STTR Phase 1 Solicitation    Abstract Archives

NASA 2011 SBIR Phase 1 Solicitation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A1.01-8718
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation External Hazard Sensor Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Cost Lidar for Wake-Vortex and Other Hazard Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Q-Peak, Inc.
135 South Road
Bedford, MA 01730-2307
(781) 275-9535

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Flint
flint@qpeak.com
135 South Road
Bedford,  MA 01730-2307
(781) 275-9535

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has been tasked with supporting the development of key technologies to facilitate the evolution of the National Airspace System to NextGen, the Next Generation Air Transportation System. One of these key technologies is the detection of in-flight hazards, such as wake vortices generated by other aircraft, wind-shear, clear-air turbulence (CAT), and volcanic ash. All of these hazards can be detected by a laser radar (lidar) located on the aircraft, but such a system needs to be light, small, and inexpensive, and also needs to be sufficiently rugged that it will continue functioning with minimal maintenance. This mandates that the lidar be simple because such systems 1)cost less because they have fewer components and are easier to assemble and align 2)are more rugged and reliable because they have fewer components that can individually fail and 3)are less susceptible to environmental factors such as vibration, temperature variations, and pressure changes. We propose to develop an intrinsically simple, innovative, low-cost coherent lidar that would be suitable for deployment in large numbers on commercial airliners. The Phase I effort will also include a modeling task to explore how a single lidar could be used to detect all of the hazards listed above. We will evaluate potential modifications in light of our desire to keep the system as simple as possible. We will also compare the benefits of using a coherent lidar to detect volcanic ash, in contrast to a more conventional incoherent system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications include coupling with differential absorption lidar (DIAL) to measure pollution fluxes instead of simply concentrations, wind mapping for potential wind-energy sites and active control of wind turbines.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications relating to flight safety include detecting wake vortices, clear-air turbulence, wind-shear, and volcanic ash from aircraft. Other aircraft-based applications include optical air data systems (OADS) and use of a Doppler lidar to measure the wind-speed above and below the current flight path to allow flight optimization for fuel efficiency.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Transport/Traffic Control
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A1.01-9717
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation External Hazard Sensor Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multi-function Fiber Laser Kinetic Aviation Hazard Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fibertek, Inc.
13605 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon, VA 20171-4603
(703) 471-7671

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mehmetcan Akbulut
makbulut@fibertek.com
13605 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon,  VA 20171-4603
(703) 471-7671

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Fibertek proposes a multi-function, high energy, eye-safe 1550 nm band pulsed fiber-laser lidar system for airborne sensing of various kinetic aviation hazards. The lidar system includes the laser transmitter, the receiver, a telescope, and a scanner. The lidar functionality will include ground and air speed measurement, wind and wake sensing, altitude measurement and terrain mapping, reduced visibility sensing, and ice sensing. The proposed system is based on Fibertek‟s proprietary laser architecture that utilize state-of-the-art fiber optical, electro-optic and RF analog and digital electronic component technologies. The expected TRL range at end of SBIR Phase I is TRL 2, and at the end of SBIR Phase II is TRL 4-5. We expect to deliver a packaged prototype lidar system at the end of Phase II for NASA laboratory and field testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Wind-vector sensor to aid/extend UAV flight missions Monitoring wind profiles around wind turbines

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aircraft air speed and ground speed supplementary sensor Airborne monitoring for icing Airborne terrain monitoring in reduced visibility conditions Airborne low-altitude wind velocity and shear turbulence monitoring Airborne wake-vortex hazard monitoring Atmospheric boundary-layer dynamics for local weather Wind-gust alleviation sensor

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Amplifiers/Repeaters/Translators
Transmitters/Receivers
Waveguides/Optical Fiber (see also Optics)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Filtering
Lenses
Mirrors
Telescope Arrays
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Emitters
Lasers (Communication)
Lasers (Guidance & Tracking)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
Optical
Ranging/Tracking
Acoustic/Vibration
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Electromagnetic
Interferometric (see also Analysis)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)
Ultraviolet
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A1.02-8954
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Inflight Icing Hazard Mitigation Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: HybridSil Icephobic Nanocomposites for Next Generation Aircraft In-Flight Icing Measurement and Mitigation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanosonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke, VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Bortner
llawson@nanosonic.com
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke,  VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The purpose of this Phase I SBIR program is to adapt NanoSonic's HybridSil™ nanocomposites that combine high levels of erosion resistance and anti-icing functionality to enable in-flight icing measurement and mitigation for next generation aircraft. Icing on engine components, rotors, and wings creates substantial problems during in-flight operation. To address the issues of both in-flight icing measurement and mitigation, NanoSonic will build on its demonstrated HybridSil™ Erosion protective, anti-icing appliqu?s/tapes designed for rotorblades to realize a lightweight nanocomposite with appropriate functionality to enable multifunctional icing measurement and mitigation on next generation aircraft. NanoSonic's current HybridSil™ Erosion has been measured to provide high levels of particle and rain erosion protection; samples have been tested up to 7 hrs rain erosion and 100 g/cm2 mass loading angular sand, both tested at 500 mph, with sample survival following exposure. Additionally, the nanocomposite materials have been demonstrated to prevent dynamic ice accretion at temperatures as low as 19?F (-7?C) in their current tape format. Application has been demonstrated thus far with excellent adhesion and performance on 6Al4V Ti, 2024 T0 Al, and glass fiber/epoxy composites. A prime that provides de-icing systems to a broad range of commercial and defense platforms is currently working with NanoSonic for baseline performance evaluation of its HybridSil™ Erosion/Icephobic materials, and has discussed with NanoSonic methodologies to integrate multifunctionality, such as developing icing measurement concepts, for a broad range of existing and future aircraft. This prime has expressed significant interest and support of NanoSonic's materials development, and will work with NanoSonic through a subcontract on this effort to integrate design suggestions and perform rigorous measurements required for transition to NASA platforms.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed multifunctional nanocomposites integrate high durability and hydrophobic functionality, which is marketable to an extremely broad range of applications outside of aircraft. Water repellency provides anti-icing functionality useful in nearly any vehicle or structure for missions where icing or the risk of ice formation inhibits progress. Water repellency also suggests minimized water ingress, which is a significant problem in nearly all applications where composites are used for metal replacement. For metallic materials, the proposed materials will reduce corrosion, reducing maintenance and concerns of potential structural integrity damage resulting from corrosion. Similar hydrophobic nanocomposites can also significantly reduce frictional drag, enhancing performance. Commercial applications are nearly limitless for higher performance, cost and energy saving commercial aircraft and automobiles. Because of the dynamic applicability of NanoSonic's nanocomposites, the potential market spans from military to civilian, opening the door to endless possibilities in multiple industries.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As the proposed technology is matured and qualified throughout the proposed effort, multiple manufacturers and customers will integrate this technology within their designs to help enable all-weather operation of existing and next generation aircraft. The proposed materials are technology enablers for next generation airframe structures and engine components where lightweight, durable materials and low power requirements mandate innovative approaches to not only mitigate ice formation, but to enable measurement of icing conditions that promote unwanted ice formation and to concurrently provide erosion protection. In addition to aircraft, the proposed nanocomposites will be useful for a broad range of commercial rotorcraft and jet engine applications. NanoSonic will work with its Phase I prime partner to identify multiple potential commercial and defense outlets for the technology developed within this effort.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Contact/Mechanical
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A1.02-9514
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Inflight Icing Hazard Mitigation Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Mixed-Phase Ice Crystal and Droplet Characterization and Thermometry

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Artium Technologies
150 Iowa Street, Suite 101
Sunnyvale, CA 94086-6184
(408) 737-2364

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Bachalo
wbachalo@artium.com
150 Iowa Street, Suite 101
Sunnyvale,  CA 94086-6184
(408) 737-2364

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This effort proposes to design, build, and demonstrate a new instrument for icing research and flight safety capable of discriminating liquid water from ice while simultaneously measuring the diameter, velocity, and temperature of droplets or the velocity and size for ice crystals. From these individual particle characteristics the total liquid water content (LWC) and the total water content (TWC) of the flow may be found. This non-intrusive, laser-based, point measurement diagnostic will operate in an off-axis, back scatter configuration at a range of working distances appropriate to characterize laboratory-scale experiments, icing tunnel flows, free jet test facilities, or flight conditions at altitude. The proposed instrument will apply phase-Doppler interferometry, polarization ratio phase discrimination, droplet rainbow thermometry, and cross-polarization imaging to each particle measured (see Part 4 for details on these techniques). This will provide joint measures of liquid/solid phase, velocity, diameter or particle size, and droplet temperature. Furthermore, there is redundancy built into the measurements. For instance, the droplet diameter can be measured both by phase-Doppler interferometry and by rainbow thermometry and all four measurement techniques can discriminate solid ice from liquid droplets. While no single instrument can measure all possible cloud droplets, the proposed instrument can be configured to measure droplets from as small as 3 μm to larger than 3 mm in diameter.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Within the meteorology and icing research markets there is potential to create two separate product lines. Some researchers will prefer an in situ device that can be placed in a large wind tunnel flow or mounted to an aircraft exterior. Others may prefer an ex situ instrument that can be placed outside of the flow – the solicitation specifically mentions the profiling across the span of an engine duct. The proposed diagnostic methods are all suitable for both styles of measurement. Furthermore, since the proposed layout involves the use of backscatter collection, such an instrument could be deployed from within an aircraft's fuselage and pointed out a window with no impact on the flow or external mounting requirements. Such an instrument configuration could move beyond a research tool and be used as a real-time flight safety instrument to characterize the icing threat to the airframe. Moreover, there are a wide range of food processing applications using spray drying. The capabilities of measuring mixed phase particles and droplet temperature will be attractive to the R&D and process control in these environments. Efficient energy utilization and product quality are key concerns in these applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's research into flight safety and aircraft propulsion would benefit from the successful commercialization of this instrument. Other governmental, academic, and industrial research groups in the areas of aircraft and flight safety, air-breathing and rocket propulsion, transportation, spray, drying, and other industrial processes would all stand to benefit from a diagnostic capable of exceptional phase discrimination and/or remote droplet temperature measurement. There are several possible paths to commercialization of this work either as improvements on our current commercial products or as entirely new products. The present SBIR Phase 1 will lead to a fully-developed instrument capable of simultaneously and redundantly measuring multiple physical properties of droplets and ice crystals. However, we do not believe that an instrument as described herein would be economically viable on its own. There are only a handful of ground-based icing research facilities that would be willing to invest the capital required to purchase such an instrument – several of which are already in possession of a PDI for droplet characterization. However, the proposed instrument is intentionally overcomplicated for the proof-of-concept phase.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Image Analysis
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Image Processing
Lenses
Mirrors
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A1.05-8130
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensing and Diagnostic Capabilities for Degradation in Aircraft Materials and Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multi-Path Guided Wave Imaging for Inspection and Monitoring of Large, Complex Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hidden Solutions, LLC
463688 State Road 200, Suite 1-437
Yulee, FL 30297-0304
(904) 335-8634

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Hall
jshall@hiddensolutionsllc.com
463688 State Road 200, Suite 1-#437
Yulee,  FL 30297-0304
(904) 335-8634

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 0
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There is a well-recognized need within NASA and the aerospace community at large for rapid and reliable methods for inspection of large, complex structures. This need is particularly evident for built-up aerospace components that contain multiple features such as stiffeners, ribs, cut-out and fasteners, all of which complicate existing inspection methods. Application of ultrasonic guided waves holds promise because even in such complex structures these waves have been shown to travel long distances and remain sensitive to damage. A sparse, or spatially distributed, array of simple sensors is perhaps the most effective implementation of such waves, both in terms of cost and capabilities, but the primary problem is the complexity of received signals. This complexity is caused by the unavoidable presence of reverberant, multi-path echoes that are difficult to interpret, but that also contain much more information about the structure than the simpler echoes present for a structure with few features. The proposed research will leverage the additional information contained in the multi-path signals to not only enable in situ inspection and monitoring of complex structures but also simultaneously improve the ability of a sparse array to detect and characterize damage with fewer sensors. This will be accomplished by performing a one-time measurement of the multi-path wavefield generated by each transducer in the sparse array, using this wavefield to estimate Green's functions for waves propagating from source to scatterer location to receiver, and constructing high-fidelity images by combining scattered array signals with computed Green's functions. This work is high risk but has a high payoff for NASA, the aerospace community in particular, and generally to many other applications that include civil, nuclear and petrochemical infrastructure. Successful completion could enable commercial implementation of guided wave systems for large area inspection.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The techniques proposed here can be used for the large-area inspection and monitoring of: - Metallic and composite aircraft components - Civil infrastructure built up from trusses, beams, and plates - Marine vessel hulls - Nuclear infrastructure - Petrochemical infrastructure such as vessels and complex piping

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ability to perform rapid inspection of large area, complex, plate-like structures is directly applicable to the long-term in-vehicle health monitoring (IVHM) of both manned and unmanned spacecraft and structures. The envisioned end-product will be capable of automated inspection of complex plate-like structures (such as pressure hulls or casings, etc.) using lightweight, permanently attached sensor arrays with on-station or remote data analysis.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Image Processing
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Structures
Acoustic/Vibration
Contact/Mechanical
Verification/Validation Tools
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A1.08-8557
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Systems Technologies for Improved Aviation Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Non-intrusive Hazardous Pilot Cognitive State Assessment via Semi-Supervised Deep Learning: CSA-Deep

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Guangfan Zhang
gzhang@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville,  MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5244

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In aviation history, many crew-related errors are caused by crew members being in hazardous cognitive states, such as overstress, disengagement, high fatigue, and ineffective crew coordination. To improve aviation safety, it is critical to monitor and predict hazardous cognitive states of crew members in a non-intrusive manner for designing mitigation strategies. In Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) flight deck, emerging technologies will enable a transition from ground based navigation infrastructure to satellite based navigation and some control relating to separation of traffic will be delegated to the cockpit from Air Traffic Control (ATC). While the NextGen system will bring tremendous advantages in operational efficiency, the responsibilities of the pilot are expected to dramatically increase, which makes the hazardous cognitive state assessment even more critical. To address the above challenges, Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI), along with the Operator Performance Lab (OPL) in University of Iowa and Old Dominion University, proposes a real-time hazardous pilot Cognitive State Assessment system, called CSA-Deep, in all phases of flight for Integrated Crew-System Interaction (ICSI). The key innovation of the proposed research is the modeling and adaptive updating of hazardous cognitive states using a large amount of unlabeled data through semi-supervised deep learning.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We envisage the following target markets and probable customers for the Phase 2 product: Air Operation Centers (Air Force, Navy and FAA): There is significant demand for evaluating the pilot cognitive state and coordination among crew members for air traffic management in military and civilian arenas. Furthermore, the gradual rollout of FAA's Next Generation Air Traffic System (NGATS) and its new systems, applications and operational procedures will require the development of advanced coordination assessment systems. This system could be used to perform aviation missions more effectively, as well as increasing the flight NextGen capacity. Emergency Response Systems (Homeland Security): The CSA-Deep could be used in the assessment of the operator functional state and the quality of team coordination of emergency first responders, emergency medicine personnel in procedures and exercises for disaster preparedness and mass casualty event.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We anticipate that by the end of our Phase II effort we will have matured our CSA-Deep assessment system sufficiently and we will be able to demonstrate the proposed approach to evaluate hazardous cognitive states and crew coordination in a flight simulation environment. We will work closely with NASA to ensure that technology developed in this effort can be integrated with the NASA's systems, reducing risk associated with technology transition. The proposed innovation has applicability to crew coordination research work in the Variable Autonomy Interface System (VAIS) element within NASA's Safe Flight Deck Systems and Operations (SFDSO) sub-project within the Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) Vehicle Systems Safety Technologies (VSST) Robust AutomationCrewSys (ACS) program as well as potential for enhancing safety through crew coordination in other manned aircraft and spacecraft work.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Man-Machine Interaction
Data Fusion
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A1.13-8936
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Upset Protection System
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Automated Energy Management and Crew Alerting System for Upset Prevention

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Barron Associates, Inc.
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901-2496
(434) 973-1215

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Neha Gandhi
barron@bainet.com
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville,  VA 22901-2496
(434) 973-1215

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Loss-Of-Control-In-flight (LOC-I) has been a longstanding contributor to fatal aircraft accidents. However, recent high-profile incidents, including Colgan Air Flight 3407 and Air France Flight 447, have underscored the importance of mitigating the LOC-I risk. In both of these incidents, it is clear that improper energy management was one of the precipitating factors that led to eventual loss of controlled flight. In order to reduce the potentially devastating effects of a mismanaged energy condition, Barron Associates has teamed with SA technologies to design and demonstrate an energy state protection system. The system pairs Barron Associates' proven optimization and control technologies with SA Technologies' situation-awareness-driven interfaces. Although built upon innovative ideas and algorithms, the proposed system focuses on the cardinal duty of "aviate" through pilot interaction and automated energy management. The energy state protection system: (1) models the dynamic evolution of the energy state and the energy requirements of the aircraft with flight phase, (2) determines an effective allocation of available flight controls to correct an off-nominal energy state and maintain safe operating margin, and (3) ensures that the crew is brought back into the "aviate" loop through effective alerting thus minimizing adverse pilot interactions with the automated components. Pilot-in-the-loop simulator testing will be used to demonstrate the benefits of energy state protection system and will pave the way for limited-envelop flight testing in Phase II and expanded-envelop flight testing in Phase III.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The immediate non-NASA application is algorithms, software, and tools that enable the use of energy management and upset prevention systems in the civil aviation industry. The technology is easily extensible to military applications, including remotely piloted systems. The proposer has an excellent track record transitioning algorithms for use in commercial and defense-related applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The energy state protection system addresses three of the NASA's Aviation Safety Program's (AvSP) top ten challenges (www.aeronautics.nasa.gov/programs_avsafe.htm): Automation Design Tools; Crew-System Interactions and Decisions; and Loss of Control Prevention, Mitigation, and Recovery. The research conducted in the Phase I program sits as the junction of two integral components of the AvSP: the System-Wide Safety and Assurance Technologies (SSAT) Project and the Vehicle Systems Safety Technologies (VSST) Project. The SSAT project seeks to develop a more comprehensive understanding of human involvement in aviation safety, studying how human beings interact with automated flight deck and air traffic control systems. The VSST project seeks to investigate loss-of-control events that may occur because of unintended entry into unusual flight conditions, response to on-board failures, and/or environmental disturbances. Under this project, NASA is developing, assessing and validating methods for avoiding, detecting and successfully resolving such situations as well as developing future flight deck design tools and concepts to promote effective human-automation interaction and error recovery. The current research seeks to understand how lack of situational awareness (due to ineffective interaction with an increasingly automated flight deck) can cause improper energy management. Furthermore, the current research seeks to improve situational awareness through effective human-automatio

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Man-Machine Interaction
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A1.15-9362
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Vehicle Design for Loss-of-Control Flight Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Design of Prototype-Technology Evaluator and Research Aircraft (PTERA) Configuration for Loss of Control Flight Research

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AREA-I
1590 North Roberts Road, Suite 203
Kennesaw, GA 30144-3636
(678) 594-5227

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Nicholas Alley
nalley@areai.aero
1590 N Roberts Rd, Suite 203
Kennesaw,  GA 30144-3636
(678) 594-5227

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Area-I team has developed and fabricated the unmanned Prototype-Technology Evaluation and Research Aircraft or PTERA ("ptera" being Greek for wing, or wing-like). The PTERA is an extremely versatile and high-quality, yet inexpensive flight research testbed that serves as a bridge between wind tunnel and manned flight testing by enabling the low-cost, low-risk flight-based evaluation of a wide array of high-risk technologies. For this work, the team proposes to augment the existing PTERA platform such that it is directly tailored for Loss-of-Control (LoC) flight research. The resulting PTERA-LoC configuration will provide the NASA LoC flight research program with the following core capabilities: 1) A large airframe that minimizes scaling and Reynolds number effects, yet is easily disassembled and transported 2) A modular fuselage design that will enable the reconfiguration of the PTERA-LoC fuselage, thus allowing the team to fabricate/assemble fuselage configurations that maintain near geometric similitude with a wide array of "tube-and-wing" aircraft using existing fuselage tooling. 3) Modular wing design that facilitates the integration of advanced aerodynamic treatments, split control surfaces, and aeroelastic and damage emulation mechanisms. 4) Large payload capacity, voluminous payload bays, and large clamshell doors that facilitate the integration of sensor and avionics systems, provide easy access during flight testing, and allow for plenty of payload capacity and volume for integrating ballast for dynamic scaling. 5) A low-cost airframe that facilitates the execution of flight test maneuvers and/or the flight testing of cutting-edge and complex systems whose risks and/or costs are too high for manned flights

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A technology gap exists between well-controlled wind tunnel tests and full scale flight testing where most of the systems integration issues surface. Allocating these system integration activities to a full scale flight test is replete with safety, schedule and performance risks that dominate flight test costs. The PTERA platform serves as the bridge to integrate and flight test advanced aerodynamic treatments, health management and control systems, and to perform experiments in structures and aero elasticity for a fraction of the cost of a manned flight test program. The PTERA flight test facility offers several distinct advantages to NASA, and non-NASA customers. The physical configuration is representative of most commercial/transport aircraft, therefore test data will be considered relevant. The PTERA structure is solid, well designed and stable therefore the test data will be free of unwanted variables that may contaminate the data and the airframe was designed from the bottom up to be modular and general purpose which will meet the "common benefit" need that a lab asset must generally satisfy. Finally, PTERA has enough design margin to accommodate multiple treatments such as wings with active twist and active camber, advanced control systems, and prototype "UAV in the NAS" automated airspace separation related payloads.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The PTERA will enable NASA to more effectively develop and evaluate the performance of innovative solutions and advanced technologies that improve current and future air transportation by extending the NASA research portfolio to include a low-cost, low-risk flight experiment testbed. Virtually every program within the NASA ARMD can directly or indirectly benefit from the PTERA as it provides the following: -A low-cost, low-risk high quality flight test facility. -A platform that enables testing and evaluations of new technologies that, due to cost and risk, would typically be reserved for wind tunnel tests only. -A platform to investigate the flight performance of technologies such as laminar flow enablers, aeroelastic tailoring, morphing control surfaces/wings, and active flow control. Additionally, the baseline PTERA tooling could be used to enable the fabrication of more exotic designs such a box/joined-wing configuration. -A testbed with which to perform experiments regarding sense and avoid, UAS-manned aircraft interactions, etc. -A platform to perform loss-of-control flight research and to evaluate health management and atmospheric hazard sensing systems under actual flight conditions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Characterization
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A1.17-8942
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery
PROPOSAL TITLE: Causal Models for Safety Assurance Technologies

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aptima, Inc.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801-1765
(781) 935-3966

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jennifer Roberts
jroberts@aptima.com
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn,  MA 01801-1753
(781) 496-2304

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Fulfillment of NASA's System-Wide Safety and Assurance Technology (SSAT) project at NASA requires leveraging vast amounts of data into actionable knowledge. Models of accident causation describe a causation chain. The chain would be better understood by examining the large amounts of "everyday" flight data, not just data proximal to high-profile incidents. This proposal is focused on the detection and prediction of more common flight errors or conditions which are necessary for aviation incidents. However, data sets containing safety information are (1) large, (2) distributed, and (3) heterogeneous, making analysis difficult. In order to address these challenges, we propose Causal Models for Safety and Assurance Technologies (CM-SAT). CM-SAT will mine large, distributed, heterogeneous data systems for causal relationships about flight safety. The system will identify causal schema within the data that characterize conditions related to the aircraft and environment that are predictive of failures. CM-SAT will detect causal relationships at varying levels of granularity (e.g. relationships which are unique to a particular flight, to a particular aircraft model, or to a particular fleet). It will leverage state-of-the-art distributed meta-reasoning, which will direct the causal schema learning algorithms to detect and validate causal relationships in different parts of the distributed data sets.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
CM-SAT analyzes large data repositories for causal relationships that can increase aviation safety, and thus it will be targeted for use by public agencies and private companies interested in aviation safety. The FAA Safety Management System (SMS) would also benefit from actionable safety information, a need which CM-SAT addresses. CM-SAT may be used by military agencies as well, including the Air Force. More broadly, CM-SAT is usable by any agency with large amounts of data that lends itself to causal analysis. Agencies interested in UAS Verification and Validation (V&V), such as ONR, are interested in analyzing collected data to predict performance. The distributed, scalable, heterogeneous causal learning technology that CM-SAT presents is also applicable to the domain of intelligence analysis.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
CM-SAT addresses a relevant, high priority issue – Aviation Safety. The causal relationships learned in this project are directly applicable to the mitigation of aircraft aging, analysis and prediction of crew performance, anomaly detection, and the Verification and Validation of flight control systems. CM-SAT addresses several technical challenge cited by the NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), including the challenges of Assurance of Flight Critical Systems, Discovery of Safety Issues, Vehicle Health Assurance, Crew-System Interactions and Decisions, Loss of Control Prevention, Mitigation, and Recovery, Engine and Airframe Icing, and Atmospheric Sensing & Mitigation. CM-SAT is most relevant to the System–wide Safety and Assurance Technologies (SSAT) project in that it directly addresses safety assurance by predicting risky conditions. However it also indirectly addresses issues in the Vehicle Safety Systems Technologies (VSST) project and Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies (AEST) by providing general knowledge of the causal relationships on aircraft which lead to hazardous conditions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Data Processing
Verification/Validation Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A1.18-8869
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Prognostics and Decision Making
PROPOSAL TITLE: Self-Aware Aerospace Vehicle Contingency Management

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
1 Broadway, 12th Floor
Cambridge, MA 02142-1189
(703) 369-3633

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Kordonowy
dkordonowy@aurora.aero
1 Broadway, 12th Floor
Cambridge,  MA 02142-1189
(617) 500-4814

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aurora Flight Sciences, with Agent Oriented Software, proposes to develop a contingency management system that dynamically performs decision-making based on both sensed and predictive information to carry out adaptive missions and maintenance. This system will mirror the human nervous system, having sensing capabilities distributed throughout systems and subsystems measuring characteristics that predict the conditional response of the aerospace vehicle. The vehicle 'nervous system' of embedded distributed sensors and reasoning agents will generate real-time information on vehicle condition. Like a nervous system, each subsystem will communicate with a higher-level system-reasoning agent. The central reasoning agent will manage mission control systems to perform adaptive maneuvers informed by this network of sensors. This program will concentrate on the composite airframe structure as the system of interest and will encompass the following areas: 1. Assignment of airframe capability figures to maneuvering limits (i.e. various maneuvers that load the airframe, coupled with the capability of the airframe to take that loading). 2. Analysis of available inputs including the environment (temperature, altitude, humidity), the structural state (damage type, size and location), and the loading (inertia, pressure profiles). 3. Creation of an algorithm to determine the capability of the airframe, and potentially return the viability of performing different maneuvers. A safety factor may also be returned, which could be used to determine alternate safe maneuvers. 4. Mission decisions based on whether the airframe can safely perform the required maneuvers, and if not, what maneuvers can be performed that would still enable it to satisfy the mission.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This program will provide a contingency management system that dynamically performs decision-making based on both sensed and predictive information to carry out adaptive missions and maintenance. Targeted at composite airframes, the market opportunity for such a system is very significant for the UAV industry, as it is clear that UAVs cannot be made in the same manner as conventional, manned aircraft. Their cost of construction must be much lower, i.e., cheaper materials, less labor and fewer parts. In addition, the ability to make small, custom runs will be commercially very attractive – the lead times for conventional aircraft are many years. These commercial imperatives will drive the adoption of low-cost, composite airframes constructed largely automatically. Rotorcraft such as the Sikorsky CH-53E and the upcoming CH-53K, as well as commercial aircraft such as the Boeing 777 and 787 all incorporate various levels of vehicle health management to monitor subsystems for faults and failures. Prognosis of failures and faults and contingency management on composite airframe structures allow for the extension of vehicle health management onto the structure, which typically represents the majority weight and a large cost of both maintenance and replacement. Aircraft such as Aurora's Orion long endurance aircraft would benefit from airframe prognostics, and we would push for its application both on our own platforms as well as other OEM air vehicle providers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Prognosis of failures and faults and contingency management methods on composite airframe structures allow for the extension of vehicle health management onto the structure, which typically represents the majority weight and a large cost of both maintenance and replacement. Prognostics would allow for condition-based maintenance of airframe structures which reduces maintenance costs associated with an air vehicle. Reducing maintenance overheads and enhancing safety will be driving factors for all new aircraft concepts, including the NASA Environmentally Responsive Aviation (ERA) project, the Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) project, and airframes for hypersonic and supersonic flight. Additionally, current research aircraft such as NASA's WB-57F would benefit from the prognostics developed here to extend the life of the airframe or improve mission capability based on RUL and airframe condition assessment. Finally, space applications such as launch vehicles and payload and pressurized modules, including the ISS laboratories, would benefit from prognostic applications of composite structures in order to assess the structural capability and any damage or degradation that might endanger crew or payload. The overall commercial fitness of this prognostic algorithm is very high due to the large field of structures for which it enables condition-based maintenance and enhances design life and safety.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Data Fusion
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A1.20-8922
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Verification and Validation of Flight-Critical Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Scalable Parallel Algorithms for Formal Verification of Software

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aries Design Automation, LLC
2705 West Byron Street
Chicago, IL 60618-3745
(773) 856-6633

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Miroslav Velev
miroslav.velev@aries-da.com
2705 W Byron St
Chicago,  IL 60618-3745
(773) 856-6633

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We will develop a prototype of a GPU-based parallel Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) software package. BDDs are a data structure that satisfies some simple restrictions, resulting in a unique representation of a Boolean function regardless of its actual implementation. This property of BDDs allows the efficient solution of many problems. The proposed tool will exploit multi-core CPUs and the thousands of stream cores in the latest graphics processors (GPUs) , which were made accessible to programmers through specialized software development kits. These large numbers of stream cores in GPUs, and the possibility to execute non-graphics computations on them, open unprecedented levels of parallelism at a very low cost. In the last 8 years, GPUs had an increasing performance advantage of an order of magnitude relative to x86 CPUs. Furthermore, this performance advantage will continue to increase in the next 20 years because of the scalability of the chip manufacturing processes. The technical objectives will be to efficiently exploit the GPU parallelism in order to accelerate the execution of a BDD package, and to explore hybrid approaches that will combine this GPU-based BDD package with our GPU-based parallel SAT solver that we are currently developing in a NASA SBIR Phase II project. The goal will be to achieve increased speed, as well as scalability for much larger state spaces when formally verifying complex software for space applications. We anticipate increase in both speed and scalability by 1 – 2 orders of magnitude by the end of Phase I, and 3 – 4 orders of magnitude by the end of Phase II, compared to the current approaches.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The non-NASA customers will have the same benefits from the technology as NASA. The commercialization will target the major semiconductor, software, and Electronic Design Automation (EDA) companies, as well as NASA prime contractors, aerospace and weapons manufacturers, and all companies that develop embedded systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed project will result in increase of both speed and capacity when formally verifying complex software. The techniques will also be applicable when formally verifying hardware, proving the correctness of radiation-hardening transformations for digital circuits, mapping of software for execution on reconfigurable architectures such as FPGAs, logic synthesis, power and timing analysis of circuits, scheduling, planning, and solving of constraint optimization problems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Quality/Reliability
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Support
Development Environments
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A1.20-9873
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Verification and Validation of Flight-Critical Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Emile: The EventML Explorer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Odyssey Research Assoc Inc DBA ATC-NY
33 Thornwood Drive Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850-1279
(607) 257-1975

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Guaspari
davidg@atc-nycorp.com
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca,  NY 14850-1279
(607) 257-1975

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The protocols needed to coordinate the activities of distributed components, such as consensus algorithms, are notoriously difficult to design, implement, and verify. Abstraction is the only way to gain intellectual control over this complex problem; so ATC-NY and Cornell University have developed Event Logic, a high-level model for describing and reasoning about distributed systems, and EventML, a high-level functional language for implementing distributed protocols by ¿programming with events.¿ To integrate these conceptual tools with standard processes of system development ATC-NY will develop ¿mile, a software tool providing: a semantic interface to EventML that translates assertions about properties of EventML programs into logical forms to which powerful existing analysis tools can be applied, along with a ¿logical manager¿ that can direct analyses involving the interaction of these tools. We will demonstrate ¿mile by using it to verify the key properties of EventML source code for standard consensus algorithms, such as Paxos.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
¿mile supports the development of critical protocols that underlie highly reliable distributed systems (whether systems are ¿naturally¿ distributed, or replicated for fault tolerance)¿for example, the New York Stock Exchange, the AEGIS combat system, Google¿s Chubby service (on which Google File System and Google Analytics rely).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
¿mile supports the development of critical protocols that underlie highly reliable distributed systems (whether systems are ¿naturally¿ distributed, or replicated for fault tolerance)¿for example, air traffic control.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Verification/Validation Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A2.01-8229
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development of a Novel, Reactive Extrusion Process for Continuous Production of Long, Pure Carbon Nanotubes for Application in Lightweight Composite Materials

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanomatronix, LLC
700 Research Center Boulevard
Fayetteville, AR 72701-7175
(479) 215-9438

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Matthew Leftwich
mleftwich@nanomatronix.com
700 Research Center Blvd
Fayetteville,  AR 72701-7175
(479) 215-9438

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
According to the NASA A2.01 topic description titled Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft, "advanced materials and structures technologies are needed in all four of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program research thrusts (Subsonics Fixed Wing, Subsonics Rotary Wing, Supersonics, and Hypersonics) to enable the design and development of advanced future aircraft. Proposals are sought that address specific design and development challenges associated with airframe and propulsion systems. These proposals should be linked to improvements in aircraft performance indicators such as vehicle weight, fuel consumption, noise, lift, drag, durability, and emissions." The technologies of interest to NASA cover five themes. The technology proposed herein falls under the first theme, Fundamental Materials Development, Processing, and Characterization (Topic: A2.01 / Lead Center: GLC). More specifically, the herein proposed work addresses the need for "new high strength fibers, in particular low density, high strength and stiffness carbon fibers" that may be utilized in high strength-to-weight ratio composite materials to reduce vehicle weight without compromise to or likely to increase durability. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been studied extensively over the past two decades, resulting in a large quantity of fundamental research that has been performed in the areas of synthesis, purification, separation, functionalization, applications development, etc. Their unique properties are expected to bring about a new age of structural and electrical materials. However, one of the primary problems associated with CNT applications development is that all current synthesis techniques produce only short strands of CNT's, typically 10's to 100's of microns long. Therefore, current applications are limited to those that can effectively utilize short CNT strands. The technology proposed herein has the potential to produce continuous, long strands of pure CNT material.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA application are analogous to NASA applications mentioned above. The primary difference is in regards to harsh environment survivability. Most commercial applications have much less stringent environmental qualification standards associated with them.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applications for pure, long and short, carbon nanotubes are seemingly endless and include high strength-to-weight ratio fibers and tethers, low loss conduction pathways for photovoltaic cells, composite materials (polymer-CNT and metal-CNT composites), quantum dot interconnects, functionalized catalysts, adsorbents, SPM tips, and a wide variety of nanoelectronic devices and materials. Of the applications mentioned thus far, large volumes of high purity carbon nanotubes will find rapid application as additives in polymeric and metallic composite materials. A significant amount of research has revealed that the physical properties of common polymeric materials are greatly improved after addition of relatively small percentages of carbon nanotube materials. For example, at low carbon nanotube concentrations in polymer composites, a reduction in surface resistivity from more than 1012 ¿/square to less than 100 ¿/square results. Similarly, for polystyrene composites containing 2.5% – 25% MWNT's by volume, Young's modulus increases from 1.9 to 4.5 GPa, with increases pronounced beyond 10%.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airship/Lighter-than-Air Craft
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Isolation/Protection/Radiation Shielding (see also Mechanical Systems)
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Quality/Reliability
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Processing Methods
Composites
Nanomaterials
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Ionizing Radiation
Thermal


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A2.01-8436
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Innovative Processing Methods for the Affordable Manufacture of Multifunctional High Temperature Coatings

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Direct Vapor Technologies International, Inc.
2 Boars Head Lane
Charlottesville, VA 22903-4605
(434) 977-1405

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Derek Hass
derekh@directedvapor.com
2 Boars Head Ln
Charlottesville,  VA 22903-4605
(434) 977-1405

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Research is proposed to investigate the feasibility of using advanced manufacturing techniques to enable the affordable application of multi-functional high temperature coatings having enhanced resistance to high temperature engine environments. For example, thermal / environmental barrier coatings (T/EBCs) are envisioned to protect the surface of Si-based ceramics against moisture-assisted, oxidation-induced ceramic recession. Current T/EBC systems have been demonstrated in long time exposures at ~2400¿F. However, their use at elevated temperatures is limited by the low temperature stability and high diffusion activity of current T/EBC materials. One approach to enhance the temperature capability of these systems is the incorporation of multi-layered T/EBC designs to provide multi-functional protection. In this Phase I effort, novel processing techniques will be developed to enable the affordable, high performance manufacture of such systems using a physical vapor deposition based processing approach which enables enhanced coating adhesion and advanced coating architectural, compositional and microstructural control. Processing developments will then be used to created novel multi-layered coatings. These coating layers will then be incorporated into advanced high temperature capable T/EBC systems in Phase. This work will lead to the incorporation of Si-based ceramic components into enhanced efficiency gas turbine engines to reduce weight and increase operating temperatures. A TRL 4 will be achieved at the end of Phase I and TRL 6 at the end of Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of high temperature T/EBC systems using DVTI's advanced coatings processing techniques will enable not only new T/EBC systems for use in future military and commercial aircraft platforms, but also new deposition processes to enable affordable coating application onto engines components. DVD coaters are envisioned to be small with low capital costs and tailorable volumes so that small volumes of parts can be deposited at low cost. The soft vacuum required and the high deposition rates also have the potential to facilitate assembly line like part coating for some geometries. The non line-of-sight capabilities of this approach enable coatings to be applied onto complex components thus expanding their use. The compositional and morphological flexibility of this approach would also enable other advanced functional coating systems to be applied such as thermal barrier coatings, wear and corrosion resistant coatings, thin film batteries and damping coatings.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This research is anticipated to result in environmental barrier coating systems that provides higher temperature capability, improved durability and better CMAS resistance than current EBCs. These advancements will help enable the use of Si-based ceramics in a range of high temperature applications such a gas turbine engines, combustion liners, exhaust components and heat exchangers. These advances will potentially benefit all gas turbine engines requiring greater performance and efficiency. In addition, this research specifically supports the goals of NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) which seeks to expand the boundaries of aeronautical knowledge for the benefit of the Nation and the broad aeronautics community and in particular NASA ARMD's Subsonic Fixed Wing Project which has a goal of conducting long term research in technologies which promote, among other things, higher performance and higher efficiency gas turbine engines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Smart/Multifunctional Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A2.01-9150
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Aircraft Superconducting Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anthony Dietz
ajd@creare.com
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Hybrid turbo-electric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft design space by decoupling power generation from propulsion. Resulting aircraft designs such as blended-wing bodies with distributed propulsion can provide the large reductions in emissions, fuel burn, and noise required to make air transportation growth projections sustainable. The power density requirements for these electric machines can only be achieved with superconductors, which in turn require lightweight, high-capacity cryocoolers. We have developed a Cryoflight turbo-Brayton cryocooler concept that exceeds the mass and performance targets identified by NASA for superconducting aircraft. In Phase I of this project, we will extend our initial design study and develop modeling tools to support a system-level optimization and individual component designs. We will focus on the critical component for mass reduction—the recuperative heat exchanger—and perform risk reduction activities to demonstrate the feasibility of our concept for this component. In Phase II, we will design, build, and test a compact, lightweight, high-performance recuperator for the Cryoflight cryocooler. This development effort will provide an enabling technology for the superconducting systems needed for hybrid turbo-electric aircraft to be feasible.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The target application for this cryocooler is for cooling superconducting devices on electric aircraft once these aircraft are accepted in the commercial market. Other near-term applications for this technology include cooling superconducting generators for offshore wind turbines; cooling superconducting power transmission systems for data centers; cooling for laboratory and industrial-scale gas separation, liquefaction, cryogen storage, and cryogen transportation systems; cooling for high-temperature superconducting magnets in motors and alternators; liquid hydrogen fuel cell storage for the automotive industry; and commercial orbital transfer vehicles and satellites.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Cryoflight cryocooler development effort will support NASA's long-term goal to increase aircraft efficiency and reduce aircraft emissions and noise. By providing a cryocooler optimized to meet the aggressive power density target required for aircraft systems, we will remove a key obstacle hindering the development of superconducting aircraft. While such aircraft are still two or three decades from production, supporting technology development needs to begin now if such aircraft are to become a viable alternative to the aircraft configurations in production today. The results of this SBIR project will support NASA design trade studies, system demonstrations, and eventual superconducting aircraft demonstrations. Other NASA applications include space applications such as cryogen liquefaction and storage for planetary and extraterrestrial exploration missions, crew exploration vehicles (CEVs), extended-life orbital transfer vehicles, in-space propellant depots, and extraterrestrial bases. Terrestrial NASA applications include cooling for spaceport cryogen storage and transportation systems and for demonstration hydrogen production and transportation systems. The highly reliable and space-proven turbo-Brayton cryocooler is ideal for these applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A2.01-9525
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Functionally Graded Polyimide Nanocomposite Foams for Ablative and Inflatable/Flexible/Deplorable Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
KAI, Inc.
6402 Needham Lane
Austin, TX 78739-1510
(512) 301-4170

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joseph Koo
jkoo@austin.rr.com
6402 Needham Lane
Austin,  TX 78739-1510
(512) 301-4170

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of the proposed research is to develop functionally graded polyimide foams as light-weight, high performance thermal protection systems (TPS) for ablative and inflatable/flexible/deplorable structures used in space exploration missions. In the first phase of this project, we will demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating graded polyimide micro/nanocellular foam structures and characterize their insulation and ablative properties. We propose to fabricate graded polyimide foams with density gradient that are similar to those of functionally graded PMMA foams produced at UT Austin recently, using melt processable thermoplastic polyimide films by a solid-state foaming process with supercritical CO2. Gradient polyimide foam structures with tuned thermal protection properties are unique and not available until now. The advantage of this innovative approach is two folds: 1)Functionally graded, non-homogeneous polyimide foams that allows continuous variation in macroscopic mechanical and physical properties, to tune the thermal conductivity, specific heat, density, and ablative behavior. 2)The use of melt processable polyimides and the solid-state supercritical CO2 foaming process eliminates the needs of using high boiling solvents, and the costly, tedious solvent exchange process, which is required during the making of porous aerogels from solutions. Open-celled polyimide foams with large visible uniform pore sizes have been produced commercially, however, graded porous polyimide thin films with density gradient, open or close celled, are rare and pose more technical challenges, but can provide additional unique benefits.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Polyimide foam is lightweight, thermal, and acoustic insulation material. It provides significant weight reductions and is inherently fire resistance, low surface burn, low smoke development, and no significant toxic offgasing. It improves appearance and no fibrous shake out as compared to fibrous materials. It usually provides less waste and faster installation which means lower installed cost. It can be use for thermal/acoustic insulation, noise transmission loss blanket, duct insulation, and duct liner applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Polyimide foam can be used as an insulator (such as for rocket fuels) and acoustic damper. NASA can use these functionally graded polyimide foam for ducting, duct/piping insulation, structural components, and strengthening of hollow components while remaining lightweight.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Characterization
Processing Methods
Aerogels
Composites
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Structures
Ablative Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A2.01-9619
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Alloying and Casting Furnace for Shape Memory Alloys

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arcast Inc.
264 Main Street
Oxford, ME 04270-3134
(207) 539-9638

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sasha Long
engineering@arcastinc.com
264 Main St.
Oxford,  ME 04270-3134
(207) 539-9638

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The concept in the proposed project is to create a melting, alloying and casting furnace for the processing titanium based SMA using cold crucible techniques. The cold crucible furnace configuration will allow the material to remain pure without ceramic contamination. By using a combination of arc melting and induction processes it will also allow the material to be fully alloyed from elemental feed stock. The complete alloying and casting process will be contained in one vacuum/atmospheric chamber reducing the introduction of oxygen in the process. The deliverable at the end of the project will be to deliver a fully developed melting, alloying and casting furnace for processing 500g melts to The Advanced Metallics Branch of NASA Glenn Research Center.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed furnace configuration is a saleable product for Arcast Inc. and we intend to market it once it is fully developed.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA application of the proposed furnace is to enable the full theoretical properties to be explored of titanium based shape memory alloys (SMA). It is not limited to research of SMA it can be used for a wide range of reactive and refractory metal alloy development including intermetallic compounds.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Medical
Antennas
Cables/Fittings
Process Monitoring & Control
Prototyping
Processing Methods
Metallics
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Actuators & Motors
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Structures
Thermal
Active Systems
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A2.01-9669
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced High Temperature Structural Honeycomb TPS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MATECH
31304 Via Colinas, Suite 102
Westlake Village, CA 91362-4586
(818) 991-8500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Thomas Rosengren
thomas@matechgsm.com
31304 Via Colinas, Suite 102
Westlake Village,  CA 91362-4586
(818) 991-8500

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this NASA Phase I SBIR program, MATECH proposes to leverage successfully developed laboratory and pilot scale manufacturing technologies to produce low cost Silicon Oxycarbide (SiOC) fibrous-walled high temperature honeycomb structures, hat stiffeners, and rigid fibrous insulators. A highly scale-able melt blowing fiber manufacturing system was previously developed to produce non-woven mat from preceramic polymer and then formed into a pleated shape using a pleating apparatus. MATECH has shown that the SiOC fibrous ceramic used to make the core retains its mechanical and thermal stability to temperatures up to 1400˚C. These robust structural airframe materials can be densified with SiOC and ZrOC (for ultra-high temperature) matrix materials to produce a suite of advanced heat shield components. This suite innovative airframe material systems and fabrication methodology offers robust innovative multifunctional structural high temperature thermal protection systems for demanding high-mass planetary entry, descent, and landing (EDL) applications. The active support and participation of Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne and Boeing bodes well for a successful Phase I effort and follow-on Phase II program. More significantly, the close collaboration with these major industrial stakeholders enhances the likelihood of a successful Phase III transition into commercialization.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential Non-NASA applications include hot component parts on missiles, such as MDA's THAAD and SM-3. In addition, MATECH has identified heat shields for the private sector led efforts towards the return of manned space activities in LEO as potentially benefiting from this proposed technology. This could be potentially applied to the on-going efforts of SpaceX, Virgin Inter-Galactic, and Orbital Sciences.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Phase I proposal shall demonstrate low cost Silicon Oxycarbide (SiOC) fibrous-walled high temperature honeycomb structures, hat stiffeners, and rigid fibrous insulators. These robust structural airframe materials can be densified with SiOC and ZrOC (for ultra-high temperature) matrix materials to produce a suite of advanced heat shield components. These airframe material systems and associated fabrication methodology offers robust multifunctional structural high temperature thermal protection systems (TPS) for next generation RALV and demanding high-mass planetary atmospheric entry, descent, and landing (PAES-EDL) applications. This MATECH SBIR proposal offers a platform of unique formable ceramic materials using Net Shape processing for low cost, readily scale-able manufacturing. Potential applications for this innovative technology include hypersonic leading edges, hypersonic airframes, and heat shields for NASA vehicles. These vehicles include hypersonic re-entry from orbit, hypersonic cruise and high speed accelerators.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Prototyping
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Textiles
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Structures
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A2.02-9036
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultra-Sensitive Instrument for Gas Turbine Black Carbon Emissions Measurements

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Artium Technologies
150 Iowa Street, Suite 101
Sunnyvale, CA 94086-6184
(408) 737-2364

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Bachalo
wbachalo@artium.com
150 Iowa Street, Suite 101
Sunnyvale,  CA 94086-6184
(408) 737-2364

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal address innovations to the Laser-Induced Incandescence method aimed at (1) improving the lower detection limit of soot volume fraction by as much as two orders of magnitude and increasing overall measurement range by two orders of magnitude to meet new regulation that are in place or anticipated and (2) provide PM mean volumetric particle size and number density measurement capabilities. The proposed advances in the LII technique will substantially increase the capabilities for real-time particulate matter measurements over any engine transient operation. It will also have several orders of magnitude greater sensitivity than the gravimetric techniques or any other available method. The wide dynamic range and lower detection limit of LII will make this technique the preferred standard instrument for particulate matter measurements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary application for the integrated system is for characterizing the black carbon particulate emissions from gas turbine (jet) engines, vehicles (diesel and gasoline) and other combustion sources. Artium Technologies has already developed the LII instrument for black carbon measurements from gas turbine and other combustion sources. The enhanced capabilities that will be derived from this program will be extended to measuring much lower concentrations of BC particulate matter. In addition, extending the method to measure the mean volume diameter of the soot aggregates and their concentration will place us in a very competitive position. These capabilities are needed by engine manufacturers who are faced with ever more stringent emissions regulations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA currently has the AAFEX program for evaluating fuels and combustion emissions. We have already participated in these tests and the availability of instruments with much higher sensitivity will serve to improve the measurement results from these studies. As regulations are imposed, means are required to determine compliance with these regulations. Our compact easy to use LII instruments will be very competitive in this market. Artium believes that this instrument could be used for enforcing EPA regulations on particulate emissions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Atmospheric Propulsion
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A2.02-9426
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nonlinear Data Analysis Tool for Scramjets and Other Engines

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gloyer-Taylor Laboratories LLC
2212 Harton Boulevard
Tullahoma, TN 37388-5583
(931) 581-6134

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eric Jacob
eric.jacob@gtlcompany.com
112 Mitchell Blvd
Tullahoma,  TN 37388-4002
(931) 455-7333

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The UCDS process is the result of 50 years of research into combustion instability by the worlds leading scientists and engineers. The breakthroughs that created UCDS have provided a solid analytical foundation upon which tools can be developed and applied. One of these is the UCDS nonlinear tool, which GTL has been applying with much success in the investigations of the dynamics of solid rockets, liquid rockets and turbojets. In the proposed effort, GTL shall enhance this tool in preparation for its application to scramjets and ramjets by incorporating mean flow effects in the acoustic models used in the nonlinear algorithms. Since the Nonlinear Data Analysis Tool (NDAT) shares the same nonlinear algorithm with the UCDS nonlinear tool, this enhancement shall also improve the ability of NDAT to transform nonlinear test data into linear parameters. Taking this to the next step, GTL shall increase the functionality of NDAT by implementing changes to the algorithm that allow it to utilize the data from multiple pressure transducers in the data analysis rather than restricting the tool to the current single data channel. This will be accomplished by developing algorithm routines that use the relative location of the pressure transducers and the intervening acoustic environment to account for the temporal and phase relationships between the data streams. When implemented, these changes will allow NDAT to automatically identify the orientation of the oscillating modes and reduce the nonlinear pressure oscillation data into a clear and concise set of linear parameters. The last part of the Phase I effort will be to examine the role of nonlinear energy dissipation in scramjets in preparation for further refinement in the Phase II effort.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other potential customers for UCDS services and tools include government agencies, such as the Air Force, Army, Navy, MDA, and DARPA, and propulsion system developers, such as ATK, Aerojet, Pratt & Whitney, Rolls-Royce, and many others. Since the UCDS process is built from a general formulation, and can be used to analyze practically any combustion device, including rockets (liquid, solid, hybrid), turbojets (combustors, augmentors), ramjets, and scramjets.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
UCDS is a paradigm shifting development that provides an effective and reliable means to predict the dynamic characteristics of a flow field or propulsion system. This insight is critical to the development process, since it allows engineers to assess the physical implications of the oscillations and make any design changes needed to ensure success. Since UCDS is built from a general formulation, it can be used to predict the dynamic behavior of practically any combustion device, including rockets, turbojets, ramjets, and scramjets. The Nonlinear Data Analysis Tool (NDAT) being developed in this effort will find immediate application in the evaluation of engine test data for rockets, turbojets and scramjets, as well as laboratory experiments. By transforming the nonlinear pressure oscillation data into concise linear parameters, researchers and developers will have the means to directly relate the dynamic behavior to design and operational parameters. This clarity should greatly enhance the ability to mitigate oscillations encountered during testing and open the door to designs with increased performance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing
Knowledge Management
Atmospheric Propulsion
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine
Acoustic/Vibration
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Simulation & Modeling
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A2.02-9783
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Eulerian Transported PDF Framework for Scramjet Flowpath Analysis

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805-1926
(256) 726-4800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ranjan Metha
proposals-contracts@cfdrc.com
215 Wynn Drive
Huntsville,  AL 35805-1926
(256) 726-4964

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Scramjet engines promise to become a next-generation revolutionary technology for aerospace applications. Some of the significant challenges in rapid development of scramjets include complex flow physics; combustion; flow-combustion interactions; propulsion air-frame integration; coupled with difficulty in producing realistic experimental conditions. The role of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), therefore, is crucial in design and development of the scramjet engines. The overall innovation includes development of a comprehensive Eulerian transported PDF methods framework coupled with an efficient RANS/LES flow solvers for simulating high-speed turbulent reacting flows and an innovative chemistry acceleration module achieving up to two orders of magnitude reduction in computing times for the Eulerian TPDF framework. In Phase I feasibility of the proposed Eulerian transported PDF approaches for accurately capturing turbulence-chemistry interactions will be demonstrated and analyzed. In Phase II, we will perform additional developments in the chemistry acceleration module and the Eulerian TPDF framework, such that a comprehensive, turbulent-combustion modeling framework, for low and high-Mach number reacting flows will be available at the end of Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The software tool developed in this project will significantly improve the accuracy and reduce turn-around times for design and analysis cycles for scramjet applications to the Department of Defense programs. It will also be useful for simulating low-speed combustion devices such as gas turbine combustors and augmenters. The technology will facilitate significant advancement in use of CFD analysis in applications including propulsion devices, gas-turbine combustors and other combustion devices. The software will be beneficial to OEMs such as GE, Pratt & Whitney, Williams International, and Rolls Royce in designing various propulsion devices and gas turbine combustor components. It will be a valuable tool for all industries that require CFD simulation of reacting flows in a hardware design process. Modules developed in this project will also be of interest to commercial CFD OEMs such as ANSYS for integrating with their own simulation software.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The tools developed in this SBIR project will be directly useful to NASA's Hypersonics Program. The methods developed under this project will have wide ranging applications at NASA in addition to high-speed combustion devices such as ramjets and scramjets, including design of propulsion devices such as solid rocket motors, liquid rocket engines and gas turbine combustors – important in the design of the Space Launch System, In-space propulsion systems, numerous planetary spacecraft missions, etc. The Eulerian transported PDF methods are an area of active research and have excellent promise to provide accurate and computationally tractable models for complex turbulence-chemistry interactions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Atmospheric Propulsion
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A2.03-9148
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aero-Acoustics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Deployable Engine Air-Brake for Drag Management Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ATA Engineering, Inc.
11995 El Camino Real
San Diego, CA 92130-2566
(858) 480-2000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Parthiv Shah
parthiv.shah@ata-e.com
11995 El Camino Real, Suite 200
San Diego,  CA 92130-2566
(858) 480-2101

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ATA Engineering, Inc., proposes an SBIR program to demonstrate an innovative engine air-brake (EAB) technology that uses a deployable swirl vane mechanism to switch the operation of a turbofan engine nozzle from a conventional to a "drag management" mode. Such "drag on demand" enables operational benefits such as slower, steeper, and/or aeroacoustically cleaner flight on approach, addressing NASA's need for active and passive control of aeroacoustic noise sources for conventional and advanced aircraft configurations. The proposing team recently completed a Phase I/II SBIR program on the development of an EAB for quiet drag applications. This program began with design of aerodynamic concepts and progressed to fabrication and testing of several prototypes in NASA Glenn's Aero Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory. Results suggested that an appropriately designed EAB could enable a fixed-speed, steep approach trajectory from a baseline 3.2 to 4.4 degree glideslope for a 737-800-class aircraft, with 3.1 dB peak tone-corrected perceived noise (PNLT) reduction and 1.8 dB effective perceived noise level (EPNL) reduction. The previous effort culminated in a conceptual design of a bypass nozzle mechanism that stows in an aerodynamically "invisible" manner in the nozzle casing during conventional operation and introduces deployable vanes in a drag management maneuver. Current technology readiness level (TRL) is 3 to 4, and the proposed SBIR program aims to advance TRL to 5 to 6 by demonstrating a prototype that switches between stowed and deployed mode during operation. The technical objectives are to: (1) evaluate and select a candidate nozzle or engine as a demonstrator, (2) develop a preliminary aerodynamic and mechanical design of an integrated mechanism, and (3) define a validation plan that can be executed in Phase II. The final deliverable will be a written report to NASA presenting the findings and designs and defining the path forward for Phase II activities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Two complementary potential commercial markets exist for the proposed technology: (1) implementation in retrofit kits on older aircraft engines, and (2) implementation in future jet engines as an integral part of the design; i.e., modifying traditional engine exit guide vanes or bypass nozzles with a variable geometry mechanism that generates a swirling outflow in drag management mode. The first market has immediate potential (within 5 years), while the second market, although potentially much larger from a quantity standpoint, is a longer-term endeavor (likely 7 to 10 years to implementation). The retrofit market provides a simpler and faster opportunity to implement and demonstrate the technology before upselling it or its derivatives to the large engine Original Equipment Manufacturers. As part of this SBIR program, ATA will partner with small engine manufacturer Williams International to understand how the design may be incorporated into one or more of their engines. As the world leader in the development, manufacture, and support of small gas turbine engines, Williams International provides a more direct route to market for the technology than could be achieved with the large aircraft engine manufacturers where the financial and technical risks of new technologies grow exponentially. Demonstration on a real-world, small jet engine can provide a stepping stone to wider acceptance of the technology in the gas turbine engine community.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most immediate opportunity for this system is to assist NASA in the development of next generation quiet aircraft, including conventioanl tube and wing (current generation "N"+1), unconventional integrated airframe-propulsion system configurations (N+2), and advanced aircraft concepts (N+3). These aircraft are likely to have noise levels from the engine and airframe that are comparable. A deployable, quiet air-brake device will allow noise reduction by creating drag without the associated unsteady flow structures of devices such as flaps, slats, and undercarriage. In addition, these devices will enable steep approaches, thereby locating the noise source further from the affected communities. Finally, pairs of engine air-brakes operating in concert on multi-engine aircraft may be used for aircraft control and special maneuvering applications by performing, for example, an aircraft rudder function. An additional application for swirling exhaust flows is in the area of wake vortex avoidance and induced drag management. For example, deployable swirling outflow devices placed on wing tips could be used to counter- or co-swirl relative to the bound vortex that is shed by a finite wing, resulting in potential induced drag reduction or increase (possibly of value in a quiet drag sense). This could prove to have some applicability in designing more fuel-efficient and quiet aircraft in the future.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Deployment
Atmospheric Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A2.04-8418
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeroelasticity
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reduced Order Aeroservoelastic Models with Rigid Body Modes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Systems Technology, Inc.
13766 Hawthorne Boulevard
Hawthorne, CA 90250-7083
(310) 679-2281

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Peter Thompson
pthompson@systemstech.com
13766 Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne,  CA 90250-7083
(310) 679-2281

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Complex aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic phenomena can be modeled on complete aircraft configurations, generating models with millions of degrees of freedom. Reduced order models are used for systems and control analysis. The ability to do so on freely supported vehicles has been demonstrated including estimates of the rigid body dynamics. Improvements to this process are proposed to more closely match known frequency responses in the rigid body range, and to generate the reduced order models in a form that can be used for linear parameter varying control design methods. A set of modest order aircraft models will be collected and created using flexible structures and doublet lattice aerodynamics. These models will be used develop and demonstrated the improved model order reduction methodology, and then a plan will be developed to generalize this process for very high fidelity models. The improvements will increase the technical readiness of new model order reduction methods used to create aeroelastic models that include rigid body dynamics. The ability to create these models in the form used by linear parameter varying control methods will make it possible to develop flight control systems with provable robustness across the entire flight envelope.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This capability will be of use to DOD aeronautical research and flight test centers and in the commercial and military aircraft industries where it will meet a market demand for increased safety, reduced risk, improved performance, and reduced cost. The greatest market potential will be to support the development of new aircraft and enhancements to existing designs (e.g., new store configurations, flight control system upgrades, etc.) including support for flight testing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Reduced Order Aeroservoelastic Models with Rigid Body Modes technology supports the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program and the Aeroelasticity Topic. More specifically the proposed work addresses development of efficient methods to generate mathematical models of flight vehicles for performing vibration, aeroelastic, and aeroservoelastic research. This includes design methodologies that encompass CFD steady and unsteady aerodynamics, flexible structures, and active control systems

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Actuators & Motors
Structures
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A2.04-9682
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeroelasticity
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nonlinear AeroServoElastic Reduced Order Model for Active Structural Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805-1926
(256) 726-4800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yi Wang
proposals-contracts@cfdrc.com
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville,  AL 35805-1926
(256) 327-0678

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The overall goal of the proposed effort is to develop and demonstrate rigorous model order reduction (MOR) technologies to automatically generate fully coupled, nonlinear, parameterized aeroservoelastic reduced-order models (ROMs) for smart material-based active structural control. The Phase I effort will focus on developing constituent nonlinear ROMs for aerodynamics, structural dynamics, and electromechanics of the smart materials, as well as an integration scheme for coupled aerodynamic, structural, and electromechanical analysis. A modular software framework enabling automated data exchange, ROM generation and computation, as well as verification will also be constructed. The feasibility of the proposed technologies will be demonstrated for several aeroservoelasticity test problems of NASA interest (including NASA's Aerostructures Test Wing.) The Phase II effort will focus on: (1) algorithm improvement in terms of execution efficiency, model parameterization, and automated parameter selection; and (2) software environment enhancement (such as developing a direct interface to NASA-relevant simulation tools, fully automated ROM process including data exchange, ROM generation and computation, and verification) and extensive technology demonstration in complex configurations and temporally varying operations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The non-NASA markets and customers of the proposed software are enormous and include various aerospace, aircraft, and watercraft engineering sectors (involving fluid-structure-control interaction). Potential end-users and customers include US Air Force, Missile Defense Agency (MDA), US Navy, aircraft, and automobile industry, etc. In addition, the proposed technology will also find broad markets in other industries such as combustion, power (propulsion), chemical processing, and micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). The proposed research would directly contribute to these vital areas by providing a powerful tool to generate fast ROMs, which can be extensively used to (1) analyze the operating processes for fault diagnostics and optimized design (e.g., structure and fatigue analysis, real-time flow control and optimization, hardware-in-loop simulation); and (2) develop advanced strategies for on-line process monitoring and control.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology will provide a fast and accurate analysis tool for aeroservoelastic simulations of aerospace vehicles and aircrafts. Direct NASA applications of the technology include: (1) rapid and computationally affordable analysis for optimal aerodynamic and structural design of aerospace vehicles; (2) development of advanced, reliable aeroservoelastic control strategies (such as controlled maneuver, and aeroelastic instability control, e.g., buffet, flutter, buzz, and control reversal); and (3) arrangement of test procedures for rational use of instruments and facilities. The success in the proposed research will markedly reduce the development cycles of aerospace vehicles and aircrafts at reduced costs. NASA programs like aerostructures test wing, active aeroelastic wing and active twist rotors will also stand to benefit from the technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Development Environments
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A2.05-8412
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Mesh Adaptation and Shape Optimization on Unstructured Meshes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CRM Solutions, Inc.
4092 Memorial Parkway Southwest, Suite 102
Huntsville, AL 35802-4365
(407) 786-7937

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Eppard
eppard@crmsolutionsinc.com
4092 Memorial PKWY SW, Suite 102
Huntsville,  AL 35802-4365
(256) 885-1587

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this SBIR CRM proposes to implement the entropy adjoint method for solution adaptive mesh refinement into the Loci/CHEM unstructured flow solver. The scheme will initially be developed and tested for ideal gases and will then be extended to encompass mixtures of thermally perfect/calorically imperfect gases. This approach will use the current remeshing algorithm in Loci/CHEM which utilizes nonstandard general polyhedral elements. The main objective is to provide a robust mesh adaptation scheme that will improve simulation accuracy while reducing overall computational costs. The principal incentive to NASA is to make large-scale, complex flow simulations more accurate and affordable so that their benefits can be fully realized within the design cycle. During Phase I we will perform mesh adaptations for a number of geometries and flow conditions of interest to NASA. We will use these simulations to evaluate the robustness and effectiveness of the new adaptation scheme to improve accuracy, and reduce overall computational cost. During Phase II we will implement a full adjoint scheme into Loci/CHEM. This is a natural extension of Phase I, and will not only allow for complete output-based mesh refinement capability, but will also allow Loci/CHEM to be used for uncertainty estimation and as a shape/geometry optimization tool. The combination of solution adaptive mesh refinement, shape optimization, and uncertainty estimation will provide NASA with a high-confidence, predictive tool for development and assessment of innovative aerodynamic concepts over a wide range of flight regimes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Department of Defense: The Adjoint methodology will aid all Department of Defense (DoD) Project offices that utilize Computational Fluid Dynamics in their design process. Aerodynamic modeling accuracy will be significantly improved for both offensive and defensive missiles, from small man-portable weapons to intercontinental ballistic missile configurations. Additional agencies that will benefit from this technology include (1) Missile Defense Agency for target modeling, (2 Missile and Space Intelligence Center for foreign missile exploitation, and (3) UAV Project Office for low speed modeling of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. This novel grid adaptation scheme integrated into the Loci/CHEM solver will result in a CFD analysis tool superior to all other solvers currently utilized by these agencies. Commercial Companies: Virtually every engineering company that utilizes CFD for fluid dynamics analysis will be interested in the developed technology. The major target markets include companies that support aerospace, biomedical, industrial, and automotive. The international markets also represent a significant opportunity and will be a focus as the technology becomes productized.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications for the Loci/CHEM CFD solver that utilizes the proposed Adjoint methodology span all centers and all programs that incorporate Computational Fluid Dynamics in the design process for space and land vehicles. The highly efficient and accurate solver requires minimal additional computational expense and allows for higher fidelity aerodynamic (force and moment) internal and external predictions for launch vehicles through all ranges of the flight trajectory. The increased accuracy translates to a significant reduction in expensive wind tunnel testing that has traditionally been used for very complex flow scenarios. Examples include plume modeling for jet interaction problems, base heating, plume proximity effects, and modeling of tumble, deceleration, ullage and roll control motors. Another major advantage that this technology offers to NASA is the use of shape optimization features to determine aerodynamic protuberances, nose cones, frustums, control fins, and even optimize nozzle shapes for maximum thrust. Specific applications include NASA's Aircraft Technology Program, Airspace Systems Program, and Subsonic Fixed Wing (SWF) project.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A2.05-9240
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Shock Wave Boundary Layer Interaction Control Using Pulsed DBD Plasma Actuators

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tech-X Corporation
5621 Arapahoe Avenue, Suite A
Boulder, CO 80303-1379
(303) 448-0727

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alexandre Likhanskii
likhansk@txcorp.com
5621 Arapahoe Ave
Boulder,  CO 80303-1379
(303) 996-7520

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Active flow control using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators is an attractive option for both reduction of complexity of aircraft systems required for off-cruise operation and increasing reliability of future hypersonic vehicles. However, development of DBD plasma actuators has been rather slow due to the complexity and lack of understanding of physical processes associated with DBD operation and its interaction with the external flow. In order to widen the capabilities of the DBD plasma actuators and make them applicable to a number of NASA missions, including Supersonic and Subsonic Projects, it is necessary to develop a predictive methodology to optimize DBD systems based on complex understanding of plasma-flow interaction. We propose to develop full plasma/CFD experimentally validated modeling capability for DBD plasma actuators for the problem of Shock Wave Boundary Layer Interaction (SWBLI) control. During Phase I of the project we will develop a prototype simulation tool for SWBLI control system using DBD plasma actuators, demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed control approach both using numerical simulation and wind tunnel experiments at Princeton University and validate developed prototype against experimental and available numerical data.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Active flow control using DBD plasma actuators is of interest to a number of government agencies, private industry and universities. Proposed concept and associated simulation tool will be beneficial for hypersonic and subsonic programs, involving plasma-based control concepts. These programs include, but are not limited to, development of hypersonic aircrafts, such as DARPA FALCON program and Boeing X-51, active flow separation control at UAVs and commercial airplanes during take-off, landing or maneuvering, improvement of engine performance. Besides the primary application for a SWBLI control, proposed tool can be used for a wide range of plasma aerodynamics applications, such as plasma-assisted combustion, de-icing of aircraft wings and efficient operation of windmills at high angles of attack.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA application of the proposed SWBLI control simulation tool is active flow control for inlet of scramjet engine to ensure efficient combustion and increase reliability of the hypersonic vehicles. In addition, NASA scientists will get predictable plasma-based active flow separation control simulation tool for a number of NASA projects, such as Subsonic Fixed Wing Project, Subsonic Rotary Wing Project. Finally, the proposed simulation tool, coupled with existing NASA high-fidelity CFD tools, will ensure solution of multi-physics problems, such as full simulations of plasma-assisted combustion for in-flight conditions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Atmospheric Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A2.06-8030
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerothermodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Precision Surface Temperature Mapping for Heat Shield Testing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bodkin Design & Engineering
77 Oak Street, Suite 201
Newton, MA 02464-1460
(617) 795-1968

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Daly
jdaly@bodkindesign.com
77 Oak St., Suite 201
Newton,  MA 02464-1460
(617) 795-1968

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Development of hypersonic flight vehicles for airbreathing access to space and for planetary entry poses several design challenges. One of the primary obstacles is the large uncertainty in predictive capability of models of the aerothermal environment to which these vehicles are subjected. A high priority need for the ground test facilities is instruments which enable remote thermal imaging of entry vehicles with high temperature and spatial resolution, and lower uncertainty than the state-of-the art. Bodkin Design & Engineering (BDE), with our partners Spectral Sciences, Inc (SSI) and Space Computer Corporation (SCC), has demonstrated a Precision Radiometric Surface Temperature (PRST) sensor to perform stand-off measurements of radiatively heated surfaces. We propose to adapt this system to the needs of ground test facilities for testing of hypersonic re-entry vehicles. The sensor will be capable of stand-off imaging of heated surfaces at ranges from 1 to 100+ meters, measuring surface temperatures from 300-4000K, and providing surface temperature maps with spatial resolution of at least 120x120 pixels. Further, the system will operate as a fast snapshot imager, capable of recording surface temperature data at up to 120 frames per second.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This sensor may be useful to researchers measuring laser damage to materials, and to those analyzing the physics of mechanically induced plastic flow and shear zone evolution.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications include any that require non-contact measurement of surface temperatures, and in particular, where the optical properties (emissivity) of the surface may not be known. Examples may include monitoring surfaces under laser illumination, measuring metal parts during machining (lathe, mill), measuring the temperature of airfoil leading edges.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Aerobraking/Aerocapture
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Characterization
Thermal Imaging (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Lasers (Cutting & Welding)
Lasers (Machining/Materials Processing)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Radiometric
Thermal
Infrared
Multispectral/Hyperspectral
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Active Systems
Passive Systems
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A2.06-9878
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerothermodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electron Kinetics in Hypersonic Plasmas

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805-1926
(256) 726-4800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vladimir Kolobov
proposals-contracts@cfdrc.com
215 Wynn Drive SW, 5th Floor
Huntsville,  AL 35016-1944
(256) 726-4847

