars exploration) that require high degrees of loop closure. Other Air Revitalization components that exhaust a humid gas stream (such as Sabatier) could also benefit from water recovery using the moisture removal module proposed in this program.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H3.01-9161
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Technologies for Atmosphere Revitalization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electrochemical Dehumidification and Life Support System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sustainable Innovations, LLC
160 Oak Street
Glastonbury, CT 06033-2336
(860) 652-9690

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joshua Preston
joshua.preston@sustainableinnov.com111
160 Oak St
Glastonbury,  CT 06033-2336
(860) 652-9690

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Sustainable Innovations has developed an innovative concept for highly efficient, reliable, potable water production based on technology from a commercial line of hydrogen recovery and compression systems the company is developing. This Electrochemical Dehumidification and Life Support System (EDLS) system utilizes a small amount of hydrogen as a working fluid, operating in a sealed cavity, and leverages a hydrogen compression cycle to provide the driving force to both remove water from the local environment, passing it into a dry hydrogen stream, and condense pure, potable drinking water. The hydrogen compression cycle used in this process is highly efficient, approaching the efficiency of an ideal isothermal compression process, and can be achieved without moving parts. This technology could play a key role in critical NASA environmental control and life support applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Because water logistics have become very important in wartime events, we see the U.S. military as a primary initial customer for this technology. We anticipate teaming with a military equipment supplier to both finalize a product configuration and manufacture/supply the final product in accordance with applicable military standards. There are many opportunities for Atmospheric Water Generators (AWG) in the commercial sector, ranging from disaster relief to water generation in remote villages. Availability of potable water is perhaps the most critical need that mankind faces. With bottled-water consumption increasing and water distribution systems aging, water could be the next commodity consumers will want to produce at home. Market trends appear to be in atmospheric water's favor. According to the International Bottled Water Association, global consumption of bottled water has grown 7.6 percent per year on average since 2002, reaching 189 billion liters in 2007. The United States led consumption, with 33 billion liters, but was followed closely by populous developing countries like China, Brazil, and Mexico. China's market grew 17.4 percent per year.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Transporting water from Earth for NASA space missions is cost prohibitive, so recycling is mandatory. Waste water must be reclaimed from various sources, including by condensing humidity from the air. Without careful recycling 40,000 pounds per year of water from Earth would be required to resupply a just four crewmembers. A highly efficient portable / transportable system for potable water production having no moving parts would significantly reduce the logistics burden. This technology can play a key role in any NASA application where life support is critical, from manned bases to the EMU.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Remediation/Purification
Waste Storage/Treatment
Material Handing & Packaging
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H3.01-9783
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Technologies for Atmosphere Revitalization
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Performance Photocatalytic Oxidation Reactor System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pioneer Astronautics
11111 West 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood, CO 80215-5516
(303) 980-0890

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Thomas Henshaw
thenshaw@pioneerastro.com111
11111 West 8th Avenue
Lakewood,  CO 80215-5516
(303) 980-0193

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Pioneer Astronautics proposes a technology program for the development of an innovative photocatalytic oxidation reactor for the removal and mineralization of Volatile Organic Compounds to extend crewed space exploration beyond low earth orbit. This novel technology, called the High Performance Photocatalytic Oxidation Reactor System (HPPORS) leverages recent progress in high power Light Emitting Diodes (LED) and efficient, visible wavelength photooxidation (PO) catalysts to completely oxidize Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) to carbon dioxide and water. The basis of the innovation is the synthesis of commercial high power, high brightness LEDs with efficient geometric illumination of active visible-light activated PO catalyst in a high surface area to volume fiber optic reactor. This combined approach leads to numerous performance benefits including high VOC conversion efficiency, compact reactor volume, and low pressure drop. The development of the HPPORS technology will lead to a photocatalytic reactor that meets the rigorous compliance requirements of complete VOC mineralization to CO2 and H2O, while utilizing efficient visible LEDs or solar energy in a compact, scalable package.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology applies to any system where removal of toxic industrial chemicals and pathogens are present in air, and where robust operation with minimal supply logistics is required. Other government agencies such as the Department of Defense would benefit from this technology in similar applications such as collective protection of the warfighter from chemical-biological weapons attack. The technology would have numerous commercial and private customers in sectors including homes, schools, commercial offices, hospitals, and public transportation. The potential public benefits of an effective air purification system include fewer lost school and workdays due to sick-building syndrome and communicable illness.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The application of the HPPORS is to provide a compact, high performance air purification device for spacecraft environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) for extending NASA's mission beyond low earth orbit to include long-duration space habitation, Lunar, and Mars colonization missions. This is accomplished by the innovative HPPORS device which combines energy efficient visible LED-based source illumination, high photon utilization, visible light activated photocatalysts, high reactor surface-to volume, and low pressure drop.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Remediation/Purification
Process Monitoring & Control
Aerogels
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Nanomaterials
Organics/Biomaterials/Hybrids
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Emitters
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H3.02-9063
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring and Fire Protection for Spacecraft Autonomy
PROPOSAL TITLE: A First Response Crew Mask for Ammonia, Hydrazine and Combustion Products

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 West 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033-1916
(303) 940-2347

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gokhan Alptekin
galptekin@tda.com111
12345 West 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge,  CO 80033-1916
(303) 940-2349

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The increasing frequency of International Space Station (ISS) egress operations results in chemical contamination of the spacecraft environment. Among the most important contaminants are propellant residues (such as hydrazine) and their decomposition by-products, as well as coolants such as ammonia and Freon. Ammonia has a 24 hour Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) of 7 ppm (Perry, 2010) and hydrazine has a 24 hour SMAC of 0.3 ppm (NASA/JSC 20584, March, 2001). These highly alkaline chemicals rapidly penetrate skin and coagulate proteins. Furthermore, a hydrazine fuel leak onto any hot surfaces may cause fire. TDA Research Inc. proposes to develop a new adsorbent that can remove these contaminants to sub ppmv concentrations. In the Phase I, we will develop the adsorbent media and design a cartridge that will be incorporated into a first response crew mask. We will demonstrate the efficacy of the cartridge in removing these contaminants at full-scale in an environmental chamber (TRL 4). We will also complete the detailed design of a general purpose first response mask, including additional adsorbents and ambient temperature oxidation catalyst that will provide complete protection against all contaminants (in addition to NH3 and hydrazine, CO, volatile organic compounds and combustion by-products, such as sulfur oxides will all be removed). In Phase II, we will work with Gentex, a leading supplier of personal protection systems in fabricating the mask and cartridges. We will complete high fidelity demonstrations in an environmental chamber to fully demonstrate its capability (non-human testing at TRL 6).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is a potential commercial opportunity for our technology, in commercial safety devices and personal protection systems, primarily in the fire fighter masks. We estimated a total market in the U.S. and Europe exceeding 250,000 units per year, assuming an average shelf life of 2 years for the respirator. Total revenues of fire mask and escape hoods manufacturing business are large over $1.5 billion/year.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The main attraction of our research to NASA is its capability to develop a high capacity sorbent that can reduce the NH3 and hydrazine concentrations to sub ppmv levels. The sorbent will be integrated into a first response mask that will protect the crew person from exposure to these toxic gases.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H3.02-9747
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring and Fire Protection for Spacecraft Autonomy
PROPOSAL TITLE: Real-Time Formaldehyde Monitor for the ISS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Southwest Sciences, Inc.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505-3993
(505) 984-1322

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joel Silver
jsilver@swsciences.com111
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe,  NM 87505-3993
(505) 984-1322

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Ensuring a safe air environment in manned spacecraft is critical to the success of all missions. Exposure to hazardous chemical species threatens the well-being of the crew and prevents them from fulfilling their tasks. While a wide variety of sensors currently are available to monitor such chemicals on the ISS, some of these sensors are inadequate. In particular for one important species, formaldehyde, Southwest Sciences proposes to develop a sensor that can provide continuous, real-time monitoring of this gas, so as to assure that the crew is better protected.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The platform used for monitoring formaldehyde could readily be adapted to measure other gases, including those related to combustion and fire safety, health monitoring, climate change research, and industrial process monitoring.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful development of a real-time formaldehyde monitor will allow NASA to replace the currently used badge system that provides only a quick monthly snapshot of formaldehyde concentrations in the International Space Station, with a continuous monitor having real-time readout. The same gas sensing platform also could be adapted for meeting the needs for a multi-gas sensor for monitoring cabin air, gas regeneration, and life support systems. The compact size and low power usage permit ready adaptation to other platforms (e.g. aircraft, balloons, UAVs, ground-based networks, etc.) of interest to NASA. Since our monitor is designed for long-term operation with minimal attention and maintenance, it is expected to find use in validation of remote data sensing obtained from planned NASA atmospheric research missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H3.02-9850
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring and Fire Protection for Spacecraft Autonomy
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniaturized, High Flow, Low Dead Volume Pre-Concentrator for Trace Contaminants in Water under Microgravity Conditions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Thorleaf Research, Inc.
5552 Cathedral Oaks Road
Santa Barbara, CA 93111-1406
(805) 308-1937

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Holland
pholland@thorleaf.com111
5552 Cathedral Oaks Road
Santa Barbara,  CA 93111-1406
(805) 308-1937

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Thorleaf Research, Inc. proposes to develop a miniaturized high flow, low dead-volume pre-concentrator for monitoring trace levels of contaminants in water under microgravity conditions. Our innovative design for the pre-concentrator assembly combines high water sampling flow rates with low dead volume in the device, enhancing pre-concentration while avoiding cavitation effects. This will help meet monitoring needs for NASA's Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines (SWEGs). Although miniaturized mass spectrometers and other detectors are under development by NASA, the potential of such instrumentation to meet NASA needs will not be realized without complementary developments in the technology for collecting and preparing samples for in situ measurements. Based on our analysis, we project that it will be possible to develop a miniaturized water pre-concentrator module with a mass on the order of 0.5 kg and an average power consumption of <1 watt, depending on the configuration selected. Our goal in the proposed SBIR Phase I effort is to demonstrate feasibility for such a system and to develop a detailed design for fabricating and demonstrating prototypes in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Analysis of commercial instrumentation markets shows that two of the three major growth areas for analytical instrumentation are real-time analysis and environmental monitoring, with projected annual growth rates of more than 15%. Our modular design approach for the miniaturized high flow, low dead-volume pre-concentrator for monitoring trace levels of contaminants in water under microgravity conditions will help it be adapted for measurement needs in scientific and environmental monitoring applications. For example, it may be possible to adapt this technology to meet needs for miniature field portable analytical chemical instrumentation for water monitoring applications. Thus, technical developments in the proposed program could provide significant new technology for specialized environmental monitoring needs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed high flow, low dead-volume pre-concentrator for monitoring trace levels of contaminants in water under microgravity conditions is designed to address a key technology gap for long-duration human spaceflight, especially for human exploration of the solar system beyond low-Earth orbit to the moon, near-Earth objects such as asteroids, future space stations established at Lagrange points, and missions to Mars and its moons. We plan to incorporate this technology into a miniaturized water pre-concentrator module, designed to be directly interfaced with other spacecraft instrumentation for air monitoring, such as the Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor (VCAM), currently deployed on the International Space Station. This will enable long-term monitoring of trace contaminants in both air and water using a single instrument. It may also be possible to adapt our pre-concentrator sampling system for use in non-aqueous solvents. For example, an important future NASA planetary mission application might arise for pre-concentration of trace organic compounds in the cryogenic methane-ethane lakes on Saturn's moon Titan.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H3.03-8812
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Accommodations and Water Recovery for Long Duration Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Electrochemical Oxidation Cell for Purification of Water

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vesitech, Inc
300 Dunstan Street Suite 2
Hancock, MI 49930-2178
(906) 483-4080

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Janet Metsa
janet.metsa@vesitech.com111
300 Dunstan Street Suite 2
Hancock,  MI 49930-2178
(906) 483-4080

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Vesitech, Inc. has developed a totally new class of water treatment technology utilizing novel carbon based electrodes that have been shown to electrochemically produce advanced oxidation (AO) species in-situ in contaminated water. Depending upon the electrode formulation and configuration, the species produced include ozone, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals, all of which are effective in destroying a wide range of toxic chemical compounds and microbial contaminants in potable water. This technology has been proven effective in the disinfection of NSF Type I and Type II water. The device is very compact, effective, and energy efficient (< 3watts). Residual hydrogen peroxide can be produced in sufficient quantities to provide a residual effect and inhibit the formation of bio-films. These advanced oxidation electrodes represent a new platform technology which will enable effective, inexpensive, and energy efficient treatment designs for point-of-use potable water treatment systems

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Point of Use Point of Entry water purification system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Mission elements and vehicles, Orion Multi-purpose Space Exploration Vehicle, Deep Space habitat, Pressurized Rovers and Planetary Surface System, International Space Station.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Remediation/Purification


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H3.03-8904
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Accommodations and Water Recovery for Long Duration Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Silver Ion Biocide Delivery System for Water Disinfection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Reactive Innovations, LLC
2 Park Drive, Unit 4
Westford, MA 01886-3525
(978) 692-4664

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Kimble
mkimble@reactive-innovations.com111
2 Park Drive, Unit 4
Westford,  MA 01886-3525
(978) 692-4664

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
U.S. space exploration missions have long considered returning to the Moon and exploration of Mars that challenge life support systems. For these long duration missions, NASA is interested in replacing the iodine water treatment system with ionic silver. Although iodine treated water has been used successfully with the International Space Station, its use requires that the iodine be removed before being consumed by astronauts due to its adverse effects on the thyroid. For long duration exploration missions, minimal mass systems are desired that lessen logistical supply requirements for storing and distributing potable water. In particular, it is imperative that an effective biocide is used that prevents microbial growth, biofilm formation, and microbially induced corrosion in the water storage and distribution systems. To address these needs, Reactive Innovations, LLC proposes to develop an electrochemical silver ion generator that produces an effective biocide concentration throughout the water storage and distribution system. The generator and system control will also minimize spurious deposition of silver on the wetted components of the water system maintaining a viable biocide activity to prevent biofilm growth. Materials compatibility testing will be examined with the generator to assess long duration operation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Silver ion water treatment systems have been used in commercial systems for treating potable water. The proposed technology produces a better distribution of silver ions in the water system that minimizes gradients that affect primary current distributions that deposit silver elsewhere in the water flow system. Low energy and inexpensive materials help drive the technology toward commercial viability.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A potable water treatment process is needed to prevent microbial growth and biofilm formation in the water storage and distribution system for long duration missions. Silver ions have been proven by NASA to be effective for such microbial control, however, there remain significant challenges with the biocide delivery system and materials of construction that are compatible with silver. Our proposed process produces an effective delivery system with a control system that prevents silver deposition on the wetted materials of construction. This offers expanded degrees of freedom for designing the water system.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomass Growth
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Remediation/Purification
Waste Storage/Treatment
Process Monitoring & Control
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Fluids
Metallics
Polymers


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H3.03-9255
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Accommodations and Water Recovery for Long Duration Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Renewable Long-Life Biocidal Hydrophilic Coating for Condensing Heat Exchangers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Izenson
mgi@creare.com111
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future manned spacecraft and lunar or Mars outposts will need a condensing heat exchanger (CHX) to control humidity in the cabin atmosphere. Condensing surfaces must be hydrophilic to control the condensate flow and ensure efficient operation, and biocidal to prevent growth of microbes and formation of biofilms on condensing surfaces. Coatings must be extremely stable, adhere to the condensing surface, and maintain hydrophilic and biocidal properties for many years. We propose to develop a zeolite coating system that incorporates two key innovations: (1) modifications to the coating chemistry to enable much longer life than prior coatings, and (2) an in situ cleaning process that can decontaminate the surface and renew hydrophilic properties. In Phase I we will prove the feasibility of our approach by developing preliminary cleaning formulations, developing chemical analysis models to predict coating lifetime, producing trial coatings, and demonstrating coating performance and the effects of cleaning. In Phase II we will scale up and refine the coating process, produce sample coupons and heat exchanger cores, and measure the coating performance after long-term exposure to prototypical environments. We will also develop and demonstrate a coating regeneration process and associated hardware suitable for ground testing and eventual demonstration on the International Space Station (ISS).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The long-life, biocidal coating is potentially inexpensive and can be used to prevent microbe growth in condensing heat exchangers used for dehumidification in terrestrial HVAC systems. Benefits would be enhanced component performance and improved air quality. Another key market will be balance-of-plant equipment for terrestrial fuel cells, which will include water management components that will also require hydrophilic and antimicrobial coatings. The long-life coatings developed in the proposed program will enable these condensing heat exchangers to operate reliably with good performance for a long service life.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA application will be environmental control and life support (ECLS) systems on future manned exploration missions, including spacecraft and rovers designed for long missions that require active ECLS systems. The coating technology will be equally applicable to any active life support system, including potential upgrades to the ECLS system on the International Space Station. Implementation of our coating and renewal system on the ISS can potentially save large amounts of crew time and large costs associated with reapplying the existing hydrophilic coatings to the condensing heat exchangers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H3.03-9380
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Accommodations and Water Recovery for Long Duration Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Torrefaction Processing of Human Fecal Waste

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Fuel Research, Inc.
87 Church Street
East Hartford, CT 06108-3720
(860) 528-9806

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Serio
mserio@AFRinc.com111
87 Church Street
East Hartford,  CT 06108-3720
(860) 528-9806

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
New technology is needed to collect, stabilize, safen, recover useful materials, and store human fecal waste for long duration missions. The current SBIR Phase I proposal will examine an innovative torrefaction (mild pyrolysis) processing system that can be used to sterilize feces and produce a stable, free flowing powder than can be easily stored or recycled, while simultaneously recovering all of the moisture and producing minimal amounts of other gases. The system will also require minimal crew interactions, low energy demands, and tolerate mixed or contaminated waste streams. The objective of the Phase I study is to demonstrate the feasibility of this improved process using bench scale experiments. This will be accomplished in three tasks: 1) design and construct bench scale processing unit that can accommodate different modes of heating (conventional, microwave, radiant/solar); 2) laboratory and modeling studies on a fecal simulant over a range of process conditions (temperature, holding time, atmosphere); 3) evaluation of laboratory results and preliminary design of Phase II prototype.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In the near term, the fecal waste processing component of the technology would have applications to fecal resource recovery and/or sterilization/stabilization problems in remote areas such as underdeveloped countries, arctic regions, oil production platforms, rural areas, farms, submarines, ships, etc., analogous to the uses for NASA technology developed for water purification. In the long term, the technology could be modified and integrated with microturbines or fuel cells and have widespread business or residential use for solid waste removal, water production and/or power generation. It would also be used by the DOD in military operations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed work would make it technically feasible to process human fecal waste and mixed waste streams and produce additional water in space which will benefit long term space travel, such as an extended Lunar stay or a mission to Mars and Astroids/Phobos. The proposed approach is beneficial to NASA in also allowing for solid waste sterilization and stabilization, water recovery, odor elimination, fuel gas production, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) and/or production of chemical feedstocks and carbon materials in a single processing unit.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Isolation/Protection/Radiation Shielding (see also Mechanical Systems)
Remediation/Purification
Waste Storage/Treatment
Conversion
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Resource Extraction
Fuels/Propellants


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H3.04-9629
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Spacecraft Thermal Modeling

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
LoadPath
933 San Mateo Blvd NE, Ste 500-326
Albuquerque, NM 87108-1862
(866) 411-3131

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Derek Hengeveld
dhengeveld@loadpath.com111
933 San Mateo Blvd NE, Ste 500-326
Albuquerque,  NM 87108-1862
(605) 690-1612

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
For spacecraft developers who spend millions to billions of dollars per unit and require 3 to 7 years to deploy, the LoadPath reduced-order (RO) modeling thermal design tool is an innovative software tool that will significantly reduce labor costs and effort associated with the design and analysis of spacecraft thermal control systems. Unlike traditional approaches that take weeks to months to develop and obtain results, our approach can provide results in seconds to minutes. This proposed Phase I effort includes the development of a RO spacecraft thermal model utilizing a combination of a high-resolution thermal model, Latin Hypercube space-filling approaches, and Gaussian Process methods. Combined, these key components have the capability to provide a spacecraft thermal modeling software tool that provides thermal results, on average, within 3K of high-resolution models. In addition to its accuracy, the thermal software tool will be able to provide these results almost instantaneously. The ability to obtain results quickly is especially advantageous during design stages. In addition, it is especially useful for parametric studies. Parametric studies that could easily take days to complete, due to computational expense, can be completed within minutes utilizing the proposed software tool.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Similarly to NASA unmanned missions, this proposed design tool will be of interest to other Government spacecraft procuring agencies such as the Air Force, Navy, National Reconnaissance Office, and Operationally Responsive Space Office, as well as, prime contractor spacecraft developers such as ATK, Lockheed Martin, Boeing, Northrop Grumman, Sierra Nevada Corporation, and Raytheon. LoadPath will continually engage with potential Government and commercial end users during the Phase I and Phase II efforts to ensure their needs are considered during the design tool development.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed design tool will enable the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate's (HEOMD) chartered responsibilities of 1) conducting technology development and demonstrations to reduce costs of future human space flight and 2) enabling U.S. commercial human spaceflight capabilities, by providing a tool that will reduce the cost and time required for design and analysis of spacecraft thermal control systems (TCS). The proposed technology will also benefit unmanned NASA missions requiring TCS design. The National Research Council (NRC) Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board identified top technical challenges and highest priority technologies across all 14 NASA space technology roadmaps. Based on the items identified in the study, thermal control systems are a key, enabling technology that contributes to the advancement of many of the top technical challenges and the highest priority technologies. The proposed reduced-order thermal design tool will be able to contribute to overcoming the obstacles of these technical challenges.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Isolation/Protection/Radiation Shielding (see also Mechanical Systems)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Structures
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling
Active Systems
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Heat Exchange
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H3.04-9801
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Self-Powered Magnetothermal Fluid Pump

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Prime Photonics, LC
1116 South Main Street, Suite 200
Blacksburg, VA 24060-5548
(540) 961-2200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Gray
david.gray@primephotonics.com111
1116 South Main Street, Suite 200
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-5548
(540) 808-4281

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The ability to successfully manage thermal loads is increasingly a primary design constraint for many emerging engineered systems. Systems ranging from military aircraft to computational platforms to photovoltaic (PV) power generation all generate unwanted heat and traditional methods for transporting and removing this heat are often heavy, cumbersome, power hungry, or lack adequate heat removal capacity. Excess heat can result in reduced efficiency in PV systems, limit duty cycles for pulsed power applications, and ultimately cause failure of critical components if not managed properly. Similar problematic scenarios exist for many power generation systems, high power radio frequency (RF) devices, portable electronics, and lasers, to name a few. A host of thermal management techniques are currently available including heat pipes, liquid immersion, jet impingement and sprays, thermoelectric coolers, and refrigeration. While these techniques are adequate in some cases, none of these methods alone can meet the needs of future high power thermal management without incurring large penalties of weight, power, or volume. The technology proposed here overcomes these limitations through autonomic, self-powered, and self-cooling functionality by directly converting the unwanted thermal energy into useable mechanical energy for use in coolant pumps or refrigeration compressors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA and DoD cooling applications for electronics in mobile platform applications, Prime Photonics will market the Omnivore&#153; MT pump technology as part of an automatic, self-cooling system for use in commercial applications including: Consumer Electronics: passive cooling of PCs, portable electronics, televisions, and appliances Server Farms: self-powered, environmentally friendly cooling of internet switching facilities or big data centers Solar Farms: PV cell cooling to increase efficiency of high-density, concentrated solar farm power generation Home Heating/Cooling Systems: Temperature gradient between exterior and interior of home to drive pump for heating or compressor for air-conditioning

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Many of the advanced technologies employed by NASA feature high power densities and significant, transient thermal loads. An autonomic, self-powered thermal management system could be used to improve the performance of many of these systems without significantly increasing system cost, complexity, or power requirements. Thermal management systems: thermal management of power electronics and data processing systems Thermal Switches: The device proposed here could serve as a viable alternative to problematic thermal switches, with only slight modification. Tuning of ferromagnetic material Curie temperature and spring dynamics allows for operation at any temperature set point, from well below ambient to elevated temperatures in the several hundred degrees Celsius. Solar-powered aircraft: enhancement of solar aircraft harvesting efficiency through cooler PV junction temperatures Fluidic Microsystems: development of self-powered, autonomous microfluidic pumps and microvascular systems to be used in fluid delivery (lubricants, nutritives, etc.) Energy Storage: Isothermal enthalpic energy storage systems that convert waste heat into pressure or in phase change materials

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Isolation/Protection/Radiation Shielding (see also Mechanical Systems)
Conversion
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Storage
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Thermal
Active Systems
Heat Exchange
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H4.01-8916
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Suit Pressure Garment and Airlock Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Morphing Upper Torso: A Resizable and Adjustable EVA Torso Assembly

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Clark Company Incorporated
360 Franklin Street, P.O Box15054
Worcester, MA 01615-0054
(508) 751-5800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shane Jacobs
sjacobs@davidclark.com111
360 Franklin Street, P.O Box 15054
Worcester,  MA 01615-0054
(508) 751-5861

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Traditional Extravehicular Activity (EVA) spacesuits incorporate either hard or soft upper torso subassemblies as part of their architecture. In either case, these components are of a specific, fixed size and lack provisions to make sizing adjustments across the overall envelope of the torso. This project will further the TRL of the prototype Morphing Upper Torso, an innovative pressure garment that allows for resizing of the torso and precise repositioning of the neck, scye and waist planes. The concept has seen significant initial development through the research and PhD dissertation of Dr. Shane Jacobs, the PI on this proposed effort. To date, analytical and experimental models of the full Morphing Upper Torso design (in which the back hatch of a rear-entry torso is interconnected with the waist ring, helmet ring and two scye bearings) have been used to demonstrate the feasibility of this novel space suit concept. The analytical and experimental results demonstrate that the torso could be expanded to facilitate donning and doffing, and then contracted to match different wearer's body dimensions. Using the system of interconnected parallel manipulators, suit components can be accurately repositioned to different desired configurations. The demonstrated feasibility of the Morphing Upper Torso concept makes it an exciting candidate for inclusion in future EVA suit architectures. The proposed project will further the development from the proven concept in a laboratory setting, focusing on integration and development of wearable mockups and ultimately a useable, wearable, pressurizable prototype.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The concept of an adjustable exoskeleton type suit is of keen interest to the United States Military. The work performed in this project can be leveraged for military applications through the development of systems to evenly and efficiently distribute soldier-borne equipment weight. Additionally, the design of components capable of quick adjustment can be leveraged for other protective equipment utilized in extreme environments, such as hazmat suits and firefighters turnout gear.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A Morphing Upper Torso would be beneficial for any future exploration mission and any future EVA suit. The ability to resize the torso will minimize the number of sizes needed yet allow for some "customization" among individual wearers. The additional mobility provided by such a close fitting suit for all crewmembers will be extremely beneficial for exploration of the Moon, Mars, NEOs, or future ISS construction and maintenance tasks. Furthermore, the ability to resize the suit torso during long duration missions also provides a means to address body dimensional changes associate to long duration exposure to microgravity and thereby enhance the overall performance and efficiency of the suited crewmember. NASA will benefit by ultimately implementing this technology into future suit designs, and hence improving suit logistics, minimizing costs and maximizing crewmember productivity.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
Tools/EVA Tools
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H4.01-9121
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Suit Pressure Garment and Airlock Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: RadFlexPro

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Final Frontier Design
313 7th Avenue, Suite 3L
Brooklyn, NY 11215-4141
(347) 512-0082

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Theodore Southern
ted@finalfrontierdesign.com111
313 7th Avenue, Suite 3L
Brooklyn,  NY 11215-4141
(347) 512-0082

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Our proposed multilayered, flexible, graded Z radiation shielding, RadFlexPro, provides radiation protection for astronauts in EVA for NASA's future space missions. RadFlexPro can be integrated into current space suit TMG designs and act as multifunctional layers, providing additional protection from micrometeoroids. Current RadFlexPro designs have three layers. The outer layer serves as a first barrier to decelerate high speed and high energy particles: the following layer decelerate particles more, and the final layer protects from possible secondary radiation. It is proposed that RadFlexPro will significantly increase radiation protection without compromising bulk and mobility in a space suit. RadFlexPro is a composition of several materials and layers, with different properties selected to protect against various types of radiation. Compared to single-material shielding, such as Demron, the same mass of Graded-Z coating shows increased radiation opacity; as an alternative, a lower mass of graded z shielding can provide the same level of protection as a single material sheild. In a typical graded-Z shield, the high-Z layer effectively scatters protons and electrons. Because the matrix of RadFlexPro is adjustable, the coating can be sprayed on surfaces, rolled or laminated, and/or dipped into solution. A matrix solution can be made with different viscosities and densities to suit several bonding techniques. Coated fabrics can in turn be cut out according to flat patterns and sewed with other pieces into a TMG configuration. FFD has considerable experience and hardware to sew thick, heavy, rubbery materials effectively.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
FFD has identified several potential Non-NASA commercial customers for RadFlexPro. In 2011-12, we conducted negotiations with Space Adventures and SpaceX to provide pressure garments for their commercial space flight program. We are the current supplier of high altitude, full pressure safety garments for Zero2Infinity. We plan to supply space suits to commercial customers by early 2013. In several flight plans for commercial space access providers like these companies, light weight, flexible radiation protection is a highly desirable feature. However, RadFlexPro is not for only space travel, and has lot applications for terrestrial use: -protection of personal in medical X-rays and radiation therapy, -protection of pilots of civil/military aircrafts, -protection of scientists working with radioisotopes, -hazard/first responder suits for radioactive emergencies, -military protective gear

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA currently operates EVA in LEO without any dedicated radiation protection. Future missions for EVAs to environments like the moon, asteroids, and Mars require additional protection against radiation. RadFlexPro could serve as a method to further protect astronauts from harmful radiation for NASA. FFD is interested in working on the next generation pressurized garments for NASA's use in EVA beyond the ISS. The added radiation protection of an astronaut within a highly functional pressure garment would insure a significant advantage for NASA in future space missions. In addition, RadFlexPro is an adaptable coating strategy, which could be incorporated into vehicles for radiation protection for humans and sensitive computer equipment. Its low mass relative to solid lead or aluminum shielding and flexible application options are an economical and efficient alternative to traditidonal vehicle shielding.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Isolation/Protection/Radiation Shielding (see also Mechanical Systems)
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Metallics
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H4.01-9123
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Suit Pressure Garment and Airlock Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Performance Arm for an Exploration Space Suit

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Final Frontier Design
313 7th Avenue, Suite 3L
Brooklyn, NY 11215-4141
(347) 512-0082

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Theodore Southern
ted@finalfrontierdesign.com111
313 7th Avenue, Suite 3L
Brooklyn,  NY 11215-4141
(347) 512-0082

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Final Frontier Design (FFD) proposes to develop and deliver an advanced pressure garment arm with low torque and high Range of Motion (ROM), and increased durability, using their unique single layer approach to the pressure vessel joint. FFD has developed a flat patterned asymmetric shoulder joint for their current space suit pressure garment, with a natural position in human rest adduction, approximately -10 degrees. In addition, this joint has a focused point of rotation, like the human shoulder. Their design reduces discomfort from gathering of fabric in the armpit, provides a large ROM, favorable torque, and allows for close tracking of natural human anthropometry. In addition, FFD's elbow joint design show consistently high performance, in terms of ROM, torque, and operating pressure. This proposal also utilizes a unique approach to the pressure garment: the single layer integrated pressure garment joint as opposed to a traditional double layer bladder-restraint pressure garment. FFD's pressure garments have a host of important advantages over double layer pressure garments, including a lower mass, increased ROM, decreased torque, a thinner wall, the reduction of suit layers, the elimination of indexing, lower cost manufacturing, and flat-patterned ease of scaling and repeatability. This proposal will develop two design iterations of FFD's single layer pressure garment arm, to include both the elbow flexion-extension joint and the shoulder ad-abduction joint. The arms will be designed and tested for +8PSI operating pressure, to meet current ROM standards of NASA's pressure garments and test and increase FFD's technology cycling ability. FFD aims to increase their TRL in this project from 4 to 6 through Phase II of this contract.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
FFD has identified several potential Non-NASA commercial customers for their pressure garments, including their advanced arms. In 2011, we participated in negotiations with XCOR, Space Adventures, and Space-X, to provide pressure garments for their respective commercial space flight programs. There are several manned space access companies currently in the market for IVA suits beyond these providers, in the Commercial Crew Program of NASA and privately/suborbitally. In 2012, FFD was contracted to construct IVA safety garments for Zero2Infinity, a high altitude balloon company. We plan supply our first production IVA suits to customers by January 2013, and expect testing and validation in 2013. FFD sees a significant market in commercial IVA space suits in the near future. The arm joints developed under this contract have applications for commercial IVA suits. Our designs have unprecedented performance for IVA garments with a high operating pressure, large ROM, low torque, and low mass. Importantly, the garments are relatively inexpensive to produce and can be easily sized because they are flat patterned. Our target market price for an IVA pressure garment is $50,000. This SBIR will provide valuable testing and validation to allow FFD to flight certify their material concepts and designs. We see the testing and proof in flight certification as a significant hurdle to market commercialization for our product, and one that can be greatly assisted by this proposal.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA currently operates EVA in LEO. Future missions beyond LEO demand more robust and functional EVA equipment. A space suit with new arm joints could serve as a method to further increase the astronaut's productivity, work envelope, and further mission assurance for NASA. FFD is interested in working on the next generation pressurized garment for NASA's use in EVA beyond the ISS. The added benefits in mobility of astronaut within a highly functional pressure garment would ensure a significant advantage for NASA in future space missions. In addition, the proposed mass reduction in the pressure garment is highly desirable for several reasons, including launch weight and overall suit mass during EVA. FFD's pressure garment technology is comparatively very inexpensive to manufacture, easier to maintain, and easier to scale than many advanced concept space suit equivalents. Finally, the pressure garment components developed here could have a crossover interest in IVA space suit design, as they are soft, flat, and stowable.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Textiles


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H4.01-9332
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Suit Pressure Garment and Airlock Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Extravehicular Helmet Assembly

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Air-Lock, Inc.
Wampus Lane
Milford, CT 06460-4861
(203) 878-4691

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Battisti
bbattisti@airlockinc.com111
Wampus Lane
Milford,  CT 06460-4861
(203) 878-4691

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The current NASA spacesuit community is focusing on utilizing a 13" hemispherical helmet for the next generation of extravehicular activity spacesuits. This helmet architecture presents the end user with a myriad of positive attributes, including a large field of view, enhanced CO2 washout and improved component durability/operational life. The 13" Dome Helmet architecture has proven these attributes via the NASA MK-III and Z-1 advanced EVA spacesuit test beds. Air-Lock's 2012 SBIR proposal advances the 13" Dome Helmet from NASA prototype/test bed to EVA Acceptability for Use by enhancing the design with a fully functional Extravehicular Visor Assembly (EVVA). Phase I will see Air-Lock engineers leverage current Helmet/EVVA technologies, infuse the design with lessons learned from the EMU Program and implement the resultant design into a 13" hemispherical helmet architecture; heretofore referred to as the Advanced Extravehicular Helmet Assembly (AEHA). In addition to the design facet of the Phase I task, Air-Lock engineers will develop a Verification and Validation Test Plan (V&V) based on current EMU S/AD and CARD requirements along with higher Advanced EVA operating pressures (8.0 psi). This test plan will lay the foundation for Phase 2 Acceptability for Use testing to facilitate the use of the AEHA aboard the International Space Station in support of NASA's planned 2017 ISS Advanced Spacesuit Demonstration Test.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Similar to the NASA commercial application, it is believed the coating of windows with the AEHA Protective Visor coating will have merit in commercial space activities. The fabrication process developed in this SBIR will yield larger, stress concentration free, optical structures capable of providing radiation protection, impact protection and pressure retention. These optical structures can aid long duration pressurized commercial space structures (rovers, space stations, habitats); allowing habitants to operate in a shirtsleeve environment for long durations safely and efficiently without fear of cumulative radiation exposure.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The resultant product from this SBIR task will be a validated EVA Helmet. NASA will be able to utilize this component for government spacesuits requiring EVA Helmets. In addition to the end product, manufacturing advances will be made in the forming and coating of large hemispherical polycarbonate domes. This process can be utilized for windows on pressurized space structures such as rovers, habitats, space stations, etc. Long duration missions such as planetary exploration will utilize pressurized habitats and structures that allow crewmembers to operate in a shirtsleeve environment. Windows will need to be treated with radiation attenuating coatings to prevent cumulative exposure to harmful radiation. This coating will be shown to be capable of being applied to large hemispherical surfaces during this SBIR.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Isolation/Protection/Radiation Shielding (see also Mechanical Systems)
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Project Management
Prototyping
Quality/Reliability
Processing Methods
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Metallics
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Filtering


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H4.02-8749
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Suit Life Support and Avionics Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Optics Corporation
1845 West 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501-1510
(310) 320-3088

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Holmstedt
EOSproposals@poc.com111
1845 West 205th Street
Torrance,  CA 90501-1510
(310) 320-3088

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To address the NASA need for an EVA information display device, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display (Pro/Ref-HUD) based on innovative integration of laser projectors and optics. This approach incorporates miniature full-color laser light sources and low-profile narrowband reflective, see-through toroid-shaped optics, which enable us to meet NASA EVA requirements for displays that are completely decoupled from the user's head and achieving full sunlight readability with automated rapid ambient light response. The Pro/Ref-HUD offers full-color, high-resolution collimated images, with large fields of view, highly suited to the space and weight constraints inside an astronaut's suit. POC plans to demonstrate the feasibility of the Pro/Ref-HUD system by building and testing a preliminary prototype to TRL-4 by the end of Phase I. POC plans to develop in Phase II a fully functional prototype to demonstrate sunlight readability and SXGA resolution, investigate thermal and radiation issues, and analyze ignition safety due to a 100% oxygen operating environment and vacuum and extreme temperature storage environments. The results demonstrated will offer NASA capabilities to perform EVAs with heads-up displays internal to the helmet to improve crew safety and comfort and prevent misalignment of the display.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We anticipate widespread appeal of the Pro/Ref-HUD technology for such entertainment industry applications as gaming HUDs, gaming flight simulators, and other immersive and augmented display systems, including medical and CAD/CAE 3D image displays, virtual-reality displays for endoscopy/laparoscopy, and displays for environmentally hazardous professions such as bomb disposal and hazmat clean up. The DoD has a significant need for HMD technology, including Distributed Mission Training, pilot and combat vehicle crew HMDs, thermal weapon sights, Soldier's Integrated Protective Ensemble (SIPE), and logistics and training. HMD technology advances made possible by the successful development of the proposed Pro/Ref-HUD system will lead to cost-effective commercialization. In particular, this new HMD system will find numerous real time 3D virtual-reality applications. Medicine, avionics, education, law enforcement, firefighting, space exploration, and video games represent major markets for compact, low-cost, lightweight HMDs in the private sector.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Pro/Ref-HUD technology will provide new capabilities for astronauts during EVA with a see-through display system that allows them to monitor the conditions around them while being provided visual instructions and direction in a hands-free format. This will allow astronauts to be more productive and take on less risk, and eventually translate to boresighted overlays for augmented-reality-based information. Applications include space walks on the International Space Station (ISS) where navigating the structure can be completed with maps and repairs completed with heads-up manuals. Harsh-environment training can also be completed with the HUD by providing assistance and navigation for improved safety such as dealing with Martian dust storms and facilitating asteroid landings.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Tools/EVA Tools
Man-Machine Interaction
Perception/Vision
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Command & Control
Mission Training
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Prototyping
Display
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H4.02-8807
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Suit Life Support and Avionics Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Regenerable Sorbent for Combined CO2, Water, and Trace-Contaminant Capture in the Primary Life Support System (PLSS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Fuel Research, Inc.
87 Church Street
East Hartford, CT 06108-3720
(860) 528-9806

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Marek Wojtowicz
marek@AFRinc.com111
87 Church Street
East Hartford,  CT 06108-3720
(860) 528-9806

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The NASA objective of expanding the human experience into the far reaches of space requires the development of regenerable life support systems. This proposal addresses the development of an integrated air-revitalization system for the space suit used in Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). The proposed innovations are: (1) a single CO2, H2O, and trace-contaminant management unit; (2) a single sorbent possessing the capability to remove CO2, H2O, and trace contaminants; (3) monolithic sorption unit to provide the following functions: (a) CO2 sorbent; (b) H2O sorbent; (c) trace-contaminants sorbent; (d) low pressure drop; (e) good thermal management (heat transfer and low heat of adsorption); (f) resistance to dusty environments; and (4) regenerable operation. The overall objective is to develop a CO2/H2O/trace-contaminant removal system that is regenerable and that possesses weight, size, and power-requirement advantages over the current state of the art. The Phase 1 objectives are: (1) to demonstrate the technical feasibility of using a novel CO2 sorbent; and (2) to demonstrate effective CO2, H2O, and ammonia sorption and regeneration. This will be accomplished in three tasks: (1) Sorbent Preparation and Characterization; (2) Sorbent Testing; and (3) Product Assessment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Greenhouse gas mitigation is a potential application. DOE is aggressively pursuing technologies beyond pumped aqueous amine systems that can be used for point source reduction of CO2. These systems must offer lower cost of capture compared to the pumped amine systems. Our sorbent can offer an attractive alternative for better CO2 removal compared to the pumped amine systems. This can translate into smaller systems, lowering capital costs. Our system is also expected to provide more efficient regeneration (lower thermal energy requirement), thus reducing operating costs. The monolithic support also offers pressure-drop advantages for CO2 capture from the flue gas.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The main application of the proposed technology would be in spacecraft life-support systems, mainly in extravehicular activities (space suit), but after modifications also in cabin-air revitalization.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Remediation/Purification


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H5.01-8779
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Expandable/Deployable Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Next Generation Extremely Large Solar Array System for NASA Exploration Missions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Deployable Space Systems, Inc.
75 Robin Hill, Building B2
Goleta, CA 93117-3108
(805) 693-1319

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Spence
Brian.Spence@DeployableSpaceSystems.com111
75 Robin Hill, Building B2
Goleta,  CA 93117-3108
(805) 722-8090

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed technology is a revolutionary solar array advancement that relies on a structurally optimized platform to provide unparalleled specific-performance and affordability for extremely large area solar arrays. The proposed technology is comprised of a central beam tensioned membrane architecture that leverages key heritage technology elements to provide low-risk and high end-user acceptance. The proposed technology will enable emerging Solar Electric Propulsion Space Science and Exploration missions through ultra-affordability, ultra-lightweight, ultra-compact stowage volume, design simplicity, robustness and high damage tolerance, broad scalability, high strength/stiffness, high voltage and high/low temperature operation capability within many environments. Once completely optimized through the proposed SBIR program the proposed technology promises to provide NASA/industry a near-term and low-risk solar array system that provides revolutionary performance in terms of high specific power (>300 up to 500 W/kg BOL at the wing level, PV-blanket dependent), affordability (up to 40% cost savings at the array level, PV-blanket dependent), ultra-lightweight, high deployed stiffness (10X better than current arrays), high deployed strength (10X better than current arrays), compact stowage volume (>70-80 kW/m3 BOL, 10X times better than current arrays), high reliability, high radiation tolerance, high voltage operation capability (>200 VDC), scalability (500W to 100's of kW), and LILT/HIHT operation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA space applications are comprised of practically all missions that require high-efficiency photovoltaic power production through deployment of an ultra-lightweight and highly-modular structural system. The technology is particularly suited for SEP missions that require game-changing performance in terms of large deployed areas, affordability, ultra-lightweight, and compact stowage volume. Applicable non-NASA space missions include: LEO surveillance, reconnaissance, communications and other critical payload/equipment satellites, LEO commercial mapping and critical payload/equipment satellites, MEO satellites & space-tugs, GEO commercial communications and critical payload/equipment satellites, and GEO communications and payload/equipment satellites. The proposed technology also has tremendous dual-use non-space commercial private-sector applicability including fixed-ground and deployable/retractable mobile-ground based systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA space applications are comprised of practically all Exploration, Space Science, Earth Science, Planetary Surface, and other missions that require high-efficiency photovoltaic power production through deployment of an ultra-lightweight and highly-modular structural system. The technology is particularly suited for NASA's SEP missions and other missions that require game-changing performance in terms of extremely large deployed areas, affordability, ultra-lightweight, and compact stowage volume. The technology is also well suited for applications requiring scalability/modularity, operability within high radiation environments, high voltage operation, and LILT/HIHT operation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Conversion
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Project Management
Processing Methods
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Metallics
Polymers
Actuators & Motors
Deployment
Fasteners/Decouplers
Structures
Simulation & Modeling
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H5.01-9013
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Expandable/Deployable Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Tubular Extendible Lock-Out Composite Boom (STELOC

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Composite Technology Development, Inc.
2600 Campus Drive, Suite D
Lafayette, CO 80026-3359
(303) 664-0394

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Taylor
robert.taylor@ctd-materials.com111
2600 Campus Drive, Suite D
Lafayette,  CO 80026-0394
(303) 664-0394

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Mass and volume efficient solar arrays are sought by NASA, DoD and commercial space to enable high power missions from 20-30 kW up to 300 kW. Flexible substrate arrays can have higher specific power (W/kg) and specific volume (kW/m3) than conventional arrays. Typical designs for flexible substrate arrays require a stiff boom mechanism to deploy the array and provide the deployed structure. Graphite composite slit-tube booms are thermally stable and can enable next-generation flexible arrays by improving mass, volume, and cost. CTD has developed and demonstrated a 5cm diameter graphite composite slit-tube boom and canister designed for a 23m tether-stiffened solar array. The Stable Tubular Extendible Lock-Out Composite (STELOC) boom proposed here will feature two innovations to the composite slit-tube design that enhance stiffness. Slit-Lock interlocks the edges of the slit and Root-Lock eliminates the open section at the root of the boom when fully deployed. Combined, these innovations enable a 10cm STELOC boom that is much simpler, lighter, and stiffer than a 25cm diameter coilable longeron boom. This Phase I program will demonstrate a full length, 10cm STELOC boom including all innovative features to enhance stiffness. The program will also develop a conceptual design that meets all boom requirements provided by an identified spacecraft prime contractor for their flexible substrate array.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Near term Air Force satellite missions require more capable solar arrays with more total power on the same platforms. Higher power solar arrays can leverage significant cost savings by enabling the GPS III Dual Launch variant, and they can overcome power challenges for Advanced EHF and classified missions. More powerful arrays must have an improved power to weight ratio, decreased stowage volume and increased deployed stiffness which are all enabled by the STELOC boom. Next-generation solar arrays are also intended for use on commercial geostationary satellites. Therefore, the requirements of these systems will be enveloped in the boom requirements considered during Phase I.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Advancement of large deployable arrays is a critical requirement listed in NASA's technology roadmap. Power systems compromise nearly 30% of a spacecraft's mass on average, thus improvements in specific power (W/kg) will enable either a reduction in spacecraft mass or an increase in capabilities. Advanced arrays are required to enable scaling to larger array system up to 300 kW for interplanetary missions using solar electric power (SEP). A highly capable and inexpensive boom will enable these large, flexible substrate arrays.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Composites
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Actuators & Motors
Deployment
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H5.01-9014
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Expandable/Deployable Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight, Low Permeability, Cryogenic Thoraeus RubberTM Inflatables

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanosonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke, VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jennifer Lalli
jhlalli@nanosonic.com111
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke,  VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NanoSonic has developed a candidate state-of-the-art inflatable as a novel bladder material for life critical, space habitats that maintains low air permeability (< 0.0017 cc/100in2/day/atm) upon the triple fold cold flex test conducted at -50 ?C. The multifunctional Thoraeus Rubber&#153; (TR) films are comprised of a low glass transition temperature (Tg), - 100 ?C, copolymer matrix resin modified with alternating layers of ultra-thin, uniform layers of proprietary nanoparticles for radiation resistance. NanoSonic's unique molecular level deposition technique yields pinhole-free nanocomposites with that maintain radiation and EMI shielding (up to -100 dB) upon severe (50 % elongation) and repeated mechanical strain, a property that few if any inflatable exhibit. NanoSonic proposes to produce a triply redundant bladder assembly comprised of several layers of TR&#153; films bonded with our low areal density self-healing foam, for a total areal density of less than 6 oz/yd2. To substantiate long-term use in space, the down-selected, puncture resistant assemblies shall be exposed to gamma, electron, and heavy ions at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory via our partner, Colorado State University (CSU). Low air permeability and flammability resistance would be verified after simulated Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) exposure and cryogenic flex testing. NanoSonic has teamed with seaming and space systems experts who will conduct leak and adhesion testing, and assist with habitat construction. In support of NASA's goals for a robust space exploration program, it is anticipated that NanoSonic's lightweight, low permeable bladders shall enable space inflatable modules that exhibit long-term, 5 year, radiation resistance upon inflation, minimize launch mass, repair/maintenance, size and costs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications for the low Tg TR&#153; inflatables include ultra-lightweight deployable polar habitats, high altitude airships (HAA), and rapidly deployable and reusable shelters. Additionally, the self-healing component within the multi-layer bladder will be transitioned as long-term protective storage liners for food or other sensitive materials, self-sealing tires, anti-ballistic fuel tanks and life critical personnel protective equipment (PPE). The EMI and radiation shielding protective constituent offer utility as cost effective protection against electrostatic charging, radiation, and abrasion. Aerospace, biomedical and microelectronic markets would benefit from the EMI SE under repeated and severe reconfigurations. Such EMI shielding skins can be envisioned for use on aircraft, morphing unmanned aerial vehicles, antennas and space structures. Structural, high temperature, composite materials having unique dielectric and multiple controlled electromagnetic properties are possible via NanoSonic's layer-by-layer approach. Spray ESA is envisioned as a cost-effective, environmentally friendly technology to displace sputtering and traditional dense filled composites. Metal Rubber&#153; Fabrics and films can also function as conducting electrodes for high strain mechanical actuator and sensor devices, and as low-weight, electrically conductive and mechanically flexible coatings for systems requiring physically-robust ground planes or electrical interconnection.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NanoSonic's Thoraeus Rubber&#153; materials will be primarily developed as the bladder assembly for inflatable, life-critical, NASA space habitats. The advanced lightweight bladder material offers superb cold temperature flexibility and durability to maintain low air permeability during handling and deployment in space. The puncture resistant material will be transitioned as the multi-layer, self-healing bladder system when combined with NanoSonic's lightweight self-healing foams to ensure limited repair and maintenance. The multifunctional TR&#153; materials formed via NanoSonic's ESA process offer EMI and radiation shielding for enhanced long-term high altitude and space durability. Structural, yet compliant, composite materials having unique morphology and multiple controlled electromagnetic properties are possible via NanoSonic's automated spray-on ESA manufacturing approach. TR&#153; represents a new class of robust, stowable/deployable structures for inflatable habitats and spacecraft. Additional NASA platforms that may benefit from the TR&#153; include protective materials for Lunar systems, exploration vehicles, and satellites in LEO, GEO, and HEO. NanoSonic's polyelectrolytes may be combined with our family of nanostructure materials produced in house for limitless combinations of multifunctional rigidizable/deployable materials for civil, aerospace, and space applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airship/Lighter-than-Air Craft
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Outreach
Manufacturing Methods
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Material Handing & Packaging
In Situ Manufacturing
Aerogels
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Metallics
Nanomaterials
Organics/Biomaterials/Hybrids
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Textiles
Actuators & Motors
Deployment
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Structures
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Propulsion
Electromagnetic
Inertial
Pressure/Vacuum
X-rays/Gamma Rays
Terahertz (Sub-millimeter)
Microwave
Destructive Testing
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Lifetime Testing
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling
Passive Systems
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H5.01-9067
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Expandable/Deployable Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Inflatable Habitat with Integrated Primary and Secondary Structure

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paragon Space Development Corporation
3481 East Michigan Street
Tucson, AZ 85714-2221
(520) 903-1000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Grant Anderson
ganderson@paragonsdc.com111
3481 E. Michigan Street
Tucson,  AZ 85714-2221
(520) 382-4812

