SBIR Phase I Solicitation Abstract Archives
NASA 2011 SBIR Phase II Solicitation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 A1.20-9873
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CD04P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Verification and Validation of Flight-Critical Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Emile: The EventML Explorer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Odyssey Research Associates, Inc.
33 Thornwood Drive Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850-1279
(607) 257-1975

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Guaspari
davidg@atc-nycorp.com
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca,  NY 14850-1279
(607) 257-1975

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The protocols needed to coordinate the activities of distributed components, such as consensus algorithms, are notoriously difficult to design, implement, and verify. Abstraction is the only way to gain intellectual control over this complex problem; so ATC-NY and Cornell University have developed Event Logic, a high-level model for describing and reasoning about distributed systems, and EventML, a high-level functional language for implementing distributed protocols by "programming with events." Properties of EventML protocols can be formally verified by interactive theorem proving in the Nuprl environment. To integrate these conceptual tools with standard processes of system development, and to make the labor intensive task of verifying protocol properties more efficient, ATC-NY is developing Emile. Emile is a software tool that provides: a semantic interface to EventML that translates assertions about properties of EventML programs into logical forms to which powerful fully automated analysis tools can be applied, along with a "logical manager" that can direct analyses involving the interaction of these tools. We will demonstrate Emile by using it to verify the key properties of EventML source code for standard consensus algorithms, such as Paxos.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Examples of non-NASA Commercial Applications requiring the support Emile provides for highly reliable distributed systems include the New York Stock Exchange, the AEGIS combat system, Google's Chubby service (on which Google File System and Google Analytics rely).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Emile supports the development of critical protocols that underlie highly reliable distributed systems (whether systems are "naturally" distributed, or replicated for fault tolerance)—for example, air traffic control.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Verification/Validation Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 A2.01-9150
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CD63P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Aircraft Superconducting Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anthony Dietz
ajd@creare.com
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 640-2310

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Hybrid turboelectric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft design space by decoupling power generation from propulsion. Resulting aircraft designs such as blended-wing bodies with distributed propulsion can provide the large reductions in emissions, fuel burn, and noise required to make air transportation growth projections sustainable. The power density requirements for these electric machines can only be achieved with superconductors, which in turn require lightweight, high-capacity cryocoolers. We have developed a Cryoflight turbo-Brayton cryocooler concept that exceeds the mass and performance targets identified by NASA for superconducting aircraft. In Phase I of this project, we extended our initial design study and developed modeling tools to support system-level optimization and individual component designs. We focused on the critical component for mass reduction – the recuperative heat exchanger – and performed risk reduction activities to demonstrate the feasibility of our concept for this component. In Phase II, we will design, build, and test two compact lightweight, high-performance recuperators for the Cryoflight cryocooler. This development effort will provide an enabling technology for the superconducting systems needed for hybrid turboelectric aircraft to be feasible.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials have the potential to revolutionize the way we generate, transmit, and consume power. Transformational initiatives that rely on HTS technologies include power conditioning and power transmission systems, large-scale offshore wind turbines, high efficiency data centers, Navy ship systems, and turboelectric aircraft. While the latter is the target application for the proposed cryocooler, the other applications represent potential near-term markets for the technology. There is also a large potential market beyond HTS applications, including cooling for laboratory and industrial-scale gas separation, liquefaction, cryogen storage and cryogen transportation systems, liquid hydrogen fuel cell storage for the automotive industry, and commercial orbital transfer vehicles and satellites.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Cryoflight cryocooler development effort will support NASA's long-term goal to increase aircraft efficiency and reduce aircraft emissions and noise. By providing a cryocooler optimized to meet the aggressive power density target required for aircraft systems, we will remove a key obstacle hindering the development of superconducting aircraft. While such aircraft are still two or three decades from production, supporting technology development needs to begin now if such aircraft are to become a viable alternative to the aircraft configurations in production today. The results of this SBIR project will support NASA design trade studies, system demonstrations, and eventual superconducting aircraft demonstrations. Other NASA applications include space applications such as cryogen liquefaction and storage for planetary and extraterrestrial exploration missions, CEVs, extended-life orbital transfer vehicles, in-space propellant depots, and extraterrestrial bases. Terrestrial NASA applications include cooling for spaceport cryogen storage and transportation systems, and demonstrations of hydrogen production and transportation systems. The highly reliable and space-proven turbo-Brayton cryocooler is ideal for these applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 A2.08-9794
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CF25P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aircraft Systems Analysis, Design and Optimization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Model Center-Integrated Reduced Order Multi-fidelity Optimization Scheme for NASA MDAO Framework

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ZONA Technology, Inc.
9489 East Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale, AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Darius Sarhaddi
darius@zonatech.com
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale,  AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 9

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
During Phase I of this effort, ZONA Technology, Inc. significantly improved the medium fidelity design and analysis capability of NASA's MDAO architecture by successfully adding ZONA CAE tools such as ZAERO, ZEUS, ASTROS and ZMORPH synergistically integrated within a ModelCenter MDAO framework. In Phase II of this effort, ZONA aims to improve all the three tiers of NASA's MDAO architecture as follows: (1) The low fidelity capability will be enhanced by incorporating ZONAIR for providing flight loads (for structural design) and pressure differential (for sonic boom mitigation). ZONAIR will also 'flexiblize' rigid CFD loads for aeroelastic analyses, (2) the medium fidelity capability will be further extended by addition of new ModelCenter plug-ins and improvements in the existing plug-ins for ZONA CAE tools, for facilitating ease of design process, and (3) the high fidelity analyses capability will be augmented by the development of supportive software offering beneficial features such as automated surface+flowfield mesh morphing/generation, commonality of input within all branches of fidelity, etc. Rapid shape sensitivity generation capability will be offered with incorporation of ZEUS-DO into the framework. For ease of model-making and input setup process, a pre/post-processor software called ZONA-MV will be further improved with linkage to NASA's VSP tool. A NASTRAN-to-ASTROS finite element model converter will be developed. The overall development outcome of Phase I+II effort will then be combined as a 'ModelCenter.ZONA MDAO Pak' with on-demand cloud computing ability, unlimited tokens for massively parallelized optimization efforts, and will be perpetually licensed within all NASA Research Centers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The components proposed to be developed in this effort for the MDAO suite are currently non-existent and/or are certainly needed to improve current capabilities of the commercially available MDAO software being used in the industry. Because of its many robust features beneficial to the air vehicle synthesis/ optimization, such as automated mesh generation +morphing capability, unified shape design variable definition for both structural and aerodynamic models, accelerated convergence through order reduction and design space evolution technique, and the streamlined ModelCenter-integrated process for the variable-fidelity structural, aerodynamic and aeroelastic solution generations, ZONA has discovered that the proposed MDAO suite has a unique commercial competitive edge in the air vehicle MDAO software market. ZONA's highly modular MDAO suite, offered as the 'ZONA-MDAO Pak' within Phoenix Integration's ModelCenter, can be adopted by the conceptual design and configuration development departments of airplane manufacturers nationwide and worldwide to develop a wide class of air vehicles such as UAVs/UCAVs, supersonic business jets and transports, advanced transonic transports, fighter aircraft, hypersonic missiles, and winged projectiles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's current research efforts in aircraft design focus on improvements in performance, better fuel efficiency and noise/boom reduction of the next generation commercial aircraft. These design drivers call for investigation of unconventional and revolutionary design concepts for which the empirical structural and aerodynamic equations based on historical database may not be valid. ZONA's innovative modular MDAO sub-framework, once incorporated in the NASA MDAO systems, can provide variable-fidelity and physics-based structural, aerodynamic, and aeroelastic solutions, along with offering a supportive architecture for the solutions for other disciplines computed by the existing analysis codes available in the NASA MDAO systems, thereby solving a complete configuration design and optimization problem. With acceleration of convergence achieved through the POD-based order reduction and design space evolution technique, automated rapid mesh-morphing by ZMORPH, loads and pressure differential provided by ZONAIR, pre/post-analysis processing capability by ZONA-MV and system-level integration using ModelCenter, Phase I+II effort of this project will largely expand NASA's MDAO capability and enable the design of unconventional and revolutionary air vehicles in a computationally efficient and cost effective manner.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 A2.09-8194
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CD06P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Braided Composite Technologies for Rotorcraft Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
A&P Technology
4595 East Tech Drive
Cincinnati, OH 45245-1055
(513) 688-3200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nathan Jessie
njessie@braider.com
4595 East Tech Drive
Cincinnati,  OH 45245-1055
(513) 688-3218

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Phase 2 effort will be used to advance the material and design technologies that were explored in the Phase 1 study of hybrid gears. In this hybrid approach, the conventional metallic web is replaced with a composite element. This alternative design generates a significant weight reduction and the potential for the reduction of noise and vibration. The Phase 2 program will make the first large scale hybrid gears that can be run in a rotating gear rig with imposed torque loading. Several full scale gears will be made as well as full scale test elements. Test results from full scale testing will be applied to computer simulation models. This effort will apply topology optimization techniques to predict the best design of the gear elements. This should enable significantly more efficient designs than those fabricated and tested in the Phase 1 program. This program will also explore a power transmission system that integrates gear and shaft into a single structure. It is hoped that this integrated system will benefit weight, noise and tolerance of misalignments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
While the focus of this work is on rotorcraft, if proven successful this technology could be applied to gears across many consumer industries such as industrial and automotive.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This research offers many attractive benefits for rotorcraft systems. These benefits include large weight savings which directly corresponds to increased performance. This research also potentially decreases the amount of individual parts in the gearbox system, by co-molding and directly attaching features. Decreased parts directly affect maintenance costs and intervals. These benefits would be beneficial to both NASA applications as well as commercial rotorcraft systems. There is virtually no rotorcraft system that couldn't incorporate this research into their existing or new systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 A3.02-8221
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CD15P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Systems Analysis Integration Evaluation (SAIE)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Networked Communications and Speech System for Airspace System Assessments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimal Synthesis, Inc.
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos, CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Victor Cheng
vcheng@optisyn.com
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos,  CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Extensive human-in-the-loop testing of NextGen concepts and technologies is typically required in a controlled lab environment before they can be integrated for evaluation in the field. The experiments tend to require the participation of a large number of subject-matter experts (SMEs) including air traffic controllers (ATC) and (pseudo-)pilots, which makes the experiments costly and the logistics with so many participants make them difficult to plan. These experiments often are designed only to collect data from either ATC or the pilots, but not both; the counterpart is needed only to provide realism in communication between them. The proposed research will develop a Speech-Enabled Simulation Interface Agent (SESIA) to replace the non-essential human subjects in these experiments. SESIA can interact with the SMEs through voice communication, and interface with the simulation platform to perform the intended control. It has the benefit of reduced cost associated with the experiments and increased convenience in their planning, thus allowing the opportunities to schedule additional testing. In cases where a pseudo-pilot would normally represent multiple flights and communicate to the ATC with the same voice for all flights, SESIA will actually increase the realism of the experiments by allow different voices to be synthesized to simulate different pilots.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Speech-Enabled Simulation Interface Agent (SESIA) can be adapted for other simulation facilities within the FAA. In addition, SESIA will also benefit air traffic control training facilities, including the FAA Academy at the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center in Oklahoma City, OK, and DoD training facilities such as the Naval Air Technical Training Center (NATTC) in Pensacola, FL.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Speech-Enabled Simulation Interface Agent (SESIA) is conceived for simulation facilities within NASA for human-in-the-loop (HITL) assessment of airspace system concepts and technologies. A large number of such NASA facilities have been identified in an FAA/NASA NextGen Human Factors Research Coordinate Plan. The software-based system will reduce costs and provide additional flexibility in performing HITL experiments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Man-Machine Interaction
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Sequencing & Scheduling
Teleoperation
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 A4.02-9670
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CD53P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Prototype-Technology Evaluator and Research Aircraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Area-I
1590 North Roberts Road, Suite 203
Kennesaw, GA 30144-3636
(678) 594-5227

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nicholas Alley
nalley@areai.aero
1590 North Roberts Road, Suite 203
Kennesaw,  GA 30144-3636
(678) 594-5227

