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NASA 2008 SBIR Phase 2 Solicitation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 A1.01-9133
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE83P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mitigation of Aircraft Aging and Durability-related Hazards
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hydrophobic Polymers with Adherend Complexing Sidechains as Durable Aerospace Adhesives

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NanoSonic, Inc.
1485 South Main Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060-5556
(540) 953-1785

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jennifer Lalli
jlalli@nanosonic.com
1485 South Main Street
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-5556
(540) 953-1785

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 7 to 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In support of NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate and Aviation Safety Mission, NanoSonic has developed a series of moisture and corrosion mitigating, ultra-hydrophobic, environmentally tunable, nanophase separating adhesive modifiers and complementary high performance, wide service temperature range (-60C to 450C) structural adhesives. The smart nanostructured modifiers represent a significant discovery as the adhesion strength of our novel and commercial-off-the-shelf aerospace adhesives was increased by > 40% with inclusion of such systems upon aging in 100% relative humidity (RH), ten days, 140F. Of significant importance to manufacturability and dual-use commercialization, the novel modifying agents are inert, inorganic-organic, halogenated hybrid copolymers, and hence can be used with virtually any adhesive, paint or environmental aerospace materials systems. The inorganic poly(octahedral silsesquioxane) (POSS), fluorination and copolymer molecular weight can be synthetically engineered to complement any paste of film adhesive. The TRL of the novel adhesive system would be increased from 6-8 during Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications for the ultra-hydrophobic, nanostructured, modifiers and high performance, halogenated, POSS-copolymers include moisture/corrosion mitigating structural aerospace adhesives, anti-ice conformal coatings and gamma radiation resistant composites. At the systems level, the moisture resistant, environmentally tunable adhesive systems would prevent the spontaneous bond dissociation associated with water wicking at the metal-epoxy interface of bonded joints. In humid environments, diffusion through the bulk epoxy adhesive on composite-composite bonded joints would be mitigated via a reduction in the free volume of the water permeable epoxy. The universal, inert nanostructured modifiers could therefore support composite or metal aircraft substructures. For dual-use NASA applications, NanoSonic's spray ESA process is an economically feasible option for manufacturing multilayer nanostructured stacks and environmental coatings for large area aircraft and space structures. NanoSonic's hydrophobic, yet polar, hybrid adhesives and coupling agents offer excellent adhesion, moisture and corrosion resistance over a wide service temperature range of -90<SUP>o</SUP>C to > 450<SUP>o</SUP>C.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NanoSonic's high performance polar, yet hydrophobic adhesives would result in advanced aerospace adhesives and surface treatments with increased durability to minimize subsonic aircraft aging and durability related hazards with a TRL of 6 upon completion of the Phase I program. NanoSonic's polar resins are synthetically engineered to offer stronger adhesion over commercial aircraft adhesives, and the hydrophobic backbone allows for superior moisture resistance and corrosion mitigation. The down-selected polymers would also serve as adhesives or sealants with solvent resistant against jet fuel, sea water and harsh aircraft solvents. The adhesives offered will be delivered in volumes up to 55 gallon drums and are roll-to-roll compatible for repair appliqu. TRL 9 would be reached via successful flight testing and platform integration of the adhesives onto commercial subsonic, supersonic and near-space aircraft such as 787 Dreamliner, V-22, AH-1, UH-60 F/A-18, JSF, HAA and ISIS.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Airlocks/Environmental Interfaces
Erectable
Inflatable
Kinematic-Deployable
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Cooling
Thermal Insulating Materials
Modular Interconnects
Tankage
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Production
Manned-Maneuvering Units
General Public Outreach
K-12 Outreach
Ceramics
Composites
Organics/Bio-Materials
Radiation Shielding Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 A1.02-8907
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE84P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensing and Diagnostic Capability for Aircraft Aging and Damage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Micromechanical Models for Composite NDE and Diagnostics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
JENTEK Sensors, Inc.
110-1 Clematis Avenue
Waltham, MA 02453-7013
(781) 642-9666

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrew Washabaugh
jentek@shore.net
110-1 Clematis Avenue
Waltham,  MA 02453-7013
(781) 642-9666