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Paragon Space Development Corp (Paragon) and Thin Red Line Aerospace (TRLA) proposes to explore the utilization of inflatable structures by designing a habitation module as an integrated, all-fabric inflatable structural architecture, rather than modifying rigid space structural designs with an inflatable envelope. Paragon and TRLA have developed several concepts with the potential to eliminate the need for hard-material support structure within an inflated habitat. A key feature of the proposed solution is the focus on eliminating the need to connect to or compromise the air-barrier thus creating a structure with highly predictable load performance and minimal leak rate. The proposed activity will address primary and secondary structures in an integrated fashion with consideration of innovative approaches of addressing the assembly, integration, and deployment of all structures to minimize launch volume and mass while providing cost savings and maximizing usable living space. This includes floors, walls, Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) elements, thermal control fluid loops, insulation, radiation shielding, MMOF protection, and electrical data support, while providing a stable, secure support for interior hard-goods into an all-inflatable design that can be efficiently packaged. Inflatable structures exhibit the highest specific stiffness of any known structure and can produce significant weight savings over hybrid structural designs. Paragon's multi-pressure vessel concept utilizes nested pressure vessels to form a multiwall structure entirely encapsulated and independent of the outer hull and air barrier material to ensure minimum leak rate. An ECLSS induced pressure differential exists between a central core, the inner habitable volume walls, and the exterior pressure hull and air barrier material. Perforations in the core and inner walls allow continuous airflow providing air revitalization and heat removal.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications such as air bags, high altitude air ships, aerostats, compressed air energy storage, underwater habitats, underwater emergency escape systems (submarine), portable storage tanks for oil transport, remote fuel depot stations, remote water storage tanks for forest fire control, cargo lift balloons, large, deep space antenna reflector for ground stations, antenna radome, emergency shelters, and troop shelters with integrated ballistic protection.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The applications of the proposal are targeted for lunar surface system habitats, airlocks and other crewed vessels which include stationary vessels, deep space exploration vehicles, or crew accessible storage modules.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Isolation/Protection/Radiation Shielding (see also Mechanical Systems)
Physiological/Psychological Countermeasures
Deployment
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Structures
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H5.01-9476
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Expandable/Deployable Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Design and Analysis Tools for Deployable Solar Array Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ATA Engineering, Inc.
11995 El Camino Real
San Diego, CA 92130-2566
(858) 480-2000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cory Rupp
cory.rupp@ata-e.com111
1687 Cole Boulevard, Suite 125
Golden,  CO 80401-3321
(303) 945-2368

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Large, lightweight, deployable solar array structures have been identified as a key enabling technology for NASA with analysis and design of these structures being the top challenge in meeting the overall goals of the NASA Space Technology Roadmap. The use of analysis to drive design from an early stage is critical to their success, yet conflicting design requirements and demanding space constraints make traditional design/build/test methods challenging and expensive. The proposed SBIR program focuses on overcoming this through the development of a user-friendly multi-disciplinary design and analysis software toolkit that can rapidly perform parametric studies and design optimization of solar array concepts. The software package will provide a graphical user interface and underlying analysis procedures to evaluate critical performance metrics (e.g. deployment, packaging efficiency, strength, stiffness, mass, etc.), while eliminating the unnecessary pre-processing and computational overhead associated with current approaches. The user will be able to interactively investigate effects of design parameter changes (e.g. array geometry, size, number of panels/sections, joint properties, control system parameters) on critical performance metrics and analysis results. Analysis capabilities will include flexible multi-body dynamics, array deployment, loading due to thrust, and modal analysis. Parametric study and design optimization capabilities will also be key features of the tool. Model creation will be simplified through the use of an extensible, hierarchical blockset solution and a library of blocks specific to deployable solar array analysis. The Phase I effort will focus on developing accurate analysis capabilities, a parametric study workflow, and the GUI for controlling them and interpreting results. Phase II will incorporate additional analysis types (e.g. thermal, uncertainty propagation, sensitivity analysis, etc.) as well as a design optimization framework.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The tools will have broader applications than just the design and optimization of deployable solar array structures. The development of the toolset will focus on developing a modular, open-architecture tool that is easily extensible and customizable to integrate with other systems, software tools, and architectures. The underlying architecture of the toolset allows it to be easily expanded and/or customized to enable additional analysis solutions, geometry modules, control systems, interactions, and terminology relevant to a vast array of other products. This framework results in a powerful tool for design and analysis of any product that has several disparate components that must work in an integrated way. Products may include heavy equipment, robotics, industrial manufacturing, spacecraft, aircraft, automotive, and energy applications, to name but a few.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most immediate opportunity for the tools that will be developed under this SBIR is to assist NASA and its contractors in performing design trade studies of large mass-efficient deployable solar array systems. The tools will allow rapid trade studies of these systems to be carried out so that designs can be optimized for critical performance requirements such as deployment reliability, stiffness, strength, control, etc. The tools can also be easily extended and/or customized to allow design and analysis of other hardware of interest to NASA, including lightweight booms, frames, and expandable/inflatable structures. Products that will leverage these hardware elements include space fuel stations, manned outposts on the moon or Mars, and robotic exploration vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Deployment
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H5.01-9689
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Expandable/Deployable Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: TRUSSELATOR - On-Orbit Fabrication of High Performance Support Structures for Solar Arrays

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tethers Unlimited
11711 North Creek Parkway South, Suite D113
Bothell, WA 98011-8808
(425) 486-0100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Hoyt
hoyt@tethers.com111
11711 North Creek Parkway South, Suite D113
Bothell,  WA 98011-8808
(425) 486-0100

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
TUI proposes to develop and demonstrate a process for fabricating high-performance composite truss structures on-orbit and integrating them with thin film solar cell assemblies to enable the deployment of very large solar arrays with lower cost and increased power-per-mass than SOA array technologies. On-orbit fabrication enables order-of-magnitude improvements in packing efficiency compared to state of the art deployables technologies such as coilable booms, deployable masts, and inflatable structures, and also enables geometric optimizations to provide order-of-magnitude improvements in structural performance. The proposed effort will build upon an existing TRL-3 truss-fabrication mechanism design, called the "Trusselator", which adapts techniques used in 3D printing and automated fiber placement to fabricate arbitrarily-long composite trusses using compactly-wound spools of textile materials as a feedstock. The Phase I SBIR effort will evolve this design to enable fabrication of high-performance truss structures using space-worthy materials, and develop methods for integrating these truss structures with solar cell blankets and the necessary wiring. The Phase II effort will prepare an advanced prototype and mature it to TRL-5 through environmental testing in the lab, preparing it for orbital validation testing in follow-on efforts.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Trusselator technology will enable DoD space programs and commercial space ventures to construct large, high-performance space structures for missions such as phased-array radar systems, sparse aper-ture radar for orbital debris detection, long-baseline geolocation, and commercial manned stations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
By improving both the stowed volume and mass required for support structures by an order of magni-tude, the Trusselator technology will enable NASA/HEOMD programs to deploy very large, scalable (30-300+kW) solar array systems at lower cost than SOA deployables technologies. The Trusselator technology will also enable improved performance and lower cost for a wide range of systems requiring large support structures, such as large solar sails, thermal shrouds, manned stations, and orbital propellant depots.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
In Situ Manufacturing
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Textiles
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H5.02-8648
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Manufacturing and Material Development for Lightweight Metallic Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Metal Matrix Composite Feedstock for Advanced Fiber Placement Process

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Touchstone Research Laboratory, Ltd.
The Millennium Centre, 1142 Middle Creek Road
Triadelphia, WV 26059-1139
(304) 547-5800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Gordon
blg@trl.com111
The Millennium Centre, 1142 Middle Creek Road
Triadelphia,  WV 26059-1139
(304) 547-5800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed research pursues a path for reducing structural weight, increasing structural performance, and reducing fabrication cost while also minimizing maintainability. The approach, which is a based on selective reinforcement, is a change in the basic design philosophy and will result in the development of a hybrid material form. The selective reinforcement approach allows the structural design requirements to define the material form. This is the reverse of the typical development flow path used for building structures. This backward path results in more efficient material forms that are of greater value to structural engineers. Specifically, the proposed effort will combine a metal matrix composite (MMC) prepreg tape feedstock with an advanced fiber placement process. The combination of these technologies will lead to enhanced metallic structures through selective reinforcement (SR), which consists of adding a high-performance material to structures to achieve local stiffening and strengthening.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications include aircraft such as the F-35, CH53-K, V-22, ground combat vehicles, and aluminum ship designs. Commercial aircraft such as the Boeing 777, Airbus A-380, and Airbus A340-600 could also benefit by adding MMC SR concepts. Applications in the automotive market include aluminum and magnesium castings, flywheels for hybrid vehicles, liners for lightweight composite tanks used on alternative fuel vehicles, and other types of storage tanks. Incorporation into golf club shafts, tennis rackets, and bicycle frames for the sporting goods market are also possible.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed effort has broad applications across many NASA missions. Stiffened structures exist in launch vehicles, especially in their tank structures. Tanks have to withstand high stress during launch and provide stability at cryogenic temperatures. Essentially, any structure that is part of a NASA mission could benefit from new, lightweight structural components. These include: future launch vehicle, crew vehicle, surface habitats, robotic explorers or cryogenic tank structures.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Metallics
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H5.02-9214
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Manufacturing and Material Development for Lightweight Metallic Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing for Lightweight Metallic Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SOLIDICA
5840 Interface Drive, Suite 200
Ann Arbor, MI 48103-9515
(734) 222-4680

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Sheridan
john.sheridan@solidica.com111
5840 Interface Drive, Suite 200
Ann Arbor,  MI 48103-9515
(734) 222-4680

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 6
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of this program is to demonstrate the use of UAM to additively build reinforcement structures to reinforce cut outs in larger aluminum structural components. The team will work with NASA to scope a 'generic' opening in an aerospace aluminum structure. UAM will be used to perform two reinforcing activities. Firstly, UAM will be used to thicken the cross section of the aluminum component in a selective manner. This will provide additional stiffness through geometric effects without starting with a large billet of material. Secondly, UAM will be used to embed reinforcing materials (such as SiC fibers, steel wire, carbon fiber) in and around the opening to create a true MMC in the region(s) around the opening. Smalll channels will be machined to receive wire reinforcements. UAM will be used to create an embedded layered structure of embedded fiber around the opening. Mechanical testing of windows will be performed to quantify the increase in mechanical performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The innovation focuses on Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing fabrication of more efficient lightweight metals and manufacturing techniques for launch vehicles and in-space applications resulting in structures having affordable, reliable, predictable performance with reduced costs. However, the demand for such structures extends beyond space vehicles. Experts estimate that the AM market to double by 2015 as material properties become better understood and application examples become more prevalent. While there is an increasing need for metal-based AM processes, only a few companies have entered into this field because of the technology barriers. The patented UAM process is a metals-based AM technology that has the potential to overcome several of these limitations because it relies on a low-temperature, solid-state welding. The market for UAM is well poised for strong growth in all arenas that include aerospace, automotive, and oil exploration.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The initial application of high performance Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing enabled structures will likely be in NASA space structure programs. The innovation focuses on more efficient lightweight metals and manufacturing techniques for launch vehicles and in-space applications resulting in structures having affordable, reliable, predictable performance with reduced costs. A secondary NASA application is in lightweight internal components, such as thermal management devices used in spacecraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Processing Methods
Composites
Metallics
Smart/Multifunctional Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H5.02-9371
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Manufacturing and Material Development for Lightweight Metallic Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Additive Friction Stir Deposition of Aluminum Alloys and Functionally Graded Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Schultz-Creehan Holdings, Inc (DBA Aeroprobe)
2200 Kraft Drive, St 1475
Blacksburg, VA 24060-6702
(540) 443-9215

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kumar Kandasamy
Kumar.Kandasamy@aeroprobe.com111
2200 Kraft Drive, St 1475
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-6702
(540) 443-9215

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
State-of-the-art additive manufacturing technologies for metal parts have evolved around powder metallurgy and fusion welding-based processes. Both of these processing methodologies yield parts with inferior mechanical and physical properties as compared to wrought metal of the same composition. Additionally, the production rates for even the fastest processes are relatively low (~40 lbs/hr for Ti) and the part envelopes are limited to a few cubic feet. Aeroprobe proposes a highly scalable process for additive manufacturing of wrought metal structures based on their additive friction stir (AFS) process which provides high-strength coatings and welds (strengths comparable to the base metal UTS) while retaining a wrought microstructure. AFS has successfully deposited materials ranging from light metals, such as Al and Mg alloys, to high-temperature metals, such as Inconel 625 and oxide dispersion strengthened steels. Initial additive manufacturing demonstrations with AFS were highly successful and produced fully dense structures with wrought mechanical properties. The overall objective of this project is to further develop AFS technology into an additive manufacturing process to enable full-density, near net-shape fabrication of airframe structures. An initial process-structure-property relationship study will be conducted to demonstrate the physical and mechanical properties achievable in Al alloys via AFS. Finally, Aeroprobe will demonstrate the feasibility of AFS to produce complex 3D structures by fabricating an aluminum demonstration part of a relevant geometry.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary applications for early adoption of AFS are high-value propositions for which AFS enables some performance that is not achievable by traditional processing methods. One of the key benefits of AFS is that consolidation and deposition occur in the solid-state, thus highly engineered microstructures can be retained throughout processing. For, example AFS is being applied to large-plate and component manufacturing using ultra-fine-grained (UFG) Mg. Fabrication of UFG Mg components at a large-scale is currently not feasible and AFS is proving to make this possible. AFS is also being applied to coating and part fabrication using oxide dispersion strengthened alloys for fast-reactor nuclear power generation. Other commercial applications of AFS under development include coating of shaft journals for use in extreme wear and corrosion applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Additive manufacturing via AFS has the potential to lower the cost and improve the performance of NASA airframes and spacecraft. Additive manufacturing via AFS also offers the potential to locally control the composition of a component, thus allowing for minimization of stress concentrations which can drive materials selection and design in fatigue-driven applications such as airframes. Lowering the buy-to-fly ratio is often attributed to subtractive manufacturing of webbed and ribbed components to reduce the structural weight while maintaining required stiffness. Manufacturing such components using additive manufacturing could drastically reduce extensive machining, excessive materials, the associated energy, and custom tooling costs. Using AFS to additively manufacture webbed and ribbed components on NASA airframes has the potential reduce total airframe cost through the mechanism mentioned above and with the added benefit having wrought material properties and performance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In Situ Manufacturing
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Metallics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H6.01-8567
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Autonomy and Space Mission Automation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Constraint-Checking Editor for Procedure Tracking (ConCEPT)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Adventium Enterprises, LLC
111 Third Avenue South, Suite 100
Minneapolis, MN 55401-2551
(612) 280-9843

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Boddy
mark.boddy@adventiumlabs.com111
111 Third Ave. South, Suite 100
Minneapolis,  MN 55401-2551
(651) 442-4109

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Constructing, maintaining, and adapting operational procedures for manned space operations is a complex task, requiring the procedure author to satisfy constraints resulting from the system configuration, current state, and applicable flight rules. This Phase 1 SBIR project will establish the feasibility of the Constraint-Checking Editor for Procedure Tracking (ConCEPT), a constraint-checking system for procedures represented in the Procedure Representation Language (PRL) and authored in PrIDE. Using automated translation and Constraint Satisfaction Problem generation technologies developed on previous projects, ConCEPT will assist users in identifying conflicts and inconsistencies in procedures as they are developed. The user edits a procedure in PrIDE, using procedure steps that have been annotated with information about resources and state changes. Configuration information, current state, and flight rules are stored in and obtained from the System Description, an existing component of PrIDE. As the procedure is being developed, ConCEPT automatically and continuously gathers appropriate constraints from the domain model and flight rules, translates them into a constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) which is then submitted to a CSP solver, which alerts the user to any violated constraints. Phase I will define relevant scenarios of use, establish the applicability and feasibility of ConCEPT, and provide a proof-of-concept demonstration.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other near-term potential applications for ConCEPT include domains where complex, partially-manual operations are implemented in terms of, and decomposed into, simpler, local actions, checks, and sensor readings. Specific examples include industrial process control and operations, unmanned autonomous vehicle operations, and possibly logistics and transportation applications. Military domains have complex operational constraints derived from both relevant doctrine and operation-specific "rules of engagement," much like NASA's flight rules. Longer-term potential applications would extend that set to fully-automated applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This effort will support users of the Procedure Representation Language (PRL) and the PRL authoring tool PrIDE. The mission scenarios to be evaluated in Phase 1 have been provided by the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at Johnson Space Center (JSC). PRL and PrIDE are being actively used or evaluated for use for a wide variety of mission operations. MOD has used PrIDE to write over 100 International Space Station (ISS) procedures over the past several years and is currently evaluating PrIDE for use to author all procedures, ground and on-board, for Orion and future space vehicles. The JSC Rapid Prototyping Laboration (RPL) uses PrIDE to author experimental Orion procedures. The JSC Morpheus project currently uses PrIDE, as does the JSC Deep Space Habitat (DSH) project. The addition of ConCEPT to PrIDE will provide automated constraint checking for authoring procedures for a large and increasing range of mission applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Tools/EVA Tools
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Man-Machine Interaction
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H6.01-8746
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Autonomy and Space Mission Automation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robotic Mission Simulation Tool

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Energid Technologies
One Mifflin Place, Suite 400
Cambridge, MA 02138-4946
(888) 547-4100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James English
jde@energid.com111
One Mifflin Place, Suite 400
Cambridge,  MA 02138-4946
(888) 547-4100

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Energid Technologies proposes a software tool to predict robotic mission performance and support supervision of robotic missions even when environments and situations are profoundly unknown. It transcends common Monte Carlo simulations by supporting input parameters for which probability distributions are not available. Stochastic optimization is combined with randomized simulation to bound statistical measures of performance and convey the parameters giving the extreme scenarios. It also provides 3D immersive presentation of those scenarios. The act of performing multiple simulation runs in real time is enabled by the fast simulation capability provided by Energid Technologies' existing software combined with the development of new algorithms and software. The new algorithms cover path planning, scene rendering, sensor modeling, and robot-terrain interaction modeling. In the new software, automatic path planning is calculated using a combination of static and dynamic techniques. Scene rendering for sensor modeling is implemented using fast ray tracing for low-update-rate sensors and ray-tracing-validated rasterization for fast-update-rate sensors. Robot-terrain interaction is calculated through particle simulations implemented on graphics cards. For maximum performance, the new software allows distribution of randomized simulation runs over multiple networked PCs and cloud-based clusters. This combination of fast algorithms and statistical optimization offers a tool that provides new engineering insights and data. The software will be demonstrated on the example mission of searching for ice near near the southern lunar pole, giving evidence of the ability of the tool to support challenging relevant missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
To its commercial customers, Energid licenses its software technology primarily through its Actin toolkit. Actin is delivered as libraries and header files that can be compiled into new software. This form of Energid's technology has found wide application in software for space, manufacturing, entertainment, agriculture, nuclear energy, and oil exploration. Energid provides services to support the application of Actin. The advanced level of simulation-based testing provided by the new software developed during this SBIR project will substantially enhance these commercial activities. Energid will license the new software and provide services to support it as an ongoing and growing business.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The tool Energid proposes will reduce cost and improve schedule in NASA's lunar and planetary missions through digital testing early in a project. It will also support automation of robotic systems through real-time randomized optimization during mission execution. The value provided through these applications will lead to additional work for NASA. Energid will provide support for the new software's application on upcoming missions both as a prime contractor and as a supporting subcontractor to large NASA prime contractors.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H6.01-8798
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Autonomy and Space Mission Automation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Balancing Autonomous Spacecraft Activity Control With An Integrated Scheduler-Planner And Reactive Executive

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Red Canyon Software
1200 Pennsylvania St
Denver, CO 80210-2562
(303) 864-0556

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Radicevich
Bob@redcanyonengineering.com111
1200 Pennsylvania Street, Ste 100
Denver,  CO 80203-2562
(303) 864-0556

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Spacecraft operations demand a high level of responsiveness in dynamic environments. During operations, it is possible for unexpected events and anomalies to disrupt the mission schedule, and in the case of critical faults, even threaten the health and safety of the spacecraft. Historically, it has been the responsibility of the mission operations team on the ground to issue command sequences and monitor spacecraft health and status to ensure that long-term science, engineering, and safety goals are achieved. Red Canyon Software is building upon previous designs for on-board, layered autonomous software flight systems employing continuous planning and command sequencing. The proposed innovation increases the robustness of on-board autonomy for space vehicle operation, while at the same time offers reductions in mission development costs by leveraging off of newer flight proven software technologies. Also, developing, verifying, and validating spacecraft activity and constraint models for use with model-based autonomous planners and reactive sequencers are difficult and complex activities. For robust, on-board autonomous systems with multiple layers of software performing varying levels of constraint checking prior to activity planning and command sequencing, more than one layer will need to be configured with the same model constraints. To reduce the cost and risk of model development and use, a single, shared spacecraft domain model representation is proposed, along with development of a graphical editor that allows system engineers to easily encode domain information and that uses verification rules to detect inconsistencies or errors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) Unmanned/Remotely Piloted Vehicles (UAV/RPV's). Obtained a letter of support from ADSYS Controls for this potential application. 2) Remotely Operated Underwater Vehicles (ROUV) 3) Remotely Operated Ground Vehicles (ROGV) (a.k.a. Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV)) 4) Commercial spacecraft avionics. In particular, the potential application of our system as the abort manager for SNC's Dream Chaser. Obtained a letter of support for this potential application.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Similarly, tele-robotics on distant planets, underwater, or on different continents require autonomous real-time integration with the planning software that is driving the vehicle. During Phase I research, the Red Canyon Team will approach NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), JPL's Mars Rover and MSL Teams, and JPL's AI Group to determine future target missions for our proposed system.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Sequencing & Scheduling
Characterization
Development Environments
Programming Languages


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H6.02-9151
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Hardened/Tolerant and Low Temperature Electronics and Processors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Extreme environment, rad hard, high performance, low power FPGA for space applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
GoofyFoot Labs
5821 Sky Park Dr.
Plano, TX 75093-4539
(617) 500-5481

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nisha Checka
nisha@goofyfootlabs.com111
5821 Sky Park Dr.
Plano,  TX 75093-4539
(617) 500-5481

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To enable NASA's next-generation missions, there is a critical need for a reconfigurable FPGA that can withstand the wide temperatures ranges and radiation of the space environment while consuming minimal power without compromising on performance. To address this need, GoofyFoot Labs proposes the E2-AMP FPGA, a radiation hardened, high performance, low power AMP FPGA capable of operating reliably over wide temperature ranges and rapid thermal changes. The 150-nm E2-AMP FPGA achieves up to 790-MHz peak performance while consuming 7x less power than conventional, commercial counterparts, implementing TMR. The E2-AMP FPGA provides exceptional protection from SEUs, SETs, SEL, and high TID while maintaining high performance and low power levels that exceed even today's highest performing, commercial FPGAs. The E2-AMP FPGA's reconfigurability enables last-minute, no-cost design changes and upgrades even after launch, greatly enhancing mission profile while reducing mission cost and risk. Unlike any other FPGA, rad hard or unhardened, the E2-AMP FPGA can operate reliably at extreme hot and cold temperatures and can also seamlessly tolerate rapid thermal changes without sacrificing performance and without significant designer effort. To handle extreme temperatures, conventional ICs are protected via onboard heat shields or warm boxes to maintain ambient temperatures to a much smaller range. This equipment increases the SwaP of the system and also degrades system reliability. The E2-AMP FPGA will operate correctly across a large temperature range reducing the amount of required thermal regulation. Moreover, we will enhance the E2-AMP FPGA's native low power consumption through the incorporation of a number of power savings techniques. With the E2-AMP FPGA, designers of space-based or high-altitude systems operating in hostile radiation environments and at extreme temperatures can reduce system SWaP, while adding flexibility, capability, and robustness to any system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
space-based radar, military space satellites, special-purpose C4ISR satellites launched by intelligence organizations, UAVs, ruggedized airborne platforms, commercial and military aircraft, deep-well probes for oil and gas exploration, mining probes, safety-critical terrestrial applications such as bank servers, telecommunication servers

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Autonomous Landing Systems, Mars Science Lab Instrumentation, Tele-robotics, Surface Mobility, Nuclear Systems, Robotic Satellite Servicing, In-Space propulsion, Deep Space X-Ray Navigation and Communication, Deep Space Optical Communications, Mars Sample Return, Europa Orbiter, Near Earth Objects and Primitive Body Missions, Space Launch System, Extra-Vehicular Activity Suits

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Perception/Vision
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Ad-Hoc Networks (see also Sensors)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Image Processing
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
Telemetry (see also Control & Monitoring)
Ionizing Radiation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H6.02-9737
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Hardened/Tolerant and Low Temperature Electronics and Processors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Radiation-Hardened Memristor-based Memory for Extreme Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805-1926
(256) 726-4800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ashok Raman
ar2@cfdrc.com111
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville,  AL 35805-1926
(256) 726-4800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA space exploration missions require radiation-hardened memory technologies that can survive and operate over a wide temperature range. Memristors (memory-resistors) are a promising technology for the next generation of non-volatile memory (NVM) applications and offer a highly-desirable combination of density, access speed, and power. Early investigations have also shown that memristors have high radiation hardness. In this SBIR, CFDRC and Arizona State University propose to develop, characterize, and demonstrate novel, memristor-based, radiation-hardened NVM for NASA space applications. In Phase I we will: 1) Fabricate state-of-the-art Chalcogenide Glass (ChG) memristors based on the CBRAM technology; 2) Examine their wide temperature performance (-230 to +130 deg.C) via thermal experiments; and 3) Add new models to CFDRC's NanoTCAD Mixed-Mode simulator for accurate physics-based simulation of memristors. The Phase I effort will evaluate suitability of ChG memristors for extreme temperature applications. In Phase II, we will extend our scope to include wide-temperature investigation of the competing transition-metal-oxide (TMO, e.g., TiO2) memristor technology. For both ChG and TMO, we will then perform irradiation testing and down-select the technology with the best extreme environment (radiation + temperature) performance. Subsequently, we will generate wide-temperature, radiation-enabled, device physics and compact models for the memristors, develop designs for memristor-based NVM, and perform mixed-mode simulations to determine their radiation and thermal response. These results, and physics-based understanding of device response, will be used to develop an NVM prototype that will be tested and demonstrated for NASA space applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project will enable significant progress towards the use of memristor-based systems in a wide range of non-NASA aerospace and defense applications that require storage and processing of large amounts of data. The critical question about the combined radiation and temperature tolerance of different memristor technologies will be answered, paving the way for the development of memristor-based non-volatile memory, threshold logic, and reconfigurable architectures (FPGAs) for space applications, such as broadband communication, surveillance, image processing, etc. The improved, physics-based modeling and simulation tools, applicable to both chalcogenide-based and transition-metal-oxide based memristor technologies, will allow designers to perform fast, reliable, and more accurate characterization of memristor-based circuits as a function of various stress conditions (i.e., bias, thermal, and radiation). The generated compact models will also be a significant aid for circuit design/analysis. The simulation and design tools will benefit manufacturers of commercial satellite electronics and avionics, where the memristor is a strong candidate for static RAM, as it combines the advantages of the hard disk (density), RAM (access speed), and flash-based memories (low power, non-volatile).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Exploration flight projects, robotic precursors, and technology demonstrators that are designed to operate beyond low-earth orbit (LEO) require avionic systems, components, and controllers that are capable of enduring the extreme temperature and radiation environments of deep space, the lunar surface, and the Martian surface. This SBIR effort will provide a low-cost, radiation-hardened, non-volatile memory technology tolerant to extreme temperature ranges for all NASA space missions that require storage and processing of large amounts of data. The proposed innovation addresses the NASA technology needs outlined in OCT Technology Area TA11: Modeling, Simulation, Information Technology and Processing Roadmap, in particular, for Computing (Flight Computing, high performance space-based computing), which requires ultra-reliable, radiation-hardened platforms which have been costly and limited in performance. Other important products of immediate impact to NASA include: Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools for predicting the electrical performance of low-temperature and wide-temperature electronic components and systems; and physics-based device models valid at temperatures ranging from -230 deg C to +130 deg C to enable design and verification of robust radiation-hardened memory circuits.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Perception/Vision
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Input/Output Devices (Displays, Storage)
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H6.02-9860
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Hardened/Tolerant and Low Temperature Electronics and Processors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rad hard Non volatile memory for FPGA boot loading

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Space Micro, Inc.
10237 Flanders Court
San Diego, CA 92121-1526
(858) 332-0700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bert Vermeire
bvermeire@spacemicro.com111
10237 Flanders Court
San Diego,  CA 92121-1526
(858) 332-0700

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Radiation-hardened non volatile memory is needed to store the golden copy of the image(s) has not kept pace with the advances in FPGAs. Consider that a single image of a Xilinx V5 typically is roughly 50 Mb large. If a designer wants to store several such images in a satellite, then a sizable amount of highly reliable, radiation-hardened memory is needed. As a consequence, there exists a clear need and market opportunity for highly reliable NVM for storing program code, calibration tables and images of reprogrammable FPGAs. The goal of this SBIR project is to develop a highly reliable and fault-tolerant, radiation-hardened Memory System-In-a-Package (Memory SIP) which can be used to configure and scrub reconfigurable FPGAs. The Memory SIP will contain a simple radiation-hardened microcontroller and a reasonable amount of commercial flash nonvolatile memory (NVM). It will support the needed standard interfaces that are commonly used for reconfiguring FPGAs, including Xilinx SelectMAP and JTAG.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology and evolving Space Micro products may benefit many commercial space platforms, both LEO and GEO telecommunication satellites, such as Intelsat, Direct TV, XM radio, Orbcomm and Iridium Next telecom constellation replenishment, plus standard industry busses including Lockheed's A2100, and Boeing's HS-702. Civil earth sensing applications such as weather/metrology applications e.g. (NOAA GOES and Landsat) can also benefit. The large DoD space industry, including USAF, MDA, NRO, and new Army nanosat programs at SMDC will directly benefit. Among these programs are AEHF upgrades, GPS follow-ons, MDA's PTSS, USAF TacSat family, Operationally Responsive Space (ORS), and Army SMDC nanosat family. The entire Cubesat initiative including NRO's Colony program and the USAF SENSE program would benefit. This technology and products will also address emerging MDA radiation threats. These programs include AKV, THAAD, AEGIS, SM3 Block IIB, and GMD for Blocks 2018 and beyond. With the new challenge of atmospheric neutrons to High Altitude Airship (HAA) programs and NASA or Air Force UAV programs, this R&D and future product may be a timely solution. Other military applications may include strategic missiles (Trident and Air Force upgrades), as well as many DoD tactical weapon programs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Virtually all NASA space programs have a demand for this proposed technology and resulting space qaulified product. NASA applications range from science missions, space station, earth sensing missions e.g. (EOS), and deep space missions. NASA programs/missions that will benefit include new lunar landers and orbiters, Mars missions (MAVEN), solar system exploration e.g. (Titan, Juno, Europa, comet nucleus return, New Discovery, and Living with a Star (LWS). NASA programs which hopefully will continue to be funded by Congress include the next generation heavy launch vehicle called SLS, the Orion Multipurpose Crew Exploration Vehicle, Commercial Crew Development Vehicle (CCDev2) and Commercial Orbiter Transportation Service (COTS) would benefit. Space products evolving from this SBIR , and marketed by Space Micro, would have been enabling for NASA programs such as RBSP, GRAIL, LADEE, IRIS, Dawn, SDO, Aquarius, Kepler, Ocean Vector Winds, and space interferometry (SIR). New missions which hopefully will be funded include BARREL, CLARREO, GEMS, solar orbiter, Osiris-Rex asteroid sample return mission, solar probe plus, and ILN.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H6.03-8892
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human-Robotic Systems - Manipulation Subsystem
PROPOSAL TITLE: Gecko inspired adhesives for enhanced dexterity of robotic manipulation systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
nanoGriptech, Inc.
91 43rd Street, Suite 200
Pittsburgh, PA 15201-3109
(412) 224-2136

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Glass
pglass@nanogriptech.com111
91 43rd Street, Suite 200
Pittsburgh,  PA 15201-3109
(412) 224-2136

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Valuable time is spent by astronauts performing simple, mundane, or ergonomically taxing tasks. Therefore, one center of focus for NASA is to have robots increasingly perform these tasks to give the crew more time flexibility. Robots are also employed with tasks that are too dangerous for humans or when movement could affect the results and success of a task. The following proposal applies nanoGrip's expertise in design, fabrication, and characterization of gecko-inspired microfiber adhesives to produce a new generation of materials that increases the dexterity of these robots' manipulators so that they can perform a larger variety of manipulation tasks with higher precision. In this proposal, an emphasis will be placed on manipulating objects that are either small, delicate, or with a difficult to grip form factor where the current state of the art in manipulation may struggle. Microfiber adhesive materials developed during this project will be evaluated for their shear strength in contact with systems and materials which may be encountered by the Robonaut 2 (R2) manipulator on the International Space Station, for their ability to stick and unstick reliably through pick and place experiments, and for their ability to perform manipulation tasks when incorporated onto a robotic manipulator. Proof of concept robotic manipulation during these studies will be performed in collaboration with our consulting partner on Carnegie Mellon University's (CMU) Robotics Institute's bimanual dexterous manipulation robot. Additionally, prototypes will be delivered to NASA for qualitative or quantitative evaluation. At NASA's discretion, testing may be performed at the Johnson Space Center's Dextrous Robotics Lab for material evaluation on the ground-based R2 manipulator.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This work also has broader implications in other government agencies such as the Department of Defense and the Department of Homeland Security, where robots are commonly used to perform tasks such as bomb diffusion or the handling and detection of toxic substances. These areas will benefit from the findings in the Phase I research by enabling similar robots to have more grasping dexterity essential for these dangerous situations. Additionally, there will be commercial applications of the findings of this research for industrial manufacturing robotic manipulators, for example for automotive, consumer electronic, or microprocessor assembly processes where delicate materials may need to be handled in a precise manner. The materials developed in this Phase I research will also directly be valuable to our existing potential commercial clients in the consumer product, apparel, packaging, manufacturing, and medical equipment markets.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
With the success of the proposed research and subsequent development during a Phase II project, these materials will be ready to be commercialized as adhesive finger pads or gloves for use on NASA's robotic manipulator fleet. Additional applications for these materials within NASA include temporary anchoring materials for broad range of space applications. This list may include mounting sensors, instruments, tools, tablet computers, checklists, flexible videoscopes, and so on to the International Space Station, inflatable space habitats, or other vessels. Additionally, they may be used on removable gecko-inspired adhesive slippers or knee pads to provide astronaut anchoring, or similar devices to provide anchoring for the R2 manipulator to free these actors to perform two-handed tasks in zero gravity environments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Man-Machine Interaction
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Characterization
Prototyping
Material Handing & Packaging
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Processing Methods
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Structures
Tribology
Lifetime Testing
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H6.03-9076
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human-Robotic Systems - Manipulation Subsystem
PROPOSAL TITLE: Resource-Aware Planning for Shadowed and Uncertain Domains

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Astrobotic Technology, Inc.
4551 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3524
(412) 682-3282

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kevin Peterson
kevin.peterson@astrobotictech.com111
4551 Forbes Ave
Pittsburgh,  PA 15213-3524
(412) 657-2835

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Discovery of frozen volatiles at the lunar poles is transformative to space exploration. In-situ resources will provide fuel to support far-reaching exploration and enable commercial endeavors. While satellite data supports presence of polar ice, driving and drilling must confirm presence, determine composition, and measure distribution. Ice exists primarily in the dark and cold of polar craters. Current planetary rover planning technologies are not designed for these environments and have avoided them altogether, operating only in mid-latitudes. The proposed research innovates an Earth-based, resource-aware path planner for a polar prospecting rover. The proposed planner models progress toward the goal while considering resource costs inherent in that progress, generates and explores the space of possible paths, then transmits a set of low-cost viable paths to goal to the rover. The set of viable paths then resides on the rover to inform limited re-planning if the rover encounters a hazard during traverse, even during communications dropout. The planner considers all of the impacts on polar rover operation &#150; light angles that change over time, thermal operating window, sun angles and blinding light, and communications-shadowed regions. Each of these impacts affects one of the rover's resources &#150; where it can go, what it can see, how cold it can get, how much battery charge remains, and whether it can communicate with its operator. Design of the proposed planner will build on pioneering research at Carnegie Mellon that developed TEMPEST, a temporal-aware, mission-based planner that maximized battery power over a traverse. It was demonstrated using the Hyperion rover, achieving a sun-synchronous traverse of Haughton Crater. The polar environment is both adversarial and unpredictable, and the proposed planner will extend the TEMPEST to account for the unique challenges of navigating on the poles of planetary bodies and add nondeterministic planning.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Resource-aware planning provides significant advances over state-of-art autonomous navigation, mapping, and localization for terrestrial applications. The need for low cost, computationally inexpensive, and easy to integrate autonomous navigation and mapping applies broadly to terrestrial applications particularly those that are GPS-denied. Potential applications include driverless cars, search and rescue, mining, military UGVs and UAVs, and agriculture. Vision-guided UAVs offer a particularly good fit for resource-constrained planning. As small UAVs become more common for surveillance and scouting, the need to reduce operator load will become paramount. With a wide array of sensor suites producing dense data sets, enabling vehicles to make decisions on-board within operator-defined bounds allows an operator to concentrate on high-level mission objectives rather than low-level vehicle operations. The proposed work is particularly suited to terrestrial applications where only low-fidelity data is available for initial planning; by creating a provisional plan to be optimized by future high-fidelity measurements, the overall mission objective can be completed with an minimum of waste. The result is an optimized use of limited resources, including overhead time and ground-based manpower.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's Technology Roadmap TA04, Robotics, Telerobotics and Autonomous Systems, identifies autonomous navigation as one of three impact areas for technology development. The proposed work enhances development of autonomous navigation by building on the successes of the Mars Science Laboratory and other rovers' use of locally acquired data to refine and potentially modify Earth-generated plans without human intervention or approval. By adjusting relative parameters in the planning model, Earth-based controllers can set the bounds on local authority, response, and operational capabilities while maximizing operational advantages of locally-centered decision making. Phase II results will advance technologies to TRL 5, ready for assimilation into NASA missions. Existing NASA collaborations will drive infusion of the developed technologies into future missions. Technical Advisor William "Red" Whittaker collaborates deeply with NASA's autonomy experts. Astrobotic intends to produce lunar and planetary rovers encompassing these technologies as build-to-order rovers or as technology licenses. Active Astrobotic contracts with NASA are defining rover missions to carry the RESOLVE payload, excavate on the Moon, and provide data from a lunar mission. Relationships curated through these contracts provide additional paths for technology infusion, and results will be promoted through all NASA partnerships and collaborations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Man-Machine Interaction
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H6.03-9331
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human-Robotic Systems - Manipulation Subsystem
PROPOSAL TITLE: NanoDrill: 1 Actuator Core Acquisition System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics Ltd.
460 West 34th Street
New York, NY 10001-2320
(212) 966-0661

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kris Zacny
zacny@honeybeerobotics.com111
398 West Washington Blvd.
Pasadena,  CA 91103-2000
(626) 421-7902

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to design, build and test a 1 kg, single actuator, sample acquisition drill. The drill uses a novel method of core or powder acquisition. The core acquisition bit can be used for either a rock core, icy-soil or loose regolith acquisition. The continued development of robust sample acquisition and handling tools is of critical importance to future robotic and human missions to Mars, the Moon, Asteroids, and other planetary bodies. For these missions, consolidated or unconsolidated core samples (as opposed to, say, scooped regolith or collected drill cuttings) are of particular interest.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Scientists often use small drills to acquire core samples for the study of everything from geological classification to ocean drilling and surveying. Traditionally, petroleum engineers will use large cores to extract information about boundaries between sandstone, limestone, and shale. This process is time consuming so smaller cores are sometimes taken. This method of sampling is called sidewall coring and provides more information to the petroleum engineer than simply logged data. Scientists studying earthquake mechanics could also benefit in a similar fashion. Automation of this process would save time and money; enabling the science goals of the research with reduced schedule and budget risk/impact. The arm-deployed coring tool also has applications in the study of terrestrial biology, such as coring into rocks in the Arctic and Antarctic, among other desirable locations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future robotic astrobiology and geology missions such as Mars Sample Return, Venus In Situ Explorer, Comet Sample Return, South Pole Aitken Basin Sample Return missions will benefit greatly from the ability to produce and capture rock and regolith cores, using a compact, low mass, low power device, and hermetically seal the samples in dedicated containers. A system utilizing a surface drill and a suite of bits for different applications could be deployed during lunar and asteroid sortie missions by astronauts (i.e., hand held coring drill) since it is more manageable to bring small cores back as opposed to large rocks.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H7.01-8531
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ablative Thermal Protection Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: NDE for Ablative Thermal Protection Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
JENTEK Sensors, Inc.
110-1 Clematis Avenue
Waltham, MA 02453-7013
(781) 642-9666

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Washabaugh
andy.washabaugh@jenteksensors.com111
110-1 Clematis Avenue
Waltham,  MA 02453-7013
(781) 373-9743

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This program addresses the need for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods for quality assessment and defect evaluation of thermal protection systems (TPS), including permanently installed sensors for TPS condition, stress and temperature monitoring. Novel linear drive eddy current methods are proposed for NDE of carbon-based TPS materials, such as three dimensional woven fiber composites and felts. Using a combination of physics-based models, multivariate inverse methods, high resolution imaging, and innovative sensor array constructs the developed methods will independently monitor the material characteristics of interest. In Phase I, the focus is on enhancing and adapting methods developed for carbon-based composite structures and laminates and demonstrating feasibility of these enhanced methods for three-dimensional woven composites and felts. JENTEK's physics-based methods for diagnostics of layered media using MWM-Array technologies, including an eddy current micromechanical model extension for composites, have been demonstrated for condition stress and temperature monitoring. MWM-Arrays have a linear drive that permits both scanning type imaging and permanent installation for monitoring of anisotropic properties, temperature, and stresses at multiple depths. The projected depth of the magnetic field into the test material can be adjusted through the sensor dimensions and excitation frequencies; this enables inspection of materials more than 1.0-in. thick and supports measuring far-side surface recession in ablator materials. JENTEK delivered the MWM-Array solution used by NASA KSC on the Space Shuttle Leading Edge to detect damage of the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) thermal protection tiles; thus JENTEK is well-positioned to deliver a practical TPS NDE solution.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are numerous applications in which NDE measurement and analysis tools are needed to verify design requirements of advanced composites, such as three-dimensional woven materials. These include applications for commercial aircraft, wind turbines, land vehicles and composite repairs for pipelines and structures. Examples are inspection of commercial jet engine blades and fuselage components, wind turbine blades, land vehicle frames and liquid natural gas fuel pressure vessels and other structures where proper woven fiber orientation and defect free structures are critical for strength and fatigue life. It is expected that this technology could also be transitioned to support military aircraft fleets which contain substantially composite structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
If the program is successful, it will demonstrate the capability of the MWM-Array technology to measure relevant material properties and structural damage in the advanced materials in spacecraft thermal protection systems. This type of analysis tool for detection of damage may be useful for the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPV's), exhaust nozzles, and other critical composite structures. NASA customers that may benefit from these analysis tools include the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) spacecraft manufacturers and other interplanetary programs such as science exploration mission vehicles and human crew vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H7.01-8535
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ablative Thermal Protection Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fiber-Optic Pyrometer for Thermal Protection Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ElectroDynamic Applications, Inc.
P.O. Box 131460
Ann Arbor, MI 48105-1570
(734) 786-1434

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher Davis
zagel@edapplications.com111
3600 Green Court, Suite #300
Ann Arbor,  MI 48105-1234
(734) 786-1434

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Surface temperatures in atmospheric reentry simulations range from 1500-2300 K, while stagnation temperature on the leading edge of a Mach 6 flight vehicle at 25 km altitude is 1817 K. Sensors that can operate at temperatures well above 1273 K are needed to provide reliable validation data for TPS modeling and design tools. We propose to develop a low-intrusive fiber-optical pyrometer capable of measuring temperature profiles within an ablating thermal protection system (TPS). In this concept a bundle of parallel sapphire fibers is embedded in a step-wise manner into a multilayered "plug" of TPS material. The sensing tip of each fiber consists of a metallic coating, forming an isothermal cavity; graybody emission from this cavity is transmitted through the fiber to a fiber-optic multiplexer, and thence to a compact near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer. By fitting the thermal spectrum from the shortest fiber to a Planck distribution (adjusted to account for spectral absorption in the sapphire fiber), a cold-side temperature can be inferred first. The next longest fiber can use this temperature to estimate the distorting effects of self-emission in the heated fiber. Sequential evaluation of fiber tip temperatures at known locations along the bundle will allow effective estimation of temperature gradient and subsequent calculation of heat flux. The proposed fiber-optic sensors are thermally and physically robust, lightweight, electrically passive, and immune to electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference. Additionally, our proposed fiber-optic pyrometer is optimized for high temperatures. As the TPS-embedded sensing tip temperature increases, the wavelength peak for the thermal emission spectrum moves from 2634 nm (at 1000 K) to 1260 nm (at the sapphire melting point of 2300 K), while the integrated spectral intensity increases as the 4th power of the temperature. Both effects improve the pyrometer signal-to-noise ratio.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
EDA's plan to pursue this technology beyond Phase-II is to develop production of flight hardware for DoD, NASA, and privately funded vehicles. Boeing has also expressed significant interest in transitioning our technology into their thermal protection systems as part of an integrated vehicle health monitoring system. As private sector space ventures continue to blossom, there will be significant opportunities for commercialization. This technology also has derivative terrestrial applications in high temperature industrial furnaces such as for cement manufacturing where temperatures in the Kiln can get up to 1450 Celsius and careful monitoring of temperature is critical. The target market for this technology is focused in re-entry vehicles but has secondary markets in any company that manufactures hypersonic vehicles as well as terrestrial applications in high power plasma processing, energy creation systems and industrial furnaces. Of particular note, the technology is of significant importance to DoD for terrestrial intercontinental hypersonic weapons systems. EDA expects to work closely with these agencies and their prime contractors to develop the fiber optic pyrometer system to provide mission critical capability.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Heat shield technology is a critical component for re-entry and hypersonic vehicles The next generation of crew reentry vehicles being designed by NASA will require more advanced Thermal Protection System (TPS) designs than the conservative approaches currently used. While new TPS materials are under development, a key difficulty is the ability to predict and diagnose TPS materials with instrumentation capable of surviving the reentry environment

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
Optical
Thermal
Infrared
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H7.01-8667
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ablative Thermal Protection Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Calculation of Effective Material Strengths for 3D Woven Hybrid Preforms and Composites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Research and Design
300 East Swedesford Road
Wayne, PA 19087-1858
(610) 964-9000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kerry Hopp
kerry.hopp@m-r-d.com111
300 East Swedesford Road
Wayne,  PA 19087-1858
(610) 964-9000

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Current NASA programs, such as Adaptable, Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) and Woven Thermal Protection Systems (WTPS) are looking to fill a gap in ablative TPS for future missions to Venus and Saturn, human missions beyond Lunar, and Mars Sample Return Missions. Both of these programs rely on the use of 3D woven carbon fiber preforms. Therefore, there is a need to be able to predict the properties and performance of a woven material. Validation of predictive modeling tools would allow for the use of these tools to design and optimize the 3D weaves, significantly reducing the cost of fabrication and testing of a variety of configurations. While there are proven tools for the prediction of laminate composite properties, textile composites are relatively new materials and much less effort has been focused on modeling this class of materials. Materials Research & Design (MR&D) has experience in working with and designing 3D woven preforms for use in composite material reinforcement and has developed a suite of analytical tools to define the detailed geometry of 3D woven preforms for use in calculating material properties. However, these tools currently do not have the capability to predict material strengths. Within the proposed Phase I effort, MR&D will enhance the existing tool by incorporating the ability to calculate material strengths of 3D weaves. Strength predictions will be made for two different 3D woven hybrid preform reinforced phenolic panels and compared to measured test data for validation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to the potential NASA applications, there is also potential for applications within the Department of Defense (DoD). The use of 3D woven preforms in ballistic armor applications creates a need for design and predictive modeling capabilities of these materials as well. There would also be potential for applications from the weavers themselves. Companies such as Textile Engineering and Manufacturing and Bally Ribbon Mills have an interest in the predictive capabilities of both material properties and strengths for various weave configurations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful completion of the Phase I program would directly benefit the Adaptable, Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) program as well as the Woven TPS program, both of which are currently focused on the use of 3D weaves in ablative TPS. The ability of a predictive tool to generate material properties and strengths for a variety of 3D weaves would allow for the evaluation of multiple design configurations and fiber types to be evaluated in a much more efficient and cost effective manner than having to fabricate and test panels to generate data to be used for downselection of the best candidate designs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Aerobraking/Aerocapture
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Composites
Polymers
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H7.01-9045
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ablative Thermal Protection Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flexible Ablative Aerogel TPS Materials for Planetary Aerocapture and Entry

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aspen Aerogels, Inc.
30 Forbes Road, Building B
Northborough, MA 01532-2501
(508) 691-1161

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Mihalcik
dmihalcik@aerogel.com111
30 Forbes Road, Bldg B
Northborough,  MA 01532-2501
(508) 691-1163

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Renewed interest in missions to explore other planets has created a need for higher performance thermal protection systems (TPS) capable of shielding spacecraft from the severe heating encountered during hypersonic flight through planetary atmospheres. Additional advances in the robustness, reliability, and survivability of single and dual heating exposures are desired while maintaining mass and thickness requirements. The ability to decelerate high-mass entry vehicles relies on flexible or deployable aeroshells which offer an approach for achieving larger aeroshell surface areas than otherwise attainable. A flexible TPS is required that is capable of surviving reasonably high heat flux and durable enough to survive the rigors of construction, handling, and deployment. Aspen Aerogels proposes to develop improved flexible ablative reinforced polymeric aerogels to meet this challenge. During Phase I we will optimize the preparation methods to reduce thermal conductivity and increase flexibility and conduct a complete study of the aerogels' properties and capabilities. The technology readiness level will progress from 2 to 3 during Phase 1. Successful completion of a Phase II program will result in an optimized and scalable formulation for the aerogel component of flexible TPS and performance data which will be available for further commercialization efforts for the aerospace industry.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
These materials are expected to be stable to about 500 C and the resulting insulation system from this program will also have far reaching benefits for both military and commercial applications. The prepared aerogels could also be used where phenolic-type foam insulation is used such as pipe insulation, mechanical insulation, equipment insulation, tank insulation, and duct insulation, especially those applications operating at temperatures below ambient. The carbonized aerogel materials would be of interest to DoD for their hypersonic global strike vehicles. The potential also exist for insulating weapons, fuel tanks, electronics, and landing gear bays of military aircraft. There are also numerous and far-ranging applications for durable and reliable insulation systems that would improve the energy efficiency of high temperature industrial processes.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The material developed in the Phase I effort could have a variety of applications within NASA. The flexible ablative aerogels would be used as a deployable TPS for planetary exploration vehicles and in conformal applications where the materials are bonded to a rigid substructure. This feature may make them attractive for TPS of future return from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) vehicles and perhaps Mars Science Lab (MSL) type Mars robotic entry systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Aerogels
Ceramics
Composites
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H7.01-9105
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ablative Thermal Protection Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Continued Optimization of Low-Density Foam-Reinforced Ablatives for High-Velocity, High Heat Flux Earth Return Missions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ultramet
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331-2210
(818) 899-0236

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Williams
brian.williams@ultramet.com111
Ultramet
Pacoima,  CA 91331-2210
(818) 899-0236