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 7
End: 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Area-I team has developed and flight tested the unmanned Prototype-Technology Evaluation and Research Aircraft or PTERA ("ptera" being Greek for wing, or wing-like). The PTERA flew successfully during Phase I of this program, and stands to enhance the already capable NASA Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) by enabling the low-cost, low-risk, flight-based evaluation of everything from advanced aerodynamic treatments to control systems and sensor payloads. The PTERA will bridge the gap between wind tunnel testing and manned flight testing to greatly reduce technology development time, cost, and risk. This work seeks to further mature the PTERA system through rigorous flight testing and will begin the integration of the PTERA into the NASA ATP through the delivery of a new PTERA baseline system to NASA. Several core capabilities that the PTERA would bring to the ATP include: 1) A low-cost, low-risk flight test facility that can be used to expand ATP's role in the testing and validation of NASA's physics-based multi-disciplinary analysis and optimization (MDAO) tools 2) The ability to flight test advanced aerodynamic treatments, health management and control systems, and to perform experiments in structures and aeroelasticity for a fraction of the cost of a manned flight test program. 3) The ability to flight test cutting-edge and complex systems whose cost and risk are too high for manned flights. 4) A testbed with modular airframe that enables the evaluation of multiple technologies with the same airframe. 5) A testbed with a large payload capacity that facilitates the inexpensive and risk-mitigating flight test evaluation of a wide array of sensors and payloads as well as the evaluation of flight-test measurement systems before they transition to manned programs. 6) The ability to perform unmanned, autonomous, flight experiments relating to the burgeoning field of autonomous unmanned aircraft, including experiments supporting UAS integration into the NAS.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Area-I has already received significant private sector interest in the PTERA as a cost reducing research and development tool. As such, Area-I is currently developing several avenues under which to market the PTERA. Area-I plans to develop PTERA as a production aircraft to sell as a research testbed and to provide flight testing, maintenance, and engineering support to these customers. Area-I will also maintain its own fleet of PTERA aircraft to provide flight testing for a wide range of customers. Several UAV avionics manufacturers and software developers, including gimbal camera, datalink, image processing, air sensor, IMU, and flight test equipment developers have all expressed interest in flying their products on the PTERA. Additionally, several large aircraft manufactures, in connection with the National Institute of Aerospace (NIA), have discussed having Area-I maintain an exclusive fleet of PTERA models for communal testing of NextGen developed systems. Phase II efforts to rigorously test the PTERA testbed as a research aircraft will allow the private sector to invest funds in PTERA with lower risk to improve the safety and efficiency of aircraft in the national airspace system. Data from Phase II flight testing will serve as baseline data for future flight tests and provides a clear transition to Phase III commercialization.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A technology gap exists between well-controlled wind tunnel tests and full scale flight testing where most of the systems integration issues surface. Allocating these system integration activities to a full scale flight test is replete with safety, schedule and performance risks that dominate flight test costs. The PTERA platform serves as the bridge to integrate and flight test advanced aerodynamic treatments, health management, and control systems, and to perform experiments in structures and aero elasticity for a fraction of the cost of a manned flight test program. The PTERA flight test facility offers several distinct advantages to NASA and non-NASA customers. The PTERA configuration is representative of most commercial/transport aircraft and will provide relevant test data for these aircraft. PTERA's reconfigurability also allows cost effective testing of more unconventional designs that would otherwise be too dangerous or costly to test. Finally, PTERA's payload capacity and custom avionics allow it to host a multitude of subsystems for flight tests and in-flight tuning. PTERA's capabilities make it a perfect platform to support SFW, ERA, UAS in NAS, and the AvSP programs and has already begun to generate substantial interest from industry partners, who recognize PTERA's significant potential to reduce development time, cost, and risk of new systems including NextGen technologies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Perception/Vision
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Ad-Hoc Networks (see also Sensors)
Antennas
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Cables/Fittings
Coding & Compression
Multiplexers/Demultiplexers
Network Integration
Transmitters/Receivers
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Attitude Determination & Control
Command & Control
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Sequencing & Scheduling
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Teleoperation
Mission Training
Outreach
Training Concepts & Architectures
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Conversion
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Quality/Reliability
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Support
Image Processing
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Fusion
Data Input/Output Devices (Displays, Storage)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing
Knowledge Management
Transport/Traffic Control
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Fluids
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Actuators & Motors
Deployment
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Structures
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Filtering
Lenses
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Emitters
Lasers (Communication)
Lasers (Guidance & Tracking)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Lasers (Weapons)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
Acoustic/Vibration
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Biological Signature (i.e., Signs Of Life)
Contact/Mechanical
Electromagnetic
Inertial
Interferometric (see also Analysis)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Thermal
Verification/Validation Tools
Destructive Testing
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Lifetime Testing
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling
Active Systems
Heat Exchange
Passive Systems
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 A5.01-8555
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CD54P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: UAS Integration in the NAS
PROPOSAL TITLE: UAS Demand Generation and Airspace Performance Impact Prediction

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Frederick Wieland
fwieland@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville,  MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5268

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The key innovation of this effort is the development of future traffic demand for Uninhabited Aerial Systems (UAS) given the various missions they intend to fly, and thereafter populating a data warehouse with these projected flights that can be marketed to the aviation community. We propose developing one flight demand set for each of twenty-five future years from the 2015 through 2040, incorporating nineteen of the proposed UAS missions (sixteen to be developed during Phase II and three already completed from the Phase I activity, for a total of 19 missions * 25 years = 475 demand sets available at the conclusion of the project). In developing these demand sets, we are capitalizing on new technologies prototyped and demonstrated in Phase I of this project, in which our team demonstrated that credible flight demand sets for UAS missions can be developed using a combination of socioeconomic modeling combined with techniques derived from the activity-based modeling community.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The non-NASA commercial applications include analyses by private research organizations along the same lines that that government is conducting. We would expect that UAS manufacturers will use our projections as a basis of their own business cases for building UAS aircraft, or for the analysis of how their UAS aircraft will mix with other UAS or piloted aircraft. We would also expect that large airports and airport consultants will use our demand files as "background traffic" when they study the future growth at large airports. While the UAS flights that we project in phase II may not themselves be using large airports, many of them will be flying in the vicinity of large airport such that airport planners cannot ignore their flight paths when planning for future growth at large airport. In addition, large aircraft manufacturers may be interested in our projections to augment their own internal analyses or provide alternative views of future UAS flights. Although it is impossible to estimate the size of this market, it is most likely many times larger than the government investment, as tens of thousands of commercial UAS aircraft are expected to enter some use in the civilian airspace within the next twenty to thirty years.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is already stood up a UAS Integration project and is committed to helping the FAA determine the issues and resolution of those issues for integrating UAS aircraft in the NAS. Notably, Congress has directed FAA that it must have a plan in place for civilian use of UAS in the NAS by 2015. The result of the phase II effort will be accessible by NASA analysts in all NASA laboratories without charge, and can be used in NASA fast-time systems (such as the Airspace Concepts Evaluation System—ACES—or the Multi Aircraft Control System—MACS—or any other fast-time system) to represent UAS vehicles in the virtual world. Combined with a companion project that is underway at IAI to product machine-readable UAS performance files, a NASA analyst will have all the tools at his/her disposal to properly conduct the required research. In addition, NASA researchers can use the future data sets produced by this phase II project in combination with the performance files produced by our companion project to represent UAS aircraft in human-in-the-loop (real-time) systems such as the Air Traffic Operations System (ATOS) or even the Future Flight Simulator (virtual tower) at NASA/Ames

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


SBIR 11-2 Proposal Abstracts for Exploration Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 X1.01-9003
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CF09P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Characterization, Extraction, Transfer, and Processing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniature Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer for In-Situ Resource Utilization

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Sorensen
phs@creare.com
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 640-2340

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In situ resource utilization (ISRU) is essential for several of NASA's future flagship missions. Currently envisioned ISRU plants include production of oxygen from hydrogen reduction of lunar regolith and extraction of water from Martian regolith or asteroid material. NASA's Regolith & Environmental Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) mission's objectives are to analyze the distribution of volatile compounds in the lunar surface and to demonstrate ISRU operation on the moon. To support ISRU activities, NASA requires the development of a compact, lightweight gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) instrument that can quantify volatile gases with masses below atomic number 70 released by sample heating. The instrument must also be designed to withstand exposure to the release of HF, HCl, or Hg that may result from heating regolith samples to high temperatures. Creare proposes to design, build, and test a compact, lightweight GC/MS system capable of detecting, identifying, and quantifying 100 ppm to 100%-level concentrations of relevant compounds having mass less than 70 amu. Our GC/MS design is based on components that can be space qualified using techniques proven on numerous past space hardware development projects. During the Phase I project, we proved our design with benchtop testing, and in Phase II, we plan to build a brassboard version of our GC/MS that will meet the important performance requirements for the intended application.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary private sector applications for the proposed GC/MS system is for use in performing portable chemical analysis, particularly when looking for harmful gases in harsh environments. The sensitive and specific sensor that we propose to develop will not only help ensure the timely generation of data for hazardous gas detection, but will also provide this capability to commercial organizations wishing to perform chemical analysis in the field. For example, the proposed system would be invaluable for supporting first responder personnel who need to determine the safety of areas during cleaning and securing activities for interval testing in different areas. On the commercial front, inexpensive portable mass spectrometers would revolutionize pollution monitoring, process control, and the response to incidents by emergency personnel.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The main initial application area for the proposed GC/MS for ISRU plants will be in NASA's RESOLVE mission to the surface of the moon. Other future missions to Mars and the Moon, as well as other bodies such as Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) will also benefit from this development. Long-duration missions to the Moon will need substantial amounts of resources for life support and energy. Martian sample return missions and manned missions to Mars may be prohibitively expensive, technically exigent, and unacceptably risky unless resources can be produced on Mars. An ISRU propellant production plant on Mars may be needed for the sample return mission that NASA is envisioning in the 2020s.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 X2.03-9028
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CE01P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Electric Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid Direct Drive PPU with Extended Operating Range

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Colorado Power Electronics, Inc.
120 Commerce Drive, Unit 1
Fort Collins, CO 80524-4731
(970) 482-0191

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bryce Hesterman
bryce.hesterman@c-pwr.com
120 Commerce Drive, Unit 1
Fort Collins,  CO 80524-4731
(970) 482-0191

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
High-power electric propulsion with Hall thrusters has been proposed as a strong candidate for Electric Path missions, but conventional power processing units (PPUs) are complicated and the mass of the discharge power converters needs to be reduced. Direct Discharge Power Processing Units (DDUs) have been proposed as an alternative due to their simplicity and low mass, but the achievable operating range of thrust and ISP is significantly limited because power regulation for DDUs is only achieved through gas flow control, array offpointing or shunting. This proposal presents a compromise between PPUs and DDUs called a Hybrid Direct Drive Power Processing Unit (HDDU) that provides a wider operating range than DDUs while reducing the mass and increasing the efficiency compared to conventional PPUs. An HDDU provides filtering like a DDU, but it can additionally raise or lower the discharge voltage over a limited range. An HDDU only processes the power necessary to raise or lower the discharge voltage. We propose using a soft switching non-inverting interleaved buck-boost circuit similar to what was built for Phase I, but with improved control circuitry and a modular chassis. Straight-through direct drive operation is possible by leaving the buck switches on continually while having the boost switches off. The proposed HDDU would operate from an input voltage of 150 V to 300 V, and would provide 15 kW output power from approximately 200 V to 500 V. The HDDU approach is readily scalable to higher power levels by connecting modules in parallel because the proposed circuit naturally shares output currents. The HDDU will also include a digital control interface unit (DCIU), heater, keeper and magnet supply modules and driving circuits for a VACCO gas flow controller. The DCIU will be controlled through a Windows GUI and a MIL-STD-1553 communication to USB adapter. The modular approach and enhanced operating range promote design re-use and reduce life-cycle costs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Hybrid Direct Drive Power Processing Units could be used for commercial and military satellites, both for station keeping and orbit lifting. The advantages outlined for NASA applications also apply here. One specific non-NASA application is for Aerojet thrusters that are being developed for geosynchronous satellite use. Commercial non-flight applications include laboratory bench power supplies. A path to high volume sales may be achieved by using the converters refined in this SBIR for general purpose scientific equipment. The power converters used in the HDDUs could be re-purposed for a variety of power conversion applications such as fuel-cell output converters, solar array simulators and hybrid vehicles. We have had conversations with Colorado State University regarding using this technology as part of the central power system for a proposed underwater robot.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Hybrid Direct Drive Power Processing Units are well-suited for both manned and unmanned Electric Path missions, and can be readily scaled to hundreds of kilowatts through parallel-connected modules of approximately 15 kW. The power converters used in the HDDUs could be re-purposed for a variety of power conversion applications such as fuel-cell output converters and solar array simulators. The primary market for this technology is for high-power low-cost electric propulsion systems where Hall thrusters are likely to be used. It is anticipated that the CPE HDDU will have a lower cost than state-of-the-art PPU designs. Additionally, the high specific mass and high efficiency will reduce the overall system cost. The enhanced operating range capabilities compared to a pure direct drive can help enable missions where shifts between high thrust for short-term maneuvers and high ISP for long-term operation are desirable. The wide-range capabilities and a modular design also enable one HDDU design to be used in a variety of different applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airship/Lighter-than-Air Craft
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Manufacturing Methods
Conversion
Processing Methods
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 X3.03-9754
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CE02P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring and Fire Protection for Spacecraft Autonomy
PROPOSAL TITLE: Improved Combustion Products Monitor for the ISS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Southwest Sciences, Inc.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505-3993
(505) 984-1322

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joel Silver
jsilver@swsciences.com
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe,  NM 87505-3993
(505) 984-1322

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Compound Specific Analyzer – Combustion Products, used on the International Space Station as a warning monitor of smoldering or combustion events, is being phased out of service. Southwest Sciences Inc. proposes to develop a replacement laser-based analyzer using wavelength modulation spectroscopic absorption. This device would be capable of real-time measurements of the four most important gases of interest (carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen cyanide, and hydrogen fluoride) at concentration levels relevant to pre-combustion events and with a 1 second response time. This battery-operated device would be hand-held, use very little electrical power, and have a multi-year lifetime without the need for consumables, re-calibration, or maintenance, in contrast to the currently-used analyzer. The Phase I research focused on what we believe are the most critical risks to using our approach. All of these objectives were successfully accomplished, laying a strong foundation for continuation of the research in Phase II. In Phase II, a fully functional prototype analyzer, meeting all of the requirements for operation in the International Space Station, will be built and tested. Issues relating to space-qualification will be identified so as to ease the transition to Phase III and subsequent development.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA customers include the U.S. Navy for fire and environmental sensors in submarines, and the Air Force and commercial airline manufacturers for fire and air quality sensors in aircraft. For environmental monitoring, more generalized compact gas sensing customers include the Department of Energy, academic researchers, and industrial plants where air quality or smokestack emissions are a concern. Many of these latter needs are driven by regulatory agency requirements and this market is increasing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful development of an integrated, robust fire detection sensor will allow NASA to adopt a high-reliability system for detection of smoldering and/or fires in the International Space Station and other manned spacecraft. Such systems will become more important as extended-duration flights to the Moon and Mars begin. The same gas sensing platform also could be used for meeting the needs for a multi-gas sensor for monitoring cabin air, gas regeneration, and life support systems. This same gas sensor could also be used on a wide variety of platforms (e.g. aircraft, balloons, ground-based network, etc.). Since it is designed for long-term operation with minimal attention and maintenance, it is expected to find use in validation of remote data sensing obtained from planned NASA atmospheric research missions. Longer term NASA applications could include adaptation of the instrument for measurements in planetary atmospheres, via use of space-qualified electronics and further ruggedization of the mechanical and thermal design.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fire Protection
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 X4.02-9958
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CE93P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Suit Life Support Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniature Sensor Probe for O2, CO2, and H2O Monitoring in Space Suits