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Modern aircraft (and next generation spacecraft) increasingly rely on composite components due to their excellent specific strength and stiffness, as well as improvements in costs and manufacturing quality. However, life management for composites is in its infancy compared to life management for metal structures. Limitations in the ability of standard nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods to observe manufacturing quality and in-service damage evolution of composite structures may prevent designers from realizing their full potential. Current NDE practices are incapable of overcoming these limitations. Thus, a new framework and methodology is needed for high resolution imaging and tracking of manufacturing quality and damage evolution. The goal of this program is to enable assessment of the matrix, fiber, and bonding conditions for composites using a combination of detailed physics-based models, high resolution imaging, and controlled loading sources to isolate the composite characteristic of interest. Micromechanical models allow quantitative determination of composite constituent properties. This program focuses on magnetic field sensing (i.e., eddy-current) methods that can be combined with structural analysis to enhance the diagnostic capabilities of these NDE methods. JENTEK and MR&D are well-positioned to deliver this methodology in the form of commercial software and NDE equipment. We will also work with a major aircraft OEM to maintain our focus on practical solutions to high priority needs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
If the program is successful, it will provide NASA with a framework in which a variety of NDE methods can deliver enhanced performance for manufacturing quality assessment and life management of composite components and bonded structures. This will be enabled by improving the understanding of the interactions between the incident energy associated with particular NDE methods and the composite constituents. This program will also deliver a new capability for inspection of stresses within the composite and at buried interfaces. This will be valuable for both aircraft structures and spacecraft components such as composite overwrap pressure vessels.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Civilian aircraft designers will experience the same benefits in terms of being able to more fully utilize the capability of composite aircraft components to provide weight reductions, payload improvements and fuel efficiency. As composite component design, quality assessment and life management mature, composites will be increasingly integrated into automotive and transportation systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 A1.04-8545
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE86P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation External Hazard Sensor Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fiber Laser Coherent Lidar for Wake-Vortex Hazard Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fibertek, Inc.
510 Herndon Parkway
Herndon, VA 20170-5225
(703) 471-7671

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shantanu Gupta
sgupta@fibertek.com
510 Herndon Parkway
Herndon,  VA 20170-5225
(703) 471-7671

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose a 1.5um fiber-optic pulsed coherent lidar as a highly effective sensor sub-system for airborne wake-vortex hazard detection. The proposed design is based on a recently developed platform at Fibertek, for fiber-optic pulsed coherent lidar capable of 6km range, and operating at high pulse rate to give high-resolution spatial map and circulation strength, characteristic of typical wake-vortex signatures. The proposed system uses all COTS 1.5um fiber-optic component technology and COTS high-speed digital electronics, to provide a cost-effective system, that is amenable to rapid transition for field testing and adoption.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
(1a) Ground-based wake vortex hazard monitoring at airport terminal area take-off/landing interval optimization (1b) Airborne wake-vortext hazard monitoring for pilot assistance, during landing in congested airports. (2) Wind-shear turbulence monitoring (3) Investigate & map atmospheric boundary layer dynamics for improved local weather scientific understanding, and local weather forecasting

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
(1) Wind vector sensor for aiding and/or extending Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) flight duration, for extended surveillance missions (2) Tracking of hazardous aerosol plume detection, for providing advance warning to affected entities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 A1.05-9507
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE90P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Systems Technologies for Improved Aviation Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cognitive Modeling for Closed-Loop Task Mitigation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Guangfan Zhang
gzhang@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville,  MD 20855-2737
(301) 301-5244

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI) along with collaborators at the University of Iowa and Old Dominion University (ODU) developed an advanced closed-loop Adaptive Task Management System (ATMS). The ATMS is designed to accurately monitor Operator Functional State (OFS) during flight in real time based on an individualized OFS assessment model. The individualized OFS assessment model is trained and individualized using different sources of training input (physiological signals, system dynamics measurements, etc.) and training output derived from the dynamic cognitive workload reference analysis. If the OFS of an individual decreases below a certain threshold, we will apply a task performance augmentation strategy to even-out workload and maintain the operator in an optimum cognitive workload level. As a result, the operator can be continuously engaged and able to respond quickly and appropriately to unusual situations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA Applications: the closed-loop adaptive task management system can be directly deployed to many NASA applications that can benefit from more sensitive and robust workload and operator functional state assessment for the purpose of designing work environments, tools and procedures. On the other hand, the adaptive task management system providing sensitive monitoring of human operator functional status in situ allows other human and automated agents to adapt appropriately in NASA's aviation safety mission. The closed-loop adaptive task management system would also be applicable to those missions in manned space flight and exploration