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In previous work for NASA, Ultramet and ARA Ablatives Laboratory developed and demonstrated advanced foam-reinforced carbon/phenolic ablators that offer substantially increased performance under high heat flux conditions and reduced weight relative to conventional ablators. The two-piece structure consisted of an ablative-filled foam front surface backed by Ultramet's previously established and highly insulating aerogel-filled foam. Arcjet testing was performed at NASA Ames Research Center to heat flux levels exceeding 1000 W/cm2, with the results showing a significantly reduced ablation rate compared to conventional chopped fiber ablators, and ablation behavior comparable to FM5055 at just one-third the density. It is apparent that the foam helps retain the char layer by physical reinforcement and/or that the network of interconnected passages allows pyrolysis gases to escape with less disruption of the char layer. In this project, Ultramet will team with ARA Ablatives for ablative infiltration of Ultramet foams and Materials Research and Design for ablation analysis, to continue optimization of foam-reinforced ablatives by focusing on two primary areas. The ablator formulation infiltrated into the foam will be modified to maximize heat flux capability consistent with NASA Earth return requirements (1500-2500 W/cm2), and a single-piece foam TPS structure will be developed rather than separate ablative- and aerogel-filled foam sections. Preliminary mechanical and thermal testing will be performed to support design and analysis and, depending on availability, initial ablation tests may be conducted at the Sandia Solar Tower Facility. High heat flux testing at the Air Force LHMEL facility or alternative would be performed in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications include solid rocket motors for conventional satellite launch, nanosatellite launch systems, launch platform protection, tactical missile solid rocket motors, internal and external motor case insulation, and nosetips.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed foam-reinforced hybrid ablator-insulator may meet NASA requirements for increased TPS heat flux capability and reduced mass. NASA applications include the Orion Multi-Purpose Crewed Vehicle for beyond Earth orbit exploration (entry, descent, and landing heat shield and backshell), asteroid sample return, and planetary sample return. Earth return can have an entry velocity greater than 11 km/s and a heat flux in the 1500-2500 W/cm2 range. Use of ablatives in rocket nozzles has been extensive, and NASA also stands to benefit in that application.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Processing Methods
Aerogels
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Nonspecified
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H7.01-9290
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ablative Thermal Protection Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Recession-Tolerant Heat Flux Sensors for Thermal Protection Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MesoScribe Technologies, Inc.
7 Flowerfield, Suite 28
St. James, NY 11790-1514
(631) 686-5710

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rob Greenlaw
rgreenlaw@mesoscribe.com111
5445 Oceanus Drive
Huntington Beach,  CA 92649-1007
(714) 894-8400

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Phase I project will develop a suite of diagnostic sensors using Direct Write technology to measure temperature, surface recession depth, and heat flux of an ablative thermal protection system (TPS) in real time, which can be integrated to support TPS evaluation and in-situ diagnostics during planetary entry. Standalone heat flux sensors and those fabricated by direct deposition will be developed and demonstrated for integration within TPS materials for use in extreme re-entry conditions. The intent is to use the sensors for real time heat flux measurements to validate new materials and systems, as well as for flight structures where space and accessibility are limited. Methods for incorporating thermocouples, heat flux and recession sensors using Direct Write technology will be developed to provide accurate sensing capabilities. Notably, recession tolerant heat flux sensors will be designed and fabricated to demonstrate feasibility of this new heat flux sensor technology and subsequent instrumentation capability for TPS.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Opportunities for sensor integration onto manned and unmanned vehicles not only exist within NASA, but are becoming more prevalent in the commercial sector including space travel as well as other areas. Sensors are needed to monitor the health and condition of the heat shield during re-entry for the COTS and ccDEV programs. Outside of space applications, harsh environment sensors are in high demand, spanning a range of industries including power generation, commercial and military turbo-machinery, aerospace structures, and solar. DoD applications for harsh environment diagnostic sensors are primarily aerospace and rotorcraft, specifically seeking instrumentation for short term testing at the component-level and long-term monitoring/prognostics as part of a comprehensive health management solution. Application demand is driven by gas turbine engine designers for industrial power generation equipment (gas turbine, steam, boilers), aero propulsion systems (gas turbine and hypersonic engine components), aerospace, chemical processing, oil & gas, and other commercial applications. Diagnostics are also sought for air-breathing scramjets and other hypersonic vehicles (e.g. sounding rockets) to enable integrated condition monitoring and advanced prognostic capabilities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has communicated a need for advanced TPS sensing to improve laboratory performance evaluation of new TPS materials as well as in-situ monitoring for manned and unmanned missions. Testing and evaluation of new TPS materials represents a significant activity in the planning of all missions. Typically, the TPS requirements are fairly well identified with respect to heat flux profile, duration, atmosphere, etc. based upon the specific mission. However, ruggedized sensors for monitoring heat flux in-situ are not yet available for TPS validation or fielding. The Orion capsule, being developed by NASA under the MPCV (Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle) program, calls for a number of TPS sensors where real time heat flux data would be invaluable. Challenging opportunities exist at JPL in developing TPS systems for unmanned sample return missions from both a Near Earth Object (NEO) and Mars. The competing requirements for low mission weight and increased TPS performance due to increased thermal loads from higher re-entry speeds results in a need for improved sensors for TPS development.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Characterization
Processing Methods
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
Thermal
Destructive Testing
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H7.01-9378
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ablative Thermal Protection Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Test Methods for the Determination of Anisotropic Compliances in 3D Woven Preforms for Ablative TPS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Research and Design
300 East Swedesford Road
Wayne, PA 19087-1858
(610) 964-9000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Craig Iwano
craig.iwano@m-r-d.com111
300 East Swedesford Road
Wayne,  PA 19087-1858
(610) 964-9000

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Based on the recent success of the Mars Exploration Program and the Mars Science Laboratory mission, NASA has a desire to expand on the technology developed under each effort in order to increase future mission capabilities, namely an increase in payload capacity for entry to Mars, Venus and other Outer-Planets. Such a goal requires an innovative solution to the vehicle's entry, decent and landing system (EDL). In order to address this goal,NASA has recently invested in the development of low ballistic coefficient aeroshell technology concepts which typically consist of a flexible 3D woven carbon cloth that can be stowed during flight and deployed to serve as a semi-rigid aeroshell on atmospheric entry. The ability of individual groups of fibers within yarn bundles to undulate in multiple orientations relative to the major axis of the yarn bundle results in full anisotropy for the 3D woven preforms. In addition to adding more complexity to the accompanying analytical models, the testing of such materials is also complicated as compared to isotropic and transversely orthotropic materials. Within the proposed Phase I effort, Materials Research & Design will develop test methods for the materials characterization of a hybrid, woven 3D fabric for use in a flexible TPS application. The program willinvolve analytical, fabrication and experimental tasks to achieve the overall program goal of maturing technologies for advanced EDL systems. A few select tests will be performed at Southern Research Institute with strain data being captured for use in the anisotropic compliance matrix calculations. Finite element simulations, using a homogeneous representation of the anisotropic material, will be used to simulate each test and aide in the design of test specimens sufficient to generate measurable strain levels while simultaneously allowing the anisotropic material to deform naturally.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Relative to commercial space transportation, the Space Act Agreement demonstrates NASA's financial and technical commitment to expanding access to space through a partnership with various organizations. Although these organizations, including Space Exploration Technologies, Orbital Technologies, Boeing and Sierra Nevada Corporation, have made great strides in advancing commercial space travel, their technology has thus far been applied only to low Earth orbit and travel to the International Space Station. However, this does not mean that such organizations could not benefit from low ballistic coefficient aeroshell technology. Based on the improved interlaminar properties and the ability to tailor the material design for a specific application, the increased use of 3D woven fabrics in ballistic protection, structural members, stiffeners and joints has benefited numerous other industries, including automotive, marine, construction and ballistic protection. As part of the commercialization strategy, MR&D will also perform a market research analysis on these industries since in order to identify additional areas within the commercial sector that would benefit from the development of credible test methods for 3D woven fabrics.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful completion of the Phase I program would directly benefit an existing, on-going NASA programs which incorporate flexible TPS designs: the Adaptable, Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) program. This program has made significant progress to advance the technology of deployable flexible aeroshells of 3D woven construction. However, there are still multiple risks associated with these designs. Although it is nearly impossible to address all of these risks, the development of sufficient test methods to calculate the material's compliances is an important step to reduce risk in the design.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Image Analysis
Textiles
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H7.01-9486
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ablative Thermal Protection Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ablative Ceramic Foam Based TPS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NextGen Aeronautics, Inc.
2780 Skypark Drive, Suite 400
Torrance, CA 90505-5341
(310) 626-8384

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shiv Joshi
sjoshi@nextgenaero.com111
2780 Skypark Drive, Suite 400
Torrance,  CA 90505-5341
(310) 626-8360

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A novel composite material ablative TPS for planetary vehicles that can survive a dual heating exposure is proposed. NextGen's TPS concept is a bi-layer functional composite. The top ablative layer is a two polymer composite layer formed in a conformal shape by infiltrating ablative polymer in a Si based polymeric foam with controlled pore size distribution. This layer is for the aerocapture portion of the mission. Underneath it is a ceramic foam core sandwiched between a top ceramic ply and the bottom structural laminated composite substrate. This layer is for the entry portion of the mission. The Si based polymer foam core is similar to the top layer but is already pyrolyzed and is not infiltrated with ablative polymer. The proposed TPS when subjected to aerodynamic heating at high integrated heat loads the foam polymer structure pyrolyzes to the high temperature structure and the filled phenolic or epoxy resin will be charred and ablated. The TPS will be designed to minimize areal density while meeting bondline temperature and ablation rate requirements. The proposed TPS is easy to fabricate in aerodynamic body conformal shapes by simple manufacturing steps. The basis for the proposed concept is recent successful TPS development work performed by NextGen Aeronautics and the University of Washington under the Air Force program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed ablative bi-layer composite thermal protection system will be suitable for many applications with severe heat load requirements. Due to the unique fabrication and bonding/assembly methods to be developed, the structure will have good machinability in the pre-ceramic form, minimal required machining due to near-net shape casting and minimal volume shrinkage, and minimal outgassing of bonding agents from the integrated bonding approach. All of these factors and the low materials and equipment cost contribute to lower overall manufacturing cost. Additionally, the focus on near-net shape forming reduces assembly difficulties and expedites the integration process into subsystems and systems. Potential applications for this technology include high temperature structures such as hypersonic vehicles, rocket nozzles, various space structures, and re-entry vehicle parts. Other commercial products that would benefit from this technology include industrial high temperature furnaces, brake pads in aircraft or racecars.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is always looking for technologies that can be used for interplanetary transport of heavy payloads. In initial studies to find a system capable of delivering heavy payloads to the surface of Mars, a conceptual vehicle that achieves orbit via aerocapture, cools down there, and then enters, descends and lands on Mars' surface is proposed. The proposed Thermal Protection System will achieve the mass efficiency necessary to enable and satisfy the mass requirement of this mission. The novel concept is applicable to other mission scenarios with extreme heating during a finite time. It is also applicable to multiple finite-time heating scenarios because of the unique multilayer design that can be optimized for the given requirements.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Composites
Polymers
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Structures
Destructive Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H8.01-9514
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Nanocomposite Membrane

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South
College Station, TX 77845-6023
(979) 764-2218

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alan Cisar
alan.cisar@lynntech.com111
2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South
College Station,  TX 77845-6023
(979) 764-2200

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
With the increasing demands placed on extravehicular activities (EVA) for International Space Station (ISS) maintenance, there is a critical need for oxygen delivery for EVA's from on-station sources. Since mechanical compressors have significant lifetime issues, NASA is evaluating high pressure PEM electrolyzer technology to generate and compress oxygen on the ISS. State-of-the-art electrolyzers use Nafion&#174; and similar perfluorosulfonic acid membranes which have significant hydrogen (H2) permeation issues. To achieve the efficiencies desired, NASA requires a 50% or more reduction in H2 permeation with less than 10% reduction in ionic conductivity. Lynntech proposes to manufacture nanocomposite membranes with significantly reduced H2 permeation while maintaining high ionic conductivity. Preliminary results showed an unprecedented reduction in H2 permeation with minimal reduction in ionic conductivity (which have not been demonstrated before), no acid generation, and increased water transfer capability. In Phase I, Lynntech will further optimize the membrane microstructure to achieve a target 60 to 70% reduction in H2 permeation with less than 10% reduction in ionic conductivity. The anticipated Technology Readiness Level at the beginning and ending of Phase II will be 3 and 4, respectively.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Proton exchange membranes that have significantly reduced hydrogen permeation have significant potential to replace current commercial membranes and becoming a new product very quickly. Fuel cell and electrolyzer industries have been looking for a membrane with lower hydrogen permeability to improve the operational lifetime and efficiencies of fuel cell and electrolyzer stacks. Therefore, there is a significant immediate market and a need for such an advanced proton exchange membrane. Lynntech has already demonstrated reduction in hydrogen permeation and high ionic conductivity with its nanocomposite membrane. PEM fuel cells are currently considered to be used for power generation for portable, telecommunication back up, stationary, and transportation applications both in the military and in civilian industries. PEM electrolyzers are considered to be used for energy storage, oxygen generation, etc. in numerous civilian and military applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In this Phase I project, Lynntech proposes to manufacture nanocomposite membranes with significantly reduced hydrogen permeation without adversely affecting the ionic conductivity. This nanocomposite membrane can replace the commercial membranes that are used in the following applications: 1) High pressure PEM electrolyzers to compress the oxygen up to 3,000 psi for EVA, 2) PEM electrolyzers to generate oxygen for environmental control, crew life support, replenishing the oxygen for cabin, pre-breath oxygen delivery unit prior to space walking, propulsion for in-space maneuvering, in-space science activities, 3) Electrolyzers for regenerative fuel cell systems for storing energy in the form of hydrogen and oxygen, 4) Low (up to 50 psi) and high pressure (up to 400 psi) PEM fuel cells for power generation, and 5) Electrochemical oxygen concentrators to concentrate oxygen from cabin air for medical emergencies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Conversion
Storage
Composites
Nanomaterials
Polymers


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H8.01-9759
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced manufacturing of intermediate temperature, direct methane oxidation membrane electrode assemblies for durable solid oxide fuel cell

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ITN Energy Systems, Inc.
8130 Shaffer Parkway
Littleton, CO 80127-4107
(303) 285-5129

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Thoen
pthoen@itnes.com111
8130 Shaffer Parkway
Littleton,  CO 80127-4107
(303) 285-5113

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ITN proposes to create an innovative anode supported membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) that is capable of long-term operation at low temperature by the direct oxidation of dry methane or syngas fuel without coke formation on the anode. ITN's MEA is more efficient, durable, reliable, versatile and economical than the state of the art because it is made with transformative manufacturing techniques &#150; microwave sintering and energy optimized plasma deposition (EOPD). The proposed fuel-flexible, direct oxidation MEA is capable of power densities up to 2 W/cm2 at 600?C. ITN's EOPD of thin, conformal YSZ electrolytes creates a stress free interface between the anode and electrolyte which improves MEA durability, cycle-ability and cell performance. The MEAs produced in this research effort can be incorporated into SOFC stacks capable of producing power in the 1-3 kW range. Because the fuel is oxidized directly in the SOFC, without external fuel processing, the thermodynamic efficiencies from fuel source to DC output exceed 70%. Higher efficiencies translate to minimal cooling required as obtained by way of conduction through the stack to a radiator exposed to space and/or by anode exhaust flow.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The fuel flexibility, high efficiency, scaleability, and durability of this MEA will lend itself to portable and stationary commercial SOFC applications with power outputs ranging from 20 W to 200 kW. An application of particular interest is the distributed energy generation market. Generators for the distributed energy market would range in size from 2 kW for a single household to 200 kW generators for small communities. This SOFC technology is uniquely suited for stationary distributed energy applications because it can operate directly on natural gas, which is primarily composed of methane, with minimal fuel processing and tolerate a wider range of operating conditions than state of the art SOFCs. This is significant for non-NASA commercial customers in the United States because natural gas is widely available to many homes or communities without investment in fuel delivery infrastructure. In addition, these generators could be used with other fuels in many remote applications where grid power is not available.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA needs efficient and reliable methods for both portable and stationary electricity and heat generation, with the greatest possible flexibility. ITN's proposed MEA provides the solution, allowing for SOFC systems capable of generating electricity from a variety of fuels such as syngas, methane, hydrogen or hydrocarbon fuels. Potential NASA customers are the International Space Station or the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate or other long-term missions where such fuels are harvested from the Earth's atmosphere or the atmospheres or surfaces of other planets and used to generate electricity.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Generation
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H8.02-8414
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ultra High Specific Energy Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Nanostructured Cathode for Ultra High Specific Energy Lithium Ion Batteries

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scientic, Inc.
555 Sparkman Drive, Suite 214
Huntsville, AL 35816-3440
(256) 319-0858

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scott von Laven
scott.vonlaven@scientic.us111
555 Sparkman Drive, Suite 214
Huntsville,  AL 35816-3440
(256) 319-0872

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Integrate advanced nanotechnology with energy storage technology to develop advanced cathode materials for use in Li-ion batteries while maintaining a high level of safety, stability, and cycle life, allowing the cathodes to be tailored to provide very high specific energy or very high specific power depending on the relative ratio of the three components-active material, current conductors/collectors, and binders, thus maximizing specific energy (Wh/kg) and energy density (Wh/l).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential applications for this technology include astronaut/EVA (extra vehicular activity) equipment, human habitat power systems with large storage capability, human/robotic landers and rovers, planetary probes and inner planetary missions, earth/planetary orbiters and heavy lift launch vehicles. Additionally, this technology can be applied in the automotive industry as the main power source to drive EVs and PHEVs, as well as adapted for use in power grids for advanced energy storage solutions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential applications for this technology include astronaut/EVA (extra vehicular activity) equipment, human habitat power systems with large storage capability, human/robotic landers and rovers, planetary probes and inner planetary missions, earth/planetary orbiters and heavy lift launch vehicles. Additionally, this technology can be applied in the automotive industry as the main power source to drive EVs and PHEVs, as well as adapted for use in power grids for advanced energy storage solutions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Space Transportation & Safety
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Storage
Characterization
Quality/Reliability
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Fluids
Nanomaterials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H8.02-8658
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ultra High Specific Energy Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Specific Energy Lithium-ion Batteries with Novel Cathode

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TIAX, LLC
35 Hartwell Avenue
Lexington, MA 02421-3102
(781) 879-1286

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Ofer
ofer.david@tiaxllc.com111
35 Hartwell Avenue
Lexington,  MA 02421-3102
(781) 879-1202

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Energy Storage is a critical component of space-based platforms across the full spectrum of exploration, scientific experimentation, defense, communications and monitoring missions. NASA has set targets of 265 Wh/kg of 675 Wh/l for batteries for near-term energy storage applications. Li-ion battery technology has the highest energy density among rechargeable battery technologies. However, achieving the near-term goals require implementation of next-generation active materials. We propose to develop Li-ion cells that meet NASA's near term targets by combining our CAM-7 cathode material, the highest energy content market-ready cathode material available with market-ready Si-based anode materials. Because of its high reversible capacity (> 205 mAh/g), high discharge voltage (average 3.85 V vs. Li) and high density (4.8 g/cc), CAM-7 can yield higher energy Li-ion cells than any other market-ready cathode material. A version of CAM-7 targeting portable power and vehicle applications has been fully developed and, as part of its commercialization, is currently being transitioned to a 50 ton per year plant in Massachusetts. In the proposed Phase I program, TIAX will optimize the CAM-7 composition to yield the highest possible cell energy while still meeting the life targets, and simultaneously optimize an anode electrode incorporating a market-ready Si-based material. TIAX will then combine them in Li-ion cells that demonstrate the resulting system's ability to meet all NASA near-term energy, performance and life targets. The Phase I program will demonstrate, at the 200 mAh cell level, performance and cycling of electrode designs projected to meet and exceed NASA's near-term targets when they are incorporated in 18650 cells. A successful Phase I program will be followed by a Phase II program in which such 18650 cells are developed, assembled, and rigorously tested against NASA requirements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Li-ion batteries have the highest energy density among rechargeable batteries today, and hence find diverse applications ranging from niche military batteries to widespread portable electronics devices such as laptop computers, tablets, and smartphones. Li-ion batteries are also being introduced in electric drive vehicle applications such as PHEVs and EVs. The highest specific energy and energy density (245 Wh/kg and 230 Wh/l, respectively) currently available in commercial portable power Li-ion cells represent the limits of state-of-the-art cell engineering, approaching the limits obtainable using current commercial cathode and anode active materials. Hence meeting NASA's target of 265 Wh/kg and 675 Wh/l represents a significant advance over the current state-of-the-art, and will find broad appeal in diverse applications. Higher energy density batteries are of significant interest to the military because of the possibility of reduced weight burden on the warfighter as well as reduced logistics footprint. The rapidly growing market for tablets and smart phones is placing ever demanding requirements on the Li-ion batteries that power these devices. Higher energy density batteries allow for thinner form-factors and lighter devices &#150; advantages that appear to drive device sales, and hence are sought by device manufacturers. In the long-term, high energy density batteries will also be applicable to vehicle applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The absolute necessity of rechargeable energy storage for long-duration space missions, and the extremely high energy requirements and cost per unit mass of launching material into space make the premium for high specific energy and high energy density rechargeable batteries in space applications as high or higher than in any other sector. At the same time, the costs of space missions, and the extreme danger of manned space missions and necessity of energy storage for survival also create an extremely high premium for reliability of rechargeable batteries. Therefore, reliable, long life rechargeable batteries with the highest possible specific energy and energy density are a cross-cutting technology of very high value for a wide range of NASA applications (such as EVA suits, landers, rovers, habitats, vehicle power, electric aircraft and power for payloads), and therefore potential costs of development and small-volume manufacturing for the proposed battery technology are not likely to be critical hurdles to its commercial application in NASA platforms. As such, the proposed battery technology has potential for commercial application across the full spectrum of NASA's exploration, scientific experimentation, defense, communications and monitoring missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H8.02-9280
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ultra High Specific Energy Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: Long Life, High Energy Cell Development

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Sciences, Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher Lang
lang@psicorp.com111
20 New England Business Center
Andover,  MA 01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has a need to develop higher energy density battery systems to meet the power requirements of future energy devices. In this proposed Phase I program, PSI will develop an advanced cathode electrode structure that allows for the construction of lithium ion cells with long life (>250 cycles) and energy densities &#61619;265Wh/kg. The novel cathode electrode will reduce detrimental reactions with the electrolyte at high voltages that result in inefficient cycling and enhance performance fade. Initially, PSI will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach by constructing and performing steady state cycling of lab sized silicon/cathode cells. This testing will highlight the ability to construct cells that can maintain their performance over hundreds of cycles. Scale-up of the optimized processes will then be carried out to support construction of prototype Ah sized cells and demonstrate MRL and TRLs of 4. Phase II efforts would focus on construction of larger cells, demonstrating the cycling performance, and the readiness of the technology for integration into prototype battery packs for initial field testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The initial market for the proposed technology is military aerospace applications where space is limited and battery energy density and cycle life is critical. In addition, the technology also would be well suited to powering microdevices, such as remote sensing devices, that would benefit from the increased runtimes and reduced battery size enabled by the increased battery energy density. The technology can be further extended to commercial devices such as hybrid and electric vehicles, cordless power tools, and portable communications such as cell phones and two-way radios.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology could be utilized in all battery applications. The advanced cathode structures would improve cell cycling performance extending the total energy available over a given mission lifetime.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H8.02-9413
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ultra High Specific Energy Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Li/S Batteries Based on Novel Composite Cathode and Electrolyte System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Storagenergy Technologies, Inc.
1300 East 2150 South
Salt Lake City, UT 84106-0000
(801) 915-8239

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Feng Zhao
fzhao@storagenergy.com111
1300 E 2150 S
Salt Lake City,  UT 84106-0000
(801) 821-0163

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Energy storage devices in many aerospace applications are facing unique challenges. Most of such applications, including remote surveillance, satellites, reusable launch vehicles, etc. depend on high-performance, highly specialized batteries. NASA desires high specific energy batteries that are safe for human exploration missions. Since none exist today, they must be developed. Storagenergy Technologies Inc. and its team members propose to develop a novel core-shell structured sulfur-carbon nanocomposite and novel electrolyte systems for high performance rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries. In Phase I, the composite materials will be synthesized and characterized. The composite's electrochemical performance along with novel electrolyte systems will be evaluated in full cells. Cells with with a minimum capacity of at least 200 mAh will be fabricated and evaluated. During the Phase II, the composite's composition will be optimized further, its performance in cells with 1Ah will be evaluated, and a low-cost large-scale material production process will be developed.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A lithium sulfur battery is likely to provide the right solution for the issues that are challenging the demand for lithium-ion batteries in HEVs and EVs. Lithium sulphur batteries are likely to be available at a much lower price and with higher energy density compared to lithium-ion batteries. Lithium sulphur batteries offer almost three times the energy density as the current lithium-ion batteries. This allows these batteries to run more than 300 miles on a single charge in a passenger electric vehicle. Sulphur is abundantly available, so that reduces the cost of these batteries, thereby making it much more affordable than lithium-ion batteries. These features make lithium sulphur batteries a better choice over lithium-ion batteries. Lithium sulfur battery system also promises to transform the energy storage and distribution fields. This technology, in the distributed energy storage form, reduces greenhouse emissions by serving as a gateway technology to the widespread use of alternative and more importantly intermittent energy sources, namely wind and solar.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The subject Li/sulfur battery will be developed for high-efficiency power systems for the human exploration of space, which include power systems in The International Space Station (ISS) and Extravehicular Activities (spacesuit) and robotic landers and rovers for missions to outer planets, moons and asteroids.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H8.02-9517
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ultra High Specific Energy Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Cathode for Ultra-High Energy Li-Ion Batteries

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South
College Station, TX 77845-6023
(979) 764-2218

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher Rhodes
christopher.rhodes@lynntech.com111
2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South
College Station,  TX 77845-6023
(979) 764-2200

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are currently under development for Extravehicular Activity Suits, Altair Lunar Landers, and Lunar Mobility Systems. However, low voltage operation and low capacity cathode of current Li-ion batteries limits both volumetric and gravimetric energy density. High capacity cathode materials with high voltage operation are needed to offer the required gains at the integrated cell level to meet NASA's goal. Lynntech proposes to develop advanced cathode that can work at high potential and provide high capacity, long cycle life, and high rate capability. During Phase I project, Lynntech will synthesize the cathode materials, optimize the compositions and structures, evaluate the cathode's properties, and determine the performance of cathodes in half cell and full cell containing high voltage electrolyte and silicon-carbon composite anode. The technology is currently estimated at TRL 3 and is expected to result in TRL 4 at the end of the Phase II project. The advanced cathode can enable ultra energy density Li-ion batteries which can provide significant mass and volume savings and operational flexibility for NASA near-term exploration missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA applications, the advanced cathode can provide improved energy density, cycle life, and rate capability of rechargeable Li-ion batteries for both private sector commercial and military applications. Private sector commercial applications include plug-in electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, aircraft, and consumer electronic devices (cellular phones, laptop computers, and camcorders). Military applications include aircraft, soldier power, and communication systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High capacity cathode with long cycle life and high rate capability can significantly increase the energy density of rechargeable Li-ion batteries for NASA applications including Lunar Mobility Systems, Extravehicular Activity Suits, Altair Lunar, the International Space Station, and other systems. Other NASA applications would include satellites, remote power equipment, telecommunications systems, remote sensors, detection devices. The preparation technique of cathode materials will be scalable.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Storage
Composites
Nanomaterials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H8.03-9492
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Nuclear Power Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Turbo-Brayton Power Converter for Spaceflight Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffrey Breedlove
jfb@creare.com111
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 640-2442

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future NASA space missions require advanced systems to convert thermal energy into electric power. These systems must be reliable, efficient, and lightweight. In response, we propose to develop a turbo-Brayton power converter with high efficiency and specific power. The converter will use gas bearings to provide reliable, maintenance-free, long-life operation. It will also consist of discrete components that can be packaged to fit optimally with other subsystems, and its continuous gas flow can communicate directly with remote heat sources and heat rejection surfaces without ancillary heat transfer components and intermediate flow loops. Creare is well suited to succeed because we have a long history of developing advanced turbomachines, heat exchangers, and Brayton systems for challenging spaceflight applications. We will complete detailed analyses, trade studies, fabrication trials, and preliminary designs for the components and converter assembly during Phase I, followed by fabrication and testing of a breadboard converter during Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Terrestrial versions of our converter can be used to produce electric power for military and civilian applications. These converters would be coupled with non-nuclear heat sources such as fossil fuel combustion, biofuel combustion, refuse burning, and concentrated solar energy. The resulting systems can be applied wherever electric generators are currently used. They will be particularly attractive for mobile applications because they have high specific power. Their hermetic, closed-loop configuration will also make them desirable in environments that have contaminants such as sand, dirt, and dust, and in environments that are exposed to corrosive substances such as sea water.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many potential NASA applications for our converter technology. The converter can be sized for coupling with radioisotope heat sources to support low-power devices such as space exploration probes and unmanned surface rovers. Our converter can also be sized for significantly greater power levels and coupled with fission reactors to support larger spacecraft as well as manned exploration of the lunar and Martian surfaces. Other applications include nuclear electric propulsion and space station power systems. Alternative heat sources include concentrated solar radiation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H8.03-9876
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Nuclear Power Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Cost Radiator for Fission Power Thermal Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc.
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster, PA 17601-5688
(717) 295-6061

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kara Walker
Kara.Walker@1-act.com111
1046 New Holland Ave.
Lancaster,  PA 17601-5606
(717) 295-6081

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is developing fission power system technology for future space transportation and surface power applications. The early systems are envisioned in the 10 to 100kWe range and have an anticipated design life of 8 to 15 years with no maintenance. A non-nuclear system ground test in thermal-vacuum is planned by NASA GRC to validate technologies required to transfer reactor heat, convert the heat into electricity, reject waste heat, process the electrical output, and demonstrate overall system performance. This SBIR project by ACT will develop a single-facesheet Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) radiator, operating near 450K, to support the Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) for surface power and 100kW-class electric vehicles. ACT will utilize the experience gained during previous Phase I and Phase II VCHP radiator programs for NASA GRC to increase the specific power of the radiator and reduce the overall cost. A trade study will be conducted to compare single-facesheet and dual-facesheet VCHP radiator designs and the ability to directly bond a GFRC facesheet to a titanium heat pipe will be demonstrated. A complete preliminary design for a single-facesheet VCHP radiator for the non-nuclear system will be developed at the end of the Phase I program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is a commercial application for high temperature VCHP heat exchangers in fuel cell reformers. In a fuel cell reformer, steam, air and diesel fuel react in a High Temperature Shift (HTS) and a Low Temperature Shift (LTS) reactor to produce as much hydrogen as possible. Feed streams to and from the reactors must be maintained under tight temperature control, typically within 30C despite a turndown ratio of 5:1 in reactant flow rate. ACT believes that VCHP heat exchangers can replace the current heat exchanger and control system with a passive system. The VCHP heat pipes passively adjust the heat removed, to maintain the output stream at a constant temperature.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The low cost VCHP radiator developed under this Phase I and Phase II program would provide the waste heat rejection system necessary for the non-nuclear TDU to be tested at NASA GRC. Additional, longer term NASA candidate missions that the low cost VCHP radiator would support are initial power sources for human outposts on the Moon or Mars and nuclear electric propulsion systems (NEP) for Mars cargo transport. A secondary application would be for lunar and Martian radiators that can passively accommodate the large swings in environmental conditions between lunar (or Martian) day and night, including long periods at very low temperatures. In addition, the VCHP can passively accommodate large changes in thermal load, and avoid damage during periods of low thermal load. The non-condensable gas in the VCHP will also help with start-up during sudden increases in thermal load.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Generation
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H8.04-8780
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Photovoltaic Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Automated High-Volume Manufacturing of Modular Photovoltaic Panel Assemblies for Space Solar Arrays

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Deployable Space Systems, Inc.
75 Robin Hill, Building B2
Goleta, CA 93117-3108
(805) 693-1319

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Spence
Brian.Spence@DeployableSpaceSystems.com111
75 Robin Hill, Building B2
Goleta,  CA 93117-3108
(805) 722-8090

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS) will focus the proposed SBIR program on the creation and development of an automated robotic manufacturing infrastructure designed to mass-produce DSS's Integrated Modular Blanket Assembly (IMBA) common photovoltaic Standard Power Modules (SPM's). The proposed development will implement automated manufacturing processes for CIC-ing, glassing, stringing, laydown, and acceptance testing of interconnected photovoltaic devices onto an ultra-lightweight IMBA/SPM modular flexible blanket assembly through simple and commercially available pick-and-place robotic manufacturing techniques / infrastructure. Automated manufacturing of IMBA/SPM photovoltaic panel assemblies will provide an industry paradigm shift for affordability / cost-savings when compared to current labor intensive manufacturing processes. Unlike the current industry approach which is only focused on increasing the device area that only minimally reduces panel assembly costs, the proposed automated manufacturing will attack the highest cost and most labor intensive components of manufacturing a panel assembly, namely; CICing, glassing, stringing, panel laydown, and acceptance testing. By incorporating automated manufacturing the proposed IMBA/SPM photovoltaic flexible blanket assembly promises to provide ultra-affordable high-performance and repeatable high-quality modules for future NASA Space Science and Exploration missions, and particularly for ultra-high-power SEP missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA space applications are comprised of practically all missions that require high-efficiency photovoltaic power production through affordable solar arrays. The technology is particularly suited for SEP missions that require game-changing performance in terms of large deployed areas, affordability, ultra-lightweight, and compact stowage volume. Applicable non-NASA space missions include: LEO surveillance, reconnaissance, communications and other critical payload/equipment satellites, LEO commercial mapping and critical payload/equipment satellites, MEO satellites & space-tugs, GEO commercial communications and critical payload/equipment satellites, and GEO communications and payload/equipment satellites. The proposed technology also has tremendous dual-use non-space commercial private-sector applicability including fixed-ground and deployable/retractable mobile-ground based systems whereby such automation allows commercial affordability. The proposed technology is estimated to ultimately reduce standard photovoltaic panel assembly costs by an astounding 50% for space applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA space applications are comprised of practically all Exploration, Space Science, Earth Science, Planetary Surface, and other missions that require high-efficiency photovoltaic power production through affordable solar arrays. The technology is particularly suited for NASA's SEP missions and other missions that require game-changing performance in terms of extremely large deployed areas, affordability, ultra-lightweight, and compact stowage volume. The technology is also well suited for applications requiring scalability/modularity, operability within high radiation environments, high voltage operation, and LILT/HIHT operation. The proposed technology is estimated to ultimately reduce standard photovoltaic panel assembly costs by an astounding 50% for space applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Teleoperation
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Conversion
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Project Management
Prototyping
Quality/Reliability
Material Handing & Packaging
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Processing Methods
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Metallics
Polymers
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H8.04-9546
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Photovoltaic Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Cost Multi-Junction Photovoltaic Cells

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Black Hills Nanosystems
2445 Dyess Ave
Rapid City, SD 57701-9301
(605) 341-3641

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gina Kim
gkim@blackhillsnano.com111
2445 Dyess Ave
RAPID CITY,  SD 57701-9301
(605) 341-3641

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed SBIR project will provide a pathway to dramatically reduce the cost of multi-junction solar cells. The project leverages a TRL6 micropackaging process with ~100% yield for cell assembly. Cost savings are critical as space-qualified multi-junction cells render large panel applications prohibitive. The proposed project aims to develop a greatly-simplified manufacturing process that can be performed by most compound semiconductor foundries. Thus, cost savings can be derived from increased competition and scaling by leveraging low-cost high volume manufacturers for wireless components and LED lighting devices. The preliminary 3-subcell systems has >30% efficiency at 60C-100C. For higher efficiency, a 5-subcell system has >57% efficiency. For CPV applications, LCOE of the 3-subcell system at 630 suns is 20.96 cents/kWh (real)/27.20 cents/kWh (nominal).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
CPV is a key application and cost driver. The availability of higher efficiency cells is also important for applications that utilize solar energy to extend the operational duration of mobile devices.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The plug-and-play nature of the assembly approach allows customization for space applications while still leveraging the larger volumes from CPV. This can be critical for space applications, as different cell materials and thicknesses can be incorporated for mission requirements. NASA applications include Solar Electric Propulsion, satellites and UAVs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Manufacturing Methods
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H8.04-9665
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Photovoltaic Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cost Reduction of IMM Solar Cells by Recycling Substrates using Wet Chemical Etching

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MicroLink Devices
6457 West Howard Street
Niles, IL 60714-3301
(847) 588-3001

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher Youtsey
cyoutsey@mldevices.com111
6457 West Howard St.
Niles,  IL 60714-3301
(847) 588-3001

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This program focuses on reducing the cost of substrate reclaim for high-efficiency solar cells fabricated via an epitaxial lift-off (ELO) process, while increasing the number of reuse cycles possible for a given substrate. We will introduce a new multi-layer etch-stop structure into inverted metamorphic (IMM) triple-junction solar cells grown on 100-mm GaAs substrates. The etch-stop structure will be grown between the original GaAs substrate and the ELO release layer, thereby becoming the effective substrate surface after the ELO process. The purpose of the etch-stop structure is to prevent pits and surface damage incurred during ELO from damaging the original GaAs surface. The standard method of reclaiming the GaAs substrate after ELO is to employ chemo-mechanical polishing (CMP) to remove the defect-ridden GaAs surface and chemically polish the underlying GaAs to a yield surface that is suitable for successive epitaxial growth. This process works effectively but reduces resultant substrate thickness and causes some wafer damage itself, which then requires further polishing. These factors accumulate over time, practically limiting the number of reclaim cycles to 5&#150;10 for a given substrate. With the incorporation of the proposed multi-layer etch-stop structure, the defects are isolated in the etch-stop structure, which can be dissolved by successive selective wet chemical etches to produce the original pristine GaAs surface with its original thickness. All mechanical polishing is eliminated in this proposed work, ensuring a constant substrate thickness through repeated substrate reclaim cycles and also drastically reducing the estimated cost of the recycling process to <$1 per substrate.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Thin, flexible, high efficiency ELO IMM solar cells are also well suited for commercial and military satellites and spacecraft, either as replacements for existing solar cells in conventional array designs, or in novel, high power arrays. The cells are attractive for electrical power generation in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), which has been demonstrated to allow substantial endurance enhancements. The cells are also useful for terrestrial power generation in high value military applications, such as off-grid power generation and battery charging. Finally, the cells are attractive for the terrestrial concentrator photovoltaics (CPV) market. In all cases, the proposed substrate reuse technology development will substantially reduce the cost of ELO solar cells and arrays, thereby making the cells more commercially attractive.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Thin, flexible, high efficiency ELO IMM solar cells, currently under development by MicroLink, are attractive as replacements for the solar cells in existing power arrays, for next-generation spacecraft designs, and for solar electric power (SEP) systems. One of the advantages of ELO cells is that they are less costly than the current generation of Ge-based triple-junction solar cells because the substrate on which the solar cell is grown can be reused multiple times: ultimately the effective cost of the substrate approaches the cost of repolishing after ELO. This advantage will be further enhanced by the proposed substrate reuse technology development: the cost of repolishing the substrate may drop from tens of dollars to less than one dollar which will result in a substantial reduction in the cost of the ELO cell. Major commercial manufacturers of spacecraft solar panels have shown substantial interest in MicroLink's solar cells and in lightweight, flexible photovoltaic modules that contain these cells. The flexible, conformal nature of the cells also makes them suitable for integration with spacesuits and other structures, such as remote fuel generation facilities or habitats. Finally, lightweight, conformal ELO solar cell arrays are useful for reducing the weight and increasing the operational range of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H8.04-9949
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Photovoltaic Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Cost Automated Manufacture of High Efficiency THINS ZTJ PV Blanket Technology (P-NASA12-007)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vanguard Space Technologies, Inc.
9431 Dowdy Drive
San Diego, CA 92126-4336
(858) 587-4200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nicholas Walmsley
nwalmsley@vst-inc.com111
9431 Dowdy Drive
San Diego,  CA 92126-4336
(858) 587-4210

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA needs lower cost solar arrays with high performance for a variety of missions. While high efficiency, space-qualified solar cells are in themselves costly, > $250/Watt, there is considerable additional cost associated with the parts and labor needed to integrate the Photovoltaic Assembly. The standard approach has evolved with only minor changes, sacrificing cost because of risk aversion. Integration cost can be as much as double the bare cell cost &#150; i.e. >$500/watt. Dramatic cost savings can be realized through manufacturing engineering of more efficient automated assembly processes. If the design of the Photovoltaic Assembly could be modified to be compatible with conventional and automatable electronic assembly and terrestrial solar panel assembly approaches, there could be considerable cost savings. There are many additional benefits with automation which include higher quality and consistency. This can reduce failures, increase production throughput, speed turnaround, and improve overall reliability. Cost and quality improvements can be realized on both thin and rigid arrays, increasing current capabilities, and enabling future high power missions. The benefits of automation are enhanced by the need for high power generation in support of energy intensive space missions. A 300kW array at $500/W would cost $150M just for the solar cell integrated array panels. A $150/W cell integration cost reduction would translate into savings of $45M, before considering the immediate and substantial benefits in consistency, reliability, and schedule. The Phase I effort demonstrates feasibility of a low cost array using an automated and integrated manufacturing approach, performed on an automation friendly solar cell, verified with environmental testing, and is used to predict array cost for a high power mission. Meeting these technical objectives will demonstrate reduced cost and justify a Phase II SBIR program preparing for a flight experiment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial spacecraft have trended towards higher power in recent years, with spacecraft prime power requirements growing from 5kW to over 20kW. Additional power provides additional functionality for military spacecraft, and additional revenue for commercial spacecraft, but is limited in practice to the 20kW level by the maximum achievable power that can be obtained with conventional rigid panel planar technology. The implementation of a low mass, low volume, low cost array has application to a broad spectrum of military and commercial users who currently are restricted by the mass, volume, and cost of conventional approaches.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Low cost, lightweight, high power solar arrays with compact packaging is a key enabling technology for meeting a variety of NASA missions such as solar electric propulsion, outer planetary, or crew exploration missions. The automated THINS ZTJ approach is an ideal technology for meeting these needs, projecting a specific power improvement of greater than a factor of 3X, and an improved volumetric efficiency when rolled for launch by a factor of 4X compared to today's solar arrays. The approach additionally prepares for the low cost integration of IMM solar cells as they become economically feasible. Such improvements are needed to allow a high power system up to 300kW to be packaged into a single launch, avoiding expensive and risky on-orbit assembly. The THINS Array also has the advantages of improved electromagnetic shielding because of the continuity of coverglass materials and the ability to create a continuous grounded, shielded enclosure. Such a technology can be enabling for high performance electric and magnetic field instruments often used on NASA spacecraft, such as THEMIS, MMS, and Maven. (MMS solar arrays, in fact, have incorporated superstrate technology previously developed on a NASA Phase III SBIR from Vanguard).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Manufacturing Methods
Conversion
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H9.01-8264
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Optical Communications
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-efficiency resonantly pumped 1550-nm fiber-based laser transmitter

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
nLight Photonics
5408 NE 88th Street, Building E
Vancouver, WA 98665-0990
(360) 566-4460

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zhigang Chen
zhigang.chen@nlight.net111
5408 NE 88th Street, Building E
Vancouver,  WA 98665-0990
(360) 566-4460

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
nLight proposes the development of high efficiency, high average power 1550-nm laser transmitter system that is based on Er-doped fiber amplifier resonantly pumped by high efficiency 1532-nm fiber-coupled diode laser pumps. To meet the efficiency requirement for space communication, nLight proposes to improve overall laser transmitter efficiency by (1) optimizing diode laser and fiber coupling for maximum efficiency of 1532-nm pumps, (2) developing resonant pumping of the fiber amplifier for minimum quantum defect, and (3) design and development of Er-doped fiber amplifier capable of achieving high optical-to-optical efficiency. Under the proposed program, nLight will design and develop high efficiency 1532-nm diode lasers in conjunction with highly efficient fiber coupling techniques to achieve >40% conversion efficiency of the pump modules. By developing and utilizing novel fiber laser amplifier technologies, nLight anticipates achieving > 70% optical-to-optical efficiency for resonantly pumped Er-doped fiber amplifier. It is estimated that a high efficiency 1550-nm fiber laser transmitter will be developed to demonstrate >23 W average power and >23% WPE, the highest efficiency among eye-safe solid-state lasers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications of this type of laser system may be in materials processing where the eye-safe wavelength and high peak power capability of the fibers developed may provide an advantage in terms of application speed or quality. If such systems are found to be useful for industrial applications, nLight will pursue commercialization of such products as an addition to their existing line of 1 um commercial pulsed fiber laser products. For instance, there is substantial interest in 15xx to 19xx nm lasers for a variety of plastics welding and biomedical applications. It is expected that these high average power, high pulse energy eye-safe fiber lasers will be useful in materials processing, biomedical, and other light industrial applications. There is also an emerging market in eye-safe Flash-LIDAR/LADAR for both military and industrial sensing applications which require both the pumps and the fiber laser/amplifiers proposed in this program.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A potential NASA application of the proposed eye-safe high efficiency, high average power fiber amplifier lies in space-based optical telecommunication. Fiber-based master oscillator power amplifiers at 1550 nm are believed to be the most likely candidates for laser transmitters that meet the efficiency, power and modulation requirement of deep-space optical communication. In addition to data communication, such laser transceiver system can provide precision range and velocity tracking for spacecraft navigation. The proposed system can also be used in direct energy detection Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems for atmospheric research and meteorology. Narrow linewidth pulsed laser systems operating around 1.6 um would be particularly applicable for direct detection differential absorption LIDAR CO2 measurements.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Emitters
Lasers (Communication)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H9.01-8425
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Optical Communications
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Miniature Pointing and Tracking Isolation Platform

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
American GNC Corporation
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley, CA 93065-1812
(805) 582-0582

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tasso Politopoulos
tpolito@americangnc.com111
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley,  CA 93065-1812
(805) 582-0582

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of a miniature, MEMS IMU based, accurate isolation and stabilization system for beam pointing of a laser designator. Inertial stabilization and relative attitude control are the two key elements constituting the proposed accurate pointing control. Inertial stabilization allows isolation from interference and vibration. Relative attitude control is used for target tracking and to compensate pointing drift caused by gyro drift and the Earth's rotation. In Phase I of this project, first, using the simulation tools and experimental systems of AGNC, modeling and implementation evaluation of the proposed MEMS-based inertial pointing system are performed. Through the modeling and simulation of the closed loop system, the implementation method and the specification of the MEMS devices and pointing system will be further investigated. Then, an inertial motion measurement device test and tuning are performed. MEMS gyros for pointing stabilization are integrated into the platform structure. Next, system integration of the MEMS stabilization platform is investigated. An accuracy evaluation of the pointing stabilization system is performed. Finally, the mechanical structure of the stabilization platform and the integration of the MEMS with the system's mechanical and electronic components is proposed and investigated.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Although the proposed unit is aimed at pointing of a communication laser beam, its properties of small size, low cost, light weight and broad bandwidth disturbance rejection allows its utilization in many commercial applications including pointing control, motion and vibration isolation. Specific examples include: target designation, stabilization control, optical pointing, laser and telescope pointing control. Also, imaging, optical communications, and vehicle control and guidance benefit from our system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This stabilization pointing and tracking isolation platform is of small size, light weight, low power, fast steering, and reduced cost in design and production. It finds wide applications in spaceborne vehicles for large telescope stabilization control, optical communications, antenna pointing, telescope stabilization, laser pointing and control, and vehicle guidance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Inertial (see also Sensors)
Optical
Ranging/Tracking
Inertial
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H9.01-9372
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Optical Communications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Vibration Isolation Platform for Long Range Optical Communications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Controlled Dynamics Inc
18141 Beach Blvd, Suite 170
Huntington Beach, CA 92648-8602
(562) 732-4694

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scott Green
sgreen@controlled-dynamics.com111
18141 Beach Blvd, Suite 170
Huntington Beach,  CA 92648-8602
(562) 735-3065

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Optical communication links provide higher data transfer rates with lower mass, power, and volume than conventional radio-frequency links. For deep space applications at long operational ranges, high performance stabilization of the space terminal data link is required. To meet this need, CDI proposes a novel application of our free-floating isolation platform. Based upon a Shuttle-proven technology, this approach yields 6-DOF isolation from the disturbances of the host vehicle while providing high-bandwidth active stabilization to attenuate both payload disturbances as well as any residual disturbances transferred from the base across the power/data umbilical. The proposed approach is designed to achieve better than 0.5microradian-rms stabilization for all frequencies above 0.1Hz when operating in a space environment. Phase I develops the proposed design concept, performs architecture trade studies, and predicts performance to establish the feasibility of the approach. Using an available free-floating isolation platform and a 2-axis low-g testbed, the design concept is prototyped and demonstrated on hardware in a simulated low-g environment (TRL-5). Phase II proceeds with the development of a prototype system that will be space qualified through comprehensive ground testing (TRL-6). Technology demonstration flight tests will be proposed on sRLVs and/or ISS platforms (e.g., WORF, OPALS upgrade), achieving a TRL-7 maturity by the end of Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
By providing component-level isolation and stabilization at the optical payload, this approach does not impose any unusual constraints on the host vehicle. This makes the technology broadly applicable to a wide range of vehicles including sRLVs, orbital RLVs, Earth orbiting satellites (even the simplest thruster-only designs), and deep space vehicles. The technology is targeted for high data throughput applications requiring optical links, but the core approach is applicable any space payload requiring high-performance isolation and stabilization. Applications include commercial and military communications satellites, next-generation large space telescopes, space-based interferometric telescopes, advanced geo-pointing surveillance and reconnaissance payloads, etc. NASA and the U.S. comprise less than half of the overall total satellite market, so there are significant international applications for the technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The optical isolation and stabilization technology developed through this research is targeted for insertion into near-term NASA programs such as the Laser Communications Relay Demonstration Mission (LCRD) and as an upgrade for the Optical Payload for LAsercomm Science (OPALS). The capability is considered a "Push Technology" enabling new missions or enhancing missions already planned in for Deep Space Planetary Missions, the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Program, and the Deep Space Optical Terminal (DOT) Project. Design geometry is readily customized to specific payload applications. As such, the design can be scaled for a 10cm telescope (e.g., Lunar Lasercom Space Terminal), a 30.5cm telescope (e.g.,Mars Laser Communications Demonstration), or larger telescopes for deep space missions. For small telescopes, the platform can be used for isolation, stabilization, and beam tracking, thus eliminating the need for the Fine Steering Mirror and its associated cost, mass, power and volume.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Attitude Determination & Control
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Telescope Arrays
Lasers (Communication)
Inertial (see also Sensors)
Optical
Acoustic/Vibration
Inertial
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H9.01-9621
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Optical Communications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact, Lightweight Isolation Platform (CLIP)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied Technology Associates
1300 Britt Street SE
Albuquerque, NM 87123-3353
(505) 767-1214

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rick Walter
rick.walter@aptec.com111
1300 Britt St. SE
Albuquerque,  NM 87123-3353
(505) 767-1200