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 West 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505-5217
(424) 263-6300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jesus Delgado Alonso
sbirproposals@intopsys.com
2520 West 237th Street
Torrance,  CA 90505-5217
(424) 263-6321

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced space suits require lightweight, low-power, durable sensors for monitoring critical life support materials. No current compact sensors have the tolerance for liquid water that is specifically required for next-generation portable life support systems (PLSS). Intelligent Optical Systems (IOS) is developing a luminescence-based optical sensor probe to monitor carbon dioxide, oxygen, and humidity. Our monitor will incorporate robust CO2, O2, and H2O partial pressure sensors interrogated by a compact, low-power optoelectronic unit. The sensors will not only tolerate liquid water but will actually operate while wet, and can be remotely connected to electronic circuitry by an optical fiber cable immune to electromagnetic interference. For space systems, using these miniature sensor elements with remote optoelectronics provides unmatched design flexibility for measurements in highly constrained volume systems such as PLSS. Our flow-through monitor design includes an optical sensor we have already developed for PLSS humidity monitoring, and an optical oxygen sensor with similar IOS technology. In Phase I of this project IOS demonstrated a CO2 sensor capable of operating while wet, and a miniature prototype PPCO2-H2O-O2 sensor probe was fabricated and tested under relevant environmental conditions. In Phase II, in collaboration with Hamilton Sundstrand (Hamilton), we will design and produce prototypes for space qualification, and will conduct extensive testing under simulated space conditions, culminating in validation in NASA systems, bringing the monitor to TRL 6-7. Engineers from IOS and Hamilton will design the new sensor system to be compatible with electronics developed and fabricated for space operation by Hamilton (in particular, the common modular data bus interface unit). This approach will minimize the power requirements and size of the monitoring device, and will tremendously facilitate the infusion of the technology into the PLSS.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Compact high-performance gas sensors have a number of aeronautical applications. IOS has already conducted negotiations with Lockheed Martin Aeronautics for the integration of the sensor probe to be developed in Phase II into fight crew air supply systems. Because of its status both as an aircraft system integrator and as a leading supplier of avionic and aeronautic subsystems, Lockheed Martin is in an excellent position to bring IOS sensor technology to the aeronautics market. Biomedical monitoring is an attractive business opportunity; non-invasive or minimally invasive sensors and miniature probes for measuring and monitoring PCO2 and PO2, have many potential applications for monitoring medical airways during surgery, tissue oxygen supply, and blood perfusion. Sensor elements developed in Phase I have already been used for non-invasive PCO2 and PO2 blood monitoring in animal models, demonstrating high correlation with the invasive gold standard blood gas analysis. IOS has already established collaboration with the UCLA-affiliated Los Angeles Biomedical Research Center to explore this market opportunity.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Advanced Extra-Vehicular Activity systems are necessary for the successful support of the International Space Station beyond 2020, for future human space exploration missions, for in-space microgravity EVA, and for planetary surface exploration. In collaboration with NASA personnel, several needs and potential applications of the multiparameter probe sensors have been identified particularly for space suits. These include the International Space Station (ISS) Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), the Orion derived Launch Entry Abort (LEA), and the future EMU Demonstrator development. The ISS EMU requirement is the highest priority, because problems have been reported in the CO2 sensor in use under conditions of liquid water condensation, and because problems reported in the CO2 scrubber system can be solved by a humidity sensor capable of withstanding water condensation. NASA guidance and the participation of Hamilton Sundstrand will ensure that the prototypes resulting from this project are compatible with the ISS EMU PLSS system. The proposed technology will also have application as a monitor for air quality in the pressurized cabins of crewed spacecraft, will significantly improve miniaturization, and has potential for distributed sensing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 X5.03-9596
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CF40P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spaceflight Structural Sensor Systems and NDE
PROPOSAL TITLE: Structural Integrity Inspection and Visualization System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Optics Corporation
1845 West 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501-1510
(310) 320-3088

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Victor Grubsky
psproposals@poc.com
1845 West 205th Street
Torrance,  CA 90501-1510
(310) 320-3088

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Based on the successful feasibility demonstration in Phase I, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to continue the development of a novel Structural Integrity Inspection and Visualization System (SIRIUS), which addresses NASA's need for compact nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of the structural integrity of spacecraft components and structures. SIRIUS is based on one-sided three-dimensional (3D) structure imaging via collecting the information on density profiles in multiple object cross sections through hard X-ray Compton-scattered imaging. The SIRIUS Phase I prototype system demonstrated excellent potential for 3D localization of defects in various aerospace materials and structures, such as thermal protection system (TPS) ceramic foam tiles, micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) shielding, spacecraft pressure walls, inflatable habitat structures, composite overwrapped pressure vehicles (COPV), aluminum-rubber composites, and metal honeycomb materials. In Phase II, POC will develop a compact, standalone version of the SIRIUS system with improved performance (in terms of resolution and data acquisition speed), as well as an advanced graphical user interface (GUI) for straightforward data acquisition and visualization. At the end of Phase II, POC will perform a TRL-6 demonstration of SIRIUS at the NASA facilities. SIRIUS will provide NASA with an effective NDE tool for both in-space and on-ground applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Military applications of SIRIUS will include in situ NDE of U.S. Navy, Army, and Air Force military aircraft with large-area non-uniform multilayer aluminum/titanium/composite structures that have complicated geometry (and also combined textile polymeric, ceramic, and metal matrix composite structures). SIRIUS will also be used for the NDE of airplane, helicopter, and missile parts containing electronics, mechanics, propellants, explosives, etc., to detect their defects and integrity. SIRIUS can be incorporated by the U.S. Navy, Army, and Air Force as a reliable, rapid, robotic, easy-to-use NDE system. Potential DHS applications include the detection of vehicle-borne contraband, drugs, and explosives. The commercial availability of SIRIUS includes its use for in situ NDE of large-area non-uniform components in aging and modern commercial aircraft, spacecraft, light marine vessels, and any application requiring defect detection for multilayer ceramic, composite, metallic, and plastic non-uniform structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA application of the proposed SIRIUS system is a compact NDE system that can be used for evaluating the structural integrity of spacecraft components during spaceflight, with the capability of providing reliable, high-resolution assessments of the locations and extent of damage within thermal protection, MMOD shields, inflatable habitats, EVA suits and vehicles, electronic systems, conductive structures, pressure vessels, and other lightweight materials, with the capability of functioning in hard-to-access areas within both pressurized habitable compartments and external space environments. Additional NASA applications include in situ NDE of large-area non-uniform multilayer aluminum/titanium/composite structures with complicated geometry used in the development of advanced aircraft and spacecraft, providing accurate identification, localization, and measurements of all types of internal and surface defects.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
3D Imaging
Radiography
Ceramics
Composites
Metallics
X-rays/Gamma Rays
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 X7.01-9172
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CD47P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human Robotic Systems - Human Robot Interfaces
PROPOSAL TITLE: Visual Data Mining of Robot Performance Data

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
1670 South Amphlett Blvd., Suite 310
San Mateo, CA 94402-2513
(650) 931-2700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Ong
ong@stottlerhenke.com
1670 South Amphlett Blvd., Suite 310
San Mateo,  CA 94402-2513
(650) 931-2700

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to design and develop VDM/RP, a visual data mining system that will enable analysts to acquire, store, query, analyze, and visualize recent and historical robot performance data. During mission operations, these capabilities will enable operators to more quickly and accurately detect and interpret data patterns that support or rebut candidate diagnoses or hypotheses about robot problems. During robot system development and experimentation, VDM/RP will enable analysts and robot designers to review robot test data to create and refine models that specify quantitative relationships among robot system health and status variables that hold for nominal and off-nominal modes. Key innovations include interactive arrays of timelines and graphs for visualizing multivariate, time-oriented data, temporal queries to search for significant data patterns, and intelligent assistance to simplify user selection of data, analyses, and visualizations. During Phase I, we prototyped visualizations to analyze K10 rover LIDAR scan failures. During Phase II, we will develop three successively more capable versions of VDM/RP for test usage and evaluation by NASA's Intelligent Robotics Group.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications include manufacturers and operators of high-value systems, vehicles, communication networks, and manufacturing systems. Potential customers include the Department of Defense, aircraft and train manufacturers, airlines and railways, and semiconductor and chemical manufacturers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
During Phase II, our initial user will be the Intelligent Robotics Group at NASA Ames Research Center. Other NASA applications include unmanned spacecraft mission operations and satellite network operations. Longer term target applications include manned spacecraft, habitats, and robots operated on the Moon and on Mars.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Command & Control
Process Monitoring & Control
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 X8.04-9001
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CE11P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Photovoltaic Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Volume Production of Lightweight, Multi-Junction Solar Cells Using 6-inch GaAs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MicroLink Devices
6457 Howard Street
Niles, IL 60714-3301
(847) 588-3001

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher Youtsey
cyoutsey@mldevices.com
6457 West Howard St
Niles,  IL 60714-3301
(847) 588-3001

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In the proposed Phase II program, we will transition MicroLink's 6-inch epitaxial lift-off (ELO) solar cell fabrication process into a manufacturing platform capable of sustaining large-volume production. Key Phase II improvements in the ELO process are reduction in cycle time and increase in the yield of large-area devices. In addition, we will transition all critical device fabrication processes to 6-inch production tool sets that are designed for volume production, with an emphasis on automated cassette-to-cassette and batch processes that will minimize operator dependence and variability. During the Phase II program we will establish a pilot production line capable of at least 1500 6-inch wafers per month at greater than 80% yield. We will also increase the yield and manufacturability of the 6-inch reclaim process, which is crucial to reducing the cost of the cells. This will involve a closer collaboration with our substrate reclaim vendor and the establishment of clear metrics to qualify key process variables impacting device yield. A successful conclusion of this Phase II program will place us in strong position to support potential SEP volume solar cell manufacturing requirements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
MicroLink Devices' large-area multijunction solar cells have many different potential applications. The light weight and high specific power of the ELO solar cells make them ideal for powering unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). We are also engaged with several different manufacturers of commercial satellites for whom cost reduction is major motivation. Finally, there are potential military applications for mobile solar electric power to carry out recharging of batteries in the field.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The 6-inch ELO manufacturing platform to be developed in this Phase II program is ideally suited for building low-cost, high efficiency and lightweight multijunction solar cells for potential NASA solar electric propulsion programs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Processing Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 X9.01-9863
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CD48P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ablative Thermal Protection Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Temperature, Heat Flux and Recession Sensing for Ablative Thermal Protection Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Industrial Measurement Systems
2760 Beverly Drive, Unit 4
Aurora, IL 60502-8604
(630) 236-5901

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Donald Yuhas
dyuhas@imsysinc.com
760 Beverly Drive, Unit 4
Aurora,  IL 60502-8604
(630) 236-5901

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Phase I program demonstrated the efficacy of real-time of ultrasonic recession measurements on low density TPS materials. Measurements on internal echoes established the feasibility of non-intrusive temperature measurements. In the Phase II program we will continue to improve, optimize, and extend the technology. Sensors with better elevated temperature performance will be developed and configured for ablation measurements. Instrumentation with improved low frequency and more robust time-of flight algorithms will be incorporated into the system. Configurations with multiple sensors suitable for mapping recession profiles will be evaluated. The measurement technique will be applied and measurement results verified through a series of ablation tests where the real-time recession data will be quantitatively compared to that obtained from post-ablation analysis.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Mass and heat dissipation performance are critical to thermal protection systems for many NASA objectives both in spaceflight and hypersonic flight. Low-density carbon phenolics perform well in both of these critical parameters. Phenolic Impregnated Ceramic Ablator (PICA) was developed by NASA/Ames in the mid-nineties and flown successfully in the Stardust mission. This particular material is of active interest to NASA, with its use in the upcoming Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) and the possibility of its selection for multiple future missions. Real-time recession and heat flux measurements will support continued development of this class of ablators as well as mission specific implementation. Ablator performance models can be enhanced with higher fidelity temperature data and used for faster development with decreasing cost. Future programs are also in need of PICA and PICA class ablators. Two of the New Frontiers Program proposals incorporate PICA for sample return missions including MoonRise, a Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample Return Mission which would place a lander in a broad basin near the moon's south pole and return approximately two pounds of lunar materials for study and Osiris-Rex which would rendezvous and orbit a primitive asteroid, returning more than two ounces of material from the asteroid's surface.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
PICA and materials of its class are currently under development worldwide, including a Carbon-Resin by the European Space Agency (ESA). The largest current scheduled user of PICA-class ablators is SpaceX which utilizes a PICA-X variant in the Dragon spacecraft for earth re-entry. This environment is toward the lower end of heat fluxes and ablation to be encountered during a re-entry procedure. All private and public space endeavors that require re-entry heat shielding can benefit from the technology developed under this program which can augment and improve modeling, test ablators in real-world conditions and perform health monitoring roles in test articles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Quality/Reliability
Composites
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
Ablative Propulsion
Acoustic/Vibration
Thermal
Destructive Testing
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 X11.01-8144
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CF36P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Shielding Materials Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Space Station Validation of Advanced Radiation-Shielding Polymeric Materials

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
International Scientific Technologies, Inc.
P.O. Box 757
Dublin, VA 24084-0757
(540) 633-1424