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA Applications: The closed-loop task adaptive management system would also be appropriate for spin off to other operational environments such as military and civilian arenas, military UAV mission controllers, general transportation operators (particularly long haul trucking), and other supervisory control environments. In addition, the technology can be used to increase the training/learning efficiency by utilizing the real-time monitoring of the functional state. Possible applications include the training of transportation security agents, air traffic controllers, and pilots, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 A1.07-9537
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE93P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: On-Board Flight Envelope Estimation for Unimpaired and Impaired Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Upset Prevention and Recovery for Unimpaired and Impaired Aircraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Techno-Sciences, Inc.
11750 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300
Beltsville, MD 20705-3194
(240) 790-0600

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gaurav Bajpai
bajpaig@technosci.com
11750 Beltsville Drive Suite 300
Beltsville,  MD 20705-3194
(240) 790-0611

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of the project is the development of an on-board envelope estimation, protection and upset recovery tool to address loss of control incidents in commercial aircraft. Loss of control incidents can be attributed to variety of factors including environmental (icing, clear air turbulence, wakes, etc.), failure of aircraft components (stuck control surfaces, failure of hydraulic systems, broken cables, etc.), human factors (pilot error, insufficient training, crew distraction, etc.) or a combination of any of them. Usually the final catastrophic event is linked to nonlinear phenomenon (like stall) and there is a small time window of opportunity for the pilot (or the flight computer) to recover but the action they take are critical to any such recovery. In Phase I, we have demonstrated how nonlinear equilibrium analysis can be brought to bear upon this problem to understand the dynamic behavior of the aircraft outside of the nominal operating regime. We have also shown using NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) how such tools may be used to dynamically estimate the operational envelope of the aircraft. In Phase II, we will extend the methodology to design an on-board envelope protection system and study upset recovery schemes. The analytical tools will be supported by the development of commercial grade software for on-board envelope estimation and upset recovery for unimpaired and impaired aircraft. We have already implemented symbolic tools for modeling and analysis, database management, numerical validation and visualization. These tools will be extended, improved and evaluated experimentally. Our goal is to provide verifiable software for commercial aircraft flight safety.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary users of the proposed tools will be commercial aircraft manufacturers where air transport must provide improved capabilities to enhance passenger safety and mission performance, and commercial airline operators where improving safety is increasingly imperative as air passenger miles expand. The proposed research addresses the need to reduce accidents caused by loss-of-control in flight, the leading cause that accounted for 59% of the fatal transport aircraft accidents in the past ten years. The secondary market is the Department of Defense agencies. We expect that the secondary market may be the first adopter of proposed technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposal will directly impact the goals of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft control project and advance the technical goals of NASA's Aviation Safety Program by developing on-board flight envelope investigation for unimpaired and impaired aircraft. In particular, the technology proposed is closely linked to project's goal of "Stability, maneuverability and safe landings in presence of adverse conditions". The proposed technology will go a long way in making not just commercial aircraft safer but it has the potential to improve the understanding of flight dynamics and control including that is required for space shuttle safety.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Simulation Modeling Environment
Training Concepts and Architectures
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Human-Computer Interfaces
Software Development Environments


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 A1.09-9907
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC02P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Robust Flare Planning and Guidance for Unimpaired and Impaired Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Robust Flare Planning Logic for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Payload Systems, Inc.
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110-2702
(617) 868-8086

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Antonio Abad
aabad@aurora.aero
1 Broadway, 12th Floor
Cambridge,  MA 02142-1189
(617) 500-7048