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has a critical need for improved bi-directional data transmission rates from a variety of spacecraft to Earth. NASA estimates that the current Mars to Earth transfer rate of 6 Mbps might be increased to 600Mbps using a laser comm (LC) system. Because the LC beam is less than 10 microradians wide and the Earth at apogee is 32 microradians wide, as seen from Mars, LC beam jitter caused by spacecraft base motion must be reduced to sub-microradian levels to enable beaconless optical beam pointing. To meet the need, NASA is seeking innovative compact, lightweight, space-qualifiable vibration isolation platforms for payloads massing between 3 and 50 kg that require less than 15 W of power and mass less than 3 kg that will attenuate an integrated angular disturbance of 150 ur to less than 0.5 microradians (1-sigma), from <0.1 Hz to ~500 Hz. ATA has a long track record of producing stabilized platforms to host small optical payloads. Building on a previous NASA SBIR, ATA now produces the stable platform used in NASA's LLST and LCRD programs. ATA will create a Compact, Lightweight Isolation Platform (CLIP) that could host the LC collimator telescope and provide a stabilized platform to prevent the 150-microradian spacecraft disturbance environment from reaching the LC terminal. Advances in the suspension flexure, the platform structure, and actuators will be required to meet the size, weight and power requirements. One challenging requirement is that an angular-motion sensor is required for the control system. Gyros exist that can measure adequately but they are too heavy, too large, and use too much power. ATA will develop a small, lightweight, nanoradian-class angular noise Capacitive Angular Position Sensor (CAPS). The sensor will have low power and high reliability, which ATA will demonstrate by producing TRL 4 prototypes in Phase I. ATA will develop the CLIP, a 0.5 microradian residual motion stable platform, in Phase II for programs like iROC.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ATA is committed to commercializing NASA SBIRs, as evidenced by our recently delivered space-qualified inertially stable platform to a government customer for a laser communication application. The original NASA SBIR program was called Magnetohydrodynamic Stable Reference (MSTAR) and was designed to provide a stable optical reference for line-of-sight jitter removal. Multiple commercial and SBIR awards matured the technology. ATA is on contract to deliver an additional seven units for that program. ATA has been active in discussions with numerous primes for their DoD programs and with other organizations for laser communications programs to advocate the technology and performance aspects of the ATA IRU and stable platform developments. Near term opportunities to commercialize and apply the ATA IRU and stabilized platform technology exists with the following programs: Space Laser Communication Terminal (SLCT) &#150; Air Force LWSM (Laser Weapon System Module) &#150; DARPA SpOT (Space Optical Tracking facility) &#150; Lockheed Martin LaWS (Laser Weapon System) &#150; Navy GBAD (Ground Based Air Defense ) &#150; Marines ATA will continue discussions and advocate for the insertion of the OIRU and stabilized platform technology into systems at Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control Company, Raytheon, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Boeing Directed Energy Systems, BAE, and General Atomics Aeronautical Systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Laser Comm is currently being demonstrated between the TerraSAR-X and NFIRE satellites in low-earth orbit using LC terminals built by TESAT, a German company, for the European Space Agency. Relatively short range and the ability to mutually track the other beacon allows relaxation of pointing requirements on that system. As the amount of data that must be transmitted increases and the distance to transmit the data increases, beaconless pointing will be required to communicate by laser. ATA's proposed Compact Lightweight Stable Platform (CLIP) and Capacitive Angular Position Sensor (CAPS) could host the laser collimator for NASA's integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) program, which seeks to implement beaconless laser communication to and from Mars by 2025. Beginning with a NASA funded Phase I SBIR, ATA developed the stable platform concept that serves as the basis for the laser comm terminal that NASA will be flying on the Lunar Laser Comm Demonstration (LLCD) on the LADEE spacecraft and is planned for the Laser Comm Relay Demonstration (LCRD) program that will be hosted on a Loral communication satellite. Similarly, under this NASA SBIR the CLIP could be developed to meet the need for beaconless pointing and propel NASA to the forefront of laser communication. The CAPS will ultimately find other applications in base motion measurement aboard other spacecraft to assist with image stabilization and correction.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Antennas
Transmitters/Receivers
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Teleoperation
Outreach
Inertial (see also Sensors)
Acoustic/Vibration
Inertial
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H9.02-9612
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Space RF Communications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Klystron Amplifier Utilizing Scandate Cathode and Electrostatic Focusing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
e-beam, inc.
21070 Southwest Tile Flat Road
Beaverton, OR 97007-8739
(503) 628-0703

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bernard Vancil
bernie@ebeaminc.com111
21070 Southwest Tile Flat Road
Beaverton,  OR 97007-8739
(503) 628-0703

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to build an electrostatically focused klystron that exploits recent breakthroughs in scandate cathode technology. We have built cathodes with greater than 100 Amps/cm2 emission. This project offers an opportunity to test those cathodes in real world devices. Because of their small size (.050 inch diameter) and low power dissipation (under 1.2 watts), they are ideal for long-range space missions. Also, their low beam convergence makes electrostatic focusing feasible. This, in turn, provides a dramatic reduction in amplifier size and mass. Without magnets, traveling wave tubes and klystrons will be lighter and smaller, a further enhancement for space missions. Phase I develops cathodes, pierce guns and focusing stacks. Phase II will see construction of a working klystron or TWT. Scandate cathodes also provide longer life than conventional cathodes. Their small size allows amplifiers to reach much higher frequencies, bandwidth, and data rates than current art.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is a shortage of bandwidth and number of channels in commercial wireless networks. Scandate cathodes address this by raising the frequency and power of traveling wave tubes. This is particularly true of geocentric communications satellites. Also, their longer life will reduce maintenance costs on these systems. Eventually, scandate cathodes will be used in earth-based communications networks, where the same issues arise, although not as acutely. Scandate cathodes are also needed in micro-focus x-ray guns and in UV electron-beam-pumped lasers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Scandate cathodes would improve performance and life on all NASA vacuum linear beam amplifiers and sources. They would allow higher data rates, higher frequencies and more power. They could be used in ion thrusters for discharge and neutralization, both for near-earth and long-range space flights. Their small size and high loading make them essential in terahertz amplifiers and sources. NASA is interested in terahertz for upper atmosphere studies, as well as communications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Amplifiers/Repeaters/Translators
Transmitters/Receivers
Nanomaterials
Lifetime Testing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H9.02-9699
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Space RF Communications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Self-Biased Radiation Hardened Ka-Band Circulators for Size, Weight and Power Restricted Long Range Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Metamagnetics Inc.
480 Neponset Street, 12B
Canton, MA 02021-1938
(781) 562-0756

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrew Daigle
adaigle@metamagneticsinc.com111
480 Neponset Street, 12B
Canton,  MA 02021-1938
(781) 562-0756

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Ferrite control components including circulators and isolators are fundamental building blocks of Transmit/Receive modules (TRM) utilized in high data rate active space transceivers and transponders for both long-range (LR) and low earth orbit (LEO) systems. These components are utilized to protect high power amplifiers (HPA) during the transmit cycle from destabilizing, and potentially harmful, power reflections from the antenna element. During receive cycle these components are utilized to direct lower power received signals with minimal attenuation to the low noise amplifiers (LNA). As such, performance specifications of these ferrite control components, such as bandwidth, insertion loss, isolation, power handling, temperature stability, radiation hardness, and linearity impose strict limitations on the overall system performance. Over the course of the proposed Ph1 SBIR program self-biased ferrite control components based on highly textured hexagonal ferrite compacts which have the potential to eliminate biasing magnets and significantly reduce the size, cost, and weight of the TRM while concurrently increasing power handling capability, and improving temperature stability and radiation hardness will be investigated. Specifically, a research and development path to realizing high performance self-biased ferrite materials and device designs for operation in space based environments at Ka-band (>27 GHz, 31.5 - 34 GHz targeted) is outlined.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A prominent alternative application of ferrite circulators is in the front end of ground based Transmit/Receive Modules (TRMs) utilized in Active Electronically Steered Arrays (AESAs). Specifically, Metamagnetics circulators have higher power handling thresholds than commercially available semiconductor technologies making them ideal for corporate feed array structures. A single AESA system can utilize anywhere from 300 to over 35,000 TRMs, operating at frequencies from UHF to above Ka-band, each of which is equipped with at least one ferrite circulator. The role of the circulator is to forward the high-powered transmitted signal to the antenna while protecting the amplifier (HPA) from harmful reflections during the transmit cycle and pass the received signals with as little attenuation as possible to the low noise amplifier (LNA) in the receive cycle. Metamagnetics has already identified a series of prime industrial partners who are interested in integrating this technology as the TRL level is increased.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Metamagnetics anticipates the use of self-biased radiation hardened Ka-band circulators where size, weight, power, and cost of ferrite components are the limiting factors. Metamagnetics components have the capability to influence the total price tag of the long range communication systems, particularly when thousands of T/R modules (TRM) are employed, as is often the case in phased array architectures such as those utilized in next generation observation missions including DESDynI (Deformation, Ecosystem Structure and Dynamics of Ice), SWOT (Surface Water and Ocean Topography), and HyspIRI (Hyperspectral Infrared Imager). Metamagnetics devices are designed to be radiation hardened and temperature stable without costly shielding making them ideal for low earth orbit (LEO) and long range space based communications platforms which require high data rates.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Antennas
Transmitters/Receivers
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Superconductance/Magnetics
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Ceramics
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Electromagnetic
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H9.03-8801
SUBTOPIC TITLE: CoNNeCT Experiments
PROPOSAL TITLE: GPS Jammer Detection and Gelocation using CoNNeCT L-Band SDR

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Navsys Corp
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80921-2370
(719) 481-4877

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alison Brown
abrown@navsys.com111
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs,  CO 80921-2370
(719) 481-4877

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Under this proposed effort, we plan to test the feasibility of adapting our terrestrial jammer locator system (JLOC) to locating jamming signals in space by adapting our previously developed GPS software defined radio (SDR) technology to provide an SDR waveform that can operate on spacecraft to allow detection and identification of GPS interference. We shall also experiment with this waveform to determine how the motion of a low earth orbiting platform can be used to provide geolocation of the interference source.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The level of reliance on GPS for navigation and positioning both in the military and private sector is very high and its reliability has become increasingly important. As a result, jamming, both unintentional and intentional, is becoming more disruptive as more users rely on this technology. While many, including NAVSYS, are looking at methods to mitigate the effect on navigation of jamming, it is also important to be able to detect, identify, and track jammers. This capability would allow for users to be aware of loss of capability and make decisions based on that awareness that could mitigate the impact. In addition, the capability to track jamming would allow a more rapid response to removing the jamming device.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The use of GPS has also become prevalent in support of satellite operations, enabling improvements in operational efficiencies for orbital maneuvers, rendezvous and docking and station-keeping. However, there is little information on the presence or effect of GPS interference on space operations. Many GPS interference sources are unintentionally created from high power transmitters that leak interference into the GPS band. Even unintentional interference could have significant effect on space operations. For example, L2 is particularly susceptible to interference, but is critical for precision relative navigation operations, for example for wide-lane carrier cycle ambiguity resolution. For low earth orbiting platforms, high powered emissions from the ground could affect their GPS operations. It is also possible that space-based interference sources could exist that cannot be easily detected by current monitoring systems but could affect GPS based space operations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H9.03-9564
SUBTOPIC TITLE: CoNNeCT Experiments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Secure DTN Communications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innoflight, Inc.
5850 Oberlin Drive, Suite 340
San Diego, CA 92121-4712
(858) 638-1580

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffrey Janicik
jjanicik@innoflight.com111
5850 Oberlin Drive, Suite 340
San Diego,  CA 92121-4712
(858) 638-1580

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
For the proposed CoNNeCT experiment, Innoflight and John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) have formed a significant complimentary union with respect to each one's expertise in space networking. Innoflight is bringing forward design and development expertise in cryptographically secure Internet Protocol (IP) for space links per NSA specifications while JHU/APL brings formidable Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) protocol and application to run above the secure transport. The two combined provide a high-value space communications solution that can be tested and refined using CoNNeCT. In addition, each one separately provides its own independent solution for a large variety of commercial and government applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Secure DTN technology is applicable to all aspects of space communications. The ability to enable autonomous networking and command/control of space-based systems in a secure end-to-end manner has considerable implications for cost savings in unmanned operations. In addition, the technology realizes a significant achievement in reprogrammable/reconfigurable communications systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SBIR by itself provides the maturity necessary to immediately infuse the technology into programs supporting the following NASA customers: Deep Space Planetary Missions, Extra Vehicular Activity Office, and Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Program. Innoflight will pursue the individual PMs of current and planned projects within these programs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Transmitters/Receivers
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H9.04-9432
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Dynamics Technologies and Software
PROPOSAL TITLE: Accurate timekeeping with an ensemble of clocks

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Perichoro LLC
507 Alhambra Road
Venice, FL 34285-2604
(941) 488-7205

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stephen Gerig
Perichoro@gmail.com111
507 Alhambra Road
Venice,  FL 34285-2604
(941) 488-7205

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 0
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovation is to accuracy in timekeeping independent of any external reference time, such as UTC. Individual clocks lose accuracy as time passes due to the physical effect called bias drift. The proposed innovation is a process, implemented as a real-time computer program, for combining the time-dependent output of an ensemble of clocks to counteract this loss of accuracy by the individual clocks of the ensemble of clocks. The processing method of the proposed innovation is based on the fundamental statistical concept of confidence interval - a concept seemingly new to such an application. The benefits of proposed processing method for independent, accurate timekeeping are the following: 1) the proposed processing method based on confidence intervals is a purely statistical method of estimation of numerical quantities, and therefore does not require any mathematical modeling of sensors, here clocks, 2) no statistical models, namely no mathematical modeling of probability distributions, 3) no Kalman filter, and 4) the real-time computer programs implementing the proposed method will work with any kind of clock having digital output which can be transferred to a computer processor on which the real-time computer programs are run. The processing method will include numerous confidence intervals, which will all be time-dependent, also called dynamical. These dynamical confidence intervals will statistically characterize both the time-dependent output of the individual clocks of an ensemble of clocks, and the more accurate time-dependent combined output.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential non-NASA applications of the proposed innovation is likewise to accuracy in timekeeping independent of any external reference time, such as UTC. Other government agencies which could be markets for the proposed innovation for independent, accurate timekeeping are the Department of Defense. For example, submarines could use independent, accurate timekeeping to avoid the need to receive radio signals for keeping onboard clocks running on time.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential NASA applications of the proposed innovation is to accuracy in timekeeping independent of any external reference time, such as UTC. This application of the proposed innovation for independent, accurate timekeeping is especially for NASA's space missions, namely NASA's Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Program.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H9.04-9443
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Dynamics Technologies and Software
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Techniques for Non-Collocated Fault Detetion of Satellite Formations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SySense, Inc.
1960 East Grand Avenue, Suite 1070
El Segundo, CA 90245-5093
(310) 322-7973

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sung Kang
kangs@sysense.com111
1960 East Grand Avenue, Suite 1070
El Segundo,  CA 90245-5093
(310) 322-7973

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal is for the development of a dynamic fault detection filter for a formation of satellites operating in a highly nonlinear dynamic environment but processed at a ground station where measurement data may be available on an intermittent basis. A previous SBIR study demonstrates that nonlinearities have an adverse effect on a linear dynamic filter's ability to accurately declare faults. Thus, a fault detection filter capable of effectively accounting for nonlinear dynamics and measurement data interruptions is required. During the proposed Phase I effort, such filters will be designed for faults in the three translational modes of 4 satellites flying in formation near a highly elliptical orbit. The satellites will carry a limited suite of instruments, just sufficient to determine faults in the three translational modes and include a GPS receiver. Furthermore, communication with a ground station will only be available near perigee and the measurement data will be transmitted in bursts, which will introduce planned and unplanned communication blackouts that represent breaks in the time history of measurements. The proposed development will produce a fault detection and isolation algorithm that can mitigate these breaks and perform faster than a simple, cyclical restart implementation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A NASA certified system would have potential markets within the Department of Defense and commercial users who want to implement dynamic fault detection and isolation on an existing system. The product of the proposed research effort allows for the implementation of FDI from a remote location while taking into account the limitations of communication that may exist. The goal would be to seek out partnerships with companies to find applications for our system on their products which may already be deployed. Our product has the benefit of not requiring upgrades to the system that is being monitored. Rather, the improvement is made at a base station and, potentially, for multiple systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This type of system may be implemented on NASA flight test experiments for formations of satellites where resources restrictions limit the implementation of code not associated with flight control and the payload. Furthermore, this system can be readily applied to existing missions to enhance reliability and safety without having to change the on-board flight software or hardware. For example, the proposed FDI algorithm can be applied to the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) satellites to verify thruster and accelerometer performance even though the MMS satellites are resource-limited and cannot communicate with each other. Similarly constrained missions can benefit from the product of this proposed effort.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Data Fusion
Knowledge Management
GPS/Radiometric (see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H9.05-8341
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Game Changing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Micro-Laser Communications Modules

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vescent Photonics, Inc.
4865 East 41st Avenue
Denver, CO 80216-4401
(303) 296-6766

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scott Davis
davis@vescent.com111
4865 East 41st Avenue
Denver,  CO 80216-4401
(303) 296-6766

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
High bandwidth communication links are needed between satellites and ground stations, inter-satellite, and to airborne assets. As data loads increase and satellites available payloads decrease keeping the information flowing becomes even more challenging. In this SBIR program we will design and demonstrate the feasibility of ultra-low Size, Weight, and Power (SWaP) Micro-Laser Communications (MiLC) modules for high bandwidth (up to Gbps or possibly much higher) data links between miniature satellites (e.g. cube-sats), and ground stations, satellite clusters, and/or airborne assets. One possible laser comm. modules will fit within a few cubic inch volume, require less than 1 watt of power and be able to provide ground station tracking (including orbital motion over wide angles and jitter correction) with a >100 Mbps downlink and no moving parts. Higher bandwidths are possible with trade-offs. This will be enabled by replacing heavy and power consumptive mechanical scanners with new, game changing wide angle (120o x 120o), electro-optic laser scanners.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ultra-compact, low power, and ultimately low cost optical communication systems proposed here have numerous commercial applications. They will be instrumental in last-mile telecommunications environments in urban setting, for field-deployable high-definition video systems for newscasters and sports casters (e.g., high-def coverage of golf tournaments is currently and outstanding challenge), and a variety reconfigurable, low-cost, commercial high-bandwidth data links. Extending the capability to space based platforms will find utility in satellite relay networks, surveillance systems, and general increased communications bandwidths.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Small satellite platforms are often highly constrained by their ability to provide high bandwidth data to the ground which often limits the relevance of even highly capable payloads due to the lack of data availability. MiLC modules will alleviate this bottleneck. Furthermore, this development is in alignment with NASA technology roadmaps and addresses NASA technology grand challenges by drastically increasing space communication link capacity at LEO/GEO from current low data rates at RF to high data rates at optical frequencies with low power/mass/size/cost. Space communication technology development must ensure that future space missions of NASA and other agencies are not constrained by a lack of communication capability. The demonstrated capacity will allow future missions to take advantage and to implement new and more capable science instruments that will evolve in the future.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Man-Machine Interaction
Amplifiers/Repeaters/Translators
Network Integration
Transmitters/Receivers
Waveguides/Optical Fiber (see also Optics)
Lasers (Communication)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H9.05-8532
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Game Changing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: SWIFT-HPX - High Data Rate Ka-band Commications for Small Satellites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tethers Unlimited
11711 North Creek Parkway South, Suite D113
Bothell, WA 98011-8808
(425) 486-0100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nestor Voronka
voronka@tethers.com111
11711 North Creek Parkway South, Suite D113
Bothell,  WA 98011-8808
(425) 486-0100

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Leveraging TUI's SWIFT software defined radio (SDR) architecture, we propose to develop a 100 Mbps downlink and intersatellite crosslink capability with ranging and timing synchronization capabilities to enable more sophisticated CubeSat and small satellite missions. This effort will focus on designing a Ka-band communications solution including a high-gain patch antenna array and Ka-band RF front end, that can be integrated with TUI's SWIFT software defined radio (SDR) processor running state-of-the art modulation and coding techniques to provide a robust link with adaptive data rates up to 100Mbps. Analyses indicate that a 100 Mbps crosslink can be closed between two CubeSats separated up to 100 kilometers and between a CubeSat in low-Earth orbit and a 12 meter dish (99% link availability with the ITU-P618 rain model) with the same radio. These links represent nearly two orders of magnitude of data throughput improvement over the rates achieved by CubeSat missions to date. This increased downlink and crosslink data rate will enable nanosatellites and CubeSat constellations to be used for scientific, commercial and operationally relevant remote sensing and earth observation missions. Adaptive modulation and coding makes the link more robust and allows for reduced data rate operations without increasing aperture sizes at greater distances (e.g. Lunar and Martian). The proposed SWIFT-HPX radio technology and resultant product supports the migration of small satellite and CubeSat near-Earth communication downlinks and crosslinks to higher frequency links, which is consistent with Phase 1-3 of NASA'S Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) Program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a number of government, industry, and university class instruments and experiments that fly on small satellites (and CubeSats in particular) that produce significantly greater quantities of data that can be downlinked to the ground using UHF and S-band links. By moving the communication link to Ka-band, higher throughputs can be achieved due to higher gain apertures both in space and on the ground, as well as the greater availability of bandwidth allocations at these higher frequencies. The need for a high-throughput data crosslink and downlink has also been discussed with other government customers including DARPA, US Army, Air Force, and other government private customers. For some of these missions latency is a key factor, which may be addressed either through a private network of SWIFT-HPX radios that use disruption tolerant networking (DTN) techniques to quickly deliver the data from the collecting spacecraft, through intersatellite links to other spacecraft that are in communication with a ground station. Alternately, tuning the antenna and radio to TDRSS frequencies may would leverage NASA's Space Network to provide this low-latency high througput data link.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This SWIFT-HPX radio technology and resultant product supports the migration of small satellite and CubeSat near-Earth communication downlinks and intersatellite crosslinks to higher frequency links, which is consistent with Phase 1-3 of the SCaN Program. This technology and communcaiton solution will enable earth orbiting missions to be deliver more data, providing greater return on mission investments. In addition, this radio could also be used to provide Destination Relay capabilities for Lunar and Mars missions. One future development effort could focus on the slightly modifying the Ka-band antenna and RF front to allow it to communicate with the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) network. TDRSS satellites 8-10 have a Ka-band Single Access (KaSA) service that is available to Space Network (SN) customers. Communications with TDRSS satellites 8-10 through the Ka-band Single Access (KaSA) service that is available to Space Network (SN) customers can provide up to 300Mbps (uncoded) of data on the downlink (return link), along with a up to 7Mbps of command data (forward link). Addition R/R&D would focus on improved link performance through antenna technology improvements by incorporating reflectarrays into the design as well as incorporating TUI's Canfield join gimbal for antenna pointing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Antennas
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Coding & Compression
Command & Control
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Ranging/Tracking
Telemetry (see also Control & Monitoring)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H10.01-8882
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Processing Optimization and Technology Infusion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Plug and Play Realtime Diagnosis for Ground Processing System Integration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Qualtech Systems, Inc.
99 East River Drive
East Hartford, CT 06108-7301
(860) 257-8014

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sudipto Ghoshal
sudipto@teamqsi.com111
99 East River Drive
East Hartford,  CT 06108-7301
(860) 761-9341

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's "Ground Systems Development and Operations Program" is moving towards transforming parts of the Kennedy Space Center from a historically government-only launch complex to a spaceport bustling with activities involving government and commercial vehicles alike. The success of this transformation drive largely depends on achieving the ability to process multiple types of vehicles, within a rather short time and in an economic way. QSI proposes developing a COTS (Commercial off-the-Shelf) Software to facilitate 'Plug and Play Real-time Diagnosis for Ground Processing System Integration' to support achieving the objective of the program. QSI will add capabilities to their TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System) toolset such that it will enable NASA to perform diagnostic analysis for various vehicular and ground systems without the requirement to build the analytic models and software tools from ground-up. Here, NASA is only required to build the diagnostic models (required for system integration, testing, assembly, maintenance/troubleshooting and pre-launch checkout) of the systems. Upon building, those can be used in a plug-and-play fashion through the analytic/diagnostic environment of TEAMS in conjunction with monitored data and test results from the vehicular and ground systems for obtaining diagnostic, prognostic, time to alarm, time to maintenance, etc. decisions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Among the non-NASA Govt. agencies, DoD and Air-force and Navy are the most potential customer for the resulting technologies. The software tool can significantly aid the V&V of functionality and fault tolerance testing activities for Complex Integrated military systems (systems of systems) such as NORAD, Space Command ground segments, the Joint Strike Fighter fleet, the Navy shipboard platforms, Submarine Commands and ballistic missile defense (BMD), etc. In addition, UAVs, UMGs and other unmanned submersible vehicle markets who are putting forward vehicles of newer models in a frequent manner could also be potential target for the proposed technology. In Aircraft, maritime vehicles and advanced military hardware are common example of large complex systems that are manufactured by commercial sector and require stringent V&V of functionality, integration and fault tolerance/mitigation capability testing. Thus these industries will be the primary non-Govt. commercial sector target for the resulting software tool. Additionally, automotive industries will be targeted as another potential market segment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ultimate goal of NASA's "Ground Systems Development and Operations Program" is to attain the capability to facilitate Ground Processing for diverse types of Government and Commercial Space Vehicles. The TEAMS-based software tools resulting from this effort will significantly reduce the time and effort to process a new vehicle or to bring a new ground support system into action. The reduction arises from reduced workload in developing the diagnostic and integration testing scheme; as well as from the seamless operation of the analytic (diagnostic, prognostic, integration testing, and maintenance support) capabilities with the ground processing assets and systems of NASA. NASA's 'Human Systems Integration Program' and programs of 'Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) office' could be potential users of this technology. NASA centers their affiliated institutions those are engaged in developing new space assets (vehicles, rovers, satellite, habitat systems, etc.) and/or are performing upgrading of existing systems could also utilize this tool to reduce their integration testing and V&V time and cost.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Verification/Validation Tools
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H10.01-9648
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Processing Optimization and Technology Infusion
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Labview System with Novel and Advanced Prognostic Tools

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Signal Processing, Inc.
13619 Valley Oak Circle
Rockville, MD 20850-3563
(240) 505-2641

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chiman Kwan
chiman.kwan@signalpro.net111
13619 Valley Oak Circle
Rockville,  MD 20850-3563
(240) 505-2641

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose a portable data acquisition and prognostic system that contains both hardware and software with several innovative ideas. First, our hardware system consists of a high speed data acquisition card and a portable lunchbox PC. The portable lunchbox PC has advanced prognostics algorithms and user friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI) for displaying component fault status and trends. Second, the prognostics software has several innovative algorithms, which will be implemented in Labview. The first one is an adaptive physics based prognostic tool. The idea is motivated by damage mechanics, which associates the vibration amplitude and natural frequency of the vibration to the damage status. This idea has been experimentally proven to be very accurate in bearing failure prediction. The second prognostic tool is data driven and is a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based approach that can predict the degraded state of the system. Tests using experimental data showed that the various degraded states can be correctly and unambiguously identified by the algorithm. The third tool is a hybrid one and was proven to achieve very high performance in the 2008 PHM Challenge. Finally, to further enhance the prognostic performance, we propose to apply Dempster Shafer algorithm to perform prognostic fusion.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology can be used in any military, or commercial application, where electromechanical systems involving rotating mechanical components are used. The proposed system may also be extended to many other applications, such as turbine engines, bearings, pumps, gearboxes, motors, etc. The research results of this project will lay down a solid foundation for future commercialization effort with the above applications. According to study RGB-177N on Non-Destructive Testing: An Expanding Market, the U.S. nondestructive testing (NDT) equipment market currently stands at $799 million. This market is projected to grow at an AAGR (average annual growth rate) of 3.6% to reach $952 million by 2004. Equipment health monitoring has many applications such as helicopter gearbox systems, jet and automotive engine diagnostics, and many of the safety critical systems in military and commercial aircraft. The jet and automobile industries are multibillion dollar industries that need this technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed system can be applied to NASA equipment health monitoring (control actuators), component degradation trending (valves), and nondestructive evaluation using ultrasonics.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Space Transportation & Safety
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Quality/Reliability
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Fusion
Data Processing
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H10.01-9795
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Processing Optimization and Technology Infusion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ground Processing Optimization using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
1670 South Amphlett Boulevard, Suite 310
San Mateo, CA 94402-2513
(650) 931-2700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Stottler
stottler@stottlerhenke.com111
1670 South Amphlett Blvd., Suite 310
San Mateo,  CA 94402-2513
(650) 931-2700

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the most complex, enormous, difficult, diverse, distributed, and unique set of integrated scheduling problems in the world and it is only getting more difficult as ground resources need to be shared by different organizations. KSC's scheduling problem is decomposed into many individual but coordinated scheduling problems, each with its own unique set of resources, tasks, constraints, ground rules, and scheduling techniques, resulting in different scheduling processes for each of the individual applications. Stottler Henke's existing Aurora intelligent planning and scheduling system development framework was specifically designed for KSC ground operations scheduling and to be highly adaptable to different domains and has already proven to be adaptable by its successful applications in many dozens of widely varying domains (including multiple KSC scheduling domains). In every domain where a comparison was performed, Aurora always generated more optimal schedules. The proposed vision is to develop one scheduling tool that SMEs in wildly different KSC areas can adapt to create automated scheduling software for different scheduling applications. New capabilities need to be added to address the new KSC realities and to make the adaptation process more SME-friendly. Initially the Intelligent Operations Scheduling System (IOSS) would be fielded in a small number of vehicle and payload processing applications. Later SMEs could adapt IOSS themselves. Eventually, IOSS-based automatic scheduling systems might constitute the majority of schedule decision making at KSC. These separate IOSS scheduling applications could automatically interact, providing automated coordination capabilities. These applications will also be able to interoperate with legacy scheduling systems. Ultimately, by automating, replacing, or interfacing to every scheduling function or system, extreme synergies of coordination and manpower savings would result.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
On the commercial side, Stottler Henke already sells Aurora and associated customization services to private companies. Commercial product and service sales related to Aurora have already resulted in over $4 million in revenue. IOSS improvements can be readily incorporated into Aurora and sold through existing sales channels. Most importantly, by providing an SME customization capability, IOSS will be removing one of the most significant current constraints on Aurora sales&#151;the need for Stottler Henke's involvement in 90% of the customization projects. An SME-customizable version of Aurora would be applicable to orders of magnitude more customers. And by requiring far less of our time, it would allow us to sell the product for far less. Current Aurora customers tend to be aerospace manufacturers, partly due to our early conversion of Boeing's 787 Dreamliner production line to being an Aurora customer. Companies like Learjet and Bombardier quickly followed suit as well as some of Boeing's suppliers. Other customers tend to have high-value applications both requiring a high-quality solution and justifying the relatively high price. An IOSS-enhanced version of Aurora would presumably tend to have a similar diverse base of customer but the lower cost should greatly increase the number of potential customers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most direct targets for transition of this proposed effort are the large number of various payload and vehicle processing scheduling applications at KSC. By showing its ability to create high-quality schedules with greatly reduced manpower, IOSS will clearly illustrate its advantages over the status quo. Because it will be possible for SMEs to customize the eventual IOSS themselves to their own scheduling applications, a large number of intelligent scheduling applications can be quickly developed. As more are fielded, additional synergies will be created by the cooperative interactions between IOSS-based intelligent scheduling applications and each other. Capabilities to easily interface and interact cooperatively and in a peer-to-peer manner with legacy scheduling systems will also provide additional cooperative synergies. There is a potential to automate the majority of scheduling decision-making at KSC with a corresponding massive savings in highly skilled manpower. An additional, nearby target is the CCAFS, which has nearly identical scheduling problems. Beyond KSC, NASA has a large number of difficult scheduling problems that IOSS could be readily adapted to. Major IOSS successes at KSC will facilitate entry into other NASA markets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Sequencing & Scheduling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H10.02-8411
SUBTOPIC TITLE: ISS Demonstration & Development of Improved Exploration Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nano-structures Enhanced Novel Composite Electrode Material for Batteries

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scientic, Inc.
555 Sparkman Drive, Suite 214
Huntsville, AL 35816-3440
(256) 319-0858

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scott von Laven
scott.vonlaven@scientic.us111
555 Sparkman Drive, Suite 214
Huntsville,  AL 35816-3440
(256) 319-0872

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Integrate advanced nanotechnology with energy storage technology to develop advanced cathode material for use in Li-ion batteries while maintaining high level of safety, stability and cycle life, allowing the cathodes to be tailored to provide very high specific energy or very high specific power depending on the relative ratio of the three components- active material, current conductors/collectors and binders, thus maximizing specific energy (Wh/kg) and energy density (Wh/l).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential applications for this technology include astronaut/EVA (extra vehicular activity) equipment, human habitat power systems with large storage capability, human/robotic landers and rovers, planetary probes and inner planetary missions, earth/planetary orbiters and heavy lift launch vehicles. Additionally, this technology can be applied in the automotive industry as the main power source to drive EVs and PHEVs, as well as adapted for use in power grids for advanced energy storage solutions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential applications for this technology include astronaut/EVA (extra vehicular activity) equipment, human habitat power systems with large storage capability, human/robotic landers and rovers, planetary probes and inner planetary missions, earth/planetary orbiters and heavy lift launch vehicles. Additionally, this technology can be applied in the automotive industry as the main power source to drive EVs and PHEVs, as well as adapted for use in power grids for advanced energy storage solutions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Storage
Prototyping
Quality/Reliability
Material Handing & Packaging
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Fluids
Nanomaterials
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H10.02-9641
SUBTOPIC TITLE: ISS Demonstration & Development of Improved Exploration Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Passive Devices for Advanced Fluid Management aboard Spacecraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
IRPI LLC
27827 SE Heiple Rd
Eagle Creek, OR 97022-9669
(503) 974-6655

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ryan Jenson
rjenson@irpillc.com111
27827 SE Heiple Rd
Eagle Creek,  OR 97022-9669
(503) 545-2501

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Acute challenges are faced by the designers of fluid systems for spacecraft because of the persistently unfamiliar and unforgiving low-g environment. For example, most fluid systems aboard spacecraft are impacted by the presence of capillary forces&#151;a poor understanding of which has led to poorly performing life support equipment. Despite an increasing number of flight investigations concerning capillary phenomena, no broad re-assessment and re-design of low-g fluids systems has been undertaken. We propose a fundamental change to spacecraft fluid systems design. In this Phase I research, concurrent with a modern review of all candidate spacecraft fluid systems, we will design and demonstrate two new geometric flow components for the critically and persistently problematic unit operations of in-line bubble and liquid rivulet separations. The new components can be exploited across a variety of spacecraft fluids systems to markedly increase system reliability and performance. Many other components are envisioned as inspired by recent results from space experiments and the application of novel geometries. Such components offer the advantages of no power, no moving parts, and little to no pressure loss as they passively separate fluid phases using capillary forces and motive fluid streams.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This research applies recent advances in the study of microgravity capillary flows and phenomena. We expect to change the overall approach to spacecraft fluid systems design and provide common geometries that naturally and routinely separate fluid phases in a manner more akin to terrestrial applications and experience. Our primary intent for low-gravity demonstration aboard the ISS is to increase TRL levels and gain wider acceptance for our non-traditional approach among the aerospace community. However, terrestrial applications are identified and pursued as part of our broader commercial objectives in Phase I and Phase II. Applications of our design approach to routine microfluidic flows relating to fuel delivery and biomedical drug delivery represent significant growth opportunities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Challenges remain for design engineers to produce robust fluids handling equipment for spacecraft such as critical life support systems: i.e., oxygen supply, air revitalization, thermal management systems, water reclamation, medical fluids, and others. The new passive phase separating components to be designed and developed in this Phase I effort can be exploited across a variety of spacecraft fluids systems to markedly increase system reliability and performance. They may also be employed throughout spacecraft in systems from fluid feed lines in hydrolysers, to condensing heat exchangers, urine processors, portable life support systems, plant and animal habitats, food preparation facilities, propellant management systems, and others&#151;basically, all liquid systems on spacecraft: coolants, water, aqueous solutions, fuels, and cryogens. The components offer the advantages of no moving parts, little to no pressure loss, and no additional power consumption, and could benefit greatly in terms of increased TRL via testing aboard the ISS.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Medical
Remediation/Purification
Waste Storage/Treatment
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Fluids
Simulation & Modeling
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Heat Exchange
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H10.02-9957
SUBTOPIC TITLE: ISS Demonstration & Development of Improved Exploration Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: On-orbit validation system for space structure composite actuators

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Extreme Diagnostics, Inc.
6960 Firerock Court
Boulder, CO 80301-3814
(303) 523-8924

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Owen
rowen@extremediagnostics.com111
6960 Firerock Court
Boulder,  CO 80301-3814
(303) 523-8924

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR project delivers an On-orbit Validation System (OVS) that provides performance and durability data for Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) active piezocomposite materials operating in the space environment. Our NASA customer is the Macro Fiber Composite Actuator Experiment (MFCX), which uses the Materials International Space Station Experiment-X (MISSE-X) platform. MISSE-X will expand ISS utilization by advancing the Technology Readiness Level of new materials, devices, and subsystems. OVS uses the impedance method to validate both MFCs and in situ self-health monitoring methods. Implications of the innovation: MFC piezocomposites have been flown, but only in a shielded enclosure for a short duration. MFC materials will need to operate continuously with minimal thermal protection to enable active composite reflector structures, large solar array active control, and structural self-health monitoring. Data is needed on the viability of MFC materials for long-duration space applications. Technical objectives: OVS leverages our previous NASA SBIR research. Our initial impedance method prototype exists as a TRL 5 unit. We have demonstrated both analog and digital MFC operation. However, it is not clear which approach (analog or digital) is best for OVS. Each approach has different power, mechanical, electrical, and computational needs&#151;it is not clear which is the best match for MISSE-X. Indeed, a new configuration may be required. Phase I addresses these concerns and establishes feasibility through validation tests and experiments. Research description: We have already developed an impedance-based electronics package and validated it under simulated launch conditions. Phase I transforms this implementation for MISSE-X compatibility and produces a Phase II road map. Anticipated results: Phase I addresses the main barrier to MISSE-X operation, and completes a TRL 5 prototype that is MFCX compatible. Phase II delivers a fully operational TRL 7 unit.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications include Homeland Security structural analysis to mitigate threats (preparedness) and assess damage (response), smart structures, and SHM of civil infrastructures, land/marine structures, medical devices, and military structures. Civil infrastructure includes bridges, highway systems, buildings, power plants, underground structures, and wind energy turbines (alternative and renewable energy). Land/marine structures include automobiles, trains, submarines, ships, and offshore structures. Medical devices include implants and health monitoring devices. Military structures include helicopters, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and others. SHM is an emerging industry driven by an aging infrastructure, malicious humans, and the introduction of advanced materials and structures. SHM applications are also driven by a desire to lower costs by moving from schedule-based to condition-based maintenance. Government customers include NASA and the Departments of Defense, Transportation, and Energy. Non-government customers include energy companies, and other crucial-structure custodians. We are also working with The Boeing Company and Ball Aerospace.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
MFCX data will be used to establish operational limits, determine long-duration space environmental exposure trends, and evaluate thermal shielding options for MFC-based active structures. The MFCX is the first flight validation for in situ electrical impedance-based structural health monitoring (SHM). NASA applications include active control of composite reflectors, large solar arrays and other spaceborne active structures, as well as self-health monitoring of future exploration vehicles and support structures&#151;especially composite material structures. Support structures include habitats and Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs). Specific customers include the SMD Scanning Microwave Limb Sounder (SMLS) advanced reflector concept designs and OCT Lightweight Materials and Structures (LMS) long-duration space deployables. Maintaining the shape of these large, high-precision composite reflectors in space will be extremely difficult; active composite reflectors that adjust their shape in situ should be both cheaper and considerable lighter. OVS expands and maximizes ISS utilization by using the long duration ISS space environment to increase operational availability, reduce maintenance, minimize crew interaction, and reduce spaceflight technical risks and needs. OVS is therefore directly responsive to Topic H10.02, which calls for technologies that advance the state of the art of spacecraft systems by utilizing the ISS as a technology test bed.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Conversion
Distribution/Management
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Quality/Reliability
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Input/Output Devices (Displays, Storage)
Data Processing
Composites
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Actuators & Motors
Structures
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Mirrors
Telescope Arrays
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Optical
Acoustic/Vibration
Contact/Mechanical
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Verification/Validation Tools
Microwave
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H12.01-9544
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Exploration Countermeasure Capability - Portable Activity Monitoring System
PROPOSAL TITLE: Enhanced Dynamic Load Sensor for ISS (EDLS-ISS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
4 Cambridge Center, 11th Floor
Cambridge, MA 02142-1494
(703) 369-3633

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher Krebs
ckrebs@aurora.aero111
4 Cambridge Center, 11th Floor
Cambridge,  MA 02142-1494
(617) 500-4912

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To advance the effectiveness of exercise activities performed to counteract bone and muscle deterioration under microgravity conditions, Aurora Flight Sciences and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology propose to develop a self-contained, enhanced dynamic load sensor that can be integrated into the existing exercise equipment onboard the International Space Station. These sensors will allow the collection of crewmember biomechanical while they are exercising on-orbit. These data can be used to validate the effectiveness of the countermeasures and improve their impact to mitigate bone and muscle loss during long duration spaceflight missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
- Wireless portable weight measurement (airline/commercial/DoD) - Wireless portable force-moment measurement (commercial/DoD) - Patient recovery monitoring during rehabilitation (hospital/medical) - Optimization of 1-G exercise equipment through active sensing of user loading during exercise regime (commercial) - Quantification of humanoid robot interaction forces (commercial)

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
- Enhanced capability of ISS exercise equipment - Design of improved, more-effective exercise countermeasures - Support of long-duration space missions

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Man-Machine Interaction
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Physiological/Psychological Countermeasures
Biophysical Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H12.02-9697
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Exploration Medical Capability - Medical Suction Capability
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Capabilities Medical Suction Device

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
UMPQUA Research Company
P.O. Box 609
Myrtle Creek, OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-7770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Michalek
michalek@urcmail.net111
P.O. Box 609
Myrtle Creek,  OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-2654

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A compact microgravity and hypogravity compatible vacuum device is proposed to provide medical suction and containment of extracted fluids. The proposed aspirator will draw up to 40 L/min of air and produce a nominal vacuum of 500-mm Hg, which is comparable to commercially available medical aspirators. The unit will also provide a means for separation and containment of up to 1000 mL of aspirated fluids. Waste material separation will be accomplished by a reticulated foam trap that will utilize hydrophilic adsorbent materials to sequester liquids within the reticulated foam structure. The aspirator assembly will also include a sub-micron filter to prevent aerosol from escaping to the spacecraft cabin. During the Phase I research, an efficient trap will be designed and tested using a commercial off the shelf (COTS) vacuum pump. Additional trap features will be investigated including collapsible walls to minimize storage space and chemical resistance to enable suction of corrosive and/or toxic materials. Phase II research will focus on improving overall ESM and incorporating features such as a trap fill level indicator, an emergency shutoff in case of liquid breakthrough, and an alarm indicating a blocked airway, which will improve microgravity performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed advancement in medical suction technology will provide military and municipal emergency response teams the ability to provide portable self-contained medical suction without concern for local terrain, patient position, or motion. This versatility will enhance the attractiveness of this technology and meet the growing concern for the safety of emergency personnel. The private sector will also utilize the technology in niche applications such as at sea and in flight. Presently, medical suction units rely on gravity and buoyant force to seal collection vessels once they become full. The seal is required to prevent contaminated material; blood, vomit, mucous, etc., from entering the pump. A seal failure caused by an overturned collection vessel results in tedious clean-up procedures in the best case and disease transmission in the worst case. The proposed innovation enables emergency response teams to provide medical suction in any orientation and physical environment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology has a strong potential for use by NASA as Flight Hardware for deployment in support of the International Space Station and for future long-duration missions such as a Mars transit, Mars base, or a permanently manned Lunar outpost where return to Earth for emergency medical care is not an option. The current medical programs utilized on the ISS are extensive and have been under development for decades. To date, the medical supplies carried on the ISS and Shuttle have been adequate to handle the relatively minor problems that have occurred, but as NASA looks to the future of manned space flight, dramatic increases in mission duration are apparent. Longer duration space flights increase the potential for a medical emergency that current systems are unable to treat. One shortcoming in particular, is the lack of a medical aspirator onboard any current space platform for accommodating medical procedures that require aspiration to remove saliva and blood during dental procedures; blood and loose tissue during surgery; or vomit, mucous, and saliva during airway management. In these situations, a microgravity and hypogravity compatible aspirator capable of providing medical suction and containment of extracted fluids and debris will enhance NASA mission capabilities and provide a needed safety margin in ALS activities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Medical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H12.03-9213
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Behavioral Health and Performance - Innovative Technologies for A Virtual Social Support System for Autonomous Exploration Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: ANSIBLE: A Network of Social Interactions for Bilateral Life Enhancement

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SIFT, LLC
211 N. First Street, Suite 300
Minneapolis, MN 55401-1480
(612) 339-7438

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Peggy Wu
pwu@sift.net111
211 N. First Street, Suite 300
Minneapolis,  MN 55401-1480
(612) 669-6224

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ANSIBLE (A Network of Social Interactions for Bilateral Life Enhancement) can be used pre, during, and post flight to connect the flight crew with their family, friends, and the ground crew to provide a sense of social consistency and permanence. ANSIBLE is a multi-modal toolset that 1) adapts, rearranges, and modifies human interaction streams to minimize the disruptive impact of communication latencies and 2) leverages virtual worlds (VW) to provide a space where humans and intelligent virtual agents (VA) can be companions, advisors, provided psychological support, and share experiences. VAs capable of detecting changes in astronaut psychosocial states can increase astronaut self-awareness, suggest countermeasures, and provide rehearsal scenarios to maintain and enhance interpersonal skills. University of Southern California(USC)'s Institute of Creative Technologies (ICT) have been at the forefront of applying VWs and VAs to training, therapy, and even detection of depression. SIFT will leverage its ongoing work with NASA's BHP group in unobtrusive detection of psychosocial dimensions, and work together with Dr. Jacquelyn Morie to apply and enhance these technologies to define the future social landscape that connects the flight crew with Earth.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ANSIBLE can be easily adapted to usage in other non-goverment markets. It can be used by geographically disperse work teams allowing for alternative communication avenues to maintain social relationships with advanced communication methodologies, including verbal and non-verbal communication, audio and visual cues or rendered virtual identities. It is therefore able to be a next generation communication tool that pushes past the limitations of a real world setting. ANSIBLE can be expanded to make full use of socially intelligent virtual avatars who can function as tutor, motivator, guide, coach, trainer or virtual therapist to increase motivation, provide therapeutic relief or empower team members and increase team cohesion. ANSIBLE can also be used for the rehearsal and training of social situations - the applications range from the rehearsal of cultural training scenarios and negotiations to addressing the needs of persons suffering from social phobias or other anxiety disorders.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ANSIBLE can provide an added dimension of social connection that is not currently easy to accomplish and can be utilized even before the astronaut leaves the atmosphere. It can thereby help enhance and facilitate the maintenance of social relations to family, friends and ground crews. These social relationships are often eroded by the demands of extensive astronaut training which includes a full travel agenda. ANSIBLE offers a venue built on next generation communication technology for astronauts and their social networks to develop regular rituals that can be done pre, during, and post flight, to provide a sense of consistency and permanence. ANSIBLE can increase the limited physical space with a vast virtual space, providing the astronaut with solutions for personal needs - ranging for immersive entrainment to personal time-outs. ANSIBLE can also function as a training environment for NASA to rehearse social situation or on a group level, to increase team work efficiency and group cohesion.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Man-Machine Interaction
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Physiological/Psychological Countermeasures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H12.03-9283
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Behavioral Health and Performance - Innovative Technologies for A Virtual Social Support System for Autonomous Exploration Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Virtual Social Support System for Long-Duration Space Exploration Missions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cybernet Systems Corporation
3885 Research Park Dr.
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-2217
(734) 668-2567

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Charles Cohen
proposals@cybernet.com111
3885 Research Park Dr
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-2217
(734) 668-2567

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Our overall goal is to enhance the overall behavior health and performance of personnel on (future potential) long-duration missions. We propose to use a local representation of the Second Life virtual world, along with our computer graphics and artificial intelligence background, to make a highly interactive and responsive environment between groups of people that are literally worlds apart in communication distance. By having the interactions occur this way, there is no communication latency that needs to be dealt with, because content is updated asynchronously. We will also leverage and adapt our Automated Behavior and Cohesion Assessment Tools system, previously developed under a recent NASA Phase II SBIR, to measure behavior health and performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The military has teams of individuals working in high stress environments over long durations. Examples include submarine crews, aircraft carriers, embedded special operations forces and pilots flying unmanned air vehicles for hours on end. We expect this same technology to transfer to military applications, since even a lag of one minute makes most real time interactions impossible, and this technique would allow are more interactive communication where none was possible before (ex: on a submarine). A variety of commercial activities also have similar characteristics to NASA missions, and the ABCAT software has commercial potential here. As mentioned, air traffic controllers work in high-stress environment where small mistakes can be costly. Likewise, teams of operators control nuclear power plants, petrochemical plants, oil refineries, etc. They often perform standard operating procedures and need to be monitored closely for degraded performance. Even in situations in which lives or property are not at risk, monitoring and detecting problems with individual and team performance is useful for managers interested in achieving peak performance.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology could be applied to all current and future NASA missions. While it is being developed for application to long duration space flight operations, the techniques are amenable to application in shorter duration flight operations as well, such as related to the International Space Station and Space Shuttle. This is particularly true with respect to behavioral and psychological health (whereas crew cohesiveness is anticipated to be less of an issue as duration decreases). This behavioral modeling technology could also be applied to NASA's Aerospace activities. For example, it could be used to measure stress on air traffic controllers. Adaptation to commercial airlines, in which the standardized procedures and repetitive nature of their execution within the close confines of an aircraft facilitates the modeling and establishment of norms for the behavior for individual crew.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Computer System Architectures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H12.04-9357
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Food Systems Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: 3D Printed Food System for Long Duration Space Missions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Systems and Materials Research Consultancy
1300 W. Koenig Lane, Suite 230
Austin, TX 78756-1412
(512) 535-7791

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Irvin
davidirvin@systemsandmaterials.com111
1300 W. Koenig Lane, Suite 230
Austin,  TX 78756-1412
(512) 757-5441

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Systems and Materials Research Corporation (SMRC) proposes combining its Manufacturing Technology and Materials Science expertise to address NASA's Advanced Food System Technology needs. Using progressive 3D printing and inkjet technologies, SMRC will design, build, and test a complete nutritional system for long duration missions beyond low earth orbit. The 3D printing component will deliver macronutrients (starch, protein, and fat), structure, and texture while the ink jet will deliver micronutrients, flavor, and smell. SMRC will team with the food science program at North Carolina State University and International Flavors and Fragrances to ensure the production of nutritious and flavorful mission supplies. SMRC proposes producing synthetic food which meets the nutritional needs of each and every mission specialist and astronaut. Using unflavored macronutrients, such as protein, starch and fat, the sustenance portion of the diet can be rapidly produced in a variety of shapes and textures directly from the 3D printer (already warm). Since basic sustenance will not ensure the long term physical and mental health of the crew, this is where the microjetting will add value. In addition to adding flavor, low volume micronutrients will be added as the food is processed by the 3D printer. The macronutrient feed stocks will be stored in dry sterile containers and fed directly to the printer. At the print head, these stocks will be combined with water or oil per a digital recipe to minimize waste and spoilage. Flavors and texture modifiers can also be added at this stage. This mixture is blended and extruded into the desired shape. The micronutrients and flavors are stored in sterile packs as liquids, aqueous solutions or dispersions. SMRC's approach not only addresses uniform long term storage, sustenance, and micro-nutrition, but also variable and changing dietary needs, variety, and boredom.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
With the anticipated world population of 12 Billion by the end of the century, the current infrastructure of food production and supply will not be able to meet the demand of such a large population. The conventional technologies can only provide marginal efficiency, which is not enough in keeping food prices at affordable level for the population growth. By exploring and implementing technologies such as 3D printing, this may avoid food shortage, inflation, starvation, famine and even food wars. In addition, US military can use 3D printed food system during many of their missions. 3D printed food system can reduce military logistics, disposal waste, increase operational efficiency and mission effectiveness especially during wartime. In addition to that, 3D printed food can provide optimal nutrient to the soldiers depending on their personal needs and level of physical activities. Submarines and aircraft carriers can effectively benefit from 3D printed food system, which may reduce their downtime to refill supplies and provide efficiency in executing their missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
SMRC will develop a system that is targeted for long duration space missions. This system will include a micro- and macronutrient storage system, mixing system to formulate paste and a 3D dispensing system, where flavored and textured food will be prepared for astronauts. The storage system will provide maximum shelf life for the nutrients for the future space missions. The 3D printing system will provide hot and quick food in addition to personalized nutrition, flavor and taste. Such system can be modified and used during short duration space missions as well, which will eliminate nutrient storage system of the proposed 3D printed food system. The short duration food system will utilize various pastes prepared in advance to print appetizing flavored food. The biggest advantage of 3D printed food technology will be zero waste, which is essential in long-distance space missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Food (Preservation, Packaging, Preparation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 H12.05-8845
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Flight Biological Sample Analysis
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Gravity Drug Stability Analyzer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Real-Time Analyzers, Inc.
362 Industrial Park Rd (#8)
Middletown, CT 06457-1548
(860) 635-9800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hermes Huang
hermes@rta.biz111
362 Industrial Park Rd (#8)
Middletown,  CT 06457-1548
(860) 635-9800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The overall goal of this proposed program (through Phase III) is to build a space-worthy Drug Stability Analyzer that can determine the extent of drug degradation. It will be able to monitor the drug active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and its degradation product concentrations as a function of time, as well as determine if a drug is suitable for use (likely based on the presence of 90% or more of the original API concentration). This will be accomplished by designing and building a rugged, small, light weight, low power, easy to use analyzer with appropriate software, which can identify and quantify API and degradation products with little or no sample handling in 1 minute. Feasibility will be demonstrated during Phase I by successfully measuring acetaminophen, azithromycin, epinephrine, lidocaine, and their degradation products at percent level concentrations. The overall goal of the Phase II program is to build a working prototype Drug Stability Analyzer that is suitable for space deployment (e.g. aboard the ISS) and capable of monitoring drug degradation. The ability of the analyzer to nondestructively quantify the amount of the API and the degradation products, would also allow assessing drug potency at the time of use to ensure crewmember safety. The Drug Stability Analyzer will be transitioned from a Technology Readiness Level 3 to a 7 (ground tested) from the beginning to the end of the program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful development of the Drug Stability Analyzer will have great value to pharmacies worldwide. It will allow more accurate determination of whether a product on the shelf can be safely sold to customers, or whether it must be discarded, compared to a simple expiration date.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Drug Stability Analyzer is specifically being designed to monitor degradation of pharmaceutical drugs that are used by astronauts, so that drug types, formulations, and packaging can be improved, and supplies can be selected to match mission length. It will also have the capability of determining if a drug is suitable at the time of use (effective and safe).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Medical
Lifetime Testing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.01-8311
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: EO Scanned Micro-LADAR