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Russell Churchill
intlsci@earthlink.net
P.O. Box 757
Dublin,  VA 24084-0757
(540) 633-1424

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Subtopic X11.01, NASA has identified the need to develop advanced radiation-shielding materials and systems to protect humans from the hazards of space radiation during NASA missions. The radiation components of interest include protons, alpha particles and heavy ions from galactic cosmic rays, protons and other ions from solar particle events, high energy electrons and neutrons, and high-energy electromagnetic radiation. International Scientific Technologies, Inc., in conjunction with the College of William and Mary, proposes to raise the technology readiness level of selected polymeric radiation-shielding materials through participation in the Materials on the International Space Station Experiment program, named MISSE-X. The Phase I SBIR program demonstrated the feasibility of developing a flight-qualified Technology Demonstration Experiment to be carried on board the ISS as part of a MISSE-X payload to facility Technology Infusion. Phase II Technical Objectives will include specification and fabrication of polymeric materials to shield astronauts and sensitive electronic equipment, acquisition and test of detectors/dosimeters suitable for measurement of total ionizing dose, design, construction, test and optimization of an experimental package compatible with the guidelines and specifications of the MISSE-X program, and field testing and integration in conjunction with NASA personnel and NASA contractors. The anticipated result of the Phase II program is the delivery of an experiment package for MISSE-X.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lightweight multifunctional radiation shielding will find application in the commercial sector in reducing collateral damage from heavy charged particles emerging as a therapeutic approach in nuclear medicine. The shielding will lead to decreased fatigue among medical personnel required to wear heavy protective garments during radiological procedures. Workers in industrial facilities using radiation for materials processing and in nuclear power facilities will also benefit from more-comfortable garments having reduced weight and thermal stress. The Departments of Defense and of Homeland Security will find applications that include protection of soldiers, first responders and emergency medical personnel against high energy gamma radiation and neutrons resulting from so-called dirty bombs as well as from hazards brought about through accidental release of radiological materials. The uses of continuous monitoring of arrays of in-situ radiation sensors include evaluation of degradation of personal protective garments for biomedical, defense and homeland security applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed approach to validation of passive radiation-shielding materials has NASA applications including evaluating the effects of the space environment on multifunctional nanocomposite materials capable of serving both as radiation shields and structural elements. These materials are being developed by International Scientific Technologies, Inc. Several NASA programs will be directly affected as a result of the Phase I and Phase II programs. The Human Research Program (HRP) is tasked with ensuring crew safety on long-duration space missions. Validation of radiation shielding on-board the International Space Station will support that task. HRP will also deliver a design tool to assess advanced radiation shielding on space vehicles. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program will develop and demonstrate prototype systems for life support, habitation, and extravehicular activity (EVA).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Composites
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Ionizing Radiation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 X12.01-8964
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CD94P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Exercise Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Computer-Controlled Force Generator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 West 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge, CO 80212-1916
(303) 940-2347

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Douwe Bruinsma
dbruinsma@tda.com
12345 West 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge,  CO 80212-1916
(303) 940-5395

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
TDA Research, Inc. is developing a compact, low power, Next-Generation Exercise Device (NGRED) that can generate any force between 5 and 600 lbf. We use a closed loop control system and a servo motor to smoothly and accurately simulate the gravitational and inertial loads of lifting a weight on earth. However, because the system uses a computer-controlled motor, the load can be varied independently during the concentric and eccentric phase of the exercise. Thus, the system can easily provide an eccentric overload during the return stroke, greatly increasing the physiological benefit of a workout. The NGRED has a user-friendly interface where the exercise is selected from a drop-down menu, along with the desired weight and overload. The NGRED will automatically adjust to the user's stored range of motion (ROM) for the selected exercise and apply the set load only during the ROM. The NGRED automatically applies the eccentric overload at the top of the ROM and advances to the next rep at the bottom. The time required to change between users, exercises, and weights is less than 10 seconds. This makes much better use of the astronaut's time; with current mechanically adjustable exercise machines up to two thirds of the time is spent adjusting the machine. The software includes data logging and communication abilities to meet NASA requirements as well as redundant hardware and software fail-safe mechanisms. The NGRED includes an efficient energy recovery system which stores the energy generated by the user during the concentric phase of the motion (pull stroke) and applies that energy to provide resistance during the eccentric phase (return stroke). The average power consumption of the NGRED will be less than 50 W during an exercise session. The expected weight of the NGRED at the end of Phase II will be 20 kg, and the total volume is expected to be 55 L, including all electronics and controls. A flight-like NGRED will be delivered to NASA at the end of Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NGRED has markets in academic research, physical therapy, athletic departments and fitness industry. The NGRED can be used in home-gyms to replace the heavy weight-stacks and add an electronic interface to monitor progress or to share results with a remote coach or friends online. There is much research being performed to study the physiological benefits of different load profiles during strength training, with the majority of this work being focused on the effects of eccentric overload. The NGRED is perfectly suited for this because the amount of eccentric overload can be precisely controlled and set by entering the desired value on the user-interface. The NGRED also allows the study of custom load profiles throughout an exercise motion. For this application the NGRED has unique capabilities in that can match a user's range of motion (ROM) in seconds and then apply a custom load profile based on the ROM while logging position and force data at 16 kHz. Lastly, the features of the NGRED make it ideal for physical therapy centers. With the NGRED, strength training can be designed to precisely meet the needs of the patient by providing resistive loads only where desired during the range of motion. To market our device, we will use a proven commercialization pathway, building credibility through sports medicine research and incorporation into physical therapy facilities, leading to large sales in athletic departments, fitness centers, and ultimately in home markets.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Extended stays in reduced gravity environments lead to a decrease in bone density and muscular deterioration if proper countermeasures are not taken. Studies have shown that crewmembers of the International Space Station can lose up to 2% per month in bone mass and 32% in muscle strength during a 6 month stay. To counteract this phenomenon, several pieces of exercise equipment have been developed. These pieces range from elastic bands to more complex pieces of equipment such as the interim Resistive Exercise Device (iRED) and the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED). The iRED does not generate sufficient force for effective resistive exercise, whereas the ARED has been proven to be sufficient for maintaining muscle mass and bone density. The ARED, however, is large and heavy, making it unsuitable for incorporation into a small spacecraft for long duration space travel. The NGRED is able to generate sufficient resistive force for effective resistive exercise (up to 600 lbf) and is able to provide eccentric overload to further increase the efficiency of a resistive exercise session. Furthermore, the NGRED is lightweight, low power, compact, and user friendly, making it perfectly suitable for inclusion in a small spacecraft for long-duration missions. Average power consumption of the NGRED will be less than 50 W during operation, the volume will be less than 55 L and the weight will be less than 20 kg.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Physiological/Psychological Countermeasures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 X15.01-8695
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CD36P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: A New Technique for Automated Analyses of Raw Operational Videos
PROPOSAL TITLE: Automatic Video-based Motion Analysis

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vecna Technologies, Inc.
6404 Ivy Lane, Suite 500
Greenbelt, MD 20770-1423
(240) 965-4500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Neal Checka
nchecka@vecna.com
6404 Ivy Lane, Suite 500
Greenbelt,  MD 20770-1423
(617) 674-8545

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Understanding task performance and crew behavioral health is crucial to mission success and to the optimal design, development, and operation of next-generation spacecraft. Onboard resources, like a conventional 2D video camera, can capture crew motion and interaction; however, there is a critical need for a software tool that achieves unobtrusive, non-invasive, automatic analysis of crew activity from this footage. The proposed automatic video-based motion analysis software (AVIMA) supports this R&D effort by automatically processing and analyzing complex human motions in conventional 2D video without the use of specialized markers. Unlike many video analytics solutions, AVIMA goes beyond simple blob-based video analysis by tracking the geometric configuration of human body parts like the trunk, head, and limbs. This tracking enables human motion understanding algorithms to model and recognize complex human actions and interactions. The resulting system will represent a substantial breakthrough providing benefits to an array of applications in video surveillance, human-computer interaction, human factors engineering, and robotics.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology is applicable to a wide range of Department of Defense (DoD) and intelligence community areas including force protection, counter-terrorism, human activity monitoring, and surveillance and tracking. We see significant potential for application of this tool to support a range of tactical and strategic systems, including shipboard Navy CIC centers, Army field C3I centers, or USAF theater airborne command posts. A number of programs sponsored by the DoD (FCS, HumanID, CTS, Mind's Eye, Rail Security Pilot) employ video-based monitoring systems and would benefit from the proposed system. Also, Vecna will investigate commercialization opportunities in other sectors, including mobile robotics, interactive displays, and visual surveillance. Initial analysis of these market segments reveal both unaddressed needs as well as vast potential for rapid adoption and growth. As robotic systems become more commonplace in today's society, robust, intelligent interaction between humans and robots is essential. To interact with humans in a lifelike manner requires the robot to infer physical intentions based on visual cues. The proposed technology could potentially revolutionize human-robot interaction. In the surveillance market, automated screening provides an immediate and extant application opportunity for AVIMA. Digital signage and displays provide another venue for applying the AVIMA technology within healthcare.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Vecna expects the full-scope software system to have immediate and tangible benefit for NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). ESMD focuses on the human element of exploration by conducting research to ensure astronaut explorers are safe, healthy and can perform their work during long-duration space exploration. Task performance and crew behavioral health are key concerns in the design, development, and operation of next generation space vehicles. Operations in confined, isolated, and resource-constrained environments can lead to suboptimal human performance. As such, there is a critical need for Vecna's proposed software tool that automatically processes and analyzes crew motion and interaction from video footage captured by a single conventional 2D video camera. Such a diagnostic tool will enable unobtrusive and non-invasive measurement of task performance and crew behavioral health.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Intelligence
Man-Machine Interaction
Perception/Vision
Image Analysis
Image Processing


SBIR 11-2 Proposal Abstracts for Science


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 S1.01-8389
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CE18P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar and Laser System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Efficient In-band Diode-pumped Q-switched Solid State Laser for Methane Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Princeton Lightwave, Inc.
2555 Route 130 South, Suite 1
Cranbury, NJ 08512-3509
(609) 495-2600

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Igor Kudryashov
ikudryashov@princetonlightwave.com
2555 Route 130 South, Suite 1
Cranbury,  NJ 08512-3509
(609) 495-2568

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop an efficient, tunable Q-switched SSL operating at a wavelength of 1651 nm with pulse energy >1 mJ at 2000 Hz repetition rate with in-band laser diode pumping. We will leverage initial work carried out during Phase I of this program to pursue two approaches: (i) a tunable injection-seeded Q-switched SSL, and (ii) a regenerative power amplifier. In Phase I, we investigated a variety of gallium garnet gain media — including comprehensive characterization of absorption and fluorescence spectra — and we have identified the most promising prospective crystals for 1651 nm emission. We have also demonstrated sufficient tunability to enable differential path LIDAR techniques for the detection of methane.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of the high-pulse-energy Er-doped solid state laser (SSL) proposed in this program will be crucial for LIDAR instruments intended for the measurement of methane in the Earth's atmosphere. This laser technology to be developed will also potentially provide new capabilities for measurements of other atmospheric constituents and the surface topography of the Earth and other planetary bodies anticipated for numerous NASA mission programs. This laser will serve as an ideal source for LIDAR systems in the wavelength range near 1.65 um and for active remote sensing optical instruments in general.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a number of potential non-NASA commercial applications that will benefit from the development of high energy pulsed Er-doped SSLs. Specific applications include remote gas sensing, particularly for the detection of methane and other hydrocarbon gases critical to the energy industry. Other applications include commercial lidar systems; range-finding and ladar applications; medical systems for areas such as dermatology, nerve stimulation, and dentistry; and materials processing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Emitters
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 S1.01-9806
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CF33P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar and Laser System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Laser Sources for Methane and Ozone Sensing for Earth Observation Science

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fibertek, Inc.
13605 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon, VA 20171-4603
(703) 471-7671

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Timothy Shuman
tshuman@fibertek.com
13605 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon,  VA 20171-4603
(703) 471-7671

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase II program will build and deliver a tunable single-frequency laser operating in the 1.645 micron region on optimum CH4 absorption line features. Under this program an all-solid-state parametric-converted laser will be delivered to NASA LaRC which will be suitable for acquiring range-resolved and column CH4 measurements, and compatible with integration into an airborne methane DIAL system under future programs. Due to its relative insensitivity to aerosol and cloud interferences, a DIAL system based on this pulsed laser source will be ideal for NASA investigating high-latitude CH4 releases over polar ice sheets, permafrost regions, wetlands and over open ocean during night and day. In addition the methane lidar system has commercial applications in detection of fossil fuel leaks. This development advances the laser system TRL from 3 to 5. The proposed laser is designed to be compatible with manned or UAV platforms and traceable to space=based instruments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Methane lidar systems are being deployed for commercial gas leak detection, mainly in Europe, and as airborne pollution sensors and for wide area characterization of methane atmospheric content in support of global warming research. The major contributors in this area are in Germany and France. Currently there is little analogous work in the US. The sensor developed under this SBIR program is designed primarily for airborne deployment. WIth increased exploitation of natural gas reserves detection of leaks from wells and pipe lines is becoming increasingly more important. We anticipate that successful demonstration of airborne methane DAIL by NASA will introduce this technique to the commercial sector. Energy companies, state and national government are potential customers for airborne DIAL systems. National governments of energy producing nations also represent a rich market for this technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA markets include planned airborne metane DIAL systems and eventually space-based sensors. These applications are all for low-volume high value systems, which makes DIAL instruments a viable product for small business. Methane is cited as an important atmospheric variable by several panel reports in the Decadal Survey for Earth Science Applications from Space. NASA's plan for climate-centric investigations recognizes the importance of CH4 and discusses the potential for capability on the follow-on to OCO-2. A U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Plan currently under development recognizes the importance of CH4 and emphasizes the importance of an integrated system to collect and maintain the essential data that drive scientific understanding. The laser source proposed under this SBIR directly addresses these needs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 S1.02-9987
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CE49P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Integration Platform for Dual-Polarized W-Band Antenna Arrays