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of this SBIR project is to advance the state-of-the-art in computations of hypersonic plasmas by adding high-fidelity kinetic models for electrons. Electron kinetics affects plasma-chemical reactions and nonequilibrium radiation, which are important for designing hypersonic vehicles. We will develop adaptive multi-scale models for electrons applicable for hypersonic flows in rarefied and continuum regimes using a hierarchy of kinetic and fluid solvers. During Phase 1, a framework for simulation electron kinetics will be added to our existing Unified Flow Solver. Initial testing will be performed to illustrate the feasibility of adaptive multi-scale simulations of electrons using three options: a) fluid model for high plasma densities, b) local Fokker-Planck solver for the Electron Energy Distribution Function, and c) spatially inhomogeneous (nonlocal) Fokker-Planck solver for rarefied flow regimes. In Phase 2, we plan to fully develop and validate the new models versus laboratory experiments. Increased predictive capabilities will be illustrated for the shock layer radiation in the poorly understood vacuum ultraviolet part of the spectrum. We will demonstrate the new tool for hypersonic vehicles with realistic 3D geometries. The effects of electric fields generated by the plasma and externally applied electric and magnetic fields will be taken into account to study discharges and MHD interactions. We will simulate the extreme entry environment at Earth and Mars entry.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Technology applications beyond NASA include Ballistic Missile Defense and future hypersonic vehicles performing exo-atmospheric missile intercepts, nozzle expansion and thruster plume interaction. The new model will improve predictive capabilities for calculating the radiation signature of hypersonic plasmas. The tool will have an appeal to rocket engine manufacturers (e.g., ATK, Pratt & Whitney, and Aerojet) and to universities studying arc-jets, plasmatrons and other high enthalpy flow systems. The developed computational tool will be utilized for evaluation of plasma phenomena on advanced hypersonic vehicles such as the X-51 waverider, missile technologies such as the Next Generation Aegis Missile. Typical applications include communication blackout for hypersonic flights, plasma flow control for hypersonic vehicles, electric propulsion, and plasma plumes expanding through nozzles, and shock wave propagation through plasmas. The methodology and software will be extendable for analysis of high-speed plasma jets for material processing and biomedical applications, plasma assisted ignition and combustion. Potential users include Air Force, DARPA, and commercial companies utilizing plasma technologies for aerospace, propulsion, power, material processing, and other applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project will increase predictive capability of computational tools for simulations of the aerothermal environment around space vehicles at extreme Mach numbers. The new capabilities will find direct and immediate application in a multitude of NASA technology development programs related to access to space and planetary entry. Detailed treatment of electrons will reduce uncertainties and improve accuracy of collision-radiative models to predict radiation spectra and plasma signature. The accurate modeling of aerothermal environments is essential for predicting heat load and design of thermal protection systems (TPS) for space vehicles such as NASA's Orion spacecraft and the proposed Space Launch System. The modified UFS code will be used as a design tool for development of new generation vehicles for space exploration and components of future hypersonic spacecrafts. The new tool will help analyzing communication blackout problems and hypersonic flow control by electromagnetic fields. The methodology will also be useful for implementation in other legacy codes used at NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerobraking/Aerocapture
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A2.07-9795
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight and Propulsion Control and Dynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Predictive Gust Load Alleviation Control Using Leading Edge Stagnation Point Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ZONA Technology, Inc.
9489 East Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale, AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jiang Wang
jwang@zonatech.com
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale,  AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ZONA Technology, Inc. proposes an R&D effort to develop a Gust Load Alleviation (GLA) control system using a novel Leading Edge Stagnation Point (LESP) sensor that has the nearly instantaneous predictive capability. The real-time gust information from the sensor will enhance the performance of the proposed GLA control system. The GLA control method we will adopt is the Generalized Predictive Control (GPC), which consists of identification of the flexible system perturbed by gusts and minimization of the prediction response error by optimal control design. The GPC scheme has a "feedback and feedforward" topology and solves Multi-Input Multi-Output control problems. The measurements of gusts via the LESP sensor, which reduces the inherent delay associated with conventional sensing of the structural responses, can be incorporated into the controller in the feedforward path, hence the GLA performance is improved. ZONA will further assess the effectiveness of the control system on a high fidelity model of a Body Freedom Flutter vehicle, which is a flexible flying wing configuration vehicle designed and flight tested by Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential non-NASA customers for this tool include the R&D arms of USAF, Navy, Army, and major aircraft manufactures. It can be readily adapted by a wide class of aerospace vehicles ranging from current to next-generation designs such as: (a) USAF's F-22 and F-35 aircrafts at Edwards AFB, (b) UASF's Hilda and/or SensorCraft aircrafts, (c) USAF's next generation stealth and morphing UAV/UCAV, (d) DARPA's new Switchblade Flying Wing Program, and for (e) Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) with enhanced control/maneuver capability. ZONA Technology's reputation and track record in supporting the aerospace industry and government with ZONA codes can assure the success of the commercialization plan.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Comprehensive generalized predictive controller for alleviating gust load can be used as part of a new generation Flight Control System, within the effort of Fundamental Aeronautics Research program. The enhanced aviation safety can further contribute to various research projects conducted in NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Contact/Mechanical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A2.08-9794
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aircraft Systems Analysis, Design and Optimization
PROPOSAL TITLE: ModelCenter-Integrated Reduced Order Multi-fidelity Optimization Scheme for NASA MDAO Framework

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ZONA Technology, Inc.
9489 East Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale, AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Darius Sarhaddi
darius@zonatech.com
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale,  AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this effort, ZONA Technology, Inc. aims at developing an innovative multi-fidelity and multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) sub-framework that can (i) effectively reduce the number of design variables without screening-out any of the variables, (ii) accelerate the convergence through a novel design space evolution technique, and (iii) enable rapid determination of design sensitivities (gradients) for all the levels of fidelity during aerodynamic analyses. The innovative application of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition for design variable reduction, when coupled with the fitness-driven Design Space Evolution scheme is an ideal optimization technique for the conceptual and preliminary design stages, wherein, a large number of configurations are rapidly sampled. To facilitate process automation and to achieve time-saving, the finite element mesh morphing will be incorporated through the use of ZMORPH, ZONA's Boundary Element Method based mesh-morphing code. For an effective system-level data-flow between various disciplines, the proposed optimization sub-framework will be integrated using Phoenix Integration Inc.'s ModelCenter software. In collaboration with Phoenix Integration Inc., ZONA team will develop the functional plug-ins for the ZONA codes involved in the sub-framework. Once developed, such a framework will be demonstrated for its robustness on a non-conventional Supersonic Tailless Air Vehicle (STAV) platform. The current NASA MDO framework, as well as other industry-standard MDO frameworks will benefit significantly from the inclusion of ZONA's modular MDO sub-framework for conceptual design optimization.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Because of the automated mesh generation +morphing capability, unified shape design variable definition for both structural and aerodynamic models, accelerated convergence through order reduction and design space evolution technique, and the streamlined ModelCenter-integrated process for the variable-fidelity structural, aerodynamic and aeroelastic solution generations, ZONA has discovered that the proposed MDAO suite has a unique commercial competitive edge in the air vehicle MDAO software market. Once Zona's highly modular MDAO suite is integrated into an existing MDAO system, it can be adopted by the conceptual design and configuration development departments of airplane manufacturers nationwide and worldwide to develop a wide class of air vehicles such as UAVs/UCAVs, supersonic business jets and transports, advanced transonic transports, fighter aircraft, hypersonic missiles, and winged projectiles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's current research efforts in aircraft design focus on noise/boom reduction and improvements in fuel efficiency of the next generation sub/supersonic commercial aircraft. These design drivers call for investigation of unconventional and revolutionary design concepts for which the empirical structural and aerodynamic equations based on historical database are not valid. ZONA's innovative modular MDO sub-framework, once incorporated in the NASA MDAO systems, can provide variable-fidelity and physics-based structural, aerodynamic, and aeroelastic solutions, along with the solutions for other disciplines computed by the existing analysis codes available in the NASA MDAO systems, for solving a complete configuration design and optimization problem. With acceleration of convergence achieved through the POD-based order reduction and design space evolution technique, accurate shape sensitivity information provided by incorporation of ZEUS-DO and ZAERO-DO, automated rapid mesh-morphing by ZMORPH, and system-level integration using ModelCenter, Phase I+II effort of this project will largely expand NASA's MDAO capability and enable the design of unconventional and revolutionary air vehicles in a computationally efficient and cost effective manner.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A2.09-8194
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Braided Composite Technologies for Rotorcraft Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
A&P TECHNOLOGY
4595 East Tech Drive
Cincinnati, OH 45245-1055
(513) 688-3200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nathan Jessie
njessie@braider.com
4595 East Tech Drive
Cincinnati,  OH 45245-1055
(513) 688-3218

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed program will focus on the development of a new generation of advanced technology for rotorcraft transmission systems. This program will evaluate the viability of integrating gears with composite shafts. The aim of this work is to reduce overall weight and improve vibration characteristics. Two concepts have been identified and will be further researched. The first design includes co-molding a bearing race to a carbon fiber reinforced composite shaft. The second design integrates the composite shaft and metallic gear in a way that allows shaft misalignment in the power transmission system. These attachments will simplify gear attachment and have the potential to reduce weight by integrating parts without the need for secondary fasteners. This development work will allow for widespread application in both military and civil rotorcraft systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful results of this program will lead to widespread application in all military and civilian rotorcraft transmission systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful results of this program will lead to widespread application in all military and civilian rotorcraft transmission systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A2.09-8454
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fast Responding Pressure-Sensitive Paint for Large-Scale Wind Tunnel Testing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc.
2766 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440-3638
(937) 429-4980

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jim Crafton
jwcrafton@innssi.com
2766 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton,  OH 45440-3638
(937) 429-4980

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed work focuses on implementing fast-response pressure-sensitive paint for measurements of unsteady pressure in rotorcraft applications. Significant rotorcraft problems such as dynamic stall, rotor blade loads in forward flight, and blade-vortex interaction all have significant unsteady pressure oscillations that must be resolved in order to understand the underlying physics. Installation of pressure transducers is difficult and expensive on rotorcraft models, and the resulting data has limited spatial resolution. Application of a fast-responding pressure-sensitive paint should provide unsteady surface pressure distributed over the blade surface. Recently, fast PSP measurements have been demonstrated at NASA Langley on a 2-meter rotor model in hover and in forward flight by the ISSI/OSU team. This system interrogated the instantaneous pressure on the rotating blade at two azimuthal positions, an advancing and a retreating blade. We propose expanding this system for production testing in a larger wind tunnel, such as the Ames 80X120. This will be accomplished by adding remote control of the system interrogation region using remote focus/zoom/aperture lenses and pan/tilt stages combined with Ethernet hardware to control the systems remotely. The hardware will be packaged in modules to facilitate quick installation and removal. Remote control of the system will improve productivity during testing. Finally, the accuracy and resolution of the system will be characterized with bench top experiments that operate at distances similar to those encountered in the 80X120 and on rotating devices. These experiments include unsteady pressures in acoustic boxes and jets impinging on rotating disks.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is considerable interest in measurements of unsteady pressure for evaluation of computational models and study of flow physics on hypersonic inlets, compressors, aeroelasticity, and rotorcraft aerodynamics. This system will provide advancement of the state-of-the-art in this field as the proposed research will develop a system for the measurement of continuous distributions unsteady pressure that requires no physical modifications to the model and produces data with high spatial resolution. ISSI has sold several production PSP systems world-wide. There is significant interest among these customers in fast responding PSP. ISSI is currently involved in discussions with several commercial aircraft manufactures regarding the potential of a fast responding PSP system for flight testing. Development of this system for wind tunnel testing is seen as a first step in this process.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is considerable interest in measurements of unsteady pressure for evaluation of computational models and study of flow physics on hypersonic inlets, compressors, aeroelasticity, and rotorcraft aerodynamics. This system will provide advancement of the state-of-the-art in this field as the proposed research will develop a system for the measurement of continuous distributions unsteady pressure that require no physical modifications to the model and produces data with high spatial resolution. This technology could be deployed to wind tunnels at Ames, Glenn, and Langley for testing on a variety of programs that have need of unsteady pressure measurements. Specific applications include Rotorcraft Aerodynamics, Open Rotor, and Supersonic Inlets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A2.09-8607
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Aero-Acoustic Tool for Terminal Area Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sukra Helitek Inc.
3146 Greenwood Road
Ames, IA 50014-4504
(515) 292-9646

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luke Novak
nappi@sukra-helitek.com
3146 Greenwood Rd.
Ames,  IA 50014-4504
(515) 292-9646

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this highly interconnected world, transportation systems must feature increased flexibility and shorter door-to-door trip times to be successful. Shorter door-to-door trip times require an increased usage of rotary wing and runway independent V/STOL technology. One of the limiting factors to the increased adoption of this technology for providing feeder service to major hubs is the limited understanding of high-volume terminal area operations. Several important issues are associated with rotary wing and runway independent V/STOL aircraft, including severe aerodynamic interactions during take-off, transition and landing. There is also the possibility that the aero-acoustic environment generated in the terminal area may cause damage to buildings, unsafe working conditions for ground personnel, or unacceptable noise levels to surrounding communities. The success of commercial V/STOL transportation is predicated on being able to establish technical feasibility, societal acceptance and economic viability. The proposed aero-acoustic tool for terminal area operations offers a simulation capability to design engineers to make informed decisions based on technical (operations and handling near a terminal), societal (acoustic footprint) and economic considerations (performance) that includes the interactional aerodynamics between the aircraft and its surroundings. The designers and operators of rotary wing and V/STOL aircrafts will use the tool to evaluate, enhance and implement more efficient and safe terminal area operation guidelines. Phase I will develop the proof-of-concept of the simulation tool and use a tilt-rotor and a candidate terminal under different wind conditions to demonstrate its usefulness. In Phase II, the tool will be extended to maneuvering rotary wing and V/STOL aircrafts. In addition, it will be integrated with a graphical user interface (GUI) for ease of use.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The tools developed under this initiative can be used by the rotorcraft industry to help design future V/STOL and rotary wing civilian and military vehicles, and for developing operating guidelines. This utility will also be useful to the transportation industry to assist in determining safe operational limits. The designers will use the tool to evaluate, enhance, and improve V/STOL aircrafts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The simulation module developed under this initiative will find wide usage in the NASA subsonic rotary wing and runway independent technology programs. This proposal offers a simulation tool that will lay the foundation for maneuvering aero-acoustic and interactional aerodynamic V/STOL aircraft simulations during operations near a terminal, leading to more efficient and safe terminal area operation guidelines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A2.09-9092
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Large Civil Tiltrotor Wake Hazard Assessment Tool

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618-2302
(609) 538-0444

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Wachspress
dan@continuum-dynamics.com
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing,  NJ 08618-2302
(609) 538-0444

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Both NASA and the FAA have identified large civil tiltrotors (LCTRs) as the most promising method for meeting FAA goals for extending future airport capacity, flexibility, efficiency and safety. This has led to important research at NASA exploring flight dynamics and handling qualities associated with these aircraft in terminal area operations. A critical gap in current research tools is a flight simulation capability to properly evaluate and minimize wake hazards associated with operating large, tiltrotors in the terminal area. These wake hazards will impact flight safety of both the large tiltrotors and any rotary wing or fixed wing aircraft operating in their vicinity. A research effort is proposed to develop and deliver a high-fidelity, physics-based model of these wake hazards within flight simulation evaluation software. Phase I will see the development and validation of prototype software including a new set of metrics for rating handling qualities of comparative LCTR configurations when operating in the wakes of nearby aircraft. Phase II will see the development and delivery of a fully-functional desktop analysis and plug-in module that will provide a capability to feel multiple aircraft wake interactions when flying the LCTR and other aircraft within NASA's Vertical Motion Simulator.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed tool will be of great use to the FAA and U.S. airports as well as NASA, as new air traffic patterns and operation procedures are evaluated in terms of safety and increased capacity upon the introduction of large civil tiltrotors into the National Airspace System (NAS). Coupling of a real-time version of the analysis into the Air Traffic Management (ATM) system could lead to improved predictions and display of wake hazard conditions. The tool would also be useful to aircraft manufacturers in assessing the wake hazard issues associated with future rotary-wing aircraft concepts. The tool would be helpful to contractors designing upgraded wake safety crew advisory systems. The research effort would also apply directly to U.S. Navy concerns over wake hazard issues related to V-22 aircraft formation flight and operations in the vicinity of personnel and other aircraft both near the ground and at sea.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed effort directly responds to NASA's SBIR solicitation goal of developing validated physics-based multidisciplinary computational tools applicable for the design, analysis and optimization of rotorcraft. The proposed technology also directly responds to NASA's Subsonic Rotary Wing Program objective to radically improve the capabilities and civilian benefits of rotary-wing vehicles. The research would directly support NASA's work evaluating and developing the LCTR concept for increasing airport capacity, as well as identifying appropriate air traffic patterns for simultaneous non-interfering operations of general combinations of fixed wing and rotary-wing aircraft. NASA could use the technology in the design and evaluation of new operational procedures, providing a means for assessing pilot workload during terminal area operations where wake interactions may occur. Finally, the ability to model multiple aircraft wake interactions will be installed into NASA's Vertical Motion Simulator providing an invaluable new capability for all future NASA research in that facility.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A2.09-9744
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Tunable Interior Rotorcraft Noise Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cornerstone Research Group, Inc.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440-3638
(937) 320-1877

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Hermiller
hermillerjm@crgrp.com
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton,  OH 45440-3638
(937) 320-1877

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CRG has recently developed a new class of shape memory polymers (SMP) that are electrically activated, as opposed to the more mature thermally activated SMPs. Electrically activated shape memory polymers (EASMP) open a new design space of unexplored functionality beyond what has been considered for thermally activated materials. This project will combine the advantages of EASMP with the design of state-of-the-art gearbox isolators and interior panels to provide the ability to tune these components for specific operational frequencies. With the use of EASMP integrated components, by semi-actively altering the interior panels or gearbox isolators' frequency response, it will be possible to better target and control particularly irritating tones related to the aircraft's flight mode. CRG proposes to advance EASMP maturity which is applicable across many other application areas and has the benefit of alternative stimuli boasting ultra-low power requirements and more potential for faster switching times. This material will be refined and further developed to meet the operational performance requirements for the rotorcraft isolator application.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project's technologies developed for NASA systems would directly apply to systems operated by other government and commercial enterprises. Government systems that would derive the same benefits would include but not be limited to fixed and rotary wing aircraft, atmospheric reentry vehicles, jet engine components, propulsion systems, and other future aircraft applications that will require adaptive structures, noise suppression, or active vibration damping technology operated by the Department of Defense. This technology's attributes for fixed and rotary wing aircraft should also yield a high potential for private sector commercialization for variable shape components for aircraft structures by Boeing, Lockheed Martin, and GE Aviation, Gulfstream, Bombardier, Cessna, and Dassault.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Supporting NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate, this project's technologies directly address requirements for a rapid-response, structural material system capable of quickly changing state for shape change, vibration control, or acoustic attenuation. CRG's electrically activated, variable stiffness composites present the opportunity to achieve all of these functions with a low-power solution to minimize the impact to the overall system and maximizing the overall performance gains. CRG's electrically activated, variable stiffness composites may have broad applicability for NASA in both aircraft and spacecraft applications where aerodynamics, flight control, vibrations, and noise are of concern.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Composites
Organics/Biomaterials/Hybrids
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Actuators & Motors
Deployment
Acoustic/Vibration


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A2.09-9874
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Adaptive Rotorcraft Condition and Usage Tracking System (ARCUTS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
International Electronic Machines Corporation (IEM)
850 River Street
Troy, NY 12180-1239
(518) 268-1636

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bruce McKenney
bmckenney@iem.net
850 River Street
Troy,  NY 12180-1239
(518) 268-1636

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
International Electronic Machines (IEM), a leader in the development of innovative sensor solutions for transportation systems, will develop the Adaptive Rotorcraft Condition and Usage Tracking System (ARCUTS), building upon and integrating wireless instrumentation systems developed for the U.S. Navy, CBM systems developed for the U.S. Army, and condition and diagnostic sensing systems developed for other Federal, state, and commercial purposes. ARCUTS will combine wireless technologies with specific sensing capabilities which may be targeted towards any aspect of the drive or engine systems. For Phase I, IEM will focus on a unique and innovative wireless torque monitoring approach for drive shafts which combines capabilities of two of IEM¿s patented and patent-pending inventions into a single powerful system for measuring and tracking torque at high sample rates (to detect even short transient strains) and high accuracy (to less than 1%) to permit accurate and reliable CBM of shafts and immediately dependent components. Torque measurement is proposed because accurate, high-speed torque measurement has strong implications not only for CBM applications but also for proper control and power usage applications on rotorcraft and in other settings as well. IEM will also show how ARCUTS provides its adaptability by demonstrating that the same core technology can be used to track the condition of other components of the drive train and engine. IEM will be supported in this work by the Boeing Corporation, premier designers and manufacturers of military and civilian rotorcraft as well as fixed-wing aircraft and one of NASA¿s partners in the development of the LCTR-2.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ARCUTS specific technology applies to any rotorcraft with primary or secondary shafts with section lengths over one foot or so. As such, multiple applications will be found in military rotorcraft (V-22, CH-47, CH-53 series, and others) and in civilian rotorcraft as well. The core wireless sensor technology can be applied to many other sensors and sensor packages, such as temperature, pressure, and strain sensors which are very applicable to PHM/CBM maintenance for fixed wing aircraft, rotorcraft, and even other transportation systems. IEM has multiple contacts and business connections in the fixed-wing aircraft, rotorcraft, railroad, and commercial vehicle industries and would leverage these to bring the technology developed under ARCUTS to market.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The initial target application for ARCUTS will be for use in NASA development and testing of rotorcraft, including the Large Civil Tiltrotor-2. The LCTR-2, like other tiltrotors such as the V-22, relies on torque transfer through shafts that are not only immediately attached to an individual engine but also stretch across the entire aircraft. It is vital that this capability remain intact in the event of a single engine failure, since such a connection provides the only means for the aircraft to continue flying with one functioning engine. The core smart adaptable wireless sensor (SAWS) technology will be applicable to many other NASA test and monitoring requirements besides torque monitoring.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A2.10-8337
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Extension of the Eddy Dissipation Concept for Improved Low-Cost Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction Modeling

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Technology Applications Co.
P.O. Box 6971
Chesterfield, MO 63006-6971
(314) 373-3311

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris Nelson
ccnelson@ITACLLC.com
6712 183rd St. SW
Lynnwood,  WA 98037-4255
(425) 778-7853

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The one CFD modeling area that has remained the most challenging, yet most critical to the success of integrated propulsion system simulations, is turbulence modeling. There is a need to develop mid-level CFD models for the interaction of turbulence and chemical reactions that give superior results to the simple models (e.g., Magnussen's Eddy Dissipation Concept), but which do not require the large computational expense of the very complex models (e.g., PDF evolution methods or the Linear Eddy Method). This SBIR program proposes to develop this capability by extending the Eddy Dissipation Concept of Magnussen (EDC) to allow for improved modeling of reacting flows—especially diffusion flames where the flow contains significant regions of mixing prior to combustion. In Phase I, the proposed approach will be demonstrated using a Magnussen model with a global one-step reaction mechanism. The effect of the modified model on the predicted combustion relative to the original Magnussen EDC will be demonstrated on a test case.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed extended-EDC model can be used for gas turbine, process furnace, and IC engine applications. The model can be used to improve and optimize the design of gas turbine combustors with reduced emissions. It can be used to improve the capabilities of CFD software in predicting NOx formation in gas, oil and coal flames.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed tool can be implemented into production CFD codes such as Wind-US, Fluent, OpenFOAM, Vulcan, etc., which are used widely by a large population for various applications. Today, these CFD software are heavily relied upon for the design and analysis of systems such as combustion engines, jet engines, augmenters, gas turbines, scramjets, reactors, power plants and many others. The proposed capability (extended EDC model) will be applicable to majority of cases where the classic EDC model is presently used in modeling combustion systems. The advantage of achieving higher computational efficiency with detailed chemistry capabilities will enhance the use of such CFD codes for combustion related problems. The proposed extended-EDC model will improve the turbulence-chemistry modeling capabilities of CFD software that NASA is using for the design, analysis, and optimization of advanced propulsion-airframe integrated systems for future subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic applications. Propulsion system integration challenges are encountered across all of the speed regimes from subsonic "N+3" vehicle concepts to supersonic "N+2" vehicle concepts.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Atmospheric Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A2.10-8521
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Skin Friction and Pressure Measurements in Supersonic Inlets

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc.
2766 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440-3638
(937) 429-4980

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jim Crafton
jwcrafton@innssi.com
2766 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton,  OH 45440-3638
(937) 429-4980

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Supersonic propulsion systems include internal ducts, and therefore, the flow often includes shock waves, shear layers, vortices, and separated flows. Passive flow control devices such as micro-vortex generators and micro-ramps have been proposed to improve vehicle performance. The ability to measure surface quantities such as skin friction and unsteady pressure on the inlet model would provide insight into the complex flow characteristics that govern inlet performance. Unfortunately, nonintrusive sensors require optical access that has been difficult to obtain. Optical sensors for measurements of pressure (Fast Pressure-Sensitive Paint) and skin friction (Surface Stress Sensitive Films) offer non-intrusive measurements on surfaces, exactly the capability that is needed. To date, the size of the hardware such as camera and illumination devices have precluded application of these technologies in regions like an internal duct. During the past several years, camera and LED technology has advanced resulting in small packages for both imaging and illumination. Combining this new hardware with state-of-the-art optical technology such as fast responding PSP and S3F will result in a pair of sensors that can be miniaturized and utilized for non-intrusive measurements in traditionally inaccessible regions of the model. These measurements include continuous distributions of skin friction and unsteady pressure.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Surface Stress Sensitive Films, is under investigation for a variety of applications in aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, and biomedical research. Traditional interest exists in skin friction for CFD validation and drag reduction on supersonic/hypersonic air vehicles and hydrodynamic drag reduction. A miniature point version of the sensor has been produced by ISSI that will sense 2-components of skin friction and provide real time feedback for closed loop flow control. This sensor is of interest for using in Navy applications, and may have applications in MAV's. Biomedical applications include ongoing research with the Cleveland Clinic for identification and correlation of shear on the foot of diabetics. Other biomedical applications include shear stress on surfaces of artificial implants such as stints, hearts, valves, and assist pumps. The S3F sensor has recently been used to detect shear forces on tires and a means of using the system for predictive maintenance of fleet vehicles is underway.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Surface Stress Sensitive Films are being investigation for a variety of applications in aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, and biomedical research. Skin friction is a quantity of interest in many aerodynamics applications such as validation of CFD, and investigation of supersonic/hypersonic inlets. Biomedical applications include ongoing research with the Cleveland Clinic for identification and correlation of shear on the foot of diabetics. The formation of bed sores is believed to be related to shear stress, and therefore this would be a similar application of the technology. Other biomedical applications include shear stress on surfaces of artificial implants such as stints, hearts, valves, and assist pumps. Finally, ISSI has recently begun investigating S3F as a tactile sensor for artificial limbs and robotic touch sensors. This technology may be of interests for unmanned planetary probes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Atmospheric Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A3.01-8042
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Risk-Hedged Approach to Traffic Flow Management under Atmospheric Uncertainties

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimal Synthesis, Inc.
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos, CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Prasenjit Sengupta
sengupta@optisyn.com
Optimal Synthesis Inc.
Los Altos,  CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Volcanic ash and other atmospheric hazards impact air transportation by introducing uncertainty in the National Airspace System (NAS) capacity. Deterministic traffic flow management (TFM) algorithms are often unable to perform efficiently in these conditions, motivating the development of probabilistic TFM algorithms. It has been shown that these algorithms result in a Stochastic Linear Program (SLP), whose structure is relatively simple due to elegant theory, but which can be hard to solve in realistic time frames due to computational complexity. This proposal has three objectives. The primary objective is to translate the volcanic ash phenomenon into airspace capacity uncertainty distributions. The second objective is to design probabilistic TFM algorithms using an SLP solver on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to tame the computational complexity of the problem. The third objective addresses the fact that current probabilistic TFM formulations leave the variance in the system unchanged. Consequently, the system may exhibit unintended variance, causing delays and congestion in the NAS. Variance in delays and the mean delay cannot be minimized together because the exact tradeoff is not known a priori. Concepts from Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) are introduced, that can formulate and solve a multi-objective optimization problem in the mean as well as variance of the system delay. Using MPT and SLP, risk-hedged strategies for aircraft scheduling are obtained to mitigate the effects of atmospheric hazards. In Phase I, volcanic ash models will be researched, and a framework for obtaining capacity uncertainty distributions due to volcanic activity will be developed. The SLP solver will be implemented on the GPU. Finally, a portfolio-theoretic approach to risk-hedged trajectories will be researched. Phase II work will extend results to a large scale NAS simulation, with more advanced volcanic ash and atmospheric disruption models.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Stochastic TFM formulation implemented on high- performance Graphics Processing Units can serve as an operational tool at FAA's Air Traffic Control System Command Center (ATCSCC) for managing air traffic in the NAS. Apart from air traffic management, stochastic programming finds wide applicability in various industries such as transportation finance and manufacturing. Stochastic Programming has been used for, 1) Solving supply chain network design with the uncertainties of processing/transportation costs, demands, supplies and capacities, 2) Cash management in automatic teller machines, 3) Restaurant revenue management, 4) Airline crew scheduling problem under uncertain schedule disruptions, and 5) Airline fleet composition problem. The generic stochastic programming solver developed under this R&D effort will be useful in solving large-scale stochastic programs in the above mentioned areas.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This R&D effort will develop a Stochastic Air Traffic Flow Management Rerouting Problem implementation on Graphics Processing Units. The primary application of this implementation will be for solving the nationwide TFM problem, while managing uncertainties associated with large-scale climate disruptions such as such as volcanic ash, other natural disaster phenomena and convective weather avoidance. The GPU implementation will exploit the Bender's decomposition for speeding up the solution. Bender's decomposition has been used by researchers to solve sequencing &scheduling problems in the terminal & transition airspaces, under NASA's Airspace Super Density Operations research focus area. The parallel Bender's decomposition implementation developed under this R&D effort can be used to speed up solutions to the terminal area sequencing and scheduling problems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A3.01-8393
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Safety Enhancement Technologies for Airport Ramp Area Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimal Synthesis, Inc.
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos, CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Veera Vaddi
vaddi@optisyn.com
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos,  CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has been involved in developing advanced automation systems for improving the efficiency of air-traffic operations, reducing controller workload and enhancing the safety in the national airspace system. The recent accident at John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York involving an A380 and CRJ700 highlights an important safety concern on airport surface where aircraft operate very closely. Even over the airport surface the ramp area is an area of significant safety concern. The Flight Safety Foundation estimates that 27,000 accidents occur on airport ramps worldwide each year, and 243,000 people are injured. The objective of the current research is to develop safety enhancement technologies specifically for the ramp area leveraging state of the art surveillance technologies, image processing algorithms, nonlinear state estimation algorithms, and computationally efficient collision detection algorithms. Optimal Synthesis Inc (OSI) has an extensive record in modeling and designing next generational airport surface operations. OSI's is also partnering with Prof. Jason Rife from Tufts University to seek his expertise in modeling surveillance systems. Phase I research will demonstrate collision detection using sample image processing algorithms and inter-aircraft separation computation algorithms. Phase II research will develop more sophisticated tools to specialize the technologies for specific airport geometries.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Ramp areas in US airports are typically controlled by airlines. Industry experts estimate the airlines' cost resulting from ramp area accidents at $4 billion to $5 billion internationally each year. The proposed safety enhancement technologies are therefore of particular interest to both airports and the airlines involved in control of ramp area operations. Safety monitoring tools developed under the current research can also be used during ramp area design phase to identify and mitigate potential hazard areas.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Image processing and collision detection algorithms developed under the current research are expected to contribute towards NASA's NextGen air traffic management research, especially to the Safe and Efficient Surface Operations (SESO) research focus area. In addition to the ramp area conflict detection application, the core image processing and collision detection algorithms are also expected to be applicable to other NASA research areas such as spacecraft formation flying and autonomous spacecraft rendezvous which is currently viewed as a very challenging research problem by NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Perception/Vision
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Process Monitoring & Control
Image Analysis
Image Processing
Transport/Traffic Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A3.01-8478
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: An ADS-B derived ATC linked ER System for NextGen Safety

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Munro and Associates
1749 Northwood
Troy, MI 48084-5524
(248) 362-5110

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Weiss
RWeiss@MunroAssoc.com
1749 Northwood
Troy,  MI 48084-5524
(386) 679-9817

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Munro offer an innovatiive, intelligent, fully integrated hardware and software cockpit system solution for handling many General Aviation (GA) and UAV emergencies so as to minimize NextGen ATM disruption while saving lives. This ADS-B-ER system will provide GA airplanes and UAVs automated -ER trajectories to the nearest suitable airport avoiding terrain/obstacles, hazardous weather and restricted airspace. The ADS-B-ER will also provide NextGen's ANSP "controllers" with the –ER trajectory via a 911 ADS-B datastream offering collaborative capability. In a GA or UAV emergency or impending emergency this ADS-B-ER datastream will serve as an interactive datalink between airplane and NextGen, providing the safest optimum trajectory option to the flight crew as well as to the FAA and DOD NextGen ANSP controllers for dealing with the emergency so that they are both dealing with the same information base. Within the last month a military UAV went "rogue" and penetrated the Washington ADIZ, pointing to the vital need for our innovative solution. Our demonstration system will be designed to be compatible with the advanced cockpit systems work underway in the NASA LaRC Cirrus airplane and will also serve its UAV testbed needs. It will be available for installation and integration with other systems in NASA's airplanes or UAV and simulator facilities. We will develop the R&D into a unified ADS-B system for commercial deployment in all types of GA airplanes and UAVs thus provide a more consistent safety response compared to today's ATC intense human only response thereby accelerating fleet deployment which is a major FAA concern today.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Many sources project a safe, reliable and affordable personal air travel need for the nation. However, as long as small airplanes travel remains beyond the reach of most of middle America this will not happen and hence the ADS-B-ER ~$2,500 cockpit system based on leveragingCOTS component design while existing ADS-B non-ER systems are over $5,000. The Munro's commercial goal is to custom design and sell affordable ADS-B-ER cockpit systems in the GA market - for 21st century new and retrofitted airplanes. A production factory will be set-up in partnership with MISATS members (Alternative Avionics) that will incorporate greater cost savings, quality, lower energy useage, reliability, and volume flexible manufacturing at the Pontiac, MI airport. MUNRO's team expects to be in position to take advantage of the design technology that will be created by this SBIR partnership. The time for this is now because MUNRO strongly feels that the FAA mandate that all airplanes must be equipped by 2020 creates market awareness and so will create a natural interest in our system that has a value added competitive edge over the companies currently making ADS-B systems at twice our projected price. There is no other market focused product development effort that has the potential to provide such an ADS-B-ER.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Munro Phase III goal for the SBIR, is to deliver the tested prototype ADS-B-ER hardware with –ER trajectory optimizing (Wx, terrain, traffic, airspace) software to NASA NASA Langley's Aviation Safety Program for its Cirrus airplane. The Phase I prototype system will be capable of interfacing to the Cirrus S-Tec autopilot GPSS system, to its auto-throttle systema and to its UAV testbed ADS-B system by design. It will also have software interface capability to the NASA ATOL simulator and its other NextGen R&D labs. Munro & MISATS also plan to progressively provide Phase I lab prototype and PhaseII prototype systems to NASA. The ADS-B-ER software package and serve NASA to evaluate the performance of their own NextGen optimum trajectory generator. NASA Aviation Safety program can use this software package, modify it as needed for use in their Cirrus SR-22 Research airplane for UAV and ADS-B testing. A detailed training manual and Webinar will be provided to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Network Integration
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Computer System Architectures
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A3.01-9069
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Derived Weather State Information via ADS-B

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Innovation Laboratory, Inc.
2360 Southwest Chelmsford Avenue
Portland, OR 97201-2265
(503) 242-1761

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jimmy Krozel
Jimmy.Krozel@gmail.com
2360 SW Chelmsford Ave
Portland,  OR 97201-2265
(503) 242-1761

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Innovation Laboratory, Inc., proposes to use Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B) information as the basis of atmospheric wave and turbulence identification. Working in conjunction with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), we research the feasibility of using the high rate ADS-B altitude information to detect the presence of mountain waves and Mountain Wave Turbulence (MWT) in the vicinity of steep terrain as well as atmospheric waves and turbulence from other sources that are of interest to aviation. The key element of ADS-B that enables the research is a 1 second update rate on ADS-B position reports, and aircraft position (and altitude) being reported based on Global Positioning System (GPS) accuracy. This frequency, as will be shown later, is much faster than today's standard of reporting meteorological data via the Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR) or Meteorological Data Collection and Reporting System (MDCRS), and this should be fast enough to estimate the location of mountain wave events and MWT. Although this is the most immediate application of the high-rate ADS-B data, ultimately this system may provide aircraft sensors in the sky for a wide variety of atmospheric state data without any additional sensors being built or mounted on aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS). Because ADS-B is mandated by 2020, the percentage of aircraft using ADS-B will grow each year, and this in turn will benefit all who use our innovation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Airline Operational Control (AOC) and military users benefit from this technology. Airlines may use the data in flight planning or for warning pilots of safety hazards. Unmanned air vehicles of the military can act as sensor in our concept or consumers of the information we report on weather state.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed product offers a R&D capability that enables NASA researchers studying Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concepts to evaluate the benefits of using ADS-B as a sensor of weather information. Fundamentally, this work will supply extra information about turbulence in the atmosphere that is used in the NextGen 4D Weather Data Cube, and the Single Authoritative Source (SAS) for aviation weather information. The NASA Airspace Systems Program and Aviation Safety Program require such information for optimizing NAS system performance and safety.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Analytical Methods
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A3.01-9499
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Metroplex Coordinated Runway Scheduling

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
801 Sycolin Road, Suite 306
Leesburg, VA 20175-5685
(800) 405-8576

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stephen Atkins
atkins@mosaicatm.com
3 Primrose Lane
Westford,  MA 01886-3312
(978) 692-9484

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's System Oriented Runway Management (SORM) project is studying operational concepts and algorithms to improve the efficiency and capacity of metroplex operations, where performance is measured not only at the runways but across the airport surface and metroplex airspace. Current SORM research focuses on an approach that plans the airport configuration – the runway configuration and other policies for how classes of flights use metroplex resources. This approach is appropriate for near-term implementation, as it fits within current operations. This project develops an alternative, longer-term approach to SORM that coordinates the trajectory planning for individual flights. NASA is studying future arrival and departure traffic management systems that plan portions of trajectories for each flight. NASA's research efforts each focus on one part of the traffic management problem. This project studies new approaches that coordinate these systems, to achieve increased traffic management effectiveness through a system perspective. In Phase 1, various operational concepts and mathematical approaches will be explored. This approach was originally part of the SORM concept before research focused on the near-term, aggregate approach. The proposed project compliments NASA's research portfolio, contributing work of direct relevance to Airspace Systems Program objectives and providing a foundation for future, advanced SORM research.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Beyond NASA, the primary potential application for this work is with the FAA. Ultimately, the technology studied and developed in this project is intended to be used by the FAA within the air traffic management system. The most likely Phase 3 activities involve supporting the FAA's study and prototype deployment and testing of the technology. Mosaic ATM has previously conducted technology transfer to the FAA, simulation experiments, and field trials for NASA-developed automation tools and concepts and is well-qualified to complete these Phase 3 objectives with minimal risk. During Phase 2, we will consider whether the algorithmic and software techniques we have developed might have application in decision support tools for the flight operators, such as in coordinating planning of flights and ground services to increase overall efficiency.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential applications for the research results beyond Phase 2 include uses by NASA and, eventually, by the FAA as a capability to be incorporated into the NextGen metroplex automation systems. The proposed SBIR addresses a topic originally included as part of the SORM concept but not currently being studied. As such, this work is highly relevant to NASA and directly contributes to NASA's Airspace Systems Program objectives. While NASA's current SORM work focuses on more near-term goals, this work will provide a foundation for continuing SORM research to also be relevant to longer-term, NextGen environments. In Phase 3, we would continue to collaborate with NASA on future SORM research. This work might involve software maintenance, software and algorithm enhancements, studying alternative algorithmic or conceptual approaches, testing for other airports and off-nominal situations, support for NASA integrated simulations, and support for NASA's technology transfer to the FAA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Sequencing & Scheduling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A3.01-9899
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Method for Assessing Airspace Efficiency in Super Density Operations Using an Airspace Phase State Approach

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NextGen AeroSciences, LLC
205 Skimino Landing Drive
Williamsburg, VA 23188-2251
(757) 207-0966

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bruce Holmes
Bruce.Holmes@NextAero.com
205 Skimino Landing Dr
Williamsburg,  VA 23188-2251
(757) 207-0966

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
One of the challenges to assessing NextGen operational improvements in the National Airspace System (NAS) lies in the ability to understand and measure the efficiencies associated with new concepts and technologies, including the effects of integrating traffic controls for the most optimal results. Existing approaches for studying air traffic management concepts have explored methods for understanding airspace complexity based on flight path geometries, airspace architectures, and pilot/controller workloads. These approaches have been largely based on phenomenological and heuristic studies that provide important, but limited, understanding of causal factors and minimum predictive power over long look-ahead times. The recent development of dynamic trajectory algorithms by NextGen AeroSciences, LLC (NextAero) provides the ability to compute the phase states of the airspace in future time, based on principles from traffic physics, phase transitions, and the science of Complex Adaptive Systems. In a Phase I project, NextAero proposes to establish the feasibility of phase state analysis as a tool for assessing the benefits of NextGen concepts in the densest airspace. If shown to be feasible, this computational tool will provide a viable means of computing, predicting, and managing airspace phase states from satisfiable (uncongested) to unsatisfiable (congested) conditions, as affected by various NextGen concepts.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Airline and Fractional/Business/Air Taxi applications, including use in Airline Operations or Operational Command Centers (AOCs, OCCs), for real-time fleet optimization and disruption recovery management Flight Management Computers (FMC) applications, including airborne capabilities for 5DT optimization as an adjunct to ANSP and AOC/OOC solutions). ANSP (U.S., EU, and others) operations, including incorporation of 5DT trajectory optimization capabilities in en route and terminal airspace controller tool sets.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NextGen research applications by NASA, including trajectory-based operational airspace studies, dynamic airspace design concept evaluations, NextGen airspace procedures concept evaluations in modeling, simulation, and flight demonstrations

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Analytical Methods
Man-Machine Interaction
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Transport/Traffic Control
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A3.02-8221
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Systems Analysis Integration Evaluation (SAIE)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Networked Communications and Speech System for Airspace System Assessments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimal Synthesis, Inc.
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos, CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Victor Cheng
vcheng@optisyn.com
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos,  CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As concepts and technologies being developed for the Next-Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) mature, the natural progression is to study their integration and evaluation in the operational environment. Before they can be integrated into the National Airspace System (NAS) for evaluation in the field, they typically have to undergo extensive human-in-the-loop (HITL) testing in a controlled laboratory environment to identify and work out the issues. Depending on the particular concept/technology, the HITL experiments may involve subject matter experts (SMEs) including air traffic controllers (ATC) and pilots. The laboratory environment would include realistic operational equipment such as appropriate ATC stations and flight-deck equipment. One important system in this environment is a realistic communication system for simulating radio communications among the controllers and pilots. In current-day operations, controllers and pilots communicate by voice over VHF radio. In the laboratory environment, this communications capability is typically provided by a dedicated communication system, which represents a cost liability in addition to the controller stations and flight-deck equipment. In addition to the acquisition cost, there is life-cycle cost associated with maintenance of the hardware as well as space requirements for the special hardware. The proposed research considers the development of two technologies to ease the cost of providing the necessary communications capability as well as the cost and inconvenience in hiring secondary SMEs to support the experiments: (i) a software-based networked communications system based on Voice-over-IP (VoIP) technology that obviates the need of special hardware, and (ii) an automated speech agent that can take the place of the secondary SMEs in communicating with the primary SMEs and interacting with the operational environment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Networked Communications and Speech System (NCSS) can be adapted for other human factors simulation facilities within the FAA, as identified in the joint FAA/NASA NextGen Human Factors Research Coordinate Plan. Similar facilities in major aerospace vendors of air traffic management systems can also benefit from this technology. In addition, the NCSS will also benefit air traffic control training facilities, including the FAA Academy located at the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center in Oklahoma City, OK, and DoD training facilities such as the Naval Air Technical Training Center (NATTC) in Pensacola, FL.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Networked Communications and Speech System (NCSS) has been conceived for implementation in simulation facilities within NASA for human-in-the-loop (HITL) assessment of airspace system concepts and technologies. A list of such facilities at Ames Research Center and Langley Research Center has been identified jointly by the FAA and NASA in a recently released NextGen Human Factors Research Coordinate Plan. The software-based system is expected to reduce acquisition and life-cycle costs associated with the communications equipment, and to provide additional flexibility and cost savings in performing HITL experiments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Man-Machine Interaction
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Transport/Traffic Control
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A3.02-9484
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Systems Analysis Integration Evaluation (SAIE)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Raman Lidar Temperature Profiler

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Masstech, Inc.
6992 Columbia Gateway Drive, Suite 200
Columbia, MD 21046-2985
(443) 539-1739

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Guangkun Li
homer@apmaldi.com
6992 Columbia Gateway Drive, Suite 200
Columbia,  MD 21046-2985
(443) 539-3111

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aircraft wake vortices is especially hazardous during the landing and taking-off phases of flight. It is essential to obtain an accurate atmospheric temperature profile in the lower troposphere for a better prediction and understanding of aircraft wake vortex. In this NASA SBIR project, we propose to build a lidar instrument that is capable of measuring both the daytime and nighttime atmospheric temperature profile in the lower troposphere. Atmospheric temperature measurement using Raman Lidar technique is well established and has been implemented by a lot of research groups. The major innovation of our approach is to use a low-power, high-repetitive-rate laser, instead of the high-power, low-repetitive-rate flash-lamp-pumped laser systems commonly used for such instruments. This will allow us to achieve the goals of building an eye-safe, compact, robust, reliable, relatively inexpensive and low maintenance instrument. The proposed lidar will be able to achieve 1K accuracy, good range resolution (~100m) with a range up to 3 km at both daytime and nighttime with under 10 minutes of averaging. We will build a breadboard system for Phase I and perform a proof of concept temperature measurement. We will bring the development to preliminary design so that Phase II may begin with the final system design and begin construction as early as possible. Phase II will provide for delivery of a prototype and culminate in a series of validation field trials, comparing our measured profiles with other measurement techniques.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Temperature is a basic parameter which describe the atmospheric state of many important meteorological phenomena occur in the troposphere, the accurate measurement of temperature in the lower troposphere is of considerable importance for studies in the atmospheric sciences, particularly for research on conditions for atmospheric stability and for circulation models. Since the instrument can be used to measure elastic and other Raman channels, there are numerous non-NASA applications in the market to measure a wide range of meteorological and environmental properties. Potential customers include the NOAA or EPA for environmental monitoring. In addition, with the small size, high rep rate laser instead of using the flash pump laser, the proposed instrument can be easily transported and can be implemented for use at National Weather Service instrument stations. And without complicated modification to the instrument, there are also a number of military / civilian commercial applications of the lidar instrument such as bio/chemical hazard detection, etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed instrument can be used on helping wake vortex avoidance, which is a primary constraint on the national Airspace System (NAS). More than 30 Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) operational improvements (OIs) and SESAR lines of change (LoC) could be impacted by wake considerations. NextGen concept required significant reductions in separations of aircraft wake vortex to achieve capacity goals. When successfully developed, the proposed system can be applied for many other atmospheric trace gas measurements and environmental monitoring and will have numerous markets. Raman Lidar techniques have been demonstrated which provide most valuable descriptions of the evolution of air pollution events. With different optical configuration of the lidar system, the Raman technique provides a robust tool that can be employed to measure a wide range of meteorological and environmental properties, such as the simultaneous profiles of meteorological data, ozone, water vapor optical extinction and measurements of airborne particulate matter.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Ultraviolet


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A4.01-8032
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Simultaneous Skin Friction and Pressure Sensitive Paint

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc.
2766 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440-3638
(937) 429-4980

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jim Crafton
jwcrafton@innssi.com
2766 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton,  OH 45440-3638
(937) 429-4980

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Currently, the contribution of skin friction to the total drag of a wind tunnel model is estimated by comparing measurements of the total drag to the integrated pressure drag. While this yields an estimate for the average skin friction, the distribution of the skin friction cannot be determined from such measurements. The distribution of skin friction and pressure is available from computational fluids models, however, these models must be validated using experimental data. An experimental tool for distributed measurements of skin friction and pressure would be useful for both aerodynamic configuration development and numerical code validation. We propose the development of an image-based sensor for simultaneous measurements of skin friction and pressure that is based on combining Pressure-Sensitive Paint with a new image-based measurement technique for skin friction, Surface Stress Sensitive Films (S3F). The basis of the S3F technique is an elastic film that distorts under the action of the applied forces. Skin friction is determined by monitoring these distortions and applying a finite element model to the film. The S3F technique can operate over a range of temperatures from cryogenic (160 K) to well above ambient (470 K), thus there is a potential to deploy this system in a variety of wind tunnels. Quantitative measurements of skin friction using S3F have been demonstrated from 10-m/s to Mach 5 and the accuracy of the S3F sensor has been validated to be better than 5% full scale in a fully developed channel and high Reynolds number boundary layer. Several experimental demonstrations of a combined PSP/S3F sensor have been performed in small wind tunnels and bench-top experiments, thus demonstrating that this approach is possible. The key innovations in this proposal are to develop a multi-color data acquisition system that can acquire both pressure and skin friction data simultaneously, and validate the accuracy and stability of the combined sensor.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Surface Stress Sensitive Films, is under investigation for a variety of applications in aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, and biomedical research. Traditional interest exists in skin friction for CFD validation and drag reduction on supersonic/hypersonic air vehicles and hydrodynamic drag reduction. A miniature point version of the sensor has been produced by ISSI that will sense 2-components of skin friction and provide real time feedback for closed loop flow control. This sensor is of interest for using in Navy applications, and may have applications in MAV's. Biomedical applications include ongoing research with the Cleveland Clinic for identification and correlation of shear on the foot of diabetics. Other biomedical applications include shear stress on surfaces of artificial implants such as stints, hearts, valves, and assist pumps. The S3F sensor has recently been used to detect shear forces on tires and a means of using the system for predictive maintenance of fleet vehicles is underway.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Surface Stress Sensitive Films are being investigation for a variety of applications in aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, and biomedical research. Skin friction is a quantity of interest in many aerodynamics applications such as validation of CFD, and investigation of supersonic/hypersonic inlets. Biomedical applications include ongoing research with the Cleveland Clinic for identification and correlation of shear on the foot of diabetics. The formation of bed sores is believed to be related to shear stress, and therefore this would be a similar application of the technology. Other biomedical applications include shear stress on surfaces of artificial implants such as stints, hearts, valves, and assist pumps. Finally, ISSI has recently begun investigating S3F as a tactile sensor for artificial limbs and robotic touch sensors. This technology may be of interests for unmanned planetary probes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Data Fusion
Pressure/Vacuum


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A4.01-8230
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aero-acoustic Measurement and Monitoring of Dynamic Pressure Fields

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Greene R&D International, Inc.
16990 Frank Avenue
Los Gatos, CA 95032-3454
(408) 356-7775

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Greene
dagreene@grdi.com
16990 Frank Avenue
Los Gatos,  CA 95032-3454
(408) 356-7775

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This innovative and practical measurement and monitoring system optimally defines dynamic pressure fields, including sound fields. It is based on passive acoustic tomography technologies. In contrast to most monitors it is unique in measuring absolute sound intensity magnitude at each location in the sound field. Most importantly, the measured noise source absolute intensity is specific to the generating mechanism/source. Intensity is independent of the monitored space; Source intensity of a generator is the same value in both free space and in hard, reverberant enclosure environments. Measured absolute intensities are transferable to other physical locations. In other words, experimental data is transportable and is directly applicable to any other real-world system or structures. The mesh or cell size used by the monitor/scanner is fixed by the physics of the noise generation mechanism, not by computer power considerations. The software can be run in a standard workstation, and with careful implementation of standard electronics can provide real time acoustic noise field monitoring. The AeroNoiseScanner [ANS] scanner is a natural extension and enhancement of an analytical and experimental program involving many decades of research and development programs and financial investments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) Nuclear power steam generator performance monitoring and prognostics 2) Oil Industry industrial component monitoring for fault conditions and prognostics

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) Increase productivity and utility of existing test facilities by measuring noise intensities directly without requiring anechoic treatments. 2) Measure and characterize the noise generation of rotorcraft blades using lagrangian frame of reference. 3) Provide noise intensity distribution and mapping to help calibrate, and focus and optimize CFD programs. 4) Characterize characteristics of jet engines, both near and far-field noise 5) Monitor and characterize engine internal exit characteristics with sensors mounted on engine cowls

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Acoustic/Vibration
Simulation & Modeling
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A4.01-8847
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Optical Mach Probe

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michigan Aerospace Corporation
1777 Highland Drive, Suite B
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-2285
(734) 975-8777

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Bivolaru
dbivolaru@michiganaerospace.com
1777 Highland Drive, Suite B
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-2285
(734) 975-8777

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Michigan Aerospace Corporation (MAC) proposes to advance NASA's nonintrusive spatially- and temporally-resolved Interferometric Rayleigh Scattering (IRS) technology to perform additional multiple properties measurements in high-speed flows. In particular, an instantaneous nonintrusive Optical Mach Probe (OMP) to obtain the Mach number and the flow angularity among the flow density, translational temperature, and the bulk velocity is proposed. Other turbulence-specific parameters, such as components of the stress and heat flux tensors, the mean and fluctuations of properties are obtained from these measurements. During Phase I of this effort, the optical, mechanical, electrical, and software engineering models of the instrument will be developed for the specific application. The prototype development and preliminary tests to demonstrate the technique could be performed in Phase II at NASA through the adaptation of NASA's existing technologies. This proposal is in response to the NASA SBIR Phase I, Topic: A4 Aeronautics Test Technologies, Subtopic: A4.01 Ground Test Techniques and Measurement Technology. The objective is to develop and demonstrate nonintrusive measurement technologies to increase techniques' capabilities and characterize ground test facility flow performance in terms of flow quality, turbulence intensity, and Mach number measured up to and including hypersonic speed regimes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other organizations (US Air Force, US Navy, etc.) and prime contractors will have similar uses for this technology. Also, the academic and scientific community will have use for the instrument for high speed flow studies and CFD modeling.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed non-intrusive Optical Mach Probe is essential across multiple aerospace ground and flight research support facilities in characterizing and understanding of the complex flow behavior in terms of flow quality, turbulence intensity, and Mach number measured up to and including hypersonic speed regimes. The probe also could be used for on-board monitoring of vehicle dynamics and propulsion processes as well as in aiding the development of new computational models.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Interferometric (see also Analysis)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Visible


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A4.02-8060
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Long-Range Video Capabilities Using Speckle Imaging Techniques

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
EM Photonics
51 East Main Street
Newark, DE 19711-4685
(302) 456-9003

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fernando Ortiz
ortiz@emphotonics.com
51 East Main Street
Newark,  DE 19711-4685
(302) 456-9003

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Flight-testing is a crucial component in NASA's mission to research and develop of new aeronautical concepts, allowing for verification of simulated and wind-tunnel results, and exposing previously unforeseen design problems. Video is an invaluable tool for flight-testing, allowing the collection of a wealth of information; however, collected long-range imagery typically suffers from scintillation, blurring, poor spatial resolution and low contrast. For decades, astronomers have developed effective image processing solutions to the problem of imaging through long stretches of atmosphere. One such image processing technique, Bispectrum Averaging Speckle Imaging, has been proven to compensate for heavy atmospheric effects at both visible and IR wavelengths. The computational requirements, however, made field deployment of a real time solution difficult. In 2007, we accelerated the Speckle algorithm for NASA using a Field Programmable Gate Array. This work demonstrated that the real-time implementation of a complex algorithm such as this one is possible with a hardware platform. Although this implementation could improve imagery under many scenarios, large power requirements due to hardware use limited the scenarios in which the platform could be deployed. Lastly, this work does not contain many of the enhancements that we, in partnership with Lawrence Livermore National Labs have made to the software algorithm since that date. We propose to evolve the previous hardware design by taking advantage of the improvements to manufacturing that have come to industry over the past 3 years. By coupling newer, less-expensive hardware with enhancements and simplifications to the Speckle algorithm, we will also be able to offer a solution that is significantly lower cost and lower power. A new design will vastly increase the capability and feasibility of deployed atmospheric correcting technologies, which will in turn benefit NASA by making flight-testing more safe.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications can be broadly divided into government applications and private-sector applications Government applications include use of this technology in high-precision laser designator/locators, which require a handheld device for enhancing long-range images to allow for location and designation of targets from great distance; long-range cameras for border monitoring, as the US southern border is very difficult to monitor without significant manpower and consists of potentially difficult terrain and climate; and airborne laser applications, which use a telescope to acquire and track targets and can be significantly limited by atmospheric turbulence. Private-sector application will involve coupling our solver into existing camera and processing hardware. In many cases, this will simply involve complying with pre-defined interfaces to attach the necessary components. Success in these markets will depend on cooperation with camera vendors and makers of image processing systems, not end users. The advantage will be that manufactures will then be able to directly integrate our technology into their product lines, significantly reducing NRE cost by volume. We see this approach being particularly valuable in applications that have strict power and size requirements and for systems that will be portable either on the ground, in the air, or in space.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA collects massive amounts of long-range imagery, whether for range safety pre-launch, tracking objects after launch, or observing objects in space. All these applications require imaging through the atmosphere at great distances. This causes all the imagery collected to be blurred and often detail is lost. By viewing enhanced imagery, NASA officials will have access to additional information for a variety of key decisions. During launch, added level of detail provides the ability to make more informed "go" or "no go" decisions. When tracking rockets or the shuttle, enhanced imagery allows for more detail on pieces that may fall from the craft during flight. Accounting for atmospheric effects will also improve the quality of all imagery taken of space-based objects from Earth.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Image Processing
Adaptive Optics
Telescope Arrays
Visible
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A4.02-9670
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Prototype-Technology Evaluator and Research Aircraft (PTERA) Flight Test Assessment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AREA-I
1590 North Roberts Road, Suite 203
Kennesaw, GA 30144-3636
(678) 594-5227

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nicholas Alley
nalley@areai.aero
1590 N Roberts Rd, Suite 203
Kennesaw,  GA 30144-3636
(678) 594-5227

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 6
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Area-I team has developed and fabricated the unmanned Prototype-Technology Evaluation and Research Aircraft or PTERA ("ptera" being Greek for wing, or wing-like). The PTERA is an extremely versatile and high-quality, yet inexpensive flight research testbed that serves as a bridge between wind tunnel and manned flight testing by enabling the low-cost, low-risk flight-based evaluation of a wide array of high-risk technologies. For this work, the team proposes a flight test evaluation of the PTERA platform to assess its effectiveness as a research test bed aircraft within NASA's Aeronautical Test Program (ATP). The PTERA stands to enhance the already capable ATP by enabling the low-cost, low-risk flight-based evaluation of everything from advanced aerodynamic treatments to sensor payloads. Several core capabilities that the PTERA would bring to the ATP: 1) A low-cost, low-risk flight test facility that can be used to expand ATP's role in the testing and validation of NASA's physics-based multi-disciplinary analysis and optimization (MDAO) tools 2) The ability to flight test advanced aerodynamic treatments, health management and control systems, and to perform experiments in structures and aeroelasticity for a fraction of the cost of a manned flight test program 3) The ability to flight test cutting-edge and complex systems whose cost and risk are too high for manned flights 4) A testbed with modular airframe, enabling the evaluation of multiple technologies with the same airframe 5) A testbed with a large payload capacity that facilitates the inexpensive and risk-mitigating flight test evaluation of a wide array of sensors and payloads as well as the evaluation of flight-test measurement systems before they transition to manned programs 6) The ability to perform unmanned, autonomous, flight experiments relating to the burgeoning field of autonomous unmanned aircraft, including experiments supporting UAS integration in to the NAS, sense and avoid, etc.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A technology gap exists between well-controlled wind tunnel tests and full scale flight testing where most of the systems integration issues surface. Allocating these system integration activities to a full scale flight test is replete with safety, schedule and performance risks that dominate flight test costs. The PTERA platform serves as the bridge to integrate and flight test advanced aerodynamic treatments, health management and control systems, and to perform experiments in structures and aero elasticity for a fraction of the cost of a manned flight test program. The PTERA flight test facility offers several distinct advantages to NASA, and non-NASA customers. The physical configuration is representative of most commercial/transport aircraft, therefore test data will be considered relevant. The PTERA structure is solid, well designed and stable therefore the test data will be free of unwanted variables that may contaminate the data and the airframe was designed from the bottom up to be modular and general purpose which will meet the "common benefit" need that a lab asset must generally satisfy. Finally, PTERA has enough design margin to accommodate multiple treatments such as wings with active twist and active camber, advanced control systems, and prototype "UAV in the NAS" automated airspace separation related payloads.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The PTERA will enable NASA to more effectively develop and evaluate the performance of innovative solutions and advanced technologies that improve current and future air transportation by extending the NASA research portfolio to include a low-cost, low-risk flight experiment testbed. Virtually every program within the NASA ARMD can directly or indirectly benefit from the PTERA as it provides the following: -A low-cost, low-risk high quality flight test facility. -A platform that enables testing and evaluations of new technologies that, due to cost and risk, would typically be reserved for wind tunnel tests only. -A platform to investigate the flight performance of technologies such as laminar flow enablers, aeroelastic tailoring, morphing control surfaces/wings, and active flow control. Additionally, the baseline PTERA tooling could be used to enable the fabrication of more exotic designs such a box/joined-wing configuration. -A testbed with which to perform experiments regarding sense and avoid, UAS-manned aircraft interactions, etc. -A platform to perform loss-of-control flight research and to evaluate health management and atmospheric hazard sensing systems under actual flight conditions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Actuators & Motors
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A5.01-8555
SUBTOPIC TITLE: UAS Integration in the NAS
PROPOSAL TITLE: UAS Demand Generation and Airspace Performance Impact Prediction

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Frederick Wieland
fwieland@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville,  MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5268

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
IAI and its academic partner propose to develop technology that will generate credible future demand for UAS vehicles given proposed UAS missions. The technology will consist of three parts. The first part is an activity-based modeling system that translates inchoate mission profile information into overall demand between city pairs and counties for UAS aircraft. The second part translates the overall demand into specific flight data sets, specifying the origin, destination, scheduled departure and arrival times, as well as the type of aircraft flown along the route. The final part consists of a data warehouse system that will store the flight data sets and allow analysts to retrieve them to support custom UAS studies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology developed in this project makes it possible for aviation analysts worldwide to quickly develop scenarios for UAS studies. Airport planners, airspace designers, aviation consultants, airlines, and other stakeholders will have access to a valuable repository of credible UAS flight demand.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This effort will lead to the development of a data warehouse containing potentially thousands of UAS flights. NASA personnel can access this warehouse to develop custom UAS traffic scenarios to drive both fast-time and human-in-the-loop studies. For example, a UAS study in the Southern California area might want to access UAS border control flights in California and Arizona, as well as UAS flights performing aqueduct inspection and other activities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Verification/Validation Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A5.01-8803
SUBTOPIC TITLE: UAS Integration in the NAS
PROPOSAL TITLE: Real-time Estimation of UAS Performance Using Efficient Sampling of Functional Models

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Numerica Corporation
4850 Hahns Peak Drive, Suite 200
Loveland, CO 80538-6003
(970) 461-2000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Adaska
jason.adaska@numerica.us
4850 Hahns Peak Drive, Suite 200
Loveland,  CO 80538-6003
(970) 461-2000

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Numerica proposes to developed advanced algorithms for constructing a UAS vehicle model from ATC surveillance data in real-time. Using functional descriptions of aircraft performance and computationally efficient sampling techniques, UAS model parameters are estimated, and aircraft maneuvers that best improve these estimates are determined. Numerica's approach has two important advantages. First it is agnostic to the specific structure of the aircraft performance model and can be used with a range of parameterized modeling techniques ranging from simplified "table look-up" models to physics-based kinetic models. This permits faster integration with current ATM systems since it leverages (rather than replaces) existing trajectory prediction techniques and databases. Second, the functional descriptions do not require that the models for propulsion or aerodynamic forces to adhere to a specific analytical form. This allows tremendous modeling flexibility and permits the inclusion of complicated atmospheric factors that may be relevant for trajectory prediction but are difficult to capture with simple closed-form expressions. Since the approach has solid theoretical foundations, the algorithms can be also used in an offline context to help establish bounds on the "best-possible" model estimation performance given the accuracy and character of available surveillance data. This capability could help in determining requirements on ATC sensors to enable reliable trajectory predictions for UAS that lack detailed performance models.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Ultra Electronics Ultra-Electronics Advanced Tactical Systems offers the Advanced Fusion and Tracking System (AFTS). The US Army's Tactical Airspace Integration System (TAIS) already uses Ultra's AFTS product for airspace management. Numerica's technology could be a plug-in for AFTS trajectory estimation and prediction modules, as well as Ultra's TacView user interface to help operators mitigate airspace conflicts. US Military UAS Given the interest in developing UAS platforms, there is significant need for reliable trajectory prediction. One development activity is the MQ-8B Fire Scout Vertical Take-Off and Landing Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VTUAV). Another ongoing Navy development program is for the Broad Area Maritime Surveillance (BAMS) platform.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As NASA and the FAA continue development of the NextGen Airspace program through 2025, the need to safely integrate UASs into the NAS will only grow. As such, NASA's Airspace Systems Program could be a key customer of the proposed technology. One possible application would be integrating the technology into a NASA simulation environment such as the Future ATM Concept Evaluation Tool (FACET). The developed techniques use functional models and are thus are agnostic to specific trajectory predictions techniques. Thus they could assist traffic controllers in assessing potential conflicts in the strategic collision avoidance timeline.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Fusion
Data Processing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A5.01-9417
SUBTOPIC TITLE: UAS Integration in the NAS
PROPOSAL TITLE: A UAS-ATC Simulation Test-Bed

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sandia Research Corporation
5810 South Sossaman Road, Suite 108
Mesa, AZ 85212-5825
(480) 988-1000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steven Shope
sshope@sandiaresearch.com
5810 South Sossaman Road Suite 108
Mesa,  AZ 85212-5825
(480) 988-1000

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed solution is to create a high fidelity simulation environment that merges a UAS ground control station (GCS) simulator with an air traffic control (ATC) simulator. The UAS GCS station will have the capability of introducing a single UAS or multiple UASs simulator operated by a single and/or multiple UAS pilots into the ATC. This simulation will have the ability to simulate manned aircraft, among others in the airspace. It will allow the UAS GCS to communicate with ATC as well as other manned aircraft through the use of a Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) based intercom system. In addition to voice communications, a text-based chat system may also be utilized for communication among the different operators. Information regarding position and altitude for all aircraft will be available to the UAS GCS, ATC, as well as manned aircraft. The ATC simulator will be able to relay information regarding the position of other aircraft within 5nm horizontal and 1200 feet vertical separation to the UAS GCS through formatted messages.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is forecast to be an explosive growth of UAS operations in the United States. This will range from military, law enforcement, agriculture, border patrol, etc just to name a few applications. The commercial potential of our technology will consist of future versions of our UAS STE that can be integrated into other simulations systems to evaluate, in a scientific valid manner, the effectiveness of UAS: 1. Training Regimes 2. User Interfaces 3. Procedures 4. Integration into the NAS 5. Regulations 6. Recurrence Training 7. Operator Mission Essential Competencies (MEC) 8. Adaptive Operator Training 9. Payload Operator Training

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary application of UAS-ATC Test-Bed will allow researchers to test and evaluate a wide variety of issues surrounding the integration of UAS into the National Airspace System. This test-bed will provide a rich environment for researchers to evaluate many important research questions such as: 1. Testing of UAS in the NAS and NextGen concepts of operation 2. Testing of system resilience given off-nominal events 3. Evaluation of technological innovations 4. Training evaluations

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Man-Machine Interaction
Perception/Vision
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Coding & Compression


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 A5.01-9500
SUBTOPIC TITLE: UAS Integration in the NAS
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rapid Automated Mission Planning System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
801 Sycolin Road, Suite 306
Leesburg, VA 20175-5685
(800) 405-8576

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dean Northcutt
dnorthcutt@mosaicatm.com
801 Sycolin Road, Suite 306
Leesburg,  VA 20175-5685
(858) 254-9442

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovation is an automated UAS mission planning system that will rapidly identify emergency (contingency) landing sites, manage contingency routing, and dynamically evaluate route changes for viability and safe operations in the NAS. Specifically, RAMPS will feature a pre-flight contingency planning capability that rapidly determines viable alternate/emergency landing sites based on a UAS's contingency ability and safe routing restrictions. RAMPS will include an in-flight dynamic contingency management capability that assesses ATC-requested re-routing and threats posed by weather to determine feasibility of modifications to the UAS flight trajectory. RAMPS can operate as a recommender system, providing operators with a narrow list of best options to help facilitate timely decision-making. RAMPS capabilities will provide UAS Operators with valuable time saving examination of a proposed route and possible contingency operations along that route – automating what has been an exceptionally tedious and lengthy manual process during mission planning. The in-flight component of RAMPS will provide the UAS operator with a dynamic mission evaluation tool – exceptionally important when a reconnaissance and surveillance mission is introduced into the routing planning process.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
RAMPS will find a significant number of applications within federal and non-federal agencies. Immediate customers include DoD UAS operators both within and beyond the NAS. Employed as a contingency management tool, RAMPS will plug-in to 3rd party UAS flight management systems and provide levels of intelligent automation that extend well beyond those provided in fielded systems. RAMPS will have high value to regulatory agencies approving UAS operations – such as approval of certificates of authorization (COAs). COA approvers could also establish the criteria to be used in RAMPS during mission planning for COA approval.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential applications for the UAS contingency planning and management system beyond Phase II include use as a mission planning augmentation system to improve safety of NASA UAS flight operations and as a research and development tool supporting in-house simulations of UAS activity in the NAS. RAMPS will be interoperable with UAS flight management systems, enabling a fluid exchange of routing and contingency information with 3rd party applications. RAMPS will be applicable to ongoing integrated system research projects and will beneficially impact NASA's contributions to standardized safety and certification of UAS in the NAS.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X1.01-8102
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Characterization, Extraction, Transfer, and Processing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reactive Capture of Carbon Dioxide

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Reactive Innovations, LLC
2 Park Drive, Unit 4
Westford, MA 01886-3525
(978) 692-4664

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Karen Jayne
kjayne@reactive-innovations.com
2 Park Drive, Unit 4
Westford,  MA 01886-3525
(978) 692-4664

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this Phase I SBIR, Reactive Innovations, LLC (RIL) proposes to develop a compact and lightweight electrochemical to capture carbon dioxide in the martian atmosphere from nitrogen and argon. Our approach builds on two separately developed technologies in our laboratory involving: 1) carbon dioxide capture and 2) advanced electrode designs. Our approach initially aims to make a compact reactive/separator that can operate continuously with minimum energy requirements for both ISRU process streams in particular the martian atmosphere. The success of this approach demonstrated in a compact and lightweight unit for NASA will allow us to deploy it in the near term for a number of terrestrial-based applications including CO2 sequestration and mitigation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA, this technology will have significant terrestrial-based applications and thereby a significant customer base. The market for separating carbon dioxide from other gases is expected to grow with continued interest and emphasis on reducing CO2 emissions. Sequestering CO2 or reducing CO2 to oxygen on earth may find interest by organizations that need to reduce their CO2 emissions. Successful cost effective technologies that can sequester CO2 clearly have a world-wide market appeal. A compact reactor that efficiently separates and concentrates CO2 can be used in sequestration scenario, alternative fuels production, as well at mitigating CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology has application in ISRU processing. In particular, the Martian atmosphere is about 95% CO2, which can potentially be separated and processed to produce oxygen or methane gas. Another important application for CO2 separation technologies involve air revitalization where excess carbon dioxide must be removed from the cabin of spacecraft and spacesuits.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Resource Extraction


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X1.01-8468
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Characterization, Extraction, Transfer, and Processing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Mobile In-Situ Mars Water Extractor (MISME)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics Ltd.
460 West 34th Street
New York, NY 10001-2320
(212) 966-0661

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kris Zacny
zacny@honeybeerobotics.com
398 West Washington Blvd.
Pasadena,  CA 91103-2000
(510) 207-4555

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Extracting water and volatiles from icy soils requires excavating and manipulating those soils as feedstock, but the Phoenix mission demonstrated some of the difficulties that may be encountered during such operations. The solution to these problems is an integrated mobile mining and water extraction system that uses an auger based excavation approach and an integrated water-ice extraction plant – hence, if the water-ice does sublime, it will sublime straight into the extraction system. The proposed system is an auger with a reactor and the weak link, the transfer system, is eliminated altogether. The system, called the Mobile In-Situ Mars Water Extractor (MISME), consists of the Icy-Soil Acquisition and Delivery System (ISADS), and the Volatiles Extraction and Capture System (VECS). The ISADS is a deep fluted auger that drills into the ice or icy-soils and retains material on its flutes. Upon material acquisition, the ISADS is retracted into VECS and sealed. The VECS consists of a cylindrical heat exchanger and volatiles transfer system (a reactor). This Phase I effort will focus on developing the water extraction reactor: Volatile Extraction and Capture System (VECS).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This particular vapor extraction process is not limited to water, but also other volatiles. Hence, non-NASA applications include robotic acquisition of volatiles as well as soil and liquid samples from hazardous environments: chemical spills, nuclear waste, oil spills.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications would satisfy goals of ESMD and SMD. In particular, this water-vapor extraction could be a reconnaissance tool to map the ice distribution around the area. It also could be used (as designed) as a water-vapor production system to support human habitats. Increasing the production could be done by deploying more than one of these rovers (and hence the system would have redundancy through numbers).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Processing Methods
Resource Extraction
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X1.01-9003
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Characterization, Extraction, Transfer, and Processing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniature Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer for In-Situ Resource Utilization

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Sorensen
phs@creare.com
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In situ resource utilization (ISRU) is essential for several of NASA's future flagship missions. Currently envisioned ISRU plants include production of oxygen from hydrogen reduction of lunar regolith and extraction of water from Martian regolith or asteroid material. These ISRU processes require heating of the regolith to high reaction temperatures. To support ISRU activities, NASA requires the development of a compact, lightweight gas chromatograph – mass spectrometer (GC-MS) instrument that can quantify volatile gases released by sample heating below atomic number 70. The instrument must also be designed to withstand exposure to the release of HF, HCl, or Hg that may result from heating regolith samples to high temperatures. Creare proposes to design, build, and test a compact, lightweight gas chromatograph - mass spectrometer (GC-MS) system, capable of detecting, identifying, and quantifying ppm to 100%-level concentrations of relevant compounds having mass less than 100 amu. Our GC-MS design is based on components that have been previously or can easily be space-qualified using techniques proven on numerous past space hardware development projects. During the Phase I project, we will prove our design with benchtop testing, and in Phase II, we plan to build engineering model versions of our GC-MS.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary private sector applications for the proposed gas chromatograph mass spectrometer system is for use in performing portable chemical analysis, particularly when looking for harmful gases. The sensitive and specific sensor that we propose to develop will not only help ensure the timely generation of data for hazardous gas detection, but will also provide this capability to commercial organizations wishing to perform chemical analysis in the field. For example, the proposed system would be invaluable for supporting first responder personnel who need to determine the safety of areas during cleaning and securing activities for interval testing in different areas. On the commercial front, inexpensive portable mass spectrometers would revolutionize pollution monitoring, process control, and the response to incidents by emergency personnel.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The main initial application area for the proposed gas chromatograph mass spectrometer for ISRU plants will be in NASA's future missions to Mars and the Moon, as well as other bodies such as Near Earth objects (NEOs). Long-duration missions to the Moon will need substantial amounts of resources for life support and energy. Martian sample return missions and manned missions to Mars may be prohibitively expensive, technically exigent, and unacceptably risky unless resources can be produced on Mars. An ISRU propellant production plant on Mars may be needed for the sample return mission that NASA is envisioning in the 2020s.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X1.01-9062
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Characterization, Extraction, Transfer, and Processing
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Efficiency Microchannel Sabatier Reactor System for In Situ Resource Utilization