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vescent Photonics, Inc.
4865 East 41st Avenue
Denver, CO 80216-4401
(303) 296-6766

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scott Davis
davis@vescent.com111
4865 East 41st Avenue
Denver,  CO 80216-4401
(303) 296-6766

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this SBIR program we will develop, design and build new scanning based micro-ladar sensors with unprecedented small size, weight, and power (SWaP), thereby enabling scanning ladar deployment on previously inaccessible platforms such as satellites. The system will range out to > 1 km, have high frame rates, high resolution (up to 1000 x 1000), high range accuracy (< 15 cm), weigh only tens of grams, be constructed from space deployable technologies with no-moving parts. The enabling technology for the proposed Micro-LADAR system is a combination of two new electro-optic laser scanning technologies: high speed refractive continuous scanners with a 60o15o field of view (FOV) and diffractive-waveplate discrete or step-wise scanners to boost the total FOV up to 120o120o. The results will be a very low-power, long-life (no moving parts), radiation hard, micro-LADAR.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications for Micro-LADAR are numerous. In Oil & Gas LADAR is used for dynamic positioning of tankers during docking operations with platforms and for security on oil platforms due to its ability to track vessels and better sensitivity to non-metallic vessels. LIDAR is also being used to measure the length of the drill string. Transportation is a large potential market for Micro-LADAR. It may be used to trigger fixed cameras and measure vehicle speeds. A new application is to mount imaging LADAR under gantries for vehicle profiling and tracking for law enforcement. LADAR is also being used for vehicle separation monitoring, over height warnings, and axle counting. For security markets LADAR can be used to trigger or mark video cameras and as motion sensors they have a much greater range than the current technology. For perimeter security, LADAR is being used to detect, track, image and ID intruders.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A specific NASA application for Micro-LADAR is for deployment on geosynchronous satellite servicing and refueling missions, such as "Restore". Micro-LADAR will aid with location, alignment, and docking between the servicing satellite and the GEO-satellite to be serviced. Other potential NASA applications include asteroid and space junk rendezvous; both areas of growing significance. Furthermore, situational awareness, terrain mapping, and collision avoidance will be enabled by micro-LADAR deployed on small UAV platforms.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Space Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Perception/Vision
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
Optical
Ranging/Tracking
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.01-9127
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: AM-CW Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Coherent Applications, Inc.
20 Research Drive, Suite 500
Hampton, VA 23666-1325
(757) 766-1002

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Diego Pierrottet
d.f.pierrottet@cailidar.com111
20 Research Drive, Suite 500
Hampton,  VA 23666-1325
(757) 927-5556

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal addresses NASA's science objectives with innovative lidar architecture for atmospheric CO2 measurements. Specifically, the proposed work can support and potentially enhance the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) technologies. Using an active laser measurement technique, our system is designed to enhance the capabilities of CO2 remote sensing from high-latitude regions and nighttime observations with sensitivity in the lower atmosphere, and enable investigations of the climate-sensitive southern ocean and permafrost regions, provide insight into the diurnal cycle and plant respiration processes, and provide useful new constraints to global carbon cycle models.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential for non NASA commercialization includes our proprietary waveform modulation technique which can be applied to many different lidar and radar technologies. Applications, include wind measurement, imaging, target tracking, and chemical detection to name a few.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aside from the many possible commercial spin-off applications of a high sensitivity lidar receiver, successful demonstration of this IPDA Lidar will place CAI in a position to provide additional support services in technology enhancement and potentially in a position to participate in the integration of this capability into NASA's ASCENDS program for space platform earth science missions. Applications for this sensor include the measurement of methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O), which together with CO2 are recognized as the most important greenhouse gases. Concentrations of these gases increase rapidly through human activities, thus a space-borne IPDA Lidar is ideal to better predict the behavior of the climate system and to help constrain political conventions on greenhouse gas avoidance, a more accurate knowledge of the sources and sinks of these gases in terms of location, magnitude, and variability on a global basis.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Prototyping
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Filtering
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.01-9160
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: High energy single frequency Yb:YAG crystalline fiber waveguide master oscillator power amplifier

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Onyx Optics, Inc.
6551 Sierra Lane
Dublin, CA 94568-2798
(925) 833-1969

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Xiaodong Mu
xmu@onyxoptics.com111
6551 Sierra Lane
Dublin,  CA 94568-2798
(925) 833-1969

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The overall objective is to demonstrate the concept of Yb:YAG crystalline fiber MOPA laser and investigation the technical feasibility toward 50 mJ single frequency MOPA system in the Phase-II research. Onyx Optics crystalline fiber waveguides are made from true rare-earth doped YAG crystals with Adhesive-Free Bond (AFB&#174;) technology. Compared with silica or phosphate glasses, the YAG crystalline fiber waveguides have the following advantages: (i) YAG crystal has at least one order of magnitude lower Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) gain coefficient than silica or phosphate glasses (10-15 to 10-12 vs 10-11 m/W), which directly leads to the SBS free power being at least one order of magnitude higher than the glass fibers; (ii) YAG crystal has much higher thermal conductivity than glass fibers (10.7 vs 1.38 W/m degree C). Therefore, much shorter fiber length that is only about one tenth of the glass fiber can be used for the same pumping conditions and the SBS threshold can be further increased; (iii) Due to the shortening in the fiber length, straight fiber can be practically used for high power amplification. Therefore, large single mode area (LSMA) can be more easily achieved. Considering the high pulse energy requirement in a future LIST mission, only large mode area (LMA) Yb:YAG fibers with core size >40 mm will be fabricated and investigated in the Phase-I research. The fibers will be double clad to increase the pumping power and efficiency, while maintaining near diffraction limit laser beam quality.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed pulsed crystal fiber technology at various wavelengths is just as applicable as components for Defense lidar as for NASA. It represents a breakthrough capability for diode pumped solid state lasers that also has medical surgical applications in the 2 um region. The outstanding features of high efficiency, high beam quality and compactness translate into lower cost devices that also will meet great interest in the R&D community of universities and National laboratories. Onyx Optics would sell complete laser systems for R&D use as well as crystal fiber components for researchers to develop their own designs and applications. The high efficiency of the proposed laser systems would result in less energy consumption and thereby, at least in a small way, will save electric energy.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposal is directed towards the construction of a micro-pulsed laser for NASA's Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) mission to globally map the topography of the Earth's solid surface with 5 m spatial resolution and 10 cm vertical precision, as well as the height of overlying covers of vegetation, water, snow, and ice. As pointed out by the LIST study findings, the instrument required to meet the LIST objectives far exceeds those of existing space laser altimeter technologies. Onyx Optics' true crystal fiber technology allows achieving the LIST laser source goals but it also represents a proof-of-principle for a whole family of crystal fiber lasers with different dopants than the presently proposed Yb:YAG that operate at 1.6 um (Er:YAG), at 2 um (Tm:YAG and Ho:YAG) or at 940 nm or 1064 nm (Nd:YAG) and frequency converted to 450 &#150; 500 nm, all with close to diffraction limited beam quality and high pulse energies. These will become superior compact diode pumped sources for a number of NASA missions listed in the solicitation topics.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Medical
Waveguides/Optical Fiber (see also Optics)
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Ceramics
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Lasers (Communication)
Lasers (Cutting & Welding)
Lasers (Guidance & Tracking)
Lasers (Ignition)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Lasers (Machining/Materials Processing)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Lasers (Surgical)
Lasers (Weapons)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Optical
Ranging/Tracking
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Biological Signature (i.e., Signs Of Life)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Interferometric (see also Analysis)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Ultraviolet
Visible
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.01-9225
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Iodine Stabilized Seed Laser for Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ADVR, Inc.
2310 University Way, Building 1-1
Bozeman, MT 59715-6504
(406) 522-0388

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ms. McNeil
mcneil@advr-inc.com111
2310 University Way, Building #1-1
Bozeman,  MT 59715-6504
(406) 522-0388

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase I effort proposes to establish the feasibility of leveraging advances in compact laser technology with integration of space qualified techniques into AdvR's Planar Lightwave Circuit (PLC) and iodine reference cell technology for the design of a space qualifiable, frequency stabilized seed laser system in support of NASA Langley's High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) program. The Phase II effort will focus on space qualifiable systems integration, packaging, and testing of the locked seed laser system under applicable environmental conditions. Successful development of this technology, due to its compact, efficient, and reliable design, will enable further uses of the HSRL-based remote sensing system both in current flight-based systems and in future space-based systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA's use in various lidar systems, the combination of a compact, low cost, semiconductor-based source with AdvR's PLC technology will find use in fiber and free-space communications where rapid, moderate power phase modulation is required. This technology can also be applied for systems used for environmental and pollution monitoring and in stabilizing laser sources used for precision metrology. Medical applications include phase-modulation fluorimetry in bioprocess and clinical monitoring may benefit from this technology. A number of commercial lidar or lidar-like systems will benefit from the insertion of this technology including floodplain measurement, land use assessment, bathymetry, robotics and machine vision applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary customer is NASA Langley's High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) program for aerosol and cloud characterization. This system is being considered for the ACE lidar by NASA's ACE Science Working Group because of the higher information content it provides over backscatter lidar on key aerosol optical and microphysical properties. The proposed technology will find multiple uses in other NASA's lidar remote sensing programs, such as in altimetry, DIAL lidar, and 3D WINDS where compact, low cost, stabilized single frequency laser sources are required, and also has potential application in spectroscopic measurement techniques.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Waveguides/Optical Fiber (see also Optics)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Visible
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.01-9336
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fiber MOPA for Ascends

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fibertek, Inc.
13605 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon, VA 20171-4603
(703) 471-7671

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Wei Lu
wlu@fibertek.com111
13605 Dulles Technology Drive
Centreville,  VA 20171-4603
(703) 471-7671

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CO2 sensing using absorption bands near 1570nm is very attractive by taking advantage of the mature fiber-amplifier technology derived from fiber-optic telecom heritage. This necessitates sufficient power scaling in 1.5 micrometer fiber-amplifiers, either in the pulsed-mode, or in the cw-mode for modulation spectroscopy.In this SBIR program we propose the design, optimization, experimental evaluation and prototype development of a high-power,high wall-plug efficiency, 1571.1 nm fiber-amplifier laser transmitter, compatible with multi-line cw intensity-modulated integrated-path differential absorption spectroscopy, with the size, weight and power (SWaP) optimized for airborne and eventual space-qualifiable roadmap for ASCENDS mission. We leverage innovations in high-power 1.5 micrometer fiber-optic technology and fiber-amplifier architecture, while using high-reliability 1.5 micrometer silica-fiber based passive/active components. Our expectation is that at the end of Phase 2, a TRL-6 level hardware can be developed and delivered for an airborne mission, and which is also compatible with a space-flight maturation roadmap.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Laser source to enable CO2, CH4 sensing in process control.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Airborne campaign for CO2 column sensing via integrated-path differential-absorption approach. Roadmap for an eventual space mission for highly accurate CO2 mapping over day/night conditions (ASCENDS). Planetary atmospheric sensing e.g. CO2 sensing on Mars. Pump source for an OPO/OPA based lidar transmitter architecture, to access strong mid-IR absorption bands of CO2, or other atmospheric species of interest, e.g. CH4 (via the 3.27 micrometer lines).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Transmitters/Receivers
Waveguides/Optical Fiber (see also Optics)
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Lasers (Communication)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.02-8919
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Microwave Technologies for Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Space-qualifiable Digital Radar Transceiver

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Trident Systems Inc.
10201 Fairfax Blvd, Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030-2222
(703) 273-1012

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Albert Burgstahler
alburg@tridsys.com111
10201 Fairfax Blvd, Suite 300
Fairfax,  VA 22030-2222
(703) 691-7766

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Radar technology offers a very flexible, powerful tool for applications such as object detection, tracking, and characterization, as well as remote sensing, imaging, sounding, weather measurement and analysis. Historically, radar systems have tended to be either large, complex, power-hungry, purpose-built systems, or extremely simple systems of limited capability. More recently, miniaturization of high-performance programmable integrated circuit technologies as embodied in field-programmable gate arrays, as well as rapid advances in high-speed data conversion technologies at a gigasample per second and beyond, have enabled the implementation of direct-conversion radio frequency (RF) systems, including radar, that operate almost completely in the digital domain. In addition, solid-state high-power RF device technologies have improved in efficiency and speed to the point where highly efficient pulsed transmit sources are possible. As these device technologies have matured, their application in space environments has accelerated to the point where extremely flexible programmable radar systems can be implemented in a very small size, weight, and power footprint. Trident Systems has developed a powerful radar architecture called RAPTOR, validating it through flight testing on a number of Department of Defense programs; initial analysis has shown the feasibility of transitioning this design to the space environment. Through a comprehensive program of requirements development, trade studies, critical component and design analyses, fault mitigation simulation, and system design, Trident will develop the design for a complete space-qualifiable UHF/L-band radar transceiver in a 96mm x 90mm x 31mm PC-104e form factor that meets all customer mission needs, and is applicable to a wide range of applications (NASA and others). By basing the solution on Trident's proven RAPTOR technology, the system will rapidly achieve a high TRL.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed digital radar transceiver has significant application for defense and other government applications, where its small size, weight, and power footprint make it applicable to rapid-response small satellite missions for intelligence collection and remote sensing. Its FPGA-based digital programmability also offers flexibility for implementation of capabilities beyond simple radar, including software defined radio, on a common set of hardware.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed digital radar transceiver will support a range of NASA missions, including synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging, moving object detection and tracking in surface and volume search applications, object and surface characterization and identification, remote sensing, sounding, and navigation. Trident's Reconfigurable Adaptive Programmable Tactical Open Radar (RAPTOR) architecture is extremely scalable, configurable, and programmable, enabling support for a wide range of radar modes, on a pulse-to-pulse, or CPI-to-CPI (coherent processing interval) basis, as well as flexibility in system topology, supporting bistatic-multistatic and MIMO configurations. Trident's staff has extensive background in supporting NASA missions and our strategy for this project is to design and develop a long-term, miniaturized common building block, fully reprogrammable on-board processor board suitable for potential technology insertion into NASA's planned Earth science missions including DESDynI, GRACE FO, SWOT, and PACE, as well as supporting pre-formulation studies for the OCO-3 instrument, CLARREO, ASCENDS, ACE, GEO-CAPE, HypIRI, as well as the Venture class science technology demonstration projects. The results of this project will also support technology insertion in NASA Planetary science missions currently under formulation including the New Frontiers OSIRIS-Rex.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Electromagnetic
Microwave


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.02-8926
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Microwave Technologies for Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wideband, Low-power Multi-mode MMIC Radar Transceivers with Phase Control and Integrated Baseband Signal Processing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Linear Signal, LLC
86 N. University Ave. Suite 400
Provo, UT 84601-4480
(801) 337-9100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Matthew Romney
mromney@linearsignal.com111
1378 W 130 S
Orem,  UT 84058-5136
(801) 337-9100

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has numerous missions that involve radar and radiometry. In the past, the practice has been to build each system as a one-off program, which makes MMIC design unattractive from a cost perspective. In an era of reduced budgets and the need for higher efficiencies both in R&D cost reduction and performance, a better approach is needed. Linear Signal proposes a wideband analog blockset approach, where critical design blocks can be used at multiple bands, on multiple platforms, and for both radar applications and satellite communications markets. Transceiver components can be used for chips targeted for communications application or radar application from P band through X band, for pulsed, chirped pulse and FMCW applications. The work proposed in Phase I and II would result in core IP blocks that can be quickly and relatively inexpensively adapted to a single chip radar transceiver for mission specific objectives. Linear Signal's expertise in wideband SiGe designs and beamforming applications is perfectly suited for this effort.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The following commercial, government and military radar opportunities (in addition to the communications markets in satcom and wireless that could be served by the proposed chipset or rapid modifications thereof), include: landing radars, thru-canopy terrain mapping; very long range, ground penetrating radars; ballistic missile early warning, ground penetrating, foliage penetrating; long range air traffic control, surveillance, GPS, MSS satcom, radio astronomy, Moderate range surveillance, terminal air traffic control, long-range weather, marine radar; satellite transponders, terrestrial and space based weather/meteorology, long range tracking and telemetry; missile guidance, marine radar, weather, medium-resolution mapping and ground surveillance, airport radar, short range tracking. Linear Signal has extensive marketing and sales relationships established in the various satcom markets and growing OEM, System Integrator relationships in various custom radar markets.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This proposal offers a wideband analog blockset approach, where critical design blocks can be used at multiple bands and on multiple platforms across NASA's numerous radar and radiometry and communications and telemetry missions from P- to X- bands and accommodating pulsed, chirped pulse and FMCW applications, offering both higher efficiencies in R&D and critical program cost reductions. The beamforming, smaller size and lighter weight are also intrinsic benefits to just about any future NASA mission requiring radar and coms ability. This proposal additionally and specifically addresses the solicited requirements: * Operating frequencies: P-, L-, C-, X- bands * Dynamic load matching * Wideband (>50 MHz) * High power efficiency (>30%) * High T/R isolation (>90 dB) The approach proposed will result in two or three chip designs covering MMIC pulsed radar transceivers in P through X bands and wideband functional blocks that can be incorporated in new designs. It is also proposed to develop a flexible architecture and IP blockset collection from which multiple single-chip radar transceivers for various applications and various bands can be developed using a rapid-prototyping approach. Both analog-only and mixed signal approaches will be explored. Linear Signal has extensive prior experience in beamformed array and array feeds, RFIC/MMIC design, and radar.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Ad-Hoc Networks (see also Sensors)
Amplifiers/Repeaters/Translators
Antennas
Power Combiners/Splitters
Transmitters/Receivers
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
GPS/Radiometric (see also Sensors)
Ranging/Tracking
Telemetry (see also Control & Monitoring)
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)
Radiometric


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.02-9058
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Microwave Technologies for Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: A High Efficiency 1kWatt GaN amplifier for P-Band pulsed applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Integra Technologies, Inc.
321 Coral Circle
El Segundo, CA 90245-4620
(310) 606-0855

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Custer
jcuster@integratech.com111
5072 Hillsdale Circle, Suite 120
El Dorado Hills,  CA 95762-5753
(916) 496-9038

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An improved efficiency amplifier for high power pulse applications at P-Band will be investigated that will support space based RADAR systems. Current P-Band pulsed amplifier technologies use Silicon Bi-polar and LDMOS device technologies that have increased internal device parasitic characteristics that lead to lower gain and more difficult power matching over GaN technologies. Integra Technologies has experience with all three device technologies. Integra also has the design and manufacturing processes in place to optimize transistor design and amplifier design for P-Band pulsed applications. The preliminary effort will investigate GaN devices at 150W (TBD) levels to determine the overall gain and efficiency at UHF frequencies using Class AB bias and Switch Mode matching techniques to achieve greater than 70% efficiency for a pulsed amplifier application. Longer term device investigation will include geometry modifications to optimize the chip size and cell dimensions for the P-Band RADAR application. Ultimately, the GaN device will be scaled into a target 1kWatt output stage with an appropriate driver device to enable a greater than 40dB gain amplifier. The final amplifier module will include bias modulation techniques for efficiency. The amplifier will include material selections and layout techniques for reliability under high RF energy signal levels and low pressure environments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The use of higher efficiency and higher power GaN pulsed amplifiers will allow for improved power management for commercial and military applications for RADAR and medical imaging systems. Integra Technologies will continue to push the 'state of the art' for GaN devices and amplifier modules that enable imaging technologies for UHF, L-Band, S-Band, C-Band, and X-Band, which will be enabled by the technology research. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and the US gov't has specified the defined the UHF radar band from 420-450MHz primarily for radiolocation. One popular non-government use would be for wind profiler radars. Other non-government customers may have future interest if the band is opened to telecommunication and land/mobile public safety systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A target application for this pulsed power amplifier can be RADAR imaging of surface features for Mars or other non-terrestrial objects. The use of a very high efficiency power amplifier will allow for higher power levels in an energy limited environment such as a space craft operations. Higher power ratings of this proposal will allow for greater standoff distances and improved signal to noise for the receivers used for an imaging application. The successful development of this high efficiency amplifier concept can be leveraged by NASA for other RADAR imaging applications at other wavelengths, as Integra Technologies GaN devices can be used at L-Band, S-Band, C-Band and X-band.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Amplifiers/Repeaters/Translators
Power Combiners/Splitters
Transmitters/Receivers
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.03-8284
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Thermopile Area Array Readout

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Black Forest Engineering, LLC
9348 Grand Cordera Parkway, Suite 200
Colorado Springs, CO 80924-7002
(719) 593-9501

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stephen Gaalema
sgaalema@bfe.com111
9348 Grand Cordera Parkway, Suite 200
Colorado Springs,  CO 80924-7002
(719) 593-9501

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA/JPL thermopile detector linear arrays, wire bonded to Black Forest Engineering (BFE) CMOS readout integrated circuits (ROICs), have been utilized in NASA missions such as the Mars Climate Sounder and the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment. Linear array thermopile detectors are fabricated by bulk micro-machining. Surface micro-machined thermopiles are desirable for area array thermopiles because the architecture provides both high detector fill factor and circuit fill factor in the pixel. The Phase I effort designs an area array ROIC compatible with surface micro-machined thermopile detectors to meet requirements of future NASA thermal instruments requiring D-Star > 4 x 109 Jones. Radiation hard-by-design will be utilized with 180 nm CMOS for low 1/f noise readout, operating temp 77-300 K, radiation hardness and noise immunity with on-ROIC ADC. Various pixel pitches and binning methods will be investigated to cover a desired wavelength detection range of 20 m &#150; 100 &#956;m. The Phase I ROIC array design, in a 128x128 or larger format, will be fabricated on Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Thermopile detectors require no electrical bias, and generate a voltage output that is proportional to the input radiation signal. They are also typically uncooled and are insensitive to substrate temperature variations, making temperature stabilization unnecessary. They are highly linear, which combined with their insensitivity to substrate temperature, broadband spectral sensitivity and low 1/f noise; make them ideal for accurate radiometry. A two-dimensional thermopile array built over CMOS readout circuitry in the substrate will allow large format staring imaging arrays that will compete and perhaps offer better performance than bolometer-based staring FPA imagers for radiometric imaging applications. Broadband IR area array sensors with filters allow spectral imaging.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology developed on this SBIR will create improved thermopile readout to meet broadband infrared data collection. Thermal detectors (such as thermopiles), while typically less sensitive than quantum detectors, are useful when the combination of long wavelength signals and relatively high temperature operation (100-200K) makes LWIR and VLWIR quantum detectors unsuitable. Thermal detectors are also appropriate in applications requiring flat spectral response over a broad wavelength range. Thermopile area (2-D) arrays are required in future thermal instruments supporting infrared earth and planetary observing missions. A potential NASA application is a thermopile area array imaging capability with radiation tolerance to support missions to Jupiter.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Thermal Imaging (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Thermal


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.03-8389
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flexible, High Performance Microlens Array Technologies for Integral Field Spectrographs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Voxtel, Inc.
15985 Northwest Schendel Avenue, Suite 200
Beaverton, OR 97006-6703
(971) 223-5646

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Charles Dupuy
charles@voxtel-inc.com111
15985 NW Schendel Avenue, Suite 200
Beaverton,  OR 97006-6703
(971) 223-5646

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
For the purposes of advancing integral field spectrograph (IFS) microlens capabilities, a new class of high-quality optics-grade nanostructured organic-inorganic nanocomposite three-dimensional (3D) gradient index (GRIN) microlens optical materials is proposed. In the Phase I program, solid state freeform (SFF) fabrication of high contrast 3D-gradient-index microlens array elements will be demonstrated using a research grade printer. A design of experiment will be conducted to optimize a series of 3D-GRIN films with axial, radial, and vertical gradient optical index patterns with microlenses of varying diameter, pitch, and focal length, including those symmetric and asymmetric. The films will be thoroughly characterized using optical coherent tomography and spectral interferometric techniques, and their power will be tested using collimated and converging light. A series of planar microlens arrays of varying shape, diameter, density, focal length will then be fabricated, and then planar films with two-surface microlens array, including masking, will be fabricated using the measured process parameters (i.e. &#916;n, &#916;n/(&#916;x,y,z), dispersion, etc.)

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The design and fabrication of optics has not progressed significantly over 200 years. Several factors complicate the requirements placed on conventional lenses. The image is typically required to be planar (for example in film and electronic detectors), the lens must have the same optical properties over a range of optical wavelengths, and the image plane required has become quite extensive. This has driven up the production cost dramatically, significantly extended the development time of optical assemblies, and introduced substantial weight penalty. The value of the innovation is best realized in high performance systems, where the size, weight, and cost are necessarily dominated by the optics, by allowing large, complex, and thin planar optical films, including those produced using roll-to-roll methods, the innovation also benefit television displays, solid-state lighting, and 3D imaging applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications include, in-space fabrication of replacement optics, compact optical assemblies, high performance optics, on-demand production and prototyping of complex optics, and new optics techniques enabled by transformational optics.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Ceramics
Composites
Nanomaterials
Organics/Biomaterials/Hybrids
Polymers
Adaptive Optics
Lenses
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Optical
Multispectral/Hyperspectral


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.03-8620
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Plasmonic Enhanced Type-II Superlattice Focal Plane Arrays

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SVT Associates
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344-3677
(952) 934-2100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Wentao Lu
wlu@svta.com111
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie,  MN 55344-3677
(952) 934-2100

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SVT Associates proposes an novel type II superlattice structure to extend the cutoff wavelength and CBIRD SL photo diode structure with unipolar barriers to suppress dark current of SL detectors grown on GaSb substrate. This InAs/GaSb superlattice material system is capable of infrared detection in MWIR/LWIR spectral range, depending on layer thickness of each superlattice period. The goal of this program is to develop high performance type II SL based FPA for 5-14 um detection. Photodetector arrays using this material are of great interest to the NASA for various applications including, in particular, imaging and optical detection, and object discrimination when tracking targets in space or performing astronomical observations. These LWIR photo detectors can also find application to infrared-based chemical identification systems and terrestrial mapping. Applying the dark current suppression and cutoff wavelength extension process to the type-II superlattice detectors should result in higher operating temperature, extended cutoff wavelength, and improved quantum efficiency, all important factors that should significantly enhance FPA operation. We intend to characterize the positive effects of proposed techniques in Phase I. In Phase II we will refine the techniques to realize passive-cooled high-performance LWIR FPAs with quantum efficiency larger than 60%.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA Commercial Applications includes pollution monitoring, nondestructive testing, medical diagnostics, and target tacking. For civilian medical use thermal imaging can be applied to diagnosing certain cancers based on temperature anomalies at the skin surface. Search and rescue operations are also aided with this technology in that the ability to detect heat sources provides a great and immediate visual contrast when viewing vast areas of land or seascape. Similarly military and defense can also benefit from this technology. Standard night-vision systems rely on image intensifiers which merely amplify the available visible light for the user. Camouflaging can still fool these types of vision systems. However, thermal imaging that LWIR arrays can provide adds a higher level of capabilities. Potential enemies can more easily be spotted by the heat signature that is emitted by their bodies or recently discharged weapons. Lingering heat patterns can also reveal if a room or vehicle has been recently occupied.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications applicable to NASA include remote chemical sensing and IR imaging arrays for deployment on remote vehicles. The LWIR data is valuable for object discrimination when tracking targets in space or performing astronomical observations. The Type-II superlattice developed here operates at ambient temperatures or under passive cooling, allowing for the possible replacement of extrinsic Si-based photodetectors which require more cumbersome cryogenic cooling. This in turn reduces the weight and volume overhead required for supporting systems on space-based or portable platforms. Chemical plumes could be analyzed and identified based on their infrared absorption signatures. Thermal imagers can be applied to geologic and atmospheric studies, for either earth based or extraterrestrial projects. Data on weather patterns or geothermal activity could then be collected. At these long wavelengths objects can also be spotted through fog or dust, which would normally obscure visible light wavelengths.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Thermal Imaging (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Thermal


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.03-8937
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: F-band, High-Efficiency GaN Power Amplifier for the Scanning Microwave Limb Sounder and SOFIA

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
QuinStar Technology, Inc.
24085 Garnier Street
Torrance, CA 90505-5319
(310) 320-1111

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Schellenberg
jschellenberg@quinstar.com111
24085 Garnier Street
Torrance,  CA 90505-5319
(310) 320-1111

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
QuinStar Technology proposes to develop a 4-watt Solid-State Power Amplifier (SSPA) operating at F-band (106-114 GHz) with a power-added efficiency (PAE) of greater than 30%. This will be achieved by employing two major innovations. First, we are employing state-of-the-art wide bandgap GaN (Gallium Nitride) devices. High power density GaN devices have recently been demonstrated at millimeter-wave frequencies with power densities of 5 to 8 times higher than GaAs and drain efficiencies of 50%. Using these devices in a quasi-switching mode, we are proposing to develop a new high-efficiency MMIC operating at F-band with an output power of one watt and an efficiency of greater than 33%. Secondly, we are proposing to utilize a new low loss, H-tee combining approach to combine 4 of these high-efficiency chips to achieve 4 watts. The net result is a unique combination of high performance devices and innovative power combining. We anticipate that this work will result in an order of magnitude increase in the state-of-the-art of SSPA output power and efficiency at F-band. As a result, we believe this work could be very important for NASA's Astrophysics and Earth Science missions and for W-band radar and communications applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applications for this high-efficiency amplifier technology abound primarily at DoD but at slightly lower (W-band) frequencies. These include airborne applications such as helicopter landing and obstacle detection/avoidance radars, very high altitude long duration reconnaissance UAV applications, W-band missile seekers (AARGM) and DoD's V/W-band (Mobile Hotspots) communications. Space-based applications include broadband RF cross-links in satellite constellations, and W-band downlinks for Mobile Hotspots. Specific examples include the Joint Arial Layered Network (JALN), the ICD effort from STRATCOM and AISR. Further, this GaN MMIC technology can be readily applied to other military missions at adjacent frequencies such as E and V band. Further, by employing power combining techniques, this technology can be extended to applications requiring higher output power levels (tens of watts).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future NASA Astrophysics and Earth Science missions require submillimeter-wave remote sensing instruments to monitor air quality, climate variability and change, ozone layer stability, weather, and the global hydrological cycle. A key enabler for this technology is the F-band (106-114 GHz) solid-state power amplifier (SSPA) described in this proposal. This amplifier is need for the LO multiplier chain of the Scanning Microwave Limb Sounder and for the SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) airborne observatory. Currently available W/F-band SSPAs simply do not have enough power at this frequency, and further, their efficiency is poor. The efficiency SOA for amplifiers in the adjacent W-band is in the range of 10% and with practical packaged amplifiers including regulators, the efficiency is in the single digits. Our approach addresses this need by utilizing high-efficiency wide-bandgap (GaN) device technology and new high-efficiency power combining techniques to reach efficiency levels above 30%. Other NASA applications include planetary exploration missions which require W/F-band FMCW sensors to assist in planetary landings. Typical NASA applications require output power levels ranging from several watts to perhaps tens of watts at W/F-band frequencies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Amplifiers/Repeaters/Translators
Power Combiners/Splitters
Transmitters/Receivers
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Radiometric
Terahertz (Sub-millimeter)
Microwave


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.03-9929
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Monolithic, Widely Tunable, THz Local Oscillator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MP Technologies, LLC
1801 Maple AVE
Evanson, IL 60208-3150
(847) 491-7208

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steven Slivken
s_slivken@hotmail.com111
1801 Maple AVE
Evanston,  IL 60201-3150
(847) 491-7208

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal describes development of a new type of quantum-cascade laser for use as a local oscillator at frequencies above 2 THz. The THz source described is a single chip solution that operates at room temperature. In addition, a mechanism for wide tuning (2-4.7 THz) is described that requires no moving parts.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many other target applications for this technology, including: drug detection/ pharmaceutical use, security screening, and medical imaging. The narrow linewidth characteristic can provide a higher resolution alternative to time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) techniques currently in use. The potential also exists for targeting specific resonances within target molecules or conformations, in combination with infrared or fluorescence spectroscopy, to help isolate very small concentrations in complex mixtures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Compact and reliable local oscillators at frequencies above 2 THz are highly sought after for use on satellites such as SOFIA for studying the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. In addition, the same technology can be used to for atmospheric OH sensing, such as in the microwave limb sounder on the Aura satellite. In both cases our compact THz source would provide a significant size, weight, and power (SWaP) savings over current gas laser-based solutions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Infrared
Terahertz (Sub-millimeter)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.03-9978
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Surface Leakage Suppression in LWIR Type-II Superlattice Photodetectors Using Electrical Gating Technique

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MP Technologies, LLC
1801 Maple AVE
Evanson, IL 60208-3150
(847) 491-7208

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ryan McClintock
rmcclin@gmail.com111
1801 Maple AVE
Evanston,  IL 60201-3150
(847) 491-7208

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
High performance LWIR detectors are highly needed. In order to image from long distance, it is important that imagers have high sensitivity, high resolution, and very low dark currents. This leads to technical goals of having low noise, low dark current in small size pixels in large arrays. While saturated performance levels of traditional systems based on bulk semiconductors have not quite met the requirement of applications, it is expected that novel quantum systems will bring new development stage for infrared imagers. In recent years, Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice (T2SL) has experienced significant development, from theoretical modeling, material growth to device processing and packaging. Performance of LWIR detector based on T2SL has become comparable, even better than that of HgCdTe. However, LWIR T2SL devices have been shown to be limited by surface leakage, especially at lower operating temperature. This proposed effort will investigate gating of Type-II photodiodes as a means to suppress this bottle neck of T2SL technology. The ultimate goal of this project is to develop an effective method to completely suppress the surface leakage current in LWIR type-II superlattice photodiodes that is compatible with the development of high performance gated FPAs in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
IR imaging sensors also find their use in commercial applications such as deep-space astronomy, commercial satellite imaging, geophysics, geology, remote environmental (pollution) IR sensing, law enforcement, search and rescue, firefighting and emergency response. For its part, the Optoelectronics Industry Development Association estimates that the current infrared imaging market for military and law enforcement applications is about US$3 billion. The development of high performance LWIR imagers with higher operating temperature has the potential to significantly reduce the operational cost of these sensors and thus potentially open up new lower cost commercial applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
LWIR is also of special interest to NASA for planetary observation missions. The LWIR wavelength region is an ideal wavelength to look back at the earth from space and accurately map minute variations in the surface and/or atmospheric temperatures. It is even possible to use simultaneous measurements from two different LWIR wavelengths (a two-color camera) to help isolate the surface temperature from that of the atmosphere. This same LWIR technology can also be readily applied for observation of other planets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Thermal Imaging (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Radiometric
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.04-9230
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detector Technologies for UV, X-Ray, Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: The First JFET-based Silicon Carbide Active Pixel Sensor UV Imager

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
United Silicon Carbide, Inc.
7 Deer Park Drive, Suite E
Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852-1921
(732) 355-0550

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Leonid Fursin
lfursin@unitedsic.com111
7 Deer Park Drive, Suite E
Monmouth Junction,  NJ 08852-1921
(732) 355-0550

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Solar-blind ultraviolet (UV) imaging is critically important in the fields of space astronomy, national defense, and bio-chemistry. United Silicon Carbide, Inc. proposes to develop and commercialize a unique JFET-based monolithically-integrated radiation-tolerant solar blind active pixel sensor (APS) UV imager. Silicon carbide is the ideal materials system due to its negligible dark currents, excellent radiation tolerance, intrinsic insensitivity to visible and near IR light, and technological maturity. The Silicon carbide JFET is an ideal choice as an IC building block, as it is immune to the presence of stacking faults in wafer material and is free from possible threshold voltage drifting associated with the SiC MOSFET. The proposed PiN and LJFET based APS circuitry has the potential for reliable operation at temperatures exceeding 150 C. The proposed design of the active pixel sensor can be adopted for detection of more energetic particles, such as EUV and soft-X-ray, by increasing the thickness of the active low doped layer. Such APS detector arrays could be custom designed, including pixel size and epilayer thickness, and would be of nearly UNIVERSAL USE in nuclear particle detection and spectroscopy. While the active pixel sensor market is niche, applications in related Silicon Carbide LJFET based analog processes offering temperature operation above 200 C have tremendous value in the commercial, industrial & high temperature market space. LJFET IC building blocks such as voltage references, oscillators, comparators and regulators form the cell circuits for such products as PWM controllers, power transistor gate drivers, voltage regulators and amplifiers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The general design of the active pixel sensor can be adopted for detection of more energetic particles, such as EUV and soft-X-ray, and would be of nearly universal use in nuclear particle detection and spectroscopy. For the aircraft surface-to-air and air-to-air missile warning systems, presently employed by DoD, a low cost solid-state solar blind array would also be of considerable interest. Applications in related Silicon Carbide JFET based analog IC processes, offering temperature operation above 200oC, have tremendous value in the commercial, industrial & high temperature market space. A substantial host of industrial and under the hood automotive applications (about $31.2B analog market) such as factory automation, motor control, CNC machinery, EPS, BBW, would immediately be enabled with SiC JFET analog sub-circuits offering embedded power management & control functionality at higher temperatures. An immediate commercial opportunity would be to develop a SiC LJFET-based half bridge gate driver to drive SiC transistors, co-packaged together in a multi leg power module to provide a high temperature integrated power train solution with a significant reduction in system cooling for industrial motors, UPS, solar farms and electric vehicle markets. USCi partnering with companies as Powerex, Vincotech, Dynex Semi would lead to breakthrough module powertrain solutions being developed and commercially available within 12 months of Phase III.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future solar astronomy missions need UV- sensors that are "solar blind", i.e. insensitive at longer wavelengths where the solar radiation is orders of magnitude stronger and is frequently the limiting factor in photometric measurements in the UV- region. The high sensitivity of silicon CCDs and CMOS arrays in the visible and near infrared (IR) is a liability when employing these same arrays in the ultraviolet. As exemplified in the Hubble telescope instruments, long wavelength blocking filters exact a high price due to their low transmission in the ultraviolet. There are several identified missions where the detector arrays we have proposed here are ideally suited. These include: (1) NWO &#150; New World Observer &#150; a very large, two-spacecraft, coronagraphic telescope system to block out the light from a central star to see exoplanets. (Cash et al., 2009, Proc. SPIE 7436, 5. "The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study") (2) THEIA &#150; Telescope for Habitable Exoplanets and Interstellar/Intergalactic Astronomy (Sembach et al., 2010, AAS 21345801S. "A High Sensitivity Ultraviolet Spectrograph for the THEIA Mission") (3) as well as various Midsized Explorers (MidEx) and Small Explorer (SMEX) missions for UV spectroscopy and imaging.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.04-9654
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detector Technologies for UV, X-Ray, Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Measuring Low Fluxes of Photons, Neutral Molecules and Ions with a New Generation of Detectors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Space Systems Research Corporation
1940 Duke Street, Suite 200
Alexandria, VA 22314-3452
(703) 684-3132

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Federico Herrero
herrerof@thessrc.com111
1940 Duke Street, Suite 200
Alexandria,  VA 22314-3452
(301) 385-2188

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A new detector evaluation method (DEM) is proposed to determine the response of graphene detectors to low fluxes of photons, neutral atoms/molecules, and ions in the space environment of high to ultra-high vacuum. The method, aimed mainly at evaluation for space applications of new graphene detectors, is also applicable to other detectors operating in non-space environments. DEM will test graphene response to very low fluxes of atoms and molecules, ions, and photons; if sensitive to extremely low fluxes of a few 100/s, the timing of pulses produced by bunched events may open up an entirely new avenue to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Closely coordinating with the NASA GSFC Detector Systems Branch, DEM will characterize the detector response to enable low-cost demonstrations of ionosphere-thermosphere investigations in low-Earth-orbit in CubeSats and sounding rockets. Space-borne measurements require knowledge of the response to the three kinds of particles: photons, ions, and neutrals, to properly design experiments. DEM controls vacuum pressure at the detector and can validate the application of these new detectors to a new series of mass spectrometers that can operate over a broad range of vacuum pressures (0.1 milliTorr and lower) because of their small size &#150; DEM will add value to cost effective NASA balloon, sounding rocket, and satellite investigations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As with the potential for NASA applications, the intrinsic value of our Detector Evaluation Module is extended by its broad vacuum pressure range to entirely new spectrometers, including mass spectrometers, that are just beginning to offer solutions in many commercial areas: medical diagnosis, industrial process monitoring, volcanology, environmental monitoring of pollutants in air and water, and military value for detection of chemical, biological agents and explosives. DEM will provide the detector data required for such new applications of the Graphene and other chemical sensors in a new generation of mass spectrometers that do not require high vacuum as traditional mass spectrometers do.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's interest in CubeSat missions is driven by the need to do high-quality science with a limited budget. NASA is at the threshold of producing fully instrumented CubeSats for less than $0.8M each. To be effective, these must use technologies that are small, consume little power, and avoid risks associated with high voltages and electronic complexity. Therefore, the impact of the detectors that are enabled by our DEM is likely to be very significant for NASA. The new detectors enable low-cost implementations of new ideas that revolutionize Space Applications, like the new WINCS suite for ionosphere-thermosphere missions that provides the function of 4 spectrometers with performance levels exceeding previous instruments, all in a package less than 3x3x3 inches cubed with total power less than 1.6 Watts. Similarly, renewed interest in planetary and inter-stellar science requires measurements of neutral atoms in Space (e.g., LENA in the IMAGE spacecraft) that will require DEM to take advantage of new detectors. Such applications will require careful characterization of this new generation of detectors using the experimental method implemented in DEM - to ensure proper experimental design in such missions, discriminating photons from neutrals and ions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Space Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Biomass Growth
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Fire Protection
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Medical
Physiological/Psychological Countermeasures
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Remediation/Purification
Waste Storage/Treatment
Outreach
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
In Situ Manufacturing
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Organics/Biomaterials/Hybrids
Polymers
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Propulsion
Fuels/Propellants
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Ionizing Radiation
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Pressure/Vacuum
Ultraviolet
Visible
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.05-8650
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Particles and Field Sensors and Instrument Enabling Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Highly Efficient Micro Cathode

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Busek Company Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kurt Hohman
kurt@busek.com111
11 Tech Circle
Natick,  MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Busek Company, Inc. proposes to develop a micro thermionic cathode that requires extremely low power and provides long lifetime. The basis for the cathode is a Barium impregnated dispenser cathode. The innovation will be the heating technique. We are proposing to heat the cathode to emission temperatures through radio frequency induction heating. The current state of the art micro cathodes utilize a resistive heater typically operated by passing a DC or AC current through a small refractory wire, heating the wire through ohmic heating. This requires significant sized wires and mechanics that create a heat sink through the leads, greatly increasing the power required to heat the cathode. Alternative development programs for micro cathodes have proposed utilizing lasers to heat the backside of the cathode. The drawback for this method of heating is the low power efficiency of state of the art lasers. In support of our proposed concept, Busek has recently developed an innovative RF generation circuitry that leads to applications like the proposed. The circuit is highly efficient and load variant tolerant. During Phase I we will design, build and test a model cathode with integrated induction heater coil and RF generator. Phase II will optimize the design and develop a commercial cathode for applications such as sensors, traveling wave tubes or micro ion engines.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications mirror the NASA applications plus there is significant interest in developing the necessary equipment to enable the use of the extremely high frequency (EHF) band for military and commercial applications. For the armed services, realization of millimeter wave amplifiers enables Gigabit rate point-to-point satellite communications, as well as access to currently unused spectrum. Furthermore, millimeter wave radio communications enable reduced antenna size and increased signal directionality, increasing effective signal gain to the target. Commercial applications for EHF amplifiers tend to focus on atmospheric science, in particular monitoring upper atmospheric temperatures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential applications of the micro cathode are abundant, though the likely first and highest NASA interest will be for very high frequency TWT microwave generators. As the frequencies of these sources increase, the size (diameter) of the electron feed beams needs to decrease. NASA could also have interest for this low power, micro cathode for scientific sensor such as probes for measuring electric fields in earth orbit is by measuring the ExB electron drift. This requires small beam spot and as spacecraft shrink in size and power, the exceptional low power of the proposed cathode will be needed. Another potential application for the proposed cathode is for use as a neutralizer and plasma initiation electron source for our micro RF ion engines. Developing a thermionic cathode that emits on the order of 1mA for 100mWatt input would eliminate on critical hurdle for efficient micro ion engine utilization for space propulsion. We currently have a field emission cathode that can emit this current, but has difficulty starting the plasma. The proposed cathode should be able to be overdriven for a fraction of a second to deliver multiple mA of current. The cathode can be scaled larger for the larger ion engines if needed.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Electromagnetic
Terahertz (Sub-millimeter)
Microwave


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.05-8777
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Particles and Field Sensors and Instrument Enabling Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Resolution Silicon-based Particle Sensor with Integrated Amplification

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Svaati Scientific LLC
203 Arnet
Ypsilanti, MI 48198-5740
(734) 660-9412

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Subhashree Ramadoss
suramadoss@gmail.com111
203 Arnet
Ypsilanti,  MI 48198-5740
(734) 507-0990

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase I project will deliver a breakthrough in particle-detection sensors, by integrating an amplifying junction as part of the detector topology. Focusing on energetic particle detection in the heliosphere, the resulting leap in the resolution with which the deposited charge is measured results in far more precise energy and position measurements, from which the certainty in the particle identification is increased. Silicon is chosen as the material upon which the avalanche particle detector (APaD) will be developed because it possesses high stopping power for ions, low material cost, and an extensive microelectronic fabrication base. We have previously made both: a) low-noise silicon detectors for ion and high-energy sensing, and b) avalanche photodiodes (APDs) for optical photon sensing. The objective of the project is to integrate the two topologies so that we can compare the energy resolution with and without on-chip amplification across the energy range 10 keV &#150; 3 MeV, with a goal of three times improvement in resolution at 80 keV.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
An avalanche diode technology with thin dead layer can not only be used for enhanced particle detection, but it can find use in the fabrication of silicon-based ultraviolet APDs. These can find wide applicability, useful for biological imaging applications in both defense and commercial settings, flame monitoring, ladar navigation, and in an enhanced night-vision concept. For instance, if a UV flash illuminator and 2-D pixel array are coupled to form a 3-D imaging ladar, then one can form single-photon images at successive ranges by synchronously range-gating the APD array with the illumination pulse. Multiple single-photon image frames can be collected at each range over a period of time in order to form grey-scale intensity images of the scene. If applied to neutron or gamma-ray detection, on-chip amplification provides an alternative pathway through which the signal-to-noise ratio can be enhanced, complementing the large body of research conducted in reducing the noise via cooling methods or alternative materials searches. For the specific sensing of primary or secondary charged particles and high-energy photons, the successful development of a low cost, high performance design will impact the entire industry, standing as a viable alternative to exotic materials. Thus, optical cameras, medical imaging instruments, and military radiation instruments would all be impacted by the successful development of an amplifying particle sensor.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology developed under this SBIR will help advance solar science and mitigate the effects of harmful amounts of space radiation, whether it consists of high energy charged particles or secondary protons following solar particle events. The underlying detection technology can possess far higher spectroscopic performance than existing systems, thus allowing one to better correlate the solar particle emissions with the driving feature near the photosphere, thus helping to identify the origins and causes of the solar wind, solar energetic particles, and the Sun's magnetic field. Thus the Solar Probe Plus Mission and future NASA heliophysics missions will gain far greater specificity in mapping the spectral, directional, and composition of solar-driven particles. Beyond heliophysics, fine energy resolution can be used to precisely characterize atmospheric and soil samples captured and ionized during planetary studies. In fact, the general amplification technology can be applied to photonic detection as well, yielding another pathway through which high resolution x-ray and gamma-ray imaging can be elicited.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ionizing Radiation
Non-Electromagnetic


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.05-9250
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Particles and Field Sensors and Instrument Enabling Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: All optical vector magnetometer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Southwest Sciences, Inc.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505-3993
(505) 984-1322

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Hovde
dchovde@swsciences.com111
6837 MAIN ST
CINCINNATI,  OH 45244-3470
(513) 272-1323

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase I research project will investigate a novel method of operating an atomic magnetometer to simultaneously measure total magnetic fields and vector magnetic fields. Magnetometry has provided critical scientific information throughout the history of space exploration. The ideal magnetic sensor for space applications would be one which shares the advantages of the fluxgate (vector precision, robust operation) with the precision and absolute accuracy of the atomic magnetometer. Our approach will result in an all-optical vector magnetometer (AOVM) that can be calibrated from the fundamental quantum properties of the atoms. Stable calibration is essential if magnetic dynamics are to be inferred by flying different missions to the same planet separated by decades. The sensor and electronics will be small and lightweight and operate from a few Watts of electrical power.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The instrument will be of use to the Navy for anti-submarine applications and the Army for detecting hidden tanks, reinforced bunkers, etc, as the large steel content of these targets generates a magnetic signature on top of the Earth's field. The civilian market for magnetometers includes applications in oil and mineral exploration, mining, buried object detection, and the recovery of objects lost at sea.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful completion of the project through Phase II will result in a compact, rugged instrument for measuring vector and scalar magnetic fields in the 0-100 T range. The primary customer for such a sensor for space borne applications is NASA and its subcontractors for Earth and planetary science missions. Vector magnetometers are also used aboard high altitude balloons as a back-up to differential GPS for pointing telescopes and other scientific payloads. The small size and weight would be a good match for such platforms, as the magnetometer would not interfere with the science package.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Electromagnetic


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.06-8481
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Systems for Sensors and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Second Generation Low Cost Cryocooler Electronics (LCCE-2)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Iris Technology Corporation
PO Box 5838
Irvine, CA 92616-5838
(949) 975-8410

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Carl Kirkconnell
cskirkconnell@iristechnology.com111
PO Box 5838
Irvine,  CA 92616-5838
(949) 975-8410