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nuvotronics, LLC
7586 Old Peppers Ferry Road
Radford, VA 24141-8846
(800) 341-2333

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kenneth Vanhille
kvanhille@nuvotronics.com
7586 Old Peppers Ferry Loop
Radford,  VA 24141-8846
(800) 341-2333

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A few NASA decadal missions such as the Aerosol Clouds Ecosystems (ACE) mission require space-based millimeter-wave radar apertures to complete the science objectives. We propose to create dual-polarized microfabricated copper-based antenna apertures with integrated MMICs that go beyond the capabilities funded to date at the upper frequencies of interest by enabling electronic scanning at W-band frequencies, while not precluding the co-location of Ka-band capability in the same aperture. This Phase II effort will constitute element-, feed-, MMIC-, and array-level analyses of the trade space for the proposed aperture. In addition we will provide a hardware demonstration of a W-band transmit/receive array tile showing MMIC integration on the necessary scale for W-band phased arrays and high-efficiency dual polarized antenna elements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are several applications for active mm-wave antennas of interest to NASA. Active millimeter-wave imaging is very promising for a wide range of remote sensing NASA missions including the measurement of precipitation and characterization of cloud properties as for the Aerosol, Cloud and Ecosystems (ACE) mission The Curiosity rove as part of the Mars Science Laboratory, landed on Mars in August of 2012 using a lower-frequency radar sensor for through-dust imaging. Interest exists to move the technology up in frequency to decrease the size and weight of the landing radar. In addition, satellite communication is moving to V-Band, and the proposed effort would have application at these lower frequencies. The dual-polarized microfabricated copper-based antenna apertures with integrated MMICs present enabling capabilities for each of these applications and others using this frequency range.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are several applications for active mm-wave antenna arrays outside of NASA. NOAA and other government organizations use W-band for instruments with similar frequency capability as what would be required for the NASA Aerosol, Cloud Ecosystem (ACE) mission. Raytheon uses this frequency range for Active Denial, and a more efficient front end could be useful for this type of system. In addition, the Air Force is very interested in satellite communication capability at V-Band, and the proposed effort would have application at these lower frequencies. The DARPA system technology office recently released a broad agency announcement for W-band silicon-based phased arrays. Improved antenna and amplifier efficiency for the front end of these sensors would be achieved using the proposed technology. The dual-polarized microfabricated copper-based antenna apertures with integrated MMICs present enabling capabilities for each of these applications and others using this frequency range.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Radiometric
Terahertz (Sub-millimeter)
Microwave


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 S1.03-8314
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CE50P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Passive Microwave Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-power Cross-Correlator ASIC

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pacific Microchip Corporation
3916 Sepulveda Boulevard #108
Culver City, CA 90230-4650
(310) 683-2628

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Denis Zelenin
denis@pacificmicrochip.com
3916 Sepulveda Blvd. Suite 108
Culver City,  CA 90230-4650
(310) 683-2628

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The NASA's PATH mission includes the GeoSTAR satellite that carries aboard a microwave sounder employing an array of 375 microwave antennas with corresponding receivers. Each receiver is tuned to the 180GHz frequency, while the intermediate frequency (IF) reaches 500MHz. The IF signal is quantized at 1GHz with 2-bit accuracy. The resulting data rate is 700Gb/s. This data has to be pre-processed aboard the satellite before it can be transmitted to Earth for further processing. One of the steps of such data processing is cross-correlation. For a space borne instrument, power dissipation and radiation hardness are among the most important requirements. Pacific Microchip Corp. is designing an ASIC that includes a cross-correlation unit with interfaces for the GeoSTAR's receivers. The ASIC will have greatly reduced power consumption compared to that of the FPGA-based or classic ASIC-based implementations. This ASIC must be designed and integrated with already existing system components of the GeoSTAR instrument. The ASIC includes cross-correlation cells based on novel architecture. The deep submicron SOI CMOS technology selected for the ASIC's fabrication will increase its tolerance to the total ionizing dose (TID) and reduce the probability of radiation-induced latch-up. The design of the ASIC will follow design for testability (DFT) methods, which will simplify characterization and testing of the fabricated ASIC, reduce risk and lower the cost of the product.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High energy efficiency at high data processing speed and radiation hardness of the proposed cross-correlator ASIC makes it applicable in many space-based commercial and military systems such as radiometry, interferometry, polarimetry, and spectrometry employed for remote sensing applications. Cross-correlators are also required for neural implants in medicine, image sensor signal processing in military and homeland security, and synthetic aperture radars in both military and civil aviation. The proposed ASIC can be included into the signal processing path of artificial eyes, ears or other senses that are employing signal processing based on artificial neural networks. In order to ensure the highest outcome of the developed technology, the proposed ASIC's core will also be offered as an IP block which will be licensed to interested parties.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed ASIC is intended for processing the GeoSTAR instrument's microwave sounder signals. The ASIC will cross-correlate the signals of 2X125 receivers located on two arms of the Y shaped antenna. A total of three ASICs will be employed for the complete cross-correlation function required for the instrument. The proposed cross-correlator ASIC can also find application in signal processing required for radio telescopes that employ more than 2,000 receivers, such as the SKA. The cross-correlators installed on such telescopes consume tens of kilowatts of power. The novel ASIC offers a reduction of power consumption by at least an order. The proposed ASIC's core will be available as an IP ready for implementation in other correlator ASICs employed in space borne and Earth-based NASA instruments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Coding & Compression
Multiplexers/Demultiplexers
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Data Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 S1.04-8736
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CE22P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Performance Spatial Filter Array Based on Single Mode Fiber Bundle

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Agiltron Corporation
15 Presidential Way
Woburn, MA 01801-1040
(781) 935-1200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yan Yan Liu
pliu@agiltron.com
15 Presidential Way
Woburn,  MA 01801-1040
(781) 935-1200

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Phase I project, by leveraging on Agiltron's experience in optical fiber components and our unique fabrication procedure of fiber array, we successfully designed and fabricated the samples of the gradient index fiber (GIF) lens arrays and single mode (SM) fiber arrays for composing a coherent single-mode fiber (SMF) spatial filter array (SFA), which demonstrated the promising results to meet NASA's requirements for the applications in planet exploration. This novel GIF and SMF array based SFA has several advantages over the current approach in small aberration, low insertion loss, high uniformity, high robust and stability. In Phase II, Agiltron will further improve and optimize the fabrication procedure to make the prototype of GIF and SMF array based SFA for NASA applications. This SFA prototype will have more than 1000 effective fiber counts in the requested aperture. Furthermore, the improvements of precision fabrication procedure developed in Phase I will assure that center-to-center deviation in GIF and SMF arrays' deviation is less than +/-0.2m. At the end of the Phase II, the novel SFA prototype will be provided with fully function integration and environmental test to insert into the experiment system of NASA for further comprehensive evaluation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The GI lens array has great advantages over present micro-lens arrays in high accuracy and uniformity, high resolution and low cost for commercial applications as FPA imager, remote sensing, wide angle, fast beam steering applications, scientific and engineering instruments. For example, a GI lens array used with a CCD array can constitute the core of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. If the wavefront is distorted, the light imaged on the CCD sensor consists of displaced spots and missing spots. This information can be used to calculate the shape of the wavefront that was incident on the microlens array. Another application is in 3D imaging and displays. The use of a GI lens array can define the viewing directions for a pair of interlaced images and hence enable the observer to see a 3D stereoscopic image. And the GI lens array can be used to DWDM module, WSS in fiber optical communications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A planet finding visible nulling interferometer coronagraph architecture was applied to detect extra-solar planets near its star in the visible or near infrared spectrum. In order to reducing wavefront mismatches between the beam's combination in the interferometer and preserving the spatial information of the incident beam, a spatial filter array (SFA) will be crucial for such a interferometer. The SFA, which has to be uniform of intensity and phase to meet the request of telescope imaging for the planet, can reduce the starlight to request level to observe the image of the planet. The high performance and fill factor as well as light weight GI lens array can be used in the beam steering systems for NASA's laser space measurements and communication.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Filtering
Optical
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 S1.08-8138
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CD21P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultrasensitive Analyzer for Real-time, In-Situ Airborne and Terrestrial Measurements of OCS, CO2, and CO

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Los Gatos Research
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041-1518
(650) 965-7772

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Manish Gupta
m.gupta@lgrinc.com
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View,  CA 94041-1518
(650) 965-7772

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this SBIR effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) will employ its patented mid-infrared Off-Axis ICOS technique to develop a compact carbonyl sulfide (OCS), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and water vapor (H2O) analyzer. This sensor will provide rapid (10 Hz), real-time, accurate measurements of these important trace gases with minimal calibration. The SBIR instrument will be capable of both terrestrial and airborne deployment to provide data in the troposphere, tropopause, and stratosphere. The resulting system will allow NASA researchers to acquire data that complements satellite observations made from missions in the Earth Observing System. The data will help elucidate stratospheric aerosol loading and terrestrial CO2 fluxes to improve climate models. In Phase I, LGR demonstrated technical feasibility by fabricating an Off-Axis ICOS system for OCS, CO2, CO, and H2O quantification in ambient air. The prototype was highly precise (OCS, CO2, CO, and H2O to better than 4 ppt, 0.2 ppm, 0.31 ppb, and 3.7 ppm respectively), linear (R2 > 0.9997) over a wide dynamic range, and fast (2-Hz response), with no appreciable cross-interference between the measured species. Subsequently, LGR deployed the Phase I prototype locally and at a DOE Ameriflux site (Sherman Island, California). In Phase II, LGR will develop and deliver two autonomous OCS, CO2, CO, and H2O analyzers for terrestrial flux and airborne monitoring respectively. The first analyzer, which will measure these gases at up to 10 Hz in a variety of terrestrial ecosystems, will be tested with Professor Chris Still for long-term monitoring and Professor Dennis Baldocci for eddy-flux measurements. The second instrument will be packaged for deployment aboard a select NASA aircraft, and include provisions for ambient temperature, humidity, and pressure fluctuatons. The flight sensor will be tested using a modified Mooney TLS with Dr. Stephen Conley and then deployed aboard a NASA aircraft.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Besides its importance to NASA, the development of a highly sensitive, mid-infrared trace gas analyzer has several commercial applications. In Phase III, LGR will target two potential markets for products resulting from the SBIR analyzer: environmental research laboratories and isotope measurement laboratories. A preliminary market analysis suggests 5-year revenue of exceeding $40M for these two market segments alone.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary objective of the NASA Earth Science Division is to determine how the global environment is changing, what drives these changes, and the potential consequences for human civilization. In order to better research atmospheric properties, NASA requires instrumentation that is capable of measuring several key gaseous species, including OCS, CO2, CO, and H2O. OCS plays a critical role stratospheric aerosol formation and may serve a carbon cycle tracer for photosynthesis. Thus, NASA requires new technologies that make stand-alone, in-situ measurements of OCS with faster time response (e.g. 1 Hz) and comparable accuracy aboard both airborne and terrestrial platforms with no sample preparation or transport. Additional measurements of CO2, CO, and H2O are also necessary to provide information on carbon dioxide respiration, combustion emissions, and dry-mole fractions. In addition to NASA's environmental science needs, several other NASA programs can benefit from the technologies developed during this SBIR, including the NASA Astronaut Health Monitoring Program. The difficulties associated with manned space travel necessitate the development of point-of-care medical instrumentation that can gauge astronaut health. LGR's proposed mid-infrared Off-Axis ICOS analyzer enables the implementation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) medical breath diagnostic tests aboard space vehicles. Such tests provide initial indicators of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 S1.08-9153
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CE28P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: HybridSpectral Radiometer Systems to Support Ocean Color Cal/Val

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Biospherical Instruments Inc.
5340 Riley Street
San Diego, CA 92110-2621
(619) 686-1888

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Charles Booth
rocky@biospherical.com
5340 Riley St
San Diego,  CA 92110-2621
(619) 686-1888