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
UMPQUA Research Company
P.O. Box 609
Myrtle Creek, OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-7770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Akse, Ph.D.
akse@urcmail.net
PO Box 609
Myrtle Creek,  OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-2653

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An innovative Microchannel Sabatier Reactor System (MSRS) is proposed for 100% recovery of oxygen (as water) and methane from carbon dioxide (CO2), a valuable in situ resource available in the atmosphere or as frozen deposits on Mars and other Near Earth Objects (NEOs), using hydrogen. The Sabatier reaction will greatly benefit from inherently superior microreactor heat and mass transfer characteristics compared to conventional reactor designs. Significantly, multiple microreactors can readily be configured in series or parallel arrangements that improve reaction outcomes, and process scale up is easily achieved by numbering up mass produced microreactors. High conversion rates will require the deposition of highly active, supported catalyst layers onto microchannel walls that enhance surface area, adsorption characteristics, and catalyst effectiveness factor. Another research focus area will be a MSRS design that optimizes residence time, thermal recovery, and the achievement of equilibrium at low temperature. Successful completion of the Phase I project will provide microreactor performance data required to design and assemble a first generation MSRS. The Phase II research will result in the development of a prototype MSRS incorporating integrated sequential microreactors and heat exchange with the capability of processing 1 kg hr-1 of CO2. The prototype MSRS will clearly demonstrate the efficacy of this in situ resource utilization approach.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary non-governmental application of this technology is the recycling of sequestered carbon dioxide to form a fuel gas. Efforts to reduce CO2 emissions are becoming more commonplace as many nations begin implementation of CO2 emissions limits. The costs associated with exceeding the proposed regulatory limits will begin to offset the costs related to CO2 removal and recycling. Microchannel Sabatier Reactor System (MSRS) technology is particularly suited to on-site processing of CO2 captured from industrial effluent gas streams due to its inherent scalability. A MSRS would enable cost-effective deployment over a broad process scale. Utilization of H2 generated by renewable resources, e.g. solar or wind powered electrolysis of H2O, further enhances the environmental benefits of Sabatier technology. Half of the H2 required for the reduction reaction can be recovered directly from the H2O product, just as it would be in a space application. An additional benefit to this ecologically friendly application can be obtained by thermal recovery from flue gases to heat the MSRS.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA application for this technology will be as Flight Hardware for deployment in support of future, long duration exploration missions to Mars or other Near Earth Objects (NEOs) where reclamation of in situ resources and reduction of the logistics burden will be highly valued. The Microchannel Sabatier Reactor System (MSRS) will efficiently reclaim oxygen (as water) and produce a propellant (methane) from atmospheric or frozen deposits of carbon dioxide on Mars or other NEOs using only hydrogen. The MSRS provides a fundamental starting point for planetary habitats where precursor robotic missions can prepare the road for subsequent human exploration by reducing the logistics burden.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Resource Extraction


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X1.01-9593
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Characterization, Extraction, Transfer, and Processing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flexible Transfer of Regolith in Micro-Gravity and Vacuum

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Grainflow Dynamics, Inc.
1141 Catalina Drive, PMB 270
Livermore, CA 94550-5928
(925) 447-4293

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Otis Walton
walton@grainflow.com
1141 Catalina Drive, PMB 270
Livermore,  CA 94550-5928
(925) 447-4293

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A novel, robust method of collection and transfer of NEO/Phobos material under micro-gravity conditions under vacuum/space environment with minimal loss of volatiles will be developed and its feasibility demonstrated. The same designs can also be utilized in lunar or Martian applications with only minor modifications. Design of the light-weight flexible conveyor ducts will utilize recently verified regolith simulation software to assure that the concepts are viable under microgravity conditions, and prototypes will be tested under vacuum conditions in Phase-1 (and under micro-gravity during Phase-2). Depending on the drill-head/feeder design selected, these flexible transfer ducts could be used in extraction of material from depths of a meter or more below the surface. Under Martian conditions a 1-cm-diameter conveying duct could deliver 5 kg/hr of material to a processing station for extraction/processing of volatiles. Trade-off studies during Phase-1 will determine potential power saving (if any) in larger diameter conveying ducts (e.g., 1.5 or 2cm dia) and/or the power requirements in a smaller diameter conveying duct (e.g. 0.5 cm dia) under Martian conditions. Unlike conventional screw conveyors, these flexible transfer ducts would be robust to oversize material up to a size of one-half the transfer duct radius. Coupled with an oversize-rejection inlet feeder, the system could provide high reliability transfer of loose regolith with one or two major moving parts. Modular designs are possible, as is the incorporation of energy-efficient ultrasonic (or percussion) drill heads, or sensors near a sub-surface inlet.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The light-weight flexible nature of the novel conveying-core designs proposed for these regolith transport ducts may be suitable for many conventional bulk material transport operations. The light-weight duct-walls for space applications may need to be replaced with heavier, more robust tube walls for long duration continuous-use terrestrial applications. Also the overall distances for screw-conveyor transport that make economic sense under terrestrial gravity, are shorter than would be the case under reduced gravity. Since the mode of flow in these proposed flexible-ducts is significantly different than that used in most conventional screw conveyors, the range of potential applications may cover a wider variety of configurations than are used by conventional rigid screw conveyors. Many terrestrial solids transfer applications where pneumatic transport is currently the best option, may be candidates for the mechanically fluidized flow in the proposed flexible duct conveyors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Modular flexible conveyor ducts can transport regolith horizontally, on inclines, or vertically, and can be designed to operate at any gravity level. Conveying efficiency improves as gravity is reduced . Each module is comprised of a thin outer duct, containing a novel light-weight flexible conveyor core. Transport is totally enclosed and dust-free. The design is robust and tolerant of occasional oversize particles. Minimal maintenance is required, and distances of many 10's of meters could be traversed with no back-and-forth driving of rovers, no dust generation, and consistent steady delivery of material. Beneficiation modules with screen-wire sieves are also possible. For larger operations or longer distances, multiple units could be daisy chained together. Various (ultrasonic or percussion) cutter-drill-heads or feeders could be employed to allow efficient extraction of material at depth. With additional development of drill-head feeder designs, extraction from depths of multiple meters could be achieved.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Resource Extraction


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X2.01-8250
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Cost Heavy Lift Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Seeing Sound - Image Analysis of the Lift-off Acoustic Field

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Leaping Catch, LLC
379 Cheney Highway, #223
Titusville, FL 32780-7272
(321) 698-2593

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sandra Clements
sandra.clements@leapingcatch.com
379 Cheney Highway, #223
Titusville,  FL 32780-7272
(321) 698-2593

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A launch vehicle and its launch facilities are subjected to intense acoustic loads generated by the vehicle's propulsion system. The vehicle, its payload, and facilities must be designed to withstand these loads to ensure mission safety and success. Accurately accounting for the acoustic environment early in the design phase of a new launch vehicle is a high priority. Governments and aerospace entities expend significant resources investigating launch acoustics using a combination of predictive models, full-scale and subscale tests, and test flights. Sensors that acquire acoustic data are deployed over a limited geometry and do not sample the full three-dimensional volume exposed to the acoustic field. Launch imagery samples that three-dimensional volume. Under appropriate conditions, rapidly varying condensation features are generated by the lift-off acoustic field. A software tool will be developed to determine the three-dimensional structure of the field from imagery of these acoustically-induced features. This unique data will be compared to model predictions and will serve to either validate those models or inspire modifications to those models. Improving predictive models contributes to a more reliable and efficient design process for new launch vehicle propulsion systems, and thus reduces associated design costs. Techniques and procedures will be developed and evaluated during the Phase I effort and will be implemented into a software tool during the Phase II effort.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) Use of the tool to validate, or inspire revision(s) to, the acoustic models employed by non-NASA entities including commercial and military space launch service providers. 2) Use the tool to validate, or inspire revision(s) to, computational fluid dynamic models. These models serve the non-NASA propulsion system design process by providing insights into the exhaust flow and flow interactions. 3) Contribute to a more complete understanding of launch acoustics by investigating the lift-off acoustic field of previous, current, and future non-NASA launches.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) Use the tool to validate, or inspire revision(s) to, the acoustic models that NASA uses to design new launch vehicle propulsion systems. Design of the propulsion system for NASA's future heavy lift Space Launch System would benefit from improved acoustic models. 2) Use the tool to validate, or inspire revision(s) to, computational fluid dynamic models. These models serve the propulsion system design process by providing insights into the exhaust flow and flow interactions. 3) Contribute to a more complete understanding of launch acoustics by investigating the lift-off acoustic field of previous NASA launches using archival imagery.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Characterization
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Image Analysis
Image Processing
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Launch Engine/Booster
Spacecraft Main Engine
Surface Propulsion
Acoustic/Vibration


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X2.01-8532
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Cost Heavy Lift Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Alternative Fabrication Designs for Carbon-Carbon (C-C) Nozzle Extensions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Research and Design
300 East Swedesford Road
Wayne, PA 19087-1858
(610) 964-9000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tiffany Boarts
tiffany.boarts@m-r-d.com
300 East Swedesford Road
Wayne,  PA 19087-1858
(610) 964-9000

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In order for carbon-carbon nozzle extensions and exit cones to serve as practical, low cost components for future Earth-to-Orbit propulsion systems, it is necessary to develop alternative fabrication methods coupled with proven design and analysis tools. Two-dimensional (2D) C-C components are typically less expensive and potentially lower weight than C-C parts fabricated using 3D woven preforms. One typical 2D C-C fabrication method uses a tape-wrapping technique in which a bias-ply C/Ph tape is wrapped over a mandrel, cured, carbonized, and graphitized to form a carbon-carbon part. Tape-wrapping has been applied successfully to the development of erosion-resistant carbon-carbon exit cones. An alternative fabrication technique is to replace the flat 2D lay-ups with an involute construction. The involute plies spiral from the inner to outer diameter of the carbon-carbon part providing through-thickness reinforcement to reduce the potential for delaminations. In addition, each ply extends from the forward to the aft end of the part, increasing its axial strength considerably. The overall objective of this program is to design and demonstrate an alternative fabrication technique of nozzle extensions and exit cones on Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) propulsion systems. The Phase I program will be performed by a team of MR&D and ATK Aerospace Systems. The MR&D team is uniquely suited to perform the proposed effort because of previous experience on developing alternative fabrication methods of high-temperature C-C components such as exit cones and aeroshells. MR&D will manage the program, develop the processing and operational models, and design the C-C subcomponents to be fabricated. ATK Aerospace Systems will provide guidance and information as well as fabricate the C-C subcomponents.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
MR&D's core business is to provide design services to the aerospace materials community, so the methods developed here can be used to support other SBIR awardees, or transferred to other propulsion system designers. MR&D is involved in the development of C-C materials on several programs which will serve to establish standardized methods for the design and analysis of propulsion materials and structures for years to come.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Phase I program will lead to improved C-C nozzle extension components for ETO propulsion systems via alternate fabrication methods coupled with proven design and analysis tools. The models developed here will allow various material candidates and involute configurations to be auditioned prior to fabrication and testing, reducing the cost of developing these higher-performance materials considerably. The technology developed here will also have a direct impact on the design and manufacturing of alternative C-C fabrication methods, and metal-to-composite nozzle joints for all future propulsion system designs by offering a domestically available alternative to the non-domestic state-of-the-art, such as the nozzle extension designed for RL 10B-2. Benefits include increased performance, and weight and cost savings, together with a larger supplier base for the fabrication of refractory composite nozzles and nozzle extensions for future heavy-lift launch propulsion systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Processing Methods
Composites
Launch Engine/Booster
Spacecraft Main Engine
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X2.02-8624
SUBTOPIC TITLE: High Thrust In-Space Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced High Efficiency Durable DACS Thruster

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Systima Technologies, Inc.
1832 180th Street South East
Bothell, WA 98012-6454
(425) 487-4020

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stephanie Sawhill
stephanie.sawhill@systima.com
1832 180th St. SE
Bothell,  WA 98012-6454
(425) 487-4020

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Systima is developing a high performance 25 lbf DACS thruster that operates with a novel non-toxic monopropellant. The monopropellant has a 30% higher density-specific impulse compared to hydrazine and is commercially available off-the-shelf. In Phase I Systima will focus on development of the propellant feed and injection system, and In Phase II these systems will be integrated into a complete thruster design. The Phase II work plan includes a system demonstrate with propellant in a workhorse thruster.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
These applications are especially hampered by current toxic monopropellants and would be enabled by readily adaptable green monopropellant technology. Long range missile defense systems for early intercept would also benefit greatly by gaining the benefit from the wide divert capability of a liquid system without the compromising issues of having toxic monopropellants aboard ship or in confined military installations. It is also possible that this technology could be applied to torpedo propulsion systems and emergency power generation systems to provide greater safety and improved handling costs. These systems are also limited by the use of toxic monopropellants.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is no limitation to the vehicle control applications to which this technology can be applied; it is suitable to satellite ACS (large or small, commercial or military, intended for low earth orbit or for geosynchronous orbit, etc.), missile system ACS or in-space propulsion systems. The reduced toxicity and handling infrastructure could be especially of interest to re-usable space vehicles, rapid access to space applications and shipboard missile systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Atmospheric Propulsion
Fuels/Propellants
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine
Surface Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X2.02-9675
SUBTOPIC TITLE: High Thrust In-Space Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rotating Cavitation Supression

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Florida Turbine Technologies, Inc.
1701 Military Trail, Suite 110
Jupiter, FL 33458-7887
(561) 427-6337

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Frank Huber
FHuber@fttinc.com
1701 Military Trail
Jupiter,  FL 33458-7887
(561) 427-6277

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
FTT proposes development of a rotating cavitation (RC) suppressor for liquid rocket engine turbopump inducers. Cavitation instabilities, such as rotating cavitation, have caused severe damage to bearings and seals, fatigue failures, and even catastrophic failures of rocket engines. In addition, cavitation instabilities hamper suction performance, which prevents developments related to increasing payload by reducing overall vehicle weight with thinner propellant tank walls. An RC suppressor will allow for increased suction performance and for improved turbopump reliability by reducing loads on the rotor support system. This technology has applications for any rocket engine turbopump or commercial pump. FTT's approach will mature the conceptual design for the Slotted Annular Cavitation Suppressor (SACS), compare results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of a baseline inducer with and without the SACS, create a test plan, and generate a conceptual design of a test article to test the SACS. Phase I will advance this technology from TRL 2 to TRL 3. Phase II will culminate with water testing of the RC suppressor and data reduction, and will advance it to TRL 5.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology can also be applied to commercial pumps where improved cavitation margin is desired.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology will apply to any high performance rocket engine turbopump to increase suction performance. NASA can apply the technology to any future or existing turbopumps.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Launch Engine/Booster
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X2.02-9698
SUBTOPIC TITLE: High Thrust In-Space Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lattice Regenerative Cooling Methods (LRCM)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Orbital Technologies Corporation
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717-1961
(608) 827-5000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
J. Arthur Sauer
sauerc@orbitec.com
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison,  WI 53717-1961
(608) 229-2752

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ORBITEC proposes to develop and demonstrate a novel cooling concept called Lattice Regenerative Cooling Methods (LRCM) for future high thrust in-space propulsion systems. Incorporation of ORBITEC's innovative lattice structures in the fabrication of thrust chambers for expander cycle engine systems will maximize the heat transfer into the coolant fluid, expand design options, enable substantial cost savings, and reduce lead times for component fabrication. Using rapid prototyping technology, the LRCM hybrid fabrication approach allows for the rapid casting of near-net shape metallic thrust chamber components. The lattice passages allow for turbulent flows through the cooling jacket which induces mixing in the coolant. During Phase I, monolithic chamber wall sections incorporating the LRCM lattice structure will be fabricated and tested in a hot-fire test conditions in ORBITEC's propulsion testing facilities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The LRCM high performance cooling approaches could be used in a wide range of Air Force, DoD, or commercial applications including large-scale booster engines, RCS thrusters, and other in-space propulsion systems. Beyond the needs of NASA, it is expected that the LRCM manufacturing technology will be integrated into ORBITEC thrust chambers for other customers such as the U.S. Air Force's USLV (7-30K lbf) propulsion systems and future commercial launch applications. ORBITEC will market this technology to other rocket engine manufacturers. We are currently under contract with Boeing to provide propulsion system design and analysis for an upcoming DoD procurement where the LRCM technology would be of tremendous benefit. In addition, we have been approached by Lockheed Martin for information on our propulsion technologies and other technologies for future programs. Other commercial applications for this cooling technology may include industrial burners and large-scale, power-generating gas turbines.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary focus of this activity is to develop innovative cooling approaches for rocket combustion devices that will expand the performance envelope and reduce the manufacturing cost of future high thrust in-space propulsion systems for NASA. LRCM components and subassemblies will be developed for implementation in an operational engine system during the Phase III program. The same high performance cooling approaches could be used in a wide range of propulsion applications including large-scale booster engines, RCS thrusters, and other in-space propulsion systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Processing Methods
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Atmospheric Propulsion
Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Propulsion
Launch Engine/Booster
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine
Surface Propulsion
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X2.03-8323
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Electric Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multiscale Modeling of Hall Thrusters

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Particle in Cell Consulting
1918 Miracle Lane
Falls Church, VA 22043-1520
(661) 202-9812

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lubos Brieda
lubos.brieda@particleincell.com
1918 Miracle Lane
Falls Church,  VA 22043-1520
(661) 202-9812

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
New multiscale modeling capability for analyzing advanced Hall thrusters is proposed. This technology offers NASA the ability to reduce development effort of new high power Hall thrusters, and reduce system complexity and increase system lifetime and durability. Historically, efforts to model Hall thrusters utilized either hybrid/fluid approach which reduce computational overhead but rely on analytical fits, or required prohibitive computational resources to model thrusters self-consistently. Even with the use of large supercomputers, the self-consistent approach was limited to small, low power thrusters. We propose a new approach in which electron transport along magnetic field lines is computed self-consistently using a kinetic code for electrons, but global cross-field properties are computed using a 2D hybrid code. This approach combines the benefits of fully kinetic self-consistent modeling with the performance gain of hybrid models. The model will be able to analyze Hall thruster discharges without requiring any user-specified mobility fits. The model will also require only computational resources available in a standard desktop workstation. In addition, ions exiting the thruster will be sampled to generate a discretized source model for use with subsequent thruster plume modeling. Plume modeling is necessary to optimize thruster spacecraft coupling, and reduce possible instrument and spacecraft component contamination effects. These three components, magnetic field line, thruster discharge, and the spacecraft environment, form the three scales of our multiscale approach. In this effort we will concentrate on extending the capability of modeling thruster discharges by developing a new light-weight hybrid code with built in support for kinetic mobility modeling.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The need to simplify the design and analysis, and reduce the inherent complexity of Hall thrusters is not limited to NASA. Other government entities, including the Air Force, have an existing need for such programs. Our effort will be applicable to both the high power Hall thrusters proposed by NASA, as well as low power thrusters being investigated by other government entities and commercial partners for near-Earth operations such as station keeping and orbit rising. The simulation tool that will be developed under this effort can thus also serve private industry, companies such as Aerojet, Busek that are developing Hall thrusters and will be able to use this predictive tool in the design process. In addition, we plan to leverage the lessons learned in this effort to further enhance multiscale modeling capability for rarefied gas applications. One such topic includes modeling of space environment interactions. The spacecraft community in large is in need of codes that can predict potential contamination and charging events, and their effect on spacecraft operation. Of interest is the wall interaction of plasma particles. The domains of interest (spacecraft system) are of size too large to allow direct modeling of wall interaction details. Multiscale modeling of the system is thus required.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The product that will be developed under this proposal will directly benefit NASA by providing it with a tool capable of analyzing the influence of various system variables during the design process of new high power Hall thrusters. Possible uses include selection of wall materials to reduce electron energy losses, selection of wall materials to improve thruster lifetime, optimization of magnetic circuit to take advantage of effects such as the magnetic mirror and magnetic lens, optimization of thruster geometry by utilizing non-conventional designs such as cylindrical or multi-channel configuration, and optimizing the electron currents produced by the cathode to reduce plume divergence and thus reduce plume divergence. Predictive thruster model will in addition serve as a source model for plume modeling of the thruster integrated on a spacecraft. This will allow the mission designer to optimize the placement of the thruster on the spacecraft to reduce secondary interaction of plume particles with sensitive spacecraft sensors and components.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Space Transportation & Safety
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Ceramics
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X2.03-8838
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Electric Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Iodine Hall Thruster for Space Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Busek Co. Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Szabo
jszabo@busek.com
11 Tech Circle
Natick,  MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Busek Co. Inc. proposes to develop a high power (high thrust) electric propulsion system featuring an iodine fueled Hall Effect Thruster (HET). The system to be developed will include a thruster, hollow cathode, and condensable propellant feed system. The nominal power level of the thruster developed in this program will be 20 to 50 kW. The thruster can be clustered to support ~200 kW class missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond. In a future program, the technology can be scaled to ~100 kW per thruster to support MW-class missions. The available specific impulse can be throttled between 1500s to will be as high as 3000 to 4000 s. The use of iodine propellant enables significant mass and cost savings for lunar and Mars cargo missions, including Earth escape and near-Earth space maneuvers. High purity iodine is readily available commercially in large quantities at a fraction of the cost of xenon. Iodine stores at a density that is 3 times greater than xenon and at less than one thousandth of the pressure. Thus, iodine may be stored in low volume, low mass, low cost propellant tanks instead of the relatively large, high pressure, high cost COPV tanks required for xenon Hall thruster systems. Busek has already demonstrated a low power (several hundred watts) iodine thruster system based upon its flight qualified BHT-200 thruster. At most points, the efficiency are the same or nearly the same given experimental uncertainty. However, iodine may have a significant performance advantage at high power: Iodine yielded significantly higher specific impulse and thrust to power at higher input power. This effect will be investigated with the proposed high power system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For DoD missions, including orbit raising for high power satellites and upper stages, the customer is the Air Force, via other defense contractors. A decade ago, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) initiated a program to cluster HETs as a means to reach the 100 kW to 150 kW power range desired for orbit transfer vehicles, space tugs, and re-supply vessels. Busek is working on the design an upper stage based upon the ESPA ring. A high power iodine Hall thruster system will would enable a high throughput (propellant mass >1200 kg), high delta-V orbit transfer stage based upon the ESPA ring. To carry more than ~450 kg of propellant, the system would have to be fitted with additional Xe propellant tanks that hang on the outside of the ring. With iodine, the ring could easily contain over 1200 kg of propellant. For truly commercial activities, such as GTO to GEO transfers, the customers are commercial satellite vendors and operators. Other potential customers are the emerging satellite servicing ventures such as MacDonald Dettwiler SIS and Vivisat.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed 20 to 50 kW thruster system has many applications both as a stand-alone system and as part of a much larger (higher power) cluster. The thruster will be well suited for orbit raising and interplanetary transfers, supporting exploration and science missions. The demonstrated throttling ability is important for a singular thruster that might be called upon to propel a spacecraft from Earth to Mars or Venus. Mars orbits at 1.52 AU, which reduces the solar constant to 43% of the value at Earth. Venus orbits at 0.72 AU, which increases the solar constant to 190% of the value at Earth. As a result the output power of a nominal 10 kW array varies between 4.3 and 19.1 kW as a spacecraft travels between these planets. The ability to throttle efficiently is even more important for missions beyond Mars.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Fuels/Propellants
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X2.03-9028
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Electric Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid Direct Drive PPU with Extended Operating Range

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Colorado Power Electronics, Inc.
120 Commerce Drive, Unit 1
Fort Collins, CO 80524-4731
(970) 482-0191

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bryce Hesterman
bryce.hesterman@c-pwr.com
120 Commerce Drive, Unit 1
Fort Collins,  CO 80524-4731
(970) 482-0191

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
High-power electric propulsion with Hall thrusters has been proposed as a strong candidate for Electric Path missions, but conventional power processing units (PPUs) are complicated and the mass of the discharge power converters needs to be reduced. Direct Discharge Power Processing Units (DDUs) have been proposed as an alternative due to their simplicity and low mass, but the achievable operating range of thrust and ISP is significantly limited because power regulation for DDUs is only achieved through gas flow control, array offpointing or shunting. This proposal presents a compromise between PPUs and DDUs called a Hybrid Direct Drive Power Processing Unit (HDDU) that provides a wider operating range than DDUs while reducing the mass and increasing the efficiency compared to conventional PPUs. An HDDU provides filtering like a DDU, but it can additionally raise or lower the discharge voltage over a limited range. An HDDU only processes the power necessary to raise or lower the discharge voltage. Several different converter circuits can be used in an HDDU. One approach uses an isolated high-efficiency resonant DC-DC converter with connections that can be configured through a set of electromechanical relays. Another approach uses a novel soft-switching non-inverting buck-boost circuit that requires no relays, but is a little less efficient than resonant circuits. Straight-through direct drive operation is possible with either type of converter. The proposed HDDU would operate from an input voltage of 150 V to 300 V, and would provide 10 kW output power over a limited range such as from 150 V to 500 V. The HDDU approach is readily scalable by connecting modules in parallel because both proposed circuits naturally share output currents. The modular approach and enhanced operating range increase design re-use and reduce life-cycle costs. A Phase II project could include making a more flight-like discharge supply and adding heater, keeper and magnet supplies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Hybrid Direct Drive Power Processing Units could be used for commercial and military satellites, both for station keeping and orbit lifting. The advantages outlined for NASA applications also apply here. One specific non-NASA application is for Aerojet thrusters that are being developed for geosynchronous satellite use. Commercial non-flight applications include laboratory bench power supplies. A path to high volume sales may be achieved by using the converters refined in this SBIR for general purpose scientific equipment. The power converters used in the HDDUs could be re-purposed for a variety of power conversion applications such as fuel-cell output converters, solar array simulators and hybrid vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Hybrid Direct Drive Power Processing Units are well-suited for both manned and unmanned Electric Path missions, and can be readily scaled to hundreds of kilowatts through parallel-connected modules. With presently-available semiconductors, the optimum power level per module is probably around 10 kW, but higher-power semiconductors are expected to become available in the near future. The power converters used in the HDDUs could be re-purposed for a variety of power conversion applications such as fuel-cell output converters and solar array simulators. The primary market for this technology is for high-power low-cost electric propulsion systems where Hall thrusters are likely to be used. It is anticipated that the CPE HDDU will have a lower cost than state-of-the-art PPU designs. Additionally, the high specific mass and high efficiency will reduce the overall system cost. The enhanced operating range capabilities compared to a pure direct drive can help enable missions where shifts between high thrust for short-term maneuvers and high ISP for long-term operation are desirable. The wide-range capabilities and a modular design also enable one HDDU design to be used in a variety of different applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airship/Lighter-than-Air Craft
Manufacturing Methods
Conversion
Distribution/Management
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X3.01-8150
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Enabling Technologies for Biological Life Support
PROPOSAL TITLE: Bio-Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Removal for Air Revitalization in Exploration Life Support Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cambrian Innovation, Inc.
27 Drydock Avenue Floor 2
Boston, MA 02210-2382
(617) 307-1755

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zhen Huang
zhuang@cambrianinnovation.com
27 Drydock Avenue Floor 2
Boston,  MA 02210-2382
(617) 307-1755

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An important aspect of the ISS air revitalization system for life support is the removal of carbon dioxide from cabin air and retrieves oxygen from CO2. The current state of art technology for CO2 reduction is Sabatier reaction, which is energy intensive and results in excess CO2. Cambrian Innovation has developed an electromethanogenesis bio-electrochemical system (BES) that is focused on reducing costs associated with CO2 reduction. The two-chambered BES system is designed to operate by producing a reliable stream of O2 while simultaneously bio-electrochemically reducing CO2 to CH4 and H2O. Phase I experiments and analysis will be used to determine whether it will be feasible to develop a cell which can replace the existing Sabatier reactor. Through Phase II and Phase III R&D we hope to develop and test a BES CO2 removal system for potential utilization aboard the ISS or related crewed systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed system might also find use in other CO2 sequestration applications. For example, combining photo-voltaic (PV) technology, the proposed BES could be applied to converting CO2 directly to natural gas in coal fired power plants which supply readily available CO2.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed electromethanogenesis BES could potentially replace the existing Sabatier reactor in Air Revitalization System with the benefit of higher CO2 removal efficiency and lower power draw.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Waste Storage/Treatment


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X3.02-8996
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Accommodations and Waste Processing for Long Duration Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Highly Efficient Fecal Waste Incinerator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
UMPQUA Research Company
P.O. Box 609
Myrtle Creek, OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-7770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Holtsnider
holtsnider@urcmail.net
PO Box 609
Myrtle Creek,  OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-2663

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Volume reduction is a critical element of Solid Waste Management for manned spacecraft and planetary habitations. To this end, the proposed fecal waste incinerator may be utilized to completely mineralize feces to harmless inorganic substances such as CO2 and water. These products may then be rerouted to the ECLSS processes for hydrogen CO2 reduction to form water and water electrolysis to yield oxygen and hydrogen. Fecal oxidation takes place in two coupled reactors utilizing advanced heat exchanger technology, one to incinerate the feces and the second to oxidize incineration products. Little energy input is required due to the use of fecal matter heat of combustion in combination with efficient heat exchange. Feces are incinerated immediately after collection, eliminating the need for waste stabilization that would otherwise be required to eliminate offensive odors and control microbial growth. All evolved gases including incompletely oxidized volatile organics are passed through a catalytic reactor, ensuring complete combustion to avoid loading the Trace Contaminant Control System. This innovative system is light, compact, simple, energy efficient, contains few moving parts, is virtually maintenance free, and requires little astronaut time.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications of this technology include the efficient incineration of medical wastes to insure sterilization and prevent the spread of pathogenic microorganisms. Another attractive application of this technology will be the incineration of toilet wastes at remote locations, on board ships, or in third world countries where in particular pathogens are commonly transmitted via fecal waste.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA application of this technology will be as Flight Hardware for deployment in support of future long duration manned missions. The primary application will be for eliminating fecal waste produced during manned space operations, although this technology may also be applied toward incineration of other solid wastes such as non-edible, plant mass produced by agricultural cultivation in space habitats. In addition, concentrated organic vapors produced by other solid waste treatment processes may be efficiently oxidized by utilizing this novel approach.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Remediation/Purification
Waste Storage/Treatment


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X3.02-9012
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Accommodations and Waste Processing for Long Duration Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Microgravity Compatible, Integrated Laundry System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
UMPQUA Research Company
P.O. Box 609
Myrtle Creek, OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-7770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Michalek
michalek@urcmail.net
PO Box 609
Myrtle Creek,  OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-2654

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Advanced Microgravity Compatible, Integrated Laundry (AMCIL) is a microgravity compatible liquid / liquid vapor, two-phase laundry system with water jet agitation and vacuum assisted drying. Umpqua Research Company previously developed a complete microgravity compatible Single Phase Laundry System (SPLS). Single-phase operation during the wash cycle facilitated microgravity compatible fluidics and eliminated problems associated with foams. Pulsed water jets were utilized to agitate the clothing. Drying was achieved with microwave assisted vacuum drying followed by a tumble cycle that greatly enhanced softness in the previously vacuum pressed clothing. Tumbling was achieved by an array of three air jets, two to generate a cyclonic effect and a third to induce tumbling by blowing perpendicular to the plane of rotation. This concept was successfully demonstrated during a KC-135 microgravity simulation flight. The proposed AMCIL concept will build on the SPLS technology and incorporate key design improvements to reduced water requirements and lower power consumption. Specific advancements include a redesigned wash cycle that consumes less water and reduces power demand. The Phase I effort will demonstrate the feasibility of the microgravity compatible liquid / liquid vapor, two-phase washing concept in a laboratory scale system. A complete, automated prototype unit that incorporates the system parameters established during the Phase I tests will be designed, fabricated, and tested during the Phase II program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
AMCIL has potential utility in any application where long term habitation is coupled with limited access. Some obvious examples include isolated military outposts, research stations, naval vessels, research vessels, and commercial ships. Each of these installations feature similar restrictions on available clean water, energy, and waste storage. The ability to wash and reuse clothing with equipment that consumes small amounts of these valuable resources will reduce resupply requirements and improve quality of life.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA application for the AMCIL system will be as Flight Hardware for deployment in support of long duration human missions beyond low Earth orbit where reductions in replacement clothing will lower the ESM for crew accommodations. The AMCIL system is suitable for use in any long term space mission where resupply logistics preclude routine delivery of fresh crew clothing and removal of disposable clothing articles. While the proposed laundry system is microgravity compatible, the system will be completely functional in reduced gravity environments. Specifically, the proposed laundry technology will be suited to deployment on the Lunar and Mars surfaces, at Lagrange points, and onboard long range transit vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Remediation/Purification
Waste Storage/Treatment
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X3.02-9079
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Accommodations and Waste Processing for Long Duration Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Performance Forward Osmosis Membrane Element

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Porifera Inc.
3507 Breakwater Avenue
Hayward, CA 94545-3610
(510) 695-2777

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aleksandr Noy
alex@poriferanano.com
3507 Breakwater Ave.
Hayward,  CA 94545-3610
(510) 695-2777

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Forward Osmosis (FO) is a promising technology for wastewater treatment applications. FO-based treatment does not require external pressure, can use lightweight components, and has low propensity to foul. Yet, the biggest obstacle to the use of FO processes is the low level of performance of the current commercial FO membranes. This project will use the novel high-flux and high-rejection FO membrane developed by Porifera, scaling up the membrane area, and incorporating it into a membrane module. The project will benchmark the membrane performance in the module, and deliver a module to NASA for further testing in NASA-specific applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
FO-based water treatment could have important applications in the marketplace. Currently, there is an enormous unfilled need (more than 2 Billion gallons/year) in the produced water market from oil and gas drilling, and FO could fill that niche with a simple, economical, and sustainable solution. Other industrial applications of FO range from food and beverage industry use to auxiliary power generation from Pressure-retarded osmosis processes.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
FO-based treatment processes have direct relevance to NASA's efforts to create technologies for long-term sustainability in space missions, specifically for treating grey water and even black water generated by the crew during space flight. Moreover, NASA's Sustainability Base program incorporates the forward-osmosis based greywater recycling effort (run by Dr. M. Flynn at ARC) that would benefit directly and immediately from the results of this project.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Remediation/Purification


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X3.03-9108
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring and Fire Protection for Spacecraft Autonomy
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Rapid Coliform Detector

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Orbital Technologies Corporation
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717-1961
(608) 827-5000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ross Remiker
remikerr@orbitec.com
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison,  WI 53717-1961
(608) 229-2746

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid genetic detector for spaceflight water systems to enable real-time detection of E. coli with minimal consumables and crew time. The Rapid Coliform Detector (RCD) amplifies the genetic material in a liquid sample to allow near real-time identification of specific genetic sequences, in this case, that of E. coli. This easy-to-use device incorporates a patented polymerase enzyme that enables rapid RNA amplification by reagents with superior long-term shelf life and thermal stability. A color change indicator will show the presence or absence of coliform bacteria in the water within 30 minutes. The results of the Phase 1 will be test data from prototype test kits and chemical reagents for rapid coliform detection which brings the RCD to TRL 4. The anticipated results of the Phase 2 are a flight-like prototype of the complete test kit and reaction chamber, performance test results at 1g, and reduced gravity operational test results, which bring the technology to TRL 6.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The combined goals of this proposal will have a significant impact on terrestrial water quality management and on current diagnostic capability for detection of waterborne disease outbreaks, especially in areas that are currently not well served. Enhanced access to in-the-field diagnosis of locally relevant diseases will improve sanitation among populations in resource-limited settings. The technology will also promote better understanding of the epidemiology of emerging zoonotic and pandemic pathogens in real-time, will significantly reduce the response time to serious outbreaks, and could help combat any potential future biological threats.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The RCD provides indication of the presence of E. coli within 30 minutes of sampling, with minimal consumable hardware. The RCD reduces crew time by eliminating the need to unstow, check, and restow a test kit after 2 days, and again after 5 days. Unlike the Water Microbiology Kit (WMK), there is no need for a syringe of growth media, and the RCD microbial capture device is smaller and lighter than that of the WMK. Another advantage of the rapid test is that if an E. coli infection is suspected in space, potential sources can be tested, and results determined quickly, so additional infections can be avoided. This technology can be used on the ISS and on future long-duration spaceflight missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Medical
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X3.03-9658
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring and Fire Protection for Spacecraft Autonomy
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Microfluidic Instrument for Spacecraft Environmental Monitoring

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
HJ Science & Technology, Inc.
187 Saratoga Avenue
Santa Clara, CA 95050-6657
(408) 464-3873

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hong Jiao
hong_jiao@yahoo.com
187 Saratoga Avenue
Santa Clara,  CA 95050-6657
(408) 464-3873

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
HJ Science & Technology, Inc. proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of an integrated "lab-on-a-chip" technology capable of in-situ, high throughput, and real time identification and characterization of a variety of toxic metals, organics, and bacteria biomarkers in spacecraft water supplies onboard the International Space Station. The novel technology combines automated programmable on-chip sample processing technology, microchip capillary electrophoresis, and laser induced fluorescence detection in a miniaturized format. In terms of spacecraft environmental monitoring, the in situ measurement capability of our portable platform offers important advantages including reduction in time and cost, real-time data for better and more timely decision making, and reduction in sample consumption. In addition to the unprecedented sensitivity, efficiency, selectivity, and throughput compared with the current state-of-the-art technologies, the proposed miniature instrument also meets the stringent space-flight requirements including small consumption of sample and reagent , low-mass, low–power consumption, rapid analysis time, and microgravity compatibility. In Phase I, we will establish the technical feasibility of the technology by analyzing fluorescently labeled ketones and aldehydes as a proof of principle demonstration. In Phase II, the main focus will direct towards the development of a miniaturized prototype to be delivered to NASA by incorporating the most promising design based on the results of Phase I as well including additional detection modules in order to extend the measurement and analysis capability to other contaminants relevant to spacecraft environmental monitoring.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The toxic contaminants potentially present in the water supply aboard the International Space Station are also a serious concern to human health on earth because they are common environmental pollutants present in air, food, drinking water, and soil. The proposed technology therefore can be a powerful analytical tool with significant commercial potential for a wide range of in situ environmental monitoring applications. In addition to environmental monitoring, other commercial devices based on the microfluidics technology envisioned include components for DNA, protein and drug separation and analysis, chemical analysis systems, drug delivery systems, and embedded health monitoring systems. The relative simplicity and unmatched capability of these micro-devices will enable numerous, large-scale commercial markets to be infused with the technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our novel integrated microfluidics technology has great potential to enhance NASA's current efforts to monitor spacecraft environment. In particular, the microanalytical instrument is capable of performing rapid simultaneous measurements of a variety of toxic contaminants in spacecraft drinking water supply aboard the International Space Station. In addition, the microfluidic technology is naturally suited to such important NASA programs as planetary and small body surface chemistry studies. It also has broad applications including on-chip biosensors, electrochemical sensors, wet-chemistry systems, as well as high pressure micropumps for fluid positioning, mixing, metering, storage, and filtering systems, clinical diagnostics, spacecraft and biosphere environmental monitoring, and toxicology studies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Biological Signature (i.e., Signs Of Life)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X3.03-9754
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring and Fire Protection for Spacecraft Autonomy
PROPOSAL TITLE: Improved Combustion Products Monitor for the ISS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Southwest Sciences, Inc.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505-3993
(505) 984-1322

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joel Silver
jsilver@swsciences.com
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe,  NM 87505-3993
(505) 984-1322

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Compound Specific Analyzer - Combustion Products is used on the International Space Station as a warning monitor of smoldering or combustion events and, after any fire event, to indicate that toxic gas levels have subsided for safe re-entry of the crew to the affected area. This monitor is being phased out of service. Southwest Sciences Inc. proposes to develop a replacement laser-based sensor using wavelength modulation spectroscopic absorption. This device would be capable of real-time measurements of the four most important gases of interest at concentration levels relevant to pre-combustion events and with a one second response time. This battery-operated device would be hand-held, use very little electrical power, and have a multi-year lifetime without the need for consumables, re-calibration, or maintenance, in contrast to the currently-used sensor. The Phase I research would perform a trade study and then test the most promising opto-mechanical designs for making simultaneous measurements of the four gases in a single optical cell with a minimal number of lasers. It would also demonstrate the ability to make multiple gas measurements over a wide range of concentrations using a single spectral scan. This work will allow us to design, test and build a prototype sensor in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This same gas sensor could also be used on a wide variety of platforms (e.g. aircraft, balloons, ground-based network, etc.). Since it is designed for long-term operation with minimal attention and maintenance, it is expected to find use in validation of remote data sensing satellites and for in situ measurements in atmospheric research. Other Governmental and commercial needs include the development of fire sensors for other agencies and applications, such as in submarines or aircraft, as well as compact, general purpose fire and industrial gas sensors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful development of an integrated, robust fire detection sensor will allow NASA to adopt a high-reliability system for detection of smoldering and/or fires in the International Space Station and other manned spacecraft. Such systems will become more important as we begin extended-duration flights to the Moon and Mars. The same gas sensing platform also could be used for meeting the needs for a multi-gas sensor for monitoring cabin air, gas regeneration, and life support systems. Longer term NASA applications could include adaptation of the instrument for measurements of the componenets of planetary atmospheres, using space-qualified electronics and further ruggedization of the mechanical and thermal design. Applications could include measurements of atmospheric gases on Mars (e.g. water vapor, methane), Venus (SO2), Titan (methane, ethane), or other future planetary missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Fire Protection
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X3.04-9372
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation and Thermal Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Water Recovery for Regenerative Life Support Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Izenson
mgi@creare.com
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Thermal and environmental control systems for future exploration spacecraft must meet challenging requirements for efficient operation and conservation of resources. Regenerative CO2 removal systems are attractive for these missions because they do not use consumable CO2 absorbers. However, these systems also absorb water and vent it to space along with the carbon dioxide. This water loss can be prohibitively costly for long-duration missions. Conventional condensing heat exchangers for water conservation are not attractive, since they would add a significant load to a spacecraft's thermal control system. We propose to develop an innovative water recovery system that minimizes water lost from regenerative CO2 control systems without additional demands on the thermal control system. This approach addresses the need for water recovery systems in long-duration missions, reduces the need for consumables by enabling use of state-of-the-art regenerative CO2 removal systems, and minimizes demands on the spacecraft thermal control system. In Phase I we will prove the feasibility of our approach through proof-of-concept tests, trade-off studies, and prototype design. In Phase II we will build the prototype and measure its performance under conditions that simulate operation in a spacecraft life support system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Creare's water recovery system can be used in terrestrial fuel cell power systems, where water management is a critical balance of plant function. It will be particularly useful for vehicles powered by PEM fuel cells, where compact size and light weight are critical requirements.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Creare's water recovery system will enable exploration spacecraft to undertake long-duration missions while conserving water, will not increase the size of the spacecraft thermal management system, and enables use of state-of-the-art, pressure-swing absorption systems for CO2 removal. Applications include crewed exploration vehicles and manned surface rovers. The unit is compact, typically weighs less than one day's worth of water loss, and adds negligible air pressure drop to the cabin ventilation circuit. Combined with Creare's nonventing radiator technology, a similar system could be used in future EVA suits to prevent water from being vented along with carbon dioxide.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Active Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X3.04-9673
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation and Thermal Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Micro tube heat exchangers for Space

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mezzo Technologies
7167 Florida Boulevard
Baton Rouge, LA 70806-4549
(225) 706-0191

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffrey McLean
mclean@mezzotech.com
7167 Florida Boulevard
Baton Rouge,  LA 70806-4549
(225) 706-0191

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 6
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Mezzo fabricates micro tube heat exchangers for a variety of applications, including aerospace, automotive racing, Department of Defense ground vehicles, economizers for ships, condensers, evaporators, liquid-liquid, liquid-air, recuperators, etc. Mezzo's expertise is designing, modeling and fabricating heat exchangers that use thousands, even tens of thousands, of stainless steel or nickel alloy micro tubes that provide performance advantages over competing technologies. With respect to radiators, Mezzo's products provide a heat transfer/air side pressure drop ratio improvement of around 40-50%. This means that within a given envelope and specified air flow rate, Mezzo's products can provide a specified heat transfer with greatly reduced air side pressure drop. This fact allows lighter fans that consume less power and weigh less. In general, Mezzo products weigh less for given heat transfer. In high pressure applications, Mezzo heat exchangers provide even greater reductions in weight and volume. Mezzo is currently fabricting an economizer for the Navy that is les than half the weight and volume of the brazed plate heat exchanger currently in use. There are many advantages to Mezzo's micro tube technology. The technology is robust (Mezzo's products are currently passing rigorous DoD shock and vibration tests, salt fog tests, fouling tests, etc. Mezzo heat exchangers provide weight, volume, and performance savings. They have interesting capabilities with respect to shape options. Finally, they have not been considered yet in NASA applications. The goal of this proposal is to introduce the NASA community to Mezzo products and determine those applications where Mezzo's heat exchangers can provide the most value.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Trucking radiators, energy recovery heat exchangers on trucks, automobile racing thermal products, condensers, evaporators.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Radiators, recuperators, flexible heat exchangers, phase change material heat exchangers, nuclear power based heat exchangers

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Storage
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Active Systems
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X3.04-9990
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation and Thermal Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Multi-Environment Thermal Control System With Freeze-Tolerant Radiator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Weibo Chen
wbc@creare.com
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future space exploration missions require advanced thermal control systems (TCS) to dissipate heat from spacecraft, rovers, or habitats to external environments. We propose to develop a lightweight, reliable TCS to effectively maintain cabin and equipment temperatures under widely varying heat loads and ambient temperatures. The proposed system uses freeze-tolerant radiators, which eliminate the need for a secondary circulation loop or heat pipe systems. Each radiator has a self-regulating variable thermal conductance to its ambient environment. The variable conductance will enable the TCS to maintain the cabin and equipment at a tightly controlled temperature. The TCS uses a nontoxic working fluid that is compatible with existing lightweight aluminum heat exchangers. The TCS is lightweight, compact, and requires very little pumping power. In Phase I, we will prove the feasibility of our approach through performance demonstration of a key component in the TCS system and detailed system design and analysis. In Phase II we will build a TCS demonstrator and obtain test data to show its unique performance advantages.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The advanced thermal control system has applications in commercial and military satellites, as well as high-power electronics and photonics cooling.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed system is suitable for any future manned spacecraft, rovers, and habitats, with applications that include lunar, Mars, and asteroid exploration. The thermal control technology can also be employed on other unmanned spacecraft, including satellites and exploration rovers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Active Systems
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X4.01-8789
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Suit Pressure Garment and Airlock Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Novel Approach to Highly Damage Tolerant and Abrasion Resistant EVA Gloves

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NEI Corporation
201 Circle Drive North, Suite 102/103
Piscataway, NJ 08873-1154
(732) 868-3141

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Runqing Ou
rou@neicorporation.com
201 Circle Drive N., Suite 102/103
Piscataway,  NJ 08873-1154
(732) 868-3141

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As part of the spacesuit pressure garment, the EVA glove incorporates a silicone pad on the palm for protection of the bladder from cuts and punctures. Repeated gripping and rotational motion cause delamination of the silicone pad from the underlying Vectran® fabric. In addition, frequent scuffing causes damage to the palm pad and loss of material and material functions. Improving adhesion of the silicone layer with the underlying fabric, and enhancing the overall mechanical properties of the glove surface, will beneficially impact extravehicular activities by the astronauts. In Phase I, we propose to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a silicone nanocomposite palm pad material with enhanced adhesive and mechanical properties, and the ability to self-heal scratches and microcracks. The novel silicone nanocomposite combines a nanoscale additive and a self-healing agent into a unique structure in ways never done before. The program is a collaborative effort with a NASA spacesuit contractor. Test coupons with a silicone nanocomposite coating on Vectran® fabric will be used to demonstrate proof of concept. The Phase II program will build upon the Phase I demonstration effort by implementing the technology in a prototype glove assembly.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
An immediate commercial application of the silicone nanocomposite technology is heat resistant silicone gloves/pot holders/oven mitts, which represent a specialty rubber glove sector of the global rubber gloves market. The proposed silicone nanocomposite technology also has immense potential in industrial textile coatings that are used in various sectors, including manufacturing and processing, transportation, construction, sports and leisure, and personal and property protection.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to the EVA glove, the proposed silicone nanocomposite technology will help to reduce the coating weight on airbags used for MER applications while maintaining or increasing the seam strength. This generic technology may also be utilized in a broad range of space applications, including inflatable space structures, parachutes and space suits.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Textiles


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X4.01-9175
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Suit Pressure Garment and Airlock Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Organic Aerogels with Improved Resilience and Flexibility for Multifunctional Protection in Spacesuits

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aspen Aerogels, Inc.
30 Forbes Road, Building B
Northborough, MA 01532-2501
(508) 691-1161

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Roxana Trifu
rtrifu@aerogel.com
30 Forbes Road, Bldg B
Northborough,  MA 01532-2501
(508) 691-1161

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aspen Aerogels Inc. proposes to develop high resilience polymeric aerogel for use as a multifunctional spacesuit material which will significantly improve human comfort and maneuverability in advanced extravehicular activity (EVA). The proposed aerogel material will exhibit excellent elastic recovery, flexibility, durability, temperature sensitive water permeability, along with excellent thermal insulation properties at low weight and volume. The proposed developments will result in materials with excellent resilience and flexibility which can be used for advanced space suits or garments with increased comfort and maneuverability. The novel resilient aerogels will overcome the weak, brittle, dusty nature of conventional inorganic aerogels, and the high compression set and lack of durability of the organic aerogels previously developed. The aerogels will be multifunctional as they will provide superior thermal insulation and inherent radiation protection suitable for NASA EVA suits and exploration habitats. These aerogel materials are also applicable to NASA's space hardware and vehicles as well as many other aerospace, military, and commercial insulation applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The resulting insulation system developed from this program will also have far reaching effects in both military and commercial applications. Other potential applications include use as insulation in commercial and military aircraft, cryogenic tanks, liquefied gas transport, dive suits, gloves, footwear, systems for warming, storing, and/or transporting food and medicine, sleeping bags and pads, military and recreational tents, etc. The new resilient aerogels can be recycled for use as impact modifiers and/or filler materials for conventional plastics.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The lightweight resilient aerogel will improve the human comfort of thermal insulation required for high performance spacesuits for exploration systems. The material developed in this program will have a variety of applications in the aerospace industry and within NASA. Insulation in EVA suits, habitats, gloves, footwear, and helmets could utilize the new aerogel materials. The resilient aerogels will provide thermal and radiation protection in various environments from liquid nitrogen temperatures to +200¿C, under air, water and vacuum conditions. The novel materials can be easily designed to provide different resilience and toughness and could be used for different areas of the space suit or in garments. The excellent durability of the rubbery aerogels facilitates their use in applications for difficult vibration and acoustic environments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X4.02-9958
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Suit Life Support Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniature Sensor Probe for O2, CO2, and H2O Monitoring in Space Suits

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 West 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505-5217
(424) 263-6300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jesus Delgado Alonso
sbirproposals@intopsys.com
2520 West 237th Street
Torrance,  CA 90505-5217
(424) 263-6321

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced space suit technologies require lightweight, low-power, durable sensors for monitoring critical life support constituents. Current technology cannot provide the compact sensors with a tolerance for liquid water that are specifically requested for next-generation portable life support systems (PLSS). Intelligent Optical Systems (IOS) proposes to develop a luminescence-based optical sensor suite to monitor carbon dioxide, oxygen and humidity. Optical sensors are superior to electrical sensors, in terms of robustness, reliability and maintenance. These advantages are most notable in moist environments. Our monitor will incorporate robust sensors for carbon dioxide, oxygen, and humidity partial pressure, interrogated using a compact, low-power optoelectronic unit. The proposed sensors will not only tolerate liquid water but will actually operate while wet, and can be remotely connected to the electronic circuitry by an electromagnetic interference (EMI)-proof optical fiber cable. For space systems control, miniature fiber optic sensors connected to the electronic circuitry by an optical fiber cable allow greater flexibility in placing the sensor in highly constrained volume systems such as PLLS. Our flow-through monitor will include a 1 mm diameter optical sensor we are currently developing for PLSS humidity monitoring and an optical oxygen sensor that uses similar IOS technology. Building on this work, in the proposed Phase I, IOS will develop and demonstrate a carbon dioxide sensor based on the same approach, and a prototype PPCO2-H2O-O2 sensor probe will be fabricated and tested in relevant environmental conditions. In Phase II, we will manufacture prototypes for space qualification and conduct extensive testing under simulated environmental conditions culminating in validation in NASA systems, bringing the monitor to TRL 7.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a large number of potential commercial applications for a combined miniature probe for oxygen, carbon dioxide and humidity, as well as for the individual sensors themselves. Our initial focus will be on market niches where miniaturization, high performance, and operation in mixed gas/aqueous environments are desired. The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, which require miniature probes and minimally invasive monitors for accurately determining humidity, oxygen, and/or carbon dioxide for process control, product quality control, and I&R activity, will be target markets. Biomedical monitoring may also be an attractive business opportunity; non-invasive or minimally invasive sensors and miniature probes, for measuring and monitoring PCO2 and PO2, have many potential applications for monitoring tissue oxygen supply and blood perfusion. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, indoor environmental control may provide the largest potential market. Temperature, humidity, CO2 content, and oxygen content, in that order, are by far the most important determinants of comfort in rooms and buildings. A reliable, cost-effective monitor for these parameters, used as part of an advanced heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system could significantly lower energy usage and associated costs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Advanced Extra-Vehicular Activity systems are necessary for the successful support of the International Space Station beyond 2020, and future human space exploration missions for in-space microgravity EVA, and for planetary surface exploration. The proposed multiparameter monitor responds directly to a NASA need for partial pressure monitoring of carbon dioxide, oxygen and humidity in portable life support systems (PLSS). This device will also have application as a monitor for air quality in the pressurized cabin of crewed spacecraft, improving reliability of closed-loop environmental control systems, and resulting in significant improvements in miniaturization, operational reliability, and sensor life-time. Sensors capable of monitoring trace contaminants in both air and water with functionality in microgravity, low pressure and elevated oxygen environments could be designed using the same sensing technology and optoelectronic unit.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X4.03-8373
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Suit Radio, Sensors, Displays, Cameras, and Audio
PROPOSAL TITLE: Secure Nano Electromechanical Systems-based Software-Defined Radio

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanohmics, Inc.
6201 East Oltorf Street, Suite 400
Austin, TX 78741-7509
(512) 389-9990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ricardo Ramirez
rramirez@nanohmics.com
6201 East Oltorf Street, Suite 400
Austin,  TX 78741-7509
(512) 389-9990

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Nanohmics proposes the integration of two major paradigms to optimize and improve current EVA communication systems. To address the implementation of tunable front-end transceivers, nanoimprint methodologies will be used to create nanoscale dimensions sub-systems designed to fit flexible printed circuits requirements. The second paradigm will bring software-defined radio (SDR) mesh networks methodologies as part of an embedded platform based on rad-hard reconfigurable devices (e.g. FPGA) with encryption capabilities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NEMS-based Software-Defined Radio systems will have the ability to enable/accelerate a wide variety of applications. Major applications of the system include: - 4G cell phones - Ultra-low power RF front ends - Cognitive radio mesh networks - Wireless Sensor Networks - Medical devices - Industrial mesh networking - Digital TV - Wide Band data transmission - Automotive portable radios set as media center including wireless phone connectivity

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
SDR radios based on NEMS technology will enable NASA to be a relevant player in the communications arena since weight, mass and power reduction are direct results of the proposed system. A list of possible applications where the proposed system can be applied is shown as follows 1. Frequency agile radio 2. Cognitive radio systems (networks) 3. Remote Space Instrumentation 4. Communication links for Extra Vehicular activities 5. Compatibility with a wide range of equipment (including outdated radio systems) 6. Ad-Hoc Networks for remote sensing and peer-to-peer communication 7. Network integration and dynamic spectrum allocation 8. Innovative circuit design for nanoscale technologies 9. Reduction of overall energy budget 10.Dynamic systems for telemetry

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Tools/EVA Tools
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Ad-Hoc Networks (see also Sensors)
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Network Integration
Routers, Switches
Transmitters/Receivers
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Teleoperation
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X4.03-9880
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Suit Radio, Sensors, Displays, Cameras, and Audio
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Novel Hemispherical and Dynamic Camera for EVAs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Xigen, LLC
11001 Sugarbush Terrace
Rockville, MD 20852-3240
(301) 637-6828

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Geng
xigenllc@gmail.com
11001 Sugarbush Terrace
Rockville,  MD 20852-3240
(301) 637-6828

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The primary objective of this SBIR project is to develop a novel Hemispherical and Dynamic Camera(HDC), with unprecedented capability of optically unwrapping, thus can obtain directly the high resolution undistorted (unwrapped) 360 hemispherical video or still images without requiring any external computing resources for performing digital unwrapping. This novel technology would lead to ultra-compact, low-power, light weight, and high resolution hemispherical camera for EVAs. The unique Neo360 optics offers advantages over any existing technologies. The HDC camera can: (1) Produce unwrapped hemispherical images optically without using any external computational hardware and software, greatly reducing size, weight and power (SWaP) of the HDC. (2) Capture real-time video of seamless hemispherical surrounding scene using no moving components; (3) Unwrap the hemispherical image optically and the outputs images/video is directly viewable for human interpretation; (4) Preserve image quality via optical unwrapping - no digital re-sampling artifacts that deteriorate image; (5) Acquire hemispherical scene with full pixel resolution of imaging sensor (conventional 360 optics acquires circular images, making 42% active pixels of sensor useless); (6) Eliminate time delay caused by digital processing - Hemispherical video can be transmitted directly; (7) Improve the image transmission efficiency by 70% for EVA video relay.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to applications to NASA space missions, break-through in Neo360 optical unwrapping technology could have wide-spread commercial applications in various commercial products for diversified markets/segments, such as: * Cell phone cameras: compact, light weight and low-power optical unwrapping cameras. * Video surveillance: wide-FOV video camera for target detection and tracking. * Automobile: novel designs of the rear view cameras or rear view mirrors. * Medical device: endoscopes and laparoscopes for minimally invasive surgeries. * Robotics: Neo360 design techniques could lead to novel compact imaging sensors for robots.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future EVAs need to support high resolution imagery with ultra compact, low-power, high definition (HD) cameras and low loss compressed digital data output for radio frequency (RF) transmissions or IP networks. Hemispherical and dynamic cameras are desired for EVAs, where the hemispherical cameras take 360-degrees video of a crewmember, distorting (wrapping) the views through optics and then undistorting (unwrapping) those views via software on the ground to pan /zoom for total situational awareness. The proposed novel optical unwrapping technology would lead to ultra-compact, low-power, light weight, and high resolution hemispherical dynamic camera (HDC) for EVAs. The proposed novel optical unwrapping technology can also be used to design high performance cameras with different field of views (such as panoramic or wide FOV) for other NASA applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Tools/EVA Tools
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Coding & Compression
Transmitters/Receivers
Command & Control
Teleoperation
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Image Processing
Lenses
Mirrors
Visible
Infrared
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X5.01-8909
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Expandable Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Load-Bearing Inflatables Using Light-Curing Rigidization Technology

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Adherent Technologies, Inc.
5505 Foothills Canyon Road Northeast
Albuquerque, NM 87111-8346
(505) 346-1685

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jan-Michael Gosau
adherenttech@comcast.net
11208 Cochiti SE
Albuquerque,  NM 87123-3361
(505) 346-1685

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is soliciting new concepts for lightweight stabilized inflatables in regards to low weight, high storage density, and ease of deployment. What most of the inflatable concepts are lacking is the ability for integrated structural members that do not require permanent inflation pressure. Any structure requiring inflation pressure for structural stability becomes hazardous in case of puncture due to micrometeorite impact or crew activity; it's hard enough to fix the puncture without the whole structure collapsing around the operator like a tent. Additionally the structural supports should allow for the integration of hard points or other modular functionalities. Adherent Technologies, Inc. has been actively developing stabilization concepts for space inflatables for years. Applications ranged from inflatable shelters, with or without self-healing capabilities, antenna structures, inflatable wing concepts, and structural repair tape. The technology is known as Rigidization on Command™ (ROC), and is accepted as the best solution to preserve inflatable structures in the absence of inflation pressure. The materials have been shown to store in minimal volume using both z-fold and rolling approaches, without damage to the core fiber structures. ATI is now proposing to extend the approach to structural elements to add strength to these structures, and provide building blocks for structurally challenging substructures like floors or roof supports for regolith-covered radiation resistant shelters. Resin impregnated fiberglass, carbon fiber and other advanced reinforcing materials will be used to obtain optimal mechanical properties at minimum weight. As a proof of concept, the Phase I program will concentrate on the basic unit of most modular structural construction, the I-beam. Goal of the program is a 3m demonstration beam.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary commercial market for inflatable rigidizable structures is in emergency or semi-permanent installations for military and relief operations. The ability to strengthen these structures with rapidly erectable structural members will greatly enhance wind resistance and the ability to carry overhead loads. With the emergence of inflatable bridge structures the use of rigidizables will be an important step forward to make such structures permanent.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Structural, load-bearing elements for a future extraterrestrial installation are nearly impossible to launch once they exceed a certain length. Beams can be assembled from shorter pieces, but suffer an excessive weight penalty in the form of fasteners. The rigidizable inflatable beams designed in this project will require minimal storage volume and can be produced to nearly any length and size while still fitting in projected launch vehicles. As such they will be an enabling technology for large living spaces on future long-duration flight missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Space Transportation & Safety
In Situ Manufacturing
Polymers


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X5.02-8059
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Fabrication and Manufacturing of Metallic and Polymer Matrix Composite Materials for Lightweight Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Computational Modeling aided Near Net Shape Manufacturing for Aluminum Alloys

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ATI, Inc.
1500 Bull Lea Road
Lexington, KY 40511-1267
(304) 541-1825

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alex Cho
alexcho_sp@hotmail.com
1500 Bull Lea Road
Lexington,  KY 40511-1267
(304) 541-1825

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This program will focus on developing and validating computational models for near-net shape processing of aluminum alloys. Computational models will be developed for deformation modeling and for texture generation. Characterization of two aluminum alloys including flow stress, forgeability, and recrystallization characteristics will provide input for the models. The models will be validate through laboratory scale testing of the ring rolling process. The two aluminum alloys are 2139, which has time strength and fracture toughness and ATI451a variant of 2139 that has excellent T6 temper properties. The models will be used to simulate full scale deformation and predict the nonisentropic material properties of the deformed product. Successful completion of this effort will enhance NASA's ability to implement near-net shape manufacturing processes, evaluate new materials and reduce the cost and weight of space exploration vehicles.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial aircraft structrues, high pressure vessel for chemical industries

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Space lanuch vehcles fuel tank structures

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X5.02-9189
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Fabrication and Manufacturing of Metallic and Polymer Matrix Composite Materials for Lightweight Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Polybenzoxazine Manufacturing Technology for Lightweight Large Scale Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Material Answers LLC
66 Buckskin Drive
Weston, MA 02493-1130
(617) 378-1976

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris Scott
cscott@materialanswers.com
66 Buckskin Drive
Weston,  MA 02493-1130
(617) 378-1976

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed work will demonstrate the process feasibility and mechanical properties of a polybenzoxazine/carbon fiber composite that will meet NASA's requirements for large scale lightweight structures with high temperature performance. Our proposed approach utilizes a benzoxazine resin formulation including a small main-chain oligomer in combination with a high performance monomer. This novel approach will provide for low resin viscosity to allow easier infiltration of the resin mixture into fibrous reinforcements, while maintaining superior mechanical properties, particularly temperature resistance. This technology will allow utilization of well-known manufacturing techniques capable of preparing large scale structures having affordable, reliable, predictable performance with reduced costs. The processing characteristics will be targeted to molding methods including resin transfer molding, vacuum assisted resin transfer molding, autoclave molding, and similar methods. To achieve these processability improvements we propose using a benzoxazine resin mixture of small main-chain oligomers based on bisphenol-F isomers and oxydianiline in combination with a high performance monomer. The high performance monomer is specifically designed to enhance the rate of polymerization through the near-neighbor approach. The polybenzoxazine matrix will be reinforced with carbon fibers. This work will extend previously demonstrated lightweight polybenzoxazine polymer achievements by utilizing enhanced modern chemistry to extend the processing window. The result will be a superior lightweight material with superior processability compared to other polymer matrix composites.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The developed composites can be applied to broad commercial aerospace use due to ease of processing and advantageous property profiles. Very recently, Airbus has qualified use of benzoxazine-based composites for interior and exterior applications using the first generation benzoxazine chemistry. The benzoxazine chemistry proposed in this SBIR proposal is a further advanced system that may be termed as the second and third generation benzoxazines. Thus, the benzoxazine technology that has already been accepted in the demanding aerospace arena can further be advanced. Another potential area of application is the very fast land-based transportation systems, such as magnetic levitation trains, where light-weight, high mechanical performance, and fire safety are extremely important.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposal is specifically targeted to the NASA applications highlighted in the X5.02 solicitation. The proposed lightweight polybenzoxazine composites are potentially relevant to the following NASA applications: Space transportation vehicles; International Space Station Modules; Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Shielding; and Thermal protection structures.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Isolation/Protection/Radiation Shielding (see also Mechanical Systems)
Processing Methods
Composites
Polymers
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X5.02-9752
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Fabrication and Manufacturing of Metallic and Polymer Matrix Composite Materials for Lightweight Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: CNT-based Reinforcing Polymer Matrix Composites for Lightweight Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NEI Corporation
201 Circle Drive North, Suite 102/103
Piscataway, NJ 08873-1154
(732) 868-3141

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Eberly
deberly@neicorporation.com
201 Circle Drive N., Suite 102/103
Piscataway,  NJ 08873-1154
(732) 868-3141

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Carbon Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs) are attractive structural materials for NASA applications due to their high strength to weight ratio, mechanical properties that can be tailored to specific applications, and fatigue resistance. Reinforcing specific critical areas in PMCs is most advantageous for structural durability. Since carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have exceptionally high tensile strength, they can be used as a functional additive to enhance the mechanical properties of PMCs in these critical areas. However, there are known issues with dispersing and aligning CNTs in the polymer matrix, thus limiting their strength-bearing properties. The proposed Phase I program aims to demonstrate a novel means of incorporating aligned CNTs specifically, and only, where they are needed during fabrication of a PMC component structure, thus limiting their use to specific areas where they are wanted. The key innovation uses a commercially-viable nanofiber technology to both disperse and to align the CNTs. The continuous nanofibers will be formed into Nanofiber-Reinforcing Mats (NRMs) which will be used during layup of the carbon PMC structure and placed only where added reinforcement is needed. For demonstration of feasibility in Phase I, prepregs will be used, but the concept is adaptable to other forms of PMC manufacturing such a filament winding. In Phase II we will scale-up the technology and fabricate large test samples, which will involve working with a prepreg manufacturer and fabricator of PMC component parts, in order to meet NASA specifications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications of the proposed technology are many, especially as fiber composites have made their way into various markets. It will be especially useful in applications where added reinforcement is needed in specific critical areas and where weight savings may be crucial. PMC components and parts are used in commercial aircraft (e.g., cargo floor panel, nose strake, air conditioning duct) and sporting goods (e.g., tennis rackets, ski equipment, fishing rods and golf clubs). The automotive industry has increasingly used PMCs – the average automobile today has about 250 lbs of plastics and composites. Another application of these materials is in bridge "rehabilitation". Other applications would include composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs), such as lighter and safer fuel storage in automobiles and buses that run on hydrogen fuel; chemical processing and pharmaceutical manufacturing, oil exploration involving offshore drilling, oil production and petroleum refineries; on-the-road transport of refrigerants such as liquid oxygen or liquid nitrogen; and self-contained breathing apparatus tanks for firefighters and homeland security.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The specific NASA applications for the technologies we propose to develop are for light weight structures such as would be used for in-space applications and launch vehicles. In addition, the developed technologies would find use in NASA aerospace applications such as rockets, aircraft, aircraft/spacecraft propulsion systems, and supporting facilities. The reinforcing aspect of the developed technology will allow for more efficient joining of fiber composite parts, thus offering additional weight-savings. More robust structures capable of withstanding micrometeoroid and space debris impacts will be possible with the enhanced mechanical properties imparted by the aligned CNTs incorporated into the fiber composite structure, as well as the potential for improved electrical and thermal properties.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Nanomaterials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X5.03-8692
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spaceflight Structural Sensor Systems and NDE
PROPOSAL TITLE: HVI Damage Assessment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Invocon, Inc.
19221 IH 45 South, Suite 530
Conroe, TX 77385-8746
(281) 292-9903

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Doug Heermann
heermann@invocon.com
19221 I-45 South, Suite 530
Conroe,  TX 77385-8746
(281) 292-9903

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A device is proposed that can track the electrical charge dispersion that is created when hyper velocity impact (HVI) occurs between two entities with a closing velocity greater than 1 km per second. This same device can measure the time of arrival of the charge wave front at transducers placed throughout the vehicle. Using the known speed of light minus the reactive effects of the skin of the vehicle on the "charge", the system can calculate the exact point of impact. Further, the nature of the charge dispersal wave front contains critical information as to the damage incurred as a result of the HVI.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Detailed data and analysis on the physics of the high speed energy transformations that occur in an HVI environment are critical to verification of high resolution models that attempt to predict HVI collisions with details of fracturing paths, and other material failure mechanisms that are used in the design of commercial and military structures. High resolution modeling has become a valuable tool in the design process in that it allows engineers to subject designs to harsh environments and examine the failure modes in detail in order to provide the basis of component re-design without the expense of destructive testing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA, DOD, and commercial space enterprises fly a variety of spacecraft with a resulting risk of high velocity impacts with space debris and/or incoming particles from the cosmos. Impact location and damage assessment have long been a desirable capability for both manned and unmanned vehicles. NASA and our satellite customers have indicated that a system that detects and locates impacts can provide much needed information as to the subsequent management of remaining satellite resources to optimize the remaining capabilities of the spacecraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Ad-Hoc Networks (see also Sensors)
Antennas
Coding & Compression
Transmitters/Receivers
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
3D Imaging
Display
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Composites
Structures
Electromagnetic
Ionizing Radiation
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X5.03-9596
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spaceflight Structural Sensor Systems and NDE
PROPOSAL TITLE: Structural Integrity Inspection and Visualization System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821
(310) 320-3088

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Victor Grubsky
psproposals@poc.com
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance,  CA 90501-1821
(310) 320-3088

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To address NASA's need for compact nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of the structural integrity of spacecraft components and structures, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Structural Integrity Inspection and Visualization System (SIRIUS), based on acquiring two-dimensional images of Compton-scattered hard X-ray radiation produced by multiple slices of the object, with subsequent three-dimensional reconstruction of the inspected structure for high-resolution (~0.5 mm) detection and localization of defects. This approach incorporates the POC-developed innovative X-ray Compton Imaging Tomography technique (patent pending) and patented X-ray imaging optics with high spatial resolution and a wide field of view, enabling it to meet NASA's requirements for operation on a wide range of lightweight spacecraft materials, noncontact operation, portability, and ease of use. SIRIUS will provide detection and three-dimensional localization of defects and damage in space transportation vehicles, pressure vessels, ISS modules, inflatable structures, EVA suits, MMOD shields, and thermal protection structures, with spatial resolution of ~0.5 mm and penetration depth up to 25 cm (depending on the material). In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of using SIRIUS for NDE of spacecraft components by fabricating and testing a TRL-4 prototype, with the goal of achieving TRL-6 by the end of Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Military applications of the SIRIUS system will include in situ NDE of U.S. Navy, Army, and Air Force military aircraft with large-area non-uniform multilayer aluminum/titanium/composite structures that have complicated geometry (and also combined textile polymeric, ceramic, and metal matrix composite structures). The SIRIUS system will also be used for the NDE of airplane, helicopter, and missile parts containing electronics, mechanics, propellants, explosives, etc., to detect their defects and integrities. The SIRIUS system can be incorporated by the U.S. Navy, Army, and Air Force as a reliable, rapid, robotic, easy-to-use NDE system. Potential DHS applications include the detection of vehicle-borne contraband, drugs, and explosives. The commercial availability of the SIRIUS system includes its use for in situ NDE of large-area non-uniform components in aging and modern commercial aircraft, spacecraft, light marine vessels, and any application requiring defect detection for multilayer ceramic, composite, metallic, and plastic non-uniform structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA application of the proposed SIRIUS system is a compact NDE system that can be used for evaluating structural integrity of spacecraft components during spaceflight, with the capability to provide reliable, high-resolution assessments of the locations and extent of damage within thermal protection, micro-meteoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) shields, inflatable habitats, EVA suits and vehicles, electronic systems, conductive structures, pressure vessels, and other lightweight materials, with the ability to function in hard-to-access areas within both pressurized habitable compartments and external space environments. Additional NASA applications include in situ NDE of large-area non-uniform multilayer aluminum/titanium/composite structures with complicated geometry used in the development of advanced aircraft and spacecraft, providing accurate identification, localization, and measurements of all types of internal and surface defects.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
3D Imaging
Radiography
Ceramics
Composites
Metallics
X-rays/Gamma Rays
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X6.01-8829
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Autonomy and Space Mission Automation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Adaptive Automation for Anomaly Resolution