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aurora Flight Sciences proposes to develop a flare planning methodology that would provide aircraft guidance during this critical phase of flight. The algorithms that Aurora seeks to leverage the reachability problem in the fields of Optimal Control and Hybrid Systems, using Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs) and Falsification theory. To this end, Aurora proposes the innovation of applying a suitable version of these algorithms to the design of a flare maneuver guidance and planning logic. The planner will be capable of dynamically producing a flare maneuver that does not violate the aircraft flight envelope and other stipulated constraints. The planner will meet the robustness requirements stipulated in the topic solicitation; namely, it will apply to both impeded and unimpeded aircraft, and it will operate under significant weather disturbances. The main technical challenge in developing the planning logic is extending and applying the chosen control algorithms to 6-DOF aircraft dynamics models under the required variety of operating conditions. The ultimate goal of the Phase 2 effort is to demonstrate Aurora's algorithms in an appropriately sophisticated Hardware-in-the-loop simulation of an impaired aircraft during a flare maneuver.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aurora envisions two related NASA Commercial Applications resulting from the proposed innovation, both of which align with NASA's Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) project. First, the planning logic is envisioned as a separate, specialized module tailored specifically to the flare phase of flight, thus fulfilling the multi-disciplinary IRAC project goal for this specifid flight phase. In a broader context, the success demonstration of applying Safety Verification-based algorithms to this difficult flight regime would spur similar efforts and thus, applications to many other flight regimes, especially those in which severe upset recovery is of interest.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aurora envisions two possible non-NASA Commercial Applications resulting from the proposed innovation. The first, and immediate application of the planner is to UAV Automatic Take-off and Landing (ATOL) systems on Aurora's fleet of UAVs. A second, and broader application is based on the opportunity of becoming experts in developing Safety Verification-based algorithms and their application to both manned and unmanned systems. An example application in the manned systems domain is the extension of the planner to autolander systems. For unmanned systems, Aurora views this effort as a technical opportunity that will eventually assist in improving UAV safety and reliability.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Facilities
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Pilot Support Systems
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Expert Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 A1.10-9580
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC71P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detection of In-Flight Aircraft Anomalies
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Unified Nonlinear Adaptive Approach for Detection and Isolation of Engine Sensor, Actuator and Component Faults

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Impact Technologies, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd.
Rochester, NY 14623-2893
(585) 424-1990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Liang Tang
liang.tang@impact-tek.com
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester,  NY 14623-2893
(585) 424-1990

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6 to 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Impact Technologies in collaboration with Pratt & Whitney and Wright State University, proposes to continue the development of an innovative nonlinear adaptive method for detecting and isolating sensor faults, actuator faults, and component faults for jet engines. In sharp contrast to many conventional methods which deal with either sensor faults or component faults but not both, our method considers all three types of faults under one unified framework. In the successful Phase I program, we have demonstrated the effectiveness of the approach via a proof-of-concept demonstration using NASA's C-MAPSS model. The objective of Phase II is to raise the TRL by comprehensive development/improvement of the prototype system, extensive performance evaluation, and close collaboration with Pratt & Whitney for technology transition. The success of this program will bring significant benefits to the propulsion industry by providing a cutting-edge engine diagnostics system with features that have never been available, including adaptive nonlinear engine model, adaptive threshold, transferrable-belief-model-based residual evaluation within a unified framework. These novel technologies will greatly improve performance of onboard engine diagnostics system especially during transient operations and further reduce false alarm rate and missed detection rate, resulting in improved flight safety and significant reduction in overall engine maintenance cost.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful completion of the proposed work will lead to improvements in the safe operations of commercial and general aviation (GA) aircraft and address the goals of the NASA Aviation Safety program. The proposed fault diagnostic technologies with an emphasis on sensor / actuator / component failure isolation will be directly applicable to Propulsion IVHM, Crew Exploration Vehicle, Reusable Launch Vehicles, Unmanned Air Vehicles and future generation general aviation platforms. It will lead to benefits in the form of improved reliability, maintainability, and survivability of safety-critical aerospace systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The success of this Phase II program will bring significant benefit to the propulsion industry by providing a cutting-edge engine diagnostics system with features that have never been available. The potential commercial use of the developed technologies is broad. Examples of key customers that could benefit through use of the developed technologies include: commercial and military aircraft, unmanned combat air vehicles, JSF, future combat systems, land and marine propulsion systems, industrial actuation systems, and robotic applications. The aero propulsion domain alone has thousands of potential systems to address with this technology