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has an ongoing commitment to collect in situ data with a documented uncertainty in keeping with established performance metrics for vicarious calibration of ocean color satellite sensors. This proposal seeks funding to develop an in-water "Hybridspectral" capability that combines two differing practices for data collection (multiwaveband and hyperspectral) to satisfy the diversity, accuracy, and precision requirements of future ocean color missions. Called the Compact Hybridspectral Radiometer (C-HyR), C-HyR places special focus on two important priorities from the call: 1) Instruments making measurements of the apparent optical properties; and 2) Hyperspectral radiometers (340 - 900 nm) for use in near-surface profiling. The C-HyR system leverages a 2004 NASA SBIR microradiometer development that lead to the Compact-Optical Profiling System (C-OPS), a commercially available multiwaveband radiometer system and adds a spectrograph-based upwelling Radiance Collector Assembly (RCA) for operations very near the surface of the water at the top of a vertical profile. In Phase II, attention will be paid to spectrograph selection with the goal of making optically valid measurements out to 900 nm, as requested in the call. For improved deployment security and shadow avoidance, the system uses an innovative buoyancy backplane with twin positioning thrusters to ensure ship avoidance and allow maneuvering the profiler to a desired sampling location. The result is an innovative expansion of existing state-of-the-art commercial instruments to include a spectral sampling capability that exceeds current and planned satellite requirements, and that can operate in optically complex near-shore regions. The benefits of this new sampling capability are an improved ability to separate the biotic and abiotic components of seawater, an improved ocean color mission calibration and validation capability into Case 2 waters, reduced deployment effort, and reduced deployment risks.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA benefits to this technology parallel the direct benefit to NASA, that is, commercial sales of C-HyR outside of NASA. In addition to satellite Cal/Val programs by other nations, such as Japan (SGLI), India, or Germany, C-HyR directly supports an increased opportunity for multidisciplinary studies in the field, such as near-shore to basin-wide phytoplankton ecological research, UV photodegradation of petroleum events, and fisheries studies such as visual predation or breeding cycles. International and domestic potential customers for this technology include government, university, and privately funded researchers interested in ocean color, phytoplankton ecology, fisheries, or photodegradation. Water quality monitoring and municipal drinking water systems are also valued but non-traditional markets for profiling systems such as C-HyR.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
C-HyR directly supports NASA satellite and aircraft missions and associated cal/val activities (e.g. PACE/ACE, GEO-CAPE, HyspIRI, AVIRIS, MODIS, and VIIRS). The hybridspectral nature of C-HyR is well suited to support the shallow-water, near-shore, and precision sampling objectives driving the GEO-CAPE mission which include understanding the dynamics of coastal ecosystems, river plumes, and tidal fronts, tracking oil spills and other waterborne hazardous materials, as well as optical monitoring in regions of special biological significance such as bays, marshes, and estuaries. In addition to wide spectral coverage, the wide dynamic range in responsivity and flexible architecture ensures that C-HyR supports ecosystem-focused ocean ecology missions, such as VIIRS/NPP and PACE/ACE as well as the goals of the Carbon and Ecosystems Roadmap. This includes quantification of carbon budgets at sub-regional local scales, coastal carbon dynamics, or terrestrial applications, In addition to validating radiometric models, these systems have an immediate application in ground and ocean color validation studies. This support includes deployments from small near-coastal vessels or even a variant of C-HyR for autonomous drifters. In addition to reduced uncertainties and increased data product accuracy, the C-HyR passive and dynamic free-fall protocols also control deployment risks associated with operations on large oceanographic vessels, such as entanglement with a ship's screw.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Radiometric
Ultraviolet
Visible
Infrared
Multispectral/Hyperspectral


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 S1.09-9077
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CD25P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Lunar and Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Triple Isotope Water Analyzer for Extraplanetary Studies

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Los Gatos Research
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041-1518
(650) 965-7772

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Manish Gupta
m.gupta@lgrinc.com
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View,  CA 94041-1518
(650) 965-7772

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to employ Off-Axis ICOS to develop triple-isotope water analyzers for lunar and other extraplanetary exploration. This instrument will provide highly accurate quantification of &delta;D,&delta;<sup>18</sup>O, and &delta;<sup>17</sup>O to better than &#177 0.3 0/00, &#177 0.1 0/00, and &#177 0.15 0/00 respectively with minimal calibration or consumable standards. Moreover, due to the inherent benefits of Off-Axis ICOS, the analyzer will be selective, robust, and economical. In addition to being a strong candidate for extraplanetary exploration, the instrument will be deployed for field testing and research by scientists in NASA's Space Science and Astrobiology Division.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Besides its application to NASA, a compact, ultrasensitive water-isotope analyzer also has significant commercial applications for environmental research and medical diagnostics. A preliminary market analysis suggests 5-year revenue exceeding $20M for these two markets alone. The proposed work is essential in making these instruments more compact, rugged, and cost-competitive, and will thus enlarge the potential market size significantly.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Recently, the Moon has been discovered to harbor large amounts of H2O ice. This ice is interesting for many reasons ranging from the practical to the scientific. The origin of this ice is unknown but there are seven sources that have been postulated: The Sun, the Earth, the Moon itself, comet impacts, asteroid impacts, interplanetary dust, and giant interstellar molecular clouds. Since each of these proposed sources have significantly differing isotopic values, high-precision measurements of water isotopes will help elucidate the origin and subsequent evolution of the lunar ice. Other potential NASA missions would also benefit from the proposed analyzer, including the Mars Mission, Europa-Jupiter System Mission, and Comet Sample Return Mission.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Biological Signature (i.e., Signs Of Life)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 S1.09-9657
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CE31P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Lunar and Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel High Pressure Pump-on-a-Chip Technology

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
HJ Science & Technology, Inc.
187 Saratoga Avenue
Santa Clara, CA 95050-6657
(408) 464-3873

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hong Jiao
hong_jiao@yahoo.com
187 Saratoga Avenue
Santa Clara,  CA 95050-6657
(408) 464-3873

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 6
End: 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
HJ Science & Technology, Inc. proposes to develop a novel high pressure "pump-on-a-chip" (HPPOC) technology capable of generating high pressure and flow rate on the microchip level. When combined with a "valve-on-a-chip" (VOC) platform, HPPOC is naturally suited for NASA planetary science applications including on-chip HPLC sample manipulation and analysis. In Phase I, we have established the technical feasibility of the technology by fabricating a set of HPPOC chips and successfully demonstrating the required maximum pressures and flow rates. In addition, we have also established a novel HPPOC actuated VOC platform. In Phase II, we will construct, test, and deliver a high performance and low power consumption microfluidic sample manipulation manifold prototype. In particular, we will build an integrated on-chip HPLC buffer and sample injection pump and valve manifold specifically engineered to support the chip-based LC-MS research effort at GSFC. In addition, the Phase II work will also be performed in parallel with efforts to develop such manifolds for the commercial analytical markets.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The high pressure "pump-on-a-chip" (HPPOC) microfluidics technology described in this proposal possesses significant commercial potential for a wide range of technologies and applications in markets ranging from specialty medical and aerospace industries to consumer electronics. Commercial devices based on such microfluidics technology envisioned include on-chip HPLC for protein, drug, and chemical separation and analysis, drug delivery systems, portable environmental and health monitoring systems, and miniature high pressure actuators.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed high pressure "pump-on-a-chip" (HPPOC) microfluidics technology can be readily adapted to enhance NASA's miniature scientific instrumentations for in-situ exploration of bodies in the solar system. In particular, it can be employed to support the current chip-based HPLC instrumentation being developed to analyze organic molecules and biomarker on Mars surface to find signature of life. Other planetary environments for the in-situ explorations of the chemical and biological composition of soils and ice include Europa and Titan. In addition to planetary science applications, the proposed HPPOC technology has other broad NASA applications including on-chip biosensors, electrochemical sensors as well as high pressure micropumps for fluid positioning, mixing, metering, storage, and filtering systems. Finally, the HPPOC technology can also be leveraged for astronauts' clinical diagnostics, spacecraft and biosphere environmental monitoring, and toxicology studies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Biological Signature (i.e., Signs Of Life)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 S1.10-8477
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CE32P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Atomic Interferometry
PROPOSAL TITLE: Accelerometer for Space Applications Based on Light-Pulse Atom Interferometry

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AOSense, Inc.
767 North Mary Avenue
Sunnyvale, CA 94085-2909
(408) 735-9500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Adam Black
ablack@aosense.com
767 North Mary Avenue
Sunnyvale,  CA 94085-2909
(408) 735-9500

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to build a compact, high-precision single-axis accelerometer based on atom interferometry that is applicable to operation in space environments. Based on our successful Phase I design, the proposed accelerometer emphasizes reliable operation and exceptional acceleration sensitivity. It incorporates several innovative features that make it appropriate for a variety of space-based and terrestrial applications. Phase II will result in a completed sensor build, including a sensor head, laser system and electronic control system. Space-based inertial sensors based on atom interferometry are a compelling technology for both technological and scientific applications because of the exceptionally high performance that can be enabled by long interrogation times with cold atoms in a microgravity environment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Phase II build will result in an accelerometer capable of acceleration sensitivity that is better than current state-of-the-art conventional absolute gravimeters based on free-fall measurements. Several commercial applications requiring earth-based gravimetry could therefore benefit from the sensor design. Seismic studies and geophysical exploration, including gravity mapping of prospective oil fields and mineral deposits, will benefit from the sensor technology. Trades of sensor bandwidth versus sensitivity will enable the design to apply to inertial navigation on a variety of ground vehicle, sea-based and flight platforms.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Inertial measurement units based on the proposed accelerometer technology will be applicable to space-based inertial navigation, including navigation around small bodies such as asteroids. Operating as a gravimeter, the proposed design can be used for Earth geoid measurement and gravity tomography of asteroids. An updated version capable of gravity gradiometry will be capable of gravity-compensation of inertial navigation systems, in addition to improved gravity mapping capabilities. The Phase II prototype will serve as a demonstration of several technologies that are relevant for gravity wave detection. Future iterations of the sensor will ultimately enable gravity wave detection missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Inertial (see also Sensors)
Inertial
Interferometric (see also Analysis)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 S2.02-8592
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CE60P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Proximity Glare Suppression for Astronomical Coronagraphy
PROPOSAL TITLE: Topography Improvements in MEMS DMs for High-contrast, High-resolution Imaging

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Boston Micromachines Corporation
30 Spinelli Place
Cambridge, MA 02138-1070
(617) 868-4178

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steven Cornelissen
sac@bostonmicromachines.com
Boston Micromachines, 30 Spinelli Place
Cambridge,  MA 02138-1046
(617) 868-4178

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a 3064 actuator, continuous facesheet MEMS deformable mirror using a modified fabrication process that will eliminate mid-spatial frequency surface figure errors resulting from actuator "print-through" topography and stress-induced mirror scallop topography. These figure errors, which occur at spatial frequencies outside the DM control band, are the most significant technological development hurdle preventing the use of MEMS DMs in proximity glare suppression for astronomical coronagraphy. Such wavefront control devices fill a critical technology gap in NASA's vision for high-contrast, high-resolution space based imaging and spectroscopy instruments. Space-based telescopes have become indispensible in advancing the frontiers of astrophysics. Over the past decade NASA has pioneered coronagraphic instrument concepts and test beds to provide a foundation for exploring feasibility of new approaches to high-contrast imaging. From this work, NASA has identified a current technology need for compact, ultra-precise, multi-thousand actuator DM devices. Boston Micromachines Corporation has developed MEMS DMs that represents the state-of-the-art for scalable, small-stroke high-precision wavefront control. The emerging class of high-resolution DMs pioneered by the project team has already been shown to be compact, low-power, precise, and repeatable. These DMs can be currently produced with uncorrectable shape errors as small as 10nm root mean square (rms). The residual shape errors on the DM are mostly periodic and act essentially as a grating, producing diffraction spikes in the image plane. In the Phase I effort, DM fabrication process modifications were developed which will enable the manufacture of these enabling components with an unprecedented surface figure of less than 2nm rms by eliminating surface features resulting from print-through , etch access holes, and mirror attachment posts, and compensating for residual stress induced scalloping.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are applications relative to the requirements of government agencies and commercial markets which are in need of deformable mirrors with improved surface finish and quality over the current state-of-the-art. With these improvements, less light will be lost in the optical path, which will improve the effectiveness of all applications taking advantage of deformable mirrors. In addition, the following are specific targeted applications and how they are best suited for this development: 1)Astronomy/Surveillance: As telescopes and satellites search for more detail by collecting more light, the correction of atmospheric turbulence across the entire aperture remains important. 2)Optical communication: For long-range secure communication, large amounts of data can be sent over long distances using lasercomm systems. By improving surface finish, the amount of data transferred is increased due to enhanced error correction capabilities through the collection of more light. 3)Pulse-shaping: Pulsed lasers are used in a variety of applications from material characterization to laser marking and machining. The use of deformable mirrors allows scientists to better understand the composition of materials and allows manufacturers to make more precise, complex patterns. 4)Biological imaging: By improving the surface finish and quality, less light is scattered during transmission from the specimen to the collection device during imaging allowing for better resolution images.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many applications relative to NASA where there is a need for deformable mirrors with improved surface finish and quality over the current state-of-the-art. NASA needs include any ground or space based telescope or imaging system including EXCEDE, EPIC and PECO. With the topography improvements proposed in this project, less light will be lost in the optical path, improving the effectiveness of all applications taking advantage of deformable mirrors. This especially needed for all high contrast imaging applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Adaptive Optics
Mirrors
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 S2.05-8333
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CF49P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optics Manufacturing and Metrology for Telescope Optical Surfaces
PROPOSAL TITLE: Optical Fabrication and Metrology of Aspheric and Freeform Mirrors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
OptiPro Systems LLC
6368 Dean Parkway
Ontario, NY 14519-8970
(585) 265-0160

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Mohring
dmohring@optipro.com
6368 Dean Parkway
Ontario,  NY 14519-8970
(585) 265-0160