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The LCCE-2 Program builds off the successes of the USAF "Low Cost Cryocooler Electronics for Space Missions" Program, extending the performance of the developed LCCE to include active vibration cancellation and advanced input power bus circuitry. The former is important for imaging payloads because the exported vibration from the cryocooler can be a major contributor to the overall image jitter. The latter will provide the ability to safely operate the cryocooler system off of virtually any spacecraft power bus from all perspectives, meaning that the cryocooler system will be protected from transient effects from a "dirty bus," and the cryocooler will not impart back onto the power bus large amplitude current ripple that would otherwise affect the performance of other devices on the bus.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Iris anticipates LCCE-2 will supplant the electronics presently used by the prime contractors for their "core" cryocoolers, such as the NGAS HEC, the Ball SB-235, and the Raytheon RS1 and RSP2. This will make LCCE-2 applicable for missile defense, surveillance and reconnaissance, and in short the entire gamut of DoD critical mission for space-based infrared payloads.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The overall benefit to NASA for space-based infrared sensing is tremendous. The LCCE-2 will be a fraction of the cost of traditional space cryocooler electronics, yet it will have the ability to support the most jitter-sensitive payloads and/or operate on any spacecraft without special accommodation by the power bus. This is expected to lead to flight opportunities on Earth Ventures, climate satellites, deep space astronomy instruments, and interplanetary mission payloads.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Prototyping
Fuels/Propellants
Infrared
Multispectral/Hyperspectral
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.06-8661
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Systems for Sensors and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cryocooler With Cold Compressor for Deep Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Madison CryoGroup, LLC.
701 Seneca Place
Madison, WI 53711-2917
(608) 265-4246

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ben Helvensteijn
cryoquest@gmail.com111
754 Colorado Ave
Palo Alto,  CA 94303-3911
(650) 814-8642

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The unique built-in design features of the proposed mini pulse tube cryocooler avoid all thermal expansion issues enabling it to operate within a cold, 150 K environment. As such, the cooler addresses the need to prevent boiloff of cryogenic propellants on long duration remote missions. Due to its high heat capacity regenerator matrix, the cooler has a high efficiency and a small footprint, making its launch mass minimal. The coherent regenerator matrix configuration prevents movement and so prevents degradation over time. Due to its unique compressor being cold-tolerant down to 150 K the cooler can keep running even where the sun is so far away and dim that the energy captured by the spacecraft cannot keep the compressor warm. The compressor being designed to run cold and on minimal input power allows it to run at the inherently low solar intensity, which seriously depresses solar cell power generation. In all, our cryocooler innovation is an enabling technology for far-flung missions that have the need to preserve mission propellants in their liquefied state until needed to maneuver near a destination or a midway point. The design concept calls for: 1) Using regenerator materials from a recently developed class of high heat capacity rare earth alloys; 2) A compressor and coldhead design optimized for a low temperature heat sink; 3) Minimizing the known losses in the pulse tube proper. The cryocooler design will be possible due to the long standing cryocooler design and manufacture heritage of the team members. Phase I will verify the low temperature capabilities down to 150 K of an available mini compressor, and, will put forth the design of the crucial components of a complete 0.3 W at 35 K cryocooler targeted to run in a 150 K environment. Phase II will build and test a complete prototype cryocooler that is small in size and power consumption enabling long durations missions to planetary objects at remote locations within the solar system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The design and construction process is targeted to produce a space-born cryocooler that will have a host of qualities in-demand for space missions. However, its small system size, efficient performance, long-life reliability, low input power and low vibration all make this cryocooler a high-value product that meets the demand of businesses aiming to deliver truly high-quality products for systems that require low failure rates. The proposed cooler is operable over a wide range of loads and temperatures. Several government agencies outside NASA (MDA, Air Force) and various commercial entities have interest in integrating small and efficient high-frequency cryocoolers into their equipment. For the proposed technology there are many potential business and civilian applications that require compact, reliable and efficient cryogenic cooling, such as: Cryopumps for semiconductor manufacturing, Superconducting magnets for MRI systems, SQUID magnetometers for heart and brain studies, HTS filters for the communication industry, Superconducting electronics and Liquefaction of industrial gases. Even for large system, in which one might apply distributed cooling loop schemes, our small cryocooler may be advantageous by installing multiple such discrete active coolers at strategic locations, when high reliability is the more pertinent feature.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Pertinent NASA projects include missions to the outer planets and their moons, such as Europa, Titan, Neptune, and Triton. All of these missions need to carry considerable propellants for many years to be used in braking and/or orbital insertion maneuvers at the target location(s). High thrust propulsion (acceleration comparable to planetary surface gravitational acceleration) is required for these near planetary maneuvers. Significant benefit can be gained from improved mission performance, which is greatly impacted by propulsion system mass. Propellant is usually the predominant contributor to the mass of such chemical systems. Therefore, the largest potential system and mission performance gains are likely from improved specific impulse (ISP) by using cryogenic propellants. The challenges associated with cryogenic propellant use include the reduction of propellant boil-off so that the system is not penalized by the additional propellant mass required to accommodate typical boil-off. The availability of a low input power, low mass cryocooler will make this option more attractive and attainable. Madison CryoGroup's intent is to design the cryocooler for a low reject temperature, which makes it highly applicable to missions to remote locations and orbits that have a low level of solar input. Depending on the extent of radiation shielding applied, even earth orbiting systems may benefit from the innovation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Space Transportation & Safety
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Telescope Arrays
Fuels/Propellants
X-rays/Gamma Rays
Infrared
Active Systems
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.06-9362
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Systems for Sensors and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight Superconducting Magnets for Low Temperature Magnetic Coolers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Weibo Chen
wbc@creare.com111
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's future science missions to investigate the structure and evolution of the universe require efficient, very low temperature coolers for low noise detector systems. We propose to develop a highly efficient, lightweight Active Magnetic Regenerative Refrigeration (AMRR) system that can continuously provide remote/distributed cooling at temperatures of about 2 K with a heat sink at about 15 K. The AMRR system uses three novel design features to achieve a large cooling capacity and very high thermal efficiency: a vibration-free, reversible cryogenic circulator; innovative micromachined regenerators; and lightweight superconducting magnets. The superconducting magnet uses low-current superconducting YBCO tapes and a unique winding arrangement to enable an AMRR to achieve high thermal efficiency. In Phase I, we will develop a design for the superconducting magnet and its electrical, thermal, and structural support subsystems. Based on the performance characteristics of the magnet system, we will optimize the magnetic field in the AMRR to minimize the overall system size and mass. In Phase II, we will build a superconducting magnet and demonstrate the performance of a magnetic regenerator driven by this magnet under prototypical conditions. In Phase III, we will assemble an integrated AMRR system and demonstrate its performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Military applications for the proposed magnetic cooler include cooling systems on space-based surveillance, missile detection, and missile tracking systems. Scientific applications include cooling systems for material microanalysis using X-ray microcalorimeter spectrometers, superconducting radio frequency cavities, superconducting cavities, and superconducting digital electronics.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed AMRR system will enable NASA to carry out future space astronomy missions that use cryogenic infrared, gamma ray, and X-ray detectors. These detectors need to operate at temperatures in the range of 4 K to below 1 K to reduce the thermal emission of the detectors themselves and to achieve high sensitivity and resolution. The vibration-free, lightweight AMRR can provide efficient cooling for these missions at the required temperature ranges. The fabrication technologies developed for the lightweight superconducting magnets can also be applied to the fabrication of advanced magnets for multistage ADRs, particle accelerators, and portable MRIs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.07-8277
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Lunar and Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rad Hard Imaging Array with Picosecond Timing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
LIGHTSPIN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O. Box 30198
Bethesda, MD 20824-0198
(301) 656-7600

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eric Harmon
harmon@lightspintech.com111
P.O. Box 30198
Bethesda,  MD 20824-0198
(508) 930-4198

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
For a wide range of remote sensing applications, there is a critical need to develop imaging arrays that simultaneously achieve high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, and sub-nanosecond timing resolution. Many of these remote sensing applications furthermore are satellite and space based, where the imaging array also needs to be rad hard; particularly for the harsh radiation environments typically found on certain deep space missions, such as to the moons of Jupiter. LightSpin Technologies is developing a high performance solid-state cross-strip anode imaging single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array technology using rad hard GaAs SPAD arrays. This approach promises substantial improvements in spatial resolution (< 10 microns), timing resolution (< 100 psec), and count rate (> 10 Gcps). LightSpin has proven the concept provides excellent performance in small arrays (8 X 8 pixels) and developed a theoretical foundation enabling rapid scaling of the arrays to achieve Megapixel resolution at low cost.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High performance, time-of-flight imagers are rapidly making inroads into a number of applications, including autonomous navigation (automobiles, UAVs, marine), gesture recognition, and robotics. Current time-of-flight sensors are either too expensive (Google autonomous car system costs more than $50,000) or too limited in range (Microsoft Kinect system has a maximum range of 20 feet). Successful completion of this SBIR project (Phase I and Phase II) will enable Kinect like pricing (< $100) for autonomous car systems (range > 1 mile). Nearly all autonomous navigation applications would benefit, including automobile ladar (collision avoidance, pedestrian avoidance, autonomous driving), robotics (autonomous robotic navigation), airborne ladar (UAVs, airplane collision avoidance).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has an ongoing need for imaging detector arrays capable of withstanding the harsh irradiation environment of certain space missions. While silicon imagers are widely available at low cost, they are generally unable to withstand harsh radiation environments. In addition to static and video rate imaging, the development of imagers with time resolved capabilities enable time-of-flight instruments such as ladar, lidar, altimetry, and mapping. And finally, the ability to detect single photons with high sensitivity is critical.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Perception/Vision
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
3D Imaging
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Optical
Ranging/Tracking
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)
Ultraviolet
Visible
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.07-8504
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Lunar and Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Compact Fluorescence Lifetime Excitation Emission Spectrometer (FLEXEMS) for the Trace Detection of Organics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Los Gatos Research
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041-1518
(650) 965-7772

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nathan Bramall
n.bramall@lgrinc.com111
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View,  CA 94041-1518
(650) 965-7772

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to design and build a stand-off fluorescence spectrometer that uses light-emitting diodes and triodes to excite targets from the deep-ultraviolet through the visible and time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) techniques and steady-state photon-counting to quantify the fluorescence properties of the target in order to categorize its mineralogy and detect the presence of organics. The instrument will require no reagents or consumables and by simply placing the instrument on a sample of rock, soil, or ice, it will be able to detect a wide range of minerals and organics (at or below the 10-100 ppb-level) including proteins, free aromatic amino acids, F420 (a biomarker specific to methanogens), NADH, PAHs, and porphyrins (e.g. chlorophyll). It will be designed with flight in mind so mass, volume, and power-requirement will be minimized as much as possible. The use of multi-anode photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and avalanche photodiodes (APDs) will make the system compact and rugged and thus suitable for future missions and ongoing field and laboratory studies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
FLEXEMS has many uses outside of NASA. Due to its sensitivity, specificity, and portability, it would be very useful for (1) environmental research of terrestrial and marine waters (e.g., DOM, humic and fulvic acid studies), (2) process control and monitoring of closed and recycled water systems (e.g., Naval shipboard water monitoring, water treatment), (3) pollution monitoring of water, soils and sediments (e.g., PAHs, pesticides, and fuels), (5) the detection of biological weapons (e.g., Anthrax) Considering only (1) and (2), it is anticipated that total 5-year revenue may be as high as $20M.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Both the Moon and Mars may hold important clues to the origin of life in our solar system and the need to detect trace levels of organics on them is on-going. With the recent discovery of potentially ancient water ice in permanently-shadowed craters on the Moon comes the tantalizing possibility that a treasure trove of pre-biotic organics may be trapped in that ice. These organics would be indicative of the kind of material that may have seeded life on Earth. On Mars, the discovery of water-created sedimentary minerals, verification of water-ice near its surface and the strong possibility of liquid water existing on and near its surface continues to make it an important target for discovering evidence for extinct and extant life. A stand-off fluorimeter, capable of measuring fluorescence emission lifetimes and time-gating, would make a fantastic tool for discovering organics on extraplanetary bodies as it would require no consumables, be very sensitive, require little to no sample handling, be rapid, and be rugged. Such an instrument would be suitable for development and deployment on future extraplanetary missions including upcoming lunar and Mars missions. Additionally, its miniature size makes it suitable for Small-Sat missions to study organics such as O/OREOS. For terrestrial use, it will allow researchers in NASA's Space Science and Astrobiology Division to quantify the presence of different minerals and organics during analog field research and laboratory research.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Process Monitoring & Control
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Biological Signature (i.e., Signs Of Life)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Ultraviolet
Visible


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.07-8959
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Lunar and Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Compact Sensor with Multiple In-Situ Sensing Capabilities

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Crystal Research, Inc.
48501 Warm Springs Boulevard, Suite 103
Fremont, CA 94539-7750
(510) 445-0833

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pengfei Wu
pengfeiwu@eocrystal.com111
48501 Warm Springs Blvd., suite 103
Fremont,  CA 94539-7750
(510) 445-0833

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Planetary rocks, soils, liquids and atmospheric gases are ideal targets for scientists to study the possibility of life existence and the habitability, nature and evolution of planetary systems. Currently, NASA uses different sensing technologies to analyze planetary samples. The use of multiple instruments increases the weight, complexity, power consumption as well as the probability of system malfunction. It is critical to develop lightweight miniaturized multi-functional sensor to enable NASA's multiple-mission needs and therefore make the best use of limited resources by reducing the cost, size, and the number of instruments. Crystal Research Inc. (CRI) proposes a novel compact optical sensor with multiple in-situ sensing capabilities for measurements of various inorganic and organic samples for planetary study and search of biomarkers. The proposed technique is based on a nonlinear coherent interaction process to detect the backward spectral signals from the targets. The detection is enabled by using our novel electro-optic (EO) switchable spectral filtering technique to eliminate spectral artifacts and nonresonant background. The standoff scheme facilitates the implementation of multiple measurements by using a single sensor for nondestructive analysis of different samples on land surface or in atmosphere. It eliminates the sample preparation process, contamination and other related accessories.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Besides NASA applications, the proposed sensor system has significant commercial and defense applications. It will benefit the civilian R&D including materials study, spectral imaging, remote sensing, atmospheric physics, geology, seismology, and medical diagnostics. In addition, the proposed sensor can be used for environmental monitoring such as industrial pollutions, chemical facility monitoring, forest fire detection and agriculture monitoring, etc. Therefore, there are many potential civilian and commercial applications for the proposed lightweight, compact sensor. The proposed standoff sensor can also help law enforcement agencies to discover potential explosive devices from terrorist threats; for example, it will be useful for the explosive detection in commercial airports and various public events to counter terrorism. Finally, the sensor may also be used to detect and track toxic plumes and gases during chemical and biological threats.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful development of the proposed sensor system will have extensive NASA's applications. The proposed system will create an opportunity to extend and enhance the capability of traditional NASA Earth and Planetary detection efforts in current platforms. It meets NASA's multiple-mission requirements for the best use of limited resources by reducing the risk, cost, size, weight as well as power consumption. It will also enable new measurements with enhanced sensitivity for the planetary study. In addition, the proposed sensor will be useful for the study of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane which are great contributors to an overall global warming trend. It will help to identify the sources of greenhouse gases and thus understanding the terrestrial carbon cycle and its contribution to the climate change.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Visible
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.07-9410
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Lunar and Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: ChemCam-like Spectrometer for Non-Contact Measurements of Key Isotopes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied Spectra, Inc.
46665 Fremont Blvd.
Fremont, CA 94538-6410
(510) 657-7679

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alexander Bolshakov
alexandb@appliedspectra.com111
46665 Fremont Blvd.
Fremont,  CA 94538-6410
(510) 657-7679

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal addresses NASA SBIR topic S1.07 In Situ Sensors for Lunar and Planetary Science, particularly the need for measuring isotopic ratios of the key elements associated with the signs of life (H, C, N, O). We propose a non-contact optical instrument similar to ChemCam that will be capable of measuring not only complete elemental compositions but also isotopic abundances of the key elements in surface materials. We intend to utilize and further develop our recently published technology: Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry (LAMIS). Our concept is simple, scientifically proven and already endorsed by two innovation awards we received. In Phase I, we concentrate on demonstrating the resolution and sensitivity required to determine these isotopes in synthetic samples and natural minerals relevant to Mars. The immediate focus is on Mars but our concept is also highly germane to future landing missions to the Moon, other planets and their moons, asteroids, and to a broad range of applications in ecology, agronomy, nuclear industry, radio-chemotherapy, forensics, security and other fields. We will advance the development to TRL4 by the end of Phase II with the further aim of integrating our LAMIS detector with a ChemCam-like instrument. The proposed instrument leverages and advances the technology developed for ChemCam. The added strength of measuring isotopes will greatly expand the capabilities of the ChemCam, which is now the most frequently used instrument onboard "Curiosity." In Phase II, we will develop a breadboard prototype of the instrument that can be amended to measure other key isotopes (B, Cl, Mg, Ca, Sr, etc.). We plan further infusion in NASA missions and commercialization in Phases II-Ex and III. Our instrument can be used for stand-alone landing missions or for in situ sample characterization prior to sample return.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our concept of an integrated instrument capable of both elemental and isotopic measurements has a significant potential for commercial applications and infusion into other Government agencies, academia and industrial markets. LAMIS is poised to speed up, to simplify and to make isotopic analysis more affordable than at present. Multiple applications are anticipated in the nuclear power industry, medical diagnostics and therapies, forensics, homeland security, carbon sequestration, natural gas and oil exploration, ecological and agronomical studies. Carbon isotopes are indicative of primary bio-productivity and energy cycling and are important for the understanding of biochemistry. The biological enhancement of 12C over 13C can be up to 5%, and is measurable by LAMIS. Carbon isotopes are used in soil difference studies; various crops studies (rice, wheat, barley, cotton etc); forest studies; studies of vegetation and different ecosystems. Such studies include isotopic measurements of soils, flora, fauna, air, groundwater and the results of human activities. The stable isotope 15N is often used as a marker, particularly to track the efficiency of fertilizers in agronomy: how plants uptake the fertilizer from roots to leaves and how much of it being lost. In animals and humans, stable isotopes are used to study host-parasite relationship. Measurement of the D/H and oxygen isotopic ratios is essential in paleoclimatology, material sciences, biological and medical research.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our non-contact optical instrument will rapidly measure complete elemental compositions (~30 elements simultaneously) and key isotopic abundances in planetary surface materials. The ratios of C, H, N, O isotopes will provide important constraints on the history of processes on Mars, particularly related to past organic and water activities. We aim at the key life-forming elements but our technology can be further extended to other chemical species. This technology is directly relevant to several NASA objectives for Mars: (i) characterization of geological features contributing to deciphering geological history; (ii) determination of surface chemical composition including elements known to be building blocks for life; (iii) characterization of organic compounds and potential biomarkers in representative bedrock and regolith; (iv) identification of potential chemical and isotopic biosignatures in rocks and regolith; (v) characterization of the local environment, the state and cycling of water and CO2, and the near-surface distribution of hydrogen. NRC's decadal survey recommended a plan leading to Mars Sample Return. As part of this program, there is a need to conduct in situ analysis to select the best and most varied set of samples to return to Earth. Our proposal is particularly focused on Mars but highly relevant to applications on the Moon, other planets, their moons (Titan, Europa, Io, etc.) and comets. Similar studies are very important to NASA's Earth Science missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Biological Signature (i.e., Signs Of Life)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Ultraviolet
Visible


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.07-9558
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Lunar and Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Comet Surface Sample Return System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics Ltd.
460 West 34th Street
New York, NY 10001-2320
(212) 966-0661

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Philip Chu
chu@honeybeerobotics.com111
460 West 34th Street
New York,  NY 10001-2320
(646) 239-0429

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed Phase I investigation will focus on the development of spacecraft systems required to obtain a sample from the nucleus of a comet, hermetically seal the sample within a capsule, and return the sealed sample to an orbiting spacecraft which can return the sample to Earth. A preliminary systems level concept has been developed. This concept will be refined during the proposed Phase I investigation, including proof-of-concept breadboards and analyses of critical subsystems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications for this technology include sampling of contaminated soils and liquid from hazardous environments (near nuclear reactors, oil spills, chemical spills etc). Key subsystems such as the sampling probe, flipper mechanism and hermetic sealing canister could be re-purposed for sampling terrestrial sites. These systems could potentially be deployed from a helicopter with a tether, acquire a sample, hermetically seal it on the ground, and be reeled in with the sample inside the sealed canister. This would reduce the risk of sending personnel into contaminated environments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The acquisition of surface samples from small interplanetary bodies such as comets and asteroids, as well as small moons like Mars' Phobos, and Deimos holds great scientific interest. Under the NASA Authorization Act, Congress instructed NASA to "plan, develop, and implement a Near-Earth Object (NEO) Survey program to detect, track, catalogue, and characterize the physical characteristics of NEOs equal to or greater than 140 meters in diameter in order to assess the threat of such near-Earth objects to the Earth." In 2010, President Obama called for a new approach to space exploration, which would include human and robotic exploration of asteroids. In the latest Decadal Survey, the committee recommended selecting a Comet Surface Sample Return mission as one of the five New Frontiers 4 (NF4) missions, solidifying the importance of studying returned physical samples from a comet. The other four included Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample Return, Saturn Probe, Trojan Tour and Rendezvous, and Venus In Situ Explorer. The Lunar and Venus missions could also benefit from the development of this sampling approach. The sampling probe in the proposed effort could be applied to any number of planetary bodies with a microgravity environment where sample return is desired.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Pressure & Vacuum Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.07-9615
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Lunar and Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Combined Raman/Infrared Reflectance Instrument for In Situ Mineral Analysis

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
EIC Laboratories, Inc.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062-2612
(781) 769-9450

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Job Bello
bello@eiclabs.com111
EIC Laboratories, Inc., 111 Downey Street
Norwood,  MA 02062-2612
(781) 769-9450

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's Science Instruments, Observatories, and Sensor Systems Roadmap calls for instruments capable of in situ mineralogical analysis in support of planetary missions in the coming decades. Such instruments will provide capabilities for surveying and identifying minerals on and beneath planetary surfaces, guided by robotic vehicles. These instruments should be highly reliable and compact, be remotely operable and require minimal operating resources. To meet this challenge, the goal of the proposed Phase I program is to develop a combined Raman and infrared fiber optically coupled probe head that can be used for mineral analysis by providing a complete vibrational spectroscopic fingerprint for high quality in situ mineral identification that can be used in a variety of NASA platforms.For the Phase I work, the goal will be to prototype a dual excitation Raman/IR fiber optically coupled microscope probe head and demonstrate its utility in the analysis of minerals.The Phase I Work Plan includes: 1. Prototyping of an Integrated Raman/IR probe head 2. Performance Evaluation of the Integrated Raman/IR Probes 3. Acquisition of a preliminary Raman and IR database, in collaboration with Dr. Robert Downs director of the RRUFF mineralogy project at the University of Arizona

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial market for the instrument will be in chemical manufacturing and pharmaceutical industries, where the instrument can be used as a quality control instrument for raw materials and end products. In addition, the instrument can also be beneficial for first responders for interrogating unknown samples. The instrument will also be valuable tool for geologists and gemologists where it can be used for in situ analysis of minerals and gemstones.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's Science Instruments, Observatories, and Sensor Systems Roadmap calls for instruments capable of in situ mineralogical analysis in support of planetary missions in the coming decades. The proposed instruments will provide capabilities for surveying and identifying minerals on and beneath planetary surfaces, guided by robotic vehicles or for ex situ analysis. For example, the proposed Mars 2018 MAX-C caching rover mission includes a dual wavelength Raman spectrometer, and is a typical platform.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Minerals
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.07-9712
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Lunar and Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniaturized In Situ Atmospheric Probe Sampling Inlet System for Uranus or Saturn

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Thorleaf Research, Inc.
5552 Cathedral Oaks Road
Santa Barbara, CA 93111-1406
(805) 308-1937

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Holland
pholland@thorleaf.com111
5552 Cathedral Oaks Road
Santa Barbara,  CA 93111-1406
(805) 308-1937

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Thorleaf Research, Inc. proposes to develop a miniaturized in situ atmospheric probe sampling inlet system for measuring chemical and isotopic composition of the atmospheres of the giant planets, with special emphasis on NASA needs for missions to Uranus and Saturn. Our innovative design will provide a constant flow rate of sample to the inlet of a mass spectrometer (MS) in spite of more than a hundred-fold variation in external atmospheric pressure, allowing the detection sensitivity of the MS to be optimized over the full descent profile of the atmospheric probe, unlike previous sampling systems that depended on fixed leaks. This addresses a key technology gap for planetary studies, mainly how to acquire and prepare samples for in situ analysis while meeting challenging mass, volume and power constraints. Based on our analysis, we project a system mass on the order of 0.5 kg and an average power consumption of <0.5 watt, depending on materials and the configuration selected. The goal of our proposed SBIR Phase I effort is to demonstrate feasibility for a miniaturized in situ atmospheric probe sampling inlet system for Uranus and Saturn, and to develop a detailed design for fabricating prototype instrumentation in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Analysis of commercial instrumentation markets shows that two of the three major growth areas for analytical instrumentation are real-time analysis and environmental monitoring, with projected annual growth rates of more than 15%. Our modular design approach for the high pressure atmospheric sampling inlet system will help it be adapted for high pressure measurement needs in scientific, energy exploration and environmental monitoring applications. Thus, technical developments in the proposed program could have a significant market impact.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Thorleaf Research's proposed development of a miniaturized in situ atmospheric probe sampling inlet system is focused on meeting future NASA needs. For example, in situ atmospheric probes for both Uranus and Saturn have been given a high priority in NRC's decadal survey, with Uranus selected for a possible Flagship Mission, and Saturn recommended for a possible New Frontiers Mission. Here, Uranus as an ice-giant offers important potential for new discoveries with special relevance for understanding newly discovered exoplanets, and an atmospheric probe for Saturn could be used in testing the helium differentiation hypothesis. For both Uranus and Saturn, determination of the relative abundance of hydrogen, helium, chemical compounds, noble gases and their isotopes can help address fundamental questions about nebular evolution and the origin of the giant-planets in the Solar System. Our sampling inlet system will be especially useful when coupled to NASA/JPL's miniature mass spectrometer technology. Because of our modular design approach, this system can also be adapted to other detectors of interest to NASA, as well as measurements in the atmospheres of the other giant planets and Venus.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.08-8309
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Airborne Measurement Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Network-based Parallel Retrieval Onboard Computing Environment for Sensor Systems Deployed on NASA Unmanned Aircraft Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Remote Sensing Solutions, Inc.
3179 Main Street, Unit 3, P.O. Box 1092
Barnstable, MA 02630-1105
(508) 362-9400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Carswell
carswell@remotesensingsolutions.com111
3179 Main Street, Unit 3, P.O. Box 1092
Barnstable,  MA 02630-1105
(508) 362-9400

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Remote Sensing Solutions proposes to develop the Network-based Parallel Retrieval Onboard Computing Environment for Sensor Systems (nPROCESS) for deployment on NASA's unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). The nPROCESS will provide a compact, efficient, reconfigurable computing environment that will achieve unparalleled real-time data processing, acquisition and distribution to provide new observations and improved sensitivity; provide a test-bed for measurement and algorithm development and testing for future mission risk reduction and demonstration; produce critical information for real-time decision making; and facilitate a path to reduce risks and installation / operational costs for deployment of new and existing sensors on NASA UAS platforms. The proposed innovations to realize nPROCESS are: (1) reconfigurable, object orientated system architecture that will provides far greater customization and expansion, (2) modularity at the hardware, firmware and software levels to adapt to the sensors needs at minimum cost and (3) high fidelity parallel processing and data distribution capabilities. Deployed with the HIWRAP on the NASA Global Hawk, nPROCESS will provide higher quality and real-time mapping of the three-dimensional wind profiles, ocean vector surface maps and precipitation winds within tropical cyclones.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed effort will offer defense and commercial aerospace sectors a high fidelity processing environment that can be reconfigured for a variety of airborne mapping and surveillance activities as well as an advanced on-board processor capable of handling ultra wide-band applications and real-time parallel processing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed effort will provide the NASA UAS community with a high fidelity, real-time data processing environment that will lower costs and reduce schedules in deploying new sensors on the NASA unmanned aircraft and potentially enhance the observations being obtained with current sensors. With NASA trying to expand its UAS program the timing and capabilities of this system are a very good fit.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.08-8561
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Airborne Measurement Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Gimbal Integration to Small Format, Airborne, MWIR and LWIR Imaging Sensors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Geospatial Intelligence and Analysis, Inc.
5225 Burke Drive
Alexandria, VA 22309-3308
(703) 405-8961

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Fischer
Rob.Fischer@geo-intel.com111
5225 Burke Drive
Alexandria,  VA 22309-3308
(703) 727-5969

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovation is for enhanced sensor performance and high resolution imaging for Long Wave InfraRed (LWIR) and Medium Wave IR (MWIR) camera systems used in aerial imaging applications through integration with KeyW's advanced EO/IR Imaging eGimbal&#153; (IeG) system. Increases in pixel densities with the advent of large format monolithic focal plane arrays (FPAs), as well as new detector materials, has led to the development of faster frame rate cameras in these long-wave spectral bands. These next generation systems have enabled the transition of applications and operational CONOPs more traditionally used with high resolution Electro-Optical (EO) camera systems to long wave sensors. Specifically, the SBIR team of GIA and KeyW propose to 1) design an integration plan for a more robust version of IeG, three-axis gimbal system developed from a previous SBIR with NASA Goddard, to small format, high-sensitivity, MWIR/LWIR cameras, including the development of a sensor model to perform the coordinate transformations to geo-register the long-wave imagery; 2) design a geometric and radiometric calibration approach to ensure accurate projection and image quality of the MWIR/LWIR data; 3) design the command and control software to ensure accurate targeting of the proposed MWIR/LWIR sensors; and 4) study/design techniques and operational parameters that will allow the MWIR/LWIR sensors to meet the requirements of selected target applications and products.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SBIR proposal team has identified multiple customers and applications outside the NASA SBIR community. These customers include the U.S. Forest Service, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Department of Defense, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and commercial GIS firms. Specific applications include: ? Identification and location of "hotspots" during the fighting of forest fires. The gimbal ability would allow future applications to queue and point the sensor system. ? Detection of water "boils" near levees and impound areas that can be indicative of future failures. ? Identify and locate natural and man-made heat sources from a day/night capable platform. ? Identification of effluents in waterways associated with industrial discharge.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SBIR team sees multiple potential NASA applications for the proposed technology. Specific applications include: ? Ground-truth collection via satellite under-flight. A critical requirement for calibration of space-based instruments is the collection of ground-truth. The collection of calibrated airborne data during satellite over-flight should result in substantially more ground-truth information. ? The proposed system will support any low SWaP MWIR/LWIR framing architecture. This proposed system design will support the testing and evaluation of airborne MWIR and LWIR surrogates for eventual space-based instruments. ? Wide-area coverage to support Earth Science objectives. The system design that will be produced by this effort will allow for the use of small, fuel efficient aircraft, and should result in a cost-effective wide area collection technique to support multiple applications such as mapping of thermal gradients within aquatic systems, assess heat exchanges in urban environments, and pollution discharges from industrial complexes. ? The small form factor of the eGimbal and proposed MWIR/LWIR cameras will support integration to any NASA requirements for long duration, UAV or Airship platforms.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Command & Control
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Image Processing
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Processing
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Radiometric


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.08-8616
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Airborne Measurement Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Mobile Passive Optical Imager for Remote Gas Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Boston Applied Technologies, Inc.
6F Gill Street
Woburn, MA 01801-1721
(781) 935-2800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Qizhi Zhang
qzhang@bostonati.com111
6F Gill Street
Woburn,  MA 01801-1721
(781) 935-2800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Tunable filters based on electro-optic effect have shown great potential in detecting gas concentration through obtaining its absorption spectrum. In filter-based technologies, the x-y 2D imaging is usually taken at once, while the wavelength dimension is performed by tunable filters that are mounted in front of a monochrome IR camera. Several types of tunable filters are currently available, including mechanically tuned Fabry-Perot etalon (FP filter), liquid-crystal Lyot-Ohman filters and acousto-optic filters. However, these EO tuning technologies have some shortages, such as slow tuning speed, bulky design, limited working band and small aperture. Boston Applied Technologies, Inc. (BATi) proposes a unique remote sensing system which is based on a tunable filter with under millisecond tuning time for high speed detection of gas concentration. The core part, tunable filter, of the proposed system is made of patented OptoCeramic&#174; material. The system features high speed, wide spectral range from visible to MWIR, low cost, light weight, big aperture, and robust.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed system itself can be used for environment monitoring, military surveillance, firefight department and homeland security. The proposed core technology, a high speed tunable filter, will find wide non-NASA applications. Generally, any measurement requires fast acquisition of x-y 2D cube data is a potential application of this filter. For example, it can be used for high temperature measurement, which is a useful means for kilns, the steel and iron industries to monitor temperatures throughout the product making process. 2D spectral data is also desirable in clinical applications such as in vivo skin cancer diagnosis, hemoglobin dynamic monitoring, and pathological analysis.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary goal of the final product is to provide NASA a mobile/airborne imaging system for remote detection of gas emission source. The core technologies developed in this SBIR project, a high speed tunable filter, can also be applied to combustion research for jet engine diagnosis. By capturing emission spectrum and using multi-wavelength algorithm the 2D temperature measurement of flame can be realized at once. With proper design of multi-chamber enclosure this temperature measurement is applicable in harsh environment up to 4000F. Same approach that is used in this SBIR project for gas detection can also be applied to measurement of specie concentration in flame. In addition, the proposed tunable filter is a great candidate for general airborne hyperspectral imaging.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Image Analysis
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Ceramics
Filtering
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Infrared
Multispectral/Hyperspectral


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.08-8852
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Airborne Measurement Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: AirCore Reusable InSitu Sampler for CO2 and Trace Gas Measurements

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
KALSCOTT Engineering, Inc.
PO Box 3426
Lawrence, KS 66046-0426
(785) 979-1113

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tom Sherwood
tom.sherwood@kalscott.com111
PO Box 3426
Lawrence,  KS 66046-0426
(785) 979-1113

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A novel design for an in situ air sampling sensor for CO2 and trace gases is proposed. The sensor, named AirCore, provides the advantages of existing in situ sensors (e.g. high resolution) but eliminates possible biases in analysis that often originate from imperfect measurement condition. The AirCore provides a significant savings in cost and weight while increasing the capabilities of existing in situ sensors. The AirCore system consists of the AirCore gas sampler and the support system to accomplish its high altitude (nominally 70,000+ ft.) mission. This support system includes the sensor launch and recovery components. The AirCore can be launched and recovered by a limited crew, which reduces the operational cost of the system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The sampler methodology can be used for air quality monitoring over cities, industrial and agricultural sites. The UAV can be used for high altitude communication relays (traditional radio and cell), weather parameter monitoring, aerial photography, cloud seeding, etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed sensor can be used to provide "ground truth" information for several NASA initiatives on measurements of greenhouse and related gases in the atmosphere, including OCO2/ASCENDS, AURA/TES, and the TCCON sites. We propose to develop an AirCore sensor which will be hoisted aloft on a helium weather balloon to a nominal altitude of 70,000 ft. When the balloon reaches its target altitude, the payload (glider UAV plus AirCore sampler) will be released. The UAV (known as the Retriever) will then follow a prescribed spiraling descent path during which time the AirCore sampler will collect a continuous atmospheric sample. Upon UAV recovery, the AirCore sample will be analyzed.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Teleoperation
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.08-9403
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Airborne Measurement Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact LIDAR for Aerosol Extinction Profiling from Small UAV's

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Sciences, Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Sonnenfroh
sonnenfroh@psicorp.com111
20 New England Business Center
Andover,  MA 01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
It is increasingly recognized that the Arctic is a bellwether for climate change. As the Arctic region responds to climate forcings, monitoring how aerosol distributions respond and modify their impact on radiative transfer will become increasingly important in refining climate models and predictions. NASA, along with other agencies, has launched several programs such as ARCTAS to increase observations of the region and incorporate findings into large scale climate models. In order to supplement satellite observations and given the difficulty of ground-based observations in the Arctic, instrumented Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) represent one means to efficiently monitor large areas. Measurement of the vertical profile of atmospheric aerosol optical properties can provide new data crucial to understanding climate change in the Arctic. New instrumentation is required to enable routine, widespread measurements with good precision from unmanned aircraft. These new observations will have important implications for global climate change modeling and, ultimately, international energy policy making. In the Phase I program, we will develop a complete conceptual design for a flight-worthy, compact, eye safe lidar that will enable vertical profiling of aerosol optical extinction and scattering and that will be deployable on a compact unmanned aircraft system like the SIERRA or ScanEagle. In the Phase II program, we will fabricate, test, and field demonstrate a prototype sensor.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed airborne lidar will enable measurements of aerosol optical extinction on a wider scale and at higher frequencies than are possible now. Non-NASA commercial applications are likely to include many ground-based applications such as CBRNE detection, visibility and Asian dust monitoring, hazardous volcanic ash cloud monitoring, regional air quality and human health assessments. Introduction of the proposed lidar into newly emerging networks for boundary layer meteorology may also be possible.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed airborne lidar will enable measurements of aerosol optical extinction on a wider scale and at higher frequencies than are possible now. This is especially important in monitoring climate change in the Arctic. The larger database from more frequent studies will directly benefit the goals of NASA's climate change research efforts. One future NASA program that might benefit from the proposed airborne lidar is the GEOstationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission. Although a satellite-based program, the program might benefit from airborne corroborative observations of aerosol optical depth and aerosol absorption optical depth, much as was done for the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) program by manned aircraft. The basic sensor platform will be adaptable to applications requiring measurement of aerosols where sensor robustness and size are critical to performance, such as monitoring networks for boundary layer meteorology, as well as hazardous volcanic ash clouds.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.08-9610
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Airborne Measurement Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Matched Spectral Filter Imager

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optra, Inc.
461 Boston St
Topsfield, MA 01983-1234
(978) 887-6600

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Julia Dupuis
jrentz@optra.com111
461 Boston Street
Topsfield,  MA 01983-1234
(978) 887-6600

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
OPTRA proposes the development of an imaging spectrometer for greenhouse gas and volcanic gas imaging based on matched spectral filtering and compressive imaging. The matched spectral filter compressive imager (MSF-CI) system will be capable of simultaneously imaging and quantifying a series of compounds of interest via passive IR spectroscopy from an airborne or space-based platform.The MSF-CI operates in the 3-5.5 micron spectral range and employs two digital micromirror devices (DMDs) &#150; one to encode the spatial information and a second to encode the spectral information &#150; a dispersive spectrometer, and a single element thermoelectrically cooled mercury cadmium telluride detector. The proposed system offers a significant cost advantage relative to both imagers and hyperspectral imagers presently available in this spectral range as it does not require a costly infrared focal plane array (FPA). Moreover, the MSF-CI makes efficient use of compressive sensing and matched spectral filtering, resulting in minimized data bandwidth while preserving the information of interest. In addition, the use of the DMD in place of a conventional FPA offers significantly better image uniformity, pixel operability, signal to noise at low light levels, and dynamic range. The overall package is expected to be compact and rugged, making it ideal for airborne/space based applications. The proposed Phase I effort will produce a breadboard MSF-CI system which will be characterized and used for a carbon dioxide imaging demonstration.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications include remote sensing, environmental and process monitoring, and vehicle emissions diagnostics.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA application is airborne and/or space-based missions which are tasked with greenhouse gas, volcanic gas, and other air pollutant measurements.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Thermal Imaging (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Radiometric
Thermal
Infrared
Multispectral/Hyperspectral


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.08-9813
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Airborne Measurement Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Volcanic Ash Detection Using Raman LIDAR: "VADER"

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michigan Aerospace Corporation
1777 Highland Drive, Suite B
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-2285
(734) 975-8777

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dominique Fourguette
dfourguette@michiganaerospace.com111
1777 Highland Drive, Suite B
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-2285
(734) 975-8777

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Volcanic ash is a significant hazard to aircraft engine and electronics and has caused damage to unwary aircraft and disrupted air travel for thousands of travelers, costing millions of dollars. Michigan Aerospace Corporation (MAC) proposes to demonstrate the concept feasibility of a Raman Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system to obtain real-time information from volcanic ash clouds, to be named VADER (Volcanic Ash DEtection Raman LIDAR). The instrument will be designed to operate from an airborne platform, and as such, will be compact and light weight. This approach benefits from returning real-time measurements, in contrast to sampling methods (impactors) that require post-mission analysis. This project will utilize MAC's extensive heritage of rugged LIDAR system design and construction.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
VADER will have similar utility for non-NASA civil organizations (NOAA, FAA, etc.) and military services (US Air Force, etc.) in conducting scientific studies of volcanic ash characteristics and dispersal. A next generation of VADER, more compact, would be mountable aboard UAVs to "scout" the airways during major eruptions in order to confirm that commercial and military aircraft cannot fly or give clearance for flights if the concentrations are not judged high enough to be a threat. With enough data, this will allow commercial and military aviation to continue safely during eruptions without widespread disruptions. Future systems could potentially be mounted aboard commercial and military aircraft as a warning system and/or as part of a unified system gathering data on ash concentrations from wherever the VADER-equipped aircraft are flying, providing even more data for entry into models and for warning purposes. Combined with MAC's optical air data system and turbulence-detection systems, a single sensor system may be devised that would detect both volcanic and turbulence hazards ahead and report airspeed along with air, temperature and density routinely, providing commercial aircraft with a valuable new optically-based multi-function warning/air data system. This would increase commercial aviation safety and enhance pilot awareness of the air situation ahead of the aircraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
An airborne volcanic ash detection/characterization system, such as VADER, will have wide applications in the study of the threat volcanic ash poses to aircraft and for other scientific study of volcanic plumes. Studies carried out with VADER will allow NASA to refine their models of volcanic ash dispersion based on more data than is available at present. There is potential to combine such a system with MAC's optical air data system and turbulence-detection systems into a unified system that would sense both volcanic and turbulence hazards ahead and report airspeed along with air, temperature and density routinely.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Ultraviolet
Visible


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.08-9897
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Airborne Measurement Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Differential Photoacoustic Particle Absorption Monitor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerodyne Research, Inc.
45 Manning Road
Billerica, MA 01821-3976
(978) 663-9500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zhenhong Yu
zyu@aerodyne.com111
45 Manning Road
Billerica,  MA 01821-3976
(978) 932-0265

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a highly sensitive and compact monitor to measure light absorption from particulate matters. The fundamental of the proposed device is based on differential photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy (DPAS). It will be able to be remotely controlled and operated at high altitude. Background interference from NO2 absorption and acoustic noise of aircraft engines will be significantly reduced due to a specific acoustic cell design. The Phase I project will provide a proof-of-concept demonstration. The ultimate goal of this study is to design and construct a portable PM absorption monitor for NASA's airborne measurement programs. The tasks of the proposal will include: 1) Construction of a laboratory prototype DPAS PM absorption monitor; 2) Development of an absorption calibration scheme; 3) Comparative study on optical absorption of laboratory soot particles with multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP); and 4) Performance evaluation at a variety of sampling pressure. This SBIR Phase study will be performed by Aerodyne Research, Inc., in collaboration with United Technologies Research Center (UTRC). Both companies have been major participants in past NASA/FAA-sponsored aircraft emissions programs with extensive experiences in the study of PM optical absorption as well as soot formation and evolution in the atmosphere.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We expect that the DPAS PM absorption monitor developed under this program will significantly benefit the scientific community interested in characterizing the radiative properties of ambient aerosols. The ability of one instrument to simultaneously measure particle absorption with good time resolution and high precision will enable continuous measurements of the particle optical absorption that can be directly used by regional and global climate forcing models. In combination with the Cavity Attenuated Phase-Shift (CAPS) extinction monitor, single particle albedo of ambient aerosols could be directly determined. The development of a DPAS PM absorption monitor would have a large impact on the ambient air quality monitoring community. PM2.5 and PM10 levels must be routinely monitored as part of ambient air pollution monitoring programs. Current techniques rely on use of collection filters and subsequent weighing, a procedure which is labor intensive (and thus expensive) and prone to human error. There are 5000 sites in the U.S. alone which must monitor particulates under the mandate of the Clean Air Act of 1970. Particulate emissions from stationary combustors like power plants must also be monitored and an automated DPAS instrument would provide considerable savings over current technology, which costs on the order of $80,000-100,000 per unit!

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA need for this technology is to measure PM light absorption at different altitudes for its Airborne Measurement program. At present, PM absorption is measured by collecting sample on a filter subtract and measuring light extinction and scattering of the collected samples during the airborne measurements. This method suffers from a number of intrinsic errors such as low sensitivity, ambient-pressure sampling and scattering light interference. The proposed DPAS technique will be far more sensitive than the filter-based techniques, and is capable of sampling at different pressures and providing 1s data acquisition measurement on absorption. In addition, emissions of small particulates (PM10 and PM2.5) are regulated by the EPA. The impact of particulate emissions from aircraft engines, which have a direct effect on radiative forcing, is magnified by the fact they are typically emitted in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere where their influence is greatest. Past NASA programs such as EXCAVATE, APEX, UNA-UNA, and AAFEX have had as a major focus of their work, the measurement of black carbon (BC) emissions from civilian aircraft engines. The proposed DPAS PM absorption monitor can be used as a BC emission monitor to provide a cost-efficient, compact, fast and real-time BC measurement on aircraft engines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Visible


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.09-9206
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface & Sub-surface Measurement Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Precision remote sensor for oxygen and carbon dioxide

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mesa Photonics, LLC
1550 Pacheco St.
Santa Fe, NM 87505-3914
(505) 216-5015

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Bomse
dbomse@mesaphotonics.com111
1550 Pacheco St.
Santa Fe,  NM 87505-3914
(216) 505-5015

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Mesa Photonics proposes development of a passive optical sensor for simultaneous high-precision measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide profiles within the full atmospheric column. The approach, which is based on near-infrared heterodyne spectroscopy using solar occultation (i.e., direct solar viewing), is called Precision Heterodyne Oxygen-Calibrated Spectrometer, or PHOCS. Oxygen measurements will provide dry gas corrections and &#150; more importantly &#150; will determine accurate temperature profiles that, in turn, improve the precision of the carbon dioxide column retrievals to better than 1%. Planned instruments will complement results anticipated from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2), Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS), and ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers. PHOCS instruments will be small (not much bigger than a pair of binoculars), light weight, and low power. In keeping with one of the goals of this SBIR topic, planned instruments will be initially configured for operation on the ground, and have size, weight, and power (SWAP) characteristics suitable for easy ground mobility and well as airborne or space-borne deployment. The Phase I project will test an all-fiber-optic heterodyne receiver that will simplify optical design and ensure long-term optical alignment. Oxygen measurements will use the near-infrared band the 1.27 micron wavelength region instead of the more commonly used band at 0.76 microns. The longer wavelength band is weaker; precise lineshapes of many individual rotational lines will be measureable without complications due to highly saturated absorbances or instrument line shape functions (ILS). Carbon dioxide measurements will use the well-characterized band at 1.57 microns.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applications of near-infrared heterodyne remote sensing include environmental and industrial monitoring of gases including carbon monoxide, ammonia, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Of these, ammonia has the largest commercial potential because ammonia emissions (primarily from agricultural sources) leads to formation of fine particulates (PM2.5) that have serious pulmonary health effects and can nucleate cloud formation (a climate issue). The EPA has constrained ammonia transport across parts of the US midwest and passive remote sensors are ideal for monitoring compliance. Constraints have also been placed on emissions from concentrated animal feed operations(CAFOs)including 900 CAFOs subject to a compliance agreement with the EPA. Monitoring hydrogen fluoride emissions from aluminum smelters and ceramic and brick factories also define a commercial niche for the proposed technology. Large area measurements of carbon monoxide are important for urban areas in which seasonal weather effects drive CO concentrations above safe levels and that can trigger mandatory restrictions on fireplace use.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Motivation for the NASA commerical applications is described well by Rebecca A. Washenfelder in her Ph.D. thesis (Caltech, 2006), " To predict future climate change, we must accurately predict future atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and CH4. The current budget has typically been inferred from top down analyses of measurements from a global network of surface sites. These measurements are highly accurate, but have limited spatial coverage. In addition, accurate knowledge of local planetary boundary layer dynamics is necessary to determine fluxes. Column measurements, defined as the vertical integral of gas concentration, can complement the existing in situ network. Because column measurements sample a larger portion of the atmosphere, they exhibit less variability than surface data, while retaining information about surface fluxes. Column measurements are not influenced by planetary boundary layer dynamics, and do not suffer from the resulting correlation between exchange and transport." PHOCS is intended to help meet this research need. Our approach is particularly useful because of its flexibility in deployment methods. Commercial instruments can be mounted on the ground, on board ships, or on aircraft and research balloons. Size, weight, and power (SWAP) parameters make PHOCS suitable for Raven-class UAVs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Radiometric
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.09-9238
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface & Sub-surface Measurement Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Compact In Situ Sensor for Measurement of Absorption and Backscattering in Natural Waters

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sequoia Scientific, Inc.
2700 Richards Road
Bellevue, WA 98005-4200
(425) 641-0944

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Wayne Slade
wslade@sequoiasci.com111
2700 Richards Road, Suite 107
Bellevue,  WA 98005-4200
(425) 641-0944

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop an active sensor for in situ measurement of the inherent optical properties (IOPs) absorption and backscattering at multiple wavelengths. Multi- or hyper-spectral absorption of particles and dissolved materials is routinely measured in the laboratory and in situ in order to characterize, for example, the quantities and types of phytoplankton based on concentrations of specific absorbing pigments. Similarly, backscattering is employed to estimate the concentration of suspended material. Measurements of absorption and backscattering concurrently, and at multiple wavelengths, are useful as proxies for biogeochemical measurements such as particle composition, concentration of particulate organic carbon, and particle size distribution, as well as for remote sensing calibration and validation. The current state of the art for phytoplankton observation using optical sensors on autonomous platforms relies on linking biomass with optical backscattering and chlorophyll. The ability to quantify phytoplankton using absorption not only overcomes limitations of backscattering and fluorescence-based approaches, but multi-spectral (visible wavelength) measurements of absorption also provide the means to discern the presence of accessory pigments and pigment packaging, ultimately leading to not only improvements in phytoplankton biomass estimates, but also the potential for resolving phytoplankton functional types. Briefly, the proposed sensor emits a collimated beam of light into the water and measures the backscattered light as a radial function from the beam location. An inversion algorithm is then used to convert this backscattered intensity as a function of distance from the beam to the inherent optical properties absorption and backscattering. Multiple source wavelengths are used and the sensor is packaged in a compact, flat-faced geometry easing integration into autonomous platforms.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Similar to the NASA Applications, the target market for the proposed sensor is extremely broad. Government scientists and agency-funded researchers (many federal agencies including NSF, NRL, ONR, NOAA, as well as state environmental agencies) in ocean science and coastal monitoring routinely measure IOPs, and the ability to incorporate a wider range of measurements (especially including absorption) on a wide range of platforms covering a wide range of scales is a critical need.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed sensor addresses several NASA interests under the S1.09 "Surface & Sub-surface Measurement Systems" subtopic, including particle characterization, water quality, IOP measurements for calibration and validation of ocean color data, proxies for biogeochemical particle composition, and properties of aquatic environments such as detection of phytoplankton and their functional groups. All aspects of optical oceanography research, including biology, particle analysis, and ocean color remote sensing rely on measurements of these key IOPs. Researchers using autonomous platforms are a key market since absorption is not currently measured on these platforms due to limitations of current absorption sensors (e.g., flow-through design, size, power demand, fouling). The flat-faced design also allows for easy incorporation of shutters or wipers to prevent fouling for moored and other long term deployments such as in ocean observatories. The simple and compact design is highly desired for incorporation into existing profiling CTD rosettes used routinely in oceanography. The proposed sensor measuring absorption and backscattering across a wide range of platforms and scales has wide applicability in the field of ocean optics and ocean biology and biogeochemistry. NASA scientists and NASA-funded researchers in these fields routinely measure in-water IOPs and the target market for this sensor is extremely broad.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Biological Signature (i.e., Signs Of Life)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Visible


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S1.09-9600
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface & Sub-surface Measurement Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multi-Configuration Matched Spectral Filter Core

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optra, Inc.
461 Boston St
Topsfield, MA 01983-1234
(978) 887-6600

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Julia Dupuis
jrentz@optra.com111
461 Boston Street
Topsfield,  MA 01983-1234
(978) 887-6600