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 A1.11-8886
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC03P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Integrated Diagnosis and Prognosis of Aircraft Anomalies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Prognostic and Fault Tolerant Reconfiguration Strategies for Aerospace Power Electronic Controllers and Electric Machines

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Impact Technologies, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd.
Rochester, NY 14623-2893
(585) 424-1990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Antonio Ginart
antonio.ginart@impact-tek.com
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester,  NY 14623-2893
(404) 526-6188

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Impact Technologies has proposed development of a real-time prognostic and fault accommodation system for power converters and electro-mechanical (EM) drive applications. The main goal for this program is development of techniques that enable fault tolerant control based on diagnostic features from the coil winding and power transistors. During Phase I, Impact achieved substantial and promising results in three main technical areas that provide opportunities to maturing tools that enable PHM and reconfiguration techniques. The technical areas include: Transistor Performance, Motor/Actuator Performance, and Fault Tolerant Reconfiguration. During Phase II, a significant effort will be employed to further develop the automated ringing feature extraction feature, leakage current sensing capabilities, and reconfiguration techniques for continued motor operation. These efforts will lead to development of prototype sensors for IGBT aging detection and current leakage detection as a health indicator of aging effects in power drives. Moreover, Impact will demonstrate reconfigurable control techniques for fault accommodations in EM applications. The long term implications of a successful completion of this program will provide reliability and health management tools for mission and safety critical applications for NASA, commercial, and military enterprises.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of the proposed prognostics & fault tolerant reconfiguration strategies will directly contribute to NASA's IVHM and IRAC efforts. The proposed technologies are applicable to future generation aviation platforms, leading to benefits in the form of improved reliability, maintainability, and survivability of safety-critical electro-mechanical systems. The long term implications of a successful completion of this program will provide reliability tools for the state-of-the-art technologies such as the advanced fly-by-wire aircraft and Intelligent Flight Control Systems. A lot of NASA's NextGen and current activities can take immediate advantage of these technologies. In short term, the motor/actuator modeling and reconfigurable strategies to be developed in this program can be directly transitioned to some ongoing research work at the Prognostics Center of Excellence of NASA Ames. The adaptable nature of modules presented in this program will allow them to act as design and development tools for a wide variety of NASA applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential benefits from the successful completion of this program are enormous and will significantly impact the way critical aerospace, power devices, controllers, and other systems are designed and operated. Examples of key customers that could benefit through use of the developed technologies include: commercial airlines, power semiconductor device and drive manufacturers, land and marine propulsion systems, unmanned air vehicles, JSF, future combat systems, industrial actuation systems, and robotic applications. Particularly, the push towards fly-by-wire control system implementation in the commercial airlines by manufacturers like Boeing have specific requirements on health management performance for which these technologies can provide value by increasing reliability and safety for critical components. The prognostics-enhanced motor/ electro-mechanical actuator control will be of great interest to these manufacturers. Furthermore, for the power drive manufacturers, implementing the technologies developed through this program will enhance the fault detection and mitigation for power devices and motor/actuator applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Pilot Support Systems
Highly-Reconfigurable
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 A2.01-8646
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC74P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development of Fast Response SME TiNi Foam Torque Tubes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shape Change Technologies
1731 Hendrix Avenue
Thousand Oaks, CA 91360-3316
(805) 053-7193

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Peter Jardine
jardine@shape-change.com
1731 Hendrix Ave.
Thousand Oaks,  CA 91360-3316
(805) 805-5665