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The requirement for cost effective manufacturing and metrology of large optical surfaces is instrumental for the success of future NASA programs such as LISA, WFIRST and IXO(now NGXO). OptiPro's UltraForm Finishing (UFF) is a sub-aperture compliant wheel and belt type polishing process for rapid material removal from the ground state to a finished optic. The UFF removes residual grinding sub-surface damage, mid spatial frequency errors, and provides the mechanism required for surface corrections. OptiPro's technologically advanced optical manufacturing capabilities along with a support partnership with the University of Rochester Mechanical Engineering Department and the Penn State EOC, gives us a very strong team and a clear path towards solving the difficult problems associated with, grinding, polishing and metrology of large complex optical surfaces. The UFF, with its 5-6 axis of motion provides a platform to polish traditional flats and spheres as well as aspheres and freeform shapes. The UFF was designed for deep concave shapes and it is suitable for finishing conformal optics. The Proposed Phase II will include further development on UFF using a 200 mm x 200 mm fused quartz mandrel to optimize the process to meet NASA's X-ray optical requirements. Grinding development will also be performed on OptiPro's eSX platforms to minimize material removal required during polishing. The part geometry will be measured by a non contact optical probe using OptiPro's UltraSurf free-form measurement system. Once development is complete, OptiPro will work on the mandrels that will be supplied by Goddard Space Flight Center to attempt to correct the form error on those surfaces. OptiPro will also build and install a 6-axis UFF machine to NASA. The UFF platform will be used for development during the Phase II effort, and installed at NASA at the end of the contract.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Since 1989 OptiPro has developed and refined conceptual technologies into robust deterministic machines and processes for the optical fabrication industry. Non-NASA commercial applications include the fabrication of flats, spheres, aspheres, and complex conformal shapes such as aerodynamic ogive domes. Commercialization of these technologies has driven very cost effective solutions. The UFF polishing tools' ability to polish a variety of materials from the ground state, removing grinding marks and subsurface damage, makes it especially attractive for applications where mid-spatial-frequency surface errors are an issue such as EUV lithography. Another application is for laser amplifiers, such as the Inertial Confinement Fusion National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, at the University of Rochester. For these types of applications, laser damage threshold and irradiance distribution are critical and therefore mid-spatial frequency errors need to be minimized after the polishing stage.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
UltraForm Finishing (UFF) is a CNC controlled process designed to remove grinding sub surface damage as well as mid spatial frequency errors for both relatively "soft" glasses as well as "hard" metals and ceramics for many applications. These applications may include the fabrication of forming mandrels used to produce multiple segmented shell mirrors for the International X-Ray Observatory (IXO). The aspheric and freeform optical surfaces required by LISA and WFIRST will benefit from the fabrication advances made with this endeavor. By integrating finite element analysis (FEA) tools with the UFF computer aided manufacturing (CAM) interface, we will be able to optimize the fabrication process and subsequently reduce and/or completely eliminate mid spatial frequency errors. The UFF has the capability to work with a wide range of traditional optical mediums (i.e., combination of belt materials and loose abrasives) in addition to wheels that range from approximately 20 mm up to 150 mm. This makes the UFF suitable for polishing a wide variety of materials for other segmented types of telescope systems such as the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST). The wide variety of loose and bound abrasives allows the UltraForm platform to finish hard ceramics, Silicon and SiC. With these hard to process materials,the UFF has shown promise for grinding as well as polishing optical surfaces, on a small scale.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Composites
Metallics
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Adaptive Optics
Lenses
Mirrors
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 S3.03-8837
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CD83P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Generation and Conversion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Affordable Maximum Performance Solar Array for NASA and Commercial Missions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Deployable Space Systems, Inc.
75 Robin Hill, Building B2
Goleta, CA 93117-3108
(805) 693-1319

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Spence
Brian.Spence@DeployableSpaceSystems.com
75 Robin Hill, Building B2
Goleta,  CA 93117-3108
(805) 722-8090

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS), and Space Systems Loral as a key subcontractor and potential commercial infusion partner, will focus the proposed SBIR Phase 2 program on the TRL 5/6 technology maturation / development of an affordable, lightweight, high power, maximum performance solar array specifically configured to next-generation high power geostationary-earth-orbit commercial mission requirements, and in support of future NASA missions. DSS's recently completed NASA SBIR Phase 1 program has established a TRL 3/4 classification for an innovative affordable maximum performance solar array as applied to a multitude of NASA and commercial missions. Significant concept feasibility, design/analysis, trade study/evaluation, and proof-of-concept hardware build/test efforts executed during the Phase 1 program have validated the proposed technology as a potentially revolutionary photovoltaic flexible blanket solar array system that provides enabling performance in terms of: High specific power / lightweight (up to 200 W/kg BOL at the array level with ZTJ PV), compact stowage volume (>60-80 kW/m3 BOL), high deployed strength and stiffness, mechanical and electrical simplicity, high reliability, high modularity, rapid production capability, high platform flexibility and applicability to many missions, and ultra-affordability (>24% recurring cost savings at a minimum). Building off the success of the recently completed Phase 1 program, the proposed Phase 2 follow-on program will significantly increase technology readiness to TRL 5/6, ready it for an end-user qualification program, and drastically accelerate commercial infusion.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA space applications are comprised of practically all missions that require high-efficiency photovoltaic power production through deployment of an ultra-lightweight and highly-modular solar array system. The technology is particularly suited for missions that require game-changing performance in terms of affordability, ultra-lightweight, and compact stowage volume. The proposed technology will enable ultra-high power solar arrays for future missions through lightweight, compact stowage, and significant affordability. Applicable non-NASA space missions include: LEO surveillance, reconnaissance, communications and other critical payload/equipment satellites, LEO commercial mapping and critical payload/equipment satellites, MEO satellites & space-tugs, GEO commercial communications and critical payload/equipment satellites, and GEO communications and payload/equipment satellites. The proposed technology also has tremendous dual-use non-space commercial private-sector applicability including fixed-ground and deployable/retractable mobile-ground based systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA space applications are comprised of practically all Space Science, Earth Science, Exploration, Planetary and Lunar Surface, and other missions that require affordable and high performance photovoltaic power production through solar arrays. The technology is particularly suited for missions that require game-changing performance in terms of affordability, ultra-lightweight, and compact stowage volume. The proposed technology will enable ultra-high power solar arrays for future Exploration missions through lightweight, compact stowage, and significant affordability.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Prototyping
Processing Methods
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Metallics
Polymers
Actuators & Motors
Deployment
Structures
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 S3.04-8501
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CE62P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wide Throttling, High Throughput Hall Thruster for Science and Exploration Missions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Busek Company Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lawrence Byrne
larry@busek.com
11 Tech Circle
Natick,  MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In response to Topic S3.04 "Propulsion Systems," Busek Co. Inc. will develop a high throughput Hall effect thruster with a nominal peak power of 1-kW and wide throttling range in terms of both power and Isp. In Phase I the preliminary thruster design was completed. Project activities focused on achieving a magnetic field that shields the discharge channel from ion induced erosion. The goal is to achieve a propellant throughput greater than 100 kg/kW. Numerical modeling is playing a critical role in the thruster design. In Phase I, we used a fluid based code developed by JPL to model the plasma in an existing thruster that is currently undergoing life testing. The erosion predictions of the model were found to agree well with actual measurements. The numerical model was then applied to the magnetically shielded 1-kW thruster and preliminary results were found to be reasonable. The goal is to demonstrate a thruster design where channel erosion is entirely eliminated as a life limiting mechanism. In Phase II, we will build and test the extended lifetime thruster. The performance, lifetime, and plume properties of the thruster will then be evaluated, and the design will be optimized. Numerical modeling will be used throughout the process to ensure that magnetic shielding is achieved. Code predictions will be grounded in plasma measurements taken with a variety of diagnostics including channel wall probes, high speed intrusive channel probes, and plume probes. The ability of the thruster to achieve its lifetime goals will be assessed through a 500 hour wear test. When the design is finalized, an engineering development unit (EDU) thruster will be designed, built, validated, and delivered to NASA. The EDU thruster design will be modeled thermally and structurally to facilitate the transition to Phase III. At the end of the Phase II, the TRL will be 5/6.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications for the proposed system include orbit raising, circularization, inclination changes, repositioning, and station-keeping. For higher power missions, the system would be clustered. Commercial applications for a clustered system include a small electric upper-stage. Other applications include a system for de-orbiting spacecraft that have reached their end of life.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Implementing magnetic shielding has application across the spectrum of thruster power and sizes and is therefore a cross-cutting technology. The thruster will be well suited for orbit raising and interplanetary transfers, supporting exploration and science missions. The demonstrated throttling ability is important for a singular thruster that might be called upon to propel a spacecraft from Earth to Mars or Venus. Mars orbits at 1.52 AU, which reduces the solar constant to 43% of the value at Earth. As a result the output power of a nominal 600 W array reduces to 260 W at Mars as a spacecraft travels between these planets. For NASA low power, high throughput electric propulsion systems are an enabling technology for radio isotope powered spacecraft for sample and return missions identified in the NASA Decadal Survey. A study conducted by the SMD ISPT Project in 2004 confirmed the significant potential of REP for space science, especially with recent advancements in enabling, high &#150;specific-power RPS technology (from 3 to over 8 We/kg). The study also concluded that REP would be ready for near-term NASA science missions if an electric propulsion thruster with the appropriate specific impulse and propellant throughput capability could be developed. Examples of missions examined by this study include: 1) Trojan Asteroid Orbiters, 2) Jupiter Polar Orbiter with probes and 3)Comet Surface Sample Return (Tempel 1)

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Lifetime Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 S3.05-8867
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CD88P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Electronics and Management, and Energy Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Space Electronics Operating at High Temperatures and Radiation Levels

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
QorTek Inc
1965 Lycoming Creek Road, Suite 205
Williamsport, PA 17701-1251
(570) 322-2700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gareth Knowles
gknowles@qortek.com
1965 Lycoming Creek Road, Suite 205
Williamsport,  PA 17701-1251
(570) 322-2700

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective is to produce high efficiency DC/DC power modules in a small low profile package that can tolerate extreme environment conditions. The primary effort of the Phase II program is to address the need for very high performance power electronics that meet a combination of high radiation tolerance, high thermal tolerance and extremely low EMI susceptibility/radiation. The power modules incorporate several radical new advances in power design including ceramic cores and quasi-linear circuitry. The program will exit with such modules having been verified for thermal vacuum and electromagnetic (susceptibility and radiation) performance of modules that can tolerate >0.3Mrad and >200C operation with negligible electromagnetic coupling and extremely high electrical isolation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology is already in development for public and military sector power devices such as AC/DC adapters, DC/DC converters, LED lighting , fuze munitions, and distributed solar and photovoltaic products.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology enables a new generation of space qualifiable DC/DC power converters, inverters and sensors based on lightweight ceramic technology replacing magnetics. This technology will address NASA critical needs for small lightweight power electronics for missions that must operate in both typical space and also more extreme environments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Superconductance/Magnetics
Conversion
Distribution/Management
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Quality/Reliability
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Nonspecified
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Actuators & Motors
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Acoustic/Vibration
Contact/Mechanical
Destructive Testing
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling
Passive Systems


SBIR 11-2 Proposal Abstracts for Space Operations


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 O1.04-9718
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CE45P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Optical Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Downlink Fiber Laser Transmitter for Deep Space Communication

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fibertek, Inc.
13605 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon, VA 20171-4603
(703) 471-7671

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Doruk Engin
dengin@fibertek.com
13605 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon,  VA 20171-4603
(703) 471-7671

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) roadmap, calls for an integrated network approach to communication and navigation needs for robotic and human space exploration missions, from near-Earth to planetary missions. Anytime, anywhere connectivity for Earth, Moon and Mars is a stated goal, with high-bandwidth optical relay crosslinks for Earth, Moon, Mars and planets. Laser based optical communication links for space provides more than an order of magnitude higher data rates than corresponding RF links.. In addition, this is achieved with much smaller size, weight & power (SWaP) burden to spacecraft payloads, making spacecraft resources available to enhance or extend science missions, and the overall mission productivity. Tremendous progress made in 1.5um & 1-um fiber-optic fiber laser/amplifier technologies, their power scaling, and availability of reliable high-power components, makes such transmitters feasible for space mission application. In this SBIR proposal, we propose to develop 1.5mm fiber-amplifier based laser transmitters, with Pavg>4W, and compatible with a variety of M-ary PPM formats, that have a clear path to a space-qualification roadmap. In addition, power-scaling to 10W, athermal operation over a wide temperature range (with passive conductive cooling only), and improved power efficiency, are simultaneously addressed. Limited scope qualification tests relevant for space environment will also be conducted. These activities leverage prior and ongoing related activities at Fibertek, on high-performance, high-reliability fiber laser transmitters.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High bandwidth LEO/GEO satellite communication for military (2)High-BW real-time feed from multiple UAVs, via LEO/GEO crosslinks (3)High-BW CEO corsslinks for commercial satcom (4)In-flight wind sensor, to aid precision dropping of supplies in warzone

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA application for this SBIR is to support high bandwidth lasercom spaceflight and aircraft flight terminals for planetary missions, as well as for various lunar & Mars relay links identified in the SCaN roadmap. The core space-qualifiable, robust, compact and efficient lidar component technology developed in this SBIR is also directly applicable to remote sensing for planetary and asteroids missions. The technology can be used for atmospheric sensing of CO2, methane by frequency converting into the mid-IR. A low power version of the laser developed could be used for topological mapping, descent and landing utilizing the high frequency encoding capability of the laser. The proposed laser technology is directly applicable for coherent lidar applications. NASA is funding coherent lidar technology as an aircraft mounted sensor for aviation-safety to detection of wake vortices, wind shear, turbulence and improved vision. The core laser technology can be used for atmospheric water and ice discrimination. This core technology is directly applicable for NASA JPL's 2.05um CO2 lidar approach for Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS). ASCENDS is a NASA Earth Science Decadal Study Mission with NASA Announcements of Opportunity expected out within the next few years. By changing the fiber technology from Er to Tm the laser wavelength can be changed with little impact on packing design.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Amplifiers/Repeaters/Translators
Transmitters/Receivers
Waveguides/Optical Fiber (see also Optics)
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Lasers (Communication)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 O1.06-9056
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CD76P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: CoNNeCT Experiments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Scintillation-Hardened GPS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CommLargo, Inc.
8316 36th Avenue North
Saint Petersburg, FL 33710-1018
(727) 346-9668

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Donald Stephens
don@commlargo.com
8316 36th Avenue North
St. Petersburg,  FL 33710-1018
(727) 345-9668