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
OPTRA proposes an open-architecture spectral gas sensor based on compressive sensing concepts employed for both spatial and spectral domains. Our matched spectral filter (MSF) core can be used as a single point detector in either point or standoff configurations or it can be coupled with a compressive imaging module for molecular imaging. The MSF core employs a digital micromirror device (DMD) to apply reference spectra to a spatially dispersed spectrum; the dot product measured with a single element photodetector is proportional to the probability of the compound corresponding to the reference spectrum being present. The MSF can also be used for quantification via grayscaling of the DMD. This approach effectively performs multicomponent spectral analysis in hardware rather than software thereby reducing data bandwidth requirements. The MFS will be designed for the 3-5.5 micron spectral range enabling detection and quantification of a range of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants. This solution represents a significant cost and size reduction relative to commercially available spectrometers operating in this spectral range, as it does not require a focal plane array or interferometer. Under the Phase I effort we will design, build, and test the MSF core configured for point detection.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications include remote sensing, environmental and process monitoring, and vehicle emissions diagnostics.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA application is initially gas detection from ground-based surface vehicles. This solicitation describes the application of these sensors for ground based surface use as a maturation step towards the ultimate application of airborne and/or mobile missions. Airborne missions are tasked with greenhouse gas and other air pollutant measurements.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Thermal Imaging (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Radiometric
Thermal
Infrared
Multispectral/Hyperspectral


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S2.01-9417
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Proximity Glare Suppression for Astronomical Coronagraphy
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fabrication Process and Electronics Development for Scaling Segmented MEMS DMs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Iris AO, Inc.
2680 Bancroft Way
Berkeley, CA 94704-1717
(510) 849-2375

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Helmbrecht
michael.helmbrecht@irisao.com111
2680 Bancroft Way
Berkeley,  CA 94704-1717
(510) 849-2375

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology has the potential to create deformable mirrors (DM) with more than 10^4 actuators that have size, weight, and power specifications that are far lower than conventional piezoelectric and electrostrictive DMs. However, considerable development is necessary to take state-of-the-art DMs today and make them flight-like. This Phase I SBIR proposal addresses two critical areas in MEMS DM development towards the goal of developing flight-like hardware. Namely, Phase I research will further develop Iris AO's proven hybrid MEMS DM technology to: 1) make a critical assembly step in the fabrication process scalable to wafer scales and 2) increase drive electronics resolution to 16 bits while simultaneously reducing power requirements more than three-fold over existing 14-bit resolution electronics. The increased spatial and actuator resolution afforded by the development here will enable picometer resolution DMs required to reach 10^10 contrast levels necessary for direct detection of Earth-sized terrestrial planets.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed adaptive optics technology would find immediate application in several military communications and imaging products. Systems used in military surveillance such as in the Predator drone and Global Hawk would benefit from the high-resolution, light weight, and low power consumption afforded by Iris AO's MEMS. Amtospheric correction enabled by these low-cost but highly capable devices would benefit space situational awareness surveilance applications as well. In the commercial sector, adaptive optics has been employed in research systems in biological imaging, most notably in vision science and microscopy. Several research universities are reporting results using AO-equipped systems. The high segment-count devices enabled by this proposal would lead to unprecedented levels of spatial fidelity for biological imaging applications. Other commercial applications include metrology, laser processing, coherent combination of multiple fiber lasers, and laser beam quality improvement and drift compensation. Iris AO segmented mirrors are uniquely well-suited to higher power applications such as laser processing, combining fiber lasers, and laser beam quality improvement. This advantage lies in the relatively thick segments that enable the use of dielectric coatings which tend to warp conventional surface micromachined MEMS DMs. The precision open-loop operation of Iris AO DMs greatly simplifies the use of DMs in these applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Iris AO technology can be a key enabling component in a host of future NASA missions, including the space telescopes of the 'Origins' program including Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF), Space Astronomy Far Infrared Telescope (SAFIR), Life Finder, and Planet Imager. Four recent ASMCS concepts require multiple DMs to implement coronagraphs. Two of these, DAViNCI and EPIC, specifically require segmented MEMS DMs. Other potential programs such as Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEU) and ultraviolet telescopes will also require adaptive optics. Finally, ground based telescopes, like the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), Keck, and Gemini North & South, require adaptive optics to remove aberrations caused by atmospheric turbulence. Another potential area for Iris AO technology is in laser communications with satellites. Iris AO DMs are capable of handling tens to hundreds of Watts of optical power with dielectric coatings. The DMs could be used to compensate for atmospheric turbulence that inhibits downlink and uplink bandwidth.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Characterization
Prototyping
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Processing Methods
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Adaptive Optics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S2.01-9884
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Proximity Glare Suppression for Astronomical Coronagraphy
PROPOSAL TITLE: Driver ASICs for Advanced Deformable Mirrors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Microscale, Inc.
800 West Cummings Park, Suite 3350
Woburn, MA 01801-6377
(781) 995-2245

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
xingtao wu
xwu@microscaleinc.com111
800 West Cummings Park, Suite 3350
Woburn,  MA 01801-6377
(339) 927-1996

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The program leverages on our extensive expertise in developing high-performance driver ASICs for deformable mirror systems and seeks to expand the capacities of the proposed novel ASIC technology to beyond what have been possible by using traditional techniques. The overall goal of the SBIR program will be to develop a new class of Application Specified Integrated Circuit (ASIC) driver technology to be used in driver electronics of a deformable mirror (DM) system for reducing power dissipation, improving controllability, enforcing multiplexing bandwidth, and significantly reducing the form factors of the entire DM system for adaptive optics. Through the Phase I project, we aims to transform the technology readiness level from TRL 1 to TRL 2, and in Phase II, the technology readiness level for the proposed ASIC driver system will be promoted from TRL 2 to TRL 4 within a 2-year time frame.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As an enabling technology for deformable mirrors, the ASIC will work together with DMs to enable a commercial application as well. Future non-NASA applications for deformable mirrors include laser beam shaping, ophthalmology and other microscope applications. In our commercial strategy, we plan to develop imaging enhancement chip to meet ophthalmology retinal imaging requirements. In addition, for the Department of Defense, if needed, we would build prototype ASIC/DM integrated module based on the Phase II results and apply these to military seekers, FLIRs and commercial adaptive optical systems. For MEMS industry, the ASIC circuit could be combined with piezoelectric and electrostatic microactuators to serve a large variety of device applications including those in optical MEMS, RF MEMS and Bio MEMS. For example, for electrostatic based MEMS portable display light engines, the ASIC could be implemented to further reduce the power dissipation of the entire display device.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The driver ASIC and a DM will work together to enable NASA's applications including high-performance adaptive optics systems for (1) correction of aberrations in large-aperture, space-deployed optical interferometers and telescopes (e.g. for nulling coronagraph), (2) high-resolution imaging and communication through atmospheric turbulence, and (3) optical path alignment. Based on this NASA-supported ASIC driver platform technology, the products to be enabled through the program will be a series of driver ASICs for serving the deformable mirrors being used and/or to be implemented in NASA's future adaptive optics instrumentations. Not limited to the unique DM solution that our company is developing for NASA, but also applicable to drive DMs developed by other companies as long as the actuators are capacitive and within the working ranges of the driver ASIC. Differentiating itself from traditional driver solutions is its ultralow power dissipation, uncompromised board bandwidth (from quasi-static to up to 100 kHz), compactness, lightweight, and low cost, and should these features be demanded by a specific AO system design, the proposed ASIC technology will be worthy of considerations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Adaptive Optics
Mirrors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S2.02-8990
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Precision Deployable Optical Structures and Metrology
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Outrigger Component for a Deployable Occulter System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ROCCOR, LLC
686 S. Taylor Ave, Ste. 108
Louisville, CO 80027-3000
(720) 300-8167

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Francis
will.francis@roccor.com111
686 S. Taylor Ave, Ste. 108
Louisville,  CO 80027-3000
(303) 587-7467

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Roccor, LLC, propose the development of a highly novel and structurally efficient outrigger strut design feature that efficiently integrates with a large deployable starshade or, occulter, currently under development by NASA-JPL. The starshade acts as an external occulter to suppress the incoming starlight sufficiently for detecting and characterizing exoplanets. Key to the performance of the occulter is achieving sufficiently high out-of-plane stiffness to withstand maneuvering loads as well as meet the shape-tolerance requirement. Roccor's proposed effort utilizes a highly novel deployable outrigger system that seamlessly integrates into the current deployable occulter design. Further, Roccor's approach leverages our considerable background in elastically stowed and deployed composite structures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed composite deployable structure technology could see use in within the broader military and commercial spacecraft market by contributing to the development of other deployable apertures for satellites (e.g., solar arrays, booms, antennas, etc.). Terrestrial applications for the proposed technology include deployable shelters (e.g., tents, shades, etc.) for military and consumer markets and portable, man-packable antennas for military personnel.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary near-term NASA target for the proposed deployable outrigger system is the deployable occulter currently under development by NASA-JPL. Beyond this mission, however, the proposed technology provides considerable advancement in the area of elastically stowed and deployed composite structural elements. Thus, the results of this SBIR program could transition into other space deployable applications include solar arrays, solar sails, sun shields, booms, antennas, etc. that are based, in part, on the use of composite structural elements.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Composites
Deployment
Structures
Filtering
Telescope Arrays
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S2.03-8464
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Optical Component Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Stress Silicon Cladding for Surface Finishing Large UVOIR Mirrors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ZeCoat Corporation
1052 Golden Road
Encinitas, CA 92024-4607
(858) 342-7515

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Sheikh
dsheikh@zecoat.com111
1052 Golden Road
Encinitas,  CA 92024-4607
(858) 342-7515

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this Phase I research, ZeCoat Corporation will develop an affordable, low-stress silicon cladding process which is super-polishable for large UVOIR mirrors. The proposed ion-assisted evaporation process is directly scaleable to SiC mirrors several meters in diameter. The process is based on a novel, low temperature, ion-assisted, evaporation technique (IAD), whereby the coating stress of a silicon film may be manipulated from compressive to tensile, in order to produce a near-zero net stress for the complete layer. A cladding with little intrinsic stress is essential to minimize bending that would otherwise distort the figure of very lightweight mirrors. Current methods to produce a polishable silicon cladding utilize CVD processes that produce highly stressed Si coatings. The current processes require high-temperatures (hundreds of degrees Celsius) and are not readily scaleable to large mirrors. CVD Si cladding is currently limited to mirror substrates less than 1-meter in diameter. The proposed IAD process produces little heat, and the mirror size is limited only by the size of the vacuum chamber. Large silicon carbide (SiC) mirrors (3-4 meters in diameter) are being considered for future space-based UVOIR astronomy missions. These lightweight mirrors will likely require a highly-polishable layer of silicon (10 to 50 microns) applied on top of the SiC. A relatively thick layer of Si is desirable for the purpose of reducing figuring time and for achieving a super-polished surface, suitable for UV astronomy. Normal incidence 4-meter class UVOIR telescopes have been cited as a high priority by multiple government review panels including; the National Research Council's (NRC) study of NASA's Space Technology Roadmap and Priorities, The Office of the Chief Technologist, The Cosmic Origins Program and NWNH Decadal.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non NASA applications include lightweight mirrors for missile interceptor telescopes (Missile Defense Agency), high-energy laser mirrors (US Air Force), space-based RF reflectors for high-frequency communication (about 100 GHz) (US Air Force). If low enough prices can be achieved by coating large volumes of small mirrors, high-performance laboratory grade mirrors could be sold through distributers such as "Edmond Scientific" and others.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ultimate goal of this research is to make silicon clad mirrors for lightweight telescopes. NASA applications include future UVOIR space-based observatories, cryogenic IR mirrors, high-frequency RF reflectors operating above 100-GHz, and laser scanning and relay mirrors.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Nanomaterials
Mirrors
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Electromagnetic
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Ultraviolet
Visible
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S2.03-8635
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Optical Component Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Broad-Band EUV Multilayer Coatings For Solar Physics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Reflective X-ray Optics, LLC
1361 Amsterdam Avenue, Suite 3B
New York, NY 10027-2589
(347) 850-2212

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Windt
davidwindt@gmail.com111
1361 Amsterdam Avenue, Suite 3B
New York,  NY 10027-2589
(347) 850-2212

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop and commercialize a new class of aperiodic multilayer coating that is designed to provide high normal-incidence reflectance over a wide spectral band-pass in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region, specifically from 9 to 14 nm. A broad-band reflective coating working at these wavelengths will enable, for the first time, the construction of high-resolution imaging spectrometers for solar physics utilizing diffraction gratings operating near normal incidence in this range, akin to previous instruments utilizing normal-incidence optics working at longer EUV wavelengths (i.e., lambda>17 nm) such as the Hinode/EIS satellite instrument and the EUNIS sounding rocket instrument. The development of high-resolution, normal-incidence grating spectrometers operating in the 9&#150;14 nm range will in turn allow for detailed investigations of important solar emission lines, such as those from Fe XVIII &#150; XXIII, that can provide unique diagnostics of high temperature plasma associated with solar flares and active regions. The successful development of efficient, broad-band EUV multilayers for the 9&#150;14 nm region as we propose will thus enable future flights of the EUNIS rocket to target this band, and will also enable the development of high resolution spectrometers that can meet the science requirements of future NASA satellite missions, such as RAM, Solar-C and others that are currently being contemplated.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The new broad-band EUV multilayers we propose to develop could find application in a variety of research areas in addition to solar physics, including plasma diagnostics, synchrotron instrumentation, ultra-fast physics, and free-electron laser experiments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful completion of our proposed SBIR activities will result in the development and commercial availability of high-performance broad-band EUV multilayer coatings for the 9&#150;14 nm range that can meet the performance goals of future NASA solar physics missions. The realization of broad-band multilayer coatings having high reflectance at the target wavelengths, low film stress, and good thermal and temporal stability, will enable the construction of high performance imaging spectrometers targeting this wavelength range for the first time. These new coatings could be used for future flights of the EUNIS sounding rocket instrument, and for future NASA satellite missions such as RAM, Solar-C and others.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Gratings
Mirrors
X-rays/Gamma Rays
Ultraviolet


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S2.03-9358
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Optical Component Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Composite single crystal silicon scan mirror substrates

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Onyx Optics, Inc.
6551 Sierra Lane
Dublin, CA 94568-2798
(925) 833-1969

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Xiaodong Mu
xmu@onyxoptics.com111
6551 Sierra Lane
Dublin,  CA 94568-2798
(925) 833-1969

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Single crystal silicon is a desirable mirror substrate for scan mirrors in space telescopes. As diameters of mirrors become larger, existing manufacturing capabilities of single crystal silicon (SCSi) cannot supply sizes that are larger than about 450 mm in diameter. Onyx Optics proposes to develop a process based on our established technique of Adhesive-Free Bonding (AFB&#174;) of single crystals, optical ceramics and glasses that can produce sizes that are larger than commercially available SCSi. The precision composites, consisting of SCSi components, are expected to perform as well as a single crystal. Precision grinding and polishing of large composite SCSi without subsurface damage is a desirable feature for large scan mirror substrates. As part of the proposed manufacturing process, Onyx Optics proposes to develop a technique that is based on electrolytic in-process dressing (ELID) of grinding wheels of decreasing diamond grain sizes. The process is generally applicable to ductile grinding of hard materials such as glass, sapphire, silicon carbide, silicon nitride and SCSi and is known to result in low stress components. Composite SCSi interfaces will be charactized interferometrically at 1.55 micron by their transmitted wavefront. Heat transfer measurements across bonded interfaces of SCSi will be performed at room temperature and liquid nitrogen. Equi-biaxial fracture strength of composite disks will be determined and compared with control disks.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Besides NASA, the excellent properties of SCSi mirror substrates make then desirable for Defense applications as well, such as scan mirrors for telescopes for imaging, surveillance and reconnaissance and for high energy air-borne laser systems. Customers for Onyx Optics will include Northrop Grumman and Lockheed Martin.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Technology continues to be developed at NASA GSFC to produce SCSi lightweight mirrors for cryogenic and other applications. This proposal aims to contribute to this effort by developing a process to supply mirrors of larger diameter than can readily be produced directly by crystal growth, i.e. larger than about 450 mm diameter. SCSi mirrors have important performance and cost advantages over ULE, SiC, Zerodur and beryllium for the whole spectrum of applications for scan mirrors and telescopes. NASA applications include GOES-R satellites and Lidar for planetary explorations and space-based astrophysics. The present proposal represents a solution to producing high-quality low-stress large SCSi mirrors and substrates at much reduced cost in comparison to any other technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Composites
Mirrors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S2.04-9423
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optics Manufacturing and Metrology for Telescope Optical Surfaces
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Optical Metrology for XRAY Replication Mandrels and Mirrors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aperture Optical Sciences Inc
27 Parson Lane unit G
Durham, CT 06422-1323
(860) 316-2589

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kai Xin
kxin@apertureos.com111
27 Parson Ln
Durham,  CT 06422-1323
(860) 316-2589

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced x-ray observatories such as IXO and GenX will require thousands of thin shell mirror segments produced by replication using convex mandrels. Quality and cost effective manufacturing of these segments is proportional to the speed and effectiveness of the metrology we use in manufacturing and the ability to use accurate measurements to enable deterministic fabrication. AOS proposes development of an efficient and accurate metrology system to enable the manufacturing of sements with performance of 0.5 arc-second or better. A curent method to test such mandrels is to stitch multiple meridional profiles acquired using a large aperture plano interferometer and an air-bearing actuated partholder. AOS will advance this method, by building an automated platform, driven by custom developed software, and implementing improvements that will enhance both the accuracy and efficiency of the test.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
X-ray optics, or "grazing incidence optics" are used in a variety of applications including synchrotron beam lines, extreme UV lithography, and x-ray spectroscopy for chemical analysis. Breakthroughs in low cost manufacturing of high quality x-ray optics will open new applications in this region of the electromagnetic spectrum, accelerating the growth of high performance imaging products in remote sensing, x-ray analytical equipment, EUV Lithography, and man-portable military sensors and unmanned airborne optical sensors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The next generation of space astronomy will require even greater technological breakthroughs to produce telescopes of far lower areal density at far lower cost per square meter. Segmented mirrors, like those being used on the James Webb Space Telescope, are candidate designs for the ATLAST Program, having a primary mirror diameter of 8 to 16.8 meters. Advanced x-ray telescopes such as GenX, using nested Wolter &#150; Type 1 designs will require thousands of thin shell mirror segments produced by replication using convex mandrels. Scientific instruments aboard these telescope payloads will certainly include optical components and structures that will drive further advancements in manufacturing technology. The technical effort proposed here has clear potential to benefit these and other future space astronomy programs by improving the performance and lowering the cost of precision optical components.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Processing Methods
Mirrors
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S2.04-9446
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optics Manufacturing and Metrology for Telescope Optical Surfaces
PROPOSAL TITLE: Light Weight, Scalable Manufacturing of Telescope Optics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ReliaCoat Technologies, LLC
25 Health Sciences Drive. Suite 123
Stony Brook, NY 11790-3350
(631) 739-8818

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher Jensen
chris.jensen@reliacoat.com111
25 Health Sciences Drive. Suite 123
Stony Brook,  NY 11790-3350
(631) 739-8818

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's future X-ray astronomy missions will require X-ray optics that have large effective areas, are lightweight, and cost effective. Recent X-ray telescopes, such as the Chandra Observatory, utilized reflectors made from zerodur which were up to 20mm thick. The thickness of the reflector as well as the mass limited the number of nested optics that could be implemented. The current state of the art reflectors are made from electroformed nickel/cobalt which is on the order of 1mm thick. The implementation of these thin optics have greatly increased the number of nested reflectors possible. XMM-Newton uses such optics and consists of 58 nested reflectors compared to 4 for Chandra. Aside from the manufacturing cost of the reflectors themselves, the mass of the telescope is a large factor that determines the overall cost of the mission, mainly due to the requirements of the launch vehicle. The proposed innovation seeks to improve upon the current state of the art by replacing much of the NiCo with a stiff, lightweight ceramic material. A thermal spray process will be developed to allow for the deposition of porosity graded alumina onto the rear surface of the reflector. Several diagnostic techniques will be used to adjust the inflight particle state as well as the resulting residual stress of the coating as to not adversely affect the figure accuracy of the optic. The gradation of the alumina layer will allow for CTE matching with the electroformed shell as well as optimization of the ceramic stiffness. By reducing the NiCo layer from 1mm to less than 100um and adding a 200um alumina layer as the support structure the overall mass of the telescope can be greatly reduced and thus reduce the overall cost of the mission. Additionally the overall thinner optic would allow a greater packing density and increase the capabilities of such X-ray telescopes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
While the development focuses on x-ray optics, significant possibilities exist for multi-spectral systems (i.e. UV, visible, infrared). These applications can be applied to the area of defense telescopes, commercial space exploration and medical imaging. The proposed innovation of coating microstructure gradation for supporting the precise x-ray optical surface can be applied to other applications due to highly robustness of thermal spray processes including surface conforming ability, large area deposition, fast deposition rate, and versatile process parameter variation as compared to vacuum deposition coating processes. Free standing multi-layer thick coating pipes and tubes manufactured via thermal spray forming process and separation from a graphite mandrel have already been tested. Residual stress management of the multi-functional layers is critical to achieve the uniform geometry as well as good cohesive strength. In conjunction, microstructure gradation via porosity level will reduce the overall system weight while provide enough structural stiffness. TS process is applicable for membrane-type solid oxide fuel cell fabrication in a consecutive and economical deposition process from dense electrolyte layers to porous electrode layers. Porosity graded microstructure investigation along with residual stress management benefits this SOFC structure development.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
X-ray astronomy is highly dependent upon focusing optics as illustrated by the profound influence that results from the Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku observatories are having upon astrophysics. X-ray measurements address many of the major scientific objectives of NASA. They involve the entire range of X-ray emitting objects from the most distant supermassive black holes to planets and comets in our own solar system. Any innovation that can reduce the mass, lower the cost or improve the resolution of a telescope would be important as it would allow future missions to occur sooner and be more effective. The development we are proposing includes fabrication and manufacturing techniques that can benefit X-ray telescope technology and the success in fabricating and testing new lighter weight, stronger material optics will allow high throughput X-ray integral mirror shell telescopes to be substantially lighter weight, with improved angular resolution. This endeavor would lead to the design and development of X-ray optics for future NASA missions such as the Advanced X-ray Spectroscopic Imaging Observatory (AXSIO) and the construction of hard X-ray telescopes for future missions, including Explorer missions. Future X-ray astronomy missions such as Smart-X will require large effective area and will utilize a segmented optics approach. Our technology studies to fabricate lighter weight substrates which may also be useful for future missions requiring segmented optics.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Characterization
Project Management
Image Analysis
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Metallics
Structures
Lenses
Mirrors
Telescope Arrays
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S2.04-9968
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optics Manufacturing and Metrology for Telescope Optical Surfaces
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Cost Method of Manufacturing Space Optics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ORMOND, LLC
4718 B Street NW, Suite 104
Auburn, WA 98001-1750
(253) 854-0796

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dan Alberts
dana@ormondllc.com111
4718 B Street NW, Suite 104
Auburn,  WA 98001-1750
(253) 854-0796

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Proposed is the development of a manufacturing technology that will increase feasible large optics design options and significantly reduce the manufacturing time, cost and risk involved in manufacturing large optic components. Specifically addressed are cutting and light weighting of glass and ceramic optical components. While milling and cutting materials such as ULE or SiC is often performed at Ormond using a novel technology, there is a need to develop this technology to a point where the risk of machining large optics made from these materials is acceptably low and NASA and its contractors understand the technical and cost performance. Development is needed to address engineering requirements of large optics and to advance production readiness. In Phase I, proprietary glass and ceramic cutting and milling technologies will be adapted to space optics requirements through software, process and tool development. Performance data will be immediately available to support ongoing NASA programs and to set the groundwork for Phase II. Key risk reduction methods will be identified. The Phase I workscope will involve NASA primes to demonstrate and prove the feasibility of implementing the proposed technology in large optics manufacturing. Phase II will result in a commercial ready means of cutting and milling large optics.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The developments made under the proposed SBIR will support any application where brittle materials are machined, especially applications where challenging ceramics such as SiC must be machined in bulk. Another large market area is the ceramic armor industry. Manufacturers are searching for reduced cost methods of shaping armor plates; an excellent application for the present development where subsurface flaws and residual stresses must be avoided.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Management at the Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems group have stated that the developments made under this SBIR will directly support NASA programs including JDEM, IXO, LISA, ICESAT, ATLAST, CLARREO and ACE.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Lenses
Mirrors
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S3.01-8979
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Command, Data Handling, and Electronics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Modular SiGe 130 nm Cell Library for Extreme Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ridgetop Group, Inc.
3580 West Ina Road
Tucson, AZ 85741-2276
(520) 742-3300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Esko Mikkola
emikkola@ridgetopgroup.com111
3580 West Ina Road
Tucson,  AZ 85741-2276
(520) 742-3300

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA space missions utilizing application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) under extreme conditions have a critical need for high performance analog cell libraries to support the mission requirements. With the introduction of silicon germanium (SiGe) processes, there is an opportunity to provide resilient analog circuit designs that handle both temperature and radiation hardening requirements. Our experience has indicated that meeting extreme temperature requirements is as challenging as meeting the radiation-hardening requirements and innovation in this area is warranted. Maintaining key operating specifications such as linearity and dynamic range while under both extreme temperature and radiation exposure conditions is a difficult problem requiring an innovative solution. Ridgetop Group will build a cell library of key "building block" analog cells needed for pipeline, flash and successive approximation register (SAR) ADCs; and capacitor array DACs. We will develop transistor-level designs and simulate these blocks to prove feasibility and demonstrate the effectiveness of the minimal temperature response (MTR) design techniques. After achieving desired MTR, rad-hard by design (RHBD) methods will be employed to meet the radiation specs. In Phase 2 of this SBIR program Ridgetop will fabricate and test a 12-bit ADC based on this library to validate its efficacy.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Medical imaging market; satellite telecommunications market; nuclear energy applications; military applications; high-energy physics instrumentation; industrial radiation-tolerant instrumentation. This SBIR program will prove it is feasible to build a library of reusable analog integrated circuit (IC) blocks to design and develop both ADCs and DACs that are tolerant to extreme radiation levels.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Radiation-hardened circuits and techniques are increasingly important in NASA space technology programs. Their adaptation for commercial and space systems presents the following opportunities for the Ridgetop radiation cell library: Space-based radar systems; satellite communication systems; planetary mission applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Command & Control
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S3.01-9172
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Command, Data Handling, and Electronics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Space Qualified Heterogeneous Processing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Space Micro, Inc.
10237 Flanders Court
San Diego, CA 92121-1526
(858) 332-0700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bert Vermeire
bvermeire@spacemicro.com111
10237 Flanders Court
San Diego,  CA 92121-1526
(858) 332-0700

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Space Micro proposes to develop a radiation hardened, monolithic, heterogeneous processor for space imaging and radar systems. High performance processors are needed because many space systems generate copious amounts of sensor data at high data rates. The extraction of information from such data streams requires high speed data reduction. Parallel processing may be required to keep pace with the data stream, and that processing often requires application of sophisticated digital filtering or compression algorithms. The results of the signal processing then require aggregation and additional processing to produce actionable information to be used either on the satellite or downloaded to the mission controller.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology and evolving Space Micro products may benefit many commercial space platforms, both LEO and GEO telecommunication satellites, such as Intelsat, Direct TV, XM radio, Orbcomm and Iridium Next telecom constellation replenishment, plus standard industry busses including Lockheed's A2100, and Boeing's HS-702. Civil earth sensing applications such as weather/metrology applications e.g. (NOAA GOES and Landsat) can also benefit. The large DoD space industry, including USAF, MDA, NRO, and new Army nanosat programs at SMDC will directly benefit. Among these programs are AEHF upgrades, GPS follow-ons, MDA's PTSS, USAF TacSat family, Operationally Responsive Space (ORS), and Army SMDC nanosat family. The entire Cubesat initiative including NRO's Colony program and the USAF SENSE program would benefit. This technology and products will also address emerging MDA radiation threats. These programs include AKV, THAAD, AEGIS, SM3 Block IIB, and GMD for Blocks 2018 and beyond. With the new challenge of atmospheric neutrons to High Altitude Airship (HAA) programs and NASA or Air Force UAV programs, this R&D and future product may be a timely solution. Other military applications may include strategic missiles (Trident and Air Force upgrades), as well as many DoD tactical weapon programs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Virtually all NASA space programs have a demand for this proposed technology and resulting space qaulified product. NASA applications range from science missions, space station, earth sensing missions e.g. (EOS), and deep space missions. NASA programs/missions that will benefit include new lunar landers and orbiters, Mars missions (MAVEN), solar system exploration e.g. (Titan, Juno, Europa, comet nucleus return, New Discovery, and Living with a Star (LWS). NASA programs which hopefully will continue to be funded by Congress include the next generation heavy launch vehicle called SLS, the Orion Multipurpose Crew Exploration Vehicle, Commercial Crew Development Vehicle (CCDev2) and Commercial Orbiter Transportation Service (COTS) would benefit. Space products evolving from this SBIR , and marketed by Space Micro, would have been enabling for NASA programs such as RBSP, GRAIL, LADEE, IRIS, Dawn, SDO, Aquarius, Kepler, Ocean Vector Winds, and space interferometry (SIR). New missions which hopefully will be funded include BARREL, CLARREO, GEMS, solar orbiter, Osiris-Rex asteroid sample return mission, solar probe plus, and ILN.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Image Analysis


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S3.02-8723
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Generation and Conversion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Thermoacoustic Duplex Technology for Cooling and Powering a Venus Lander

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sierra Lobo, Inc.
102 Pinnacle Dr.
Fremont, OH 43420-7400
(419) 499-9653

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Haberbusch
mhaberbusch@sierralobo.com111
102 Pinnacle Dr.
Fremont,  OH 43420-7400
(419) 499-9653

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Sierra Lobo proposes to develop a technology that can provide both cooling and electric power generation using heat. When coupled with a radioisotope heat source, the technology is ideally suited to the needs of a long-lived Venus lander. The heat source powers Sierra Lobo's Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Engine (TASHE), which is directly coupled to a Pulse Tube Refrigerator (PTR) in a duplex configuration. A linear alternator, also directly coupled, generates electricity. This configuration reduces the number of energy conversion processes and thus maximizes efficiency. The PTR cools a space called the coldbay that houses the linear alternator and scientific instruments. The only moving parts in the system are free pistons that tune the resonant frequency, which operate at Venus-ambient temperature, and the linear alternators that operate near Earth-ambient temperature. The system can potentially be used with the gas from the atmosphere of Venus, which is primarily composed of CO2, as a working fluid. This provides two key advantages: (1) The system can make the transit to Venus in a low-pressure state, which significantly decreases system mass, and (2) the effect of leakage during operation is minimized, providing confidence in long mission lifetime.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA applications include power conversion systems that would use solar concentrators. These applications could include satellites for in-space applications and ground-based power generation stations. Department of Defense applications are similar but may use nuclear sources for heat generation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology would significantly improve energy conversion efficiency for space power systems and enable a unique capability of simultaneously generating electrical power and refrigeration. The main application for NASA is the Venus lander that will require this duplex capability but in a much more extreme environment. However, any NASA space power program that requires the generation of electrical power from solar or nuclear sources will be able to transition this technology to accommodate the energy source. NASA will be able to take advantage of the TASHE driver with no moving parts at the hot end and efficiency as high as any power conversion system currently in use. Another NASA application for this technology is for ground support equipment for cryogenic propellant densification or zero boil-off where long life, highly reliable compressors will be required to operate cryocoolers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S3.02-8778
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Generation and Conversion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multi-A.U. SOLAROSA Concentrator Solar Array for Space Science Missions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Deployable Space Systems, Inc.
75 Robin Hill, Building B2
Goleta, CA 93117-3108
(805) 693-1319

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Spence
Brian.Spence@DeployableSpaceSystems.com111
75 Robin Hill, Building B2
Goleta,  CA 93117-3108
(805) 722-8090

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS), in partnership with Mark O'Neill LLC (MOLLC) will focus the proposed NASA Phase 1 effort on the development of our innovative SOLAROSA technology. SOLAROSA, named for Stretched Optical Lens Architecture on Roll-Out Solar Array, is a new lightweight, high performance space solar array that enables missions through low cost, lightweight, compact stowage volume, radiation hardness, high voltage capability, scalability to ultra-high power, and LILT/HIHT environment operability. SOLAROSA is a fusion of ENTECH's proven Stretched Lens Array (SLA) concentrator technology with DSS's innovative ultra-lightweight Roll-Out Solar Array deployable structural platform. The proposed Phase 1 program is uniquely focused on SOLAROSA development that provides multi-A.U. operability and large beta axis off-pointing operational capability. SOLAROSA promises to provide NASA/industry a near-term and low-risk solar array system that provides revolutionary performance in terms of high specific power (>400-500 W/kg BOL at wing level), affordability (>50% projected cost savings at the array level), lightweight, high deployed stiffness, high deployed strength, compact stowage volume (>60-80 kW/m3 BOL), reliability, high radiation tolerance, high voltage operation capability, scalability, and LILT & HIHT operation capability (LILT &#150; Low Intensity Low Temperature, HIHT &#150; High Intensity High Temperature).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA space applications are comprised of practically all missions that require affordable and high performance photovoltaic power production through solar arrays. The technology is particularly suited for missions that require game-changing performance in terms of affordability, high voltage operation, radiation tolerance, ultra-lightweight, compact stowage volume, and operation within LILT and HIHT environments. Applicable non-NASA space missions include: LEO surveillance, reconnaissance, communications and other critical payload/equipment satellites, LEO commercial mapping and critical payload/equipment satellites, MEO satellites & space-tugs, GEO commercial communications and critical payload/equipment satellites, and GEO communications and payload/equipment satellites. The proposed technology also has tremendous dual-use opportunities for a variety of non-space applications including both ground and roof-mount applications where low cost, manufacturability, ease of installation, compactness and high reliability is demanded. A terrestrial version of the technology would allow for low-cost high-performance theater mobile power production for the U.S. armed forces, or mobile power production for the commercial terrestrial based user.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA space applications are comprised of practically all Space Science, Earth Science, Exploration, Planetary and Lunar Surface, and other missions that require affordable and high performance photovoltaic power production through solar arrays. The technology is particularly suited for Space Science and Exploration missions that require game-changing performance in terms of affordability, high voltage operation, radiation tolerance, ultra-lightweight, compact stowage volume, multi-A.U. operability, and operation within LILT and HIHT environments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Command & Control
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Conversion
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Project Management
Prototyping
Processing Methods
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Metallics
Polymers
Actuators & Motors
Deployment
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Structures
Lenses
Simulation & Modeling
Active Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S3.02-8787
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Generation and Conversion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Modeling Vacuum Arcs On Spacecraft Solar Panel Arrays

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tech-X Corporation
5621 Arapahoe Avenue, Suite A
Boulder, CO 80303-1379
(303) 448-0727

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Seth Veitzer
veitzer@txcorp.com111
5621 Arapahoe Ave
Boulder,  CO 80303-1379
(720) 974-1848

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Spacecraft charging and subsequent vacuum arcing poses a significant threat to satellites in LEO and GEO plasma conditions. Localized arc discharges can cause a flashover plasma expansion, that can lead to further discharge of charge stored on dielectric surfaces such as solar panel arrays, which can cause catastrophic events over large areas of the panel array surfaces. While spacecraft charging has been studied for a long time, the dynamics of flashover currents and propagation of the expanding plasma have not be well-characterized, although they are key in order to understand how to mitigate damage to solar panel arrays during discharge events. This project will improve the understanding of arc discharges and expanding plasma effects on dielectric structures such as solar panel arrays so that NASA will better be able to protect satellites from damaging vacuum arc discharges. We will develop accurate numerical simulations that model localized arcs, plasma expansion, and dielectric charging and discharging, under both simulated LEO and GEO plasma conditions. We also plan to extend our models to include the effects of non-uniform ambient plasma densities, secondary electron emission effects, and photo-electron effects. In Phase I, we will validate our numerical models against the theoretically known problem of expansion of a plasma into a vacuum, and will develop detailed simulations of a new AFRL round-robin experiment to test plasma propagation speeds in the presence of a charged dielectric material. We also plan to develop easy-to-use GUI interfaces so that NASA scientists will be able to use high-performance computing resources to examine the parameter space for these types of problems without having to dive deep into the code infrastructure and numerics of the simulations. At the conclusion of Phase II we plan to provide NASA and AFRL scientists with tools that they can use to better understand discharges on satellites and mitigate damage to solar arrays.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For other government agencies, this innovation is of interest to the Department of Defense, especially the Air Force, where researchers are interested in space weather effects and propulsion. Other agencies interested in this work include the Department of Energy, where researchers are interested in plasmas for fusion and other thermonuclear applications. We also believe that we can commercialize software developed as part of this project in the aerospace and electronics manufacturing markets. The ability to accurately model plasma expansion and interactions with dielectrics will enable commercial customers, such as those in the defense contracting industry to better design and improve the performance of their hardware products.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other NASA missions will benefit from this work. For instance, researchers studying space weather effects, electric propulsion schemes, flow control and other plasma aerodynamic applications, or plasma electromagnetic effects for re-entry vehicles would benefit from this innovation. In all of these cases numerical tools that will help researchers design spacecraft and spacecraft systems that are hardened against the negative effects of vacuum

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S3.02-9667
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Generation and Conversion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development of Advanced Anti-Reflection Coatings for High Performance Solar Energy Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MicroLink Devices
6457 West Howard Street
Niles, IL 60714-3301
(847) 588-3001

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Victor Elarde
velarde@mldevices.com111
6457 West Howard St.
Niles,  IL 60714-3301
(847) 588-3001

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
MicroLink and its subcontractor Magnolia Solar will develop and demonstrate advanced anti-reflection coating (ARC) designs that will provide a better broadband and angular response than that of current coatings. Advanced coatings of this nature are needed to realize the full potential forthcoming generation of multi-junction solar cells that will contain four or more junctions. We will undertake several approaches to this problem: * investigate new dielectric materials that will allow a refractive index intermediate between those of the materials that are currently in common use as ARCs; * investigate a dielectric codeposition processes that will allow the fabrication of materials with a wide range of refractive indices; and * investigate oxidation of Al-containing III-V semiconductor compounds as a mechanism for forming a more transparent window layer. Based on the results of these investigations, we will fabricate and test on III-V triple-junction solar cells the best-identified candidates for improved anti-reflection coating. If successful, the new coating designs will have a reflectance less than 5% over the spectral range 300 nm to 1800 nm and over a wide range of incident angles. The coatings will be completely compatible with inverted metamorphic (IMM) multi-junction solar cell technology and will be optically matched to IMM solar cells. We expect the new coatings will enable a relative efficiency increase of at least 7%, corresponding to a 2.5% absolute efficiency increase.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ARC technology to be developed in the proposed program will be applicable to the multi-junction, Ge-based solar cells currently in use in commercial and military applications. Similarly, the technology can be used to enhance the efficiency of solar cells for UAV applications and for terrestrial applications. The ARC technology is also applicable to the epitaxial lift-off (ELO) solar cell technology under development by MicroLink. It will therefore be possible to combine the increased efficiency enabled by the new ARC technology with the lightweight, flexible, reduced-cost ELO solar cells.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ARC technology to be developed in the proposed program will be applicable to the generation of multi-junction solar cells currently in use and to the novel solar cell designs currently under development. It will therefore have application in all current solar-powered NASA space missions and in forthcoming projects such as solar electric propulsion (SEP). The technology will also increase the efficiency of solar cells that are used to extend the duration of electrically powered unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The ARC technology is also applicable to the epitaxial lift-off (ELO) solar cell technology under development by MicroLink. It will therefore be possible to combine the increased efficiency enabled by the new ARC technology with the lightweight, flexible, reduced-cost ELO solar cells.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Filtering
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S3.03-8640
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Throughput Hall Thruster for Small Spacecraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Busek Company Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Szabo
jszabo@busek.com111
11 Tech Circle
Natick,  MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Busek Co. Inc. proposes to develop a high throughput, nominal 100 W Hall Effect Thruster (HET). This HET will be sized for small spacecraft (< 180 kg), including nano-spacecraft (<20 kg). An Edison small satellite demonstration mission could feature this thruster fueled by iodine or xenon. The Phase I program has five technical tasks. In the first task, we will determine the throttling capabilities of an improved version of our flight model 200 W thruster. The improved thruster includes permanent magnets and a modified magnetic circuit. Based upon test results, the basic dimensions of the new 100 W thruster will be determined. In the second task, the mechanical design will be created. In the third task, the magnetic circuit will be modeled using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) tools. In the fourth task, the plasma discharge will be modeled using existing simulation tools. In the final technical task, the design will be modeled thermally using COTS tools. The third, fourth, and fifth tasks will feed back into the design, which will be tailored to balance efficiency against lifetime, operating temperature, mass, volume, and other considerations. In Phase II, the high throughput low power thruster will be manufactured, tested, and improved. Performance, lifetime, and plume properties will be evaluated. Testing will include both xenon and iodine. Recent testing of a BHT-200 fueled by iodine vapor yielded stability and performance comparable to that observed with xenon, along with lower beam divergence. Iodine also offers many system level benefits including much higher stored density and much lower stored pressure than xenon. This proposal responds to topic S3.03, "Propulsion Systems." Both the "Electric Propulsion" and "Micro-Propulsion" sub-topics are relevant. The proposal also addresses several of NASA's Grand Challenges, including Efficient In-Space Transportation, Space Debris Hazard Mitigation, and Economical Space Access.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Hall thrusters are attractive for commercial and military spacecraft due to their high performance, small size, low mass, and relatively low cost. Continuous thrust functions for small, power-limited spacecraft in LEO would include orbit insertion and maintenance, in-space maneuvering, orbit raising, and de-orbiting. The thruster is appropriate for spacecraft as small as 5-10 U in size. Applications for geosynchronous spacecraft would include station-keeping and repositioning. In pulsed mode, the thruster could provide high precision impulse bits for station-keeping and attitude control, precision positioning, and constellation maintenance of small and micro-satellites. A system fueled by dense, low maintenance iodine could provide a literal off the shelf option for Air Force spacecraft, greatly enhancing operational readiness.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The HET is an efficient form of electric propulsion that is typically used in space for orbit-raising and orbit maintenance. The size, low alpha (kg/kW), and simplicity of Hall thrusters make them ideal for many NASA applications including deep space exploration. The proposed device will be well sized for spacecraft < 180 kg. Integration with nano-spacecraft (<20 kg) is also feasible. Continuous thrust functions for small, power-limited spacecraft would include orbit insertion and maintenance, in-space maneuvering, orbit raising, and de-orbiting. In pulsed mode, the thruster could also provide high precision impulse bits for station-keeping and attitude control, precision positioning, and constellation maintenance of small and micro-satellites. The first NASA application of this technology could be a small satellite demonstration mission. Such a system could use xenon or iodine propellant. Subsequent science missions that could utilize thruster technology include NASA Flagship, Frontier, Discovery class missions to Asteroids, comets, dwarf planets, outer planets. Depending on the destination and capabilities of the spacecraft, thruster could function either by itself or in conjunction with a larger Hall thruster. The ability to thrust efficiently at multiple power levels is critical for an interplanetary system. Other applications could include an upper stage for NASA's Nano/Micro Satellite Launch Vehicle (NMSLV), described under topic E1.02.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Ceramics
Fuels/Propellants
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine
Simulation & Modeling
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S3.03-8710
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Re-generable Field Emission Cathodes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerophysics, Inc.
2521 7 Mile Point Rd
Allouez, MI 49805-6969
(906) 370-2376

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Makela
jmakela@aerophysicsinc.com111
1402 East Sharon Avenue, Suite 205
Houghton,  MI 49931-1659
(906) 487-1854

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A significant challenge in scaling micro-propulsion devices up to 100s of Watts as well as scaling macro devices down to sub-kiloWatt level is the lack of a compatible neutralizer technology in the meso scale. Sub-kiloWatt EP systems require cathode technology that can produce sufficient current while consuming little or no gas or power. The most promising technology for meso-scale neutralizers is field emission. In field emission, electrons are extracted directly from a cold bulk solid material by an intense applied electric field at the solid-vacuum interface with no gas flow and no heating required. While many methods have been proposed to incorporate field-emission neutralizers in EP systems, the inherent fragility of the technology &#150; specifically the reliance on solid structures with nanometer-radius tips &#150; ensures that device failure due to tip degradation will be a near certainty for any application depending on field emission cathodes. The goal of research proposed here is to develop arrays of field-emission neutralizers for use in sub-1-kW EP that eliminate tip degradation not through attempts to minimize tip wear, but instead by incorporating self-assembling nanostructures that can repeatedly re-generate damaged emitter tips in space and fully restore the functionality of a damaged or degraded device.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Electron field emitters are use in numerous applications including electron microscopes, flat panel displays, and microwave generators.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Proposed technology could be used for any function requiring electron emission in space. Potential applications include spacecraft neutralizers, space weather diagnostic sensors, electrodynamic tethers, and sub-1-kW electric propulsion systems for space science missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S3.03-9304
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microsatellite Direct Drive SEP Module for Interplanetary Exploration via Rideshare

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ExoTerra Resource LLC
9754 Las Colinas Dr
Lone Tree, CO 80124-4206
(303) 565-6898

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Wilbur
pwilbur@engr.colostate.edu111
7921 Southpark Plaza
Littleton,  CO 80120-4506
(970) 484-5940

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Solar Electric Propulsion drives down the cost of space missions by using its high propulsion efficiency to step down from one launch class to another. As launch costs can be up to a third of total mission costs, stepping down to a smaller rocket can be a mission enabling technology in today's budget constrained environment. While missions such as Dawn have used this to visit multiple asteroids after launch from a small launch vehicle, ExoTerra's SolRider Direct Drive (DD) SEP module allows interplanetary missions to take the next step down in launch cost to package within standard rideshare envelope and mass contraints. Our module integrates multiple technologies to provide up to 8.6 km/s within an Atlas Aft Bulkhead Carrier rideshare or 14.6 km/s of delta-V within a standard ESPA. This can enable launch costs below $5M. Our integrated DD SEP module uses a combination of SEP technologies to create a highly efficient system to package within the rideshare envelope. We use a 175 W/kg and 60kW/m3 rolled composite tube solar array deployment system to package within the tight volume. This provides 300 V power to the thruster through a direct drive system, eliminating the cost, mass and electrical losses of the traditional power processing unit. A Hall Thruster uses the high voltage power to efficiently propel the craft with over 1600 s of Isp. The thruster receives the propellant from a cryogenic Xenon feed system, allowing an order of magnitude drop in tank mass. When coupled to Microsatellite electronics, the system can deliver up to 5.5 kg of payload instruments to Mars orbit.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA, the technology provides capabilities to many other users. In particular, there is a growing number of small/micro launch vehicles such as ALASA being developed. The DD SEP module provides a means to boost these payloads from LEO to as far as GEO, enabling longer orbit lifetimes and mission possibilities for commercial and government operators.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Microsatellite DD SEP Module enables multiple missions for NASA such as asteroid surveying, interplanetary exploration, sample return systems and technology demonstrations. NASA has identified over a dozen potential asteroids for human exploration. Using low cost microsatellites to fly past these objects and determine their composition ahead of a manned mission provides a means for mission planners to select a destination with the highest chance of mission success. Additionally, the low cost of the satellites enables small, low cost missions to be flown to the Moon, Mars or Venus. While the payload capability of each mission is reduced, a series of missions can be performed at fraction of the cost of a single large mission. Similarly, the high delta V system can be used to return small samples from distant bodies such as the Moon, Mars, Mars' moons or asteroids. These missions typically require large delta-Vs and small packaging to be financialy viable. Lastly, the system enables technology demonstrations identified by NASA such as SEP spiral-out from LEO, DD plasma/array interaction, and radiation belt measurement to be performed at low cost.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Distribution/Management
Spacecraft Main Engine
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S3.03-9690
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Performance Plasma Channel Insulators for High Power Hall Thrusters

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sienna Technologies, Inc.
19501 144th Avenue North East, Suite F-500
Woodinville, WA 98072-4423
(425) 485-7272

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ender Savrun
ender.savrun@siennatech.com111
19501 144th Ave NE Suite F-500
Woodinville,  WA 98072-4423
(425) 485-7272

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA missions for planetary exploration require high power, long-life Hall thrusters. However, thruster power and lifetime are limited by the erosion of plasma channel walls. Current plasma channel insulator materials, such as BN or Borosil, have the required low secondary electron emission (SEE) but are susceptible to xenon plasma erosion. New plasma channel insulator materials with low SEE yield and high xenon plasma erosion resistance are needed to increase the efficiency and the lifetime of Hall thrusters. AlN has an exceptionally high plasma erosion resistance but suffers from a high SEE yield. AlN can be a "revolutionary" replacement for BN channel insulator since it provides high plasma erosion resistance with structural robustness and high thermal conductivity if it's SEE yield can be reduced. This SBIR Phase I program will develop a revolutionary AlN plasma channel insulator with lower SEE yield and higher erosion resistance than BN and BN-SiO2 for high power, long-life Hall thrusters. In Phase I we will (i) reduce the SEE yield of AlN by microstructural engineering, and (ii) fabricate fully functional plasma channel insulators for thruster testing at NASA-GRC to determine if the reduction of SEE yield of AlN channel insulator leads to better thruster performance than BN channels.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The United States Air Force has many missions that would benefit from small, low-cost satellites. Commercial applications include communications and imaging satellites, companions to large satellites to provide surveillance and close-up inspection capabilities, such as to monitor and assure proper deployment of solar panels, antennae and other appendages.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High specific impulse, high power Hall thrusters will be key for planetary exploration and efficient cargo delivery to Mars. Project Prometheus would significantly benefit from the long-life, high power Hall thrusters afforded by the proposed channel insulators. Long-life, high power Hall thrusters would be useful in geosynchronous communications satellites to reduce propellant mass and as primary propulsion in deep space scientific missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ceramics
Composites
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S3.03-9809
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: CubeSat High Impulse Propulsion System (CHIPS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CU Aerospace, LLC
301 North Neil Street, Suite 400
Champaign, IL 61820-3169
(217) 239-1703

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Carroll
carroll@cuaerospace.com111
301 North Neil Street, Suite 400
Champaign,  IL 61820-3169
(217) 239-1703

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CU Aerospace proposes the ground test validation of a nanosat primary propulsion subsystem using non-toxic propellant with 3-axis ACS for orbit change and/or de-orbit capability, precision maneuvering, and drag makeup. Our approach, called the CubeSat High Impulse Propulsion System (CHIPS), leverages the existing Micro Propulsion System (MiPS) thruster technology development by our team partner VACCO Industries and enhances it with the CU Aerospace very high efficiency warm gas variant of an innovative resistojet that significantly boosts the performance of standard cold-gas systems. The MiPS system has been tested to 200,000 cycles without any technical issues, demonstrating excellent reliability. The 1.5U CHIPS subsystem, using non-toxic proprietary EP-76 propellant, is a compact thruster system having a total impulse of 602 N-s and a fully throttleable thrust of 50 mN. The subsystem also includes an EP-76 3-axis cold-gas attitude control system. Approximately 25 W of primary power is required from a battery included in the 1.5U package. The value of this technology is that this low cost subsystem demonstration will pioneer a family of nanosat propulsion systems, based upon an innovative warm gas system and propellant, which will become available to the CubeSat and nanosatellite community for a broad range of propulsion needs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The CHIPS thruster provides a compact, non-hazardous, propulsion technology solution that will be made available in a family of sizes that can meet the differing needs of users in NASA, DOD, industry, and academia for CubeSat and nanosatellite missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
CHIPS supports the NASA Roadmap for In-Space Propulsion Systems, nonchemical propulsion. CubeSats and nanosatellites with CHIPS would enable a number of different significant missions for low Earth orbits including orbit raising, orbit phasing, and/or deorbiting. The drag makeup capability of CHIPS would allow low altitude orbits, permitting onboard sensors to operate at lower altitude. CHIPS also has the capability for precision position adjustments, enabling such missions as formation flying. These low-impulse operations are performed in a cold-gas mode. CHIPS would improve mission affordability for multiple CubeSats, since several CubeSats with CHIPS could be launched from a single low-cost booster and maneuvered to other orbits, then later de-orbited. Note that CHIPS is easily scalable to smaller or larger sizes, depending on mission and payload requirements, by changing the tank volume. Battery size can either be scaled, or kept the same size if recharging between thrust events is practical for the mission.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Propulsion
Fuels/Propellants
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S3.04-8357
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Electronics and Management, and Energy Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: CarbAl(TM) Based Thermal Management for Space Flight Systems Application

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
APPLIED NANOTECH, INC.
3006 Longhorn Blvd, Suite 107
Austin, TX 78758-7631
(512) 339-5020

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Novak
jnovak@appliednanotech.net111
3006 Longhorn Blvd, Ste 107
Austin,  TX 78758-7631
(512) 339-5020

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Thermal Transfer is a critical part of power electronics application in both terrestrial and space environments. Due to longer lifetime expectancies and harsh operational conditions, space vehicles require unique materials to deal with the increasing electrical and thermal loads placed upon the structure. Increasing use of power electronics including high current carrying semiconductor devices such as IGBTs, MOSFETs, power transistors, and modules drive the need for specialty thermal management materials both in the packaging of the discrete devices as well as for the packaging of modules consisting of several or arrays of these devices. The overall objective of this program (Phase I and Phase II) is to adapt CarbAl(TM)-based advanced thermal management substrates from terrestrial to space applications. CarbAl(TM) is a carbon-based thermal composite with a thermal performance exceeding that of many metals. The low CTE provides excellent matching to state-of-the-art power transistor dies and the low density and robustness make it suitable for space vehicle applications. The proposed Phase I program is a continuation of the materials development completed internally at ANI. If successful, the technology developed through this project will provide and accurate, robust, reliable and cost effective.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Outside NASA ANI is committed to development of CarbAl(TM) related thermal management materials for other government customers. ANI is working with the prime supplier of tactical quiet generators (TQGs) for the Army ton integrate CarbAl(TM) in an effort to reduce package size and increase power output. The true potential for the CarbAl(TM) brand of thermal management materials lies in commercial applications. ANI is currently immersed with two specific markets; hybrid electric vehicle drive systems and power LED luminaries. ANI is currently engaged in high-level efforts to integrate CarbAl(TM) based thermal management materials into solid-state lighting working with a leading company to develop a drop-in replacement for street-lamps. ANI is additionally working with a well known automotive manufacturer with integration of CarbAl(TM) into hybrid vehicle inverter packs. Additional Market segments for power electronics include wind power converters, electricity Transportation and Distribution (T&D), rail traction and ship and vessel propulsion.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The initial NASA customer would be electronic drive and propulsion systems. Specifically radioisotope and ion thrusters require high levels of heat transfer. In the case of the RPS systems heat must be transferred from the isotope decay process into the gas propulsion system. High thermal conductivity limits the energy loss and increased system efficiency. Ion thruster technologies or electronic propulsion (EP) are the most direct customer. Current systems are simply a few Watt power levels with projected increase in power to greater than 20kW. This level of power increase will require the new transistor (SiC) which can be enabled by improved thermal management. Ultimately, the total number of space vehicles requiring this technology may be limited but the total number of installations per vehicle could be quite large making NASA a primary customer.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Amplifiers/Repeaters/Translators
Transmitters/Receivers
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Distribution/Management
Storage
Quality/Reliability
Composites
Nanomaterials
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Propulsion
Heat Exchange
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S3.04-8506
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Electronics and Management, and Energy Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Novel Compact and Reliable Hybrid Silicon/Silicon Carbide Device Module for Efficient Power Conversion

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
United Silicon Carbide, Inc.
7 Deer Park Drive, Suite E
Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852-1921
(732) 355-0550

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Leonid Fursin
lfursin@unitedsic.com111
7 Deer Park Drive, Suite E
Monmouth Junction,  NJ 08852-1921
(732) 355-0550

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
United Silicon Carbide, Inc. proposes to develop a novel compact, efficient and high-temperature power module, based on unique co-packaging approach of normally-off silicon (Si) MOSFET with silicon carbide (SiC) normally-on power JFET in a cascode configuration. A much desired silicon MOS gate control is provided readily compatible with the conventional gate drivers, making a proposed module a plug-in replacement for conventional Si IGBT modules offering smaller size and higher power density, lower conduction and switching losses, and higher operating temperature for a wide range of civilian, aerospace and military applications, where compact power converters are needed with minimum cooling requirements. The proposed hybrid Si/SiC cascode approach offers substantial improvement in module power density, by up to 50%, with unique packaging approach, greatly reduced size of a power switch, and elimination of separate antiparallel diode, which is replaced with an intrinsically fast and efficient body diode of a low-voltage Si MOSFET. Significant reduction in static and dynamic power losses compared to Si IGBTs and SiC MOSFETs are achieved by utilization of a fast switched normally-on SiC JFET with ultra-low on-resistance and hence much lower static and dynamic losses than state-of-the-art Si IGBTs and SiC MOSFETs. It is hard to understate the need for compact power converters in aerospace applications, where the allowed on-board space and the weight for the power management systems are very limited. The proposed cascode power module will also enable circuit designers to provide significantly smaller, more reliable, more efficient and lower cost solutions for more mainstream applications such as power factor correction circuits, photovoltaic micro-inverters, power supplies, motors & pump drives, industrial power converters, and consumer appliances .