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRACLabs, Inc.
100 North East Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio, TX 78216-1234
(281) 461-7886

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Russell Bonasso
bonasso@traclabs.com
100 N.E. Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio,  TX 78216-1234
(281) 461-7886

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As ground operations personnel and crew manage the operations of orbiting and exploration spacecraft, inevitably anomalies will arise. Resolving anomalies in real-time and preventing their future occurrence can be difficult. Operations personnel must capture the conditions leading up to the anomaly from voluminous telemetry logs; the development of a workaround is a trial and error process; users must also determine if the anomaly affects a piece of equipment or a class of equipment; and the reconfiguration of the equipment under the conditions of the anomaly may preclude certain other operations. Using software from previous research, we propose to design and develop an automation framework that provides 1) the ability to capture the system configuration at the time of the anomaly, using processed telemetry and execution states from both plan and procedure execution; 2) a workaround authoring capability to produce first flight notes and eventually full workaround procedures, derived from the original procedures; 3) the ability to efficiently modify the preconditions and the effects of the workaround as well as the configuration of the underlying models and the affected operational constraints; and 4) an interactive ability to generate operations plans that use the workaround procedures to test the workarounds, new operational constraints and other affected procedures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The number of robotic entities becoming available for military operations is increasing dramatically and their capabilities are evolving at a rapid pace. Rather than being used as scarce, specialized resources, these entities will be relied upon to play an integral role on the future battlefield. As the military begins to move from teleoperations to semi-autonomous and autonomous operations, it will be plagued with the same anomaly resolution problems as NASA. Our technology will again serve as a unifying framework to streamline and reduce errors in problem resolution related to integrated human and robotic systems. A mirror of NASA space operations are operations in refineries, chemical plants, nuclear and other power plants and any installation that has established standard operating procedures that must be carefully followed under often stressful situations. As these industries move to electronic procedures tied to system telemetry and integrated with planning for more efficient and safe operations, they will require our anomaly resolution framework to streamline and reduce errors in problem resolution.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Mission planning and execution is at the core of all space missions in order to efficiently employ high cost space assets such as astronauts, equipment, vehicles and communication links. Since anomaly resolution is essential to executing both plans and procedures, our technologies will have applications across many NASA programs, from Mission Control to on-board NASA vehicles and outposts. Because this development will have been done in concert with MCC flight controllers, we believe its use will resonate with program managers in the mission operations directorate. We expect applications of our technology to impact ISS operations by streamlining and reducing errors in anomaly resolution, but also a variety of research programs, such as the new Mission Control Technologies (MCT) software being developed by Alan Crocker of NASA JSC DS. Our work will provide a connection to automated planning technology development ongoing at NASA Ames in support of automation for operations. We will work closely with Dr. Jeremy Frank at NASA ARC during Phase 1 to ensure our relevance to those projects.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Command & Control
Process Monitoring & Control
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Computer System Architectures
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Knowledge Management
Development Environments


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X6.02-8262
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Hardened/Tolerant and Low Temperature Electronics and Processors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Radiation Hardened Nanobridge based Non-volatile Memory for Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanosonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke, VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yuhong Kang
ekang@nanosonic.com
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke,  VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This NASA Phase I SBIR program would develop and demonstrate radiation hardened nanobridge based non-volatile memory (NVM) for space applications. Specifically, we would combine advances in the resistive memory materials, including solid electrolytes, metal oxides, and metal oxide composites, with atomic layer deposition (ALD) and interference lithography patterning (ILP) techniques, to realize the radiation hardened NVM devices and arrays with high reliability. NanoSonic has demonstrated a nanobridge based resistive memory with on-off ratios of 106, device power consumption of 10-5 Watts and switching speeds of 100ns. We have also demonstrated ILP techniques for the patterning of nanostructured 2D arrays and 3D structures with spatial resolution on the order of tens of nm. During the program, we will first investigate the responsible mechanisms for radiation hardened nanobridge based resistive memories. Based on this study, the candidate metal electrode and dielectric materials will be evaluated and selected for optimal performance for radiation harden application. NanoSonic will fabricated arrayed devices with ultradense crossbar latches structure, using radiation hardened metal oxides such as TiO2, SiO2, Ta2O5, especially composite TaSiO to validate our design rules for radiation hardened memories. The atomic layer deposition (ALD), e-beam evaporation, sputtering and will be used to achieve the targeted device performance. During Phase I, memory device parameters namely on–off ratio, on-state current, switching time, retention time, cycling endurance, power consumption and rectification will be investigated using extensive facilities available in NanoSonic and Virginia Tech. NanoSonic will conduct pre, post and in situ radiation characterization of such devices at Colorado State University and Texas A&M University.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Non-NASA applications of our devices may include non-volatile memory, analog circuits, programmable logic, signal processing, neural networks, and control systems. There are also significant opportunities at the low end of the market, in devices such as RFID, smart cards, and flexible electronics. Here the prime criterion is cost while the minimum requirements must be met, relating to access time, retention time and endurance. NanoSonic would first target of the market of NVM, analog circuits, neuromorphic computing systems and flexible electronics, and then pursue the high density data storage market when the technology is ready.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed radiation hardened nanobridge based resistive memory is critical for electronics in space. They can be fashioned into non-volatile memory, which would allow greater data density than hard drives with access times potentially similar to DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory). A broad band of applications of the proposed devices also include analog circuits, neuromorphic computing, programmable logic and signal processing. NanoSonic's research in the nanobridge based resistive device field has shown promise in producing NVM devices of low power consumption, high density and high performance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Nanomaterials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X6.02-9582
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Hardened/Tolerant and Low Temperature Electronics and Processors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wide-Temperature Radiation-Hardened Interface Chipsets Utilizing Delay-Insensitive Asynchronous Logic

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ozark Integrated Circuits, Inc.
PO Box 332
Fayetteville, AR 72702-9932
(479) 409-5201

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Matt Francis
francis@ozarkic.com
PO Box 332
Fayetteville,  AR 72702-9932
(479) 409-5201

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There is a continual drive to move electronics out of the "warm box" to their point of use on space platforms. This requires electronics that can operate reliably over a wide range of temperatures and in the presence of radiation. The range of functions needed at various points across a given platform require use of digital, analog and high-voltage circuits, partitioned either independently or in combinations on the same chips. Currently, there is no "common denominator" integrated circuit process that can effectively support all applications; extreme-environment systems must include the best-in-class technologies. Circuit design techniques which can produce hardened circuits across a number of technology nodes are essential to producing IP that can be ported and applied to the best technology for the task at hand. Delay-insensitive (DI) asynchronous digital logic, such as NULL Convention Logic (NCL) is one such technique that can be applied to produce radiation-hardened wide-temperature electronics across many process nodes. DI logic can produce circuits with wide-temperature, threshold-independent operation and has shown tremendous potential for radiation-hardness through use of its dual-rail encoding scheme. DI logic has been successfully demonstrated in digital and mixed-signal applications down to 130nm in bulk silicon and SiGe processes over a wide range of temperature. An opportunity thus exists to apply the asynchronous DI approach to other space-applicable technologies where reliable digital processing needed, including SOI for high-voltage processes for power processing and conditioning. Proposed is the design of a wide-temperature wide-voltage range RS-485 interface suitable for power and actuator control applications built using DI-NCL gates and wide-temperature design techniques in a high-power radiation-hard process.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
DI logic in wide-temperature, high-power SOI technology offers a potential solution to digital circuitry for harsh radiation environments such as aerospace. The aerospace electronics market alone is predicted to be a $138 billion market in 2011. The success and qualification of rad-hard DI logic will allow for the creation of commercial integrated solutions in this market. Additional potential markets in the commercial sector are numerous. The designed DI-NCL asynchronous digital standard cell library can be applied to the creation of custom and general-purpose processing technology for integrated power electronics, such as DC-DC converters commonly needed in solar, wind and other alternative energy architectures. The design techniques and circuit topologies proven in the course of the research can be applied to alternative IC processes enabling new capability including wide-temperature sensing and control electronics.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A proven and characterized DI cell library in high-power wide-temperature SOI technology completes a bridge for a reliable digital design technique between silicon, SiGe mixed-signal circuits and high-power applications. Further, as state-of-the-art RS-485 chips have limited voltage and temperature ranges for space applications (min. -55o C), producing a wide-temperature (cryogenic rated) radiation-hardened RS-485 interface has immediate usefulness to NASA and clearly advances the state of the art with the opportunities for integration it provides. Wide-temperature radiation hardened RS-485 interfaces that can be integrated with digital, analog and power IP blocks would provide boundless applications and point the way forward for distributed space electronics.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X6.03-8527
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Integrated System Health Management for Flexible Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electronic Health Monitoring for Space Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nokomis, Inc.
310 5th Street
Charleroi, PA 15022-1517
(724) 483-3946

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Walter Keller
wkeller@nokomisinc.com
310 5th Street
Charleroi,  PA 15022-1517
(724) 483-3946

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Prognostic monitoring capabilities for space exploration aircrafts are crucial to enable safety and reliability in these platforms. Nokomis proposes to develop and mature a system which exploits electromagnetic emissions to identify degradation in avionics components and determine the probability of failure and remaining useful life (RUL). Over time, the deterioration of components under stress alters the impedances of circuits, components, integrated circuits, and other electronic subcomponents which cause changes to the electronic emission's signatures. Due to the uniqueness of emission signatures, they can be related directly to specific components within the monitored system. In this Phase I effort, representative avionics components will be artificially aged to the point of failure as they are monitored using Nokomis' AELED based Electronic Health Monitoring (EHM) system. An algorithm will be developed to model the changes in emissions over a component's lifetime, thereby determining the potential for component failure at any point in its operational lifetime.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA applications, Nokomis has identified customers in the commercial market for aeronautics health management. Because safety and system health is an important issue for vital electronics used in aerospace across the board, the system proposed in this effort has the ability to meet the needs of an ever-growing commercial market space. Commercial space systems companies developing sensor systems and launch systems will benefit from this technology in order to improve the reliability of and protect expensive systems from catastrophic failure. Compared to current market health management solutions, Nokomis is prepared to increase cost-savings, performance standards and system safety. Because of these immense advantages, Nokomis is well positioned to address the market needs of the commercial aeronautics industry.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Ensuring safe and reliable technology is the key to sustaining NASA's spaceflight systems. With the use of advanced health management tools such as the proposed EHM system, NASA programs have the potential to increase capabilities and reduce operational costs. Some programs that stand to benefit include; the Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). Because programs like the AvSP already have initiatives for across the board improvements, Nokomis' health monitoring and electronic fault prediction system will integrate well into present procedures. In addition to the IVHM program and applications in commercial aircraft, the ESMD seeks better tools and methods to ensure safe launch, flight, and mission operation of the many components of the overall Constellation and Exploration architecture. Of interest for these applications are new technologies that can provide better monitoring and diagnosis capabilities while minimizing sensor mass and volume requirements such as those provided by the proposed system.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Characterization
Quality/Reliability
Electromagnetic
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X6.03-8772
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Integrated System Health Management for Flexible Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated System Health Management for Flexible Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Qualtech Systems, Inc.
99 East River Drive
East Hartford, CT 06108-7301
(860) 257-8014

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sudipto Ghoshal
sudipto@teamqsi.com
99 East River Drive
East Hartford,  CT 06108-7301
(860) 761-9341

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Long-duration robotic and manned space missions have a number of unique requirements for mission success. These include ultra-high reliability, safety, sustainability and affordability of launch vehicles and spacecraft. These requirements, in turn, are allocated among critical subsystems, such as engines, propellants, structures, software systems, thermal protection, power, avionics, life support, guidance, communication and navigation. In this vein, novel integrated system health management (ISHM) technologies that evolve with the system life-cycle, viz., concept-> design-> development-> production-> operations and training, are essential for meeting the requirements of safe and ultra-reliable, sustainable and affordable launch vehicles and spacecraft. NASA has been employing a number of reliability tools and methods, FMECA, FTA and PRA, for designing reliable and safe systems. However, the current methods are ad hoc, prone to errors and do not evolve with the system life-cycle. In response to these challenges, Qualtech Systems, Inc. (QSI) propose to develop an integrated system health management (ISHM) tool and a concomitant process for new heavy lift launch systems and exploration precursor robotic missions. The new risk and design analysis tool, when coupled with QSI's diagnostic and prognostic tools (QSI's Testability Engineering and Maintenance System (TEAMS) toolset) will simplify early-stage design of health management functionality during the development of space systems (e.g., safety and mission assurance analysis, failure modes, effects and criticality analysis, hazards analysis, functional models, fault propagation models, testability analysis, design for serviceability, sustainability and affordability). The TEAMS SW suite already hosts a number of these desired capabilities. Consequently, QSI proposes to introduce additional modeling and analytic capabilities to TEAMS and enhance the existing, so as to make it an enhanced support tool for ISHM.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Among the other agencies, DoD and Air-force and Navy are the most potential customer for the resulting technologies. Large scale military systems (systems of systems) such as NORAD, Space Command ground segments, the Joint Strike Fighter fleet, the Navy shipboard platforms, Submarine Commands and ballistic missile defense (BMD) systems can be potential areas to field the proposed technology. In addition, UAVs, UMGs and other unmanned submersible vehicle markets could also be potential target for the proposed technology. The product is also expected to be of commercial value to the manufacturers of DoD and military's remotely guided weapons and reconnaissance systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's current vision to enhance the level of autonomy for vehicle health management and mission planning makes the proposed effort worthy of funding from several branches within it. Clearly, establishing the technology and the software so that it readily operates as part of NASA's next generation Mission Control Technology allows NASA to utilize the continuous health assessment and mission satisfiability information from our tool for improved mission execution and reconfiguration while improving safety, mission success probability and reducing flight controller and crew workload.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X7.01-9164
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human Robotic Systems - Human Robot Interfaces
PROPOSAL TITLE: Brain Machine Interfaces for Robotic Control in Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Medical Electronics Corporation
6901 East Fish Lake Road, Suite #190
Maple Grove, MN 55369-5457
(763) 515-5353

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gary Havey
ghavey@ame-corp.com
6901 East Fish Lake Road, Suite #190
Maple Grove,  MN 55369-5457
(763) 515-5333

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR will study the application of a brain machine interface (BMI) to enable crew to remotely operate and monitor robots from inside a flight vehicle, habitat and/or during an extra-vehicular activity (EVA). The goal is to improve robot operator productivity, situational awareness, and effectiveness. With the application of a BMI technology an astronaut in an extravehicular suit could great improve their capability of working with rover, arm and free flying robots. The use of BMI is being studied extensively worldwide for its application in aiding people who are paralyzed or for persons missing limbs to control prosthetics. This project will study ways to apply this research to robotic control in space applications. System architectures will be defined for both the EVA and IVA crew member. The goal for phase II will be to demonstrate BMI in a space robotic control application. This research also has the benefit of supporting technology of use by those who are paralyzed or who have prosthetic limbs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future applications of brain machine interfaces to help paralyzed persons control robotic assistances or to help persons control prosthetic limbs

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
User interfaces that enable crew to remotely operate and monitor robots from inside a flight vehicle, habitat and/or during an extra-vehicular activity (EVA).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Man-Machine Interaction
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X7.01-9172
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human Robotic Systems - Human Robot Interfaces
PROPOSAL TITLE: Visual Intelligent Robot Performance Monitor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
951 Mariner's Island Boulevard, Suite 360
San Mateo, CA 94404-1585
(650) 931-2700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Ong
ong@stottlerhenke.com
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., Suite 360
San Mateo,  CA 94404-1585
(650) 931-2700

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a Visual Intelligent Robot Performance Monitor (VIRPM) that will help crew members maintain situation awareness of robot performance more effectively. VIRPM will provide intelligent assistance to crew members by detecting topical data that suggest possible problems (causes and effects), gathering additional topical data that provides supporting or rebutting evidence for each problem, and presenting routine and topical data graphically that enable crew members to quickly understand the situation. During Phase 1, we will specify intelligent data monitoring, analysis, and visualization requirements, create a high-level system design of the monitoring, analysis, and visualization software, and develop a software prototype that demonstrates the utility and feasibility of our approach.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
These technologies will increase the ability for crew members to oversee the operations of teams of robots during lunar and Martian missions and, in the nearer term, during analog experiments on Earth. The technologies might also help NASA project managers analyze project progress data to detect possible problems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The resulting technologies will help Department of Defense personnel evaluate the progress of plan executions by autonomous vehicles and by military forces, compare actual and planned events, and identify possible causes and downstream effects. The technologies will also enable intelligent software that helps project managers review progress data to detect and assess possible problems and their effects on the rest of the project.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Sequencing & Scheduling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X7.02-8186
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human-Robotic Systems - Mobility Subsystems
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Planning and Control Toolkit for Dual Arm Manipulation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRACLabs, Inc.
100 North East Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio, TX 78216-1234
(281) 461-7886

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Burridge
burridge@traclabs.com
16969 N. Texas Ave. Suite 300
Webster,  TX 77598-1234
(281) 461-7886

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
It is often difficult to create autonomous robotic capabilities that match what can be achieved via teleoperation. Even though it is mechanically possible for a humanoid robot such as Robonaut 2 to perform complex coordinated tasks such as tying a knot, exchanging objects between end effectors, plugging in connectors, unscrewing a cap, opening a door, or grasping large objects with two hands, our lack of planning algorithms makes it difficult to control these behaviors autonomously. The lack of planning and control algorithms also impedes human-robot interaction as it is difficult for manipulation robots to plan arm trajectories in real-time using active sensing to avoid collisions with humans. This proposal is to develop a suite of planning and control algorithms that will enable NASA robots to perform complex manipulation behaviors in a coordinated way. This work would benefit NASA by making NASA robots more capable and useful during autonomous tasks and by enabling NASA robots to operate alongside humans during tasks that are shared between humans and robots.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Department of Defense (DOD) is investing heavily in remote robotic operations including unmanned ground vehicles and is beginning to equip these vehicles with sophisticated manipulation systems. This manipulation systems are used for Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD), medical operations, entering and clearing buildings, moving supplies and unloading pallets. Our technology will greatly increase the usefulness of highly dexterous robots in military environments We expect substantial interest in the DOD to these kinds of technologies. We are also working with the US Army on remote medical robotics applications and have connections with Mr. Michael Beebe, who is the Medical Robotics and Unmanned Systems R&D manager for the Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC) of the US Army. In addition, we see applications in the urban search and rescue (USAR) arena and are coordinating with Dr. Robin Murphy of Texas A&M's Center for Robot-Assisted Search and Rescue. We are also investigating remote operation of robots on oil drilling platforms to reduce manpower and allow for continued operation in the face of storms that require evacuation of platform personnel. We are also investigating the automation of remotely operated underwater vehicles, such as those produced by Oceaneering. This application is particularly timely after the Deepwater Horizon incident. Dual arm manipulation robots are also becoming more common in industrial settings.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This work is directly applicable to automating current NASA robots such as Dexter and Robonaut, both of which are currently on-board ISS. Even under teleoperation, this software could detect potential collisions and self-collisions and alert the operator. This work is also applicable to NASA ground robots such as Centaur and future exploration robots. NASA's future robotics missions are expected to rely heavily on dexterous robots. These robots will need sophisticated autonomy software in order to function. These robots will assist humans with tasks as well as work with no human presence to perform tasks such as assembly and terrain preparation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Perception/Vision
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X7.02-9839
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human-Robotic Systems - Mobility Subsystems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Adaptive Bioassistive and Telerobotic Devices for Human-Robotic Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CU Aerospace, LLC
301 North Neil Street, Suite 400
Champaign, IL 61820-3169
(217) 239-1703

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Carroll
carroll@cuaerospace.com
301 N. Neil St. - Suite 400
Champaign,  IL 61820-3169
(217) 239-1703

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CU Aerospace and team partner, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, propose to perform innovative research and development that targets the design and control of adaptive bioassistive and telerobotic devices - ABATRODs - that augment normal musculoskeletal function in rapidly changing and disruptive environments while providing predictable response. ABATRODs accommodate fast changes in environment while actively shaping the response to muscle actuation to that anticipated by the operator, allowing the operator to maintain focus on task objectives. The ABATROD architecture uses principles of L1 adaptive control to decouple the task of adaptation and environmental uncertainty from the operator perceived response, thereby enabling the design of a range of apparently nonintrusive augmenting and telerobotic device technologies. The L1 paradigm significantly widens the domain of safe operation within which operator-induced instability can be eliminated without tuning. This effort makes innovative contributions to NASA-relevant space exploration tasks: (i) sustained and accurate manipulation of physical control interfaces on machinery and vehicles by an operator on a shaking space vehicle or rover, (ii) the stable and coordinated handling of scientific or photographic hardware by an astronaut during ambulation across uneven terrain, and (iii) the precise and reliable control of telerobotic devices for robotic-EVAs in unpredictable conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Ensuring predictable response in the presence of unexpected failures is critical to the safety of operation of these bioassistive telerobotic devices and to reducing risk to human lives. Beyond the NASA space exploration possibilities for ABATRODs, these devices have clear military (moving soldiers and vehicles on uneven terrain) and medical applications involving a broad range of possibilities and high commercial impact. Bioassistive device technology may be used to augment normal function, to prevent injury to function, and/or to rehabilitate injured function. Exoskeletal devices for augmenting normal function enable increased load-carrying capabilities and sustain robust gait characteristics in adverse terrain. In telerobotic applications, normal function is augmented through the transformation of human motor activity to different scales of motion and force. Further, exoskeletal devices for preventing injury to function alleviate the occurrence of repetitive stress disorders through compensatory action, enable heavy lifts, and support added loads, say a back pack on a child's back to prevent developmental damage. Finally, exoskeletal devices may be used for rehabilitating injured function to assist locomotion-impaired or otherwise disabled individuals, prevent circulatory problems in extremities, and enable the resumption of every-day activities involving sustained balance and support. Telesurgical applications offer additional opportunities for the ABATROD concept.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This effort makes innovative contributions to NASA-relevant space exploration tasks: (i) sustained and accurate manipulation of physical control interfaces on machinery and vehicles by an operator on a shaking space vehicle or rover, (ii) the stable and coordinated handling of scientific or photographic hardware by an astronaut during ambulation across uneven terrain, and (iii) the precise and reliable control of telerobotic devices for robotic-EVAs in unpredictable conditions. Another possible NASA application could be telerobotic surgery from a surgeon on the Earth to an astronaut in space.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Man-Machine Interaction
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Teleoperation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X8.01-8255
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Temperature, High Energy Density Micro Thin Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nano EnerTex
4131 Grennoch
Houston, TX 77025-2303
(713) 667-9558

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ali Zomorrodian
lignatiev@netscape.net
4131 Grennoch Lane
Houston,  TX 77025-2303
(713) 667-9558

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A new type of solid oxide fuel cell based on thin film technology and ultra-thin electrolyte is being proposed to develop to realize major reductions in fuel cell size, weight, and operating temperature, while significantly increasing power density. The thin film fuel cell is comprised of a micro-thin electrolyte (thickness ~ 1¿¿m) that is grown on a foil nickel substrate. The nickel substrate is then made into a porous anode by lithographic patterning and etching of the foil. The SOFC structure is completed by the deposition of a thin-film mixed ionic-electronic conducting oxide cathode on the electrolyte. Preliminary data has shoen the thin film fuel cell to have an output of ~ 100mA/cm2 at temperatures as low as 500C – more than 400C lower than for typical bulk SOFC's. A single cell has a total thickness of 15-20 micron, and the integration of interconnects to the cells to form a stack is projected to result in a cell power density of > 5W/cm3 – more than 20x greater than typical SOFC's.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The prospect of supplying high power density, compact fuel cells to NASA also opens up extensive private sector commercial possibilities for high power density micro energy sources including: power for portable electronic equipment, e.g., laptop computer; and for high efficiency distributed energy sources for home electrical needs especially as pertaining to operation on natural gas (methane), thus resulting in distributed energy generation for the nation's power grid. Further, fuel cell power is defined as 'clean' energy, and efficient energy. Consumers are focusing on these qualities more so with time, and this 'clean' aspect of the fuel cell will add significantly to market pull. Discussions have been initiated with a firm interested in the fuel cells for application to distributed and 'clean' power. This opportunity and other commercial opportunities will be actively pursued during the Phase II program, and are expected to yield critical industrial leveraging of a Phase III program.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The unique projected performance parameters of the thin film solid oxide fuel cell promise promise to deliver to NASA a high power density, low mass fuel cell that at the nominal 30 W stack projected for the Phase II program will form the basic module for larger power output fuel cells at the 1kW level and beyond. Such an electrical power source will supply NASA needs for compact, high power density energy sources for various lander, robotic vehicle, astronaut, habitat, and other distributed planetary surface energy needs in space. It is projected that many multiple kW of fuel cell power capacity will be required by NASA (and other space faring nations) for the lunar, Mars and beyond Mars environments, especillay those places where the atmosphere and or the body has water present from which hydrogen and oxygen can be extracted to yield fuel and oxidizer for fuel cells. These projected NASA needs point to a solid business opportunity through commercializing and selling to NASA fuel cell power.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X8.01-9855
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers
PROPOSAL TITLE: Long-Life MEAs and Catalysts for PEM Electrolyzers/Fuel Cells

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Willey
jwilley@ginerinc.com
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton,  MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0523

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Nanostructured Thin Films (NSTF), used as substrates for catalysts, have proven to be highly active for oxygen reduction in fuel cells. This improvement in activity is expected to transfer to electrolyzer technology as the NSTF substrate layer, with a ruthenium oxide based catalyst, is used for oxygen evolution. Slow anode kinetics in electrolysis provide the bulk of the cell overpotential. An increase in anode catalyst activity and decrease in mass-transfer effects, as seen with the thin NSTF catalyst layers and ruthenium oxide based catalysts, would mean an increase in overall efficiency for the electrolyzer systems. In fuel cells, the catalyst layer thickness has been reduced by a factor of 20 compared to the state of the art, and specific activity has increased by an order of magnitude. An additional benefit is that the substrate manufacture, catalyst coating and MEA production are done via a roll-good process, ensuring consistency of product for high reliability.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Fuel cell vehicles, hydrogen filling stations, chlor-alkali process

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lunar and space stations, satellites, high altitude aircraft

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Generation
Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X8.01-9857
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers
PROPOSAL TITLE: Metallic Fiber Papers for Gas Diffusion Layers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cortney Mittelsteadt
cmittelsteadt@ginerinc.com
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton,  MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0529

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Hydrogen/oxygen polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFCs) are an attractive means of generating electricity in lunar and space applications due to their high energy density. The PEMFC generally consists of an MEA supported on two sides by gas diffusion media. The gas diffusion media of choice is generally carbon-based in the form of a carbon fiber paper, or carbon cloth material. In the standard operating environment of a H2/O2 fuel cell the anode and cathode potentials are near 0 and 0.7-1.0, respectively. Carbon is generally stable in this potential range. Due to flooding, or during shut-down and start-up, oxygen may permeate the membrane and consume all of the hydrogen at the anode. If this occurs localized voltages above 1.6 V are possible, well above the carbon corrosion potential. For this reason GES proposes to replace the carbon fiber paper based gas diffusion media with an equivalent metallic fiber paper. GES has already demonstrated the electrochemical suitability of these materials by operating them in an electrolyzer for > 3500 hours above 1.7 V. The major challenge is to wet-proof the metallic media to avoid flooding from fuel cell product water.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
GES already has two developed commercial electrolyzer products, analytical hydrogen and life support oxygen; as well as a third in development industrial hydrogen, and this material could prove beneficial in all three applications. In the analytical hydrogen application this material could supplant a multi-pieced screen-pack currently in use at the oxygen electrode, greatly reducing manufacturing labor. In GES's naval electrolyzers for life-support oxygen, this material could potentially replace a gas diffusion electrode support structure that consists of over three dozen parts. Finally in an emerging market, that GES is aggressively pursuing, that of water electrolysis for industrial hydrogen; this material may allow for the use of thinner membrane materials, thereby improving efficiency and giving GES a competitive advantage.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has a strong need to replace carbon as the diffusion media material in H2/O2 fuel cells to avoid corrosion during start/stop cycling. The use of H2/O2 fuel cells is critical in both lunar, satellite, and manned space travel applications. Historically, the use of metallic sinters and screen packs required the use of a thick membrane as the sinters and screens had large pore sizes and could not properly support a thin membrane. This leads to high resistances, and prevents NASA from taking advantage of membrane innovations such as Gore's Primea™ membrane, or GES's own thin Dimensionally Stable Membrane™. The thinner pore size and tighter tolerances of the proposed metallic papers will allow NASA to realize the performance and efficiency gains of these materials. Additionally, GES's own unique knowledge of wet-proofing metallic media will allow the elimination of carbon, making the fuel cell more durable and easing the requirement at start/stop.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Storage
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Metallics
Polymers


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X8.02-9169
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space-Rated Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: Graphene Nanocomposite Cathode for Advanced Space Battery

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle, Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016-4962
(540) 769-8430

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zhiguo Zhou
zhouz@lunainnovations.com
521 Bridge Street
Danville,  VA 24541-1405
(434) 483-4234

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
High efficiency power systems are needed for NASA's future human exploration of space and such power systems must have advanced safety feature and provide high specific energy and high volumetric energy density. Luna Innovations propose to develop novel rechargeable battery with advanced non-toxic and safe anode and cathode materials. Aggressive weight and volume performance improvements over state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries will be achieved for use in NASA's size-sensitive space vehicles. The proposed graphene nanocomposite-based cathode can be used in coupling with advanced silicon anodes that are much safer compared to lithium metal anodes used in conventional Li-ion batteries. The new battery technology incorporates novel graphene/nanosheet composite in the cathode design to provide higher efficiency for active material utilization and improved reversibility in the electrochemical reactions thus to provide higher energy density and greater cycling stability. We anticipate that the new rechargeable battery will meet all of the metric goals including safety, stability, cycle life and power that specified by NASA for its human-rated space applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed battery could be used for military applications as light-weight, high-energy power sources for autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UVA), which requires aggressive weight and volume performance improvements over state-of-the-art lithium-ion based systems. In these small or micro UVAs, our battery may be used in combination with solar panels to provide power during the daytime and the night for continuous no-landing operations in remote or hostile regions. Due to the improvements in safety and energy density Luna' battery may also find uses in commercial products such as electrical vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) where they can completely and partially replace internal combustion engine and gasoline.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are potentially many different NASA applications for safe, high specific energy, and high energy density power systems for future NASA Exploration missions. Possible applications include extravehicular activities, landers and rovers. Due to its high volumetric energy density, the proposed battery may find wide applications in any weight- and volume-sensitive vehicular systems that NASA may need to accomplish its space missions. The safety feature arising from eliminating the use of lithium metal anode makes Luna's battery a better choice for human-rated power systems. Essentially, Luna's new battery will provide light-weight, high-reliability and safety replacements for many NASA applications that currently use lithium-ion batteries.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Storage
Composites
Nanomaterials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X8.02-9244
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space-Rated Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Energy Battery Materials with Novel Separator and Electrolytes for Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nohms Technologies
1032 Hanshaw Road
Ithaca, NY 14850-2742
(607) 257-9569

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Navaneedharakrishnan Jayaprakash
njaiprakash@gmail.com
130 Honness Lane
Ithaca,  NY 14850-2742
(607) 255-3781

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future space exploration energy-storage needs span a wide range of requirements. NASA's Exploration missions will require safe, human-rated, high specific energy, high energy density and high efficiency-storage systems that can be used in space and on the moon and Mars. These energy storage devices need to be used in applications such as Landers, Rovers, and extravehicular activities (EVAs). NOHMs Technologies, Inc. proposes to develop a novel battery based on Lithium-Sulfur chemistry that has a demonstrated specific energy of 1875 Wh/kg with a theoretical specific energy of 2600 Wh/kg, while yielding a dramatic 3-4x reduction in weight, size, and cost. The proposed technology is based on innovative sulfur-infused carbon composite cathode materials developed at Cornell University. These materials overcome the poor cycle life problems that have plagued Lithium-Sulfur batteries by encapsulating sulfur in nanometer-sized mesoporous carbon capsules. In addition, the proposed Phase I research will focus on the development of stable, non-flammable, non-volatile, nano-hybrid electrolytes and separators that overcomes lithium dendrite formation in all lithium based battery configurations, significantly enhancing their safety. Phase I will demonstrate the potential of our proposed system to meet the performance parameters specified by NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
While lithium ion batteries have garnered a lot of attention, secondary lithium-sulfur batteries employing sulfur as the cathode and metallic lithium as the anode offers the highest energy storage potential of any two solid elements. They offer more than twice the energy capacity of currently deployed lithium ion battery technology with half the weight. If the potential of these batteries can be harnessed, they are expected to disrupt current lithium ion cell technology because of their higher energy density and the low cost and wide-spread availability of sulfur. NOHMs is positioned well initially as a material manufacturer (cathode and electrolyte) that will approach major battery manufacturers (e.g. Panasonic, A123 Systems, LG Chem, NEC, Johnson Controls) as (1) customers or (2) potential licensees. NOHMs materials are suitable for three energy storage sectors. ¿ Mobile Consumer Devices: Most competitive market with greatest sales potential. ¿ Electric Vehicles: Fastest growing market with strong incentives. ¿ Stationary Energy Storage: Least competitive market with high potential for federal and state subsidies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NOHMs nanostructured battery technology will enhance capability extended duration of future NASA space missions. Missions will continue to become more complex and increase in duration using manned and unmanned space vehicles, landers, rovers, satellites, and EVA. Next-generation space platforms will continue to demand more power to sustain longer-range communication, increasingly complex sensing capability, and longer range for manned and unmanned vehicles. Advances in vehicle transport and exploration systems will continue to increase power and energy demand beyond the capabilities of commercially available battery systems. Additionally, as NASA continues to plan for missions to the Moon and Mars, there is increasing logistical burden to transport vehicle and portable power systems to the remotest of destinations. Battery-powered robotic systems for space and military use, including UAVs, Unmanned Ground Vehicles are a growing market worldwide. Because of this increased interest around the world, the global market for robotics will grow from $5.8 billion in 2010 to more than $8 billion in 2016, with the United States as the largest by far with over 50% of the value share held by American firms. Effectively integrating new, longer lasting, higher energy density batteries into space mission would give vendors a significant value proposition with which to expand their share in a multibillion dollar industry in which virtually every space system requires batteries.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Storage
Nanomaterials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X8.03-9866
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Nuclear Power Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Innovative High Temperature Heat Pipes for Spacecraft Nuclear Fission Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc.
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster, PA 17601-5688
(717) 295-6061

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kara Walker
Kara.Walker@1-ACT.com
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster,  PA 17601-5688
(717) 295-6081

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA Glenn is examining small fission reactors for future space transportation and surface power applications. The reactors would have an 8 to 15 year design life that could be available for a 2020 launch to support future NASA science missions. Both 1 kWe thermoelectric and 3 kWe Stirling systems have been examined. The proposed design will use alkali metal heat pipes to transfer heat from the reactor to the Stirling or Thermoelectrics (TEs) convertors. This SBIR project by ACT will develop alkali metal heat pipes for space nuclear fission reactors. Three types of alkali metal heat pipes will be investigated over the course of the 6 month Phase I program; arterial heat pipes, grooved heat pipes and self-venting arterial heat pipes that use a screen wick artery with vent holes. Grooved and self-venting heat pipes will be fabricated and tested to determine which design would be best suited for the space fission reactor application.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is a commercial application for high temperature VCHP heat exchangers in fuel cell reformers. In a fuel cell reformer, steam, air and diesel fuel react in a High Temperature Shift (HTS) and a Low Temperature Shift (LTS) reactor to produce as much hydrogen as possible. Feed streams to and from the reactors must be maintained under tight temperature control, typically within ¿30¿C despite a turndown ratio of 5:1 in reactant flow rate. Isothermal Furnace Liners (IFLs) use an alkali metal heat pipe to provide nearly isothermal temperature uniformity over the entire length and circumference of the tube furnace wall. A Pressure Controlled Heat Pipe (PCHP) can provide extremely precise temperature control. ACT will use the results of the current program to extend the PCHP technology to high temperature IFLs. These PCHPs can be used by organizations such as national labs to aid in thermophysical properties characterization and temperature calibration of primary temperature reference standards.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The immediate NASA application is for space fission nuclear reactors that utilize Stirling converters or thermoelectric for power conversion. An example is the 1kWe Fission Power System with a 15 year design life that could be available for a 2020 launch. The reliable, low-mass, alkali-metal heat pipes developed in this program would be capable of transporting the reactor heat to the Stirling or thermoelectric convertors for power generation. The Stirling system and other space nuclear reactors also require radiator panels to reject waste heat. The grooved and self-venting arterial heat pipes developed on this program will also be suitable to the lower temperature radiator heat pipes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X8.03-9887
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Nuclear Power Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Modular Stirling Power System (MSPS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Infinia Technology Corporation
6811 West Okanogan Place
Kennewick, WA 99336-2374
(509) 735-4700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Songgang Qiu
sqiu@infiniacorp.com
6811 West Okanogan Place
Kennewick,  WA 99336-2374
(509) 737-2119

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Infinia Technology Corporation's (ITC) proposed Modular Stirling Power System (MSPS) is a free-piston Stirling system that addresses NASA needs in 12-kW increments. The MSPS utilizes a support structure that couples 1 heater head with 4 power modules and provides a high efficiency of 25% between very conservative acceptor and rejecter temperatures of 823 K and 475 K (30% @ 900/450 K). Proven ITC technology provides high intrinsic reliability and maintenance-free operation for >15 years. It directly leverages 3-kW power modules developed for Infinia's solar-Stirling PowerDish™ that have been deployed in over 400 engines to enable full-scale demonstration under a Phase II SBIR. The MSPS will employ innovative fabrication and/or laser welding processes for reliable liquid metal pumped loop compatibility with a next-generation heater head designed for nuclear system integration. Phase I will culminate in a concept definition and design as a foundation for analysis, detailed design, fabrication, and testing in Phase II. Development of the MSPS concept opens many avenues of application for commercial and government markets. Within NASA, the system will provide mission support for future space transportation and surface power with a very reliable, high-efficiency Stirling converter for the conversion of reactor heat into electricity.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ITC expects the MSPS interface to adapt core 3 kW Stirling engine technology for numerous additional synergistic commercial products and markets where the attributes of low noise, high efficiency, low emissions, and maintenance-free operation are valued. Higher power levels offered by the MSPS through the joining of multiple pre-commercial convertor technology into a single heater head exchanger coupled with the lower temperature deltas from source to sink, open many markets. Future complementary applications will include but are not limited to: *Waste Heat Conversion *Solar Trough systems *Emergency power generators *Remote power systems *micro-Combined Heat and Power (mCHP) *Over-the-road truck auxiliary power units to comply with the new anti-idling regulations *Recreational vehicle and yacht generators *Construction site power

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Modular Stirling Power System (MSPS) is ideally suited for use with Space Nuclear Power Systems (SNPS) and/or Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) systems. The proposed system will in no way be constrained by the availability of special isotopes, as is the case for small space power systems and can be easily interfaced with liquid metal cooling loops like those under development for future space transportation and surface power applications. Modular in nature, the MSPS enables varying power levels (12kW multiples with existing pre-commercial convertors or higher with redesigned systems) depending on mission power requirements with each module made up of a power conversion system, heat rejection system, and associated controls that can be interfaced with a reactor to meet specific mission applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Processing Methods
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X8.04-8351
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Photovoltaic Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: High specific power flexible integrated IMM photovoltaic blanket

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanohmics, Inc.
6201 East Oltorf Street, Suite 400
Austin, TX 78741-7509
(512) 389-9990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Qizhen "Jim" Xue
qxue@nanohmics.com
6201 East Oltorf Street, Suite 400
Austin,  TX 78741-7509
(512) 389-9990

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Originally designed for space applications, multi-junction solar cells have a high overall power conversion efficiency (>30%) which compares favorably to amorphous silicon, CIGS and bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices which are limited to <10%. Recent advances in manufacturing of Inverted Metamorphic Multi-junction (IMM) solar cells have opened new opportunities to greatly improve the specific power of the devices by means of removal of the epitaxial substrate. To date, flexible high efficiency IMMs have been fabricated and demonstrated in the framework of a space cell with IMMs released from the epitaxial substrate onto traditional coverglass. An increasing larger body of research is aimed at populating large area "blankets" with IMMs and this has led to a number of approaches that includes removal of rigid epitaxy growth substrates and adherence to lightweight flexible webs or polymer films. So far, there is no economic and fast approach to efficiently remove the growth substrate. Nanohmics proposes to develop a non-destructive approach for transfer of IMM solar devices from rigid growth substrates into flexible high specific power solar cell blankets. The method will enable integration of state-of-the-art photovoltaics into a large area conformal "blanket" for space applications. The proposed effort will include development of a novel sacrificial intermediate layer on which high efficiency IMM photovoltaics are epitaxially deposited.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In the global solar cell industry, the formation of efficient IMM cells with power conversion efficiencies greater than ~ 25% will enable cost-effective wide spread adoption of alternative solar power photovoltaics. These devices will have promise in a number of markets outside NASA and military space asset applications including: ¿ Passive energy scavenging for portable electronics ¿ Tarps, tents, awnings and other conformal shelters ¿ Apparel (athletic wear, military uniforms, electrotextiles) ¿ Marine covers, seat covers including ship sails ¿ Radiation hardened intrinsic materials will be enablde for flexible space applications where high specific power and low stowed volume that can be expanded into large area collectors. ¿ Flexible solar collectors that are impact resistant

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Nanohmics has targeted a method for generating hybrid inorganic cell/polymeric films using a low-cost continuous web process that will impact solar cell markets by providing a compelling advantage for increasing the specific power of the devices (W/kg) and the much lower production cost per unit area ($/W/m2). Specific power is a key figure of merit for applications such as spaceborne and high altitude power devices that have extremely tight total mass budgets (~ $10,000/ launched lb.) Coupled with the proposed low-cost, continuous-web method, both spaceflight and terrestrial-based markets will expand with the proposed novel technology

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X8.04-8602
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Photovoltaic Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Enhanced Mission-Enabling Ultra-High Power Solar Array (Mega-ROSA EX)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Deployable Space Systems, Inc.
75 Robin Hill, Building B2
Goleta, CA 93117-3108
(805) 693-1319

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steve White
Steve.White@DeployableSpaceSystems.com
75 Robin Hill, Building B2
Goleta,  CA 93117-3108
(805) 722-4941

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Mega-ROSA-EX is an enhanced, higher stiffness, higher sun-pointing accuracy, higher strength, higher specific power and even larger overall power / deployed size / stowed packaging capability configuration of the innovative Mega-ROSA technology. Mega-ROSA, named for Mega Roll-Out Solar Array, is a highly-modularized and extremely-scalable ROSA-based solar array architecture that provides immense power level range capability from 100kW to multiple Megawatts in size, for NASA Exploration Initiative and Planetary missions such as SEP space-tug and large-scale SEP-powered Planetary applications. The further-advanced/optimized versions of Mega-ROSA proposed(Mega-ROSA EX),promise to increase its deployed stiffness, strength and deployed size/packaging capability performance well beyond the excellent values already shown to be obtainable with the baseline "standard" high-packaging efficiency Mega-ROSA design. The significant and revolutionary end-user benefits of the Mega-ROSA EX technology advances are: Increased deployed stiffness / sun-pointing accuracy - The Mega-ROSA-EX configurations proposed to be developed during the Phase 1 program will allow significantly higher deployed stiffness (3-5 times higher than the standard baseline Mega-ROSA configurations), and the resulting lower PV blanket-plane displacements / higher wing sun-pointing accuracy achieved under expected on-orbit accelerations will enable the use of currently-available and cost-lowering flex-blanket PV concentration systems. The use of these concentrating methods to reduce the amount of expensive high-performance photovoltaics is a necessity to make cost-viable many of the planned NASA high-power SEP and Planetary missions. Certain SEP-powered Tug and Planetary spacecraft applications have mission scenarios with burn events/maneuvers that impose high accelerations. The Mega-ROSA EX configurations proposed are capable of achieving these accels. up to 0.25 G's and higher.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA space commercial applications are comprised of practically all DoD, and commercial missions that require large-power production through deployment of photovoltaic devices. Ultra-high power applications include high power spacecraft, Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP),and high-power telecommunications DoD customers may take advantage of the high-stiffness / strength capability for reacting maneuvering loads associated with rapid-response surveillance missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Mega-ROSA-EX technology promises to provide NASA a near-term and low-risk solar array system that provides revolutionary performance in terms of ultra-high power (100's of kW to 10's of MW), high specific power (>200-500 W/kg BOL at the wing level depending on PV), affordability (up to >50% projected cost savings at the array level with concentrators), light weight, high deployed stiffness, high deployed strength, ability to react maneuvering accelerations, compact stowage volume (>50 kW/m3 BOL), reliability, high radiation tolerance, high voltage operation capability, scale-ability, and LILT & HIHT operation capability. The proposed highly-experienced team and unique capabilities will catalyze commercial infusion and rapidly increase Mega-ROSA-EX technology readiness. The predicted performance metrics for the Mega-ROSA-EX technology are incredible improvements over current state-of-the-art, and in many cases are mission-enabling for future NASA Exploration missions and other NASA applications, and particularly for NASA's deep space solar electric propulsion (SEP) high-voltage and high-radiation missions, space-tug missions, and large area Planetary / Lunar surface missions. Space applications are comprised of NASA missions that require large-power production through deployment of photovoltaic devices. Ultra-high power applications include high power spacecraft, Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP), space-tug, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Composites
Deployment
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X8.04-9001
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Photovoltaic Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Volume Production of Lightweight, Multi-Junction Solar Cells Using 6-inch GaAs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MicroLink Devices
6457 Howard Street
Niles, IL 60714-3301
(847) 588-3001

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher Youtsey
cyoutsey@mldevices.com
6457 West Howard Street
Niles,  IL 60714-3301
(847) 588-3001

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Very large solar arrays to power future solar electric propulsion systems will require a new generation of solar cells that are not only high efficiency, but also light weight and significantly lower cost than existing multijunction solar cells based on Ge substrates. The large volume of solar cells required for individual missions (hundreds of kilowatts to megawatts) also presents significant manufacturing challenges. MicroLink Devices' multijunction solar cells based on epitaxial lift off (ELO) provide the unique combination of high efficiency, high specific power, and low cost by enabling reuse of the GaAs substrate after lift off. The use of GaAs substrates leverages a platform well-established by the GaAs IC industry at 6-inch diameter, which is also a significant enabler for cost reduction and volume production. Larger substrates not only reduce epitaxial growth and fabrication costs, but improve wafer utilization when fabricating large-area solar cells. MicroLink Devices' ELO solar cells are also highly flexible, which enables new approaches for panel fabrication and deployment. In this SBIR program we will demonstrate the capability for high-volume epitaxial lift off using 6-inch GaAs material. Our previous development efforts at MicroLink Devices have focused primarily on 4-inch wafers. We will fabricate the first large-area (20 cm2) multijunction ELO solar cells on 6-inch GaAs and compare performance with 4-inch ELO material. To support the fabrication of hundreds of kilowatts of solar cells for very large arrays, it is essential that the ELO substrate removal process is capable of supporting very high volumes of wafers on the scale of hundreds to thousands of wafers per day. We will demonstrate a 6-inch ELO process based on well-established semiconductor industry volume production tool sets and batch processing to achieve high throughput. The impact of using large wafer batches on the ELO process yield and device performance will be quantified.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
MicroLink Devices' multi-junction ELO solar cells are a potential replacement for conventional solar cells for military and civilian applications. The combination of high efficiency and low weight also make the cells ideal for powering unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). There are also emerging military and commercial applications for high-efficiency, flexible solar sheets for terrestrial power generation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
MicroLink Devices' multi-junction ELO solar cells are well-suited for future very large solar arrays to support solar electric propulsion (SEP) missions. Conventional solar-powered satellites can also benefit from lower-cost alternatives to existing Ge-based multi-junction solar cells. The cells are useable in solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Processing Methods
Nonspecified
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X8.04-9203
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Photovoltaic Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: MegaFlex Solar Array Scale-Up, up to 175kW per Wing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Angstrom Designs, Inc.
PO Box 2032
Santa Barbara, CA 93120-2032
(805) 876-4138

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Casey Hare
Casey.P.Hare@AngstromDesigns.com
PO Box 2032
Santa Barbara,  CA 93120-2032
(805) 876-4138

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has near-term needs for solar electric propulsion (SEP) power sources from 5 to 30 kW and longer term goals for SEP tugs as large as 300 kW and beyond. UltraFlex is a high-TRL solar array technology that spans the initial range of power levels with as-yet unmatched performance in specific power, stiffness, and strength. This technology has been to Mars, and is under development for the NASA Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and the Cygnus ISS supply vehicle by Orbital Sciences. MegaFlex is UltraFlex technology, with two enhancements to allow a 2-wing configuration to provide power levels up to 350 kW with near-term cell efficiencies. This technology meets SEP development needs for true scalability and allows for complete ground test and validation of the entire wing in existing facilities. Given the compaction capabilities, MegaFlex is an enabling technology for any mission where the power needed is more than the stowage volume allows with standard technologies. MegaFlex technology would also benefit lower power missions where higher compaction would allow use of a smaller, and less expensive, launch vehicle. MegaFlex achieves similar performance characteristics as UltraFlex with specific power up to 200 W/kg (versus 30-70 W/kg) and also higher stiffness (>3x) and strength (>5x) than conventional arrays.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The same benefits that apply to NASA also apply to commercial applications. MegaFlex enables the greatest power in the largest existing launch vehicles and ground test facilities for high power missions and also enables increased stowed compaction for lower power missions. These benefits immediately apply to vehicles such as Lockheed Martin's Orion and Orbital's Cygnus and will apply in the future to commercial missions that require greater total power, higher compaction, greater specific power, higher stiffness or higher strength than can be achieved with conventional array technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
MegaFlex achieves power levels up to 175kW per wing and is enabling technology for NASA SEP missions. Two wings can provide up to 350kW for a SEP tug and more wings can be added to a spacecraft to further increase available power. Beyond SEP, MegaFlex can support any mission with large power requirements using currently available technology, launch vehicles and test facilities. In addition to enabling high power missions, MegaFlex technology also allows higher compaction for smaller arrays. This enables better array packaging and could potentially reduce spacecrafts sizes for a given power need, thus fitting into smaller launch vehicles for cost savings.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Conversion
Generation
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X9.01-9863
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ablative Thermal Protection Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Temperature, Heat Flux and Recession Sensing for Ablative Thermal Protection Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Industrial Measurement Systems
760 Beverly Drive, Unit 4
Aurora, IL 60502-8604
(630) 236-5901

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Donald Yuhas
dyuhas@imsysinc.com
2760 Beverly Dr. Unit 4
Aurora,  IL 60502-8604
(630) 236-5901

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Although significant advances have been made in ground-based testing and simulations, it is still impossible to precisely replicate the diversity of in-flight conditions experienced by ablative thermal protection systems (TPS). This leads to uncertainty in the predictions of the magnitude and rate of TPS ablation. Because in-flight monitoring is difficult, the uncertainty in actual boundary conditions and models must be considered when designing a TPS. To reduce risk, designers must resort to trade-offs which often involve increasing heat shield mass. Direct ablator temperature, heat flux and recession measurements would allow engineers to reduce design uncertainty and improve modeling. These improvements will lead to decreased heat shield mass, enabling missions that are not otherwise feasible and directly increasing science payload and returns. Ultrasonic methods for real-time monitoring of ablator conditions including internal temperature distribution, heat flux and recession will be developed in this program. Internal localization methods of ultrasonic thermometry will be used to accurately measure temperature distribution to within close proximity of surface charring. Temperature compensation will be applied to ultrasonic thickness gauging techniques to estimate surface recession in real time. Heat flux can be extracted from the measured temperature distribution. Combined together, these ultrasonic techniques will form a sensor system capable of sensing and relating real-world ablator performance to computational models as well as qualifying ablator materials. When developed to maturation, such a sensor system even has applications for in-flight health monitoring.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
PICA and materials of its class are currently under development worldwide, including a Carbon-Resin by the European Space Agency (ESA). The largest current scheduled user of PICA-class ablators is SpaceX which utilizes a PICA-X variant in the Dragon spacecraft for earth re-entry. This environment is toward the lower end of heat fluxes and ablation to be encountered during a re-entry procedure. All private and public space endeavors that require re-entry heat shielding can benefit from the technology developed under this program which can augment and improve modeling, test ablators in real-world conditions and perform health monitoring roles in test articles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Mass and heat dissipation performance are critical to thermal protection systems for many NASA objectives both in spaceflight and hypersonic flight. Low-density carbon phenolics perform well in both of these critical parameters. Phenolic Impregnated Ceramic Ablator (PICA) was developed by NASA/Ames in the mid-nineties and flown successfully in the Stardust mission. This particular material is of active interest to NASA, with its use in the upcoming Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) and the possibility of its selection for multiple future missions. Real-time recession and heat flux measurements will support continued development of this class of ablators as well as mission specific implementation. Ablator performance models can be enhanced with higher fidelity temperature data and used for faster development with decreasing cost. Future programs are also in need of PICA and PICA class ablators. Two of the New Frontiers Program proposals incorporate PICA for sample return missions including MoonRise, a Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample Return Mission which would place a lander in a broad basin near the moon's south pole and return approximately two pounds of lunar materials for study and Osiris-Rex which would rendezvous and orbit a primitive asteroid, returning more than two ounces of material from the asteroid's surface.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Thermal
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X9.01-9948
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ablative Thermal Protection Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aerospace Grade Carbon Felt Preform

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fiber Materials, Inc.
5 Morin Street
Biddeford, ME 04005-4414
(207) 282-5911

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Keith Meiler
kmeiler@fibermaterialsinc.com
5 Morin Street
Biddeford,  ME 04005-4414
(207) 282-5911

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Fiber Materials, Inc. (FMI) will develop an aerospace-grade carbon felt preform by employing application specific materials with effective processes and fabrication technologies. Innovative combinations of materials and processes will result in thermal protection system (TPS) preforms that will enable a range of end applications. Future mission flight environments and designs, such as those anticipated for Mars EDL missions, will require a variety of TPS options to accommodate entry system designs. The capability of the developed carbon felt preform solutions will address various vehicle shapes, integration methods and the ability to deploy a flexible TPS. Testing for mechanical and thermal robustness will be conducted in a two phase program approach. The Phase I program will assess materials, designs and processing options to be developed, and cost effective manufacturing and assembling methodologies. The material approaches, design options, fabrication/assembly methods, Phase II work plan, Phase II proposal and final report are delivered at the conclusion of the Phase I program. During the Phase II program, a mission-applicable preform utilizing the developed material system will be demonstrated. The proposed materials, designs and methods are currently TRL < 3. It is anticipated that TRL ¿¿ 5 will be achieved at the conclusion of a successful Phase I and Phase II program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Enhanced carbon fiber felt solutions developed under this program would support commercial space operations including Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) and other exacting commercial applications. Aerospace-grade carbon felt can be enabling technology for commercial space return or planetary missions requiring TPS. Improvements realized from fiber felting and heat treatment are expected to enhance material offerings to the industrial sector.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Stardust Sample Return Capsule completed its objective with earth reentry in January 2006. Mars Science Laboratory Aeroshell heat shield has been completed and delivery of the Curiosity rover to Mars is scheduled for 2012. FMI will leverage successful development and fabrication of these programs to develop aerospace-grade carbon felt perform for TPS heat shields in support NASA flight mission(s). During this two phase program, developed materials will demonstrate the capability and basis for mission implementation. FMI is prepared to continue supporting NASA mission thermal protection by delivering additional enabling material options for a variety of thermal exposures. The program proposed will assist FMI in long term support of future NASA missions that include several TPS materials under development for Mars EDL application.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerobraking/Aerocapture
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Processing Methods
Composites
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X9.02-9432
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Integrated Hypersonic Entry Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Metal Rubber Sensors for Hypersonic Decelerator Entry Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanosonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke, VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
A. Hill
llawson@nanosonic.com
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke,  VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NanoSonic proposes to design and develop light-weight, low-modulus, and durable Metal Rubber&#153; sensors for aeroelastic analysis of Hypersonic Decelerator Entry Systems (HDES), which would in effect increase the systems aerodynamic stability by contributing to optimize its design. The in-situ Metal Rubber&#153; (MR&#153;) strain sensors would be utilized to monitor drag at varying Mach flow regimes (subsonic to hypersonic) by analyzing dynamic pressures, and billowing effects (or similar shape-change / inflation effects) of the inflatable system as it goes through simulated re-entry flow regimes in wind tunnel tests and in-flight. The novel MR&#153; sensors have proven the ability to monitor aerodynamic events, particularly shear and normal forces, based on their response to applied strain. These previous sensor technological advancements will be modified to develop the proposed sensor system for monitoring dynamic loading of HDES. Because commercial strain gauges are not capable of withstanding such high strain levels, and photogrammetric analysis can be cumbersome and is not possible in all wind tunnel tests or in-flight analyses, MR&#153; sensors are ideal for the proposed application. Lightweight MR&#153; sensor appliqu¿s can be attached onto HDES materials, integrated in or under the system coating matrix for in-situ non-invasive and even wireless monitoring.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is a large market for low-weight high strain sensors for scientific balloons, high altitude morphing systems, and similar re-entry inflatable systems, specifically for NASA and the aircraft industry. NanoSonic's low modulus Metal Rubber&#153; sensor plies and multi-element sensor arrays have unique applications in systems where strain is large and conventional stress and strain sensors mechanically fail. Because Metal Rubber&#153; is extremely durable, low modulus, and can have high electrical conductivity; it can also be used in high performance, highly flexible and mechanically robust electronic flex circuits, flexible displays and smart electronic fabrics, and as a replacement for conventional lead-based solder.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed SBIR program would develop an innovative, light-weight, low-modulus, and durable Metal Rubber&#153; sensor system for NASA's hypersonic decelerator entry systems. Some possible other applications for similar Metal Rubber&#153; materials for other NASA platforms (particularly aerospace systems) include: low-modulus strain and skin friction sensors for adaptive / morphing aircraft systems, hypersonic sensors for other inflatable re-entry systems, low-modulus materials or conformal coatings for EMI shielding, and flexible electrically-conductive wires.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Nanomaterials
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Contact/Mechanical
Pressure/Vacuum
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X10.01-8524
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Novel Flow Measurement System for Cryogenic Two-Phase Flow

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
En'Urga Inc
1291-A Cumberland Avenue
West Lafayette, IN 47906-1317
(765) 497-3269

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ye Mi
yemi@enurga.com
1291-A Cumberland Avenue
West Lafayette,  IN 47906-1317
(765) 497-3269

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Flow rate measurements for cryogenic propellants are required for spacecraft and space exploration systems. Such a requirement has been hampered by lack of fast and accurate instruments among existing technologies. This proposed project will develop a mass flow measurement system for non-conducting cryogenic propellant flow to meet the NASA's need. In the proposed system, an electromagnetic flowmeter for insulating fluids (EMFIF) will be able to provide real-time liquid velocity information under single- and two-phase flow conditions, and an X-ray void fraction sensor will provide phase concentration and interfacial velocity information. The X-ray sensor will also be able to detect bubble existence in cryogenic propellant flow. The whole proposed system will be a useful instrument to measure propellant flowrate in rocket engine feed lines. During the Phase I project, a test model of the proposal measurement technique will be designed and built. The performance of the proposed flowmeter will be studied in an experimental cross-calibration. If the Phase I study shows that it is feasible to employ the flowmeter for single/two-phase flow, the Phase II development towards engineering design and verification of the system will be carried out.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Accurate flow measurements are required by many civil engineering practices in chemical, petroleum, biomedical, automotive and nuclear industries. In these industries, accurate identification and characterization of two-phase turbulent flows within pipes are essential to improve process quality. Although a great deal of flowmeters have been developed and are commercially available, the non-intrusive capacitance-based electromagnetic flowmeter is very competitive and will be among the best choices for measuring electrically non-conducting fluids.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Reliable and accurate cryogenic propellant instrumentation is needed in-space, on the lunar surface, and on the earth. The proposed development will ensure reliable flow measurements for rocket engine feed lines in NASA spacecrafts. The proposed electromagnetic flowmeter can also be used to significantly enhance the flow monitoring and control of space exploration systems including propellant management and acquisition, nuclear power conversion and propulsion, thermal management, bio-fluids and life support systems. In addition, the flowmeter will be applicable to NASA's ground tests, commercial space systems, and defense aviation systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Process Monitoring & Control
Electromagnetic


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X10.01-8575
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reliable Actuator for Cryo Propellant Fluid Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dynamic Structures and Materials, LLC
205 Williamson Square
Franklin, TN 37064-1307
(615) 595-6665

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffrey Paine
jpaine@dynamic-structures.com
205 Williamson Square
Franklin,  TN 37064-1307
(615) 595-6665

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Cryogenic fluid handling applications require a reliable actuation technology that can handle very low temperatures. A novel EM hammer drive technology is proposed for use in cryo-propellant fuel storage and regulation valves/devices. In addition to high force, the new drive technology offers potential advantages for miniaturization, reduction of heat load, and lower cost as compared to traditional electromagnetic actuators. Dynamic Structures and Materials (DSM) proposes to focus the Phase I innovation on the development of a hammer drive actuation mechanism that will take the EM oscillatory power and produce continuous linear motion for operation at cryogenic and extreme environments. DSM has already demonstrated operation of its high force linear motor actuators at temperatures down to 77 K. The proposed actuator should operate from approximately 4 K to 400 K and should provide very low or no outgassing as well as operational capabilities in hard vacuum. The technology is proposed for applications in the cryo fluid management, pressure and flow control, and driving operational equipment and instruments. This proposal addresses DSM's approach to the development of flight-scalable demonstration components for the EM hammer drive technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most direct applications outside NASA are other aerospace projects that require actuators to operate valves for cryogenic fluid handling. ESA and major US defense contractors have previously tested systems that used piezoelectric actuators from DSM. It is reasonable to assume that once the new technology reaches a readiness level that is acceptable for NASA, other aerospace entities will have similar interest in using it for their programs. The US Air Force has expressed interest in very low temperature, high force actuators for use in their low Earth orbit simulation chambers at Arnold Engineering Development Center. More broadly, some commercial applications related to materials evaluation and inspection need positioning at very low temperature and could benefit from this research.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
DSM has received interest from NASA regarding actuators for cryogenic applications and for others that do not require low temperature capability. Many non-cryogenic uses require a wider temperature range than laboratory environment, so some of the proposed work would be useful for these purposes, as well. Many inquiries are related to the regulation of fluid flow or pressure. Thruster valves used in highly miniaturized satellites have received significant attention. Flow and pressure control of cryogenic propellants such as LOX for propulsion is also an area of interest. As the technology is more fully developed, it will be practical to pursue applications requiring more force. Interest has been expressed in an actuator for a 1-inch and 2 inch cryo-isolation valve that will require over 150 pounds of output force. There are many cryo and non-cryo valve applications that can potentially be addressed by this technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X10.01-9295
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Thin Aerogel as a Spacer in Multi-Layer Insulation for Cryogenic Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aspen Aerogels, Inc.
30 Forbes Road, Building B
Northborough, MA 01532-2501
(508) 691-1161

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Redouane Begag
rbegag@aerogel.com
30 Forbes Road
Northborough,  MA 01532-2501
(508) 691-1161

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Long duration storage of large quantities of cryogenic fluids for propulsion, power, and life-support is an essential requirement for long-term missions into space. The behavior of active and passive cryogenic fluid management (CFM) is paramount to the reliability of a spaceship and cryotank storage. Therefore, efficient and reliable insulation materials are key to the success of space missions. Aspen Aerogels proposes to develop a Multi-Layer Aerogel Insulation (MLAI) system to meet NASA's CFM needs. Aerogel has been demonstrated to be more durable and reliable than MLI, at a lower weight and reduced cost with comparable thermal performance. During this program, Aspen Aerogels will validate the key process step for a next generation aerogel manufacturing technology to enable the fabrication the proposed aerogel material. This new process is also expected to enable cost reduction of aerogel materials in general, a requirement to penetrate larger commercial thermal insulation markets. Development of the proposed MLAI system will provide NASA with a long-term CFM solution for space applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful development of a multi-layer aerogel insulation system will be immediately useful for a wide variety of cryogenic applications such as cryogenic storage tanks and transfer lines for LNG, LN2, etc. Thin aerogel would also be highly applicable to the very large apparel insulation market. Additionally, reducing aerogel cost through this process will allow much broader penetration into existing insulation markets, including building and construction.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Low weight, ease of installation and overall mechanical and thermal performance of aerogels as a spacer material will serve as a durable and more reliable replacement for NASA's traditionally used multi-layer insulation (MLI). Durability improvements will reduce maintenance costs and extend the period of cryogen storage and the life expectancy of the insulation system. In addition to spacecraft and other cryogen storage, applications including EVA suits, gloves, and footwear could also benefit from the thin and low density aerogel technology. The proposed insulation material will also find use in terrestrial applications, such as improved and durable insulation material for cryogenic fluid storage and transfer pipelines in preparation for launch.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerogels
Composites
Fluids
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X11.01-8144
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Shielding Materials Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Space Station Validation of Advanced Radiation-Shielding Polymeric Materials

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
International Scientific Technologies, Inc.
P.O. Box 757
Dublin, VA 24084-0757
(540) 633-1424

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Russell Churchill
intlsci@earthlink.net
P.O. Box 757
Dublin,  VA 24084-0757
(540) 633-1424

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Subtopic X11.01, NASA has identified the need to develop advanced radiation-shielding materials and systems to protect humans from the hazards of space radiation during NASA missions. The radiation components of interest include protons, alpha particles and heavy ions from galactic cosmic rays, protons and other ions from solar particle events, and high energy electrons and neutrons. International Scientific Technologies, Inc., in conjunction with the College of William and Mary, proposes to raise the technology readiness level of selected polymeric radiation-shielding materials through participation in the Materials on the International Space Station Experiment program, named MISSE-X. Phase I Technical Objectives will include assessment of the radiation environment in the orbital path of the International Space Station, selection of radiation-shielding polymeric materials for long-duration experiments in space, specification of active detectors/dosimeters for measurements of radiation in space, and design and optimization of an experiment package for inclusion on the MISSE-X platform for space-radiation environmental study. The anticipated result of the Phase I program is a proof-of-feasibility that will show the path toward a Phase II technology demonstration on board the International Space Station.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lightweight multifunctional radiation shielding will find application in the commercial sector in reducing collateral damage from heavy charged particles currently emerging as a therapeutic approach in nuclear medicine. The shielding will lead to decreased fatigue among medical personnel required to wear heavy protective garments during radiological procedures. Workers in industrial facilities using radiation for materials processing and in nuclear power facilities will also benefit from more-comfortable garments having reduced weight and thermal stress. The Departments of Defense and of Homeland Security applications include protection of soldiers, first responders and emergency medical personnel against high energy gamma radiation and neutrons resulting from so-called dirty bombs as well as from hazards brought about through accidental release of radiological materials. The uses of continuous monitoring of arrays of in-situ radiation sensors include evaluation of degradation of personal protective garments for biomedical, defense and homeland security applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed approach to validation of passive radiation-shielding materials has NASA applications in evaluating the effects of the space environment on multifunctional nanocomposite materials capable of serving both as radiation shields and structural elements. These materials are being developed by International Scientific Technologies, Inc. Several NASA programs will be directly affected as a result of the Phase I and Phase II programs. The Human Research Program (HRP) is tasked with ensuring crew safety on long-duration space missions. Validation of radiation shielding on-board the International Space Station will support that task. HRP will also deliver a design tool to assess advanced radiation shielding on space vehicles. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program will develop and demonstrate prototype systems for life support, habitation, and extravehicular activity (EVA).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Isolation/Protection/Radiation Shielding (see also Mechanical Systems)
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Composites
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Ionizing Radiation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X11.01-9141
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Shielding Materials Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Innovative, Lightweight Thoraeus RubberTM for MMOD and Space Radiation Shielding

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanosonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke, VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
J. Lalli
llawson@nanosonic.com
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke,  VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NanoSonic offers an innovative manufacturing process to yield ultra-lightweight radiation shielding nanocomposites by exploiting the concept of the Thoraeus filter on the nanoscale. Our elegant, layer-by-layer deposition process allows for unique layering with molecular level precision to covalently bind advanced polymers with alternating layers of high and low z nanoparticles. While radiation shielding cannot be achieved without some combination of mass density and appropriate choice of materials, NanoSonic's Thoraeus Rubber&#153; are nanostructured layers engineered in a manner to maximize shielding with minimum bulk within a hydrogenous network to address neutron emissions in addition to RF, gamma, X-ray and high energy particles. Radiation shielding shall be evaluated at Colorado State University and the Brookhaven Radiation Effects Facility to verify protection for humans and exploration vehicles envisioned for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and long-duration missions beyond LEO. Thermal, mechanical, and RF characterization would be carried out at NanoSonic. Micrometeoroids and Orbital Debris (MMOD) resistance and outgassing would be carried out by our space prime partner. Candidate materials shall be delivered in support of demonstration experiments for Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE). TRL 8-9 would be achieved upon demonstration of human and electronics protection from long-duration galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and solar energetic particles (SEP).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Additional applications for SM-MR include ultra-lightweight sensors/actuators for shape changing inflatables, rigidizable/deployable aerospace structures, and as protective coatings against electrostatic charging, radiation, and abrasion. Low cost, highly EMI/ESD protective skins for aerospace, biomedical and microelectronic components are offered via Shape Memory Metal Rubber&#153; with metal-like EMI SE up to -88dB under repeated and severe reconfigurations. Such EMI shielding skins can be envisioned for use on aircraft, morphing unmanned aerial vehicles, antennas and space structures. Structural, high temperature, composite materials having unique dielectric and multiple controlled electromagnetic properties are possible via NanoSonic's layer-by-layer approach. Spray ESA is envisioned as a cost-effective, environmentally friendly technology to displace sputtering and traditional dense filled composites. Metal Rubber&#153; Fabrics and films can also function as conducting electrodes for high strain mechanical actuator and sensor devices, and as low-weight, electrically conductive and mechanically flexible coatings for systems requiring physically-robust electromagnetic shielding, ground planes or electrical interconnection.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Structural, yet compliant, high temperature, radiation resistant Shape Memory-Metal Rubber&#153; composite materials having unique morphology and multiple controlled electromagnetic properties are possible via NanoSonic's automated spray-on ESA manufacturing approach. SM-MR adaptive materials represent a new class of robust, stowable &#150; deployable structures and shielding materials for spacecraft based on covalently bound shape memory polymers and nanostructured conductive particles. For this program, SM-MR shall be integrated as protective charge dissipative coatings for space electronics, and shielding coatings for exploration vehicles and satellites in LEO and beyond. NanoSonic's SMPs may be combined with our family of nanostructure materials produced in house (noble metals, magnetics, ceramics and quantum dots) for limitless combinations of multifunctional morphing materials for civil and space applications. SM-MR free standing nanostructured skins offer dual-use commercialization for NASA and civil markets in the electronics, aerospace, automobile and microelectronics markets for the production of conductive, high temperature, rad hard coatings.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airship/Lighter-than-Air Craft
Space Transportation & Safety
Tools/EVA Tools
Man-Machine Interaction
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Outreach
Prototyping
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Aerogels
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Metallics
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Textiles
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Structures
Lifetime Testing
Active Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X11.02-9101
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Integrated Advanced Alert/Warning Systems for Solar Proton Events
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Coupled System for Assessing the Threat of Solar Energetic Particle Events

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Predictive Science Incorporated
9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170
San Diego, CA 92121-3933
(858) 450-6494

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jon Linker
linkerj@predsci.com
9990 Mesa Rim Rd. Suite 170
San Diego,  CA 92121-3933
(858) 450-6489

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Solar Particle Events (SPEs) represent a major hazard for extravehicular maneuvers by astronauts in Earth orbit, and for eventual manned interplanetary space travel. We propose to develop a system to aid forecasters in the prediction of such events, and in the identification of ``all clear'' time periods when there is a low probability of such events occurring. The system combines empirical assessments with physics-based models by leveraging three recently developed technologies: a tool for forecasting solar eruptions from line-of-sight magnetograms (University of Alabama at Huntsville), physics-based models of the solar corona and inner heliosphere with embedded solar eruptions (Predictive Science, Inc., or PSI), and empirical/physics-based assessments of energetic particle fluxes using the Earth-Moon-Mars Radiation Environment Module (EMMREM, University of New Hampshire). When completed, the proposed SPE Threat Assessment Tool, or STAT, will represent a significant step forward in our ability to assess the possible impact of SPE events.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
SPEs are of concern not only to NASA, but to many government and commercial entities dependent on satellites and aircraft. For example, NOAA SWPC provides space weather information to a range of customers, for many of whom the forecasting of SPEs is a top priority. The Air Force is also interested in mitigation strategies for SPEs. The fledgling private manned launch services industry may wish to develop their own forecasting capabilities, as opposed to solely relying on government services. Once we have successfully developed STAT for NASA applications, we can adapt STAT to address the needs of these customers as well.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG) is charged with the difficult responsibility of ensuring that the radiation exposure received by astronauts remains below established safety limits. This requires identifying periods with a high probability of no SPEs, as well as recognizing the imminent threat of an SPE. The proposed SPE Threat Assessment Tool (STAT) will aid SRAG in this endeavor by providing probabilities of a major flare or coronal mass ejection (CME) from full disk magnetograms. When an active region on the Sun is deemed to show a significant threat, STAT can estimate particle fluxes and dose rates for possible eruption times over the next several hours and days. This capability will allow SRAG to place upper limits on the severity of an upcoming event, and possibly extend all clear times even when a significant active region is visible.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X12.01-8964
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Exercise Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Computer-Controlled Force Generator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 West 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033-1916
(303) 940-2347