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Phase I, Shape Change Technologies had developed a process to manufacture net shape TiNi foam torque tubes that demonstrated the shape memory effect. The torque tubes dramatically reduce the response time by a factor of 10 and with integrated hexagonal ends, make structural connections fascile. In Phase II we see to mature this actuator technology by rigorously characterizing the process to optimize the quality of the TiNi and develop a set of metrics to provide ISO 9002 quality assurance. With the rapid response time, a Labview based real time control of the torsional actuators will be developed. With team partner Boeing, we will develop these actuators for aerospace applications and Boeing will independently characterize the actuators.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of porous foam TiNi torsional actuators fits into a niche of a large torque, large strain, fast response, solid state actuator. Our initial thoughts on NASA applications are to introduce these into new NASA concepts, such as in "morphing" UAVs, or such as the concept vehicles where wing twist can be used to control flexible wing structures. In addition to aircraft, the torsional actuators can also be used for deployment of booms, both for deploying sensors in aircraft but also in spacecraft where the lightweight, minimal part count actuators could be heated electrically. For next generation shuttles, where the actuators must also be space qualified, this type of actuator to control wing twist, nacelle structures or ancillary aircraft structures would be of great benefit.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications take two forms, one is introduction of these tubes to control variable nacelle structures, for example in Boeings new concept. More aerodynamically efficient structures via actuation control can also be introduced into windmills and turbines for more efficient energy generation. Light weight torsional actuators can also find application in assisting the disabled, for example as a lift device, as the cost of the device could be reduced to levels similar for hydraulic actuators but with less bulk. If the cost can be reduced sufficiently , this SME technology can be introduced within the broader cast of SME actuators now being introduced into the vehicle fleet.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Erectable
Kinematic-Deployable
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Modular Interconnects
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Thermodynamic Conversion
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 A2.01-8997
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE96P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Calibration of 3D Woven Preform Design Code for CMC Materials

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Research and Design
300 E. Swedesford Road
Wayne, PA 19087-1858
(610) 964-6133

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Sullivan
brian.sullivan@m-r-d.com
300 E. Swedesford Road
Wayne,  PA 19087-1858
(610) 964-6131

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Mechanical and thermal performance of CMC components benefit from low part count, integrally fabricated designs of 3D woven reinforcement. The advantages of these designs include the elimination for the need for post-fabrication mechanical attachment and the higher interlaminar properties offered by the through thickness paths of the fibers within the 3D preform architectures. The specific innovations MR&D is proposing are to improve the preform geometry definition through the use of the Kansas State University digital element approach, improve the material properties calculation module using a modified unit cell algorithm associated with the new geometry, and enhance the code calibration through additional CMC fabrication, imaging and material property testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The preform design and CMC property prediction code developed in the Phase II program will support the development of any hot structure control surface, TPS, or propulsion system materials used on the Crew Exploration Vehicle and subsequent airframes required for the Mission to Mars.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology proposed in the Phase II program will also be of direct interest to the Department of Defense (DOD) to support the development of CMC scramjets, hypersonic missiles, and maneuvering reentry bodies. The results are also expected to be of direct interest to programs including the USAF Common Aero Vehicle, and the DARPA Hypersonic Cruise Vehicle.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Structural Modeling and Tools
Ceramics
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 A2.01-9769
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC63P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Piezoelectric Structural Microensor Technology for Extreme Environments (> 1800 F)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRS Ceramics, Inc.
2820 East College Avenue
State College, PA 16801-7548
(814) 238-7485

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Xiaoning Jiang
xiaoning@trstechnologies.com
2820 East College Avenue
State College,  PA 16801-7548
(814) 814-7485

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
High temperature piezoelectric crystal (HTPC) sensors are desired for future propulsion component structure health monitoring, operating parameters optimization, turbine engine control and health monitoring, as well as improving performance and maintainability of power production facilities and other rotary combustion engines. Recently discovered high temperature piezoelectrics showed stable piezoelectric properties and high resistivity at temperatures close to its melting point (~ 1500 C) , which is very promising for high temperature sensor applications. The Phase I results demonstrated excellent temperature sensing and vibration sensing performance at temperature up to 1000 C (> 1800 F). In Phase II, low profile HTPC microsensors design, fabrication and attachment will be further investigated and optimized. Highly sensitive HTPC piezoelectric structural microsensors will be prototyped and characterized for temperature, stress and acceleration measurements at temperatures up to 2000 oF. HTPC microsensor reliability will also be studied in Phase II. HTPC microsensors will significantly advance NASA, DOD and industrial high temperature measurements because of their low profile, simple structure, high sensitivity, quick response, and high reliability.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High temperature piezoelectric crystal (HTPC) based structural sensor technology is desired for NASA future aerospace propulsion systems under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP). Specifically, high temperature sensors will be used for future propulsion component structure health monitoring and operating parameters optimization. The HTPC sensors can also benefit the current space vehicles health monitoring by providing high temperature structural data.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High temperature sensors can be used for turbine engine control and health monitoring, high mach flight tests, as well as improving performance and maintainability of power production facilities and other rotary combustion engines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Control Instrumentation
Testing Facilities
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Thermal Insulating Materials
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
High-Energy
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 A2.02-9195
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC80P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Instrumentation for In Situ Combustion Measurements