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Funding this proposal will lead to the development and commercialization of a unique compact, efficient and reliable power SiC JFET power module technology for a wide range of civilian, aerospace and military applications, where compact power converters are needed with minimum cooling requirements. The USCi proposed solution targets the principle ease of use issue and in so effectively becomes an enhanced drop in replacement to existing Si based switches and modules. The application of present state-of-the-art Si MOSFETs, IGBTs and state of the art commercial SiC MOSFETs is limited to junction temperatures of about 150 C. The USCi proposed cascode configuration will raise the steady-state operating junction temperature to over 175 C rating. Proposed cascode power module will enable circuit designers to provide significantly smaller, more reliable, more efficient and lower cost solutions for applications such as power factor correction circuits, photovoltaic micro-inverters, power supplies, motors & pump drives, industrial power converters, and consumer appliances. Today there is estimated to be a $15B TAM for Si power discrete devices & Si power modules, however high performance, cost effective and easy to use SiC transistor alternatives will quickly migrate into this space.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Compact power management and conditioning systems are of great interest in aerospace applications, where the allowed on-board space and the weight for the power conversion units are very limited. Proposed power module will be a plug-in replacement for conventional IGBT modules, offering substantially smaller physical module size and higher power density, lower conduction and switching losses, higher operating temperature with minimum cooling requirements. Power device modules capable of operating at higher junction temperatures with reduced conduction and switching losses can help to eliminate the active cooling, or at least reduce the size and weight of the required heat-sinks. Higher switching frequency of silicon carbide device modules will lead to significant reduction in size and weight of passive power converter's components, such as capacitors, filters, inductors.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S3.04-9198
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Electronics and Management, and Energy Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Energy Density, High Power Density, High Cycle Life Flywheel Energy Storage Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Balcones Technologies, LLC
10532 Grand Oak Circle
Austin, TX 78750-3851
(512) 924-2241

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Hayes
richard@balconestech.com111
42 Lone Oak Trail
Austin,  TX 78745-2610
(512) 627-4203

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Balcones Technologies (BT), LLC proposes to leverage technologies developed by and resident in BT, The University of Texas Center for Electromechanics (CEM) and Applied Nanotech Incorporated (ANI) in the areas of carbon nanotube composites (CNT) and terrestrial and space-based flywheel energy storage systems to address SBIR 2012 subtopic S3.04 Power Electronics and Management, and Energy Storage. To provide a near term commercial focus in addition to NASA space applications, BT is augmenting this team with Astral Infinity (AI) to provide one target application that requires flywheel energy storage systems with characteristics that exceed current flywheel systems and exceed lithium battery capabilities &#150; a solar powered high altitude long endurance unmanned air vehicle. This proposal, focuses on making a major near-term advancement in flywheel energy density, with high potential for further longer term advancements, by exploiting ANI carbon nanotube expertise and CEM/BT flywheel technology. After having plateaued for two decades, there is a good probability of attaining near-term improvement of 30%-50% for flywheel rotor specific energy by reinforcing the carbon fiber composite matrix material with CNT. Subsequently, there is a potential improvement in the medium to longer term of an order of magnitude or more by also replacing the current carbon fibers with fibers composed of CNTs. Our program focuses on the near-term objective and is a first and appropriate step in the longer term objective. In particular, for this Phase I project our team will: 1.Develop a concept design for a flywheel rotor that relies on CNT reinforced composite flywheels for a 30%-50% increase in flywheel stored energy per kg to substantially exceed the specific energy performance of chemical batteries (e.g., lithium batteries) for most space-based and terrestrial applications of a few kW-hrs or more, and 2.Complete an initial round of CNT materials testing to support the design.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our team's carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced carbon fiber composite system enables substantially improved flywheel specific energy (kW-hr/kg) in the near term and long term that enables many commercial energy storage and power management applications especially where long life (greater than five years) operation and load leveling, extremely low losses, high stability and high reliability capabilities are at a premium. There are numerous existing commercial applications where battery developers are struggling to meet the requirements, including the large installations required for windmill farms, large solar installations, and support of micro grids. The proposed CNT reinforced composite technology is critical in enabling flywheels to address those markets. However, our primary near term focus is the use of flywheel energy storage to enable a solar powered high altitude long endurance (HALE) air vehicle to stay aloft for an indefinite period of time for a wide range of commercial, space, and military applications. Astral Infiniti's research indicates that a high energy density flywheel is an enabling technology due to its improved performance over available battery technology and the ability to directly convert rotating flywheel motion to propeller motion. HALE can be used to replace cell phone towers in urban and rural areas and provides a lower cost alternative to satellites that are used to broadcast radio, television, and internet communications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our team's carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced carbon fiber composite system enables substantially improved flyhweel specific energy (kW-hr/kg) in the near term and long term that enables many NASA energy storage and power management applications &#150; especially when coupled with very reliable high speed low-loss bearing systems (e.g., Balcones Technologies high temperature superconducting magnetic bearings). The prime space applications are those where long term (greater than five years) operation, extremely low losses, and high reliability are at a premium. The energy density and cycle life of 100,000 cycles of the flywheel rotor for this system greatly exceeds that of available battery technology, leading to a lower cost over the life of the device. Applications that could benefit from this technology range from satellites, to long term space labs like the ISS, to lunar colonies, or explorations. Terrestrial applications include community energy storage systems, power and energy management, and backup for launch facilities or data centers. The technology can also be applied to high altitude long endurance air vehicles which could support NASA's Airborne Science, Atmospheric Composition and Radiation Sciences, Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry, and Applied Sciences programs as well as the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Attitude Determination & Control
Storage
Processing Methods
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S3.04-9472
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Electronics and Management, and Energy Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Striction-based Power Monitoring in Space Environment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
QorTek Inc
1965 Lycoming Creek Road, Suite 205
Williamsport, PA 17701-1251
(570) 322-2700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gareth Knowles
gknowles@qortek.com111
1965 Lycoming Creek Road, Suite 205
Williamsport,  PA 17701-1251
(570) 322-2700

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The program will leverage recent advances in striction materials and coupled striction devices as to enable highly isolated (analog) voltage and current flow sensors very suitable for harsh space environment power monitoring. Exhibiting negligible electromagnetic disturbance coupling and electromagnetic emission, these non-photonic striction based power flow monitoring introduces decided advantages of eliminating magnetics, processors, degradation and 'latch-up'. These units are simpler and lower cost to manufacture than photonic or capacitive coupled methods of measurement and possessing and furthermore provide far greater (galvanic) isolation capability than is presently achievable. Moreover they can safely/reliably operate over a wide temperature range to as low as cryogenic. The innovation eliminates the present need for separate isolation and gain stages as these are now accomplished in a single step as to reduce design complexity and risk. The effort is to show that these new striction power flow monitoring capabilities can measure power characteristics over wide bandwidth to DC and are highly suitable for widespread NASA use in wide temperature range and high radiation environments. The proposed modular design will be easy to install and reduces the spares requirements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is a wide range for current and (linear) voltage-monitoring application needs across the entire spectrum of space mission requirements and space platform equipment including particle measurement, solar observation, etc. Potential customers include Air Force Space Command, MDA, and NRO where the proposed technology can be immediately applied to surveillance, reconnaissance, communications, navigation, and missile warning. The US Army and major SDR vendors are customers for the proposed advanced power monitoring technology as it will be directly applicable to satellite systems, missile systems, UAV/UUAV, underwater and integrated electronics. A large near-term market is represented by expanding the technology for replacement gate drives in a wide range of switchmode power supplies for military, NASA and commercial users of power equipment or data transfer equipment. A host of medical applications for the electrostriction voltage isolators includes medical equipment Microwave therapy, Patient monitoring, Electrocardiographs, and Defibrillators.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Power flow monitoring is pervasive and essential across all NASA platforms and subsystems, but the highest pay-off of the new technology innovation will be to NASA missions that need to operate in harsh exposure missions requiring high temperature (extreme cold or extreme hot) and radiation tolerance. Addressing first three specifically identified goals on the NASA rad-hard electronics target list the technology promises to have high impact to unmanned missions and robotic systems with large potential impact for Heliophysics, Mars, and Earth Sciences missions, and possible Jupiter and Venus exploratory missions all of which require all of their on-board electronics and sensor equipment to operate under increasingly tough conditions. NASA specific needs especially unheated electronics and future science payload development initiatives for which this technology could be applied including: Deep Space; Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) flagship; Venus surface exploration; and exploration of the dark lunar polar craters.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Amplifiers/Repeaters/Translators
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Distribution/Management
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Electromagnetic
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S3.05-8263
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft and Sounding Rocket Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: In-situ Airborne Sampler for Advanced Guided Dropsonde

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Latitude Engineering
744 South Euclid Avenue
Tucson, AZ 85719-6626
(520) 792-2006

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Douglas
jason.douglas@latitudeengineering.com111
744 South Euclid Avenue
Tucson,  AZ 85719-6626
(520) 792-2006

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovation is a low-cost, retrievable and reusable, autonomously guided dropsonde capable of in-situ atmospheric measurements. The proposed effort will focus on the engineering work involved with the retrieval of volcanic ash plume samples. This work will build upon a previous NASA SBIR Phase I project Latitude Engineering completed in 2011: the development of an Advanced Guided Dropsonde (AGD). Though the tested prototype received favorable reviews, funding restructuring of the SBIR program within NASA prevented funding for Phase II. To keep the momentum behind this innovative airborne platform, Latitude Engineering is proposing to build upon this accomplishment: refine the current dropsonde design and develop a sampling system for atmospheric particulates that will be integrated into this 4 cm diameter research vessel. Miniaturized particulate sampling equipment for airborne missions is not commercially available. Even for full scale systems, many research programs develop their own collection and sensor systems. With the small size limitations of the AGD, a multi-stage particulate sampler can be developed that can collect size segregated particulate including aerosols. With the significant need for atmospheric particulate sampling, the AGD can offer unprecedented access to atmospheric samples including those at high altitudes. The key goals of this Phase I proposal are to demonstrate the capability of the AGD to be released from a host manned aircraft, collect an atmospheric particulate sample from a pre-programmed altitude and location, and deliver the protected sample to a pre-programmed recovery area. This system, engineered to be cost compatible with existing dropsonde launch systems, is recoverable and re-useable.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The airborne in-situ sampler has many applications for other UAV platforms. Potential markets include Earth sciences, military, and disaster response agencies. The proposed sampler will greatly aid NASA in their efforts to further advance climate and atmospheric research.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Latitude's AGD was designed to fit the MIST dropsonde system used on NASA's Global Hawk UAV. It can be upsized or modified to be compatible with the AVAPS system on use on NASA's P-3, DC-8 or other aircraft. The airborne in-situ sampler has many applications for other UAV platforms. Potential markets include Earth sciences, military, and disaster response agencies. The proposed sampler will greatly aid NASA in their efforts to further advance climate and atmospheric research.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airship/Lighter-than-Air Craft
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S3.05-8497
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft and Sounding Rocket Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fiberless Optical Gyroscope

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gener8 Incorporated
535 Del Rey Avenue
Sunnyvale, CA 94085-3514
(650) 940-9898

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Bischel
bbischel@gener8.net111
535 Del Rey Avenue
Sunnyvale,  CA 94085-3514
(650) 940-9898

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose a radical new approach for to the design and fabrication of a fiber-less Interferometric Optical Gyroscope (IOG) that enables the production of a very small IMU with better performance, higher reliability, high level of robustness and lower cost. Gener8 and InFiber Technology estimate that an order-of-magnitude better cost and size to performance ratio of IOG sensors and their corresponding assemblies can be achieved when compared to the conventional IFOG implementations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Navigational and high-end tactical IMU market is an expanding market with a push for improved performance. This expansion will be driven by cost and size reduction. The proposed IOG technology will be the smallest volume IMU on the market today. It will enable new commercial and DoD applications including airborne PODs, Line of Sight stabilization, weapon designation, Interceptor technology, individual soldier navigation, battlefield management, turret stabilization, missiles, UAV, and AHARS.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposal will develop the key enabling component in a low cost, high precision inertial navigation system (< 0.10 degree accuracy, resolution). Low cost, higher precision and low weight/power (SWaP) optical inertial sensors have been identified in the NASA roadmap as important components that are needed for future NASA applications, including Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), Sounding Rocket and many other Autonomous missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Inertial (see also Sensors)
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Inertial
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S3.05-8936
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft and Sounding Rocket Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: UAS Architecture for Distributed Sensing Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Emergent Space Technologies, Inc.
6411 Ivy Lane, Suite 303
Greenbelt, MD 20770-1405
(301) 345-1535

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Darren Zanon
darren.zanon@emergentspace.com111
6411 Ivy Lane, Suite 303
Greenbelt,  MD 20770-1405
(301) 345-1535

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA seeks Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) for Earth science data collection for missions with variable durations, operating proximities, altitudes, and environmental conditions. Of particular interest is the Ice Bridge mission, which takes observations in support of Arctic and Antarctic research by identifying ice sheet motion, three-dimensional ice features, and other atmospheric and surface effects. These UAS aircraft may be equipped with a variety of sensors, with each aircraft potentially completing a unique set of objectives, only some of which take advantage of or require distributed sensing. Such a flexible system demands that vehicles be capable of seamless entry and exit of aircraft from any distributed sensing task. The approach proposed here satisfies these needs through a distributed sensing architecture that allows cluster sensor information to interface with and influence a multi-aircraft, high-precision, closed-loop path planning and control system. In addition, the UAS path planner is capable of managing dynamic flight regimes, including high winds and turbulence, while ensuring proper target tracking. This combination of features maximizes mission utility and path repeatability.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA agencies can also realize benefits from both a distributed sensing architecture and robust path planning methodology for UASs. Such a system would enhance United States Geological Survey (USGS) vegetation assessments in low-accessibility swamplands and forests by reducing overall program costs and improving measurement fidelity through the use of multiple simultaneous sensors. The Civil Air Patrol and Coast Guard would both benefit from tracking applications similar to those proposed for Ice Bridge, which could be used to aid in ground or maritime search operations in inclement weather to both track and effectively locate emergency signals; this enhanced ability to find vessels in distress in otherwise dangerous weather would significantly improve survival rates by ensuring timely location of vessels in distress. As costs for UAVs decline, border patrol and state law enforcement could use this technology to track persons or goods through inaccessible or difficult locales without endangering ground personnel.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Distributed sensing for UASs has immediate significance for NASA's Ice Bridge project, which fills the gap between IceSat-1 and IceSat-2 for identifying ice sheet motion, three-dimensional ice features, and other atmospheric and surface effects. Characteristic measurements include some which require just one aircraft and others which will achieve significant improvements through distributed sensing. UAS sensing is important for other terrestrial science applications and has potential to support multiple aspects of the U.S. Global Change Research Program. These range from tracking severe weather events through the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Process (GRIP) program, which uses both manned and unmanned probes, to enabling aircraft-based interferometric synthetic aperature radar (InSAR) for tracking biomass distribution and ice sheet motion in anticipation of the Deformation, Ecosystem Structure and Dynamics of Ice (DESDyNI) spacecraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Ad-Hoc Networks (see also Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Sequencing & Scheduling
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S3.05-8971
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft and Sounding Rocket Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Soil Moisture Mapping sUAS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Black Swift Technologies LLC
2727 Folsom St. Unit 313
Boulder, CO 80304-3757
(720) 933-4503

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Maciej Stachura
stachura@blackswifttech.com111
2727 Folsom St. Unit 313
Boulder,  CO 80304-3757
(720) 335-7558

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The overall technical goal of this SBIR is the development of a commercially viable, small Unmanned Aircraft System (sUAS) with a passive microwave sensor to enable high resolution mapping of soil moisture content. Current remote-sensing methods for sampling soil moisture often fail to provide measurements with adequate spatial and temporal resolution, or any indication of moisture content at typical root depths. This work involves the integration of existing sensor, airframe, and autopilot technologies to construct a novel sensing platform. The scientific payload will be a passive microwave sensor in the L-band to map soil moisture content. The airframe utilized is the Tempest, originally designed for sampling tornadic thunderstorms and is a robust, easy to operate design that can takeoff and land on unimproved surfaces. The avionics will be based on the SwiftPilot system which consists of an autopilot board, wireless link for communication, command and control, ground station, and tablet based user interface. The SwiftPilot system provides a simple, intuitive interface for conducting sUAS missions making it ideal for scientific applications. Tight integration of the sensor with the sUAS avionics and airframe will enable precise flight control for low altitude missions in the range of 15m-30m above ground level (AGL) enabling the sensor to accurately map soil moisture with a resolution approaching 15m. The PI's working knowledge of the regulatory environment surrounding sUAS will be used to inform the development of the system and associated concept of operations. This will facilitate operation in the national airspace following FAA approval. The technical goal of this Phase I proposal is to design the interfaces; mechanical, electrical, and software required for integration of the sUAS. This will include the design of experiments for testing and validating this unique sensing platform in Phase II to assess the the performance in the desired scientific missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The sensor-bed on the proposed technology can be used for a host of non-NASA applications such as land cover mapping, soil content characterization, water table analysis, and drought management among others. Given the current FAA regulations restricting commercial UAS usage in the NAS, potential lead users are currently limited to the public sector. As a preliminary application domain the focus will be on by providing comprehensive information for drought management. This will be achieved by collaborating with of the Colorado State University Agricultural Extension Service located in close proximity to our facilities. This public entity has a well-established, reputable research and consulting mandate targeted at providing actionable information to end-users in the agricultural market. The distribution network of its consulting arm is an attractive and convenient mechanism to deploy the technology, once developed. To-date, preliminary interviews have been conducted by Black Swift Technologies with both the Agricultural Extension Service and the Colorado Department of Agriculture to identify the crop varieties and geographic domains where targeted data gathering on water management and application would be most useful.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Two applications have been identified that build upon the results from prior NASA projects where small UAS were not used as a delivery platform. The use of remote-sensing techniques to measure soil moisture is well established in a number of scientific disciplines such as hydrology and environmental studies among others. The NASA systems typically used in the past for this purpose focus on satellite based systems such as the AMSR-E radiometers mounted on the EOS Aqua satellite, and the C and X band radiometers specified for the HYDROS mission. A sUAS system carrying similar radiometers will be able to improve on both the spatial and temporal resolution achievable through satellite based measurements. Furthermore, sensing at low altitudes enables the use of lower frequency radiometers (e.g. L band) that can penetrate deeper. This has the advantage of providing soil moisture measurements less likely to be confounded by canopy moisture. sUAS based systems can also complement data obtained from manned aircraft missions. Dr. Gasiewksi previously led a NASA funded research effort at the University of Colorado Center for Environmental Technology (CET) to map soil moisture in a region of North Texas and Oklahoma that suffered from severe flooding. A P-3B aircraft operating a Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) was used for this purpose. The proposed technology will be able to replicate the capabilities and validate the results of the CET mission at a fraction of the cost.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Microwave


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S3.05-9320
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft and Sounding Rocket Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact High-Performance Laser Gyro

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MagiQ Technologies, Inc.
11 Ward Street
Somerville, MA 02143-4214
(617) 661-8300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Caleb Christensen
caleb@magiqtech.com111
11 Ward Street
Somerville,  MA 02143-4214
(617) 661-8300

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The rotation sensitivity of a conventional optical Inertial Navigation System (INS)depends on the area enclosed by a circular optical path. Hence, it is impossible to significantly reduce the device size without sacrificing its sensitivity. Recent work showed that certain non-linear optical effects (fast light) can be used to increase the sensitivity of a ring laser gyro of a given size by orders of magnitude. We propose a portable high-performance all-fiber laser gyroscope. The device will utilize fast light produced by the Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in single-mode fibers. Fast light enhancement will enable reduction of the device size without decreasing its performance level. The fast light enhanced gyroscope will empower a rugged, compact, low-cost high-sensitivity INS ideal for precision guiding of UAVs, and other aircrafts.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
-Self-guided ordinance and unmanned aerial vehicles, where traditional high sensitivity optical INS systems are too large to use. -Stabilizing weapons platforms or communications devices mounted on ground and naval vehicles of all sizes. -Commercial aircraft and marine vessels commonly use optical inertial measurement devices for navigation, stabilization, and tracking.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
-Precise control and positioning of the UAVs. -Aircraft navigation -Tracking and control of launch vehicles for placing payloads into orbital or sub-orbital trajectories. -Precision inertial feedback during orbital maneuvers or station keeping operations on manned or unmanned spacecraft. -Actively stabilize instrument platforms during sensitive astronomical observations or scientific measurements.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Attitude Determination & Control
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Lasers (Guidance & Tracking)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
Inertial (see also Sensors)
Optical
Acoustic/Vibration
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S3.05-9503
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft and Sounding Rocket Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multi-Agent Management System (MAMS) for Air-Launched, Unmanned Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Area-I
1590 North Roberts Road, Suite 203
Kennesaw, GA 30144-3636
(678) 594-5227

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Kuehme
dkuehme@areai.aero111
1590 North Roberts Road, Suite 203
Kennesaw,  GA 30144-3636
(678) 594-5227

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The main goal of this work is to design, implement, and demonstrate a guidance and mission planning toolbox for air-launched, unmanned systems, such as guided dropsondes, sonobuoys, or surveillance aircraft, with the primary goal of enabling users to more effectively achieve mission goals by enabling multi-agent interaction and cooperation. Typical missions that will benefit from the MAMS include those where multiple unmanned vehicles are launched from one or more mother aircraft: for example atmospheric research missions making use of many guided dropsondes, missions distributing a fleet of sonobuoys, or surveillance missions requiring multiple UAVs to patrol a given area. As new vehicles are introduced to the environment (launched from the mother aircraft), or as new areas of interest arise, the MAMS will utilize a distributed network method for adjusting the fleet vehicles' trajectories to maximize the mission effectiveness.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Area-I's goal of developing the MAMS with a wide variety of host vehicles and mission types in mind maximizes the potential commercialization of the system with industry users. This theme is highlighted by our industry partner's willingness to support the MAMS project at this early stage of development as shown by their letter of support. Future development plans of the system include expanding vehicle capabilities to include all forms of unmanned aircraft, as well as transition to autonomous surface, underwater vehicles, and towed systems for naval uses and autonomous robotic ground platforms. The MAMS has great potential in the field of disaster and environmental event monitoring: the system could be used to more precisely monitor volcanic ash clouds, such as those that severely disrupted air travel during the Iceland volcano eruptions in 2010; to direct teams of UAVs and autonomous surface vehicles to monitor oil spills such as the BP oil spill disaster in the summer of 2010; or to provide sensor coverage to measure chemical or nuclear release such as in the Fukushima Power Plant accident in 2011. In addition to disaster monitoring, the system could also be used in disaster relief scenarios. For example, the system may be used to provide evenly distributed airdrop packages to prevent cluttering of packages which often leads to hoarding of limited supplies. Finally, there are abundant military uses for the system including multi-agent patrolling and surveillance missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The MAMS directly supports NASA's Strategic Goals to advance aeronautics research for social benefit and to expand scientific understanding of the Earth and the universe in which we live. These goals are supported in three direct capacities: 1)by expanding capabilities of autonomous systems as outlined in the Robotics, Tele-Robotics, and Autonomous Systems (Technology Area 04) Roadmap. More specifically the research performed during the Phase I MAMS development supports these Task 04 research areas: a.TA4.3.5: Collaborative Manipulation b.TA4.4.5: Distributed Collaboration c.TA4.5.3: Autonomous Guidance & Control d.TA4.5.4: Multi-Agent Coordination 2)by supporting atmospheric research through the development of more capable autonomous sensor systems and mission planning for the Airborne Science Program 3)by contributing to the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Integrated System Research Program (ISRP) for UAS integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) project through the development and testing of autonomous guidance and decision making and through expanded UAS distributed control among human participants

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Man-Machine Interaction
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Attitude Determination & Control
Command & Control
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Sequencing & Scheduling
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Processing
Transport/Traffic Control
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S4.01-8251
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Planetary Entry, Descent and Landing Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: EDL Sensor Suite

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optical Air Data Systems, LLC
10781 James Payne Ct.
Manassas, VA 20110-2042
(703) 393-0754

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Elizabeth Dakin
bdakin@oads.com111
10781 James Payne Ct.
Manassas,  VA 20110-2042
(703) 393-0754

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Optical Air Data Systems (OADS) L.L.C. proposes a LIDAR based remote measurement sensor suite capable of satisfying a significant number of the desired sensing requirements in a compact, lightweight, and extremely power efficient form factor. OADS all-fiber optic LIDAR and Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) technology is capable of measuring precise height above ground, ground speed, ground drift, range-gated relative winds, ambient temperature, as well as ambient pressure through the entire entry and descent phase of the spacecraft. Unlike other LIDAR solutions that would require imaging around or through the aeroshell, OADS patented LDV solutions can directly measure a range map of the terrain while simultaneously providing surface relative velocity information for navigation near the ground. OAD LDV solutions include a remote wind sensor capable of measuring wind information at multiple distances ahead of the spacecraft during the entry and descent phases. Once descent is complete, the sensor can be used on the ground to collect local environmental data (including surface winds) as advance information for the fetch rover, the planetary ascent vehicle, and for future missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Technology advancements resulting from development of the proposed sensor suite would lead to the commercialization of long-range standalone sensors for airborne platforms. The resulting next generation navigation sensor suite can be standard equipment on military, commercial, a well as government rotary wing as well as fixed wing aircraft. Furthermore, the resulting technology enhancements in wind sensing will lead to commercialized sensing solutions for the renewable wind energy applications to enhance the efficiency of utility scale wind turbines. These sensors also can be used to perform wind resource assessment for the next generation wind energy market. Finally, they can be used by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration to enhance weather reporting and modelling for the future.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Technology advancements resulting from development of the proposed sensor suite would lead to the commercialization of long-range standalone sensors for airborne platforms. The sensor suite developed could be integrated with weather sattelites to provide terrestrial wind data as well as on launch platforms to provide wind at launch sites. Furthermore, these sensors can act as remote weather stations on all future exploration missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Airship/Lighter-than-Air Craft
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Space Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Attitude Determination & Control
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Lenses
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Lasers (Guidance & Tracking)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
Inertial (see also Sensors)
Optical
Electromagnetic
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S4.01-8390
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Planetary Entry, Descent and Landing Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: 3D Flash LIDAR EDL Resolution Improvement

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc.
135 East Ortega Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101-1674
(805) 966-3331

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bradley Short
bshort@asc3d.com111
135 E. Ortega Stette
Santa Barbara,  CA 93101-1674
(805) 966-3331

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) is a small business, which has developed a compact, eye-safe 3D Flash LIDARTM Camera (FLC) well suited for real-time spacecraft trajectory, speed, orientation measurements relative to the planet's surfaces and evaluating potential hazards during the critical landing sequence. ASC's Flash LIDAR has been used for autonomous berthing with the International Space Station (ISS) and is currently under development for the OSIRIS-REx asteroid rendezvous mission. Flash LIDAR is also being evaluated by JPL and NASA for Entry Decent and Landing (EDL) for ALHAT and Mars. Through the investigations at JPL and NASA Langley a number of improvements to the technology have been identified as beneficial to landing application. Improved range resolution, spatial resolution, increased sensitivity and greater dynamic range would increase the functionality for successful landing operations. ASC has developed the core technology for Flash LIDAR with its 3D-FPA and is developing higher resolution arrays to address these concerns. ASC currently has on hand high sensitivity 32x32 arrays (shuttle run for the 320x320) that have not been tested with detectors. Initial evaluation suggests that they have increased sensitivity by 50x, spatial resolution by 2.5x, and range resolution by 3x.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ASC is pursuing many non-NASA applications. ? Collision/Pedestrian Avoidance ? Automotive Collision Avoidance ? Helicopter landing in Brown-Out Conditions, Mid-Air Refueling ? Surveillance ? Terrain Mapping ? Autonomous Navigation for Unmanned Vehicles ? Smart intersection ? Robotics and Machine Vision ? Underwater 3D Imaging ? Sub Nanosecond Dynamic Imaging ? 3D Sports Imaging

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This sensor will increase the success of NASA operations such as: ? Mars Landed Exploration ? Exploration of Moons (ALHAT, Jupiter Icy Moons) ? Asteroid and Comet Rendezvous and Sample Return ? ISS Rendezvous and Docking (manned & unmanned) ? Space Situational Awareness ? Extravehicular Robotic Camera ? Rock Abundance and Distribution Maps ? Topographical Mapping ? Rover Mobility and Navigation NASA Langley Research Center has purchased two of ASC's existing FLVC systems for performing laboratory, field, and airborne test and evaluation of this technology for use on the ALHAT program. A FLC been deployed for EDL helicopter and high altitude fixed wing experiments, and has shown excellent results. ASC is continuing to develop and improve its line of 3D Flash LIDAR systems, one of which successfully flew on the Endeavor (STS-127) for AR&D testing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
3D Imaging
Image Analysis
Data Fusion
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
Optical
Ranging/Tracking


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S4.01-9812
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Planetary Entry, Descent and Landing Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: MARVY: Mars Velocity Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michigan Aerospace Corporation
1777 Highland Drive, Suite B
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-2285
(734) 975-8777

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dominique Fourguette
dfourguette@michiganaerospace.com111
1777 Highland Drive, Suite B
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-2285
(734) 975-8777

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The successful landing of the large Mars rover Curiosity on August 5, 2012 outlined the increasing complexity of safely landing large rovers on the planet. A precise knowledge of the spacecraft speed is required in order to initiate the landing sequence near 900 mph; the present method uses IMUs to determine the position and speed of the craft, which is prone to drift and highly sensitive to initial conditions. The proposed MArs VelocitY sensor (MARVY) is a short range air data sensor based on direct, or incoherent, detection of light scattered by both molecules and aerosols. The instrument operates in the presence or absence of aerosols, thus enabling operation in completely clear atmosphere. The MARVY design will be based on micro-fabricated optical components to provide an instrument that affords all requirements for planetary exploration. This Phase I will entail modeling and design of the instrument. Critical components will be tested in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial impact of a micro-fabricated air data sensor receiver is substantial. The proposed research and development opens the path to extremely compact optical air data systems (OADS) for UAVs, cruise missiles and other ordnance with significant flight time, and re-entry and hypersonic platforms.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's interest in this instrument will not only be for the target use of airspeed measurement during Mars and other planetary atmospheric entry, but also for Earth sample-return capsules and other re-entry vehicles. NASA research involving UAVs and hypersonic vehicles would also benefit from this compact air data sensor.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
Interferometric (see also Analysis)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S4.02-8764
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Robotic Mobility, Manipulation and Sampling
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fiber Optic Shape Sensing for Tethered Marsupial Rovers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle, Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016-4962
(540) 769-8430

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Emily Horrell
horrelle@lunainc.com111
3157 State Street
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-6604
(540) 953-4259

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Luna Innovations Incorporated is proposing to design, build, and test a shape, length, and tension sensing tether for robotic exploration and sample-gathering missions on remote planets and moons. The proposed tether system is capable of determining the location and orientation of marsupial robots as they navigate difficult terrain. The tether system will also provide shape and tension information along the entire tether, distinguishing elevation changes, tension due to snags, and potential points of harm. The tension feedback is particularly crucial, as it can be used to determine whether the rover has fallen down a slope or cliff, lost traction, or whether it is still moving under its own power. The system is based on Luna's unique fiber optic position and shape sensing technology, and is an enabling technology for obtaining images, data, and samples in areas with difficult terrain. In addition to providing new, vital feedback, the fiber optic shape sensor within the tether is lightweight, small, and flexible. Luna's unique shape sensing fiber also has the potential to provide both communication and power through the same fiber, further reducing the size and weight of the total tether package.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Robots used for urban search and rescue have a significant challenge with localization since typical means such as GPS are not available inside a collapsed structure, and rubble and difficult terrain can snag tethers without the robot's knowledge. Deep diving underwater exploration vehicles both manned and unmanned could make use of a light weight tether system that can supply communication and localization information. The integrated tether sensing system can provide these systems with accurate localization information as well as power and high bandwidth communications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's Mars rovers have exceeded all goals and expectations, but they are still limited in the types of terrain that they can cover. Small, rugged marsupial robots with self-localizing and tension-monitoring tethers have the potential to reach critical sampling sites, explore steep craters, and navigate up and down sheer cliff faces on Mars, the Moon, asteroids, and other large bodies within our solar system. Self-localizing tethers also enable higher levels of precision for precursor-mission construction and manipulation robots sent to build infrastructure for later human missions to Mars, the Moon, and beyond.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Cables/Fittings
Waveguides/Optical Fiber (see also Optics)
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S4.02-9242
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Robotic Mobility, Manipulation and Sampling
PROPOSAL TITLE: Sensing and Positioning on Inclines and Deep Environments with Retrieval (SPIDER)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tethers Unlimited
11711 North Creek Parkway South, Suite D113
Bothell, WA 98011-8808
(425) 486-0100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gregory Jimmerson
jimmerson@tethers.com111
11711 N. Creek Pkwy S, D113
Bothell,  WA 98011-8808
(425) 486-0100

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To enable future robotic exploration systems to have greater mobility, sensing, sampling, and communication capabilities on difficult terrain such as craters, cliffs, gullies, and skylights, Tethers Unlimited proposes to develop a "Sensing and Positioning on Inclines and Deep Environments with Retrieval" (SPIDER) system. This system employs an innovative lightweight 'orbital winch' with the capacity for rapid tether deployment and high load retrieval or towing. The unique design of the orbital winch accomplishes cable winding and deployment without rotating the spool, minimizing mass and power consumption, while eliminating the need for electrical and optical slip-ring. The SPIDER system also integrates a launcher that can be used to deploy a wide variety of tethered end-effectors to provide new capabilities for sample retrieval and sensing. A carousel of these stowed end-effectors will allow selection of appropriate implements for a desired task. For example, tethered anchor end-effectors could give planetary rovers the ability to rappel down ravines, tow themselves up steep slopes, or free themselves from a stuck position. Sensing and sampling end-effectors with data- and power- transmitting tethers can be deployed and retrieved from otherwise inaccessible areas, giving in-situ feedback via optical fibers. The SPIDER system can also be a launch platform for subsurface boring or ice-penetrating probes such as the Cryobot. Moreover, by launching an RF transmitter/receiver, the system could improve communications for a planetary rover entering a geologic feature that would impede radio contact, such as a lava tube. The Phase I effort will mature the SPIDER to TRL 4 by testing prototypes of key components, and the Phase II will mature an integrated system to TRL 6 by testing and qualifying a prototype in a relevant terrestrial environment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SPIDER system could enable small robots used by Search and Rescue teams to locate victims in rubble due to earthquake or mine collapse. It could provide greater mobility for military and recreational vehicles. Additionally, the SPIDER system can providing high-bandwidth communications and power for mobile robots and ROV's in military and civilian applications, such as urban tactical operations and underground environments, exploration of caves or mines, inspection of ship hulls, and inspection of water, sewer, and oil lines.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SPIDER system will allow NASA exploration missions to extend scientific investigations in previously inaccessible terrain. It will enable rovers to explore craters, cliffs, caves and gullies. It will enable sensor, sampler, and communication device placement and retrieval. The SPIDER system may also be used for deployment and retrieval of sampling systems in zero-G environments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Cables/Fittings
Deployment
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Surface Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S4.02-9939
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Robotic Mobility, Manipulation and Sampling
PROPOSAL TITLE: Surface Abrasion Tool

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bear Technologies, LLC
1163 Tricounty Dr.
Oilville, VA 23129-2222
(804) 708-0311

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tom Myrick
tmyrick@bearmechanisms.com111
1163 Tricounty Dr.
Oilville,  VA 23129-2222
(804) 708-0311

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Mars Program Planning Group (MPPG) Final Report reiterates the importance of planetary sample return stating that sample return architectures provide a promising intersection of objectives for long term collaborations. The proposed innovation is an enabling technology for robotic planetary sample return missions. The proposed concept is a passive mechanism that works within a larger sample drilling system. Bear developed a complete planetary sample acquisition system called the Universal Sampling System (USS) which includes the baseline drill with Non-Rotating Technology (NRT Coring Drill) which was funded under a SBIR Phase 2 contract. Bear has several concepts for creating additional capabilities among them is the proposed Surface Abrasion Tool (SAT). The proposed innovation is a critical system component for meeting the science objectives of planetary sample return. Bear proposes to research and advance a Rock Abrasion (MER Rovers) like tool that can attach to and is driven by an existing coring drill thus requiring no additional motors. The proposed innovation has broad significance for the exploration of planets and small bodies. The proposed project is directly relevant to the topic as it addresses the importance of technologies for robotic mobility, manipulation, and sampling for in-situ analysis or return to earth from planetary small bodies, including Mars, Venus, comets, asteroids, and planetary Moons. Two main goals of the research are to: 1. Develop a method for attaching the surface abrasion tool to the larger coring drill without additional motors or wires. 2. Research the possible benefits/tradeoffs of cutting rather than grinding to remove rock surface with power constraints. Regardless of which technique is used to prepare the surface (cutting or grinding), the passive tool will strive to reduce the time it takes to prepare rock surfaces versus state of the art.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
If the concept of cutting for large area surface abrasion in harsh environments proves out, the technology has applications for surface abrasion on earth. The design can be modified specifically for underwater research applications from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) where sample collection for study of coral colonies is also a program requirement. (Solicitation: NOAA 2012-1) Additionally, the abrading method and tools that result from the research can prepare harsh environment earth surfaces for sample collection and testing; for example, mining environments, volcanoes and deep sea areas of scientific interest. There is potential to use the abrading tool in nuclear sites as well. SBIR funding supports Bear's 10-year commercialization and growth strategies. Bear has two main focus areas: 1. R & D/producing flight and mission hardware to NASA and other end-user agencies. 2. Developing and Licensing technology for industrial applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As part of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s planetary exploration missions, its scientists and engineers are developing in-situ sample collection mechanisms. The mechanisms need to be compact, efficient, low mass, and consume low power. [7] It is believed that this SAT will meet and exceed the need described in the subtopic and appeal to both the overall strategy of planetary exploration and to the flagship mission of Mars Sample Return [8]. The device can be tailored to any planetary science mission.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S4.03-8615
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Technology for Sample Return Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Solid Rocket Motor for Ultralow Temperature Operation During the Mars Sample Return Mission

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Analytical Services, Inc. (ASI)
350 Voyager Way
Huntsville, AL 35806-3200
(256) 562-2100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joseph Sims
simsj@asi-hsv.com111
350 Voyager Way
Huntsville,  AL 35806-3200
(256) 562-2191

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A small Mars (or other celestial body) ascent vehicle is unlikely to achieve the necessary propellant fraction required to achieve orbit. Scaling down of liquid propulsion systems, as shown in the figure, is difficult. In the 100-kg class of vehicles, liquid propellant vehicle designers should expect a propellant fraction of only 0.75. In contrast, solid rocket motors (SRM) scale down much easier, so designers should expect a propellant fraction of at least 0.92. To be practical, however, the SRM must operate in extreme low temperature environments, which is difficult for state of the art polybutadiene binders. ASI proposes to develop a new, low temperature binder based upon siloxane. Siloxane polymers have glass transition temperatures below 150K, making them ideal for use on Mars with little or no external heaters required. A siloxane binder SRM-based MAV will easily achieve the propellant fraction needed for a sample return mission.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Tactical missiles and rockets are generally required to operate between -65F and +160F, a temperature range often referred to as the tactical temperature limits. However, there are several systems in the field today that are restricted to minimum operable temperatures well above the lower tactical limit because grain structural margins are not adequate at -65F. This is a direct result of a mismatch in coefficient of thermal expansion between propellant and case, as well as from the high glass transition temperature (Tg) of HTPB. The propellant stiffness goes up dramatically as Tg is approached, which has an undesirable effect on the allowable stresses and strains in the grain. A siloxane-based composite formulation, with its significantly lower Tg, could ease those low temperature firing limitations. Additionally, the hydrophobic nature of siloxane polymers may also have a positive benefit to motor service life, since hydrolytic scission of the binder&#151;a major component of composite propellant aging&#151;will no longer be possible. Ballistic parachute deployment is a commercial market in which a motor that uses the proposed binder would serve well. It is also a market with which we already have an association. In the spring of 2007, ASI was approached by Ballistic Recovery Systems for help in scaling their current deployment motor. We will re-engage that company during execution of this Phase I to determine whether the new binder system would fit their needs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our primary technology insertion opportunity within NASA is the Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission. The Mars climate enforces a uniquely stressing environment that every propulsion system must deal with. However, we are also aware that NASA is focusing upon spacecraft and lander missions to asteroids and other near-earth bodies that will require operating at extreme low temperatures approaching -270C&#151;a scant 3C above absolute zero&#151;that will test the limits of every known material. From a propulsion system perspective, such missions demand, to an even greater extent than MSR, the kind of performance siloxane binders appear to offer. We are not aware of any polymer with a glass transition temperature near the liquid temperature of helium, so these missions will require electric heaters for the motor. Siloxane binders would reduce the power requirements for such spacecraft. Other potential NASA uses will be in the Space Launch System (SLS) program, perhaps used as ullage settling motors (USM), tower jettison motors, or even crew escape system motors. We are aware, of course, that motor designs currently exist (and have been tested) for these uses, but there may come a time when the additional structural margin at low launch temperatures is needed. Siloxane binders can fill that need.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
Polymers
Atmospheric Propulsion
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster
Surface Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S4.03-8793
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Technology for Sample Return Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: COARSE: Convex Optimization based autonomous control for Asteroid Rendezvous and Sample Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arkyd Astronautics, Inc.
1331 118th Avenue South East Suite 100
Bellevue, WA 98005-3876
(425) 336-2448

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ray Ramadorai
ray@arkyd.com111
1331 118th Avenue South East Suite 100
Bellevue,  WA 98005-3876
(425) 336-2448

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Sample return missions, by nature, require high levels of spacecraft autonomy. Developments in hardware avionics have led to more capable real-time onboard computing platforms, which allow for the implementation of more sophisticated algorithms. A real-time convex optimizer named COARSE (Convex Optimizer for Asteroid Rendezvous and Sampling Return) is proposed in order to efficiently guide path planning operations as well as spacecraft guidance and control. COARSE consists of a series of high level goals with specific set of execution steps, rather than complex interaction with ground control. This proposal plans to develop and simulate a basic optimizer for the purpose of a robotic spacecraft in proximity operations to an asteroid for a sample return mission, and implement in a spacecraft avionics software environment. If follow on Phase II work is awarded, the optimizer can be matured to expand higher levels of system complexity and constraints, potentially dealing with tasking multiple spacecraft working in coordination.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Although COARSE is proposed for robotic exploration spacecraft near asteroids, the technology can be used in spacecraft generalized to any proximity operations, rendezvous and docking, or formation control. Managing consumables is always a priority for spacecraft, regardless of size or complexity. Companies like SpaceX and others providing commercial resupply services to the ISS, as well as vehicles like HTV and ATV could benefit from the proposed software. DoD missions in Low Earth Orbit which involve spacecraft rendezvous to high level of precision navigation around cooperative or noncooperative targets would be one application of this technology (e.g. DARPA Phoenix).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology proposed is directly applicable to the needs of the NASA Technology Roadmap TA04 for spacecraft autonomy and autonomous rendezvous and docking. The current planned mission of OSIRIS-REx going to asteroid 1999 RQ36 for sample return would greatly benefit from proposed algorithms. More generally, other NASA missions to benefit would be: 1. Planetary landing missions (example Mars and Titan) 2. New Frontiers missions (Comet Surface Sample Return and Trojan Tour and Rendezvous) 3. Discovery class missions to asteroids NASA's Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle is another potential beneficiary of the COARSE technology, as it extends its operations beyond Low Earth Orbit. Our proposed work provides a novel solution to manage on-board consumables for increased mission success.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Attitude Determination & Control
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Data Processing
Ranging/Tracking
Telemetry (see also Control & Monitoring)
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S4.03-9269
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Technology for Sample Return Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Anchoring a lander on an asteroid using foam stabilization

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Adherent Technologies, Inc.
5505 Foothills Canyon Road Northeast
Albuquerque, NM 87111-8346
(505) 346-1685

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jan-Michael Gosau
jgosau@adherent-tech.com111
11208 Cochiti Rd SE
Albuquerque,  NM 87123-3361
(505) 346-1688

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has proposed several missions to land a craft on an asteroid and potentially to return samples from it. While large asteroids in the asteroid belt can exhibit a significant amount of gravity, most near-earth asteroids are small and show a surface gravity of less than 0.1% of earth. Landing, and staying on the surface of such a small object is a challenge, especially for manned missions. Just the movement of an astronaut in and out of the lander during excursions would most likely dislodge the vehicle. Similarly, drilling for a sample return mission requires the ability to exert force onto the surface without pushing the lander off the surface. A solid anchoring system is required, but made difficult due to the potentially rubble-like consistency of small asteroids, which makes classic mechanical anchoring difficult. Adherent Technologies, Inc. (ATI) has developed innovative materials for space use for over a decade. These include inflatable structures, self-sealing membranes, coatings for satellites and solar sails, and vacuum-deployable foams. The proposed program will combine these technologies to produce an anchoring system that deploys either a sticky screen that can attach to a solid rock formation or a foam injection anchor that can bind a large amount of rubble as an anchoring point. The system is modular, and a decision which anchoring method to use only needs to be made on location.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A second space application is the removal of orbital debris using the anchor screen to capture objects in space and de-orbit them using a small rocket motor. The large number of identified orbital debris parts will again require a long-term production of such units to clear commercially or militarily important orbits. Additionally, the same type of units could be attached to newly launched satellites or the space station to provide a close in debris defense mechanism when changes to the space craft orbit are too energy intensive or would bring the space craft into the trajectory of other debris. The foams developed for this program also have applications in emergency ground stabilization, remediation of mining tailings and in the stabilization of asbestos prior to removal.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
With the potentially large commercial potential of asteroid mining, the anchoring system is not a one-shot application. Multiple "path finder" missions will be needed to identify lucrative asteroids, and a modular anchoring system capable of supporting a variety of mission profiles have the potential for series production, at least by space mission standards.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Prototyping
Resource Extraction
Polymers


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 S5.01-8985
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Large-Scale Numerical Simulation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Comprehensive Simulation Lifecycle Management for High Performance Computing Modeling and Simulation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
IllinoisRocstar, LLC
60 Hazelwood Drive
Champaign, IL 61826-3001
(217) 417-0885

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Brandyberry
mdbrandy@illinoisrocstar.com111
60 Hazelwood Drive
Champaign,  IL 61826-3001
(217) 265-6256

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There are significant logistical barriers to entry-level high performance computing (HPC) modeling and simulation (M&S) users. Performing large-scale, massively parallel computations on modern supercomputing platforms is a very challenging task in and of itself. It requires huge amounts of analyst resources to construct datasets, transfer files, build codes, submit and monitor jobs, and analyze and archive results. This workflow requires significant attention to detail, and it is easy to miss steps, set up incorrect file or directory structures for datasets, spend inordinate