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Douwe Bruinsma
dbruinsma@tda.com
12345 West 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge,  CO 80212-1916
(303) 940-5395

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
TDA Research, Inc proposes to develop a compact, low power, high life-cycle computer controlled Programmable Force Generator (PFG) that can generate any force between 0 and 700 lbf during any phase of the exercise motion. The proposed device uses a closed loop control system to maintain the predetermined load throughout the range of motion by controlling an electric motor. The force applied during the eccentric phase is independent of the force applied during the concentric phase; the force applied during the eccentric phase (return stroke) can even exceed the force applied during the pull stroke (concentric phase). The PFG uses regenerative braking to store the braking energy harvested during the pull stroke and applies this energy to provide the motive force during the return stroke. The PFG can be integrated with both the hardware and the software of existing exercise equipment such as the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED). Since the application of force can be automatically controlled during the entire range of motion, the PFG eliminates the need for the user to adjust the equipment to their specific range of motion; this significantly increases the fraction of time that can be spent exercising relative to the time spent configuring equipment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The exercise equipment market is a multi-billion market that is receptive to innovative changes. Electronic interfaces are becoming more prevalent in all aspects of life and cardiovascular training equipment has followed this trend. Strength training, however, still relies mainly on weights. The PFG can advance strength training equipment to the modern age. Another potential application is for physical therapy. Rehabilitation patients are susceptible to additional injury and therefore great care must be taken during the exercise programs. For this reason, there are specific exercise methods to aid in the recovery from specific injuries. With the implementation of the Programmable Force Generator into rehabilitation equipment, precise load profiles can be programmed to increase speed of recovery from an injury. Another application of the PFG is to reduce the loads on a patient's legs during rehabilitation. Currently, underwater treadmills are used to decrease the load on the legs and hips during rehabilitation. An alternative approach is to place a harness on the user and attach them to a cable from a PFG which is attached overhead. The load of the PFG can then be set to a fraction of the bodyweight of the patient to reduce the stress on the leg and hip muscles. In this manner the patient still has full mobility and can move freely, but the loads on the legs and hips are decreased.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Programmable Force Generator can be incorporated into existing microgravity exercise equipment such as the Advance Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) or in future exercise equipment to generate resistive forces. The PFG increases the flexibility of exercise equipment because the force can be controlled independently throughout the exercise motion. The PFG will increase the time that is spent exercising relative to the time spent configuring equipment because the generated force can be adjusted automatically throughout the range of motion. The PFG uses minimum power through the application of a regenerative braking system that harvests power during the pull stroke and applies that power to generate the motive force during the return stroke. NASA has made significant investments into the development of the Advance Resistance Exercise Device which has proven to be an excellent countermeasure for astronauts' health. During Phase I we will work together with NASA to develop the required interfaces to incorporate the PFG into the ARED. Incorporation of the PFG will improve the effectiveness of the ARED and decrease the amount of time that is spent configuring the equipment relative to the time spent exercising. We will develop both the mechanical interfaces and the interfaces with the control software that is currently part of ARED. By utilizing this approach, NASA will achieve tangible benefits from the proposed research in a short timeframe.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Physiological/Psychological Countermeasures


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X12.02-8627
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Portable Load Sensing Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Exercise Load Measurement Insole (ELMI)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Technologies Corporation
57 Maryanne Drive
Monroe, CT 06468-3209
(203) 874-3100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yogesh Mehrotra
ymehrotra@aboutmtc.com
57 maryanne dr
monroe,  CT 06468-3209
(203) 874-3100

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Exercise Load Measurement Insole (ELMI) is a system that is designed to measure normal and shear foot forces during exercise. The ELMI system is lightweight, portable, unobtrusive, and its versatility allows it to be used for many purposes outside of exercise load measurement and study. At the heart of ELMI is an innovative sensor design that when configured in an array can measure full foot normal and shear loads simultaneously. The sensor design allows for normal forces to be measured in compression, while both lateral and longitudinal forces can be measured in shear. The normal and shear sensitivity can be customized for different specifications, and even stacked for graded sensitivity, if desired. The result can be placed in an array and integrated into a shoe without affecting user operation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Exercise Load Measurement Insole (ELMI) system is composed of individual sensing elements that are capable of measuring both normal and shear forces simultaneously. The flexible and thin characteristics of this sensor allow for it to be used for many non NASA purposes. The individual sensors could be used by roboticists as tactile sensors for various manipulation tasks. These sensors could also be arranged in an array to ergonomically measure seat forces, as an indication of posture. In the insole form factor, this system technology could have many uses in athletic training, rehabilitation, and gait analysis.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Exercise Load Measurement Insole (ELMI) system is composed of individual sensing elements that are capable of measuring both normal and shear forces simultaneously. The flexible and thin characteristics of this sensor allow for it to be used for many other purposes in the space environment. The individual sensors could be placed on remotely teleoperated devices to measure contact forces. In a similar fashion, these sensors could be used as input devices for an interface. Also, since the sensor is flexible, it could also be placed on hand related exercise equipment bars (bench press, bicep curl) to measure upper body exertion. Outside of exercise use, these insoles could be used to monitor general ground reaction forces during routine daily activities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Contact/Mechanical
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X13.01-9228
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Smart Phone Driven Blood-Based Diagnostics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cell Phone-based Lateral Flow Assay for Blood Biomarker Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 West 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505-5217
(424) 263-6300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Henry Lin
sbirproposals@intopsys.com
2520 West 237th Street
Torrance,  CA 90505-5217
(424) 263-6344

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The ability to integrate a sensor platform with a cell phone for health monitoring and disease diagnosis for astronauts in space exploration has the potential to be cost effective and space saving. In this proposal, Intelligent Optical Systems (IOS) will build upon expertise in lateral flow test strip (LFTS) assays by integrating an LFTS with a cell phone for the quantitative measurement of blood-based biomarkers. Our innovative and extremely cost-effective multi-analyte LFTS approach is imminently suited for space travel. All "microfluidics" (sample transport, reagent storage, mixing, etc.) take place via capillary action with no moving parts, no flow channels, and in a 5 mm x 5 mm x 30 mm space. Taking advantage of the built-in flash and high resolution camera, we will modify a commercially available cell phone with optical filters, lenses, a UV LED excitation source and a cassette holder for LFTS image capture. Quantum dots (QD) will be incorporated as labels with high quantum yield, resulting in higher sensitivity and narrow emission peaks in a multiplexed assay. In Phase I, we will develop and optimize a cell phone-based LFTS platform with the ability to quantitatively detect multiple biomarkers within clinically relevant ranges. The images of the LFTS will be captured on the cell phone and analyzed on a computer by the end of the Phase I. In Phase II, we will develop cell phone-based software for on-cell phone detection and data processing with expanded panels of biomarkers; advancing the TRL from 5 to 7.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A cell phone-based serum biomarker detection platform will be cost-effective and compact not only for space exploration; it will also benefit the overall healthcare industry. Cell phones are becoming increasingly prevalent all over the world, with approximately 5 billion subscribers worldwide, and in the U.S. approximately one in three adults owns a smart phone. The ability to integrate a simple LFTS assay with a cell phone will enable healthcare providers to perform blood tests for many diseases on a wide population, including populations in remote areas where healthcare facilities are sparse. Such a platform can have a major impact in developing countries where a simple cell phone can be converted into a blood marker detection platform, avoiding the cost of acquiring dedicated medical equipment; furthermore, this point-of-care device improves the probability of early detection, yielding additional savings in overall cost of healthcare. Military field medicine will also benefit from the availability of a versatile handheld medical blood testing device that takes advantage of the ubiquitous mobile phone to minimize weight and power requirements.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future space missions will require prolonged stays of crew members onboard space stations, and on other spacecraft during journeys to other planets. Increasingly complex space missions will also require the health status of astronauts to be monitored, preferably in a simple point-of-care apparatus that is compact and simple. The IOS system will enable NASA to monitor the health status of crew members by means of simple blood-based biomarker detection. A lateral flow test strip will be integrated with a cell phone into a simple and compact blood biomarker detection platform. This platform will gather diagnostic information in the absence of medically trained personnel, and can also monitor the health of aircraft pilots, cabin crews, passengers, and others in aeronautics-related occupations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X13.01-9659
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Smart Phone Driven Blood-Based Diagnostics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Smart Phone Fluorescent Chem8

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ionu Biosystems
97 Electric Avenue, #3
Somerville, MA 02144-1605
(617) 460-4003

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Dubach
dubach@ionubiosystems.com
97 Electric Ave num 3
Somerville,  MA 02144-1605
(617) 460-4003

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Ionu Biosystems will develop a fluorescent smart phone blood analyzer that can measure important physiological concentrations from a drop of blood. The approach will be to develop fluorescent optode sensors to detect the concentration of the components of basic metabolic and blood gas panels. Using wireless optode sensors, which can reduced in size to the nanoscale, and fluorescence signal detection removes the need for wired connection of the sensors, sample preprocessing and microfluidics for sample handling. These advantages will reduce the size, weight and cost of the sample cartridge. Fluorescence emission from the sensors will be directly measured by the built-in phone camera and data processing can occur on the phone itself. The results from Phase I will include the construction of a prototype phone case to provide the necessary optical components to convert a smart phone into fluorescence sensor and response of sensors for the components of a chem8 to different target concentrations measured with the phone prototype. Phase I of this project will satisfy the solicitation requirements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are numerous non-NASA applications of a fluorescence based smart phone blood diagnostic. Rapid, mobile, small volume blood diagnostics will provide medical information to healthcare providers that in certain settings have no other means of access. In home health monitoring this technology will allow patients to self monitor key physiological levels and easily communicate with their physicians. Using a smart phone as the base of the system will provide healthcare providers in resource poor settings, such as third world countries, remote regions, or at forward points on the battlefield, with valuable information on the patients they are treating. This proposed system will significantly alter access to important health parameters to enhance healthcare and reduce healthcare costs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The fluorescent smart phone blood panel diagnostic will provide a method for NASA to self monitor key physiological parameters during long flight missions. This will allow flight staff to control their own health and provide information for physicians at home to assess health and advice on courses of action. Converting the technology developed in this proposal to any camera based system will be simple and allow for integration into future hardware.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X13.02-9881
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Non-Wet Prep Electrodes
PROPOSAL TITLE: Practical Non-contact ECG Electrodes for Prep-free Monitoring

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cognionics
4685 Convoy Street
San Diego, CA 92111-2339
(469) 951-2227

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yu Chi
mike@cognionics.com
4685 Convoy St
San Diego,  CA 92111-2339
(469) 951-2227

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Cognionics has developed a high-quality, low-noise, dry/non-contact ECG electrode that can obtain signals even through layers of clothing without any skin preparation. Although the idea of a non-contact electrode is not new and has been previously investigated by other research groups, a successful design has yet to be achieved due to unresolved issues relating to noise, artifacts and complexity. The Cognionics technology is based in part on a novel custom integrated amplifier developed by the PI and licensed from the University of California, San Diego. The patent-pending amplifier is specifically optimized for high-impedance biopotential sensing and is able to achieve significantly better performance in terms of input impedance and noise than the discrete off-the-shelf components used in previous research efforts. In contrast to older designs, the Cognionics sensor requires no manual adjustments (neutralization), consumes a minimum of power (a few uWs) and is virtually insensitive to variations in the body-electrode coupling strength. The new amplifier combined with several Cognionics developed proprietary techniques has already yielded a non-contact sensor with significant improvements in signal quality even on fully ambulatory subjects. The Phase I proposal will further develop the sensor to demonstrate full compliance with AAMI ECG specifications through both bench and live testing. In Phase I, a single lead non-contact chest strap will be produced to serve as an evaluation platform for delivery to NASA. A successful Phase I project will demonstrate that the core Cognionics non-contact sensor can fully meet NASA's signal quality requirements. The Phase II project will develop a full diagnostic ECG device for use in space environments and integrate the sensor within existing and future NASA systems (e.g., spacesuits).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Dry electrodes have been extensively studied for medical applications. Despite the current advancements in mobile and wireless technologies, a better sensor technology is still critically needed to enable future medical devices. Achieving a successful, high-quality non-contact sensor will significantly improve the way outpatient ECG monitoring is performed. Current outpatient monitoring devices (e.g., Holter, event monitors) would no longer need adhesive electrodes or skin contact, greatly improving patient comfort and compliance. It may also enable new techniques, including: a) practical high-resolution, surface voltage mapping (BSPM) which has demonstrated promising results towards non-invasive arrhythmia diagnosis but currently requires time consuming and expensive application of large numbers of sensors, b) high-quality, patient-friendly, non-contact electrodes may lead to routine ECG monitoring (e.g. ECG as a part of every doctor office visit), c) non-contact ECG will be especially useful for sensitive subjects (e.g., neonates, burn victims). d) and high-quality non-contact biopotential electrodes have, in the long-term, significant clinical implications in neurology (e.g. sleep, epilepsy, neurodegenerative diseases) by enabling a comfortable, wearable and mobile EEG device.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The use of ECG monitoring has been an integral part of space flights for decades. Non-contact electrodes, which can be comfortably worn and never need replacement parts, represent the ideal tool for both continuous crew health monitoring as well as specific health experiments (e.g. exercise stress tests). The technology in this proposal, if successful, is a natural candidate for inclusion in all future NASA missions that require ECG recordings. The Cognionics non-contact ECG sensor in conjunction with either Cognionics-developed data acquisition systems, COTS ECG Holter monitors, or proprietary NASA body sensor systems, has the potential to significantly improve the usage (time, effort, comfort) of astronaut cardiac monitoring. Additionally, the Cognionics sensor technology has application to EEG - a high-quality non-contact, comfortable and gel-less sensor can enable practical EEG applications to assess neurological function in space. Currently, EEG based systems are too cumbersome for the constraints of space environments. A high-quality, dry and through-hair EEG system could potentially lead to astronaut neurological monitoring (e.g., alertness/fatigue, sleep) systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Medical
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X14.01-9176
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Virtual Reality and World Technologies for Team Training Approaches
PROPOSAL TITLE: Serious Games for Team Training

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
951 Mariner's Island Boulevard, Suite 360
San Mateo, CA 94404-1585
(650) 931-2700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dan Fu, Ph.D.
fu@stottlerhenke.com
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., Suite 360
San Mateo,  CA 94404-1585
(650) 931-2700

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to investigate a virtual teamwork training suite incorporating serious games that target specific team-oriented skills and behaviors. We will define metrics for evaluation of team performance, devise games that engage crew and controller participants in relevant team tasks, and perform a review on the applicability of virtual environment and serious game mechanics to training objectives.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As workplaces become more and more interdependent, while at the same time becoming more distributed, we expect that teaching readiness skills will be valued for increasing the productivity of teams. These skills are vital in high stakes domains such as military or law enforcement since peoples' lives are at stake. This includes training for emergency rooms, firefighters, law enforcement, emergency first responders, and so forth.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A training suite composed of serious games will be targeted towards teams composed of mission controllers and crew. During Phase I we will identify the behavioral constructs and indicators that drive requirements on game mechanics. Given a mission description, combination of games within the suite can be retrieved for use.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Physiological/Psychological Countermeasures
Mission Training


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X14.01-9771
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Virtual Reality and World Technologies for Team Training Approaches
PROPOSAL TITLE: Virtual Team Training Engine and Evaluation Framework

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
GameSim Technologies Inc.
12124 High Tech Avenue Suite 160
Orlando, FL 32817-8374
(407) 688-0587

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrew Tosh
atosh@gamesim.com
12124 High Tech Avenue Suite 160
Orlando,  FL 32817-8374
(407) 310-4020

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In an effort to support a range of social educations in the context of constantly evolving mission objectives, this proposal focuses on the creation of a framework that can be used to rapidly construct virtual training scenarios, execute those scenarios and, finally, measure the effectiveness of the training in behavior improvement. The first stage of the framework is a scenario generation tool that can be used directly by SMEs from various social and psychological domains to design situation and training materials without requiring any programming or artistic knowledge. The output from the scenario generation tool is directly imported into a 3D virtual team training engine that allows multiple players to engage in the exercise from a variety of platforms, including standalone applications, web and mobile devices. After the players have completed the scenario, an After Action Review tool generates on-the-fly, relevant, SCORM-based training material to further educate each player on areas that warrant improvement. The final piece to the framework is a clear process for evaluating the value of the training in terms of short and long term impact on behavior. This proposal acknowledges the need for a system that NASA can use long-term for creating mission relevant training situations as well as to distribute to SMEs in various disciplines for constantly new and improved training.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Outside of NASA, the framework could be used by the military or emergency responders to augment their existing training systems. Given the openness of the system, it would be straightforward to create training scenarios that are relevant to those domains and to execute the evaluation process to ensure it is having a measurable behavioral impact. In the field of social and psychological academic research, the framework could be used for various studies, without requiring users in those fields to obtain assistance from software engineers and 3D modelers. In addition, the evaluation process would be attractive to such research studies for drawing conclusions on a training methodology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The framework created under this proposal is initially targeted at creating a behavioral impact in the domains listed in the SBIR topic (e.g., cross-cultural interactions, leadership, psychological support, etc.) in the context of complex mission tasks. However, the training scenarios created for the system could be expanded to other domains within NASA. For example, it may be desirable to use the system for pure virtual training of various tasks without any social or psychological training. Additionally, outside the scope of training, the system could be used as a diagnostic tool to determine the attitudes of players. In this mode, the player¿s results could be monitored to determine the social or psychological appropriateness of his or her role in a mission.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Physiological/Psychological Countermeasures
Mission Training
Outreach
Training Concepts & Architectures
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X15.01-8695
SUBTOPIC TITLE: A New Technique for Automated Analyses of Raw Operational Videos
PROPOSAL TITLE: Automatic Video-based Motion Analysis

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vecna Technologies, Inc.
6404 Ivy Lane, Suite 500
Greenbelt, MD 20770-1423
(240) 965-4500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Neal Checka
nchecka@vecna.com
36 Cambridgepark Drive
Cambridge,  MA 02140-2313
(617) 864-0636

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Operations in confined, isolated, and resource-constrained environments can lead to suboptimal human performance. Understanding task performance and crew behavioral health is crucial to mission success and the optimal design, development and operation of next generation space craft. Onboard resources, such as a single conventional video camera, can capture crew motion and interaction. There is a critical need for a software tool which achieves unobtrusive, non-invasive, automatic analysis of crew activity from video footage. Many video-based human motion analysis tools assume a stationary camera and employ segmentation techniques like temporal differencing or background segmentation to detect people. However, these approaches are vulnerable to camera motion and subtle changes in the background. In addition, many existing commercial solutions use simple blob-based video analysis where the entire body is tracked as a single object. Employing such a coarse human body model is appropriate for surveillance applications concerned with motion detection and person counting; however, it is insufficient for understanding precise human actions or gestures. Therefore, a system which is able to detect human body pose automatically, regardless of camera setup, is necessary for addressing these issues. Vecna proposes a video analysis software tool that automatically processes and analyzes complex human motions in conventional 2D video without the use of specialized markers. Unlike many video analytics solutions, Vecna's solution goes beyond simple blob-based video analysis by tracking the geometric configuration of human body parts like the trunk, head, and limbs. This enables our human motion understanding algorithms to model and recognize complex human actions and interactions. The resulting system will represent a substantial breakthrough providing benefits to an array of applications in video surveillance, human-computer interaction, human factors engineering, and robotics.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology is applicable to a wide range of Department of Defense and intelligence community areas including force protection, counter-terrorism, target recognition, human activity monitoring, and surveillance and tracking. We see significant potential for application of this tool to support a range of tactical and strategic systems, including shipboard Navy CIC centers, Army field C3I centers, or USAF theater airborne command posts. A number of programs sponsored by the Department of Defense (e.g. FCS, HumanID, CTS, Mind's Eye, Rail Security Pilot) employ video-based monitoring systems and would benefit from the proposed system. In addition, Vecna will investigate commercialization opportunities in a variety of sectors, including mobile robotics and visual surveillance. Initial analysis of these market segments reveal both unaddressed needs as well as vast potential for rapid adoption and growth. As robotic systems become more commonplace in today's society, robust, intelligent interaction between humans and robots is essential. Interaction with humans in a lifelike manner requires that robot infer physical intentions by interpreting visual cues. The proposed technology could potentially revolutionize human-robot interaction. In the surveillance market, an immediate application is automated screening of passengers and personnel at busy transportation hubs such as airline terminals and ports, and 24/7 automation of border monitoring and control.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Vecna expects the full-scope software system to have immediate and tangible benefit for NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). ESMD focuses on the human element of exploration by conducting research to ensure astronaut explorers are safe, healthy and can perform their work during long-duration space exploration. Task performance and crew behavioral health are key concerns in the design, development, and operation of next generation space vehicles. Operations in confined, isolated, and resource-constrained environments can lead to suboptimal human performance. As such, there is a critical need for Vecna's proposed software tool that automatically processes and analyzes crew motion and interaction from video footage captured by a single conventional 2D video camera. Such a diagnostic tool will enable unobtrusive and non-invasive measurement of task performance and crew behavioral health.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Image Analysis
Image Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X15.01-8981
SUBTOPIC TITLE: A New Technique for Automated Analyses of Raw Operational Videos
PROPOSAL TITLE: Perception Engine for Activity Recognition and Logging

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRACLabs, Inc.
100 North East Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio, TX 78216-1234
(281) 461-7886

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Patrick Beeson
pbeeson@traclabs.com
100 N.E. Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio,  TX 78216-1234
(281) 461-7884

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Ten of thousands of hours of video footage already exist and countless more hours will be logged as spacecraft continue to orbit the Earth and explore the solar system. These video logs contain immeasurable amounts of useful data on crew social interactions, crew task performance, and crew-vehicle interaction. Currently, these videos must be searched and indexed by hand. This is a long process that involves many man hours of labor. Automated video processing techniques can integrated into a comprehensive toolbox that drastically reduces the time to search and analyze videos. This would allow specific regions in a video stream to be isolated for monitoring, which can provide quick indexing for human viewing of all motion-based activity in the area of a vehicle. It could also allow the user to query for specific activities or events that occurred in this region. These could be automatically detected by software and presented directly to the user. In support of NASA's needs, we propose to design a system that detects and tracks humans, human activity, human-station interaction, and team interactions using existing cameras and videos. Our overall objectives can be achieved by developing a suite of algorithms that can handle several key sub-challenges: 1) Robustly handling unconstrained video content and capture conditions; 2) Extracting functional descriptions of complex human events; 3) Handling ad hoc event queries effectively; 4) Operating efficiently, so the system can keep up with the flood of videos being added to current databases and provide effective interactive search over such databases.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The military is a major consumer of video analysis software. We believe that the innovations in this project will enable a general-purpose multimedia interpretation system that will dramatically improve the productivity of intelligence community analysts working at such places as National Media Exploitation Center within the Defense Intelligence Agency. While DARPA has funded Mind's Eye to analyze scenes for verbs, they have not placed the focus on a toolbox that allows humans to place themselves in-the-loop with the video analysis process. By allowing users to make adhoc queries using selected processing components on specific regions of video, human expert knowledge that has yet to be automated can be leveraged to detect novel events. We expect to market our software to military customers. Additional non-NASA applications include activity recognition and configurable video monitoring for airport security, large factories and plants, oil exploration operations, and hospitals. The educational arena is also a potential consumer, as students and classrooms can be monitored at universities, which improves facility maintenance and potentially instructor performance. We also see civilian applications in searching for critical events in massive unconstrained video databases, such as on YouTube and Facebook.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our immediate NASA application is to find key events in video logs from space station and from ground testing. Our intended users include the Habitability and Environmental Factors Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. This work could have immediate application for International Space Station (ISS). The system could be used to monitor specific areas of station that have chronic maintenance issues of unknown cause. It could be used to analyze individual patterns in crew members and highlight unusual behaviors. It could also be used to monitor crew interaction issues, both with each other and with specific hardware on station. Our system is also applicable for vehicle/habitat design issues, by analyzing video of how environments are used by crew members.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Perception/Vision
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Image Analysis
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X15.02-9574
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Food Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Liposome Encapsulation of Vitamins to Enhance Storage Properties of Space-Bound Food

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innosense LLC
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance, CA 90505-5245
(310) 530-2011

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Linden Bolisay
linden.bolisay-1@innosense.us
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance,  CA 90505-5245
(310) 530-2011

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
InnoSense LLC (ISL) proposes to develop a nanoparticle encapsulation systems for water- and fat-soluble vitamins (VitaCap&#153;) to increase shelf life up to five years for long duration space missions. This encapsulation technology would preserve/enhance the nutrient content of space foods by increasing the amount of bio-active vitamins delivered into the body. Ensuring adequate nutrition that is adapted to these physiological conditions in space, adds a new dimension to the challenges of planned long duration human spaceflight missions beyond low earth orbit (LEO). Phase I feasibility studies are expected to demonstrate that encapsulated vitamins do not degrade and the proposed encapsulation materials do not allow diffusion of the vitamin under processing and storage conditions. It would also be established that bioactive vitamins are released under digestion conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The market is driven by factors such as increased shelf life, enhanced bioavailability, and consumers' increasing demand for fresh flavorsome food products. The U.S. presently holds the largest market share. Emerging markets such as China and India are expected to show higher growth in the coming years. The global food encapsulation market is estimated to be $35.4 billion by 2014, growing at a rate of 6.9 % per year. Some of the larger competitors in this market and potential buyers of VitaCap are Nestl¿, Unilever and Cargill. Other customers include smaller encapsulant manufacturers and nanotech companies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
VitaCap will have applications as vitamin additives in NASA food packages for long duration space missions. It will offer advantages such as increased bioavailabililiy and superior vitamin delivery, increased shelf life with optimum physical and chemical stability, and greater flavor compatibility and ingredient options.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Food (Preservation, Packaging, Preparation)
Processing Methods
Aerogels
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Nanomaterials
Organics/Biomaterials/Hybrids
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X17.01-9088
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Alternative Methods for Ambient Preservation of Human Biological Samples During Extended Spaceflight and Planetary Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Biological Sample Ambient Preservation (BioSAP) Device

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ChromoLogic, LLC
180 North Vinedo Avenue
Pasadena, CA 91107-3490
(626) 382-9974

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Peter Bui
pbui@chromoloic.com
180 N. Vinedo Ave
Pasadena,  CA 91107-3490
(626) 381-9974

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To address NASA's need for alternative methods for ambient preservation of human biological samples collected during extended spaceflight and planetary operations, Chromologic (CL) proposes to develop a novel Biological Sample Ambient Preservation (BioSAP) device. BioSAP device is based on an improved dried biological specimens storage approach and specialized matrix to (1) collect a known amount of biological samples, (2) rapidly capture and stabilize them, (3) protect them from biodegradation, (4) decrease drying time, and (5) increase recovery. The unique technology and expertise of CL scientists will result in an innovative, reliable, compact and low-cost method of collecting and preserving dried biological specimens at room temperature. The unique portable design of the BioSAP does not require any power source and it is utilizable during flight and mission. In Phase I, CL will demonstrate the feasibility of the BioSAP device by fabricating a prototype device capable of capturing and stabilizing a subset of target analytes through a rapid drying process. In Phase II, CL plans to validate, refine and optimize the design of the BioSAP to allow for future integration with post-mission analysis methodologies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The BioSAP device will lead to a new generation of biological specimen preservation devices for use in remote, challenging conditions where scientific equipment and infrastructure are not readily available. The BioSAP device can also be incorporated, for example, into the standardized tool or method that are currently used for quick diagnostic at limited resource settings. Development of this device will have immediate applications in medicine in third world countries, forensic data collection and environmental monitoring. In addition, BioSAP system can be commercialized into the following market: self blood collection at home and send it for remote testing, for new-born screening, drug monitoring, and small animal research.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA will have a versatile, compact, lightweight blood and urine preservation device does not require refrigeration that can be used for long-term studies into the effects of the microgravity environment on the physiology of astronauts. The small sized inexpensive material based system is designed to weigh as little as possible and be able to be tightly packed; it does not require any additional processing equipment nor consume any power. The versatility of the BioSAP device will allow its range of use to be expanded to encompass storage of other biological fluids with very little modification. No commercial system offers the capability of BioSAP in room temperature biological preservation during space missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Tools/EVA Tools
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X1.01-8102
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Characterization, Extraction, Transfer, and Processing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reactive Capture of Carbon Dioxide

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Reactive Innovations, LLC
2 Park Drive, Unit 4
Westford, MA 01886-3525
(978) 692-4664

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Karen Jayne
kjayne@reactive-innovations.com
2 Park Drive, Unit 4
Westford,  MA 01886-3525
(978) 692-4664

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this Phase I SBIR, Reactive Innovations, LLC (RIL) proposes to develop a compact and lightweight electrochemical to capture carbon dioxide in the martian atmosphere from nitrogen and argon. Our approach builds on two separately developed technologies in our laboratory involving: 1) carbon dioxide capture and 2) advanced electrode designs. Our approach initially aims to make a compact reactive/separator that can operate continuously with minimum energy requirements for both ISRU process streams in particular the martian atmosphere. The success of this approach demonstrated in a compact and lightweight unit for NASA will allow us to deploy it in the near term for a number of terrestrial-based applications including CO2 sequestration and mitigation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA, this technology will have significant terrestrial-based applications and thereby a significant customer base. The market for separating carbon dioxide from other gases is expected to grow with continued interest and emphasis on reducing CO2 emissions. Sequestering CO2 or reducing CO2 to oxygen on earth may find interest by organizations that need to reduce their CO2 emissions. Successful cost effective technologies that can sequester CO2 clearly have a world-wide market appeal. A compact reactor that efficiently separates and concentrates CO2 can be used in sequestration scenario, alternative fuels production, as well at mitigating CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology has application in ISRU processing. In particular, the Martian atmosphere is about 95% CO2, which can potentially be separated and processed to produce oxygen or methane gas. Another important application for CO2 separation technologies involve air revitalization where excess carbon dioxide must be removed from the cabin of spacecraft and spacesuits.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Resource Extraction


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X1.01-8468
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Characterization, Extraction, Transfer, and Processing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Mobile In-Situ Mars Water Extractor (MISME)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics Ltd.
460 West 34th Street
New York, NY 10001-2320
(212) 966-0661

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kris Zacny
zacny@honeybeerobotics.com
398 West Washington Blvd.
Pasadena,  CA 91103-2000
(510) 207-4555

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Extracting water and volatiles from icy soils requires excavating and manipulating those soils as feedstock, but the Phoenix mission demonstrated some of the difficulties that may be encountered during such operations. The solution to these problems is an integrated mobile mining and water extraction system that uses an auger based excavation approach and an integrated water-ice extraction plant &#150; hence, if the water-ice does sublime, it will sublime straight into the extraction system. The proposed system is an auger with a reactor and the weak link, the transfer system, is eliminated altogether. The system, called the Mobile In-Situ Mars Water Extractor (MISME), consists of the Icy-Soil Acquisition and Delivery System (ISADS), and the Volatiles Extraction and Capture System (VECS). The ISADS is a deep fluted auger that drills into the ice or icy-soils and retains material on its flutes. Upon material acquisition, the ISADS is retracted into VECS and sealed. The VECS consists of a cylindrical heat exchanger and volatiles transfer system (a reactor). This Phase I effort will focus on developing the water extraction reactor: Volatile Extraction and Capture System (VECS).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This particular vapor extraction process is not limited to water, but also other volatiles. Hence, non-NASA applications include robotic acquisition of volatiles as well as soil and liquid samples from hazardous environments: chemical spills, nuclear waste, oil spills.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications would satisfy goals of ESMD and SMD. In particular, this water-vapor extraction could be a reconnaissance tool to map the ice distribution around the area. It also could be used (as designed) as a water-vapor production system to support human habitats. Increasing the production could be done by deploying more than one of these rovers (and hence the system would have redundancy through numbers).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Processing Methods
Resource Extraction
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X1.01-9003
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Characterization, Extraction, Transfer, and Processing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniature Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer for In-Situ Resource Utilization

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Sorensen
phs@creare.com
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In situ resource utilization (ISRU) is essential for several of NASA's future flagship missions. Currently envisioned ISRU plants include production of oxygen from hydrogen reduction of lunar regolith and extraction of water from Martian regolith or asteroid material. These ISRU processes require heating of the regolith to high reaction temperatures. To support ISRU activities, NASA requires the development of a compact, lightweight gas chromatograph &#150; mass spectrometer (GC-MS) instrument that can quantify volatile gases released by sample heating below atomic number 70. The instrument must also be designed to withstand exposure to the release of HF, HCl, or Hg that may result from heating regolith samples to high temperatures. Creare proposes to design, build, and test a compact, lightweight gas chromatograph - mass spectrometer (GC-MS) system, capable of detecting, identifying, and quantifying ppm to 100%-level concentrations of relevant compounds having mass less than 100 amu. Our GC-MS design is based on components that have been previously or can easily be space-qualified using techniques proven on numerous past space hardware development projects. During the Phase I project, we will prove our design with benchtop testing, and in Phase II, we plan to build engineering model versions of our GC-MS.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary private sector applications for the proposed gas chromatograph mass spectrometer system is for use in performing portable chemical analysis, particularly when looking for harmful gases. The sensitive and specific sensor that we propose to develop will not only help ensure the timely generation of data for hazardous gas detection, but will also provide this capability to commercial organizations wishing to perform chemical analysis in the field. For example, the proposed system would be invaluable for supporting first responder personnel who need to determine the safety of areas during cleaning and securing activities for interval testing in different areas. On the commercial front, inexpensive portable mass spectrometers would revolutionize pollution monitoring, process control, and the response to incidents by emergency personnel.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The main initial application area for the proposed gas chromatograph mass spectrometer for ISRU plants will be in NASA's future missions to Mars and the Moon, as well as other bodies such as Near Earth objects (NEOs). Long-duration missions to the Moon will need substantial amounts of resources for life support and energy. Martian sample return missions and manned missions to Mars may be prohibitively expensive, technically exigent, and unacceptably risky unless resources can be produced on Mars. An ISRU propellant production plant on Mars may be needed for the sample return mission that NASA is envisioning in the 2020s.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X1.01-9062
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Characterization, Extraction, Transfer, and Processing
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Efficiency Microchannel Sabatier Reactor System for In Situ Resource Utilization

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
UMPQUA Research Company
P.O. Box 609
Myrtle Creek, OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-7770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Akse, Ph.D.
akse@urcmail.net
PO Box 609
Myrtle Creek,  OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-2653

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An innovative Microchannel Sabatier Reactor System (MSRS) is proposed for 100% recovery of oxygen (as water) and methane from carbon dioxide (CO2), a valuable in situ resource available in the atmosphere or as frozen deposits on Mars and other Near Earth Objects (NEOs), using hydrogen. The Sabatier reaction will greatly benefit from inherently superior microreactor heat and mass transfer characteristics compared to conventional reactor designs. Significantly, multiple microreactors can readily be configured in series or parallel arrangements that improve reaction outcomes, and process scale up is easily achieved by numbering up mass produced microreactors. High conversion rates will require the deposition of highly active, supported catalyst layers onto microchannel walls that enhance surface area, adsorption characteristics, and catalyst effectiveness factor. Another research focus area will be a MSRS design that optimizes residence time, thermal recovery, and the achievement of equilibrium at low temperature. Successful completion of the Phase I project will provide microreactor performance data required to design and assemble a first generation MSRS. The Phase II research will result in the development of a prototype MSRS incorporating integrated sequential microreactors and heat exchange with the capability of processing 1 kg hr-1 of CO2. The prototype MSRS will clearly demonstrate the efficacy of this in situ resource utilization approach.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary non-governmental application of this technology is the recycling of sequestered carbon dioxide to form a fuel gas. Efforts to reduce CO2 emissions are becoming more commonplace as many nations begin implementation of CO2 emissions limits. The costs associated with exceeding the proposed regulatory limits will begin to offset the costs related to CO2 removal and recycling. Microchannel Sabatier Reactor System (MSRS) technology is particularly suited to on-site processing of CO2 captured from industrial effluent gas streams due to its inherent scalability. A MSRS would enable cost-effective deployment over a broad process scale. Utilization of H2 generated by renewable resources, e.g. solar or wind powered electrolysis of H2O, further enhances the environmental benefits of Sabatier technology. Half of the H2 required for the reduction reaction can be recovered directly from the H2O product, just as it would be in a space application. An additional benefit to this ecologically friendly application can be obtained by thermal recovery from flue gases to heat the MSRS.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA application for this technology will be as Flight Hardware for deployment in support of future, long duration exploration missions to Mars or other Near Earth Objects (NEOs) where reclamation of in situ resources and reduction of the logistics burden will be highly valued. The Microchannel Sabatier Reactor System (MSRS) will efficiently reclaim oxygen (as water) and produce a propellant (methane) from atmospheric or frozen deposits of carbon dioxide on Mars or other NEOs using only hydrogen. The MSRS provides a fundamental starting point for planetary habitats where precursor robotic missions can prepare the road for subsequent human exploration by reducing the logistics burden.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Resource Extraction


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X1.01-9593
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Characterization, Extraction, Transfer, and Processing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flexible Transfer of Regolith in Micro-Gravity and Vacuum

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Grainflow Dynamics, Inc.
1141 Catalina Drive, PMB 270
Livermore, CA 94550-5928
(925) 447-4293

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Otis Walton
walton@grainflow.com
1141 Catalina Drive, PMB 270
Livermore,  CA 94550-5928
(925) 447-4293

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A novel, robust method of collection and transfer of NEO/Phobos material under micro-gravity conditions under vacuum/space environment with minimal loss of volatiles will be developed and its feasibility demonstrated. The same designs can also be utilized in lunar or Martian applications with only minor modifications. Design of the light-weight flexible conveyor ducts will utilize recently verified regolith simulation software to assure that the concepts are viable under microgravity conditions, and prototypes will be tested under vacuum conditions in Phase-1 (and under micro-gravity during Phase-2). Depending on the drill-head/feeder design selected, these flexible transfer ducts could be used in extraction of material from depths of a meter or more below the surface. Under Martian conditions a 1-cm-diameter conveying duct could deliver 5 kg/hr of material to a processing station for extraction/processing of volatiles. Trade-off studies during Phase-1 will determine potential power saving (if any) in larger diameter conveying ducts (e.g., 1.5 or 2cm dia) and/or the power requirements in a smaller diameter conveying duct (e.g. 0.5 cm dia) under Martian conditions. Unlike conventional screw conveyors, these flexible transfer ducts would be robust to oversize material up to a size of one-half the transfer duct radius. Coupled with an oversize-rejection inlet feeder, the system could provide high reliability transfer of loose regolith with one or two major moving parts. Modular designs are possible, as is the incorporation of energy-efficient ultrasonic (or percussion) drill heads, or sensors near a sub-surface inlet.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The light-weight flexible nature of the novel conveying-core designs proposed for these regolith transport ducts may be suitable for many conventional bulk material transport operations. The light-weight duct-walls for space applications may need to be replaced with heavier, more robust tube walls for long duration continuous-use terrestrial applications. Also the overall distances for screw-conveyor transport that make economic sense under terrestrial gravity, are shorter than would be the case under reduced gravity. Since the mode of flow in these proposed flexible-ducts is significantly different than that used in most conventional screw conveyors, the range of potential applications may cover a wider variety of configurations than are used by conventional rigid screw conveyors. Many terrestrial solids transfer applications where pneumatic transport is currently the best option, may be candidates for the mechanically fluidized flow in the proposed flexible duct conveyors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Modular flexible conveyor ducts can transport regolith horizontally, on inclines, or vertically, and can be designed to operate at any gravity level. Conveying efficiency improves as gravity is reduced . Each module is comprised of a thin outer duct, containing a novel light-weight flexible conveyor core. Transport is totally enclosed and dust-free. The design is robust and tolerant of occasional oversize particles. Minimal maintenance is required, and distances of many 10's of meters could be traversed with no back-and-forth driving of rovers, no dust generation, and consistent steady delivery of material. Beneficiation modules with screen-wire sieves are also possible. For larger operations or longer distances, multiple units could be daisy chained together. Various (ultrasonic or percussion) cutter-drill-heads or feeders could be employed to allow efficient extraction of material at depth. With additional development of drill-head feeder designs, extraction from depths of multiple meters could be achieved.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Resource Extraction


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X2.01-8250
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Cost Heavy Lift Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Seeing Sound - Image Analysis of the Lift-off Acoustic Field

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Leaping Catch, LLC
379 Cheney Highway, #223
Titusville, FL 32780-7272
(321) 698-2593

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sandra Clements
sandra.clements@leapingcatch.com
379 Cheney Highway, #223
Titusville,  FL 32780-7272
(321) 698-2593

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A launch vehicle and its launch facilities are subjected to intense acoustic loads generated by the vehicle's propulsion system. The vehicle, its payload, and facilities must be designed to withstand these loads to ensure mission safety and success. Accurately accounting for the acoustic environment early in the design phase of a new launch vehicle is a high priority. Governments and aerospace entities expend significant resources investigating launch acoustics using a combination of predictive models, full-scale and subscale tests, and test flights. Sensors that acquire acoustic data are deployed over a limited geometry and do not sample the full three-dimensional volume exposed to the acoustic field. Launch imagery samples that three-dimensional volume. Under appropriate conditions, rapidly varying condensation features are generated by the lift-off acoustic field. A software tool will be developed to determine the three-dimensional structure of the field from imagery of these acoustically-induced features. This unique data will be compared to model predictions and will serve to either validate those models or inspire modifications to those models. Improving predictive models contributes to a more reliable and efficient design process for new launch vehicle propulsion systems, and thus reduces associated design costs. Techniques and procedures will be developed and evaluated during the Phase I effort and will be implemented into a software tool during the Phase II effort.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) Use of the tool to validate, or inspire revision(s) to, the acoustic models employed by non-NASA entities including commercial and military space launch service providers. 2) Use the tool to validate, or inspire revision(s) to, computational fluid dynamic models. These models serve the non-NASA propulsion system design process by providing insights into the exhaust flow and flow interactions. 3) Contribute to a more complete understanding of launch acoustics by investigating the lift-off acoustic field of previous, current, and future non-NASA launches.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) Use the tool to validate, or inspire revision(s) to, the acoustic models that NASA uses to design new launch vehicle propulsion systems. Design of the propulsion system for NASA's future heavy lift Space Launch System would benefit from improved acoustic models. 2) Use the tool to validate, or inspire revision(s) to, computational fluid dynamic models. These models serve the propulsion system design process by providing insights into the exhaust flow and flow interactions. 3) Contribute to a more complete understanding of launch acoustics by investigating the lift-off acoustic field of previous NASA launches using archival imagery.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Characterization
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Image Analysis
Image Processing
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Launch Engine/Booster
Spacecraft Main Engine
Surface Propulsion
Acoustic/Vibration


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X2.01-8532
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Cost Heavy Lift Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Alternative Fabrication Designs for Carbon-Carbon (C-C) Nozzle Extensions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Research and Design
300 East Swedesford Road
Wayne, PA 19087-1858
(610) 964-9000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tiffany Boarts
tiffany.boarts@m-r-d.com
300 East Swedesford Road
Wayne,  PA 19087-1858
(610) 964-9000

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In order for carbon-carbon nozzle extensions and exit cones to serve as practical, low cost components for future Earth-to-Orbit propulsion systems, it is necessary to develop alternative fabrication methods coupled with proven design and analysis tools. Two-dimensional (2D) C-C components are typically less expensive and potentially lower weight than C-C parts fabricated using 3D woven preforms. One typical 2D C-C fabrication method uses a tape-wrapping technique in which a bias-ply C/Ph tape is wrapped over a mandrel, cured, carbonized, and graphitized to form a carbon-carbon part. Tape-wrapping has been applied successfully to the development of erosion-resistant carbon-carbon exit cones. An alternative fabrication technique is to replace the flat 2D lay-ups with an involute construction. The involute plies spiral from the inner to outer diameter of the carbon-carbon part providing through-thickness reinforcement to reduce the potential for delaminations. In addition, each ply extends from the forward to the aft end of the part, increasing its axial strength considerably. The overall objective of this program is to design and demonstrate an alternative fabrication technique of nozzle extensions and exit cones on Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) propulsion systems. The Phase I program will be performed by a team of MR&D and ATK Aerospace Systems. The MR&D team is uniquely suited to perform the proposed effort because of previous experience on developing alternative fabrication methods of high-temperature C-C components such as exit cones and aeroshells. MR&D will manage the program, develop the processing and operational models, and design the C-C subcomponents to be fabricated. ATK Aerospace Systems will provide guidance and information as well as fabricate the C-C subcomponents.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
MR&D's core business is to provide design services to the aerospace materials community, so the methods developed here can be used to support other SBIR awardees, or transferred to other propulsion system designers. MR&D is involved in the development of C-C materials on several programs which will serve to establish standardized methods for the design and analysis of propulsion materials and structures for years to come.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Phase I program will lead to improved C-C nozzle extension components for ETO propulsion systems via alternate fabrication methods coupled with proven design and analysis tools. The models developed here will allow various material candidates and involute configurations to be auditioned prior to fabrication and testing, reducing the cost of developing these higher-performance materials considerably. The technology developed here will also have a direct impact on the design and manufacturing of alternative C-C fabrication methods, and metal-to-composite nozzle joints for all future propulsion system designs by offering a domestically available alternative to the non-domestic state-of-the-art, such as the nozzle extension designed for RL 10B-2. Benefits include increased performance, and weight and cost savings, together with a larger supplier base for the fabrication of refractory composite nozzles and nozzle extensions for future heavy-lift launch propulsion systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Processing Methods
Composites
Launch Engine/Booster
Spacecraft Main Engine
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X2.02-8624
SUBTOPIC TITLE: High Thrust In-Space Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced High Efficiency Durable DACS Thruster

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Systima Technologies, Inc.
1832 180th Street South East
Bothell, WA 98012-6454
(425) 487-4020

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stephanie Sawhill
stephanie.sawhill@systima.com
1832 180th St. SE
Bothell,  WA 98012-6454
(425) 487-4020

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Systima is developing a high performance 25 lbf DACS thruster that operates with a novel non-toxic monopropellant. The monopropellant has a 30% higher density-specific impulse compared to hydrazine and is commercially available off-the-shelf. In Phase I Systima will focus on development of the propellant feed and injection system, and In Phase II these systems will be integrated into a complete thruster design. The Phase II work plan includes a system demonstrate with propellant in a workhorse thruster.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
These applications are especially hampered by current toxic monopropellants and would be enabled by readily adaptable green monopropellant technology. Long range missile defense systems for early intercept would also benefit greatly by gaining the benefit from the wide divert capability of a liquid system without the compromising issues of having toxic monopropellants aboard ship or in confined military installations. It is also possible that this technology could be applied to torpedo propulsion systems and emergency power generation systems to provide greater safety and improved handling costs. These systems are also limited by the use of toxic monopropellants.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is no limitation to the vehicle control applications to which this technology can be applied; it is suitable to satellite ACS (large or small, commercial or military, intended for low earth orbit or for geosynchronous orbit, etc.), missile system ACS or in-space propulsion systems. The reduced toxicity and handling infrastructure could be especially of interest to re-usable space vehicles, rapid access to space applications and shipboard missile systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Atmospheric Propulsion
Fuels/Propellants
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine
Surface Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X2.02-9675
SUBTOPIC TITLE: High Thrust In-Space Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rotating Cavitation Supression

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Florida Turbine Technologies, Inc.
1701 Military Trail, Suite 110
Jupiter, FL 33458-7887
(561) 427-6337

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Frank Huber
FHuber@fttinc.com
1701 Military Trail
Jupiter,  FL 33458-7887
(561) 427-6277

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
FTT proposes development of a rotating cavitation (RC) suppressor for liquid rocket engine turbopump inducers. Cavitation instabilities, such as rotating cavitation, have caused severe damage to bearings and seals, fatigue failures, and even catastrophic failures of rocket engines. In addition, cavitation instabilities hamper suction performance, which prevents developments related to increasing payload by reducing overall vehicle weight with thinner propellant tank walls. An RC suppressor will allow for increased suction performance and for improved turbopump reliability by reducing loads on the rotor support system. This technology has applications for any rocket engine turbopump or commercial pump. FTT's approach will mature the conceptual design for the Slotted Annular Cavitation Suppressor (SACS), compare results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of a baseline inducer with and without the SACS, create a test plan, and generate a conceptual design of a test article to test the SACS. Phase I will advance this technology from TRL 2 to TRL 3. Phase II will culminate with water testing of the RC suppressor and data reduction, and will advance it to TRL 5.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology can also be applied to commercial pumps where improved cavitation margin is desired.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology will apply to any high performance rocket engine turbopump to increase suction performance. NASA can apply the technology to any future or existing turbopumps.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Launch Engine/Booster
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X2.02-9698
SUBTOPIC TITLE: High Thrust In-Space Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lattice Regenerative Cooling Methods (LRCM)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Orbital Technologies Corporation
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717-1961
(608) 827-5000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
J. Arthur Sauer
sauerc@orbitec.com
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison,  WI 53717-1961
(608) 229-2752

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ORBITEC proposes to develop and demonstrate a novel cooling concept called Lattice Regenerative Cooling Methods (LRCM) for future high thrust in-space propulsion systems. Incorporation of ORBITEC's innovative lattice structures in the fabrication of thrust chambers for expander cycle engine systems will maximize the heat transfer into the coolant fluid, expand design options, enable substantial cost savings, and reduce lead times for component fabrication. Using rapid prototyping technology, the LRCM hybrid fabrication approach allows for the rapid casting of near-net shape metallic thrust chamber components. The lattice passages allow for turbulent flows through the cooling jacket which induces mixing in the coolant. During Phase I, monolithic chamber wall sections incorporating the LRCM lattice structure will be fabricated and tested in a hot-fire test conditions in ORBITEC's propulsion testing facilities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The LRCM high performance cooling approaches could be used in a wide range of Air Force, DoD, or commercial applications including large-scale booster engines, RCS thrusters, and other in-space propulsion systems. Beyond the needs of NASA, it is expected that the LRCM manufacturing technology will be integrated into ORBITEC thrust chambers for other customers such as the U.S. Air Force's USLV (7-30K lbf) propulsion systems and future commercial launch applications. ORBITEC will market this technology to other rocket engine manufacturers. We are currently under contract with Boeing to provide propulsion system design and analysis for an upcoming DoD procurement where the LRCM technology would be of tremendous benefit. In addition, we have been approached by Lockheed Martin for information on our propulsion technologies and other technologies for future programs. Other commercial applications for this cooling technology may include industrial burners and large-scale, power-generating gas turbines.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary focus of this activity is to develop innovative cooling approaches for rocket combustion devices that will expand the performance envelope and reduce the manufacturing cost of future high thrust in-space propulsion systems for NASA. LRCM components and subassemblies will be developed for implementation in an operational engine system during the Phase III program. The same high performance cooling approaches could be used in a wide range of propulsion applications including large-scale booster engines, RCS thrusters, and other in-space propulsion systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Processing Methods
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Atmospheric Propulsion
Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Propulsion
Launch Engine/Booster
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine
Surface Propulsion
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X2.03-8323
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Electric Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multiscale Modeling of Hall Thrusters

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Particle in Cell Consulting
1918 Miracle Lane
Falls Church, VA 22043-1520
(661) 202-9812

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lubos Brieda
lubos.brieda@particleincell.com
1918 Miracle Lane
Falls Church,  VA 22043-1520
(661) 202-9812

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
New multiscale modeling capability for analyzing advanced Hall thrusters is proposed. This technology offers NASA the ability to reduce development effort of new high power Hall thrusters, and reduce system complexity and increase system lifetime and durability. Historically, efforts to model Hall thrusters utilized either hybrid/fluid approach which reduce computational overhead but rely on analytical fits, or required prohibitive computational resources to model thrusters self-consistently. Even with the use of large supercomputers, the self-consistent approach was limited to small, low power thrusters. We propose a new approach in which electron transport along magnetic field lines is computed self-consistently using a kinetic code for electrons, but global cross-field properties are computed using a 2D hybrid code. This approach combines the benefits of fully kinetic self-consistent modeling with the performance gain of hybrid models. The model will be able to analyze Hall thruster discharges without requiring any user-specified mobility fits. The model will also require only computational resources available in a standard desktop workstation. In addition, ions exiting the thruster will be sampled to generate a discretized source model for use with subsequent thruster plume modeling. Plume modeling is necessary to optimize thruster spacecraft coupling, and reduce possible instrument and spacecraft component contamination effects. These three components, magnetic field line, thruster discharge, and the spacecraft environment, form the three scales of our multiscale approach. In this effort we will concentrate on extending the capability of modeling thruster discharges by developing a new light-weight hybrid code with built in support for kinetic mobility modeling.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The need to simplify the design and analysis, and reduce the inherent complexity of Hall thrusters is not limited to NASA. Other government entities, including the Air Force, have an existing need for such programs. Our effort will be applicable to both the high power Hall thrusters proposed by NASA, as well as low power thrusters being investigated by other government entities and commercial partners for near-Earth operations such as station keeping and orbit rising. The simulation tool that will be developed under this effort can thus also serve private industry, companies such as Aerojet, Busek that are developing Hall thrusters and will be able to use this predictive tool in the design process. In addition, we plan to leverage the lessons learned in this effort to further enhance multiscale modeling capability for rarefied gas applications. One such topic includes modeling of space environment interactions. The spacecraft community in large is in need of codes that can predict potential contamination and charging events, and their effect on spacecraft operation. Of interest is the wall interaction of plasma particles. The domains of interest (spacecraft system) are of size too large to allow direct modeling of wall interaction details. Multiscale modeling of the system is thus required.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The product that will be developed under this proposal will directly benefit NASA by providing it with a tool capable of analyzing the influence of various system variables during the design process of new high power Hall thrusters. Possible uses include selection of wall materials to reduce electron energy losses, selection of wall materials to improve thruster lifetime, optimization of magnetic circuit to take advantage of effects such as the magnetic mirror and magnetic lens, optimization of thruster geometry by utilizing non-conventional designs such as cylindrical or multi-channel configuration, and optimizing the electron currents produced by the cathode to reduce plume divergence and thus reduce plume divergence. Predictive thruster model will in addition serve as a source model for plume modeling of the thruster integrated on a spacecraft. This will allow the mission designer to optimize the placement of the thruster on the spacecraft to reduce secondary interaction of plume particles with sensitive spacecraft sensors and components.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Space Transportation & Safety
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Ceramics
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X2.03-8838
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Electric Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Iodine Hall Thruster for Space Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Busek Co. Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Szabo
jszabo@busek.com
11 Tech Circle
Natick,  MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Busek Co. Inc. proposes to develop a high power (high thrust) electric propulsion system featuring an iodine fueled Hall Effect Thruster (HET). The system to be developed will include a thruster, hollow cathode, and condensable propellant feed system. The nominal power level of the thruster developed in this program will be 20 to 50 kW. The thruster can be clustered to support ~200 kW class missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond. In a future program, the technology can be scaled to ~100 kW per thruster to support MW-class missions. The available specific impulse can be throttled between 1500s to will be as high as 3000 to 4000 s. The use of iodine propellant enables significant mass and cost savings for lunar and Mars cargo missions, including Earth escape and near-Earth space maneuvers. High purity iodine is readily available commercially in large quantities at a fraction of the cost of xenon. Iodine stores at a density that is 3 times greater than xenon and at less than one thousandth of the pressure. Thus, iodine may be stored in low volume, low mass, low cost propellant tanks instead of the relatively large, high pressure, high cost COPV tanks required for xenon Hall thruster systems. Busek has already demonstrated a low power (several hundred watts) iodine thruster system based upon its flight qualified BHT-200 thruster. At most points, the efficiency are the same or nearly the same given experimental uncertainty. However, iodine may have a significant performance advantage at high power: Iodine yielded significantly higher specific impulse and thrust to power at higher input power. This effect will be investigated with the proposed high power system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For DoD missions, including orbit raising for high power satellites and upper stages, the customer is the Air Force, via other defense contractors. A decade ago, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) initiated a program to cluster HETs as a means to reach the 100 kW to 150 kW power range desired for orbit transfer vehicles, space tugs, and re-supply vessels. Busek is working on the design an upper stage based upon the ESPA ring. A high power iodine Hall thruster system will would enable a high throughput (propellant mass >1200 kg), high delta-V orbit transfer stage based upon the ESPA ring. To carry more than ~450 kg of propellant, the system would have to be fitted with additional Xe propellant tanks that hang on the outside of the ring. With iodine, the ring could easily contain over 1200 kg of propellant. For truly commercial activities, such as GTO to GEO transfers, the customers are commercial satellite vendors and operators. Other potential customers are the emerging satellite servicing ventures such as MacDonald Dettwiler SIS and Vivisat.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed 20 to 50 kW thruster system has many applications both as a stand-alone system and as part of a much larger (higher power) cluster. The thruster will be well suited for orbit raising and interplanetary transfers, supporting exploration and science missions. The demonstrated throttling ability is important for a singular thruster that might be called upon to propel a spacecraft from Earth to Mars or Venus. Mars orbits at 1.52 AU, which reduces the solar constant to 43% of the value at Earth. Venus orbits at 0.72 AU, which increases the solar constant to 190% of the value at Earth. As a result the output power of a nominal 10 kW array varies between 4.3 and 19.1 kW as a spacecraft travels between these planets. The ability to throttle efficiently is even more important for missions beyond Mars.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Fuels/Propellants
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X2.03-9028
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Electric Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid Direct Drive PPU with Extended Operating Range

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Colorado Power Electronics, Inc.
120 Commerce Drive, Unit 1
Fort Collins, CO 80524-4731
(970) 482-0191

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bryce Hesterman
bryce.hesterman@c-pwr.com
120 Commerce Drive, Unit 1
Fort Collins,  CO 80524-4731
(970) 482-0191

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
High-power electric propulsion with Hall thrusters has been proposed as a strong candidate for Electric Path missions, but conventional power processing units (PPUs) are complicated and the mass of the discharge power converters needs to be reduced. Direct Discharge Power Processing Units (DDUs) have been proposed as an alternative due to their simplicity and low mass, but the achievable operating range of thrust and ISP is significantly limited because power regulation for DDUs is only achieved through gas flow control, array offpointing or shunting. This proposal presents a compromise between PPUs and DDUs called a Hybrid Direct Drive Power Processing Unit (HDDU) that provides a wider operating range than DDUs while reducing the mass and increasing the efficiency compared to conventional PPUs. An HDDU provides filtering like a DDU, but it can additionally raise or lower the discharge voltage over a limited range. An HDDU only processes the power necessary to raise or lower the discharge voltage. Several different converter circuits can be used in an HDDU. One approach uses an isolated high-efficiency resonant DC-DC converter with connections that can be configured through a set of electromechanical relays. Another approach uses a novel soft-switching non-inverting buck-boost circuit that requires no relays, but is a little less efficient than resonant circuits. Straight-through direct drive operation is possible with either type of converter. The proposed HDDU would operate from an input voltage of 150 V to 300 V, and would provide 10 kW output power over a limited range such as from 150 V to 500 V. The HDDU approach is readily scalable by connecting modules in parallel because both proposed circuits naturally share output currents. The modular approach and enhanced operating range increase design re-use and reduce life-cycle costs. A Phase II project could include making a more flight-like discharge supply and adding heater, keeper and magnet supplies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Hybrid Direct Drive Power Processing Units could be used for commercial and military satellites, both for station keeping and orbit lifting. The advantages outlined for NASA applications also apply here. One specific non-NASA application is for Aerojet thrusters that are being developed for geosynchronous satellite use. Commercial non-flight applications include laboratory bench power supplies. A path to high volume sales may be achieved by using the converters refined in this SBIR for general purpose scientific equipment. The power converters used in the HDDUs could be re-purposed for a variety of power conversion applications such as fuel-cell output converters, solar array simulators and hybrid vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Hybrid Direct Drive Power Processing Units are well-suited for both manned and unmanned Electric Path missions, and can be readily scaled to hundreds of kilowatts through parallel-connected modules. With presently-available semiconductors, the optimum power level per module is probably around 10 kW, but higher-power semiconductors are expected to become available in the near future. The power converters used in the HDDUs could be re-purposed for a variety of power conversion applications such as fuel-cell output converters and solar array simulators. The primary market for this technology is for high-power low-cost electric propulsion systems where Hall thrusters are likely to be used. It is anticipated that the CPE HDDU will have a lower cost than state-of-the-art PPU designs. Additionally, the high specific mass and high efficiency will reduce the overall system cost. The enhanced operating range capabilities compared to a pure direct drive can help enable missions where shifts between high thrust for short-term maneuvers and high ISP for long-term operation are desirable. The wide-range capabilities and a modular design also enable one HDDU design to be used in a variety of different applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airship/Lighter-than-Air Craft
Manufacturing Methods
Conversion
Distribution/Management
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X3.01-8150
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Enabling Technologies for Biological Life Support
PROPOSAL TITLE: Bio-Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Removal for Air Revitalization in Exploration Life Support Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cambrian Innovation, Inc.
27 Drydock Avenue Floor 2
Boston, MA 02210-2382
(617) 307-1755

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zhen Huang
zhuang@cambrianinnovation.com
27 Drydock Avenue Floor 2
Boston,  MA 02210-2382
(617) 307-1755

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An important aspect of the ISS air revitalization system for life support is the removal of carbon dioxide from cabin air and retrieves oxygen from CO2. The current state of art technology for CO2 reduction is Sabatier reaction, which is energy intensive and results in excess CO2. Cambrian Innovation has developed an electromethanogenesis bio-electrochemical system (BES) that is focused on reducing costs associated with CO2 reduction. The two-chambered BES system is designed to operate by producing a reliable stream of O2 while simultaneously bio-electrochemically reducing CO2 to CH4 and H2O. Phase I experiments and analysis will be used to determine whether it will be feasible to develop a cell which can replace the existing Sabatier reactor. Through Phase II and Phase III R&D we hope to develop and test a BES CO2 removal system for potential utilization aboard the ISS or related crewed systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed system might also find use in other CO2 sequestration applications. For example, combining photo-voltaic (PV) technology, the proposed BES could be applied to converting CO2 directly to natural gas in coal fired power plants which supply readily available CO2.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed electromethanogenesis BES could potentially replace the existing Sabatier reactor in Air Revitalization System with the benefit of higher CO2 removal efficiency and lower power draw.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Waste Storage/Treatment


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X3.02-8996
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Accommodations and Waste Processing for Long Duration Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Highly Efficient Fecal Waste Incinerator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
UMPQUA Research Company
P.O. Box 609
Myrtle Creek, OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-7770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Holtsnider
holtsnider@urcmail.net
PO Box 609
Myrtle Creek,  OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-2663

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Volume reduction is a critical element of Solid Waste Management for manned spacecraft and planetary habitations. To this end, the proposed fecal waste incinerator may be utilized to completely mineralize feces to harmless inorganic substances such as CO2 and water. These products may then be rerouted to the ECLSS processes for hydrogen CO2 reduction to form water and water electrolysis to yield oxygen and hydrogen. Fecal oxidation takes place in two coupled reactors utilizing advanced heat exchanger technology, one to incinerate the feces and the second to oxidize incineration products. Little energy input is required due to the use of fecal matter heat of combustion in combination with efficient heat exchange. Feces are incinerated immediately after collection, eliminating the need for waste stabilization that would otherwise be required to eliminate offensive odors and control microbial growth. All evolved gases including incompletely oxidized volatile organics are passed through a catalytic reactor, ensuring complete combustion to avoid loading the Trace Contaminant Control System. This innovative system is light, compact, simple, energy efficient, contains few moving parts, is virtually maintenance free, and requires little astronaut time.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications of this technology include the efficient incineration of medical wastes to insure sterilization and prevent the spread of pathogenic microorganisms. Another attractive application of this technology will be the incineration of toilet wastes at remote locations, on board ships, or in third world countries where in particular pathogens are commonly transmitted via fecal waste.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA application of this technology will be as Flight Hardware for deployment in support of future long duration manned missions. The primary application will be for eliminating fecal waste produced during manned space operations, although this technology may also be applied toward incineration of other solid wastes such as non-edible, plant mass produced by agricultural cultivation in space habitats. In addition, concentrated organic vapors produced by other solid waste treatment processes may be efficiently oxidized by utilizing this novel approach.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Remediation/Purification
Waste Storage/Treatment


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X3.02-9012
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Accommodations and Waste Processing for Long Duration Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Microgravity Compatible, Integrated Laundry System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
UMPQUA Research Company
P.O. Box 609
Myrtle Creek, OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-7770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Michalek
michalek@urcmail.net
PO Box 609
Myrtle Creek,  OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-2654

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Advanced Microgravity Compatible, Integrated Laundry (AMCIL) is a microgravity compatible liquid / liquid vapor, two-phase laundry system with water jet agitation and vacuum assisted drying. Umpqua Research Company previously developed a complete microgravity compatible Single Phase Laundry System (SPLS). Single-phase operation during the wash cycle facilitated microgravity compatible fluidics and eliminated problems associated with foams. Pulsed water jets were utilized to agitate the clothing. Drying was achieved with microwave assisted vacuum drying followed by a tumble cycle that greatly enhanced softness in the previously vacuum pressed clothing. Tumbling was achieved by an array of three air jets, two to generate a cyclonic effect and a third to induce tumbling by blowing perpendicular to the plane of rotation. This concept was successfully demonstrated during a KC-135 microgravity simulation flight. The proposed AMCIL concept will build on the SPLS technology and incorporate key design improvements to reduced water requirements and lower power consumption. Specific advancements include a redesigned wash cycle that consumes less water and reduces power demand. The Phase I effort will demonstrate the feasibility of the microgravity compatible liquid / liquid vapor, two-phase washing concept in a laboratory scale system. A complete, automated prototype unit that incorporates the system parameters established during the Phase I tests will be designed, fabricated, and tested during the Phase II program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
AMCIL has potential utility in any application where long term habitation is coupled with limited access. Some obvious examples include isolated military outposts, research stations, naval vessels, research vessels, and commercial ships. Each of these installations feature similar restrictions on available clean water, energy, and waste storage. The ability to wash and reuse clothing with equipment that consumes small amounts of these valuable resources will reduce resupply requirements and improve quality of life.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA application for the AMCIL system will be as Flight Hardware for deployment in support of long duration human missions beyond low Earth orbit where reductions in replacement clothing will lower the ESM for crew accommodations. The AMCIL system is suitable for use in any long term space mission where resupply logistics preclude routine delivery of fresh crew clothing and removal of disposable clothing articles. While the proposed laundry system is microgravity compatible, the system will be completely functional in reduced gravity environments. Specifically, the proposed laundry technology will be suited to deployment on the Lunar and Mars surfaces, at Lagrange points, and onboard long range transit vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Remediation/Purification
Waste Storage/Treatment
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X3.02-9079
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Accommodations and Waste Processing for Long Duration Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Performance Forward Osmosis Membrane Element

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Porifera Inc.
3507 Breakwater Avenue
Hayward, CA 94545-3610
(510) 695-2777

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aleksandr Noy
alex@poriferanano.com
3507 Breakwater Ave.
Hayward,  CA 94545-3610
(510) 695-2777

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Forward Osmosis (FO) is a promising technology for wastewater treatment applications. FO-based treatment does not require external pressure, can use lightweight components, and has low propensity to foul. Yet, the biggest obstacle to the use of FO processes is the low level of performance of the current commercial FO membranes. This project will use the novel high-flux and high-rejection FO membrane developed by Porifera, scaling up the membrane area, and incorporating it into a membrane module. The project will benchmark the membrane performance in the module, and deliver a module to NASA for further testing in NASA-specific applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
FO-based water treatment could have important applications in the marketplace. Currently, there is an enormous unfilled need (more than 2 Billion gallons/year) in the produced water market from oil and gas drilling, and FO could fill that niche with a simple, economical, and sustainable solution. Other industrial applications of FO range from food and beverage industry use to auxiliary power generation from Pressure-retarded osmosis processes.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
FO-based treatment processes have direct relevance to NASA's efforts to create technologies for long-term sustainability in space missions, specifically for treating grey water and even black water generated by the crew during space flight. Moreover, NASA's Sustainability Base program incorporates the forward-osmosis based greywater recycling effort (run by Dr. M. Flynn at ARC) that would benefit directly and immediately from the results of this project.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Remediation/Purification


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X3.03-9108
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring and Fire Protection for Spacecraft Autonomy
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Rapid Coliform Detector

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Orbital Technologies Corporation
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717-1961
(608) 827-5000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ross Remiker
remikerr@orbitec.com
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison,  WI 53717-1961
(608) 229-2746

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid genetic detector for spaceflight water systems to enable real-time detection of E. coli with minimal consumables and crew time. The Rapid Coliform Detector (RCD) amplifies the genetic material in a liquid sample to allow near real-time identification of specific genetic sequences, in this case, that of E. coli. This easy-to-use device incorporates a patented polymerase enzyme that enables rapid RNA amplification by reagents with superior long-term shelf life and thermal stability. A color change indicator will show the presence or absence of coliform bacteria in the water within 30 minutes. The results of the Phase 1 will be test data from prototype test kits and chemical reagents for rapid coliform detection which brings the RCD to TRL 4. The anticipated results of the Phase 2 are a flight-like prototype of the complete test kit and reaction chamber, performance test results at 1g, and reduced gravity operational test results, which bring the technology to TRL 6.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The combined goals of this proposal will have a significant impact on terrestrial water quality management and on current diagnostic capability for detection of waterborne disease outbreaks, especially in areas that are currently not well served. Enhanced access to in-the-field diagnosis of locally relevant diseases will improve sanitation among populations in resource-limited settings. The technology will also promote better understanding of the epidemiology of emerging zoonotic and pandemic pathogens in real-time, will significantly reduce the response time to serious outbreaks, and could help combat any potential future biological threats.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The RCD provides indication of the presence of E. coli within 30 minutes of sampling, with minimal consumable hardware. The RCD reduces crew time by eliminating the need to unstow, check, and restow a test kit after 2 days, and again after 5 days. Unlike the Water Microbiology Kit (WMK), there is no need for a syringe of growth media, and the RCD microbial capture device is smaller and lighter than that of the WMK. Another advantage of the rapid test is that if an E. coli infection is suspected in space, potential sources can be tested, and results determined quickly, so additional infections can be avoided. This technology can be used on the ISS and on future long-duration spaceflight missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Medical
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X3.03-9658
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring and Fire Protection for Spacecraft Autonomy
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Microfluidic Instrument for Spacecraft Environmental Monitoring

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
HJ Science & Technology, Inc.
187 Saratoga Avenue
Santa Clara, CA 95050-6657
(408) 464-3873

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hong Jiao
hong_jiao@yahoo.com
187 Saratoga Avenue
Santa Clara,  CA 95050-6657
(408) 464-3873

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
HJ Science & Technology, Inc. proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of an integrated "lab-on-a-chip" technology capable of in-situ, high throughput, and real time identification and characterization of a variety of toxic metals, organics, and bacteria biomarkers in spacecraft water supplies onboard the International Space Station. The novel technology combines automated programmable on-chip sample processing technology, microchip capillary electrophoresis, and laser induced fluorescence detection in a miniaturized format. In terms of spacecraft environmental monitoring, the in situ measurement capability of our portable platform offers important advantages including reduction in time and cost, real-time data for better and more timely decision making, and reduction in sample consumption. In addition to the unprecedented sensitivity, efficiency, selectivity, and throughput compared with the current state-of-the-art technologies, the proposed miniature instrument also meets the stringent space-flight requirements including small consumption of sample and reagent , low-mass, low&#150;power consumption, rapid analysis time, and microgravity compatibility. In Phase I, we will establish the technical feasibility of the technology by analyzing fluorescently labeled ketones and aldehydes as a proof of principle demonstration. In Phase II, the main focus will direct towards the development of a miniaturized prototype to be delivered to NASA by incorporating the most promising design based on the results of Phase I as well including additional detection modules in order to extend the measurement and analysis capability to other contaminants relevant to spacecraft environmental monitoring.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The toxic contaminants potentially present in the water supply aboard the International Space Station are also a serious concern to human health on earth because they are common environmental pollutants present in air, food, drinking water, and soil. The proposed technology therefore can be a powerful analytical tool with significant commercial potential for a wide range of in situ environmental monitoring applications. In addition to environmental monitoring, other commercial devices based on the microfluidics technology envisioned include components for DNA, protein and drug separation and analysis, chemical analysis systems, drug delivery systems, and embedded health monitoring systems. The relative simplicity and unmatched capability of these micro-devices will enable numerous, large-scale commercial markets to be infused with the technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our novel integrated microfluidics technology has great potential to enhance NASA's current efforts to monitor spacecraft environment. In particular, the microanalytical instrument is capable of performing rapid simultaneous measurements of a variety of toxic contaminants in spacecraft drinking water supply aboard the International Space Station. In addition, the microfluidic technology is naturally suited to such important NASA programs as planetary and small body surface chemistry studies. It also has broad applications including on-chip biosensors, electrochemical sensors, wet-chemistry systems, as well as high pressure micropumps for fluid positioning, mixing, metering, storage, and filtering systems, clinical diagnostics, spacecraft and biosphere environmental monitoring, and toxicology studies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Biological Signature (i.e., Signs Of Life)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X3.03-9754
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring and Fire Protection for Spacecraft Autonomy
PROPOSAL TITLE: Improved Combustion Products Monitor for the ISS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Southwest Sciences, Inc.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505-3993
(505) 984-1322