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) flight experiment will demonstrate Next Generation Navigation Techniques and Advance SDR/STRS Communications Technology to TRL-7. Scintillation-hardening techniques will be applied to an open-source waveform ported to the SCaN platform. This will result in improved GPS navigation during geomagnetic storms. The ported waveform will be STRS-compliant and open source. It will provide a validation of the STRS architecture and software defined radio technology for space applications. While operational, the waveform will autonomously detect scintillation and automatically switch into a data collection mode for relaying the GPS samples to the SCaN avionics subsystem for later transmission to White Sands. The open-source, STRS-compliant waveform software and GB of GPS scintillation data will be enduring products of the flight demonstration. The STRS infrastructure will be expanded with the STRS tool kit produced during this project. The STRS tool kit will be similar to the OSSIE tool kit for the SCA, providing automatic code generation of STRS wrappers and interfaces. An eclipse-based framework will provide drag-and-drop of components for developing STRS-compliant software.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
CubeSats have primarily been a university curiosity. The August 2012 launch of the Atlas V from Vandenberg AFB ferried 11 CubeSats as auxiliary payloads. Of the eleven, three are government or Department of Defense, and three are commercial satellites. Although we anticipate university interest to continue, the presence of the Department of Defense and commercial satellites in this launch indicates this market is about to open up with significant funding and resources. We believe there is great potential for STRS products and our GPS waveform in CubeSats. The most likely commercial product though, is software services. Similar to the dilemma confronted by Red Hat software in 1993, there is an established tier or monopoly of space product contractors and suppliers. To penetrate the market, we must provide a disruptive product that will compel system integrators to investigate our product. 'Free' is a powerful economic force, and one that has been successful in switching many markets from traditional suppliers to smaller and more agile software developers. Our business model is to develop the STRS Eclipse-based software tools and distribute them open source. We will also publish a scintillation-hardened GPS software as open source. Because schedule is equivalent to cost for many programs, we will provide subscriptions and consulting for those programs desiring direct assistance.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SBIR is producing product valuable to NASA across a breadth of missions such as ISS, TIROS, Stardust, Mini-Sat, and CubeSats. The scintillation-hardening improves the reliability of GPS for lower-orbit missions and the STRS-compliance permits mission redundancy. A software-defined radio implementation allows a single hardware element to function as either a conventional radio, or GPS, providing backup and redundancy for platforms such as the ISS and high-value remote sensing platforms. Packages such as the Stardust mission's return capsule can benefit from the flexibility of a software defined radio implementation that can provide GPS and communications from a single hardware system, saving cost, weight, and power. Scintillation hardening improves mission reliability and flexibility. Lower cost, low-orbit missions benefit directly from the STRS-compliant software package that enables low-cost, single-radio hardware systems that can function as a communications system or GPS system. Because scintillation effects increase at the lower altitudes, mission reliability will be improved with the scintillation hardening.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Navigation & Guidance
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Transmitters/Receivers
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
GPS/Radiometric (see also Sensors)
Verification/Validation Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 O2.02-8647
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CD56P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Energy Electronic Ignition System for NOFBX Thrusters

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Firestar Engineering, LLC
1122 Flightline Street, #76
Mojave, CA 93501-1610
(661) 860-1088

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Greg Mungas
greg.mungas@firestar-tech.com
1122 Flight Line Street
Mojave,  CA 93501-1610
(626) 755-9919

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NOFBX propulsion technology is being developed actively for a number of applications including a flight experiment on the International Space Station NOFBX propellant has unique electrical properties that allow the potential for development of an extremely low energy ignition mechanism when coupled with the design of an NOFBX combustion chamber. This has the potential for dramatically reducing the volume, mass, voltage, and electromagnetic interference (EMI) emissions. The development we are proposing is a very low energy ignition system that utilizes the unique attributes of the NOFBXTM propellant that minimizes the volume, mass, and voltage of a block redundant system to be used in NOFBX propulsion systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NOFBX technology is currently being developed under a NASA BAA for flight on the International Space Station as a commercial flight experiment. The proposed activity would upgrade the ignition element of this flight system reducing mass, volume, and power of the device as well as conductive and radiative emission characteristics. Given the commercial interest in the NOFBX propulsion technology, we anticipate this block upgrade ignition module to be readily integrated into the NOFBX product line being developed by Innovation Space Propulsion Systems, the licensee of NOFBX technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed igniter development is specific to NOFBX&#153; propellant-based systems. Unlike other liquid propellant options, NOFBX&#153; propellant has a low energy ignition threshold. Existing igniters are designed with much higher energy spark requirements to address the challenge of reliable ignition of other spark-ignited liquid propulsion technologies. Therefore, there are no igniters currently on the market that are well suited to NOFBX&#153; engines, which is the motivation for this proposal. Because this igniter would be manufactured and sold as part of NOFBX&#153; propulsion systems, the market for this technology is closely tied to adoption and use of NOFBX&#153; propulsion technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ablative Propulsion
Atmospheric Propulsion
Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Propulsion
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine
Surface Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 O3.02-9621
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CE76P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: ISS Utilization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Remotely Controlled Mixers for LMM Colloid Samples

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Techshot, Inc.
7200 Highway 150
Greenville, IN 47124-9515
(812) 923-9591

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Kurk
akurk@techshot.com
7200 Highway 150
Greenville,  IN 47124-9515
(812) 923-9591

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The U.S. portion of the International Space Station (ISS), which has been designated by Congress as a National Laboratory, holds great potential for a broad spectrum of researchers who are eager to take advantage of its unique scientific research facilities. The Light Microscopy Module (LMM), which was developed and is being managed by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), is one such facility currently operating and producing fascinating results on ISS. LMM will yield even more astonishing results with the addition of enhancing subsystems. Techshot is currently developing one such subsystem, the LMM-Dynamic Stage (LMM-DS), which will satisfy a host of new experiments proposed for LMM. However, GRC has many more researchers awaiting the ultimate enhancing subsystems for conducting colloid science experiments in the LMM that could lead to new advanced materials with significant commercial potential. Capitalizing on Techshot's rapid progress with the LMM-DS, the company's vast array of mixing and separations technologies, and its extensive experience with microfluidic systems, a series of Colloid SPEcialty Cell Systems (C-SPECS) will be developed by Techshot for use in the LMM-DS. These innovative low-volume mixing devices will enable uniform particle density and remotely controlled repetition of LMM colloids experiments. In addition C-SPECS will minimize crew time, as well as avert the need for multiple, costly colloid samples that are expended after only one examination. C-SPECS are vital analytical microgravity research technologies that will greatly enhance the capability of the LMM, thereby enabling ISS to become even more effective as a national laboratory.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Techshot serves as an Implementation Partner to NASA and CASIS for enabling space flight experimentation on ISS. Building on its heritage of developing and integrating space flight hardware, as well as conducting scientific research in space, Techshot offers flight experiment services to non-NASA customers, such as researchers from universities and the private sector. Techshot's successful experience with microgravity processing facilities such as the Avian Development Facility and the ADvanced Space Experiment Processor positions the company as a leader in offering these unique services. Soon, the LMM-DS when coupled with the innovative capabilities of C-SPECS is expected to give Techshot an even greater competitive advantage in attracting commercial research customers. Furthermore, with the ability of commercial launch vehicles (e.g. SpaceX, Orbital, Boeing) to get more experiment samples into orbit, once these vehicles begin routine visits to the ISS, the economics of transporting and processing materials in microgravity should become far more compelling. Eventually, given sufficient economical commercial launch vehicle transporting capacity, when coupled with Techshot's cadre of space processing equipment, C-SPECS could become an important element for processing larger quantities of high-value materials for non-NASA commercial customers in the unique environment of space.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed C-SPECS devices offer important new technologies needed for on-orbit analysis, as well as the chance to leverage existing ISS facilities for new scientific payloads. This is expected to lead to many new potential NASA commercial applications and opportunities. In particular, Techshot expects to commercialize C-SPECS by incorporating them into the company's spaceflight service program that it offers to NASA mission programs, as well as to other government agencies. By further automating the experiment process, C-SPECS allows more colloid samples to be processed more quickly, while minimizing the need for crew time. This high-throughput capability afforded by C-SPECS can lead to far more efficient and productive use of the LMM, which will help NASA more fully realize its vision for the ISS as a national laboratory.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Process Monitoring & Control
Fluids
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Adaptive Optics
Biophysical Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 O3.02-9753
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CE77P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: ISS Utilization
PROPOSAL TITLE: ISS Additive Manufacturing Facility for On-Demand Fabrication in Space

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Made in Space, Inc.
427 North Tatnall Street, #56666
Wilmington, DE 19801-2230
(209) 736-7768

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Snyder
snyder@madeinspace.us
20-1 S Akron Rd
Moffett Field,  CA 94035-0001
(419) 271-0602

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 6
End: 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Made in Space has completed a preliminary design review of the Additive Manufacturing Facility. During the first half of Phase 1, the design went through conceptual development, simulation testing, cost analysis, and comparison testing of which off-the-shelf parts can be used. The deliverables for Phase I include a written report detailing evidence of demonstrated technology (TRL 5) in the laboratory and will outline in detail the path taken toward hardware demonstration for Phase II (TRL 6). The preliminary design is ready to be manufactured as an engineering test unit in Phase II. A feasibility study was created to demonstrate what could be fabricated for the inside of the ISS (parts and spares) and for the outside (possible satellites). It is anticipated that many of the sample uses that the AMF will make possible on-orbit have not yet been envisioned.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Additive Manufacturing Facility has potential Non-NASA commercial applications in the areas of Payload Upgrades and Improvements, Experiment Repairs, Spacecraft Assembly, Terrestrial Applications, and Earth-Based Technology Spin-Offs. The AMF will grant the ability to upgrade existing payloads and experiments, which allows the much needed capability of adjusting and improving experiments. As part of a technology demonstration, small spacecraft structures and CubeSats will be able to be constructed for assembly and check-out. Additionally, the AMF will provide the ability to manufacture hardware in-space and return that hardware to Earth for ground-based applications. Also, the AMF shall have several significant advancements over the current 3D printers and additive manufacturing machines. These technologies will be licensed by Made in Space to terrestrial 3D printing companies that the company has partnered with, such as 3D Systems and Stratasys.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Additive Manufacturing Facility has potential NASA commercial applications in the areas of ISS Repairs, Upgrades and Life Extension, Payload Upgrades and Improvements, In-Space Hardware On-Demand, Emergency in-Space Solutions, Small Spacecraft Assembly, and In-Space Manufacturing Research for Exploration. The AMF will have the ability to manufacture components on demand in order to fix or replace broken parts on the ISS. It will also have the ability to upgrade and maintain hardware on the ISS with manufactures parts produced by the AMF to extend the life of critical and non-critical components of the ISS. Upgrades to existing payloads and experiments, will allow the much needed capability of adjusting and improving experiments. The AMF will be able to manufacture standard hardware on demand such as spare parts and tools as well as hardware solutions for when an emergency arises on the ISS. As part of a technology demonstration, small spacecraft structures and CubeSats will be able to be constructed for assembly and check-out. The AMF will make possible to research the effectiveness of additive manufacturing in space, and applying that to exploration research.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Tools/EVA Tools
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Man-Machine Interaction
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Prototyping
Quality/Reliability
In Situ Manufacturing
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Processing Methods
Composites
Polymers
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:11-2 O4.03-9507
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX12CE16P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Dynamics Technologies and Software
PROPOSAL TITLE: Enhanced Path Planning, Guidance, and Estimation Algorithms for NASA's GMAT

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Decisive Analytics Corporation
1235 South Clark Street, Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22202-4361
(703) 414-5004

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Belinda Marchand
belinda.marchand@dac.us
1235 South Clark Street, Suite 400
Arlington,  VA 22202-4361
(703) 682-1618

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced trajectory design and estimation capabilities in complex nonlinear dynamical regimes represent two of the greatest technical challenges of modern space flight. The impact of nonlinear effects in both path planning and estimation is often most noticeable when the spacecraft under consideration transitions through a region of space where multiple exogenous perturbations become significant. Perhaps the most salient example of such effects are libration point missions. To address these challenges, DECISIVE ANALYTICS Corporation seeks to advance the capabilities of NASA's open source General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) by integrating the latest advances in trajectory path planning and estimation, including multi-sensor data fusion. This includes the development of an advanced path planning capability that leverages concepts from dynamical systems theory, multi-phase targeting, and visualization for trajectory design in regions where multi-body effects are significant. Parallel to that, we are developing an advanced estimation capability that leverages approximately $10 million of research and development performed by DECISIVE ANALYTICS for the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and the US Air Force. The capabilities sought during Phase II will leverage two GMAT prototype plugins, developed as part of the prior Phase I effort, that partially demonstrate some of the functionality proposed.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The algorithms and underlying capabilities provided by the products developed under Phase II are generally applicable outside of NASA's mission. One of these products leverages Guide and Adapt, tools for probabilistic inference and multi-sensor data fusion developed by DECISIVE ANALTYICS Corporation under various contracts with the Missile Defense Agency and the US Air Force. Because we already have customers for these tools, any enhanced capabilities developed under a Phase II contract will enable us to provide additional services to them as well. Furthermore, the proposed generalizations to the architectural framework of the multi-phase targeting algorithm will facilitate support of a broader class of problems in path planning and guidance as it pertains to autonomous vehicles. Thus, relevant components of the product can be adapted to satisfy applications relevant to DOD customers as well.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Advanced Path Planning (APP) and Advanced Estimation (AE) plugins developed by DECISIVE ANALYTICS Corporation (DAC) for the Generalized Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) will offer end-users enhanced capabilities to adequately assess and address the effects of system nonlinearities, both in mission design and analysis. The APP plugin will allow GMAT users to leverage concepts from dynamical systems theory, multi-phase targeting, and visualization for trajectory design in regions where multi-body effects are significant, such as near libration points. The AE plugin will offer GMAT users access to algorithms and tools that adequately characterize the effects of nonlinearities in the true posterior probability density during the estimation process, consideration of multi-modal joint distributions, and multi-sensor data fusion.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)