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joel Silver
jsilver@swsciences.com
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe,  NM 87505-3993
(505) 984-1322

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Compound Specific Analyzer - Combustion Products is used on the International Space Station as a warning monitor of smoldering or combustion events and, after any fire event, to indicate that toxic gas levels have subsided for safe re-entry of the crew to the affected area. This monitor is being phased out of service. Southwest Sciences Inc. proposes to develop a replacement laser-based sensor using wavelength modulation spectroscopic absorption. This device would be capable of real-time measurements of the four most important gases of interest at concentration levels relevant to pre-combustion events and with a one second response time. This battery-operated device would be hand-held, use very little electrical power, and have a multi-year lifetime without the need for consumables, re-calibration, or maintenance, in contrast to the currently-used sensor. The Phase I research would perform a trade study and then test the most promising opto-mechanical designs for making simultaneous measurements of the four gases in a single optical cell with a minimal number of lasers. It would also demonstrate the ability to make multiple gas measurements over a wide range of concentrations using a single spectral scan. This work will allow us to design, test and build a prototype sensor in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This same gas sensor could also be used on a wide variety of platforms (e.g. aircraft, balloons, ground-based network, etc.). Since it is designed for long-term operation with minimal attention and maintenance, it is expected to find use in validation of remote data sensing satellites and for in situ measurements in atmospheric research. Other Governmental and commercial needs include the development of fire sensors for other agencies and applications, such as in submarines or aircraft, as well as compact, general purpose fire and industrial gas sensors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful development of an integrated, robust fire detection sensor will allow NASA to adopt a high-reliability system for detection of smoldering and/or fires in the International Space Station and other manned spacecraft. Such systems will become more important as we begin extended-duration flights to the Moon and Mars. The same gas sensing platform also could be used for meeting the needs for a multi-gas sensor for monitoring cabin air, gas regeneration, and life support systems. Longer term NASA applications could include adaptation of the instrument for measurements of the componenets of planetary atmospheres, using space-qualified electronics and further ruggedization of the mechanical and thermal design. Applications could include measurements of atmospheric gases on Mars (e.g. water vapor, methane), Venus (SO2), Titan (methane, ethane), or other future planetary missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Fire Protection
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X3.04-9372
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation and Thermal Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Water Recovery for Regenerative Life Support Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Izenson
mgi@creare.com
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Thermal and environmental control systems for future exploration spacecraft must meet challenging requirements for efficient operation and conservation of resources. Regenerative CO2 removal systems are attractive for these missions because they do not use consumable CO2 absorbers. However, these systems also absorb water and vent it to space along with the carbon dioxide. This water loss can be prohibitively costly for long-duration missions. Conventional condensing heat exchangers for water conservation are not attractive, since they would add a significant load to a spacecraft's thermal control system. We propose to develop an innovative water recovery system that minimizes water lost from regenerative CO2 control systems without additional demands on the thermal control system. This approach addresses the need for water recovery systems in long-duration missions, reduces the need for consumables by enabling use of state-of-the-art regenerative CO2 removal systems, and minimizes demands on the spacecraft thermal control system. In Phase I we will prove the feasibility of our approach through proof-of-concept tests, trade-off studies, and prototype design. In Phase II we will build the prototype and measure its performance under conditions that simulate operation in a spacecraft life support system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Creare's water recovery system can be used in terrestrial fuel cell power systems, where water management is a critical balance of plant function. It will be particularly useful for vehicles powered by PEM fuel cells, where compact size and light weight are critical requirements.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Creare's water recovery system will enable exploration spacecraft to undertake long-duration missions while conserving water, will not increase the size of the spacecraft thermal management system, and enables use of state-of-the-art, pressure-swing absorption systems for CO2 removal. Applications include crewed exploration vehicles and manned surface rovers. The unit is compact, typically weighs less than one day's worth of water loss, and adds negligible air pressure drop to the cabin ventilation circuit. Combined with Creare's nonventing radiator technology, a similar system could be used in future EVA suits to prevent water from being vented along with carbon dioxide.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Active Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X3.04-9673
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation and Thermal Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Micro tube heat exchangers for Space

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mezzo Technologies
7167 Florida Boulevard
Baton Rouge, LA 70806-4549
(225) 706-0191

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffrey McLean
mclean@mezzotech.com
7167 Florida Boulevard
Baton Rouge,  LA 70806-4549
(225) 706-0191

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 6
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Mezzo fabricates micro tube heat exchangers for a variety of applications, including aerospace, automotive racing, Department of Defense ground vehicles, economizers for ships, condensers, evaporators, liquid-liquid, liquid-air, recuperators, etc. Mezzo's expertise is designing, modeling and fabricating heat exchangers that use thousands, even tens of thousands, of stainless steel or nickel alloy micro tubes that provide performance advantages over competing technologies. With respect to radiators, Mezzo's products provide a heat transfer/air side pressure drop ratio improvement of around 40-50%. This means that within a given envelope and specified air flow rate, Mezzo's products can provide a specified heat transfer with greatly reduced air side pressure drop. This fact allows lighter fans that consume less power and weigh less. In general, Mezzo products weigh less for given heat transfer. In high pressure applications, Mezzo heat exchangers provide even greater reductions in weight and volume. Mezzo is currently fabricting an economizer for the Navy that is les than half the weight and volume of the brazed plate heat exchanger currently in use. There are many advantages to Mezzo's micro tube technology. The technology is robust (Mezzo's products are currently passing rigorous DoD shock and vibration tests, salt fog tests, fouling tests, etc. Mezzo heat exchangers provide weight, volume, and performance savings. They have interesting capabilities with respect to shape options. Finally, they have not been considered yet in NASA applications. The goal of this proposal is to introduce the NASA community to Mezzo products and determine those applications where Mezzo's heat exchangers can provide the most value.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Trucking radiators, energy recovery heat exchangers on trucks, automobile racing thermal products, condensers, evaporators.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Radiators, recuperators, flexible heat exchangers, phase change material heat exchangers, nuclear power based heat exchangers

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Storage
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Active Systems
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X3.04-9990
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation and Thermal Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Multi-Environment Thermal Control System With Freeze-Tolerant Radiator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Weibo Chen
wbc@creare.com
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future space exploration missions require advanced thermal control systems (TCS) to dissipate heat from spacecraft, rovers, or habitats to external environments. We propose to develop a lightweight, reliable TCS to effectively maintain cabin and equipment temperatures under widely varying heat loads and ambient temperatures. The proposed system uses freeze-tolerant radiators, which eliminate the need for a secondary circulation loop or heat pipe systems. Each radiator has a self-regulating variable thermal conductance to its ambient environment. The variable conductance will enable the TCS to maintain the cabin and equipment at a tightly controlled temperature. The TCS uses a nontoxic working fluid that is compatible with existing lightweight aluminum heat exchangers. The TCS is lightweight, compact, and requires very little pumping power. In Phase I, we will prove the feasibility of our approach through performance demonstration of a key component in the TCS system and detailed system design and analysis. In Phase II we will build a TCS demonstrator and obtain test data to show its unique performance advantages.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The advanced thermal control system has applications in commercial and military satellites, as well as high-power electronics and photonics cooling.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed system is suitable for any future manned spacecraft, rovers, and habitats, with applications that include lunar, Mars, and asteroid exploration. The thermal control technology can also be employed on other unmanned spacecraft, including satellites and exploration rovers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Active Systems
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X4.01-8789
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Suit Pressure Garment and Airlock Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Novel Approach to Highly Damage Tolerant and Abrasion Resistant EVA Gloves

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NEI Corporation
201 Circle Drive North, Suite 102/103
Piscataway, NJ 08873-1154
(732) 868-3141

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Runqing Ou
rou@neicorporation.com
201 Circle Drive N., Suite 102/103
Piscataway,  NJ 08873-1154
(732) 868-3141

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As part of the spacesuit pressure garment, the EVA glove incorporates a silicone pad on the palm for protection of the bladder from cuts and punctures. Repeated gripping and rotational motion cause delamination of the silicone pad from the underlying Vectran&#174; fabric. In addition, frequent scuffing causes damage to the palm pad and loss of material and material functions. Improving adhesion of the silicone layer with the underlying fabric, and enhancing the overall mechanical properties of the glove surface, will beneficially impact extravehicular activities by the astronauts. In Phase I, we propose to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a silicone nanocomposite palm pad material with enhanced adhesive and mechanical properties, and the ability to self-heal scratches and microcracks. The novel silicone nanocomposite combines a nanoscale additive and a self-healing agent into a unique structure in ways never done before. The program is a collaborative effort with a NASA spacesuit contractor. Test coupons with a silicone nanocomposite coating on Vectran&#174; fabric will be used to demonstrate proof of concept. The Phase II program will build upon the Phase I demonstration effort by implementing the technology in a prototype glove assembly.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
An immediate commercial application of the silicone nanocomposite technology is heat resistant silicone gloves/pot holders/oven mitts, which represent a specialty rubber glove sector of the global rubber gloves market. The proposed silicone nanocomposite technology also has immense potential in industrial textile coatings that are used in various sectors, including manufacturing and processing, transportation, construction, sports and leisure, and personal and property protection.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to the EVA glove, the proposed silicone nanocomposite technology will help to reduce the coating weight on airbags used for MER applications while maintaining or increasing the seam strength. This generic technology may also be utilized in a broad range of space applications, including inflatable space structures, parachutes and space suits.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Textiles


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X4.01-9175
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Suit Pressure Garment and Airlock Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Organic Aerogels with Improved Resilience and Flexibility for Multifunctional Protection in Spacesuits

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aspen Aerogels, Inc.
30 Forbes Road, Building B
Northborough, MA 01532-2501
(508) 691-1161

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Roxana Trifu
rtrifu@aerogel.com
30 Forbes Road, Bldg B
Northborough,  MA 01532-2501
(508) 691-1161

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aspen Aerogels Inc. proposes to develop high resilience polymeric aerogel for use as a multifunctional spacesuit material which will significantly improve human comfort and maneuverability in advanced extravehicular activity (EVA). The proposed aerogel material will exhibit excellent elastic recovery, flexibility, durability, temperature sensitive water permeability, along with excellent thermal insulation properties at low weight and volume. The proposed developments will result in materials with excellent resilience and flexibility which can be used for advanced space suits or garments with increased comfort and maneuverability. The novel resilient aerogels will overcome the weak, brittle, dusty nature of conventional inorganic aerogels, and the high compression set and lack of durability of the organic aerogels previously developed. The aerogels will be multifunctional as they will provide superior thermal insulation and inherent radiation protection suitable for NASA EVA suits and exploration habitats. These aerogel materials are also applicable to NASA's space hardware and vehicles as well as many other aerospace, military, and commercial insulation applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The resulting insulation system developed from this program will also have far reaching effects in both military and commercial applications. Other potential applications include use as insulation in commercial and military aircraft, cryogenic tanks, liquefied gas transport, dive suits, gloves, footwear, systems for warming, storing, and/or transporting food and medicine, sleeping bags and pads, military and recreational tents, etc. The new resilient aerogels can be recycled for use as impact modifiers and/or filler materials for conventional plastics.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The lightweight resilient aerogel will improve the human comfort of thermal insulation required for high performance spacesuits for exploration systems. The material developed in this program will have a variety of applications in the aerospace industry and within NASA. Insulation in EVA suits, habitats, gloves, footwear, and helmets could utilize the new aerogel materials. The resilient aerogels will provide thermal and radiation protection in various environments from liquid nitrogen temperatures to +200¿C, under air, water and vacuum conditions. The novel materials can be easily designed to provide different resilience and toughness and could be used for different areas of the space suit or in garments. The excellent durability of the rubbery aerogels facilitates their use in applications for difficult vibration and acoustic environments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X4.02-9958
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Suit Life Support Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniature Sensor Probe for O2, CO2, and H2O Monitoring in Space Suits

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 West 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505-5217
(424) 263-6300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jesus Delgado Alonso
sbirproposals@intopsys.com
2520 West 237th Street
Torrance,  CA 90505-5217
(424) 263-6321

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced space suit technologies require lightweight, low-power, durable sensors for monitoring critical life support constituents. Current technology cannot provide the compact sensors with a tolerance for liquid water that are specifically requested for next-generation portable life support systems (PLSS). Intelligent Optical Systems (IOS) proposes to develop a luminescence-based optical sensor suite to monitor carbon dioxide, oxygen and humidity. Optical sensors are superior to electrical sensors, in terms of robustness, reliability and maintenance. These advantages are most notable in moist environments. Our monitor will incorporate robust sensors for carbon dioxide, oxygen, and humidity partial pressure, interrogated using a compact, low-power optoelectronic unit. The proposed sensors will not only tolerate liquid water but will actually operate while wet, and can be remotely connected to the electronic circuitry by an electromagnetic interference (EMI)-proof optical fiber cable. For space systems control, miniature fiber optic sensors connected to the electronic circuitry by an optical fiber cable allow greater flexibility in placing the sensor in highly constrained volume systems such as PLLS. Our flow-through monitor will include a 1 mm diameter optical sensor we are currently developing for PLSS humidity monitoring and an optical oxygen sensor that uses similar IOS technology. Building on this work, in the proposed Phase I, IOS will develop and demonstrate a carbon dioxide sensor based on the same approach, and a prototype PPCO2-H2O-O2 sensor probe will be fabricated and tested in relevant environmental conditions. In Phase II, we will manufacture prototypes for space qualification and conduct extensive testing under simulated environmental conditions culminating in validation in NASA systems, bringing the monitor to TRL 7.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a large number of potential commercial applications for a combined miniature probe for oxygen, carbon dioxide and humidity, as well as for the individual sensors themselves. Our initial focus will be on market niches where miniaturization, high performance, and operation in mixed gas/aqueous environments are desired. The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, which require miniature probes and minimally invasive monitors for accurately determining humidity, oxygen, and/or carbon dioxide for process control, product quality control, and I&R activity, will be target markets. Biomedical monitoring may also be an attractive business opportunity; non-invasive or minimally invasive sensors and miniature probes, for measuring and monitoring PCO2 and PO2, have many potential applications for monitoring tissue oxygen supply and blood perfusion. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, indoor environmental control may provide the largest potential market. Temperature, humidity, CO2 content, and oxygen content, in that order, are by far the most important determinants of comfort in rooms and buildings. A reliable, cost-effective monitor for these parameters, used as part of an advanced heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system could significantly lower energy usage and associated costs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Advanced Extra-Vehicular Activity systems are necessary for the successful support of the International Space Station beyond 2020, and future human space exploration missions for in-space microgravity EVA, and for planetary surface exploration. The proposed multiparameter monitor responds directly to a NASA need for partial pressure monitoring of carbon dioxide, oxygen and humidity in portable life support systems (PLSS). This device will also have application as a monitor for air quality in the pressurized cabin of crewed spacecraft, improving reliability of closed-loop environmental control systems, and resulting in significant improvements in miniaturization, operational reliability, and sensor life-time. Sensors capable of monitoring trace contaminants in both air and water with functionality in microgravity, low pressure and elevated oxygen environments could be designed using the same sensing technology and optoelectronic unit.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X4.03-8373
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Suit Radio, Sensors, Displays, Cameras, and Audio
PROPOSAL TITLE: Secure Nano Electromechanical Systems-based Software-Defined Radio

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanohmics, Inc.
6201 East Oltorf Street, Suite 400
Austin, TX 78741-7509
(512) 389-9990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ricardo Ramirez
rramirez@nanohmics.com
6201 East Oltorf Street, Suite 400
Austin,  TX 78741-7509
(512) 389-9990

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Nanohmics proposes the integration of two major paradigms to optimize and improve current EVA communication systems. To address the implementation of tunable front-end transceivers, nanoimprint methodologies will be used to create nanoscale dimensions sub-systems designed to fit flexible printed circuits requirements. The second paradigm will bring software-defined radio (SDR) mesh networks methodologies as part of an embedded platform based on rad-hard reconfigurable devices (e.g. FPGA) with encryption capabilities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NEMS-based Software-Defined Radio systems will have the ability to enable/accelerate a wide variety of applications. Major applications of the system include: - 4G cell phones - Ultra-low power RF front ends - Cognitive radio mesh networks - Wireless Sensor Networks - Medical devices - Industrial mesh networking - Digital TV - Wide Band data transmission - Automotive portable radios set as media center including wireless phone connectivity

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
SDR radios based on NEMS technology will enable NASA to be a relevant player in the communications arena since weight, mass and power reduction are direct results of the proposed system. A list of possible applications where the proposed system can be applied is shown as follows 1. Frequency agile radio 2. Cognitive radio systems (networks) 3. Remote Space Instrumentation 4. Communication links for Extra Vehicular activities 5. Compatibility with a wide range of equipment (including outdated radio systems) 6. Ad-Hoc Networks for remote sensing and peer-to-peer communication 7. Network integration and dynamic spectrum allocation 8. Innovative circuit design for nanoscale technologies 9. Reduction of overall energy budget 10.Dynamic systems for telemetry

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Tools/EVA Tools
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Ad-Hoc Networks (see also Sensors)
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Network Integration
Routers, Switches
Transmitters/Receivers
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Teleoperation
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X4.03-9880
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Suit Radio, Sensors, Displays, Cameras, and Audio
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Novel Hemispherical and Dynamic Camera for EVAs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Xigen, LLC
11001 Sugarbush Terrace
Rockville, MD 20852-3240
(301) 637-6828

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Geng
xigenllc@gmail.com
11001 Sugarbush Terrace
Rockville,  MD 20852-3240
(301) 637-6828

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The primary objective of this SBIR project is to develop a novel Hemispherical and Dynamic Camera(HDC), with unprecedented capability of optically unwrapping, thus can obtain directly the high resolution undistorted (unwrapped) 360&#61616; hemispherical video or still images without requiring any external computing resources for performing digital unwrapping. This novel technology would lead to ultra-compact, low-power, light weight, and high resolution hemispherical camera for EVAs. The unique Neo360 optics offers advantages over any existing technologies. The HDC camera can: (1) Produce unwrapped hemispherical images optically without using any external computational hardware and software, greatly reducing size, weight and power (SWaP) of the HDC. (2) Capture real-time video of seamless hemispherical surrounding scene using no moving components; (3) Unwrap the hemispherical image optically and the outputs images/video is directly viewable for human interpretation; (4) Preserve image quality via optical unwrapping - no digital re-sampling artifacts that deteriorate image; (5) Acquire hemispherical scene with full pixel resolution of imaging sensor (conventional 360&#61616; optics acquires circular images, making 42% active pixels of sensor useless); (6) Eliminate time delay caused by digital processing - Hemispherical video can be transmitted directly; (7) Improve the image transmission efficiency by 70% for EVA video relay.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to applications to NASA space missions, break-through in Neo360 optical unwrapping technology could have wide-spread commercial applications in various commercial products for diversified markets/segments, such as: * Cell phone cameras: compact, light weight and low-power optical unwrapping cameras. * Video surveillance: wide-FOV video camera for target detection and tracking. * Automobile: novel designs of the rear view cameras or rear view mirrors. * Medical device: endoscopes and laparoscopes for minimally invasive surgeries. * Robotics: Neo360 design techniques could lead to novel compact imaging sensors for robots.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future EVAs need to support high resolution imagery with ultra compact, low-power, high definition (HD) cameras and low loss compressed digital data output for radio frequency (RF) transmissions or IP networks. Hemispherical and dynamic cameras are desired for EVAs, where the hemispherical cameras take 360-degrees video of a crewmember, distorting (wrapping) the views through optics and then undistorting (unwrapping) those views via software on the ground to pan /zoom for total situational awareness. The proposed novel optical unwrapping technology would lead to ultra-compact, low-power, light weight, and high resolution hemispherical dynamic camera (HDC) for EVAs. The proposed novel optical unwrapping technology can also be used to design high performance cameras with different field of views (such as panoramic or wide FOV) for other NASA applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Tools/EVA Tools
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Coding & Compression
Transmitters/Receivers
Command & Control
Teleoperation
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Image Processing
Lenses
Mirrors
Visible
Infrared
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X5.01-8909
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Expandable Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Load-Bearing Inflatables Using Light-Curing Rigidization Technology

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Adherent Technologies, Inc.
5505 Foothills Canyon Road Northeast
Albuquerque, NM 87111-8346
(505) 346-1685

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jan-Michael Gosau
adherenttech@comcast.net
11208 Cochiti SE
Albuquerque,  NM 87123-3361
(505) 346-1685

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is soliciting new concepts for lightweight stabilized inflatables in regards to low weight, high storage density, and ease of deployment. What most of the inflatable concepts are lacking is the ability for integrated structural members that do not require permanent inflation pressure. Any structure requiring inflation pressure for structural stability becomes hazardous in case of puncture due to micrometeorite impact or crew activity; it's hard enough to fix the puncture without the whole structure collapsing around the operator like a tent. Additionally the structural supports should allow for the integration of hard points or other modular functionalities. Adherent Technologies, Inc. has been actively developing stabilization concepts for space inflatables for years. Applications ranged from inflatable shelters, with or without self-healing capabilities, antenna structures, inflatable wing concepts, and structural repair tape. The technology is known as Rigidization on Command&#153; (ROC), and is accepted as the best solution to preserve inflatable structures in the absence of inflation pressure. The materials have been shown to store in minimal volume using both z-fold and rolling approaches, without damage to the core fiber structures. ATI is now proposing to extend the approach to structural elements to add strength to these structures, and provide building blocks for structurally challenging substructures like floors or roof supports for regolith-covered radiation resistant shelters. Resin impregnated fiberglass, carbon fiber and other advanced reinforcing materials will be used to obtain optimal mechanical properties at minimum weight. As a proof of concept, the Phase I program will concentrate on the basic unit of most modular structural construction, the I-beam. Goal of the program is a 3m demonstration beam.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary commercial market for inflatable rigidizable structures is in emergency or semi-permanent installations for military and relief operations. The ability to strengthen these structures with rapidly erectable structural members will greatly enhance wind resistance and the ability to carry overhead loads. With the emergence of inflatable bridge structures the use of rigidizables will be an important step forward to make such structures permanent.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Structural, load-bearing elements for a future extraterrestrial installation are nearly impossible to launch once they exceed a certain length. Beams can be assembled from shorter pieces, but suffer an excessive weight penalty in the form of fasteners. The rigidizable inflatable beams designed in this project will require minimal storage volume and can be produced to nearly any length and size while still fitting in projected launch vehicles. As such they will be an enabling technology for large living spaces on future long-duration flight missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Space Transportation & Safety
In Situ Manufacturing
Polymers


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X5.02-8059
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Fabrication and Manufacturing of Metallic and Polymer Matrix Composite Materials for Lightweight Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Computational Modeling aided Near Net Shape Manufacturing for Aluminum Alloys

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ATI, Inc.
1500 Bull Lea Road
Lexington, KY 40511-1267
(304) 541-1825

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alex Cho
alexcho_sp@hotmail.com
1500 Bull Lea Road
Lexington,  KY 40511-1267
(304) 541-1825

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This program will focus on developing and validating computational models for near-net shape processing of aluminum alloys. Computational models will be developed for deformation modeling and for texture generation. Characterization of two aluminum alloys including flow stress, forgeability, and recrystallization characteristics will provide input for the models. The models will be validate through laboratory scale testing of the ring rolling process. The two aluminum alloys are 2139, which has time strength and fracture toughness and ATI451a variant of 2139 that has excellent T6 temper properties. The models will be used to simulate full scale deformation and predict the nonisentropic material properties of the deformed product. Successful completion of this effort will enhance NASA's ability to implement near-net shape manufacturing processes, evaluate new materials and reduce the cost and weight of space exploration vehicles.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial aircraft structrues, high pressure vessel for chemical industries

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Space lanuch vehcles fuel tank structures

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X5.02-9189
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Fabrication and Manufacturing of Metallic and Polymer Matrix Composite Materials for Lightweight Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Polybenzoxazine Manufacturing Technology for Lightweight Large Scale Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Material Answers LLC
66 Buckskin Drive
Weston, MA 02493-1130
(617) 378-1976

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris Scott
cscott@materialanswers.com
66 Buckskin Drive
Weston,  MA 02493-1130
(617) 378-1976

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed work will demonstrate the process feasibility and mechanical properties of a polybenzoxazine/carbon fiber composite that will meet NASA's requirements for large scale lightweight structures with high temperature performance. Our proposed approach utilizes a benzoxazine resin formulation including a small main-chain oligomer in combination with a high performance monomer. This novel approach will provide for low resin viscosity to allow easier infiltration of the resin mixture into fibrous reinforcements, while maintaining superior mechanical properties, particularly temperature resistance. This technology will allow utilization of well-known manufacturing techniques capable of preparing large scale structures having affordable, reliable, predictable performance with reduced costs. The processing characteristics will be targeted to molding methods including resin transfer molding, vacuum assisted resin transfer molding, autoclave molding, and similar methods. To achieve these processability improvements we propose using a benzoxazine resin mixture of small main-chain oligomers based on bisphenol-F isomers and oxydianiline in combination with a high performance monomer. The high performance monomer is specifically designed to enhance the rate of polymerization through the near-neighbor approach. The polybenzoxazine matrix will be reinforced with carbon fibers. This work will extend previously demonstrated lightweight polybenzoxazine polymer achievements by utilizing enhanced modern chemistry to extend the processing window. The result will be a superior lightweight material with superior processability compared to other polymer matrix composites.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The developed composites can be applied to broad commercial aerospace use due to ease of processing and advantageous property profiles. Very recently, Airbus has qualified use of benzoxazine-based composites for interior and exterior applications using the first generation benzoxazine chemistry. The benzoxazine chemistry proposed in this SBIR proposal is a further advanced system that may be termed as the second and third generation benzoxazines. Thus, the benzoxazine technology that has already been accepted in the demanding aerospace arena can further be advanced. Another potential area of application is the very fast land-based transportation systems, such as magnetic levitation trains, where light-weight, high mechanical performance, and fire safety are extremely important.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposal is specifically targeted to the NASA applications highlighted in the X5.02 solicitation. The proposed lightweight polybenzoxazine composites are potentially relevant to the following NASA applications: Space transportation vehicles; International Space Station Modules; Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Shielding; and Thermal protection structures.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Isolation/Protection/Radiation Shielding (see also Mechanical Systems)
Processing Methods
Composites
Polymers
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X5.02-9752
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Fabrication and Manufacturing of Metallic and Polymer Matrix Composite Materials for Lightweight Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: CNT-based Reinforcing Polymer Matrix Composites for Lightweight Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NEI Corporation
201 Circle Drive North, Suite 102/103
Piscataway, NJ 08873-1154
(732) 868-3141

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Eberly
deberly@neicorporation.com
201 Circle Drive N., Suite 102/103
Piscataway,  NJ 08873-1154
(732) 868-3141

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Carbon Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs) are attractive structural materials for NASA applications due to their high strength to weight ratio, mechanical properties that can be tailored to specific applications, and fatigue resistance. Reinforcing specific critical areas in PMCs is most advantageous for structural durability. Since carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have exceptionally high tensile strength, they can be used as a functional additive to enhance the mechanical properties of PMCs in these critical areas. However, there are known issues with dispersing and aligning CNTs in the polymer matrix, thus limiting their strength-bearing properties. The proposed Phase I program aims to demonstrate a novel means of incorporating aligned CNTs specifically, and only, where they are needed during fabrication of a PMC component structure, thus limiting their use to specific areas where they are wanted. The key innovation uses a commercially-viable nanofiber technology to both disperse and to align the CNTs. The continuous nanofibers will be formed into Nanofiber-Reinforcing Mats (NRMs) which will be used during layup of the carbon PMC structure and placed only where added reinforcement is needed. For demonstration of feasibility in Phase I, prepregs will be used, but the concept is adaptable to other forms of PMC manufacturing such a filament winding. In Phase II we will scale-up the technology and fabricate large test samples, which will involve working with a prepreg manufacturer and fabricator of PMC component parts, in order to meet NASA specifications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications of the proposed technology are many, especially as fiber composites have made their way into various markets. It will be especially useful in applications where added reinforcement is needed in specific critical areas and where weight savings may be crucial. PMC components and parts are used in commercial aircraft (e.g., cargo floor panel, nose strake, air conditioning duct) and sporting goods (e.g., tennis rackets, ski equipment, fishing rods and golf clubs). The automotive industry has increasingly used PMCs &#150; the average automobile today has about 250 lbs of plastics and composites. Another application of these materials is in bridge "rehabilitation". Other applications would include composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs), such as lighter and safer fuel storage in automobiles and buses that run on hydrogen fuel; chemical processing and pharmaceutical manufacturing, oil exploration involving offshore drilling, oil production and petroleum refineries; on-the-road transport of refrigerants such as liquid oxygen or liquid nitrogen; and self-contained breathing apparatus tanks for firefighters and homeland security.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The specific NASA applications for the technologies we propose to develop are for light weight structures such as would be used for in-space applications and launch vehicles. In addition, the developed technologies would find use in NASA aerospace applications such as rockets, aircraft, aircraft/spacecraft propulsion systems, and supporting facilities. The reinforcing aspect of the developed technology will allow for more efficient joining of fiber composite parts, thus offering additional weight-savings. More robust structures capable of withstanding micrometeoroid and space debris impacts will be possible with the enhanced mechanical properties imparted by the aligned CNTs incorporated into the fiber composite structure, as well as the potential for improved electrical and thermal properties.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Nanomaterials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X5.03-8692
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spaceflight Structural Sensor Systems and NDE
PROPOSAL TITLE: HVI Damage Assessment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Invocon, Inc.
19221 IH 45 South, Suite 530
Conroe, TX 77385-8746
(281) 292-9903

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Doug Heermann
heermann@invocon.com
19221 I-45 South, Suite 530
Conroe,  TX 77385-8746
(281) 292-9903

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A device is proposed that can track the electrical charge dispersion that is created when hyper velocity impact (HVI) occurs between two entities with a closing velocity greater than 1 km per second. This same device can measure the time of arrival of the charge wave front at transducers placed throughout the vehicle. Using the known speed of light minus the reactive effects of the skin of the vehicle on the "charge", the system can calculate the exact point of impact. Further, the nature of the charge dispersal wave front contains critical information as to the damage incurred as a result of the HVI.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Detailed data and analysis on the physics of the high speed energy transformations that occur in an HVI environment are critical to verification of high resolution models that attempt to predict HVI collisions with details of fracturing paths, and other material failure mechanisms that are used in the design of commercial and military structures. High resolution modeling has become a valuable tool in the design process in that it allows engineers to subject designs to harsh environments and examine the failure modes in detail in order to provide the basis of component re-design without the expense of destructive testing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA, DOD, and commercial space enterprises fly a variety of spacecraft with a resulting risk of high velocity impacts with space debris and/or incoming particles from the cosmos. Impact location and damage assessment have long been a desirable capability for both manned and unmanned vehicles. NASA and our satellite customers have indicated that a system that detects and locates impacts can provide much needed information as to the subsequent management of remaining satellite resources to optimize the remaining capabilities of the spacecraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Ad-Hoc Networks (see also Sensors)
Antennas
Coding & Compression
Transmitters/Receivers
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
3D Imaging
Display
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Composites
Structures
Electromagnetic
Ionizing Radiation
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X5.03-9596
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spaceflight Structural Sensor Systems and NDE
PROPOSAL TITLE: Structural Integrity Inspection and Visualization System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821
(310) 320-3088

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Victor Grubsky
psproposals@poc.com
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance,  CA 90501-1821
(310) 320-3088

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To address NASA's need for compact nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of the structural integrity of spacecraft components and structures, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Structural Integrity Inspection and Visualization System (SIRIUS), based on acquiring two-dimensional images of Compton-scattered hard X-ray radiation produced by multiple slices of the object, with subsequent three-dimensional reconstruction of the inspected structure for high-resolution (~0.5 mm) detection and localization of defects. This approach incorporates the POC-developed innovative X-ray Compton Imaging Tomography technique (patent pending) and patented X-ray imaging optics with high spatial resolution and a wide field of view, enabling it to meet NASA's requirements for operation on a wide range of lightweight spacecraft materials, noncontact operation, portability, and ease of use. SIRIUS will provide detection and three-dimensional localization of defects and damage in space transportation vehicles, pressure vessels, ISS modules, inflatable structures, EVA suits, MMOD shields, and thermal protection structures, with spatial resolution of ~0.5 mm and penetration depth up to 25 cm (depending on the material). In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of using SIRIUS for NDE of spacecraft components by fabricating and testing a TRL-4 prototype, with the goal of achieving TRL-6 by the end of Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Military applications of the SIRIUS system will include in situ NDE of U.S. Navy, Army, and Air Force military aircraft with large-area non-uniform multilayer aluminum/titanium/composite structures that have complicated geometry (and also combined textile polymeric, ceramic, and metal matrix composite structures). The SIRIUS system will also be used for the NDE of airplane, helicopter, and missile parts containing electronics, mechanics, propellants, explosives, etc., to detect their defects and integrities. The SIRIUS system can be incorporated by the U.S. Navy, Army, and Air Force as a reliable, rapid, robotic, easy-to-use NDE system. Potential DHS applications include the detection of vehicle-borne contraband, drugs, and explosives. The commercial availability of the SIRIUS system includes its use for in situ NDE of large-area non-uniform components in aging and modern commercial aircraft, spacecraft, light marine vessels, and any application requiring defect detection for multilayer ceramic, composite, metallic, and plastic non-uniform structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA application of the proposed SIRIUS system is a compact NDE system that can be used for evaluating structural integrity of spacecraft components during spaceflight, with the capability to provide reliable, high-resolution assessments of the locations and extent of damage within thermal protection, micro-meteoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) shields, inflatable habitats, EVA suits and vehicles, electronic systems, conductive structures, pressure vessels, and other lightweight materials, with the ability to function in hard-to-access areas within both pressurized habitable compartments and external space environments. Additional NASA applications include in situ NDE of large-area non-uniform multilayer aluminum/titanium/composite structures with complicated geometry used in the development of advanced aircraft and spacecraft, providing accurate identification, localization, and measurements of all types of internal and surface defects.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
3D Imaging
Radiography
Ceramics
Composites
Metallics
X-rays/Gamma Rays
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X6.01-8829
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Autonomy and Space Mission Automation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Adaptive Automation for Anomaly Resolution

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRACLabs, Inc.
100 North East Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio, TX 78216-1234
(281) 461-7886

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Russell Bonasso
bonasso@traclabs.com
100 N.E. Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio,  TX 78216-1234
(281) 461-7886

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As ground operations personnel and crew manage the operations of orbiting and exploration spacecraft, inevitably anomalies will arise. Resolving anomalies in real-time and preventing their future occurrence can be difficult. Operations personnel must capture the conditions leading up to the anomaly from voluminous telemetry logs; the development of a workaround is a trial and error process; users must also determine if the anomaly affects a piece of equipment or a class of equipment; and the reconfiguration of the equipment under the conditions of the anomaly may preclude certain other operations. Using software from previous research, we propose to design and develop an automation framework that provides 1) the ability to capture the system configuration at the time of the anomaly, using processed telemetry and execution states from both plan and procedure execution; 2) a workaround authoring capability to produce first flight notes and eventually full workaround procedures, derived from the original procedures; 3) the ability to efficiently modify the preconditions and the effects of the workaround as well as the configuration of the underlying models and the affected operational constraints; and 4) an interactive ability to generate operations plans that use the workaround procedures to test the workarounds, new operational constraints and other affected procedures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The number of robotic entities becoming available for military operations is increasing dramatically and their capabilities are evolving at a rapid pace. Rather than being used as scarce, specialized resources, these entities will be relied upon to play an integral role on the future battlefield. As the military begins to move from teleoperations to semi-autonomous and autonomous operations, it will be plagued with the same anomaly resolution problems as NASA. Our technology will again serve as a unifying framework to streamline and reduce errors in problem resolution related to integrated human and robotic systems. A mirror of NASA space operations are operations in refineries, chemical plants, nuclear and other power plants and any installation that has established standard operating procedures that must be carefully followed under often stressful situations. As these industries move to electronic procedures tied to system telemetry and integrated with planning for more efficient and safe operations, they will require our anomaly resolution framework to streamline and reduce errors in problem resolution.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Mission planning and execution is at the core of all space missions in order to efficiently employ high cost space assets such as astronauts, equipment, vehicles and communication links. Since anomaly resolution is essential to executing both plans and procedures, our technologies will have applications across many NASA programs, from Mission Control to on-board NASA vehicles and outposts. Because this development will have been done in concert with MCC flight controllers, we believe its use will resonate with program managers in the mission operations directorate. We expect applications of our technology to impact ISS operations by streamlining and reducing errors in anomaly resolution, but also a variety of research programs, such as the new Mission Control Technologies (MCT) software being developed by Alan Crocker of NASA JSC DS. Our work will provide a connection to automated planning technology development ongoing at NASA Ames in support of automation for operations. We will work closely with Dr. Jeremy Frank at NASA ARC during Phase 1 to ensure our relevance to those projects.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Command & Control
Process Monitoring & Control
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Computer System Architectures
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Knowledge Management
Development Environments


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X6.02-8262
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Hardened/Tolerant and Low Temperature Electronics and Processors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Radiation Hardened Nanobridge based Non-volatile Memory for Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanosonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke, VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yuhong Kang
ekang@nanosonic.com
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke,  VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This NASA Phase I SBIR program would develop and demonstrate radiation hardened nanobridge based non-volatile memory (NVM) for space applications. Specifically, we would combine advances in the resistive memory materials, including solid electrolytes, metal oxides, and metal oxide composites, with atomic layer deposition (ALD) and interference lithography patterning (ILP) techniques, to realize the radiation hardened NVM devices and arrays with high reliability. NanoSonic has demonstrated a nanobridge based resistive memory with on-off ratios of 106, device power consumption of 10-5 Watts and switching speeds of 100ns. We have also demonstrated ILP techniques for the patterning of nanostructured 2D arrays and 3D structures with spatial resolution on the order of tens of nm. During the program, we will first investigate the responsible mechanisms for radiation hardened nanobridge based resistive memories. Based on this study, the candidate metal electrode and dielectric materials will be evaluated and selected for optimal performance for radiation harden application. NanoSonic will fabricated arrayed devices with ultradense crossbar latches structure, using radiation hardened metal oxides such as TiO2, SiO2, Ta2O5, especially composite TaSiO to validate our design rules for radiation hardened memories. The atomic layer deposition (ALD), e-beam evaporation, sputtering and will be used to achieve the targeted device performance. During Phase I, memory device parameters namely on&#150;off ratio, on-state current, switching time, retention time, cycling endurance, power consumption and rectification will be investigated using extensive facilities available in NanoSonic and Virginia Tech. NanoSonic will conduct pre, post and in situ radiation characterization of such devices at Colorado State University and Texas A&M University.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Non-NASA applications of our devices may include non-volatile memory, analog circuits, programmable logic, signal processing, neural networks, and control systems. There are also significant opportunities at the low end of the market, in devices such as RFID, smart cards, and flexible electronics. Here the prime criterion is cost while the minimum requirements must be met, relating to access time, retention time and endurance. NanoSonic would first target of the market of NVM, analog circuits, neuromorphic computing systems and flexible electronics, and then pursue the high density data storage market when the technology is ready.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed radiation hardened nanobridge based resistive memory is critical for electronics in space. They can be fashioned into non-volatile memory, which would allow greater data density than hard drives with access times potentially similar to DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory). A broad band of applications of the proposed devices also include analog circuits, neuromorphic computing, programmable logic and signal processing. NanoSonic's research in the nanobridge based resistive device field has shown promise in producing NVM devices of low power consumption, high density and high performance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Nanomaterials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X6.02-9582
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Hardened/Tolerant and Low Temperature Electronics and Processors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wide-Temperature Radiation-Hardened Interface Chipsets Utilizing Delay-Insensitive Asynchronous Logic

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ozark Integrated Circuits, Inc.
PO Box 332
Fayetteville, AR 72702-9932
(479) 409-5201

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Matt Francis
francis@ozarkic.com
PO Box 332
Fayetteville,  AR 72702-9932
(479) 409-5201

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There is a continual drive to move electronics out of the "warm box" to their point of use on space platforms. This requires electronics that can operate reliably over a wide range of temperatures and in the presence of radiation. The range of functions needed at various points across a given platform require use of digital, analog and high-voltage circuits, partitioned either independently or in combinations on the same chips. Currently, there is no "common denominator" integrated circuit process that can effectively support all applications; extreme-environment systems must include the best-in-class technologies. Circuit design techniques which can produce hardened circuits across a number of technology nodes are essential to producing IP that can be ported and applied to the best technology for the task at hand. Delay-insensitive (DI) asynchronous digital logic, such as NULL Convention Logic (NCL) is one such technique that can be applied to produce radiation-hardened wide-temperature electronics across many process nodes. DI logic can produce circuits with wide-temperature, threshold-independent operation and has shown tremendous potential for radiation-hardness through use of its dual-rail encoding scheme. DI logic has been successfully demonstrated in digital and mixed-signal applications down to 130nm in bulk silicon and SiGe processes over a wide range of temperature. An opportunity thus exists to apply the asynchronous DI approach to other space-applicable technologies where reliable digital processing needed, including SOI for high-voltage processes for power processing and conditioning. Proposed is the design of a wide-temperature wide-voltage range RS-485 interface suitable for power and actuator control applications built using DI-NCL gates and wide-temperature design techniques in a high-power radiation-hard process.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
DI logic in wide-temperature, high-power SOI technology offers a potential solution to digital circuitry for harsh radiation environments such as aerospace. The aerospace electronics market alone is predicted to be a $138 billion market in 2011. The success and qualification of rad-hard DI logic will allow for the creation of commercial integrated solutions in this market. Additional potential markets in the commercial sector are numerous. The designed DI-NCL asynchronous digital standard cell library can be applied to the creation of custom and general-purpose processing technology for integrated power electronics, such as DC-DC converters commonly needed in solar, wind and other alternative energy architectures. The design techniques and circuit topologies proven in the course of the research can be applied to alternative IC processes enabling new capability including wide-temperature sensing and control electronics.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A proven and characterized DI cell library in high-power wide-temperature SOI technology completes a bridge for a reliable digital design technique between silicon, SiGe mixed-signal circuits and high-power applications. Further, as state-of-the-art RS-485 chips have limited voltage and temperature ranges for space applications (min. -55o C), producing a wide-temperature (cryogenic rated) radiation-hardened RS-485 interface has immediate usefulness to NASA and clearly advances the state of the art with the opportunities for integration it provides. Wide-temperature radiation hardened RS-485 interfaces that can be integrated with digital, analog and power IP blocks would provide boundless applications and point the way forward for distributed space electronics.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X6.03-8527
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Integrated System Health Management for Flexible Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electronic Health Monitoring for Space Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nokomis, Inc.
310 5th Street
Charleroi, PA 15022-1517
(724) 483-3946

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Walter Keller
wkeller@nokomisinc.com
310 5th Street
Charleroi,  PA 15022-1517
(724) 483-3946

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Prognostic monitoring capabilities for space exploration aircrafts are crucial to enable safety and reliability in these platforms. Nokomis proposes to develop and mature a system which exploits electromagnetic emissions to identify degradation in avionics components and determine the probability of failure and remaining useful life (RUL). Over time, the deterioration of components under stress alters the impedances of circuits, components, integrated circuits, and other electronic subcomponents which cause changes to the electronic emission's signatures. Due to the uniqueness of emission signatures, they can be related directly to specific components within the monitored system. In this Phase I effort, representative avionics components will be artificially aged to the point of failure as they are monitored using Nokomis' AELED based Electronic Health Monitoring (EHM) system. An algorithm will be developed to model the changes in emissions over a component's lifetime, thereby determining the potential for component failure at any point in its operational lifetime.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA applications, Nokomis has identified customers in the commercial market for aeronautics health management. Because safety and system health is an important issue for vital electronics used in aerospace across the board, the system proposed in this effort has the ability to meet the needs of an ever-growing commercial market space. Commercial space systems companies developing sensor systems and launch systems will benefit from this technology in order to improve the reliability of and protect expensive systems from catastrophic failure. Compared to current market health management solutions, Nokomis is prepared to increase cost-savings, performance standards and system safety. Because of these immense advantages, Nokomis is well positioned to address the market needs of the commercial aeronautics industry.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Ensuring safe and reliable technology is the key to sustaining NASA's spaceflight systems. With the use of advanced health management tools such as the proposed EHM system, NASA programs have the potential to increase capabilities and reduce operational costs. Some programs that stand to benefit include; the Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). Because programs like the AvSP already have initiatives for across the board improvements, Nokomis' health monitoring and electronic fault prediction system will integrate well into present procedures. In addition to the IVHM program and applications in commercial aircraft, the ESMD seeks better tools and methods to ensure safe launch, flight, and mission operation of the many components of the overall Constellation and Exploration architecture. Of interest for these applications are new technologies that can provide better monitoring and diagnosis capabilities while minimizing sensor mass and volume requirements such as those provided by the proposed system.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Characterization
Quality/Reliability
Electromagnetic
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X6.03-8772
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Integrated System Health Management for Flexible Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated System Health Management for Flexible Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Qualtech Systems, Inc.
99 East River Drive
East Hartford, CT 06108-7301
(860) 257-8014

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sudipto Ghoshal
sudipto@teamqsi.com
99 East River Drive
East Hartford,  CT 06108-7301
(860) 761-9341

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Long-duration robotic and manned space missions have a number of unique requirements for mission success. These include ultra-high reliability, safety, sustainability and affordability of launch vehicles and spacecraft. These requirements, in turn, are allocated among critical subsystems, such as engines, propellants, structures, software systems, thermal protection, power, avionics, life support, guidance, communication and navigation. In this vein, novel integrated system health management (ISHM) technologies that evolve with the system life-cycle, viz., concept-> design-> development-> production-> operations and training, are essential for meeting the requirements of safe and ultra-reliable, sustainable and affordable launch vehicles and spacecraft. NASA has been employing a number of reliability tools and methods, FMECA, FTA and PRA, for designing reliable and safe systems. However, the current methods are ad hoc, prone to errors and do not evolve with the system life-cycle. In response to these challenges, Qualtech Systems, Inc. (QSI) propose to develop an integrated system health management (ISHM) tool and a concomitant process for new heavy lift launch systems and exploration precursor robotic missions. The new risk and design analysis tool, when coupled with QSI's diagnostic and prognostic tools (QSI's Testability Engineering and Maintenance System (TEAMS) toolset) will simplify early-stage design of health management functionality during the development of space systems (e.g., safety and mission assurance analysis, failure modes, effects and criticality analysis, hazards analysis, functional models, fault propagation models, testability analysis, design for serviceability, sustainability and affordability). The TEAMS SW suite already hosts a number of these desired capabilities. Consequently, QSI proposes to introduce additional modeling and analytic capabilities to TEAMS and enhance the existing, so as to make it an enhanced support tool for ISHM.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Among the other agencies, DoD and Air-force and Navy are the most potential customer for the resulting technologies. Large scale military systems (systems of systems) such as NORAD, Space Command ground segments, the Joint Strike Fighter fleet, the Navy shipboard platforms, Submarine Commands and ballistic missile defense (BMD) systems can be potential areas to field the proposed technology. In addition, UAVs, UMGs and other unmanned submersible vehicle markets could also be potential target for the proposed technology. The product is also expected to be of commercial value to the manufacturers of DoD and military's remotely guided weapons and reconnaissance systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's current vision to enhance the level of autonomy for vehicle health management and mission planning makes the proposed effort worthy of funding from several branches within it. Clearly, establishing the technology and the software so that it readily operates as part of NASA's next generation Mission Control Technology allows NASA to utilize the continuous health assessment and mission satisfiability information from our tool for improved mission execution and reconfiguration while improving safety, mission success probability and reducing flight controller and crew workload.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X7.01-9164
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human Robotic Systems - Human Robot Interfaces
PROPOSAL TITLE: Brain Machine Interfaces for Robotic Control in Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Medical Electronics Corporation
6901 East Fish Lake Road, Suite #190
Maple Grove, MN 55369-5457
(763) 515-5353

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gary Havey
ghavey@ame-corp.com
6901 East Fish Lake Road, Suite #190
Maple Grove,  MN 55369-5457
(763) 515-5333

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR will study the application of a brain machine interface (BMI) to enable crew to remotely operate and monitor robots from inside a flight vehicle, habitat and/or during an extra-vehicular activity (EVA). The goal is to improve robot operator productivity, situational awareness, and effectiveness. With the application of a BMI technology an astronaut in an extravehicular suit could great improve their capability of working with rover, arm and free flying robots. The use of BMI is being studied extensively worldwide for its application in aiding people who are paralyzed or for persons missing limbs to control prosthetics. This project will study ways to apply this research to robotic control in space applications. System architectures will be defined for both the EVA and IVA crew member. The goal for phase II will be to demonstrate BMI in a space robotic control application. This research also has the benefit of supporting technology of use by those who are paralyzed or who have prosthetic limbs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future applications of brain machine interfaces to help paralyzed persons control robotic assistances or to help persons control prosthetic limbs

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
User interfaces that enable crew to remotely operate and monitor robots from inside a flight vehicle, habitat and/or during an extra-vehicular activity (EVA).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Man-Machine Interaction
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X7.01-9172
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human Robotic Systems - Human Robot Interfaces
PROPOSAL TITLE: Visual Intelligent Robot Performance Monitor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
951 Mariner's Island Boulevard, Suite 360
San Mateo, CA 94404-1585
(650) 931-2700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Ong
ong@stottlerhenke.com
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., Suite 360
San Mateo,  CA 94404-1585
(650) 931-2700

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a Visual Intelligent Robot Performance Monitor (VIRPM) that will help crew members maintain situation awareness of robot performance more effectively. VIRPM will provide intelligent assistance to crew members by detecting topical data that suggest possible problems (causes and effects), gathering additional topical data that provides supporting or rebutting evidence for each problem, and presenting routine and topical data graphically that enable crew members to quickly understand the situation. During Phase 1, we will specify intelligent data monitoring, analysis, and visualization requirements, create a high-level system design of the monitoring, analysis, and visualization software, and develop a software prototype that demonstrates the utility and feasibility of our approach.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
These technologies will increase the ability for crew members to oversee the operations of teams of robots during lunar and Martian missions and, in the nearer term, during analog experiments on Earth. The technologies might also help NASA project managers analyze project progress data to detect possible problems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The resulting technologies will help Department of Defense personnel evaluate the progress of plan executions by autonomous vehicles and by military forces, compare actual and planned events, and identify possible causes and downstream effects. The technologies will also enable intelligent software that helps project managers review progress data to detect and assess possible problems and their effects on the rest of the project.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Sequencing & Scheduling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X7.02-8186
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human-Robotic Systems - Mobility Subsystems
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Planning and Control Toolkit for Dual Arm Manipulation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRACLabs, Inc.
100 North East Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio, TX 78216-1234
(281) 461-7886

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Burridge
burridge@traclabs.com
16969 N. Texas Ave. Suite 300
Webster,  TX 77598-1234
(281) 461-7886

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
It is often difficult to create autonomous robotic capabilities that match what can be achieved via teleoperation. Even though it is mechanically possible for a humanoid robot such as Robonaut 2 to perform complex coordinated tasks such as tying a knot, exchanging objects between end effectors, plugging in connectors, unscrewing a cap, opening a door, or grasping large objects with two hands, our lack of planning algorithms makes it difficult to control these behaviors autonomously. The lack of planning and control algorithms also impedes human-robot interaction as it is difficult for manipulation robots to plan arm trajectories in real-time using active sensing to avoid collisions with humans. This proposal is to develop a suite of planning and control algorithms that will enable NASA robots to perform complex manipulation behaviors in a coordinated way. This work would benefit NASA by making NASA robots more capable and useful during autonomous tasks and by enabling NASA robots to operate alongside humans during tasks that are shared between humans and robots.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Department of Defense (DOD) is investing heavily in remote robotic operations including unmanned ground vehicles and is beginning to equip these vehicles with sophisticated manipulation systems. This manipulation systems are used for Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD), medical operations, entering and clearing buildings, moving supplies and unloading pallets. Our technology will greatly increase the usefulness of highly dexterous robots in military environments We expect substantial interest in the DOD to these kinds of technologies. We are also working with the US Army on remote medical robotics applications and have connections with Mr. Michael Beebe, who is the Medical Robotics and Unmanned Systems R&D manager for the Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC) of the US Army. In addition, we see applications in the urban search and rescue (USAR) arena and are coordinating with Dr. Robin Murphy of Texas A&M's Center for Robot-Assisted Search and Rescue. We are also investigating remote operation of robots on oil drilling platforms to reduce manpower and allow for continued operation in the face of storms that require evacuation of platform personnel. We are also investigating the automation of remotely operated underwater vehicles, such as those produced by Oceaneering. This application is particularly timely after the Deepwater Horizon incident. Dual arm manipulation robots are also becoming more common in industrial settings.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This work is directly applicable to automating current NASA robots such as Dexter and Robonaut, both of which are currently on-board ISS. Even under teleoperation, this software could detect potential collisions and self-collisions and alert the operator. This work is also applicable to NASA ground robots such as Centaur and future exploration robots. NASA's future robotics missions are expected to rely heavily on dexterous robots. These robots will need sophisticated autonomy software in order to function. These robots will assist humans with tasks as well as work with no human presence to perform tasks such as assembly and terrain preparation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Perception/Vision
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X7.02-9839
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human-Robotic Systems - Mobility Subsystems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Adaptive Bioassistive and Telerobotic Devices for Human-Robotic Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CU Aerospace, LLC
301 North Neil Street, Suite 400
Champaign, IL 61820-3169
(217) 239-1703

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Carroll
carroll@cuaerospace.com
301 N. Neil St. - Suite 400
Champaign,  IL 61820-3169
(217) 239-1703

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CU Aerospace and team partner, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, propose to perform innovative research and development that targets the design and control of adaptive bioassistive and telerobotic devices - ABATRODs - that augment normal musculoskeletal function in rapidly changing and disruptive environments while providing predictable response. ABATRODs accommodate fast changes in environment while actively shaping the response to muscle actuation to that anticipated by the operator, allowing the operator to maintain focus on task objectives. The ABATROD architecture uses principles of L1 adaptive control to decouple the task of adaptation and environmental uncertainty from the operator perceived response, thereby enabling the design of a range of apparently nonintrusive augmenting and telerobotic device technologies. The L1 paradigm significantly widens the domain of safe operation within which operator-induced instability can be eliminated without tuning. This effort makes innovative contributions to NASA-relevant space exploration tasks: (i) sustained and accurate manipulation of physical control interfaces on machinery and vehicles by an operator on a shaking space vehicle or rover, (ii) the stable and coordinated handling of scientific or photographic hardware by an astronaut during ambulation across uneven terrain, and (iii) the precise and reliable control of telerobotic devices for robotic-EVAs in unpredictable conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Ensuring predictable response in the presence of unexpected failures is critical to the safety of operation of these bioassistive telerobotic devices and to reducing risk to human lives. Beyond the NASA space exploration possibilities for ABATRODs, these devices have clear military (moving soldiers and vehicles on uneven terrain) and medical applications involving a broad range of possibilities and high commercial impact. Bioassistive device technology may be used to augment normal function, to prevent injury to function, and/or to rehabilitate injured function. Exoskeletal devices for augmenting normal function enable increased load-carrying capabilities and sustain robust gait characteristics in adverse terrain. In telerobotic applications, normal function is augmented through the transformation of human motor activity to different scales of motion and force. Further, exoskeletal devices for preventing injury to function alleviate the occurrence of repetitive stress disorders through compensatory action, enable heavy lifts, and support added loads, say a back pack on a child's back to prevent developmental damage. Finally, exoskeletal devices may be used for rehabilitating injured function to assist locomotion-impaired or otherwise disabled individuals, prevent circulatory problems in extremities, and enable the resumption of every-day activities involving sustained balance and support. Telesurgical applications offer additional opportunities for the ABATROD concept.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This effort makes innovative contributions to NASA-relevant space exploration tasks: (i) sustained and accurate manipulation of physical control interfaces on machinery and vehicles by an operator on a shaking space vehicle or rover, (ii) the stable and coordinated handling of scientific or photographic hardware by an astronaut during ambulation across uneven terrain, and (iii) the precise and reliable control of telerobotic devices for robotic-EVAs in unpredictable conditions. Another possible NASA application could be telerobotic surgery from a surgeon on the Earth to an astronaut in space.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Man-Machine Interaction
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Teleoperation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X8.01-8255
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Temperature, High Energy Density Micro Thin Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nano EnerTex
4131 Grennoch
Houston, TX 77025-2303
(713) 667-9558

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ali Zomorrodian
lignatiev@netscape.net
4131 Grennoch Lane
Houston,  TX 77025-2303
(713) 667-9558

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A new type of solid oxide fuel cell based on thin film technology and ultra-thin electrolyte is being proposed to develop to realize major reductions in fuel cell size, weight, and operating temperature, while significantly increasing power density. The thin film fuel cell is comprised of a micro-thin electrolyte (thickness ~ 1¿¿m) that is grown on a foil nickel substrate. The nickel substrate is then made into a porous anode by lithographic patterning and etching of the foil. The SOFC structure is completed by the deposition of a thin-film mixed ionic-electronic conducting oxide cathode on the electrolyte. Preliminary data has shoen the thin film fuel cell to have an output of ~ 100mA/cm2 at temperatures as low as 500C &#150; more than 400C lower than for typical bulk SOFC's. A single cell has a total thickness of 15-20 micron, and the integration of interconnects to the cells to form a stack is projected to result in a cell power density of > 5W/cm3 &#150; more than 20x greater than typical SOFC's.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The prospect of supplying high power density, compact fuel cells to NASA also opens up extensive private sector commercial possibilities for high power density micro energy sources including: power for portable electronic equipment, e.g., laptop computer; and for high efficiency distributed energy sources for home electrical needs especially as pertaining to operation on natural gas (methane), thus resulting in distributed energy generation for the nation's power grid. Further, fuel cell power is defined as 'clean' energy, and efficient energy. Consumers are focusing on these qualities more so with time, and this 'clean' aspect of the fuel cell will add significantly to market pull. Discussions have been initiated with a firm interested in the fuel cells for application to distributed and 'clean' power. This opportunity and other commercial opportunities will be actively pursued during the Phase II program, and are expected to yield critical industrial leveraging of a Phase III program.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The unique projected performance parameters of the thin film solid oxide fuel cell promise promise to deliver to NASA a high power density, low mass fuel cell that at the nominal 30 W stack projected for the Phase II program will form the basic module for larger power output fuel cells at the 1kW level and beyond. Such an electrical power source will supply NASA needs for compact, high power density energy sources for various lander, robotic vehicle, astronaut, habitat, and other distributed planetary surface energy needs in space. It is projected that many multiple kW of fuel cell power capacity will be required by NASA (and other space faring nations) for the lunar, Mars and beyond Mars environments, especillay those places where the atmosphere and or the body has water present from which hydrogen and oxygen can be extracted to yield fuel and oxidizer for fuel cells. These projected NASA needs point to a solid business opportunity through commercializing and selling to NASA fuel cell power.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X8.01-9855
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers
PROPOSAL TITLE: Long-Life MEAs and Catalysts for PEM Electrolyzers/Fuel Cells

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Willey
jwilley@ginerinc.com
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton,  MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0523

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Nanostructured Thin Films (NSTF), used as substrates for catalysts, have proven to be highly active for oxygen reduction in fuel cells. This improvement in activity is expected to transfer to electrolyzer technology as the NSTF substrate layer, with a ruthenium oxide based catalyst, is used for oxygen evolution. Slow anode kinetics in electrolysis provide the bulk of the cell overpotential. An increase in anode catalyst activity and decrease in mass-transfer effects, as seen with the thin NSTF catalyst layers and ruthenium oxide based catalysts, would mean an increase in overall efficiency for the electrolyzer systems. In fuel cells, the catalyst layer thickness has been reduced by a factor of 20 compared to the state of the art, and specific activity has increased by an order of magnitude. An additional benefit is that the substrate manufacture, catalyst coating and MEA production are done via a roll-good process, ensuring consistency of product for high reliability.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Fuel cell vehicles, hydrogen filling stations, chlor-alkali process

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lunar and space stations, satellites, high altitude aircraft

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Generation
Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X8.01-9857
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers
PROPOSAL TITLE: Metallic Fiber Papers for Gas Diffusion Layers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cortney Mittelsteadt
cmittelsteadt@ginerinc.com
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton,  MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0529

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Hydrogen/oxygen polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFCs) are an attractive means of generating electricity in lunar and space applications due to their high energy density. The PEMFC generally consists of an MEA supported on two sides by gas diffusion media. The gas diffusion media of choice is generally carbon-based in the form of a carbon fiber paper, or carbon cloth material. In the standard operating environment of a H2/O2 fuel cell the anode and cathode potentials are near 0 and 0.7-1.0, respectively. Carbon is generally stable in this potential range. Due to flooding, or during shut-down and start-up, oxygen may permeate the membrane and consume all of the hydrogen at the anode. If this occurs localized voltages above 1.6 V are possible, well above the carbon corrosion potential. For this reason GES proposes to replace the carbon fiber paper based gas diffusion media with an equivalent metallic fiber paper. GES has already demonstrated the electrochemical suitability of these materials by operating them in an electrolyzer for > 3500 hours above 1.7 V. The major challenge is to wet-proof the metallic media to avoid flooding from fuel cell product water.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
GES already has two developed commercial electrolyzer products, analytical hydrogen and life support oxygen; as well as a third in development industrial hydrogen, and this material could prove beneficial in all three applications. In the analytical hydrogen application this material could supplant a multi-pieced screen-pack currently in use at the oxygen electrode, greatly reducing manufacturing labor. In GES's naval electrolyzers for life-support oxygen, this material could potentially replace a gas diffusion electrode support structure that consists of over three dozen parts. Finally in an emerging market, that GES is aggressively pursuing, that of water electrolysis for industrial hydrogen; this material may allow for the use of thinner membrane materials, thereby improving efficiency and giving GES a competitive advantage.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has a strong need to replace carbon as the diffusion media material in H2/O2 fuel cells to avoid corrosion during start/stop cycling. The use of H2/O2 fuel cells is critical in both lunar, satellite, and manned space travel applications. Historically, the use of metallic sinters and screen packs required the use of a thick membrane as the sinters and screens had large pore sizes and could not properly support a thin membrane. This leads to high resistances, and prevents NASA from taking advantage of membrane innovations such as Gore's Primea&#153; membrane, or GES's own thin Dimensionally Stable Membrane&#153;. The thinner pore size and tighter tolerances of the proposed metallic papers will allow NASA to realize the performance and efficiency gains of these materials. Additionally, GES's own unique knowledge of wet-proofing metallic media will allow the elimination of carbon, making the fuel cell more durable and easing the requirement at start/stop.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Storage
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Metallics
Polymers


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X8.02-9169
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space-Rated Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: Graphene Nanocomposite Cathode for Advanced Space Battery

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle, Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016-4962
(540) 769-8430

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zhiguo Zhou
zhouz@lunainnovations.com
521 Bridge Street
Danville,  VA 24541-1405
(434) 483-4234

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
High efficiency power systems are needed for NASA's future human exploration of space and such power systems must have advanced safety feature and provide high specific energy and high volumetric energy density. Luna Innovations propose to develop novel rechargeable battery with advanced non-toxic and safe anode and cathode materials. Aggressive weight and volume performance improvements over state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries will be achieved for use in NASA's size-sensitive space vehicles. The proposed graphene nanocomposite-based cathode can be used in coupling with advanced silicon anodes that are much safer compared to lithium metal anodes used in conventional Li-ion batteries. The new battery technology incorporates novel graphene/nanosheet composite in the cathode design to provide higher efficiency for active material utilization and improved reversibility in the electrochemical reactions thus to provide higher energy density and greater cycling stability. We anticipate that the new rechargeable battery will meet all of the metric goals including safety, stability, cycle life and power that specified by NASA for its human-rated space applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed battery could be used for military applications as light-weight, high-energy power sources for autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UVA), which requires aggressive weight and volume performance improvements over state-of-the-art lithium-ion based systems. In these small or micro UVAs, our battery may be used in combination with solar panels to provide power during the daytime and the night for continuous no-landing operations in remote or hostile regions. Due to the improvements in safety and energy density Luna' battery may also find uses in commercial products such as electrical vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) where they can completely and partially replace internal combustion engine and gasoline.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are potentially many different NASA applications for safe, high specific energy, and high energy density power systems for future NASA Exploration missions. Possible applications include extravehicular activities, landers and rovers. Due to its high volumetric energy density, the proposed battery may find wide applications in any weight- and volume-sensitive vehicular systems that NASA may need to accomplish its space missions. The safety feature arising from eliminating the use of lithium metal anode makes Luna's battery a better choice for human-rated power systems. Essentially, Luna's new battery will provide light-weight, high-reliability and safety replacements for many NASA applications that currently use lithium-ion batteries.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Storage
Composites
Nanomaterials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X8.02-9244
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space-Rated Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Energy Battery Materials with Novel Separator and Electrolytes for Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nohms Technologies
1032 Hanshaw Road
Ithaca, NY 14850-2742
(607) 257-9569

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Navaneedharakrishnan Jayaprakash
njaiprakash@gmail.com
130 Honness Lane
Ithaca,  NY 14850-2742
(607) 255-3781

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future space exploration energy-storage needs span a wide range of requirements. NASA's Exploration missions will require safe, human-rated, high specific energy, high energy density and high efficiency-storage systems that can be used in space and on the moon and Mars. These energy storage devices need to be used in applications such as Landers, Rovers, and extravehicular activities (EVAs). NOHMs Technologies, Inc. proposes to develop a novel battery based on Lithium-Sulfur chemistry that has a demonstrated specific energy of 1875 Wh/kg with a theoretical specific energy of 2600 Wh/kg, while yielding a dramatic 3-4x reduction in weight, size, and cost. The proposed technology is based on innovative sulfur-infused carbon composite cathode materials developed at Cornell University. These materials overcome the poor cycle life problems that have plagued Lithium-Sulfur batteries by encapsulating sulfur in nanometer-sized mesoporous carbon capsules. In addition, the proposed Phase I research will focus on the development of stable, non-flammable, non-volatile, nano-hybrid electrolytes and separators that overcomes lithium dendrite formation in all lithium based battery configurations, significantly enhancing their safety. Phase I will demonstrate the potential of our proposed system to meet the performance parameters specified by NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
While lithium ion batteries have garnered a lot of attention, secondary lithium-sulfur batteries employing sulfur as the cathode and metallic lithium as the anode offers the highest energy storage potential of any two solid elements. They offer more than twice the energy capacity of currently deployed lithium ion battery technology with half the weight. If the potential of these batteries can be harnessed, they are expected to disrupt current lithium ion cell technology because of their higher energy density and the low cost and wide-spread availability of sulfur. NOHMs is positioned well initially as a material manufacturer (cathode and electrolyte) that will approach major battery manufacturers (e.g. Panasonic, A123 Systems, LG Chem, NEC, Johnson Controls) as (1) customers or (2) potential licensees. NOHMs materials are suitable for three energy storage sectors. ¿ Mobile Consumer Devices: Most competitive market with greatest sales potential. ¿ Electric Vehicles: Fastest growing market with strong incentives. ¿ Stationary Energy Storage: Least competitive market with high potential for federal and state subsidies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NOHMs nanostructured battery technology will enhance capability extended duration of future NASA space missions. Missions will continue to become more complex and increase in duration using manned and unmanned space vehicles, landers, rovers, satellites, and EVA. Next-generation space platforms will continue to demand more power to sustain longer-range communication, increasingly complex sensing capability, and longer range for manned and unmanned vehicles. Advances in vehicle transport and exploration systems will continue to increase power and energy demand beyond the capabilities of commercially available battery systems. Additionally, as NASA continues to plan for missions to the Moon and Mars, there is increasing logistical burden to transport vehicle and portable power systems to the remotest of destinations. Battery-powered robotic systems for space and military use, including UAVs, Unmanned Ground Vehicles are a growing market worldwide. Because of this increased interest around the world, the global market for robotics will grow from $5.8 billion in 2010 to more than $8 billion in 2016, with the United States as the largest by far with over 50% of the value share held by American firms. Effectively integrating new, longer lasting, higher energy density batteries into space mission would give vendors a significant value proposition with which to expand their share in a multibillion dollar industry in which virtually every space system requires batteries.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Storage
Nanomaterials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X8.03-9866
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Nuclear Power Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Innovative High Temperature Heat Pipes for Spacecraft Nuclear Fission Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc.
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster, PA 17601-5688
(717) 295-6061

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kara Walker
Kara.Walker@1-ACT.com
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster,  PA 17601-5688
(717) 295-6081

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA Glenn is examining small fission reactors for future space transportation and surface power applications. The reactors would have an 8 to 15 year design life that could be available for a 2020 launch to support future NASA science missions. Both 1 kWe thermoelectric and 3 kWe Stirling systems have been examined. The proposed design will use alkali metal heat pipes to transfer heat from the reactor to the Stirling or Thermoelectrics (TEs) convertors. This SBIR project by ACT will develop alkali metal heat pipes for space nuclear fission reactors. Three types of alkali metal heat pipes will be investigated over the course of the 6 month Phase I program; arterial heat pipes, grooved heat pipes and self-venting arterial heat pipes that use a screen wick artery with vent holes. Grooved and self-venting heat pipes will be fabricated and tested to determine which design would be best suited for the space fission reactor application.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is a commercial application for high temperature VCHP heat exchangers in fuel cell reformers. In a fuel cell reformer, steam, air and diesel fuel react in a High Temperature Shift (HTS) and a Low Temperature Shift (LTS) reactor to produce as much hydrogen as possible. Feed streams to and from the reactors must be maintained under tight temperature control, typically within ¿30¿C despite a turndown ratio of 5:1 in reactant flow rate. Isothermal Furnace Liners (IFLs) use an alkali metal heat pipe to provide nearly isothermal temperature uniformity over the entire length and circumference of the tube furnace wall. A Pressure Controlled Heat Pipe (PCHP) can provide extremely precise temperature control. ACT will use the results of the current program to extend the PCHP technology to high temperature IFLs. These PCHPs can be used by organizations such as national labs to aid in thermophysical properties characterization and temperature calibration of primary temperature reference standards.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The immediate NASA application is for space fission nuclear reactors that utilize Stirling converters or thermoelectric for power conversion. An example is the 1kWe Fission Power System with a 15 year design life that could be available for a 2020 launch. The reliable, low-mass, alkali-metal heat pipes developed in this program would be capable of transporting the reactor heat to the Stirling or thermoelectric convertors for power generation. The Stirling system and other space nuclear reactors also require radiator panels to reject waste heat. The grooved and self-venting arterial heat pipes developed on this program will also be suitable to the lower temperature radiator heat pipes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X8.03-9887
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Nuclear Power Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Modular Stirling Power System (MSPS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Infinia Technology Corporation
6811 West Okanogan Place
Kennewick, WA 99336-2374
(509) 735-4700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Songgang Qiu
sqiu@infiniacorp.com
6811 West Okanogan Place
Kennewick,  WA 99336-2374
(509) 737-2119

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Infinia Technology Corporation's (ITC) proposed Modular Stirling Power System (MSPS) is a free-piston Stirling system that addresses NASA needs in 12-kW increments. The MSPS utilizes a support structure that couples 1 heater head with 4 power modules and provides a high efficiency of 25% between very conservative acceptor and rejecter temperatures of 823 K and 475 K (30% @ 900/450 K). Proven ITC technology provides high intrinsic reliability and maintenance-free operation for >15 years. It directly leverages 3-kW power modules developed for Infinia's solar-Stirling PowerDish&#153; that have been deployed in over 400 engines to enable full-scale demonstration under a Phase II SBIR. The MSPS will employ innovative fabrication and/or laser welding processes for reliable liquid metal pumped loop compatibility with a next-generation heater head designed for nuclear system integration. Phase I will culminate in a concept definition and design as a foundation for analysis, detailed design, fabrication, and testing in Phase II. Development of the MSPS concept opens many avenues of application for commercial and government markets. Within NASA, the system will provide mission support for future space transportation and surface power with a very reliable, high-efficiency Stirling converter for the conversion of reactor heat into electricity.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ITC expects the MSPS interface to adapt core 3 kW Stirling engine technology for numerous additional synergistic commercial products and markets where the attributes of low noise, high efficiency, low emissions, and maintenance-free operation are valued. Higher power levels offered by the MSPS through the joining of multiple pre-commercial convertor technology into a single heater head exchanger coupled with the lower temperature deltas from source to sink, open many markets. Future complementary applications will include but are not limited to: *Waste Heat Conversion *Solar Trough systems *Emergency power generators *Remote power systems *micro-Combined Heat and Power (mCHP) *Over-the-road truck auxiliary power units to comply with the new anti-idling regulations *Recreational vehicle and yacht generators *Construction site power

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Modular Stirling Power System (MSPS) is ideally suited for use with Space Nuclear Power Systems (SNPS) and/or Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) systems. The proposed system will in no way be constrained by the availability of special isotopes, as is the case for small space power systems and can be easily interfaced with liquid metal cooling loops like those under development for future space transportation and surface power applications. Modular in nature, the MSPS enables varying power levels (12kW multiples with existing pre-commercial convertors or higher with redesigned systems) depending on mission power requirements with each module made up of a power conversion system, heat rejection system, and associated controls that can be interfaced with a reactor to meet specific mission applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Processing Methods
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X8.04-8351
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Photovoltaic Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: High specific power flexible integrated IMM photovoltaic blanket

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanohmics, Inc.
6201 East Oltorf Street, Suite 400
Austin, TX 78741-7509
(512) 389-9990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Qizhen "Jim" Xue
qxue@nanohmics.com
6201 East Oltorf Street, Suite 400
Austin,  TX 78741-7509
(512) 389-9990

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Originally designed for space applications, multi-junction solar cells have a high overall power conversion efficiency (>30%) which compares favorably to amorphous silicon, CIGS and bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices which are limited to <10%. Recent advances in manufacturing of Inverted Metamorphic Multi-junction (IMM) solar cells have opened new opportunities to greatly improve the specific power of the devices by means of removal of the epitaxial substrate. To date, flexible high efficiency IMMs have been fabricated and demonstrated in the framework of a space cell with IMMs released from the epitaxial substrate onto traditional coverglass. An increasing larger body of research is aimed at populating large area "blankets" with IMMs and this has led to a number of approaches that includes removal of rigid epitaxy growth substrates and adherence to lightweight flexible webs or polymer films. So far, there is no economic and fast approach to efficiently remove the growth substrate. Nanohmics proposes to develop a non-destructive approach for transfer of IMM solar devices from rigid growth substrates into flexible high specific power solar cell blankets. The method will enable integration of state-of-the-art photovoltaics into a large area conformal "blanket" for space applications. The proposed effort will include development of a novel sacrificial intermediate layer on which high efficiency IMM photovoltaics are epitaxially deposited.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In the global solar cell industry, the formation of efficient IMM cells with power conversion efficiencies greater than ~ 25% will enable cost-effective wide spread adoption of alternative solar power photovoltaics. These devices will have promise in a number of markets outside NASA and military space asset applications including: ¿ Passive energy scavenging for portable electronics ¿ Tarps, tents, awnings and other conformal shelters ¿ Apparel (athletic wear, military uniforms, electrotextiles) ¿ Marine covers, seat covers including ship sails ¿ Radiation hardened intrinsic materials will be enablde for flexible space applications where high specific power and low stowed volume that can be expanded into large area collectors. ¿ Flexible solar collectors that are impact resistant

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Nanohmics has targeted a method for generating hybrid inorganic cell/polymeric films using a low-cost continuous web process that will impact solar cell markets by providing a compelling advantage for increasing the specific power of the devices (W/kg) and the much lower production cost per unit area ($/W/m2). Specific power is a key figure of merit for applications such as spaceborne and high altitude power devices that have extremely tight total mass budgets (~ $10,000/ launched lb.) Coupled with the proposed low-cost, continuous-web method, both spaceflight and terrestrial-based markets will expand with the proposed novel technology

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X8.04-8602
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Photovoltaic Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Enhanced Mission-Enabling Ultra-High Power Solar Array (Mega-ROSA EX)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Deployable Space Systems, Inc.
75 Robin Hill, Building B2
Goleta, CA 93117-3108
(805) 693-1319

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steve White
Steve.White@DeployableSpaceSystems.com
75 Robin Hill, Building B2
Goleta,  CA 93117-3108
(805) 722-4941

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Mega-ROSA-EX is an enhanced, higher stiffness, higher sun-pointing accuracy, higher strength, higher specific power and even larger overall power / deployed size / stowed packaging capability configuration of the innovative Mega-ROSA technology. Mega-ROSA, named for Mega Roll-Out Solar Array, is a highly-modularized and extremely-scalable ROSA-based solar array architecture that provides immense power level range capability from 100kW to multiple Megawatts in size, for NASA Exploration Initiative and Planetary missions such as SEP space-tug and large-scale SEP-powered Planetary applications. The further-advanced/optimized versions of Mega-ROSA proposed(Mega-ROSA EX),promise to increase its deployed stiffness, strength and deployed size/packaging capability performance well beyond the excellent values already shown to be obtainable with the baseline "standard" high-packaging efficiency Mega-ROSA design. The significant and revolutionary end-user benefits of the Mega-ROSA EX technology advances are: Increased deployed stiffness / sun-pointing accuracy - The Mega-ROSA-EX configurations proposed to be developed during the Phase 1 program will allow significantly higher deployed stiffness (3-5 times higher than the standard baseline Mega-ROSA configurations), and the resulting lower PV blanket-plane displacements / higher wing sun-pointing accuracy achieved under expected on-orbit accelerations will enable the use of currently-available and cost-lowering flex-blanket PV concentration systems. The use of these concentrating methods to reduce the amount of expensive high-performance photovoltaics is a necessity to make cost-viable many of the planned NASA high-power SEP and Planetary missions. Certain SEP-powered Tug and Planetary spacecraft applications have mission scenarios with burn events/maneuvers that impose high accelerations. The Mega-ROSA EX configurations proposed are capable of achieving these accels. up to 0.25 G's and higher.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA space commercial applications are comprised of practically all DoD, and commercial missions that require large-power production through deployment of photovoltaic devices. Ultra-high power applications include high power spacecraft, Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP),and high-power telecommunications DoD customers may take advantage of the high-stiffness / strength capability for reacting maneuvering loads associated with rapid-response surveillance missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Mega-ROSA-EX technology promises to provide NASA a near-term and low-risk solar array system that provides revolutionary performance in terms of ultra-high power (100's of kW to 10's of MW), high specific power (>200-500 W/kg BOL at the wing level depending on PV), affordability (up to >50% projected cost savings at the array level with concentrators), light weight, high deployed stiffness, high deployed strength, ability to react maneuvering accelerations, compact stowage volume (>50 kW/m3 BOL), reliability, high radiation tolerance, high voltage operation capability, scale-ability, and LILT & HIHT operation capability. The proposed highly-experienced team and unique capabilities will catalyze commercial infusion and rapidly increase Mega-ROSA-EX technology readiness. The predicted performance metrics for the Mega-ROSA-EX technology are incredible improvements over current state-of-the-art, and in many cases are mission-enabling for future NASA Exploration missions and other NASA applications, and particularly for NASA's deep space solar electric propulsion (SEP) high-voltage and high-radiation missions, space-tug missions, and large area Planetary / Lunar surface missions. Space applications are comprised of NASA missions that require large-power production through deployment of photovoltaic devices. Ultra-high power applications include high power spacecraft, Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP), space-tug, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Composites
Deployment
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X8.04-9001
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Photovoltaic Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Volume Production of Lightweight, Multi-Junction Solar Cells Using 6-inch GaAs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MicroLink Devices
6457 Howard Street
Niles, IL 60714-3301
(847) 588-3001

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher Youtsey
cyoutsey@mldevices.com
6457 West Howard Street
Niles,  IL 60714-3301
(847) 588-3001

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Very large solar arrays to power future solar electric propulsion systems will require a new generation of solar cells that are not only high efficiency, but also light weight and significantly lower cost than existing multijunction solar cells based on Ge substrates. The large volume of solar cells required for individual missions (hundreds of kilowatts to megawatts) also presents significant manufacturing challenges. MicroLink Devices' multijunction solar cells based on epitaxial lift off (ELO) provide the unique combination of high efficiency, high specific power, and low cost by enabling reuse of the GaAs substrate after lift off. The use of GaAs substrates leverages a platform well-established by the GaAs IC industry at 6-inch diameter, which is also a significant enabler for cost reduction and volume production. Larger substrates not only reduce epitaxial growth and fabrication costs, but improve wafer utilization when fabricating large-area solar cells. MicroLink Devices' ELO solar cells are also highly flexible, which enables new approaches for panel fabrication and deployment. In this SBIR program we will demonstrate the capability for high-volume epitaxial lift off using 6-inch GaAs material. Our previous development efforts at MicroLink Devices have focused primarily on 4-inch wafers. We will fabricate the first large-area (20 cm2) multijunction ELO solar cells on 6-inch GaAs and compare performance with 4-inch ELO material. To support the fabrication of hundreds of kilowatts of solar cells for very large arrays, it is essential that the ELO substrate removal process is capable of supporting very high volumes of wafers on the scale of hundreds to thousands of wafers per day. We will demonstrate a 6-inch ELO process based on well-established semiconductor industry volume production tool sets and batch processing to achieve high throughput. The impact of using large wafer batches on the ELO process yield and device performance will be quantified.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
MicroLink Devices' multi-junction ELO solar cells are a potential replacement for conventional solar cells for military and civilian applications. The combination of high efficiency and low weight also make the cells ideal for powering unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). There are also emerging military and commercial applications for high-efficiency, flexible solar sheets for terrestrial power generation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
MicroLink Devices' multi-junction ELO solar cells are well-suited for future very large solar arrays to support solar electric propulsion (SEP) missions. Conventional solar-powered satellites can also benefit from lower-cost alternatives to existing Ge-based multi-junction solar cells. The cells are useable in solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Processing Methods
Nonspecified
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X8.04-9203
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Photovoltaic Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: MegaFlex Solar Array Scale-Up, up to 175kW per Wing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Angstrom Designs, Inc.
PO Box 2032
Santa Barbara, CA 93120-2032
(805) 876-4138

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Casey Hare
Casey.P.Hare@AngstromDesigns.com
PO Box 2032
Santa Barbara,  CA 93120-2032
(805) 876-4138

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has near-term needs for solar electric propulsion (SEP) power sources from 5 to 30 kW and longer term goals for SEP tugs as large as 300 kW and beyond. UltraFlex is a high-TRL solar array technology that spans the initial range of power levels with as-yet unmatched performance in specific power, stiffness, and strength. This technology has been to Mars, and is under development for the NASA Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and the Cygnus ISS supply vehicle by Orbital Sciences. MegaFlex is UltraFlex technology, with two enhancements to allow a 2-wing configuration to provide power levels up to 350 kW with near-term cell efficiencies. This technology meets SEP development needs for true scalability and allows for complete ground test and validation of the entire wing in existing facilities. Given the compaction capabilities, MegaFlex is an enabling technology for any mission where the power needed is more than the stowage volume allows with standard technologies. MegaFlex technology would also benefit lower power missions where higher compaction would allow use of a smaller, and less expensive, launch vehicle. MegaFlex achieves similar performance characteristics as UltraFlex with specific power up to 200 W/kg (versus 30-70 W/kg) and also higher stiffness (>3x) and strength (>5x) than conventional arrays.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The same benefits that apply to NASA also apply to commercial applications. MegaFlex enables the greatest power in the largest existing launch vehicles and ground test facilities for high power missions and also enables increased stowed compaction for lower power missions. These benefits immediately apply to vehicles such as Lockheed Martin's Orion and Orbital's Cygnus and will apply in the future to commercial missions that require greater total power, higher compaction, greater specific power, higher stiffness or higher strength than can be achieved with conventional array technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
MegaFlex achieves power levels up to 175kW per wing and is enabling technology for NASA SEP missions. Two wings can provide up to 350kW for a SEP tug and more wings can be added to a spacecraft to further increase available power. Beyond SEP, MegaFlex can support any mission with large power requirements using currently available technology, launch vehicles and test facilities. In addition to enabling high power missions, MegaFlex technology also allows higher compaction for smaller arrays. This enables better array packaging and could potentially reduce spacecrafts sizes for a given power need, thus fitting into smaller launch vehicles for cost savings.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Conversion
Generation
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X9.01-9863
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ablative Thermal Protection Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Temperature, Heat Flux and Recession Sensing for Ablative Thermal Protection Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Industrial Measurement Systems
760 Beverly Drive, Unit 4
Aurora, IL 60502-8604
(630) 236-5901

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Donald Yuhas
dyuhas@imsysinc.com
2760 Beverly Dr. Unit 4
Aurora,  IL 60502-8604
(630) 236-5901

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Although significant advances have been made in ground-based testing and simulations, it is still impossible to precisely replicate the diversity of in-flight conditions experienced by ablative thermal protection systems (TPS). This leads to uncertainty in the predictions of the magnitude and rate of TPS ablation. Because in-flight monitoring is difficult, the uncertainty in actual boundary conditions and models must be considered when designing a TPS. To reduce risk, designers must resort to trade-offs which often involve increasing heat shield mass. Direct ablator temperature, heat flux and recession measurements would allow engineers to reduce design uncertainty and improve modeling. These improvements will lead to decreased heat shield mass, enabling missions that are not otherwise feasible and directly increasing science payload and returns. Ultrasonic methods for real-time monitoring of ablator conditions including internal temperature distribution, heat flux and recession will be developed in this program. Internal localization methods of ultrasonic thermometry will be used to accurately measure temperature distribution to within close proximity of surface charring. Temperature compensation will be applied to ultrasonic thickness gauging techniques to estimate surface recession in real time. Heat flux can be extracted from the measured temperature distribution. Combined together, these ultrasonic techniques will form a sensor system capable of sensing and relating real-world ablator performance to computational models as well as qualifying ablator materials. When developed to maturation, such a sensor system even has applications for in-flight health monitoring.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
PICA and materials of its class are currently under development worldwide, including a Carbon-Resin by the European Space Agency (ESA). The largest current scheduled user of PICA-class ablators is SpaceX which utilizes a PICA-X variant in the Dragon spacecraft for earth re-entry. This environment is toward the lower end of heat fluxes and ablation to be encountered during a re-entry procedure. All private and public space endeavors that require re-entry heat shielding can benefit from the technology developed under this program which can augment and improve modeling, test ablators in real-world conditions and perform health monitoring roles in test articles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Mass and heat dissipation performance are critical to thermal protection systems for many NASA objectives both in spaceflight and hypersonic flight. Low-density carbon phenolics perform well in both of these critical parameters. Phenolic Impregnated Ceramic Ablator (PICA) was developed by NASA/Ames in the mid-nineties and flown successfully in the Stardust mission. This particular material is of active interest to NASA, with its use in the upcoming Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) and the possibility of its selection for multiple future missions. Real-time recession and heat flux measurements will support continued development of this class of ablators as well as mission specific implementation. Ablator performance models can be enhanced with higher fidelity temperature data and used for faster development with decreasing cost. Future programs are also in need of PICA and PICA class ablators. Two of the New Frontiers Program proposals incorporate PICA for sample return missions including MoonRise, a Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample Return Mission which would place a lander in a broad basin near the moon's south pole and return approximately two pounds of lunar materials for study and Osiris-Rex which would rendezvous and orbit a primitive asteroid, returning more than two ounces of material from the asteroid's surface.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Thermal
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X9.01-9948
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ablative Thermal Protection Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aerospace Grade Carbon Felt Preform

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fiber Materials, Inc.
5 Morin Street
Biddeford, ME 04005-4414
(207) 282-5911

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Keith Meiler
kmeiler@fibermaterialsinc.com
5 Morin Street
Biddeford,  ME 04005-4414
(207) 282-5911

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Fiber Materials, Inc. (FMI) will develop an aerospace-grade carbon felt preform by employing application specific materials with effective processes and fabrication technologies. Innovative combinations of materials and processes will result in thermal protection system (TPS) preforms that will enable a range of end applications. Future mission flight environments and designs, such as those anticipated for Mars EDL missions, will require a variety of TPS options to accommodate entry system designs. The capability of the developed carbon felt preform solutions will address various vehicle shapes, integration methods and the ability to deploy a flexible TPS. Testing for mechanical and thermal robustness will be conducted in a two phase program approach. The Phase I program will assess materials, designs and processing options to be developed, and cost effective manufacturing and assembling methodologies. The material approaches, design options, fabrication/assembly methods, Phase II work plan, Phase II proposal and final report are delivered at the conclusion of the Phase I program. During the Phase II program, a mission-applicable preform utilizing the developed material system will be demonstrated. The proposed materials, designs and methods are currently TRL < 3. It is anticipated that TRL ¿¿ 5 will be achieved at the conclusion of a successful Phase I and Phase II program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Enhanced carbon fiber felt solutions developed under this program would support commercial space operations including Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) and other exacting commercial applications. Aerospace-grade carbon felt can be enabling technology for commercial space return or planetary missions requiring TPS. Improvements realized from fiber felting and heat treatment are expected to enhance material offerings to the industrial sector.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Stardust Sample Return Capsule completed its objective with earth reentry in January 2006. Mars Science Laboratory Aeroshell heat shield has been completed and delivery of the Curiosity rover to Mars is scheduled for 2012. FMI will leverage successful development and fabrication of these programs to develop aerospace-grade carbon felt perform for TPS heat shields in support NASA flight mission(s). During this two phase program, developed materials will demonstrate the capability and basis for mission implementation. FMI is prepared to continue supporting NASA mission thermal protection by delivering additional enabling material options for a variety of thermal exposures. The program proposed will assist FMI in long term support of future NASA missions that include several TPS materials under development for Mars EDL application.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerobraking/Aerocapture
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Processing Methods
Composites
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X9.02-9432
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Integrated Hypersonic Entry Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Metal Rubber Sensors for Hypersonic Decelerator Entry Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanosonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke, VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
A. Hill
llawson@nanosonic.com
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke,  VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NanoSonic proposes to design and develop light-weight, low-modulus, and durable Metal Rubber&#153; sensors for aeroelastic analysis of Hypersonic Decelerator Entry Systems (HDES), which would in effect increase the systems aerodynamic stability by contributing to optimize its design. The in-situ Metal Rubber&#153; (MR&#153;) strain sensors would be utilized to monitor drag at varying Mach flow regimes (subsonic to hypersonic) by analyzing dynamic pressures, and billowing effects (or similar shape-change / inflation effects) of the inflatable system as it goes through simulated re-entry flow regimes in wind tunnel tests and in-flight. The novel MR&#153; sensors have proven the ability to monitor aerodynamic events, particularly shear and normal forces, based on their response to applied strain. These previous sensor technological advancements will be modified to develop the proposed sensor system for monitoring dynamic loading of HDES. Because commercial strain gauges are not capable of withstanding such high strain levels, and photogrammetric analysis can be cumbersome and is not possible in all wind tunnel tests or in-flight analyses, MR&#153; sensors are ideal for the proposed application. Lightweight MR&#153; sensor appliqu¿s can be attached onto HDES materials, integrated in or under the system coating matrix for in-situ non-invasive and even wireless monitoring.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is a large market for low-weight high strain sensors for scientific balloons, high altitude morphing systems, and similar re-entry inflatable systems, specifically for NASA and the aircraft industry. NanoSonic's low modulus Metal Rubber&#153; sensor plies and multi-element sensor arrays have unique applications in systems where strain is large and conventional stress and strain sensors mechanically fail. Because Metal Rubber&#153; is extremely durable, low modulus, and can have high electrical conductivity; it can also be used in high performance, highly flexible and mechanically robust electronic flex circuits, flexible displays and smart electronic fabrics, and as a replacement for conventional lead-based solder.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed SBIR program would develop an innovative, light-weight, low-modulus, and durable Metal Rubber&#153; sensor system for NASA's hypersonic decelerator entry systems. Some possible other applications for similar Metal Rubber&#153; materials for other NASA platforms (particularly aerospace systems) include: low-modulus strain and skin friction sensors for adaptive / morphing aircraft systems, hypersonic sensors for other inflatable re-entry systems, low-modulus materials or conformal coatings for EMI shielding, and flexible electrically-conductive wires.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Nanomaterials
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Contact/Mechanical
Pressure/Vacuum
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X10.01-8524
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Novel Flow Measurement System for Cryogenic Two-Phase Flow

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
En'Urga Inc
1291-A Cumberland Avenue
West Lafayette, IN 47906-1317
(765) 497-3269

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ye Mi
yemi@enurga.com
1291-A Cumberland Avenue
West Lafayette,  IN 47906-1317
(765) 497-3269

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Flow rate measurements for cryogenic propellants are required for spacecraft and space exploration systems. Such a requirement has been hampered by lack of fast and accurate instruments among existing technologies. This proposed project will develop a mass flow measurement system for non-conducting cryogenic propellant flow to meet the NASA's need. In the proposed system, an electromagnetic flowmeter for insulating fluids (EMFIF) will be able to provide real-time liquid velocity information under single- and two-phase flow conditions, and an X-ray void fraction sensor will provide phase concentration and interfacial velocity information. The X-ray sensor will also be able to detect bubble existence in cryogenic propellant flow. The whole proposed system will be a useful instrument to measure propellant flowrate in rocket engine feed lines. During the Phase I project, a test model of the proposal measurement technique will be designed and built. The performance of the proposed flowmeter will be studied in an experimental cross-calibration. If the Phase I study shows that it is feasible to employ the flowmeter for single/two-phase flow, the Phase II development towards engineering design and verification of the system will be carried out.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Accurate flow measurements are required by many civil engineering practices in chemical, petroleum, biomedical, automotive and nuclear industries. In these industries, accurate identification and characterization of two-phase turbulent flows within pipes are essential to improve process quality. Although a great deal of flowmeters have been developed and are commercially available, the non-intrusive capacitance-based electromagnetic flowmeter is very competitive and will be among the best choices for measuring electrically non-conducting fluids.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Reliable and accurate cryogenic propellant instrumentation is needed in-space, on the lunar surface, and on the earth. The proposed development will ensure reliable flow measurements for rocket engine feed lines in NASA spacecrafts. The proposed electromagnetic flowmeter can also be used to significantly enhance the flow monitoring and control of space exploration systems including propellant management and acquisition, nuclear power conversion and propulsion, thermal management, bio-fluids and life support systems. In addition, the flowmeter will be applicable to NASA's ground tests, commercial space systems, and defense aviation systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Process Monitoring & Control
Electromagnetic


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X10.01-8575
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reliable Actuator for Cryo Propellant Fluid Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dynamic Structures and Materials, LLC
205 Williamson Square
Franklin, TN 37064-1307
(615) 595-6665

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffrey Paine
jpaine@dynamic-structures.com
205 Williamson Square
Franklin,  TN 37064-1307
(615) 595-6665

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Cryogenic fluid handling applications require a reliable actuation technology that can handle very low temperatures. A novel EM hammer drive technology is proposed for use in cryo-propellant fuel storage and regulation valves/devices. In addition to high force, the new drive technology offers potential advantages for miniaturization, reduction of heat load, and lower cost as compared to traditional electromagnetic actuators. Dynamic Structures and Materials (DSM) proposes to focus the Phase I innovation on the development of a hammer drive actuation mechanism that will take the EM oscillatory power and produce continuous linear motion for operation at cryogenic and extreme environments. DSM has already demonstrated operation of its high force linear motor actuators at temperatures down to 77 K. The proposed actuator should operate from approximately 4 K to 400 K and should provide very low or no outgassing as well as operational capabilities in hard vacuum. The technology is proposed for applications in the cryo fluid management, pressure and flow control, and driving operational equipment and instruments. This proposal addresses DSM's approach to the development of flight-scalable demonstration components for the EM hammer drive technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most direct applications outside NASA are other aerospace projects that require actuators to operate valves for cryogenic fluid handling. ESA and major US defense contractors have previously tested systems that used piezoelectric actuators from DSM. It is reasonable to assume that once the new technology reaches a readiness level that is acceptable for NASA, other aerospace entities will have similar interest in using it for their programs. The US Air Force has expressed interest in very low temperature, high force actuators for use in their low Earth orbit simulation chambers at Arnold Engineering Development Center. More broadly, some commercial applications related to materials evaluation and inspection need positioning at very low temperature and could benefit from this research.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
DSM has received interest from NASA regarding actuators for cryogenic applications and for others that do not require low temperature capability. Many non-cryogenic uses require a wider temperature range than laboratory environment, so some of the proposed work would be useful for these purposes, as well. Many inquiries are related to the regulation of fluid flow or pressure. Thruster valves used in highly miniaturized satellites have received significant attention. Flow and pressure control of cryogenic propellants such as LOX for propulsion is also an area of interest. As the technology is more fully developed, it will be practical to pursue applications requiring more force. Interest has been expressed in an actuator for a 1-inch and 2 inch cryo-isolation valve that will require over 150 pounds of output force. There are many cryo and non-cryo valve applications that can potentially be addressed by this technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X10.01-9295
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Thin Aerogel as a Spacer in Multi-Layer Insulation for Cryogenic Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aspen Aerogels, Inc.
30 Forbes Road, Building B
Northborough, MA 01532-2501
(508) 691-1161

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Redouane Begag
rbegag@aerogel.com
30 Forbes Road
Northborough,  MA 01532-2501
(508) 691-1161

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Long duration storage of large quantities of cryogenic fluids for propulsion, power, and life-support is an essential requirement for long-term missions into space. The behavior of active and passive cryogenic fluid management (CFM) is paramount to the reliability of a spaceship and cryotank storage. Therefore, efficient and reliable insulation materials are key to the success of space missions. Aspen Aerogels proposes to develop a Multi-Layer Aerogel Insulation (MLAI) system to meet NASA's CFM needs. Aerogel has been demonstrated to be more durable and reliable than MLI, at a lower weight and reduced cost with comparable thermal performance. During this program, Aspen Aerogels will validate the key process step for a next generation aerogel manufacturing technology to enable the fabrication the proposed aerogel material. This new process is also expected to enable cost reduction of aerogel materials in general, a requirement to penetrate larger commercial thermal insulation markets. Development of the proposed MLAI system will provide NASA with a long-term CFM solution for space applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful development of a multi-layer aerogel insulation system will be immediately useful for a wide variety of cryogenic applications such as cryogenic storage tanks and transfer lines for LNG, LN2, etc. Thin aerogel would also be highly applicable to the very large apparel insulation market. Additionally, reducing aerogel cost through this process will allow much broader penetration into existing insulation markets, including building and construction.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Low weight, ease of installation and overall mechanical and thermal performance of aerogels as a spacer material will serve as a durable and more reliable replacement for NASA's traditionally used multi-layer insulation (MLI). Durability improvements will reduce maintenance costs and extend the period of cryogen storage and the life expectancy of the insulation system. In addition to spacecraft and other cryogen storage, applications including EVA suits, gloves, and footwear could also benefit from the thin and low density aerogel technology. The proposed insulation material will also find use in terrestrial applications, such as improved and durable insulation material for cryogenic fluid storage and transfer pipelines in preparation for launch.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerogels
Composites
Fluids
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X11.01-8144
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Shielding Materials Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Space Station Validation of Advanced Radiation-Shielding Polymeric Materials

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
International Scientific Technologies, Inc.
P.O. Box 757
Dublin, VA 24084-0757
(540) 633-1424

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Russell Churchill
intlsci@earthlink.net
P.O. Box 757
Dublin,  VA 24084-0757
(540) 633-1424

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Subtopic X11.01, NASA has identified the need to develop advanced radiation-shielding materials and systems to protect humans from the hazards of space radiation during NASA missions. The radiation components of interest include protons, alpha particles and heavy ions from galactic cosmic rays, protons and other ions from solar particle events, and high energy electrons and neutrons. International Scientific Technologies, Inc., in conjunction with the College of William and Mary, proposes to raise the technology readiness level of selected polymeric radiation-shielding materials through participation in the Materials on the International Space Station Experiment program, named MISSE-X. Phase I Technical Objectives will include assessment of the radiation environment in the orbital path of the International Space Station, selection of radiation-shielding polymeric materials for long-duration experiments in space, specification of active detectors/dosimeters for measurements of radiation in space, and design and optimization of an experiment package for inclusion on the MISSE-X platform for space-radiation environmental study. The anticipated result of the Phase I program is a proof-of-feasibility that will show the path toward a Phase II technology demonstration on board the International Space Station.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lightweight multifunctional radiation shielding will find application in the commercial sector in reducing collateral damage from heavy charged particles currently emerging as a therapeutic approach in nuclear medicine. The shielding will lead to decreased fatigue among medical personnel required to wear heavy protective garments during radiological procedures. Workers in industrial facilities using radiation for materials processing and in nuclear power facilities will also benefit from more-comfortable garments having reduced weight and thermal stress. The Departments of Defense and of Homeland Security applications include protection of soldiers, first responders and emergency medical personnel against high energy gamma radiation and neutrons resulting from so-called dirty bombs as well as from hazards brought about through accidental release of radiological materials. The uses of continuous monitoring of arrays of in-situ radiation sensors include evaluation of degradation of personal protective garments for biomedical, defense and homeland security applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed approach to validation of passive radiation-shielding materials has NASA applications in evaluating the effects of the space environment on multifunctional nanocomposite materials capable of serving both as radiation shields and structural elements. These materials are being developed by International Scientific Technologies, Inc. Several NASA programs will be directly affected as a result of the Phase I and Phase II programs. The Human Research Program (HRP) is tasked with ensuring crew safety on long-duration space missions. Validation of radiation shielding on-board the International Space Station will support that task. HRP will also deliver a design tool to assess advanced radiation shielding on space vehicles. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program will develop and demonstrate prototype systems for life support, habitation, and extravehicular activity (EVA).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Isolation/Protection/Radiation Shielding (see also Mechanical Systems)
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Composites
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Ionizing Radiation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X11.01-9141
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Shielding Materials Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Innovative, Lightweight Thoraeus RubberTM for MMOD and Space Radiation Shielding

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanosonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke, VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
J. Lalli
llawson@nanosonic.com
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke,  VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NanoSonic offers an innovative manufacturing process to yield ultra-lightweight radiation shielding nanocomposites by exploiting the concept of the Thoraeus filter on the nanoscale. Our elegant, layer-by-layer deposition process allows for unique layering with molecular level precision to covalently bind advanced polymers with alternating layers of high and low z nanoparticles. While radiation shielding cannot be achieved without some combination of mass density and appropriate choice of materials, NanoSonic's Thoraeus Rubber&#153; are nanostructured layers engineered in a manner to maximize shielding with minimum bulk within a hydrogenous network to address neutron emissions in addition to RF, gamma, X-ray and high energy particles. Radiation shielding shall be evaluated at Colorado State University and the Brookhaven Radiation Effects Facility to verify protection for humans and exploration vehicles envisioned for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and long-duration missions beyond LEO. Thermal, mechanical, and RF characterization would be carried out at NanoSonic. Micrometeoroids and Orbital Debris (MMOD) resistance and outgassing would be carried out by our space prime partner. Candidate materials shall be delivered in support of demonstration experiments for Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE). TRL 8-9 would be achieved upon demonstration of human and electronics protection from long-duration galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and solar energetic particles (SEP).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Additional applications for SM-MR include ultra-lightweight sensors/actuators for shape changing inflatables, rigidizable/deployable aerospace structures, and as protective coatings against electrostatic charging, radiation, and abrasion. Low cost, highly EMI/ESD protective skins for aerospace, biomedical and microelectronic components are offered via Shape Memory Metal Rubber&#153; with metal-like EMI SE up to -88dB under repeated and severe reconfigurations. Such EMI shielding skins can be envisioned for use on aircraft, morphing unmanned aerial vehicles, antennas and space structures. Structural, high temperature, composite materials having unique dielectric and multiple controlled electromagnetic properties are possible via NanoSonic's layer-by-layer approach. Spray ESA is envisioned as a cost-effective, environmentally friendly technology to displace sputtering and traditional dense filled composites. Metal Rubber&#153; Fabrics and films can also function as conducting electrodes for high strain mechanical actuator and sensor devices, and as low-weight, electrically conductive and mechanically flexible coatings for systems requiring physically-robust electromagnetic shielding, ground planes or electrical interconnection.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Structural, yet compliant, high temperature, radiation resistant Shape Memory-Metal Rubber&#153; composite materials having unique morphology and multiple controlled electromagnetic properties are possible via NanoSonic's automated spray-on ESA manufacturing approach. SM-MR adaptive materials represent a new class of robust, stowable &#150; deployable structures and shielding materials for spacecraft based on covalently bound shape memory polymers and nanostructured conductive particles. For this program, SM-MR shall be integrated as protective charge dissipative coatings for space electronics, and shielding coatings for exploration vehicles and satellites in LEO and beyond. NanoSonic's SMPs may be combined with our family of nanostructure materials produced in house (noble metals, magnetics, ceramics and quantum dots) for limitless combinations of multifunctional morphing materials for civil and space applications. SM-MR free standing nanostructured skins offer dual-use commercialization for NASA and civil markets in the electronics, aerospace, automobile and microelectronics markets for the production of conductive, high temperature, rad hard coatings.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airship/Lighter-than-Air Craft
Space Transportation & Safety
Tools/EVA Tools
Man-Machine Interaction
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Outreach
Prototyping
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Aerogels
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Metallics
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Textiles
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Structures
Lifetime Testing
Active Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X11.02-9101
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Integrated Advanced Alert/Warning Systems for Solar Proton Events
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Coupled System for Assessing the Threat of Solar Energetic Particle Events

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Predictive Science Incorporated
9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170
San Diego, CA 92121-3933
(858) 450-6494

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jon Linker
linkerj@predsci.com
9990 Mesa Rim Rd. Suite 170
San Diego,  CA 92121-3933
(858) 450-6489

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Solar Particle Events (SPEs) represent a major hazard for extravehicular maneuvers by astronauts in Earth orbit, and for eventual manned interplanetary space travel. We propose to develop a system to aid forecasters in the prediction of such events, and in the identification of ``all clear'' time periods when there is a low probability of such events occurring. The system combines empirical assessments with physics-based models by leveraging three recently developed technologies: a tool for forecasting solar eruptions from line-of-sight magnetograms (University of Alabama at Huntsville), physics-based models of the solar corona and inner heliosphere with embedded solar eruptions (Predictive Science, Inc., or PSI), and empirical/physics-based assessments of energetic particle fluxes using the Earth-Moon-Mars Radiation Environment Module (EMMREM, University of New Hampshire). When completed, the proposed SPE Threat Assessment Tool, or STAT, will represent a significant step forward in our ability to assess the possible impact of SPE events.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
SPEs are of concern not only to NASA, but to many government and commercial entities dependent on satellites and aircraft. For example, NOAA SWPC provides space weather information to a range of customers, for many of whom the forecasting of SPEs is a top priority. The Air Force is also interested in mitigation strategies for SPEs. The fledgling private manned launch services industry may wish to develop their own forecasting capabilities, as opposed to solely relying on government services. Once we have successfully developed STAT for NASA applications, we can adapt STAT to address the needs of these customers as well.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG) is charged with the difficult responsibility of ensuring that the radiation exposure received by astronauts remains below established safety limits. This requires identifying periods with a high probability of no SPEs, as well as recognizing the imminent threat of an SPE. The proposed SPE Threat Assessment Tool (STAT) will aid SRAG in this endeavor by providing probabilities of a major flare or coronal mass ejection (CME) from full disk magnetograms. When an active region on the Sun is deemed to show a significant threat, STAT can estimate particle fluxes and dose rates for possible eruption times over the next several hours and days. This capability will allow SRAG to place upper limits on the severity of an upcoming event, and possibly extend all clear times even when a significant active region is visible.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X12.01-8964
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Exercise Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Computer-Controlled Force Generator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 West 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033-1916
(303) 940-2347

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Douwe Bruinsma
dbruinsma@tda.com
12345 West 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge,  CO 80212-1916
(303) 940-5395

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
TDA Research, Inc proposes to develop a compact, low power, high life-cycle computer controlled Programmable Force Generator (PFG) that can generate any force between 0 and 700 lbf during any phase of the exercise motion. The proposed device uses a closed loop control system to maintain the predetermined load throughout the range of motion by controlling an electric motor. The force applied during the eccentric phase is independent of the force applied during the concentric phase; the force applied during the eccentric phase (return stroke) can even exceed the force applied during the pull stroke (concentric phase). The PFG uses regenerative braking to store the braking energy harvested during the pull stroke and applies this energy to provide the motive force during the return stroke. The PFG can be integrated with both the hardware and the software of existing exercise equipment such as the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED). Since the application of force can be automatically controlled during the entire range of motion, the PFG eliminates the need for the user to adjust the equipment to their specific range of motion; this significantly increases the fraction of time that can be spent exercising relative to the time spent configuring equipment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The exercise equipment market is a multi-billion market that is receptive to innovative changes. Electronic interfaces are becoming more prevalent in all aspects of life and cardiovascular training equipment has followed this trend. Strength training, however, still relies mainly on weights. The PFG can advance strength training equipment to the modern age. Another potential application is for physical therapy. Rehabilitation patients are susceptible to additional injury and therefore great care must be taken during the exercise programs. For this reason, there are specific exercise methods to aid in the recovery from specific injuries. With the implementation of the Programmable Force Generator into rehabilitation equipment, precise load profiles can be programmed to increase speed of recovery from an injury. Another application of the PFG is to reduce the loads on a patient's legs during rehabilitation. Currently, underwater treadmills are used to decrease the load on the legs and hips during rehabilitation. An alternative approach is to place a harness on the user and attach them to a cable from a PFG which is attached overhead. The load of the PFG can then be set to a fraction of the bodyweight of the patient to reduce the stress on the leg and hip muscles. In this manner the patient still has full mobility and can move freely, but the loads on the legs and hips are decreased.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Programmable Force Generator can be incorporated into existing microgravity exercise equipment such as the Advance Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) or in future exercise equipment to generate resistive forces. The PFG increases the flexibility of exercise equipment because the force can be controlled independently throughout the exercise motion. The PFG will increase the time that is spent exercising relative to the time spent configuring equipment because the generated force can be adjusted automatically throughout the range of motion. The PFG uses minimum power through the application of a regenerative braking system that harvests power during the pull stroke and applies that power to generate the motive force during the return stroke. NASA has made significant investments into the development of the Advance Resistance Exercise Device which has proven to be an excellent countermeasure for astronauts' health. During Phase I we will work together with NASA to develop the required interfaces to incorporate the PFG into the ARED. Incorporation of the PFG will improve the effectiveness of the ARED and decrease the amount of time that is spent configuring the equipment relative to the time spent exercising. We will develop both the mechanical interfaces and the interfaces with the control software that is currently part of ARED. By utilizing this approach, NASA will achieve tangible benefits from the proposed research in a short timeframe.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Physiological/Psychological Countermeasures


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X12.02-8627
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Portable Load Sensing Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Exercise Load Measurement Insole (ELMI)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Technologies Corporation
57 Maryanne Drive
Monroe, CT 06468-3209
(203) 874-3100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yogesh Mehrotra
ymehrotra@aboutmtc.com
57 maryanne dr
monroe,  CT 06468-3209
(203) 874-3100

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Exercise Load Measurement Insole (ELMI) is a system that is designed to measure normal and shear foot forces during exercise. The ELMI system is lightweight, portable, unobtrusive, and its versatility allows it to be used for many purposes outside of exercise load measurement and study. At the heart of ELMI is an innovative sensor design that when configured in an array can measure full foot normal and shear loads simultaneously. The sensor design allows for normal forces to be measured in compression, while both lateral and longitudinal forces can be measured in shear. The normal and shear sensitivity can be customized for different specifications, and even stacked for graded sensitivity, if desired. The result can be placed in an array and integrated into a shoe without affecting user operation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Exercise Load Measurement Insole (ELMI) system is composed of individual sensing elements that are capable of measuring both normal and shear forces simultaneously. The flexible and thin characteristics of this sensor allow for it to be used for many non NASA purposes. The individual sensors could be used by roboticists as tactile sensors for various manipulation tasks. These sensors could also be arranged in an array to ergonomically measure seat forces, as an indication of posture. In the insole form factor, this system technology could have many uses in athletic training, rehabilitation, and gait analysis.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Exercise Load Measurement Insole (ELMI) system is composed of individual sensing elements that are capable of measuring both normal and shear forces simultaneously. The flexible and thin characteristics of this sensor allow for it to be used for many other purposes in the space environment. The individual sensors could be placed on remotely teleoperated devices to measure contact forces. In a similar fashion, these sensors could be used as input devices for an interface. Also, since the sensor is flexible, it could also be placed on hand related exercise equipment bars (bench press, bicep curl) to measure upper body exertion. Outside of exercise use, these insoles could be used to monitor general ground reaction forces during routine daily activities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Contact/Mechanical
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X13.01-9228
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Smart Phone Driven Blood-Based Diagnostics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cell Phone-based Lateral Flow Assay for Blood Biomarker Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 West 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505-5217
(424) 263-6300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Henry Lin
sbirproposals@intopsys.com
2520 West 237th Street
Torrance,  CA 90505-5217
(424) 263-6344

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The ability to integrate a sensor platform with a cell phone for health monitoring and disease diagnosis for astronauts in space exploration has the potential to be cost effective and space saving. In this proposal, Intelligent Optical Systems (IOS) will build upon expertise in lateral flow test strip (LFTS) assays by integrating an LFTS with a cell phone for the quantitative measurement of blood-based biomarkers. Our innovative and extremely cost-effective multi-analyte LFTS approach is imminently suited for space travel. All "microfluidics" (sample transport, reagent storage, mixing, etc.) take place via capillary action with no moving parts, no flow channels, and in a 5 mm x 5 mm x 30 mm space. Taking advantage of the built-in flash and high resolution camera, we will modify a commercially available cell phone with optical filters, lenses, a UV LED excitation source and a cassette holder for LFTS image capture. Quantum dots (QD) will be incorporated as labels with high quantum yield, resulting in higher sensitivity and narrow emission peaks in a multiplexed assay. In Phase I, we will develop and optimize a cell phone-based LFTS platform with the ability to quantitatively detect multiple biomarkers within clinically relevant ranges. The images of the LFTS will be captured on the cell phone and analyzed on a computer by the end of the Phase I. In Phase II, we will develop cell phone-based software for on-cell phone detection and data processing with expanded panels of biomarkers; advancing the TRL from 5 to 7.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A cell phone-based serum biomarker detection platform will be cost-effective and compact not only for space exploration; it will also benefit the overall healthcare industry. Cell phones are becoming increasingly prevalent all over the world, with approximately 5 billion subscribers worldwide, and in the U.S. approximately one in three adults owns a smart phone. The ability to integrate a simple LFTS assay with a cell phone will enable healthcare providers to perform blood tests for many diseases on a wide population, including populations in remote areas where healthcare facilities are sparse. Such a platform can have a major impact in developing countries where a simple cell phone can be converted into a blood marker detection platform, avoiding the cost of acquiring dedicated medical equipment; furthermore, this point-of-care device improves the probability of early detection, yielding additional savings in overall cost of healthcare. Military field medicine will also benefit from the availability of a versatile handheld medical blood testing device that takes advantage of the ubiquitous mobile phone to minimize weight and power requirements.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future space missions will require prolonged stays of crew members onboard space stations, and on other spacecraft during journeys to other planets. Increasingly complex space missions will also require the health status of astronauts to be monitored, preferably in a simple point-of-care apparatus that is compact and simple. The IOS system will enable NASA to monitor the health status of crew members by means of simple blood-based biomarker detection. A lateral flow test strip will be integrated with a cell phone into a simple and compact blood biomarker detection platform. This platform will gather diagnostic information in the absence of medically trained personnel, and can also monitor the health of aircraft pilots, cabin crews, passengers, and others in aeronautics-related occupations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X13.01-9659
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Smart Phone Driven Blood-Based Diagnostics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Smart Phone Fluorescent Chem8

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ionu Biosystems
97 Electric Avenue, #3
Somerville, MA 02144-1605
(617) 460-4003

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Dubach
dubach@ionubiosystems.com
97 Electric Ave num 3
Somerville,  MA 02144-1605
(617) 460-4003

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Ionu Biosystems will develop a fluorescent smart phone blood analyzer that can measure important physiological concentrations from a drop of blood. The approach will be to develop fluorescent optode sensors to detect the concentration of the components of basic metabolic and blood gas panels. Using wireless optode sensors, which can reduced in size to the nanoscale, and fluorescence signal detection removes the need for wired connection of the sensors, sample preprocessing and microfluidics for sample handling. These advantages will reduce the size, weight and cost of the sample cartridge. Fluorescence emission from the sensors will be directly measured by the built-in phone camera and data processing can occur on the phone itself. The results from Phase I will include the construction of a prototype phone case to provide the necessary optical components to convert a smart phone into fluorescence sensor and response of sensors for the components of a chem8 to different target concentrations measured with the phone prototype. Phase I of this project will satisfy the solicitation requirements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are numerous non-NASA applications of a fluorescence based smart phone blood diagnostic. Rapid, mobile, small volume blood diagnostics will provide medical information to healthcare providers that in certain settings have no other means of access. In home health monitoring this technology will allow patients to self monitor key physiological levels and easily communicate with their physicians. Using a smart phone as the base of the system will provide healthcare providers in resource poor settings, such as third world countries, remote regions, or at forward points on the battlefield, with valuable information on the patients they are treating. This proposed system will significantly alter access to important health parameters to enhance healthcare and reduce healthcare costs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The fluorescent smart phone blood panel diagnostic will provide a method for NASA to self monitor key physiological parameters during long flight missions. This will allow flight staff to control their own health and provide information for physicians at home to assess health and advice on courses of action. Converting the technology developed in this proposal to any camera based system will be simple and allow for integration into future hardware.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X13.02-9881
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Non-Wet Prep Electrodes
PROPOSAL TITLE: Practical Non-contact ECG Electrodes for Prep-free Monitoring

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cognionics
4685 Convoy Street
San Diego, CA 92111-2339
(469) 951-2227

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yu Chi
mike@cognionics.com
4685 Convoy St
San Diego,  CA 92111-2339
(469) 951-2227

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Cognionics has developed a high-quality, low-noise, dry/non-contact ECG electrode that can obtain signals even through layers of clothing without any skin preparation. Although the idea of a non-contact electrode is not new and has been previously investigated by other research groups, a successful design has yet to be achieved due to unresolved issues relating to noise, artifacts and complexity. The Cognionics technology is based in part on a novel custom integrated amplifier developed by the PI and licensed from the University of California, San Diego. The patent-pending amplifier is specifically optimized for high-impedance biopotential sensing and is able to achieve significantly better performance in terms of input impedance and noise than the discrete off-the-shelf components used in previous research efforts. In contrast to older designs, the Cognionics sensor requires no manual adjustments (neutralization), consumes a minimum of power (a few uWs) and is virtually insensitive to variations in the body-electrode coupling strength. The new amplifier combined with several Cognionics developed proprietary techniques has already yielded a non-contact sensor with significant improvements in signal quality even on fully ambulatory subjects. The Phase I proposal will further develop the sensor to demonstrate full compliance with AAMI ECG specifications through both bench and live testing. In Phase I, a single lead non-contact chest strap will be produced to serve as an evaluation platform for delivery to NASA. A successful Phase I project will demonstrate that the core Cognionics non-contact sensor can fully meet NASA's signal quality requirements. The Phase II project will develop a full diagnostic ECG device for use in space environments and integrate the sensor within existing and future NASA systems (e.g., spacesuits).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Dry electrodes have been extensively studied for medical applications. Despite the current advancements in mobile and wireless technologies, a better sensor technology is still critically needed to enable future medical devices. Achieving a successful, high-quality non-contact sensor will significantly improve the way outpatient ECG monitoring is performed. Current outpatient monitoring devices (e.g., Holter, event monitors) would no longer need adhesive electrodes or skin contact, greatly improving patient comfort and compliance. It may also enable new techniques, including: a) practical high-resolution, surface voltage mapping (BSPM) which has demonstrated promising results towards non-invasive arrhythmia diagnosis but currently requires time consuming and expensive application of large numbers of sensors, b) high-quality, patient-friendly, non-contact electrodes may lead to routine ECG monitoring (e.g. ECG as a part of every doctor office visit), c) non-contact ECG will be especially useful for sensitive subjects (e.g., neonates, burn victims). d) and high-quality non-contact biopotential electrodes have, in the long-term, significant clinical implications in neurology (e.g. sleep, epilepsy, neurodegenerative diseases) by enabling a comfortable, wearable and mobile EEG device.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The use of ECG monitoring has been an integral part of space flights for decades. Non-contact electrodes, which can be comfortably worn and never need replacement parts, represent the ideal tool for both continuous crew health monitoring as well as specific health experiments (e.g. exercise stress tests). The technology in this proposal, if successful, is a natural candidate for inclusion in all future NASA missions that require ECG recordings. The Cognionics non-contact ECG sensor in conjunction with either Cognionics-developed data acquisition systems, COTS ECG Holter monitors, or proprietary NASA body sensor systems, has the potential to significantly improve the usage (time, effort, comfort) of astronaut cardiac monitoring. Additionally, the Cognionics sensor technology has application to EEG - a high-quality non-contact, comfortable and gel-less sensor can enable practical EEG applications to assess neurological function in space. Currently, EEG based systems are too cumbersome for the constraints of space environments. A high-quality, dry and through-hair EEG system could potentially lead to astronaut neurological monitoring (e.g., alertness/fatigue, sleep) systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Medical
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X14.01-9176
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Virtual Reality and World Technologies for Team Training Approaches
PROPOSAL TITLE: Serious Games for Team Training

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
951 Mariner's Island Boulevard, Suite 360
San Mateo, CA 94404-1585
(650) 931-2700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dan Fu, Ph.D.
fu@stottlerhenke.com
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., Suite 360
San Mateo,  CA 94404-1585
(650) 931-2700

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to investigate a virtual teamwork training suite incorporating serious games that target specific team-oriented skills and behaviors. We will define metrics for evaluation of team performance, devise games that engage crew and controller participants in relevant team tasks, and perform a review on the applicability of virtual environment and serious game mechanics to training objectives.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As workplaces become more and more interdependent, while at the same time becoming more distributed, we expect that teaching readiness skills will be valued for increasing the productivity of teams. These skills are vital in high stakes domains such as military or law enforcement since peoples' lives are at stake. This includes training for emergency rooms, firefighters, law enforcement, emergency first responders, and so forth.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A training suite composed of serious games will be targeted towards teams composed of mission controllers and crew. During Phase I we will identify the behavioral constructs and indicators that drive requirements on game mechanics. Given a mission description, combination of games within the suite can be retrieved for use.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Physiological/Psychological Countermeasures
Mission Training


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X14.01-9771
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Virtual Reality and World Technologies for Team Training Approaches
PROPOSAL TITLE: Virtual Team Training Engine and Evaluation Framework

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
GameSim Technologies Inc.
12124 High Tech Avenue Suite 160
Orlando, FL 32817-8374
(407) 688-0587

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrew Tosh
atosh@gamesim.com
12124 High Tech Avenue Suite 160
Orlando,  FL 32817-8374
(407) 310-4020

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In an effort to support a range of social educations in the context of constantly evolving mission objectives, this proposal focuses on the creation of a framework that can be used to rapidly construct virtual training scenarios, execute those scenarios and, finally, measure the effectiveness of the training in behavior improvement. The first stage of the framework is a scenario generation tool that can be used directly by SMEs from various social and psychological domains to design situation and training materials without requiring any programming or artistic knowledge. The output from the scenario generation tool is directly imported into a 3D virtual team training engine that allows multiple players to engage in the exercise from a variety of platforms, including standalone applications, web and mobile devices. After the players have completed the scenario, an After Action Review tool generates on-the-fly, relevant, SCORM-based training material to further educate each player on areas that warrant improvement. The final piece to the framework is a clear process for evaluating the value of the training in terms of short and long term impact on behavior. This proposal acknowledges the need for a system that NASA can use long-term for creating mission relevant training situations as well as to distribute to SMEs in various disciplines for constantly new and improved training.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Outside of NASA, the framework could be used by the military or emergency responders to augment their existing training systems. Given the openness of the system, it would be straightforward to create training scenarios that are relevant to those domains and to execute the evaluation process to ensure it is having a measurable behavioral impact. In the field of social and psychological academic research, the framework could be used for various studies, without requiring users in those fields to obtain assistance from software engineers and 3D modelers. In addition, the evaluation process would be attractive to such research studies for drawing conclusions on a training methodology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The framework created under this proposal is initially targeted at creating a behavioral impact in the domains listed in the SBIR topic (e.g., cross-cultural interactions, leadership, psychological support, etc.) in the context of complex mission tasks. However, the training scenarios created for the system could be expanded to other domains within NASA. For example, it may be desirable to use the system for pure virtual training of various tasks without any social or psychological training. Additionally, outside the scope of training, the system could be used as a diagnostic tool to determine the attitudes of players. In this mode, the player¿s results could be monitored to determine the social or psychological appropriateness of his or her role in a mission.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Physiological/Psychological Countermeasures
Mission Training
Outreach
Training Concepts & Architectures
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X15.01-8695
SUBTOPIC TITLE: A New Technique for Automated Analyses of Raw Operational Videos
PROPOSAL TITLE: Automatic Video-based Motion Analysis

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vecna Technologies, Inc.
6404 Ivy Lane, Suite 500
Greenbelt, MD 20770-1423
(240) 965-4500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Neal Checka
nchecka@vecna.com
36 Cambridgepark Drive
Cambridge,  MA 02140-2313
(617) 864-0636

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Operations in confined, isolated, and resource-constrained environments can lead to suboptimal human performance. Understanding task performance and crew behavioral health is crucial to mission success and the optimal design, development and operation of next generation space craft. Onboard resources, such as a single conventional video camera, can capture crew motion and interaction. There is a critical need for a software tool which achieves unobtrusive, non-invasive, automatic analysis of crew activity from video footage. Many video-based human motion analysis tools assume a stationary camera and employ segmentation techniques like temporal differencing or background segmentation to detect people. However, these approaches are vulnerable to camera motion and subtle changes in the background. In addition, many existing commercial solutions use simple blob-based video analysis where the entire body is tracked as a single object. Employing such a coarse human body model is appropriate for surveillance applications concerned with motion detection and person counting; however, it is insufficient for understanding precise human actions or gestures. Therefore, a system which is able to detect human body pose automatically, regardless of camera setup, is necessary for addressing these issues. Vecna proposes a video analysis software tool that automatically processes and analyzes complex human motions in conventional 2D video without the use of specialized markers. Unlike many video analytics solutions, Vecna's solution goes beyond simple blob-based video analysis by tracking the geometric configuration of human body parts like the trunk, head, and limbs. This enables our human motion understanding algorithms to model and recognize complex human actions and interactions. The resulting system will represent a substantial breakthrough providing benefits to an array of applications in video surveillance, human-computer interaction, human factors engineering, and robotics.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology is applicable to a wide range of Department of Defense and intelligence community areas including force protection, counter-terrorism, target recognition, human activity monitoring, and surveillance and tracking. We see significant potential for application of this tool to support a range of tactical and strategic systems, including shipboard Navy CIC centers, Army field C3I centers, or USAF theater airborne command posts. A number of programs sponsored by the Department of Defense (e.g. FCS, HumanID, CTS, Mind's Eye, Rail Security Pilot) employ video-based monitoring systems and would benefit from the proposed system. In addition, Vecna will investigate commercialization opportunities in a variety of sectors, including mobile robotics and visual surveillance. Initial analysis of these market segments reveal both unaddressed needs as well as vast potential for rapid adoption and growth. As robotic systems become more commonplace in today's society, robust, intelligent interaction between humans and robots is essential. Interaction with humans in a lifelike manner requires that robot infer physical intentions by interpreting visual cues. The proposed technology could potentially revolutionize human-robot interaction. In the surveillance market, an immediate application is automated screening of passengers and personnel at busy transportation hubs such as airline terminals and ports, and 24/7 automation of border monitoring and control.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Vecna expects the full-scope software system to have immediate and tangible benefit for NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). ESMD focuses on the human element of exploration by conducting research to ensure astronaut explorers are safe, healthy and can perform their work during long-duration space exploration. Task performance and crew behavioral health are key concerns in the design, development, and operation of next generation space vehicles. Operations in confined, isolated, and resource-constrained environments can lead to suboptimal human performance. As such, there is a critical need for Vecna's proposed software tool that automatically processes and analyzes crew motion and interaction from video footage captured by a single conventional 2D video camera. Such a diagnostic tool will enable unobtrusive and non-invasive measurement of task performance and crew behavioral health.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Image Analysis
Image Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X15.01-8981
SUBTOPIC TITLE: A New Technique for Automated Analyses of Raw Operational Videos
PROPOSAL TITLE: Perception Engine for Activity Recognition and Logging

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRACLabs, Inc.
100 North East Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio, TX 78216-1234
(281) 461-7886

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Patrick Beeson
pbeeson@traclabs.com
100 N.E. Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio,  TX 78216-1234
(281) 461-7884

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Ten of thousands of hours of video footage already exist and countless more hours will be logged as spacecraft continue to orbit the Earth and explore the solar system. These video logs contain immeasurable amounts of useful data on crew social interactions, crew task performance, and crew-vehicle interaction. Currently, these videos must be searched and indexed by hand. This is a long process that involves many man hours of labor. Automated video processing techniques can integrated into a comprehensive toolbox that drastically reduces the time to search and analyze videos. This would allow specific regions in a video stream to be isolated for monitoring, which can provide quick indexing for human viewing of all motion-based activity in the area of a vehicle. It could also allow the user to query for specific activities or events that occurred in this region. These could be automatically detected by software and presented directly to the user. In support of NASA's needs, we propose to design a system that detects and tracks humans, human activity, human-station interaction, and team interactions using existing cameras and videos. Our overall objectives can be achieved by developing a suite of algorithms that can handle several key sub-challenges: 1) Robustly handling unconstrained video content and capture conditions; 2) Extracting functional descriptions of complex human events; 3) Handling ad hoc event queries effectively; 4) Operating efficiently, so the system can keep up with the flood of videos being added to current databases and provide effective interactive search over such databases.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The military is a major consumer of video analysis software. We believe that the innovations in this project will enable a general-purpose multimedia interpretation system that will dramatically improve the productivity of intelligence community analysts working at such places as National Media Exploitation Center within the Defense Intelligence Agency. While DARPA has funded Mind's Eye to analyze scenes for verbs, they have not placed the focus on a toolbox that allows humans to place themselves in-the-loop with the video analysis process. By allowing users to make adhoc queries using selected processing components on specific regions of video, human expert knowledge that has yet to be automated can be leveraged to detect novel events. We expect to market our software to military customers. Additional non-NASA applications include activity recognition and configurable video monitoring for airport security, large factories and plants, oil exploration operations, and hospitals. The educational arena is also a potential consumer, as students and classrooms can be monitored at universities, which improves facility maintenance and potentially instructor performance. We also see civilian applications in searching for critical events in massive unconstrained video databases, such as on YouTube and Facebook.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our immediate NASA application is to find key events in video logs from space station and from ground testing. Our intended users include the Habitability and Environmental Factors Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. This work could have immediate application for International Space Station (ISS). The system could be used to monitor specific areas of station that have chronic maintenance issues of unknown cause. It could be used to analyze individual patterns in crew members and highlight unusual behaviors. It could also be used to monitor crew interaction issues, both with each other and with specific hardware on station. Our system is also applicable for vehicle/habitat design issues, by analyzing video of how environments are used by crew members.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Perception/Vision
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Image Analysis
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X15.02-9574
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Food Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Liposome Encapsulation of Vitamins to Enhance Storage Properties of Space-Bound Food

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innosense LLC
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance, CA 90505-5245
(310) 530-2011

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Linden Bolisay
linden.bolisay-1@innosense.us
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance,  CA 90505-5245
(310) 530-2011

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
InnoSense LLC (ISL) proposes to develop a nanoparticle encapsulation systems for water- and fat-soluble vitamins (VitaCap&#153;) to increase shelf life up to five years for long duration space missions. This encapsulation technology would preserve/enhance the nutrient content of space foods by increasing the amount of bio-active vitamins delivered into the body. Ensuring adequate nutrition that is adapted to these physiological conditions in space, adds a new dimension to the challenges of planned long duration human spaceflight missions beyond low earth orbit (LEO). Phase I feasibility studies are expected to demonstrate that encapsulated vitamins do not degrade and the proposed encapsulation materials do not allow diffusion of the vitamin under processing and storage conditions. It would also be established that bioactive vitamins are released under digestion conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The market is driven by factors such as increased shelf life, enhanced bioavailability, and consumers' increasing demand for fresh flavorsome food products. The U.S. presently holds the largest market share. Emerging markets such as China and India are expected to show higher growth in the coming years. The global food encapsulation market is estimated to be $35.4 billion by 2014, growing at a rate of 6.9 % per year. Some of the larger competitors in this market and potential buyers of VitaCap are Nestl¿, Unilever and Cargill. Other customers include smaller encapsulant manufacturers and nanotech companies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
VitaCap will have applications as vitamin additives in NASA food packages for long duration space missions. It will offer advantages such as increased bioavailabililiy and superior vitamin delivery, increased shelf life with optimum physical and chemical stability, and greater flavor compatibility and ingredient options.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Food (Preservation, Packaging, Preparation)
Processing Methods
Aerogels
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Nanomaterials
Organics/Biomaterials/Hybrids
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 X17.01-9088
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Alternative Methods for Ambient Preservation of Human Biological Samples During Extended Spaceflight and Planetary Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Biological Sample Ambient Preservation (BioSAP) Device

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ChromoLogic, LLC
180 North Vinedo Avenue
Pasadena, CA 91107-3490
(626) 382-9974

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Peter Bui
pbui@chromoloic.com
180 N. Vinedo Ave
Pasadena,  CA 91107-3490
(626) 381-9974

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To address NASA's need for alternative methods for ambient preservation of human biological samples collected during extended spaceflight and planetary operations, Chromologic (CL) proposes to develop a novel Biological Sample Ambient Preservation (BioSAP) device. BioSAP device is based on an improved dried biological specimens storage approach and specialized matrix to (1) collect a known amount of biological samples, (2) rapidly capture and stabilize them, (3) protect them from biodegradation, (4) decrease drying time, and (5) increase recovery. The unique technology and expertise of CL scientists will result in an innovative, reliable, compact and low-cost method of collecting and preserving dried biological specimens at room temperature. The unique portable design of the BioSAP does not require any power source and it is utilizable during flight and mission. In Phase I, CL will demonstrate the feasibility of the BioSAP device by fabricating a prototype device capable of capturing and stabilizing a subset of target analytes through a rapid drying process. In Phase II, CL plans to validate, refine and optimize the design of the BioSAP to allow for future integration with post-mission analysis methodologies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The BioSAP device will lead to a new generation of biological specimen preservation devices for use in remote, challenging conditions where scientific equipment and infrastructure are not readily available. The BioSAP device can also be incorporated, for example, into the standardized tool or method that are currently used for quick diagnostic at limited resource settings. Development of this device will have immediate applications in medicine in third world countries, forensic data collection and environmental monitoring. In addition, BioSAP system can be commercialized into the following market: self blood collection at home and send it for remote testing, for new-born screening, drug monitoring, and small animal research.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA will have a versatile, compact, lightweight blood and urine preservation device does not require refrigeration that can be used for long-term studies into the effects of the microgravity environment on the physiology of astronauts. The small sized inexpensive material based system is designed to weigh as little as possible and be able to be tightly packed; it does not require any additional processing equipment nor consume any power. The versatility of the BioSAP device will allow its range of use to be expanded to encompass storage of other biological fluids with very little modification. No commercial system offers the capability of BioSAP in room temperature biological preservation during space missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Tools/EVA Tools
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O1.02-8652
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Reconfigurable/Reprogrammable Communication Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reconfigurable/Reprogrammable Communications Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pacific Microchip Corporpation
3916 Sepulveda Boulevard #108
Culver City, CA 90230-4650
(310) 683-2628

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Denis Zelenin
denis@pacificmicrochip.com
3916 Sepulveda Blvd., Suite 108
Culver City,  CA 90230-4650
(310) 683-2628

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's latest effort in developing a common platform for space communication and navigation systems is the Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) standard. It defines architecture enabling interoperability of Software Defined Radio (SDR) components. Future proof, power conscious architectures of STRS compliant re-configurable SDR transceivers are needed for implementation of envisioned space communication systems. Pacific Microchip Corp. proposes to develop a highly integrated, low-power, multifunctional 56GS/s Direct Digital Modulation/Demodulation (DDM) SDR transceiver using 45nm SOI CMOS technology. The resulting STRS compliant integrated solution will be radiation tolerant by technology and design. The direct conversion based transceiver utilizes novel 56GS/s D/A and A/D converters and features arbitrary waveform generation (AWG) mode. The availability of AWG and DDM modes removes limitations on the synthesized waveform shapes up to 28GHz. Pacific Microchip Corp. proposes all-digital implementation of frequency up- and down-conversion, I/Q modulation and demodulation. Since digital power is mostly dynamic, digital processing will enable power consumption scaling linearly with the operating frequency. Phase I work will provide a complete definition and in-silico validation of the proposed device. The Phase II program will produce a fieldable product. In order to facilitate the commercialization efforts in Phase III, a commercial radiation-tolerant CMOS SOI technology will be used.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to its primary application in space communication systems, the proposed wideband SDR transceiver and its building blocks will be targeting other commercial and military related markets which require high speed capture, digitization, and synthesis of wideband signals. Commercial applications include wireless (WiMAX, 3G, 4G) and fiber optic communication (40G and 100G Ethernet). The projected ramp-up of 100G Ethernet technologies will raise industry demand for capable test equipment. The direct conversion architecture of the proposed transceiver provides the flexibility needed for testing equipment. Therefore, it has great commercialization potential in this market segment. Possible military applications include high speed, secure communication and data transmission systems and millimeter-resolution radars.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The low power re-configurable SDR transmitters and receivers featuring power optimization capability depending on the required BER, high modulation frequencies have great potential in current and future NASA missions. Besides targeted application for CONNECT experiment installed on ISS, proposed all-digital SDR transceiver is directly applicable to a systems seeking autonomous operation such as deep space communication radios. NASA missions using Ku band, such as OIB (airborne program for precise sea and ice elevation monitoring) will also benefit from proposed SDR architecture which will increase their accuracy.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Network Integration
Transmitters/Receivers
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O1.02-9553
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Reconfigurable/Reprogrammable Communication Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Performance ADC for Reconfigurable/Reprogrammable Communication Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ridgetop Group, Inc.
3580 West Ina Road
Tucson, AZ 85741-2276
(520) 742-3300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Esko Mikkola
emikkola@ridgetopgroup.com
3580 West Ina Road
Tucson,  AZ 85741-2276
(520) 742-3300

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Ridgetop Group will develop a 3X improvement in sampling resolution over current state-of-the art analog-to-digital converter (ADC) technology to support reconfigurable/reprogrammable communication systems. The significance of this innovation lies in the time-interleaved pipeline ADC, based on the most advanced silicon-germanium (SiGe) BiCMOS technology available, with over 2 bits higher effective number of bits (ENOB = 11.0 bits) than the best commercially available radiation-tolerant 2 GS/s ADCs (ENOB = 8.9 bits). In addition, the ADC consumes 65% less power than commercial ADCs, conserving valuable spacecraft power. For maximum flexibility and minimal power consumption, the ADC provides two configurable pipeline channels and four programmable operation modes. The ADC will also provide 3 GHz input analog bandwidth for direct sampling of RF signals in the S-band. The ADC will tolerate 5 Mrads of total ionizing dose (TID) radiation due to the inherent radiation tolerance of the SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBT), 130 nm thin-oxide CMOS transistors, and standard radiation-hardening-by-design (RHBD) techniques. The ADC will be also sufficiently hardened against single-event effects (SEE). Ridgetop will fabricate and test the ADC in the IBM 130 nm BiCMOS SiGe process in Phase 2 of this SBIR program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA commercial applications include: - Military satellite communications - Space-based radar applications - Synthetic aperture radar applications - Digital beamforming (DBF) radar applications - Wide-band satellite receivers - Wireless RF infrastructures - Test and measurement instrumentation - Wireless LAN - Data acquisition systems - Software-defined radio - Power amplifier linearization - Signal intelligence and jamming

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA commercial applications include: communication systems, radar, imaging, detectors, space radio astronomy, UAVSAR, and Europa programs

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Transmitters/Receivers
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O1.03-8392
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Game Changing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Quantum Communications Transmitter at 775 nm

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gener8 Incorporated
535 Del Rey Avenue
Sunnyvale, CA 94085-3514
(650) 940-9898

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Bischel
bbischel@gener8.net
535 Del Rey Ave.
Sunnyvale,  CA 94085-3514
(650) 940-9898

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose a novel new architecture for a quantum communications laser transmitter that is designed for free-space polarization encoded quantum key distribution (QKD) between a spacecraft and a ground based system. The transmitter will operate at 775 nm, a wavelength that has previously been analyzed to be optimize free-space QKD due to the combined influence of atmosphere transition and detection efficiency by Si:APD detectors. Hybrid integration will be used to design and fabricate a compact, rugged, and power efficient module that can meet all of the demanding environment requirements for space based optical components.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Quantum key distribution (QKD) using polarization modulation with decoy states has increasing interest in the commercial marketplace as a method to enable secure encrypted data transfer. There are already three start up companies addressing this area at 1550 nm for fiber optic system. The proposed quantum communications laser will open new markets for free space QKD as well as continue to develop the planar waveguide hybrid integration technology that can be applied to many different applications that require the development of advanced optical components.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed laser system is the key enabling component for the development of advanced quantum communications for NASA applications. Secure encrypted communications for NASA missions requires the frequent distribution of keys between the spacecraft and the ground. The proposed quantum communications laser transmitter is the key building block of a QKD system based on polarization state modulation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Transmitters/Receivers
Waveguides/Optical Fiber (see also Optics)
Lasers (Communication)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O1.03-9552
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Game Changing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Plug-and-Play Compatibility for CubeSat Attitude Determination and Control Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Maryland Aerospace, Inc.
2138 Priest Bridge Court, Suite 3
Crofton, MD 21114-2463
(410) 451-2505

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steve Fujikawa
sfujikawa@imicro.biz
2138 Priest Bridge Court, Suite 3
Crofton,  MD 21114-2463
(410) 451-2505

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The development of Plug-and-play Compatibility for CubeSat Attitude Determination and Control Systems (ADACS) is proposed. Existing Maryland Aerospace (MAI) ADACS technologies are well-capable of autonomously providing complete attitude determination and control to satellites weighing up to 20kg. It is essential for these ADACS technologies to be fully compliant with a Plug-and-Play standard that allows them to integrate seamlessly into rapid spacecraft development. One solution for Plug-and-Play is the Space Plug-and-play Architecture (SPA) bus developed by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), which is currently being adopted by many spacecraft developers for its low-cost, low-power, and simple design. A program for development of the electronics and firmware is outlined to create SPA compatibility technologies for CubeSat and NanoSat ADACS. This technology is significant because not only does it extend the capability of current low cost spacecraft to tactical imaging, space environment monitoring, and other missions requiring precision fine pointing, it provides a tremendous amount of flexibility in spacecraft mission design. Future NASA spacecraft development will no longer have to expend time and energy to develop an attitude solution.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Many satellite subsystem providers are looking for components that allow the buyer to rapidly assemble a spacecraft to carry a payload. The recent trends in spacecraft development are towards components that are low-cost, low-power, and also ones that require the least amount of work in communications interfacing. As a technology that meets all of these needs, the Space-Plug-and-play Architecture (SPA) is the future. MAI ADACS technologies are distributed all across the world by MAI partners, some of which include ISIS, ATI-Space, Pumpkin Inc., and others. It is highly likely that most of these subsystem providers will soon gravitate towards SPA as the communications interface protocol of their choice. Spacecraft developers who are interested in reducing development and interfacing time by orders of magnitude will therefore benefit immensely from ADACS technologies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
One of the most dynamic changes for the spacecraft industry in the past ten years is the Educational Launch of NanoSatellites (ELaNa) program that has been created by NASA. This program has allowed tens of educational spacecraft to be able to reach orbit and bring in critically needed data to scientists. During the recent CubeSat workshop, NASA announced that for the first time, there were more launch opportunities than available spacecraft. In the same presentation, they announced the next round of ELaNa launch opportunities for CubeSats. These satellites are designed to meet the standard California Polytechnic State University PPOD launcher specifications. Another major boost of excitement was the announcement that ELaNa was now going to begin accepting 6U CubeSat proposals. There is a great deal of belief that the addition of these larger 6U (10 cm * 20 cm * 30 cm) spacecraft will radically change missions that CubeSats can perform. These new missions are the cornerstone of educational institutions being able to perform much of the needed research for current and future NASA missions. The way to truly advance this activity is to provide satellite technologies that can be easily integrated into different satellites in a truly Plug-and-Play fashion. SPA-compatible attitude determination and control solutions will put NASA well on its way in fulfilling its commitment to space exploration.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Navigation & Guidance
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O1.04-8043
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Optical Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Efficiency Data-Rate-Scalable Laser Transmitter for Interplanetary Optical Communications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
RAM Photonics
4901 Morena Boulevard, Suite 128
San Diego, CA 92117-3557
(858) 490-1030

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Marciante
john.marciante@ramphotonics.com
4901 Morena Blvd. Suite 128
San Diego,  CA 92117-3557
(585) 771-7311

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Interplanetary missions are at the core of NASA's current space exploration program and are expected to lead the way to new resource discovery in the next decade and beyond. In the absence of manned craft, the payoff for a given mission rests in its ability to gather data and transmit it back to Earth. While sensors and metrology instrumentation are continually being improved with emergent subsystems, the bottleneck to mapping the solar system rests not with the ability to gather data, but rather to transmit it back to Earth. Current deep-space missions rely on radio communications, while optical communications utilize laser transmitters with carrier frequencies around 200 THz for the most mature 1550-nm band. Although the optical bandwidth is substantially larger than radio communications, the required energy at the receivers currently limit the data rates to 300 Mbps, similar to that achievable with radio communications systems. However, the true value of optical communications lies in the directionality of the laser beam - the radiated energy is not wasted into a large portion of the hemisphere but transported to the intended receiver. While many companies currently offer telecommunications-band amplifiers, none meet the exacting needs of NASA's space-com mission such as high efficiency, power, and dedicated (low) data rates. In this proposal, we propose the development of a qualitatively novel approach to high-power, low-bit-rate laser transmitters compatible with deep-space missions. Specifically, we propose to develop a master-oscillator/power amplifier (MOPA) system using two innovative and unique amplifier modules. The new transmitter device possesses both high efficiency (> 20% electrical-to-optical) and low SWaP footprint. The new transmitter can operate at 20W average power at arbitrary data rates and generate any symbol format, enabling both local (Martian-like) and deep-space (interplanetary) communications missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
PPM laser transmitters are of significant interest to deep-space optical communications. However, a multitude of other photon-starved applications required PPM transmitters, such as deep-sea sensing, aircraft-to-submarine communications, long-range LIDAR, secure long-range optical links, and optical wireless. Additionally, both amplifier modules have strong practical potential beyond the primary and specialized application of interest in this document.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA commercial application is in deep-space communications. Specifically, we propose a laser transmitter capable of arbitrary data rate and pulse-position modulation formats. The system includes a novel contrast-enhancing devices to provide inter-symbol contrast in excess of 60 dB, with 20W SBS-free average power levels.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Amplifiers/Repeaters/Translators
Waveguides/Optical Fiber (see also Optics)
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Lasers (Communication)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O1.04-9718
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Optical Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Downlink Fiber Laser Transmitter for Deep Space Communication

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fibertek, Inc.
13605 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon, VA 20171-4603
(703) 471-7671

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Doruk Engin
dengin@fibertek.com
13605 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon,  VA 20171-4603
(703) 471-7671

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) roadmap, calls for an integrated network approach to communication and navigation needs for robotic and human space exploration missions, from near-Earth to planetary missions. Anytime, anywhere connectivity for Earth, Moon and Mars is a stated goal, with high-bandwidth optical relay crosslinks for Earth, Moon, Mars and planets. Laser based optical communication links for space provides more than an order of magnitude higher data rates than corresponding RF links.. In addition, this is achieved with much smaller size, weight & power (SWaP) burden to spacecraft payloads, making spacecraft resources available to enhance or extend science missions, and the overall mission productivity. Tremendous progress made in 1.5um & 1-um fiber-optic fiber laser/amplifier technologies, their power scaling, and availability of reliable high-power components, makes such transmitters feasible for space mission application. In this SBIR proposal, we propose to develop 1.5mm fiber-amplifier based laser transmitters, with Pavg>4W, and compatible with a variety of M-ary PPM formats, that have a clear path to a space-qualification roadmap. In addition, power-scaling to 10W, athermal operation over a wide temperature range (with passive conductive cooling only), and improved power efficiency, are simultaneously addressed. Limited scope qualification tests relevant for space environment will also be conducted. These activities leverage prior and ongoing related activities at Fibertek, on high-performance, high-reliability fiber laser transmitters.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
(1)High bandwidth LEO/GEO satellite communication for military (2)High-BW real-time feed from multiple UAVs, via LEO/GEO crosslinks (3)High-BW CEO corsslinks for commercial satcom (4)In-flight wind sensor, to aid precision dropping of supplies in warzone

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
(1)High bandwidth lasercom flight terminal for planetary missions, as well as for various lunar & Mars relay links, per SCaN roadmap. (2)Space-qualifiable, robust, compact and efficient lidar component, e.g. CO2 sensing, pumping OPO/OPA for a mid-IR lidar source. (3)Coherent lidar component technology for aviation-safety sensor, e.g. wind shear/turbulence, wake-vortex hazard, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Amplifiers/Repeaters/Translators
Transmitters/Receivers
Waveguides/Optical Fiber (see also Optics)
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Lasers (Communication)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O1.05-9304
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Space RF Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: X-Band GaN Power Amplifiers for Long Range Space RF Telecommunications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nitronex Corp
2305 Presidential Drive
Durham, NC 27703-8039
(919) 807-9100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Alan Victor
avictor@nitronex.com
2305 Presidential Dr
Durham,  NC 27703-8039
(919) 807-9100

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The future capabilities of sensors and instrumentation deployed in space will continue to increase, resulting in increasing amounts of collected data. To reach these higher speed data rates, increases to the overall system gain of the communication link will be required. A deterministic method to increase system gain of a RF communication link is to provide higher transmitted RF power. However, with this higher RF output power also comes the challenge of maximizing power efficiency and reducing the size weight and power (SWAP) of the power amplifier (PA) for long-range space missions. The innovation will be to develop a Solid-State Power Amplifier (SSPA) that produces 50 W of linear RF at X-Band (8.4 GHz) with high DC-to-RF-efficiency (> 60%) and low mass. The significance will be the utilization of wide band-gap RF semiconductors to efficiently create high RF power that is robust to the high radiation environments of space. A wide band-gap compound semiconductor material such as Gallium Nitride (GaN) will provide this required innovation. GaN-based Field Effect Transistors (FETs) have the potential to operate at power densities of up to 10 times that of conventional RF semiconductor technologies, which will enable compact PAs with higher RF output power to be implemented. The proposed GaN PA design is estimated to be >50% smaller in both size and weight compared to other solid state solutions and almost 20% lower in power consumption for typical designs used in long-range space RF Telecommunications. In summary, Applying novel GaN semiconductor materials in innovative PA designs are required for long-range space RF communication systems to fully reach their performance potential and to reduce their SWAP.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development and manufacture of Gallium Nitride (GaN) FETs for commercial and military RF applications is the core business for Nitronex Corporation. Specifically, the development of our GaN technology for use in high RF power, broad bandwidth under relatively stringent operating requirements, e.g., military applications, as well as, WiMAX, W-CDMA and LTE, is of primary importance. Nitronex will push the development of GaN based MMIC and hybrid PAs, LNAs, T/R switches, mixers, gain blocks and other circuits that exploit the high performance and low cost platform developed at Nitronex. Therefore, the work proposed in this Phase I, II and a potential Phase III follow-on effort is well aligned with our future technology and product development commercialization roadmaps.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
By developing a reliable GaN based SSPA with linear 50W RF output power and >60% efficiency at frequencies between 8 to 9 GHz, the SWAP of future long-range communication equipment will be significantly decreased. Also the data rates of long&#150;range X-Band communication links will be increased by >30% relative to the technology utilized today. Thus, a robust GaN based MMIC design is the primary focus for this project and can commercially be leveraged by NASA for other long-range space RF communication systems. Additionally, at the completion of Phase II of this proposed project it is anticipated to have experimental data on the radiation hardness of Nitronex GaN RF devices. This data and the validation of GaN 50 W MMIC to be radiation hardened will be of commercial value.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Amplifiers/Repeaters/Translators
Power Combiners/Splitters
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Project Management
Prototyping
Quality/Reliability
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Processing Methods
Active Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O1.05-9434
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Space RF Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-power X- and Ka-band Gallium Nitride Amplifiers with Exceptional Efficiency

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Auriga Measurement Systems (Auriga Microwave)
650 Suffolk Street
Lowell, MA 01854-3600
(978) 441-1117

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nickolas Kingsley
nkingsley@aurigamicrowave.com
650 Suffolk St.
Lowell,  MA 01854-3600
(978) 411-1117

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Achieving very high-power amplification with maximum efficiency at X- and Ka-band is challenging using solid-state technology. Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) has been the material of choice for high-power microwave systems at these frequencies for decades. Until only recently, GaAs was unchallenged at Ka band for solid-state amplification. Unfortunately, the low power density of GaAs requires extensive combining networks contributing to large amplifier size and low efficiency; neither is acceptable in next-generation high-performance systems. Auriga will use a 0.15 ¿m Gallium Nitride (GaN) High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMT) to meet the frequency band and power level required. GaN HEMTs are high-voltage and high power density devices, resulting in smaller, more efficient power amplifiers (PAs). Competing GaAs pHEMT technology is more mature and readily available, but cannot compete with GaN's electrical and thermal performance. As GaN transitions from leading-edge to industry standard, its usage is expanding and the cost of entry is diminishing. A precision harmonic termination circuit will be used to achieve exceptional efficiency operation. A low-loss power combining technique will generate high power levels. Auriga's experience with device physics, transistor modeling, and high-power design make us uniquely qualified to overcome the challenges in this program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Radar, weather monitoring, air traffic control, maritime vessel traffic control, and vehicle speed detection for law enforcement

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Satellite communication uplink, radar, space-borne platforms (i.e., spacecraft telecommunication, data link for planetary exploration, etc.)

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Amplifiers/Repeaters/Translators
Transmitters/Receivers


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O1.06-9050
SUBTOPIC TITLE: CoNNeCT Experiments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Agile cognitive space radio demo on ISS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Space Micro, Inc.
10237 Flanders Court
San Diego, CA 92121-1526
(858) 332-0700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Jacox
mjacox@spacemicro.com
10237 Flanders Court
San Diego,  CA 92121-1526
(858) 332-0700

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Space Micro's technology features the use of a FPMA or field programmabe microwave array that is Multi-band and multi-waveform capable. The FPMA can be integrated into a Multi-Chip Module (MCM)to enable SWaP (size weight and power) improvements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This novel agile cognitive space radio technology has broad potential commercial application. Applications include space - vehicle, spacecraft mounted to support satellite or ground/ship stations; Military, vehicle or man pack mounted; Civilian, vehicle or man pack mounted to support planes, cars or mobile applications. Non-NASA Applications: This technology and evolving Space Micro products may benefit many commercial space platforms, both LEO and GEO telecommunication satellites, such as Intelsat, Direct TV, XM radio, Orbcomm and Iridium Next telecom constellation replenishment, plus standard industry busses including Lockheed's A2100, and Boeing's HS-702. Civil earth sensing applications such as weather/metrology applications e.g. (NOAA GOES and Landsat) can also benefit. The large DoD space industry, including USAF, MDA, NRO, and new Army nanosat programs at SMDC will directly benefit. Among these programs are AEHF upgrades, GPS follow-ons, MDA's STSS and PTSS, USAF TacSat family, Operationally Responsive Space (ORS), and Army SMDC nanosat family. The entire Cubesat initiative including NRO's Colony program and USAF SENSE program would benefit. This technology and products will also address emerging MDA radiation threats. These programs include AKV, THAAD, AEGIS, SM3 Block IIB, and GMD for Blocks 2016 and beyond. With the new challenge of atmospheric neutrons to High Altitude Airship (HAA) programs and NASA or Air Force UAV programs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This novel agile cognitive space radio technology has broad potential commercial application as well as NASA applications which include space - vehicle, spacecraft mounted to support satellite or ground/ship stations. Generic NASA Applications: Virtually all NASA space programs have a demand for this proposed technology and product. NASA applications range from space shuttle, space station, earth sensing missions e.g. (EOS), and deep space missions. NASA programs/missions that will benefit include new lunar landers and orbiters e.g. (LADEE), Mars missions, solar system exploration e.g. (Titan, Juno, Europa, comet nucleus return, New Discovery, and Living with a Star (LWS). NASA programs which may continue to be funded by Congress include the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Commercial Orbiter Transportation Service (COTS) would benefit. Products evolving from this SBIR will be enabling for future programs such as Dawn, Aquarius, Kepler, Ocean Vector Winds, and space interferometry (SIR).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Transmitters/Receivers
Telemetry (see also Control & Monitoring)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O1.06-9056
SUBTOPIC TITLE: CoNNeCT Experiments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Scintillation-Hardened GPS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CommLargo, Incorporated
8316 36th Avenue North
Saint Petersburg, FL 33710-1018
(727) 346-9668

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Donald Stephens
don@commlargo.com
8316 36th Avenue N
Saint Petersburg,  FL 33710-1018
(727) 346-9668

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A Communications, Navigation, and Networking reConfigurable Testbed (CoNNeCT) experiment is proposed to improve the performance of GPS during geomagnetic storms. There are two primary sources of degradation during a geomagnetic event &#150; loss of phase coherency by the receiver and abrupt path delay changes due to total electron content (TEC). By monitoring the degradation at the ISS instead of the Earth's surface, better modeling and subsequently better mitigation of the effects will be achieved. A scintillation-hardening receiver is proposed to improve the accuracy and reliability during geomagnetic storms.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial GPS receivers will benefit greatly with increased resistance to geomagnetic storms. Although the population living in the upper latitudes in general will benefit from increased reliability and accuracy, the energy sector has the most urgent need for the improvement. International collaboration necessitates commercial, non-ITAR products that provide safety-of-life accuracy necessary for protecting human life and fragile environmental ecosystems. As increasing numbers of companies and countries converging upon the Arctic energy reserves, reliability and positioning accuracy become increasingly important.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
GPS is essential for many science packages. As additional monitoring of climate change occurs, many of the science and monitoring packages will be deployed in upper latitudes susceptible to geomagnetic storms. Scintillation-hardened GPS will increase the reliability and accuracy of these remote instrument packages. The scintillation hardening is also applicable to lower frequency satellite communications, which is also utilized for remote sensing packages.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
GPS/Radiometric (see also Sensors)
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)
Development Environments


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O1.06-9631
SUBTOPIC TITLE: CoNNeCT Experiments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Radio Navigation Waveform Experiment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Emergent Space Technologies, Inc.
6411 Ivy Lane, Suite 303
Greenbelt, MD 20770-1405
(301) 345-1535

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Kenn Gold
kenn.gold@emergentspace.com
6411 Ivy Lane
Greenbelt,  MD 20770-1405
(720) 841-6331

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is installing the Communications, Navigation, and Networking reConfigurable Testbed (CoNNeCT) onto the truss of the International Space Station to demonstrate software-defined radio (SDR) technology, and is now accepting proposals for new and useful SDR experiments to fly on CoNNeCT that are compliant with the Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) SDR standard. Emergent Space Technologies proposes to develop an STRS-compliant software-defined GPS receiver that can be flown on CoNNeCT that is based on a proven terrestrial commercial technology which shares heritage with the JPL Blackjack receiver. The proposed system is called the Radio Navigation Waveform Experiment (RANE) and utilizes a codeless signal processing technique, called Spectral Compression Positioning (SCP), to estimate position, navigation, and timing (PNT) solutions. RANE will have a small electronic footprint, be multi-frequency capable, and require less power than traditional code-correlator GPS receivers. On CoNNeCT, RANE will demonstrate the portability and use of SCP for PNT solutions for NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The current terrestrial implementation of RANE requires little power and has a small electronic footprint. It can be added to another set of hardware to increase capabilities without adding weight. RANE can also be flown on cubesats where SWaP is limited for use as a PNT sensor or space weather sensor. The Air Force has shown interest in the codeless technology and its versatility for Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) missions. Since RANE can be configured to detect any broadband signal with the appropriate RF front end, it could navigate in GPS-denied environments. This would be especially useful in various military applications. It can function in various orbit types without little-to-no changes to the waveform.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
RANE will be a highly portable GPS SDR that can be used in various orbits ranging from near-Earth to geosynchronous orbit. The versatility of RANE to detect and track signals in a weak signal environment or highly accelerating one has been shown in simulation and testing. This is particularly useful for a geosynchronous vehicle like GOES-R. This technology has significant promise for nearly any spaceborne GPS application. Due to its low electronic footprint and power, RANE could be used on cubesats and can also coexist on a shared hardware platform, such as communications. RANE can track multiple frequencies simultaneously and thus has significant potential for space weather. And in an STRS compliant form factor, it will be portable to various platforms. RANE can track the encrypted L1 P(Y) chipping code phase. Pairing this capability with real-time GPS differential corrections can potentially enable geodetic quality PNT solutions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Space Transportation & Safety


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O2.01-8344
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nano/Small Sat Launch Vehicle Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Alternative Hydrocarbon Propulsion for Nano / Micro Launch Vehicle

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Garvey Spacecraft Corporation
389 Haines Avenue
Long Beach, CA 90814-1841
(562) 498-2984

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher Bostwick
cbostwick@garvspace.com
389 Haines Avenue
Long Beach,  CA 90814-1841
(661) 547-9779

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The technical innovation proposed here is the application of an alternative hydrocarbon fuel &#150; densified propylene, in combination with liquid oxygen (LOX) &#150; that has the potential to enhance the performance of a proposed Nano / Micro Launch Vehicle (NMLV) enough such that a simple two-stage, pressure-fed configuration will be sufficient for orbital missions. Besides eliminating the third stage, the absence of turbopumps reduces hardware costs, improves overall system reliability and simplifies engine start-up. This project addresses Section 1.2.5 of the Technology Area 1 Roadmap as it raises the TRL of both a non-toxic alternative hydrocarbon fuel (propylene) and also propellant densification (subcooling propylene) to increase vehicle mass fraction performance. Programmatic innovation makes it possible to bring this propulsion technology to a TRL of 6 by the end of Phase II in the form of a 5K lbf-LOX/propylene first stage engine. This will be accomplished by leveraging an ongoing NMLV development program that has already produced a flight-proven LOX/ethanol 4.5K lbf-thrust engine that features a long-duration silica-phenolic ablative chamber.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial imaging constellations that require dedicated NMLV service to achieve total control over trajectories and schedules

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Low-cost, two-stage dedicated NMLV for ELaNA-class academic CubeSat missions needing delivery of 10 kg to 250 kg circular orbits; Enhanced NMLV featuring a clustered set of booster stages for larger nanosat (20 kg) payloads that require circular orbits on the order of 450 km Deep space missions and planetary landers requiring higher performance chemical propulsion and for which propylene would be a storable fuel because of low environmental temperatures

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Space Transportation & Safety
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster
Spacecraft Main Engine
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O2.01-9712
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nano/Small Sat Launch Vehicle Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: A High-Payload Fraction, Pump-Fed, 2-Stage Nano Launch Vehicle

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ventions, LLC
1142 Howard Street
San Francisco, CA 94103-3914
(415) 543-2800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Adam London
adam.london@ventions.com
1142 Howard Street
San Francisco,  CA 94103-3914
(415) 543-2800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Ventions proposes the development of a pump-fed, 2-stage nano launch vehicle for low-cost on-demand placement of cube and nano-satellites into LEO. The proposed vehicle uses high T/W and high Isp pump-fed engines that operate at high chamber pressures without the weight penalty of high pressure tanks, thereby realizing payload fractions in the 1-2% range. Ventions has already completed several component-level demonstrations in the area, and is proposing additional development of the stage separation mechanisms, payload fairing and main engine gimbal as part of the Phase I effort.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications for the same will include DoD and military missions requiring rapid on-demand access to space from anywhere in the world (based on ground or air-launch), as well as university and research satellites. Additionally, the small-scale thrust chamber assemblies and turbomachinery technology components developed for the launch vehicle are also expected to have widespread applications in other in-space propulsion systems, upper stages, and orbital insertion / maneuvering thrusters, etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed nano launch vehicle is aimed at providing low-cost and on-demand insertion of NASA cube- and nano-satellites into LEO as primary payloads. This will change the current model of launching such satellites as secondary payloads (which are often constrained by requirements of the primary payload), thereby extending this capability to a wider range of NASA experimental missions requiring on-demand and low-cost insertion into specific orbits.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Attitude Determination & Control
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Actuators & Motors
Exciters/Igniters
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Launch Engine/Booster
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O2.01-9812
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nano/Small Sat Launch Vehicle Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Neptune modular rockets for breakthrough low-cost space access

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Interorbital Systems
1394 Barnes Street, Building #7
Mojave, CA 93501-1673
(661) 824-1662

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Roderick Milliron
ios@interorbital.com
1394 Barnes Street, Building #7
Mojave, CA,  CA 93501-1673
(661) 695-0771

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Interorbital Systems is developing a new generation of modular, low-cost, rapid-response space launch vehicles. Interorbital modular rockets core element is the Common Propulsion Module (CPM).The CPM is a liquid rocket engine, propellant and pressurization section and aerodynamic faring integrated into a self-contained module. The liquid rocket engine is ablatively cooled and operates in a blowdown pressurization mode using low-cost, storable hypergolic propellants. Interorbital has successfully static test fired a 4,500lb thrust CPM main engine demonstrating combustion stability and throttling capability. Interorbital modular rocket systems were developed under the Minimum Cost Design paradigm and will deliver breakthrough cost reductions in space access. Cost reductions in propulsion are achieved by elimination of complex pressurization, ignition components, cooling, and propellant infrastructure normally associated with typical liquid rocket technology. Further cost reductions in the space launch value chain are attained by utilizing commercially available components and developing simplified manufacturing and operations minimizing need for capital intensive infrastructure and highly skilled labor. These unprecedented reductions in space access costs do not sacrifice performance or reliabiliy.CPM technology is scalable and readily configurable to suit numerous suborbital or orbital mission profiles. CPMs may be arrayed as launch vehicle first stage boosters or as unitary elements for sustainer and upper stages. Interorbital modular rockets are uniquely suited to support the emerging nanosatellite market while offering an American alternative for existing public and private sector space access requirements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Interorbital has sold out the inaugural co-manifest (32 picosatellites and 4 CubeSats) of its NEPTUNE rocket from sales of its TubeSat Kit plus Launch Package and CubeSat projects. The list of paid clients spans the public and private sectors diverse as academic research institutions, U.S. government entities and individuals pursuing space art projects. This fact and ongoing sales for NEPTUNE mission two is ample evidence of an emerging nanosatellite market and acute desire for low-cost space access. Interorbital believes the same launch capacity employed for NASA requirements will be welcome by non-NASA clients.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Interorbital believes its modular rocket technology is a low-cost, reliable and flexible suborbital and orbital workhorse for various NASA programs. A single CPM adapted as a rocket, such as the flight-ready Interorbital CPMTV, can be used as an ultra low-cost entry level rocket vehicle for educational programs. The Interorbital SR145 rocket under development offers order of magnitude cost reduction for sounding rockets missions while providing a benign operating environment for payloads solid rocket motor vehicles cannot provide. The logical scaling of Interorbital CPM technology to its nine module space launch vehicle under development will expand space access opportunities for NASA programs such as Small Satellite Subsystems Technology Program (SSST), Edison Small Satellite Demonstrations Missions Program or Educational Launch of Nanosatellites (ELaNa).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ablative Propulsion
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O2.02-8647
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Energy Electronic Ignition System for NOFBX Thrusters

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Firestar Engineering, LLC
1122 Flightline Street, #76
Mojave, CA 93501-1610
(661) 860-1088

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Greg Mungas
greg.mungas@firestar-tech.com
1122 Flight Line Street
Mojave,  CA 93501-1610
(626) 755-8819

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a miniature, low RF noise ignition module for NOFBX propulsion systems. This ignition module is designed utilizing unique properties of the NOFBX propellant to enable a potential 2-3 order magnitude reduction in spark ignition energy, voltage, current, and power under a very special set of condition realized only in an NOFBX combustion chamber.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The unique characteristics of N2O are similar to NOFBX. Low energy ignition systems for race car applications and low specific fuel emission vehicles employing N2O based fuels (another Firestar spin-off technology) may be derived from this development effort.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NOFBX technology is currently being developed under a NASA BAA for flight on the International Space Station as a commercial flight experiment. The proposed activity would upgrade the ignition element of this flight system reducing mass, volume, and power of the device as well as conductive and radiative emission characteristics. Given the commercial interest in the NOFBX propulsion technology, we anticipate this block upgrade ignition module to be readily integrated into the NOFBX product line being developed by Innovation Space Propulsion Systems, the licensee of NOFBX technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airship/Lighter-than-Air Craft
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Conversion
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine
Surface Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O2.02-8895
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Ceramic Matrix Composite and Carbon/Carbon Structures for Large Rocket Engine Nozzles and Nozzle Extensions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ultramet
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331-2210
(818) 899-0236

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Matthew Wright
matt.wright@ultramet.com
Ultramet
Pacoima,  CA 91331-2210
(818) 899-0236

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Low-cost access to space demands durable, cost-effective, efficient, and low-weight propulsion systems. Key components include rocket engine nozzles and nozzle extensions for boost and upper stages. Options for such nozzles include actively cooled alloys, ablatives, and radiation-cooled composites and metals, each of which has known limitations. Actively cooled structures are complex and costly. Ablatives are heavy and limit performance due to shape instability. Radiation-cooled composites are costly, have a limited production base, and are size-limited. Radiation-cooled metals face low temperature limits, require significant machining for acceptable weight, and require protective coatings. These limitations are highlighted by the J-2X nozzle extension, which uses a highly machined metallic structure to minimize weight and requires an emissivity coating to maintain safe operating temperature. Carbon/carbon (C/C) provides an attractive alternative, but has joining ability, oxidation resistance, and manufacturability limitations. Ultramet previously developed and demonstrated carbon fiber-reinforced refractory ceramic matrix composites (CMC) for liquid propellant applications up to 4300¿F. Ultramet has also demonstrated the integration of lightweight C/C with CMCs in a unique system comprising a C/C primary structure with an integral CMC liner or jacket. This system bridges the weight and performance gap between C/C and CMCs. The CMC provides enhanced mechanical properties and environmental resistance while the C/C provides a lightweight and cost-effective structure. In this project, the feasibility and benefits of applying this integrated material system for large liquid rocket engine nozzles will be validated. Subsequent work will address scaleup and will include a C/C producer. The fully developed system will combine the low weight and cost-effectiveness of C/C with the strength and durability of CMCs to support a range of potential NASA missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed integrated ceramic matrix composite and carbon/carbon material system would be directly applicable to a wide range of aerospace and defense applications that require low-cost material possessing, ultrahigh temperature oxidation stability, high strength, acceptable joinability, and low mass. These applications include propulsion components such as combustion chambers, rocket nozzles, hot gas generators, and hot gas valves, using both liquid and solid propellants. Defense applications include uses in the high temperature combustion environment of advanced gun barrels, where the use of C/C is desirable if survivability and joining issues can be solved. Non-defense-related uses may include components related to energy generation in which use temperature, environmental reactivity, and economy are increasingly demanding.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed project directly targets future launch and exploration vehicle propulsion systems as potential end-use applications. Of particular interest are large boost-scale nozzles and upper stage nozzle extensions, similar in scale to the J-2X nozzle extension or to the niobium alloy nozzles used on the SpaceX Merlin engine. More generally, the versatility of this concept makes it relevant to a variety of hot structures including combustion chambers, leading edges, thermal protection systems, airframe structures, and other propulsion components.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Launch Engine/Booster
Spacecraft Main Engine
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O2.03-8067
SUBTOPIC TITLE: 21st Century Spaceport Ground Systems Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Cost, High Efficiency, Pressurization System for Responsive Launch Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
KT Engineering Corporation
238 Business Park Boulevard, Building 23B Suite J
Madison, AL 35758-7553
(256) 461-8522

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dave Sisk
dave.sisk@kte-aerospace.com
238 Business Park Boulevard, Building 23B Suite J
Madison,  AL 35758-7553
(256) 461-8522

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
KT Engineering (KTE) is pleased to submit this proposal to address the stated need for "innovative solutions that will allow spaceport launch service providers to operate in an efficient, low cost manner and increases capabilities associated with integration, checkout, and preparations required to configure and ready space systems for launch." We propose to conduct research and demonstrate feasibility of a novel launch vehicle pressurization system concept that will increase performance and reliability compared with traditional approaches, reduce dependence upon helium up to 50%, enable the use of low-cost commercial off the shelf technology, and demonstrate the automated ground processing associated with this technology. Our innovation is based on five major technology and operational elements including: 1) Tridyne Pressurant, 2) Distributed Storage and Control, 3) Cold Gas Storage / Warm Gas Delivery, 4) Bang-Bang Pressure Control, and 5) End-of-burn Tank Pressure Decay. Pump-fed launch vehicles will benefit from our innovative concept but the most significant benefits are achieved in cost-optimized pressure-fed systems such as KT Engineering's Radially Segmented Launch Vehicle (RSLV). We propose a six month Phase I program to refine the designs of the critical ground and airborne elements of this distributed pressurization system. We intend to demonstrate feasibility and more accurately quantify the benefits of our approach through analytical modeling, preliminary design, and high-flow, high-pressure testing of a prototype Tridyne catalytic reactor. The product of this effort will be engineering analysis and models, presentation materials from major reviews, a comprehensive final report, and our Phase II proposal. Under Phase II we will proposed to demonstrate design and operation of the ground and airborne elements of our pressurization system through prototype hardware fabrication and testing in the NASA KSC Launch Equipment Test Facility (LETF).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In the same way that the proposed pressurization system will facilitate NASA vehicle launch operations and increase turnaround times, the proposed system will be applicable to non-NASA launch vehicle operators including the DOD and commercial providers, supporting multiple concurrent operations and de-coupling launch processing from other range users. Application of the concept to Non-NASA launch operations will decrease to an even greater extent dependence on helium.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed low cost, high efficiency, pressurization system will facilitate NASA vehicle launch operations and increase turnaround times by reducing the complexity of the ground-based processing system used to prepare the vehicle-based pressurization system for launch. The interoperability and ease-of-use of the system are such that all launch systems, including pump and pressure fed liquid engine systems will benefit. The proposed system will significantly reduce dependence on increasingly scarce helium, by up to 50% over current systems, thereby reducing mission risk as reliance on helium availability is reduced.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Space Transportation & Safety
Process Monitoring & Control
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Nonspecified
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Launch Engine/Booster
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O2.04-8793
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Tank Technology Development
PROPOSAL TITLE: Self-healing Nanocomposites for Reusable Composite Cryotanks

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NEI Corporation
201 Circle Drive North, Suite 102/103
Piscataway, NJ 08873-1154
(732) 868-3141

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Eberly
deberly@neicorporation.com
201 Circle Drive N., Suite 102/103
Piscataway,  NJ 08873-1154
(732) 868-3141

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Composite cryotanks, or Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs), offer advantages over currently used aluminum-lithium cryotanks, particularly with respect to weight savings. Future NASA missions are expected to use COPVs in spaceflight propellant tanks to store fuels, oxidizers, and other liquids for launch and space exploration vehicles. However, reliability and reusability of the COPVs are of concern, especially in cryogenic temperature applications; this limits adoption of COPVs in future reusable vehicle designs. The major problem with composites is the inherent brittleness of the epoxy matrix, which is prone to microcrack formation, either from exposure to cryogenic conditions or from impact from different sources. If not prevented, the microcracks can grow into larger cracks, leading to catastrophic failure and loss of function of the composite. In addition, the presence of microcracks increases gas permeation and leakage, which is undesirable in a COPV. Accordingly, materials innovations are needed to mitigate microcrack formation in composite cryotanks. In Phase I we propose to demonstrate microcrack prevention and mitigation in COPVs through the use of a novel nanocomposite matrix containing engineered nanoscale materials which will also enable self-healing of microcracks. Phase II will build upon the Phase I program to enable a TRL 5-6 working proof of concept and prototype for NASA testing, capable of long term use with high cycle performance at cryogenic temperatures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The aerospace and the commercial communities have shown significant interest in using COPVs for cryogenic and non-cryogenic applications. Non-NASA commercial applications for the research proposed include the following: Liquid hydrogen fuel cells in terms of increased safety and reliability; vehicular cryo-compressed gas storage of hydrogen and natural gas which dramatically increases the fuel storage density thus increasing the amount of fuel that can be stored in a vehicle; environmentally-friendly and safer earth-based cryogenic fluid storage where the composite structures will not need painting, stripping, and repainting in order to prevent corrosion as does current metal/steel construction and are also easier to transport due to their light-weight nature; and interest in the marine transport of propane via tanker ships where very large (5300 m3) COPVs will be needed.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future NASA missions will rely on the use of composite structures as main structural members of space vehicles and composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) for spaceflight propellant tanks to store fuels, oxidizers, and other liquids for launch and space exploration vehicles. These COPVs must be able to operate at the cryogenic conditions imposed by typical propellants, liquid oxygen (90¿K) and liquid methane (110¿K). NASA applications for the research proposed herein include: earth-based and space-based cryogenic storage vessels (e.g. cryogenic fuel storage for first stage and upper stage launch vehicles including Crew Exploration Vehicles); long system life cryogenic storage that is both reliable and safe and would perform well beyond the current vessel design life (e.g. orbiting space fuel depots); and space-based habitat structures that are manufactured using fiber-reinforced composite materials.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Structures
Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Propulsion
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O2.04-8904
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Tank Technology Development
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microcrack Resistant Matrix Materials for Out-of-Autoclave Processing of Composite Cryogenic Tanks

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Composite Technology Development, Inc.
2600 Campus Drive, Suite D
Lafayette, CO 80026-3359
(303) 664-0394

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kaushik Mallick
kaushik.mallick@ctd-materials.com
2600 Campus Drive, Suite D
Lafayette,  CO 80026-3359
(303) 664-0394

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The next generation of launch vehicles under development by NASA requires significant mass reduction to fully meet mission and performance needs. For example, NASA is aiming to create a new generation of heavy-lift launch vehicles to support both human spaceflight and space exploration missions. To ensure these vehicles can support all of the NASA needs, the mass of the propellant tanks must be significantly reduced, primarily through the use of composite materials. However, two primary challenges must be overcome to enable the use of composite tanks for these new classes of heavy launchers. One is to develop novel, microcrack-resistant, polymer matrix composite materials that will enable construction of 5 to 10 meter diameter composite tanks, and the second is to develop out-of-autoclave manufacturing methods that will enable the cost of these tanks to be 20-25% less than that of metal tanks. In the proposed program CTD plans to develop and evaluate new materials that will provide a strain to initiate microcracking that is 50% higher than that of the current materials. At the same time the materials will be optimized for out-of-autoclave processing of composite tanks. Of particular interest are low void content, long out-life, good tack properties, and out-of autoclave cure characteristics. The Phase I material development effort will explore several polymer chemistries including toughened epoxies, Polybenzoxazines and a hybridized version of the Polybenzoxazines and toughened epoxies. At the end of Phase I, CTD will fabricate and test a 15-cm-diameter by 18-cm-long, 1.9L cylindrical subscale tank to demonstrate the processing feasibility and performance of the new material.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The linerless composite cryogenic tank technology that is proposed can provide enabling capabilities for a variety of other government, industrial, and commercial uses. For example, liquid hydrogen tanks can store more fuel in a given volume (i.e. higher energy density) when compared to their compressed gas counterparts making composite liquid hydrogen tanks attractive to automotive manufacturers such as BMW. Additionally, the out-of-autoclave prepreg materials developed under this program would be highly valued for larger manufacturing efforts that use prepreg process such as for wind and tidal turbine blades and large aircraft structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The linerless composite cryogenic tank technology that is proposed herein can provide enabling capabilities for several near-term and longer-term NASA mission goals including those intended for future heavy launch vehicles, planetary and asteroid decent and accent vehicles, in-orbit spacecraft re-fueling as well as for long term storage in deep space on one planetary surfaces such as the moon. Indeed, the development of lightweight, linerless composite tanks for these applications will help to reduce mass, which is a critical need for these systems. Lightweight composite tanks can also be used for storage of hydrogen in fuel cell driven high altitude long duration aircraft as well as other unmanned air vehicles with varying mission objectives. In addition to storage tanks, the manufacturing technology being developed here can be used for composite cryogenic piping and other aircraft parts.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Storage
Prototyping
Processing Methods
Composites
Polymers
Fuels/Propellants


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O2.05-9843
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Propulsion Testing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Propulsion Test Support Analysis with GPU Computing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Combustion Research and Flow Technology
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947-1020
(215) 766-1520

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vineet Ahuja
vineet@craft-tech.com
6210 Keller's Church Rd.
Pipersville,  PA 18947-1020
(215) 766-1520

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The design, development and staging of tests to certify liquid rocket engines usually require high-fidelity structural, fluid and thermal support analysis. These analyses are crucial to a successful engine test program since pressurization requirements, heat loads, cooling requirements and structural stresses are evaluated. Furthermore, these analyses are utilized to detect anomalies, unsteady pressure pulsations, structural vibrations, resonant modes and unexpected plume impingement zones that may be hazardous to the test stand structure and/or the test article. Such high-fidelity analyses have traditionally been performed on PC-cluster type computational platforms spanning over days/weeks given the complexity of the flowpath and flow regimes typically involved in the testing of liquid rocket engines. In this proposal we exploit the data parallelism of the computational algorithms involved to significantly enhance performance on low-cost high-speed GPU enabled hardware. Such a transition to GPU-based hardware will result in a paradigm shift for compute-intensive propulsion system applications from expensive CPU dominated PC-cluster architectures to economical workstation styled hybrid GPU-CPU systems, while resulting in dramatic decreases in turnaround times.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial market for our product is very large encompassing the broad markets of aerospace and space transportation, fluid handling machinery (pumps and valves), chemical process plants, nuclear and traditional power generation (gas turbine applications) as well as wind energy. The developed product can also be utilized by the space transportation industry for design support and risk assessment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The transition to GPU based computing software will speed up analysis of rocket engine stands and components used on test stands. This includes cryogenic feed lines, high pressure tankage, valve systems, and cooling spray nozzles on flame deflectors. The algorithms developed here can be extended to NASA codes used for heat transfer analysis, tank pressurization, structural and thermal stress analysis. It will establish GPU porting protocols for engine/facility health monitoring software as well as software used in control systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O3.01-8173
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Remotely Operated Mobile Sensing Technologies for inside ISS
PROPOSAL TITLE: Stereo Vision for SPHERES-based Navigation and Monitoring

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRACLabs, Inc.
100 North East Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio, TX 78216-1234
(281) 461-7886

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eric Huber
huber@traclabs.com
16969 N. Texas Ave. Suite 300
Webster,  TX 77598-1234
(281) 461-7886

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Maintenance operations and scientific research on the International Space Station (ISS) require active monitoring. Currently the majority of monitoring and recording of data is performed by the ISS crew. These tasks, albeit relatively passive, often consume large blocks of a crew member¿¿&#937;s time. In the future, it would be desirable to offload much of this observational work onto experts and technicians on the ground, enabling the ISS crew members to focus on setup, control, and other tasks requiring greater dexterity. In addition, as recent events have shown, there exists a possibility that the ISS will be uncrewed for a period of time. Flight controllers will want to have views of the ISS in cases when there are no crew. Such a remote monitoring system must be capable of providing a wide variety of camera perspectives, covering the majority of ISS's interior. It would be impractical to gain adequate coverage using a network of mounted camera systems. MIT Space Systems Laboratory developed the SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites) to provide a platform for conducting experiments with free-flying satellites in space. We propose to develop stereo-based visual navigation and human interaction algorithms that will increase the capabilities of SPHERES and demonstrate those algorithms using a ground-based simulator. This results in more efficient and safer operation of space vehicles and frees up crew and ground control resources.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Department of Defense (DOD) is investing heavily in remote robotic operations including unmanned ground and aerial vehicles and is beginning to equip these vehicles with sophisticated sensing systems. This sensing systems are used for Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD), medical operations, entering and clearing buildings, moving supplies and unloading pallets. Our technology will greatly increase the usefulness of these robots in military environments We expect substantial interest in the DOD to these kinds of technologies. We are also working with the US Army on remote medical robotics applications and have connections with Mr. Michael Beebe, who is the Medical Robotics and Unmanned Systems R\&D manager for the Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC) of the US Army. We are also investigating remote operation of robots on oil drilling platforms to reduce manpower and allow for continued operation in the face of storms that require evacuation of platform personnel. We are also investigating the automation of remotely operated underwater vehicles, such as those produced by Oceaneering, many of which need vision-based navigation technologies. This application is particularly timely after the Deepwater Horizon incident.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA relies on crew members to monitor and maintain the ISS. If the ISS should need to be evacuated for even a short time, flight controllers will not have sufficient on-board cameras to maintain monitoring capabilities. Remotely operated, free-flying satellites on-board ISS can offer monitoring capabilities. Our technology will provide vision-based navigation for these free-flying satellites. These same vision-based navigation algorithms could also be used by Robonaut when it becomes mobile in the future. Our algorithms are also applicable to free-flying inspection robots outside of a spacecraft. These would be useful even for robotic missions. Imagine being able to inspect the stuck antenna of a probe while it's on its way to Jupiter. The same vision-based navigation algorithms are also applicable to NASA surface exploration robots such as SEV, Centaur, and MSL.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Man-Machine Interaction
Perception/Vision
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O3.02-8295
SUBTOPIC TITLE: ISS Utilization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robotic, MEMS-based Multi Utility Sample Preparation Instrument for ISS Biological Workstation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Microsonics Systems, Inc.
76 Bonaventura Drive
San Jose, CA 95134-2123
(408) 844-4980

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vibhu Vivek
vibhu.vivek@microsonics.com
76 Bonaventura Dr.
San Jose,  CA 95134-2123
(408) 844-4986

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project will develop a multi-functional, automated sample preparation instrument for biological wet-lab workstations on the ISS. The instrument is based on a transducer technology developed by Microsonics Systems; BLU (Bulk Lateral Ultrasonic). BLU works by using a MEMS based transducer, which when excited with RF power generates ultrasonic waves. Since these waves when focused by an Fresnel Annular Sector Actuator (FASA) have a very high level of lateral ultrasonic thrust, the coupling of them into a well causes a lateral mixing vortex. Banks of these transducers are contained in a multi-station, robotic, compact instrument. The instrument utilizes a centrifuge to produce a gravity vector into tubes containing samples which are ultrasonically coupled to the FASA transducer. The electrical energy is inductively coupled into the transducer which generate BLU energy for fluid processing in the sample tube. Samples placed into the instrument will be directed to the proper transducer set (correct BLU power), for 1) cell/tissue lysis, 2) cell fractionation, 3) Sample mixing and compound solubilization 4) DNA shearing for microbiological applications, e.g., PCR, micro array analysis, other analysis (TBD).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As the target of the Micro-Gravity Sample Preparation System is to provide the research scientists working on the ISS the same capabilities that they would have in a terrestrial laboratory, many of the Non-NASA commercial applications are the same as the NASA applications. While it is clear that when placing the instrument in a terrestrial lab, the same gravitational constraints would not exist, the universal nature of the centrifugal process lends the product to being similarly utilized.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Sample Preparation for DNA Sequencing &#150; Initially, this application can be accomplished in the micro-gravity/zero gravity environment on the ISS. Eventually, the product can be utilized to identify the basic elements of DNA on non-terrestrial surfaces. DNA sample preparation is required every time DNA is to be sequenced. There are multiple steps involved in the preparation of DNA for sequencing. These steps are typically completed by different instruments from different companies. However, there are a few key basic processes that are necessary, namely lysing, shearing, mixing and heating, all of which can be executed using Microsonics technology. Obviously, the compact requirements of the ISS make the flexibility and dynamic nature of this potential instrument ideal. More specific applications: Sample prep for chemical analysis, protein synthesis & protein crystallography, DNA Fragmentation, Cell Lysis, Mixing and Resolubilization of compounds in solutions and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Simulation of different gravitational environments - Through the modification of the centrifugal forces, all of the sample preparation steps mentioned above can be accomplished while simulating different gravitation environments such as the moon, Mars, Jupiter, etc. Sonoporation - The device should be able to sonically modify the permeability of the cell plasma membrane. The goal would be to allow the uptake of large particles, such as DNA, into the cell.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Nanomaterials
Organics/Biomaterials/Hybrids
Polymers
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Acoustic/Vibration
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Biological Signature (i.e., Signs Of Life)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Biophysical Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O3.02-9621
SUBTOPIC TITLE: ISS Utilization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Remotely Controlled Mixers for LMM Colloid Samples

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Techshot, Inc.
7200 Highway 150
Greenville, IN 47124-9515
(812) 923-9591

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Kurk
akurk@techshot.com
7200 Highway 150
Greenville,  IN 47124-9515
(812) 923-9591

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Designation of the International Space Station (ISS) as a National Laboratory creates exciting opportunities for a broad spectrum of researchers to take advantage of ISS's unique space attributes and scientific research facilities. The Light Microscopy Module (LMM), which was developed and is being managed by the NASA Glen Research Center (GRC), is currently operating on the ISS and has supported many high profile research experiments. LMM could yield many more astonishing results if auxiliary subsystems were available to complement its capabilities. For example, Techshot is currently developing the LMM-Dynamic Stage (LMM-DS), which will satisfy a host of new experiments proposed for LMM. However, GRC has many more researchers awaiting the essential auxiliary subsystems to efficiently conduct colloid science experiments in the LMM, which could lead to new advanced materials with exciting commercial potential. Capitalizing on Techshot's rapid progress with the LMM-DS, as well as the company's vast array of separations technologies and extensive experience with microfluidic systems, a series of Colloid Homogenization Modules (CHM) will be developed by Techshot for use in the LMM-DS. These innovative low-volume mixing devices will enable uniform particle density and remotely controlled repetition of LMM colloids experiments. In addition CHM will minimize crew time, as well as avert the need for multiple, costly colloid samples that are expended after only one examination. The CHM subsystems are an extremely important analytical microgravity research technology that will greatly enhance the capability of the LMM, thereby enabling ISS to become even more effective as a national laboratory.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Techshot serves as an Implementation Partner to NASA for enabling space flight experimentation on ISS. Building on its heritage of developing and integrating space flight hardware, as well as conducting scientific research in space, Techshot offers flight experiment services to non-NASA customers, such as researchers from universities and the private sector. Techshot's successful space flight experiments with processing facilities like the Avian Development Facility (ADF) and the ADvanced Space Experiment Processor (ADSEP) position the company as a leader in offering these unique services. Soon, the Light Microscopy Module &#150; Dynamic Stage (LMM-DS), coupled with the innovative capabilities of CHM, which can facilitate more efficient LMM fluidic experiments, are expected to give Techshot an even greater competitive advantage in attracting microgravity research customers. Furthermore, with the ability of commercial launch vehicles (e.g. SpaceX, Orbital Science) to get more experiment samples into orbit, once these vehicles begin routine visits to the ISS, the economics of transporting and processing materials in microgravity should become far more compelling. Eventually, given sufficient economical commercial launch vehicle transporting capacity, when coupled with Techshot's cadre of space processing equipment, CHM could become an important element for processing larger quantities of high-value materials in the unique microgravity environment of space.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed CHM devices offer important new technology needed for on-orbit analysis, as well as the chance to leverage existing ISS facilities for new scientific payloads. This is expected to lead to many new potential NASA commercial applications and opportunities. In particular, Techshot expects to commercialize the CHM by incorporating it into the company's spaceflight service program that it offers to NASA mission programs, as well as to other Government agencies, including investigators funded by the National Institute of Health's Biomed-ISS program. The CHM family of devices provides unique opportunities to remotely control and facilitate colloids experiments and other similar fluidic experiments on the ISS LMM. By further automating the experiment process, CHM allows more colloid samples to be processed in a shorter period of time, while at the same time minimizing the need for crew member involvement. The improved capability afforded by CHM will enable more colloids experiments to be conducted and lead to far more efficient and productive use of the LMM. Overall, the science research community will be better served with increased capacity of processing experiments on the LMM, and NASA can more fully realize its goal of utilizing ISS as a national laboratory.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Process Monitoring & Control
Fluids
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Adaptive Optics
Biophysical Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O3.02-9753
SUBTOPIC TITLE: ISS Utilization
PROPOSAL TITLE: ISS Additive Manufacturing Facility for On-Demand Fabrication in Space

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Made in Space, Inc.
427 North Tatnall Street, #56666
Wilmington, DE 19801-2230
(209) 736-7768

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Snyder
snyder@madeinspace.us
S. Akron Rd., Building 20, MS 20-1
Moffett Field,  CA 94035-0001
(727) 808-9936

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The ability to manufacture on the International Space Station will enable on-demand repair and production capability, as well as essential research for manufacturing on long-term missions. Having an Additive Manufacturing Facility (AMF) on the ISS will allow for immediate repair of essential components, upgrades of existing hardware, installation of new hardware that is manufactured, and the manufacturing capability to support commercial interests. Additive manufacturing is the process of building a part layer-by-layer, with an efficient use of the material. The process leads to a reduction in cost, mass, labor and production time. As part of this proposal, Made in Space, Inc., combined with the mission experience of Arkyd Astronautics, Inc. and NanoRacks, LLC, will develop an Additive Manufacturing Facility for the ISS that will enable on-board manufacturing capability. The crew would be able to utilize the AMF to perform station maintenance, build tools, and repair sections of the station in case of an emergency. The AMF will use an extrusion-based "3D printing" method, which Made in Space has already tested in zero-gravity with successful results (Summer 2011), and is scheduled to do sub-orbital testing in 2012 as part of NASA's Flight Opportunities Program. The first-generation AMF will be contained and operated in an 8U of the NanoRacks&#174; payload system. It will be capable of producing components from a variety of space-rated composites. Later generations will have the ability to produce parts with space-grade metals. This versatility will allow for a variety of components and devices to be manufactured, enabling the mentioned uses to be applicable as well as unforeseen uses to be developed.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
With the Additive Manufacturing Facility, commercial companies and non-NASA government agencies will be able to pay-to-build what they need on the ISS. Although it is anticipated that the full use of this facility won't be completely realized until completion, the commercial applications apply to three broad areas: (1) Inside the ISS (including spares, tools, science experiments, parts for astronauts, and hardware for other entities inside the ISS), (2) Outside the ISS (specifically spacecraft and satellites that are built on-demand, while also saving money, mass, and volume; customers include satellite companies, research institutes, defense agencies, and more), (3) Ground-based applications (for fabricating a range of products that could only be fabricated in zero-g).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial product foreseen from this SBIR proposal is a novel, low risk approach to fabricating in space, enabling the creation of spare parts, tools, and upgrades for the International Space Station. The Additive Manufacturing Facility proposed is capable of significantly reducing launch costs and improving space utilization. Currently the ISS is fully dependent on Earth. Re-supply missions make extended stay on station possible. If a production facility were to exist on the ISS the crew would demand less on re-supply missions and could have increased redundancy due to the ability to produce goods when needed. The facility will allow NASA, other government agencies, and companies the ability to build what they need on-demand&#151;whether it be hardware, spare tools, a small CubeSat, or even in-space fabricated 3D art. Key initial NASA applications include: * Safety and emergency repair solutions, giving astronauts a much-needed contingency plan, * ISS repair and life extension, * Ability to build broken parts on demand, increasing reliability and capability to legacy experiments, * Hardware on-demand, including the capability to build spare parts, tools, laboratory equipment such as syringes, modular laboratory configurations, and more, * Science experiment building and repairing, * Exploration research, building the research needed for such a facility to be used on long duration space flight missions, * Spacecraft assembly and check-out.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Tools/EVA Tools
In Situ Manufacturing
Composites
Polymers
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O3.02-9885
SUBTOPIC TITLE: ISS Utilization
PROPOSAL TITLE: On-Orbit DNA, RNA, and Protein Extraction

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Genova Engineering, LLC.
3430 Otis Street
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033-6361
(303) 883-1473

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jon Genova
jon@genovaengineering.com
3430 Otis St
Wheat Ridge,  CO 80033-6361
(303) 883-1473

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Genova Engineering proposes to develop and demonstrate a toolset of discrete devices and extraction kits which will leverage existing on-orbit facilities and will permit an expansion of molecular biology capabilities onboard ISS. This toolset, Nucleic Acid And Protein Isolation (NAAPI), is a near-term deployable technology which gives the ISS researcher the ability to isolate DNA, RNA and proteins from precious biological samples. By isolating these target molecules, sample volumes can be reduced by orders of magnitude resulting in reduced downmass. This technology also proposes to adapt a state of the art stabilization technique to enable long-term ambient storage of nucleic acids. This system offers the unique ability to isolate total protein for storage and/or analysis.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Multiple levels of containment needed for ISS use can be incorporated into potential commercial applications that require DNA, RNA and protein isolation from highly infectious human samples. Segregation of samples from multiple applications of wash buffer during processing cycles, will reduce the number of disposables used and lab efficiency can be improved.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology will introduce the ability to carry out sample preparation for molecular biology tests from a variety of sample matrices (cell culture, plant tissue, blood, swab, etc). These NASA applications includes processing astronaut blood, urine, and other body fluids to isolate and identify infectious agents or for gene expression studies. Additional application can be found in monitoring water supplies or life support systems for microbial contamination. The technology is extensible and comprised of discrete components which can be adapted for multiple tasks related to fluid manipulation and sample processing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Medical
Biophysical Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O3.03-8466
SUBTOPIC TITLE: ISS Demonstration & Development of Improved Exploration Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cost-Effective ISS Space-Environment Technology Validation of Advanced Roll-Out Solar Array (ROSA)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Deployable Space Systems, Inc.
75 Robin Hill, Building B2
Goleta, CA 93117-3108
(805) 693-1319

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steve White
Steve.White@DeployableSpaceSystems.com
75 Robin Hill Rd. Bldg. B2
Goleta,  CA 93117-3108
(805) 722-4941

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Effort proposed is for detailed planning, configuration and hardware definition of a low-cost, but high technology payoff, ISS-based flight experiment that will allow key relevant space-flight environmental validation of our innovative Roll-Out Solar Array (ROSA) technology/ hardware. The ROSA flex-blanket solar array technology provides game-changing affordability and performance, and delivers a performance paradigm shift in terms of: significantly lower cost, greater specific power, more compact stowage volume, higher structural performance, deployment reliability, less complexity, and higher modularity & scalability than state-of-the-art solar arrays; for NASA deep space planetary exploration/science, high-power solar electric propulsion (SEP) Tugs and Exploration vehicles, commercial orbital transportation and resupply (COTS, CRS)missions. The critical and necessary aspect of readying the enabling ROSA technology for infusion into these applications is to increase the TRL to 7+ via test-validation of hardware in a relevant spaceflight environment provided by ISS (and supporting scalable predictive model validations) for three key ROSA technology advance areas critical to solar array implementation by end-users: Deployment Kinematics, Deployed Dynamics Behavior and Photovoltaic Power Production / Survivability. The ISS provides a ready and cost-effective relevant space environment (zero-G, vacuum and solar illumination/thermal) test-bed for the validation of these key ROSA technology areas via the straightforward flight experiment proposed. The proposed ROSA ISS flight experiment will leverage off of existing ground-based hardware test / analysis efforts to continue the systematic ROSA technology maturation, risk mitigation and TRL advancement to level 7+, through space-environment validations of a ROSA prototype-experiment flight wing's function and performance. It will also allow generation of flight validated, scalable, TRL 7+ predictive models.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ROSA is also ideal as a direct replacement solar array for the large number of projected future commercial communications satellites that require ever-increasing power levels, and DoD surveillance / communication applications requiring the highest performing solar arrays. The proposed (ISS-flight validated) technology will undoubtedly provide discriminating performance and will be mission-enabling for many commercial and DoD space missions / applications when compared to current state-of-the-art systems. The ROSA technology's ultra-high performance, affordability (less expensive than rigid arrays), configuration flexibility and low-parts, and elegantly-simple deployment reliability is game-changing for the commercial space solar array industry.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The impacts of a successful Phase 1 and Phase 2 flight experiment development; and successful ISS space flight TRL 7+ validation of the ROSA technology will provide a reliable replacement for expensive and inferior-performing solar arrays, will enable many future NASA missions requiring: high specific power, high stiffness / strength, scalability / modularity, high stowed packaging efficiency, autonomous retraction and re-deployment capability, large-area / high power capability, high voltage operation, LILT operation, and high radiation survivability; including many of NASA's Exploration and Planetary Science missions, and will provide a next generation technology for ultra-reliable, elegantly simple and low-cost high-performance flex blanket solar array applications. The ROSA technology is very well suited for high-power, high voltage Exploration missions, SEP missions, deep space LILT missions, high strength and high stiffness CEV, COTS/CRS, rovers, and other NASA mission applications requiring significant design flexibility, scalability, modularity and low cost.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Deployment
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Structures
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O3.03-9856
SUBTOPIC TITLE: ISS Demonstration & Development of Improved Exploration Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Dead-Ended Passive Electrolyzer with Elimination of Vapor/Liquid Separation for Life Support Oxygen

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cortney Mittelsteadt
cmittelsteadt@ginerinc.com
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton,  MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0529

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Giner Electrochemical Systems, GES, has developed an advanced static vapor feed electrolyzer that has greatly simplified operation compared to traditional electrolyzers. The vapor feed results in sub-saturated product gases which eliminates the need for gas/liquid separation and for the ISS allows direct egress of the product oxygen into the cabin. The objective of the Phase 1 proposal would be to build a 15 cell static vapor feed electrolyzer stack capable of providing enough oxygen for 1 astronaut (1.8 lbs/day). Subsequently the stack will be operated with frequent start/stop interruption for 1000 h. In a follow on Phase II study a second stack will be delivered to Hamilton Sundstrand for testing at their facility and for preparation into a flight article. The Phase I objective would be completed by the following tasks: 1. Endurance testing of a 5 cell stack to 1000 hours. 2. Prepare a test stand for evaluation of a full 15 cell stack. 3. Build and evaluate a full 15 cell stack (Capable of generating 1.8 lb O2/day, enough for one astronaut) 4. Test the 15 cell stack for 1000 hours.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Fuel cell vehicles hydrogen filling stations, Naval electrolyzers, energy storage, load-leveling for renewables.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Life support oxygen. Energy Storage. Lunar and space stations, satellites, high altitude aircraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Conversion
Distribution/Management
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Storage
Polymers


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O3.04-8031
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vehicle Integration and Ground Processing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Polyoxometalate and Zirconium-Phosphate Conversion Coating for Steel Piping

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
International Scientific Technologies, Inc.
P.O. Box 757
Dublin, VA 24084-0757
(540) 633-1424

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Harig
intlsci@earthlink.net
P.O. Box 757
Radford,  VA 24084-0757
(540) 633-1424

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Sub-topic O3.04, NASA has identified a need for control of material degradation to extend the life and reduce the life-cycle costs of piping systems subject to microbial influenced corrosion in the presence of untreated or brackish water. The corrosion mechanisms of greatest interest are salt and acid attack due to exposure to brackish or untreated waters and bacteria, fungi, and archaea. International Scientific Technologies, Inc., in conjunction with Ferrum College, proposes the development of a protective barrier conversion coating to prevent corrosion cell formation in steel substrates. Phase I Technical Objectives include selection, characterization and fabrication of polyoxometalate building blocks to complement zirconium-phosphate conversion coating, polyoxometalate-zirconium phosphate conversion-coating system design, and measurement and test of individual and layered polyoxometalate conversion coatings for corrosion inhibition efficiency to salt and acid. The anticipated result of the Phase I and Phase II programs is the development of an environmentally friendly corrosion-resistant conversion coating that can be utilized on coated and un-coated ferrous materials.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) 2001 report on corrosion costs in the United States it is estimated that Corrosion costs U.S. industry and government agencies an estimated $276 billion/year. Chrome-free environmentally friendly conversion coatings will find application in a variety of industrial sectors in reducing worker exposure to toxic materials and reduction of waste-treatment costs. The corrosion inhibition of ferrous metals will lead to decreased failures due to microbial corrosion in pipelines and in manufacturing and construction materials in highly corrosive salt and acid environments. It is expected that the coatings can be used in field applications for large structures at ambient temperatures rather than higher temperature alternatives that need to be applied in controlled environments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed polyoxometalate conversion coating will find application in reducing life-cycle costs of piping systems subject to microbial-influenced corrosion in the presence of untreated or brackish water. The environmentally friendly chrome-free conversion coating is expected to perform not only as a corrosion inhibitor to microbially induced corrosion, but also function as a smart coating that will passivate metal exposed in organic-coating topcoats and at defects in the conversion coating. The removal of toxic materials and reduction in operation and maintenance costs would be welcomed for control of material degradation in the nation's spaceport and propulsion test-facility infrastructure and ground and flight assets. Other areas supported by NASA, such as the Air Transportation & Safety, Structures and Waste Storage/Treatment, could also make use of the conversion-coating technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Waste Storage/Treatment
Processing Methods
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Nanomaterials
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O3.04-8261
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vehicle Integration and Ground Processing
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Portable, Linear-Array Ultrasonic Imaging System for Rapid Inspection of Large-Area Composite Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
X-wave Innovations
407 Upshire Circle
Gaithersburg, MD 20878-5238
(301) 948-8351

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dan Xiang
dxiang@x-waveinnovations.com
407 Upshire Circle
Gaithersburg,  MD 20878-5238
(301) 948-8351

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 0
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The use of composites in aircraft manufacturing is growing dramatically. To ensure the integrity of composite structures and bonded joints, a variety of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies have been developed over the past three decades. Among them, the ultrasonic and acoustic based technologies (e.g., ultrasonic C-scan, resonance, mechanical impedance analysis, and tap test) have proven to be successful in many field applications, especially for delamination and disbond inspections. However, most conventional ultrasonic NDE methods are based on point-by-point inspection scheme, which is either subjective in manual operation or time-consuming when a large area needs to be inspected. In this proposal,X-wave Innovations, Inc. (XII) and North Carolina State University (NCSU) propose an innovative linear-array ultrasonic technique for rapid inspection of large-area composite and bonded structures. The success of the proposed effort will result in the development of a novel technique that will provide rapid, reliable, and accurate inspection and evaluation for composite structures and bonded assemblies, as well as an ultrasonic NDE system that is inexpensive, portable, and easy to use. This system will be suitable for field testing of defects (including disband and delamination) in various composite materials and bonded structures

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed LAUT system has many market applications in different industries such as the air and space, defense and energy sectors. Customers should include the US government agency, including DOD, DOE, DOT, and commercial companies such as Boeing, GE, etc. The total market will increase in the future because of the rapidly expanded use of composite materials in many mechanical components and system to improve the system's efficiency and overall performance.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Quick inspection of large composite structures posts significant challenge and interest to NASA. The low cost, light weight, handheld device that can provide quick inspection and imaging of various defects (such as delamination and disbond) and damages (e.g., fiber breakage and impact damages) for various composite structures and bonded assemblies should also be extremely valuable to advanced mechanical components and systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Structures
Acoustic/Vibration
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O3.04-9765
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vehicle Integration and Ground Processing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Unpowered Wireless Ultrasound Generation and Sensing for Structural Health Monitoring of Composites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Signal Processing, Inc.
13619 Valley Oak Circle
Rockville, MD 20850-3563
(240) 505-2641

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chiman Kwan
chiman.kwan@signalpro.net
13619 Valley Oak Circle
Rockville,  MD 20850-3563
(240) 505-2641

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Damage detection based on ultrasonic waves is one of the most popular inspection schemes employed by many structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. We propose a novel unpowered wireless ultrasound generation and sensing system for SHM. Since ultrasonic signals generally have a frequency of a few tens of kilohertz to a few megahertz, they cannot be easily transmitted using a wireless means because of high sampling and high bandwidth requirements. Our system uses a frequency mixer to up-convert the ultrasonic signal to microwave frequency so that it can be transmitted wirelessly using a small antenna and down-convert the ultrasonic signal back to its original frequency once the wireless signal is received. Because the mixing of the ultrasound and the microwave signal is performed using a passive microwave component, i.e. a frequency mixer, the wireless sensor nodes do not need any local power. For ultrasound generation, an ultrasound-modulated signal is transmitted to a remote ultrasound generator, the generator recovers the ultrasound excitation signal using down conversion and supply it to a piezoelectric actuator. Since the sensing and generating nodes have the same configuration, each node can either act as a generator or a sensor. Sensor array can also be implemented. Compared to SAW sensor, our approach requires smaller antenna and achieves longer distance between interrogation unit and the sensor. Another key difference is that SAW sensor requires special piezoelectric substrate whereas our approach can use any piezoelectric sensor. Finally, the proposed approach is compatible with previous works on ultrasound-based technology. Previously developed knowledge on data processing and feature extraction can be easily adopted.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Many structures such as pipes, metallic, and non-metallic structures are aging and need more timely inspection. The proposed technology can also be used for Naval and commercial ships, aircraft, vehicles, etc. We expect this technology and its spin-off products to be at least 10 million dollars over the next decade.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed wireless ultrasound generation and sensing system can be used in monitoring critical NASA structures in International Space Station, Crew Exploration Vehicle, and other ground structures.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Quality/Reliability
Data Processing
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O3.06-8148
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Control Systems & Technologies for NR & Cubesats
PROPOSAL TITLE: Demonstration of a Thermally-Controlled Shipping Container for NanoRack and CubeSat Payloads

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mainstream Engineering Corporation
200 Yellow Place
Rockledge, FL 32955-5327
(321) 631-3550

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Scaringe, Ph.D.
rps@mainstream-engr.com
200 Yellow Place
Rockledge,  FL 32955-5327
(321) 631-3550

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A significant challenge faced by space-bound experiment packages is the requirement for a minimally controlled environment while a small payload is awaiting launch or is in transit to the International Space Station (ISS). NASA is seeking thermal solutions for the transportation of NanoRack and CubeSats experimental payloads. This proposal discusses a unique thermally-controlled storage/shipping container that can provide active cooling to maintain a pre-determined set-point temperature during the storage and transport of small payloads prior to being loaded aboard the Soyuz launch vehicle for transport to the ISS. For example, as discussed further in this proposal, this lightweight, compact, reusable, shipping container can provide 60¿aF thermal environment inside the container, when exposed to 130¿aF ambient temperature for at least 12 hours while only being powered by two commercial AA NiMH rechargeable batteries (and unlimited duration thermal control when connected to external power). The Thermally Controlled Shipping Container for small satellite payloads will also have data recording and wireless monitoring capability. Phase I will demonstrate the system with a NanoRack or CubSat payload, thereby reducing the risk during a follow-on Phase II effort. This proposal contains technical details and photographs of critical components of the system, which have already been demonstrated on Internal R&D (to clearly demonstrate the potential of the proposed approach). A detailed commercialization study which shows a significant markets for this technology in the microclimate cooling, electronic cooling and thermally-controlled shipping container markets is also included. Mainstream is well versed in this technology, has critical patents pending on the technology, and this work dovetails well with our existing and developing product lines. Mainstream has sufficient financial resources and experience to commercialize this technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Thermally-controlled medical shipping containers, miniature active thermal control systems for compact electronic systems and computers, localized spot cooling for electronics, and microclimate cooling systems for workers wearing protective clothing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Thermally-controlled shipping and storage containers for NanoRack and CubeSat satellites, miniature micro-gravity active thermal control systems for small satellites, localized electronic spot cooling for systems on the ISS.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Active Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O4.01-8702
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Metric Tracking of Launch Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact Optical Inertial Tracking for Launch Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MagiQ Technologies, Inc.
11 Ward Street
Somerville, MA 02143-4214
(617) 661-8300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Caleb Christensen
caleb@magiqtech.com
11 Ward Street
Somerville,  MA 02143-4214
(781) 661-8300

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose a method for developing a miniature all-optical Inertial Navigation System. In an optical INS, the rotation sensitivity depends on the area enclosed by a circular optical path, so it is impossible to significantly reduce the size of a standard fiber optic gyroscope or ring laser gyroscope without sacrificing sensitivity. However, using the phenomenon of fast last, which we will produce through Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in a fiber, the sensitivity of a ring laser gyro of a given size can be enhanced by up to 106. We will use a fiber-based, fast-light enhanced ring laser gyroscope to maintain the sensitivity of existing optical gyroscopes while greatly reducing the physical size of the sensing element. Combined with photonic integrated circuit technologies and standard optical accelerometers, the entire INS package can be greatly reduced in size, weight, and power, resulting in a rugged, compact, high sensitivity INS ideal for launch vehicles and spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
¿ The device will be suited for self-guided ordinance and unmanned aerial vehicles, where traditional high sensitivity optical INS systems are too large to use. These vehicles require high bandwidth inertial measurements for navigation in areas where GPS is unreliable or jammed by an adversary. ¿ INS systems are also frequently used for stabilizing weapons platforms or communications devices mounted on ground and naval vehicles of all sizes. A reduction in the size of the INS unit can simplify existing designs or even enable new applications which are unfeasible with existing technologies. ¿ Commercial aircraft and marine vessels commonly use optical inertial measurement devices for navigation, stabilization, and tracking. A compact, rugged INS device may prove cost-effective for some situations. ¿ There is additionally a possibility of a consumer market for a downgraded version of the sensor using fewer specialized components and reduced stabilization. The resulting product would provide reduced sensitivity, but could offer a lower price while maintaining small size and low power consumption. This could be attractive for consumer products which have never before included inertial sensor elements, such as improved GPS navigation for personal vehicles and pleasure craft, automated consumer vehicles, or active shock protection of sensitive devices.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
¿ The system can be used in the tracking and control of launch vehicles for placing payloads into orbital or sub-orbital trajectories. The reduced SWaP will be very valuable for reducing costs or improving performance. ¿ A small, low power inertial measurement device could prove useful on manned or unmanned spacecraft by providing precision inertial feedback during orbital maneuvers or stationkeeping operations. ¿ A device, possibly with fewer than 6 axes of sensitivity, could be used to actively stabilize instrument platforms during sensitive astronomical observations or scientific measurements. This stabilization could be applied to ground-based, space-based, airborne or naval platforms to reduce effects of mechanical vibration, environmental forces, or the earth's rotation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Command & Control
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Lasers (Communication)
Inertial (see also Sensors)
Optical
Inertial
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O4.02-8761
SUBTOPIC TITLE: PNT (Positioning, Navigation, and Timing) Sensors and Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: TASS-Enhanced Near Earth Navigation System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Emergent Space Technologies, Inc.
6411 Ivy Lane, Suite 303
Greenbelt, MD 20770-1405
(301) 345-1535

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kenn Gold
kenn.gold@emergentspace.com
6411 Ivy Lane, Suite 303
Greenbelt,  MD 20770-1405
(720) 841-6331

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The need for science-grade Position, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) sensors that are low Size, Weight, and Power (SWaP) is well recognized. The ability to provide precise positioning and pointing in real-time is a capability needed for formation flying, rendezvous and proximity operations, and radio and laser altimetry. To address this need, Emergent Space Technologies will develop a low SWaP codeless GPS receiver that will be capable of precise and real-time orbit determination. Currently, precise orbital determination is performed on the ground since real-time GPS differential corrections won't be available on orbit until they are broadcast by the TDRSS Augmentation Satellite System (TASS). The proposed innovation will combine the capability to receive TASS messages with SCP and the Goddard Enhanced Orbital Navigation System (GEONS) to provide precise PNT capabilities. SCP can track the L1 P(Y) chipping code-phase without an encryption module since it is codeless. Combining this capability with the ability to receive TASS messages in GEONS, on a suitable hardware platform will enable kinematic GPS capable of decimeter-level positioning in real-time. This effort determines how to best integrate these technologies, and to find a suitable host

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed receiver system has significant applicability to DOD needs for positioning in orbits where conventional GPS is difficult, and can be extended to operate in cases where GPS is denied. The ability to produce highly accurate positions in a low cost, low swap, form factor, and in a software defined radio implementation has applications for operationally responsive space, in which a satellite must be assembled and launched quickly. Commercial applications include any application in which highly accurate positioning is required, in any orbital regime. This would include missions in which multiple satellites are required to operate in close proximity at known separations, and in systems in which the location of the satellite must be known to tag the data acquired.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed system can be utilized for any NASA mission in which GPS tracking is desired, and is especially useful for small satellites where SWaP concerns are critical. Because the system proposed integrates real time correction messages with a highly accurate codeless GPS navigation system which shares a heritage with JPL Blackjack technology, and utilizes GEONS as a Kalman Filter Navigation engine, deci-meter level positioning accuracies are possible. This high accuracy real time positioning enables future missions in which these are desirable goals. Due to the abilities of the unique receiver design proposed, it is possible to extend the sensor for scientific missions such as ionosphere profiling, and to extend navigation ability to degraded GPS or complex orbits such as those higher than GPS.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O4.02-9385
SUBTOPIC TITLE: PNT (Positioning, Navigation, and Timing) Sensors and Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Exoplanet Star Tracker for Orbit Self Determination

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Keystone Aerospace
P.O. Box 143881
Austin, TX 78714-3881
(512) 835-6238

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
George Hindman
GWHindman@KeyAerospace.com
P.O. Box 143881
Austin,  TX 78714-3881
(512) 835-6238

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal puts forth an innovative star tracker hardware sensor that allows for autonomous calculation of a spacecraft's orbit by employing Doppler Spectroscopy and Astrometric techniques. The proposed advanced star tracker provides onboard deep space orbit self determination capabilities through the use of specialized reference stars that have exoplanet companions. The motion of exoplanets around a reference star's barycenter provides a stable, highly predictable natural signal pattern. An advanced exoplanet star tracker enhances mission capabilities for future manned and unmanned space vehicles as well as reducing Deep Space Network (DSN) tracking requirements and resources.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Exoplanet Star Tracker hardware would improve future navigation systems for non-NASA users such as the military, non-profit research institutions, universities and commercial satellite builders. Independent navigation in low and medium Earth orbits would be available when primary GPS navigation is unavailable. In 2010, satellite manufacturing revenues were $10.8 billion dollars.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Exoplanet Star Tracker hardware would improve future navigation systems for NASA manned or unmanned space platforms. Primary autonomous navigation could be incorporated into spacecraft designed for geostationary, elliptical or deep space orbits including missions to the Moon, comets, asteroids, Libration points and Mars. Resource demands on DSN would be decreased. Secondary navigation in low and medium Earth orbits would be available when primary GPS navigation is lost.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Attitude Determination & Control
Inertial (see also Sensors)
Inertial
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)
Multispectral/Hyperspectral


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 11-1 O4.02-9730
SUBTOPIC TITLE: PNT (Positioning, Navigation, and Timing) Sensors and Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Spacecraft Navigation and Timing Using Celestial Gamma-Ray Sources

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ASTER Labs, Inc.
155 East Owasso Lane
Shoreview, MN 55126-3034
(651) 484-2084

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Suneel Sheikh
sheikh@asterlabs.com
155 East Owasso Lane
Shoreview,  MN 55126-3034
(651) 484-2084

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed novel program will use measurements of the high-energy photon output from gamma-ray celestial sources to design a new, unique navigation system. This Gamma-ray source Localization-Induced Navigation and Timing, or "GLINT", concept provides deep-space vehicles the capability for self-navigation based upon measurements from observations of these source signals. In the past, gamma-ray sourc