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Los Gatos Research
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041-1518
(650) 965-7780

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Douglas Baer
d.baer@lgrinc.com
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View,  CA 94041-1529
(650) 650-7772

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 8 to 9

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of the Phase I is to develop, demonstrate and test a novel instrument based on laser absorption diagnostics for fast, in situ measurements of important parameters (static gas temperature, bulk gas velocity, and gas concentration) in the high speed flows typical in NASA propulsion test facilities. In addition, the instrument will be easy to move (translate) during operation and thus allow measurements at different locations during a test run.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Instrumentation for rapid measurements in high speed, high enthalpy propulsion test facilities will enable NASA scientists and engineers to monitor the important parameters including: gas concentrations, gas temperatures and gas velocities under realistic engine operating conditions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA Commercial Applications include: Instrumentation for measurements, control and thus optimization of combustion engine flows (gas turbines, waste incinerators) based on measurements of gas concentrations, temperatures and velocities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Testing Facilities
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 A2.02-9318
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC81P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Ultra-Sensitive, Size Resolved Particle Mass Measurement Device

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerodyne Research, Inc.
45 Manning Road
Billerica, MA 01821-3976
(978) 663-9500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
JAMES AKIMCHUK
jima@aerodyne.com
45 Manning Road
Billerica,  MA 01821-3976
(978) 978-0214

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 8 to 9

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
By providing size resolved compositional information, the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) has greatly advanced understanding of aircraft particulate matter (PM) emissions. AMS data have been critical to much of our understanding of aircraft PM emissions, but in the past it has had limited utility in probing the smallest (<100 nm) particles in the exhaust. Also, prior to this work the AMS has been able to detect only volatile PM and other instruments have been required to characterize the non-volatile (soot). During Phase I, we: 1) developed an improved computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model to simulate the performance of the AMS for <100 particles; 2) used the CFD model to invent a new AMS technology with improved performance for <100 nm particles; and 3) evaluated a newly developed instrument which combines a laser vaporization system with a standard AMS to provide size resolved mass and composition data for soot. During Phase II we propose: 1) upgrade our CFD modeling capability to three-dimensions to evaluate Brownian motion and the effects of fabrication imperfections; 2) fabricate and test the promising lens geometry invented during Phase I; 3) demonstrate the laser vaporization AMS and improved lens design(s) in the laboratory and in the field.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA Applications The technology we plan to develop has two primary NASA applications: 1) characterization of gas turbine exhaust PM and 2) characterization of atmospheric particles. In terms of gas turbine exhaust characterization, NASA is committed to assisting the aircraft engine industry reduce emissions. The drivers include reducing aviation impacts on local air quality and global climate change. Particle emissions are the single largest source of uncertainty in estimating potential effects of aircraft on the environment or climate. Improved instrumentation for characterizing gas turbine engine PM both nucleation/growth mode volatile PM and non-volatile soot is required to provide experimental data to guide combustor design improvements. In terms of atmospheric particles, NASA has sponsored a number of major field tests in the past several years, including Arc-Test. The Arc-Test mission, aimed at part to understand the phenomena of arctic haze and biomass burning, included participation of several AMS teams. Improved AMS instruments with the capability of detecting smaller particles characteristic of atmospheric nucleation and non-volatile soot is required to provide more comprehensive data sets in future NASA atmospheric chemistry and physics missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential Non-NASA Commercial Applications The aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) has been an important tool to characterize the size resolved composition of particulate matter (PM), and the improvements we envision will further expand its capabilities in defense, engine manufacturing, biomedical, chemical, and energy. For defense sector applications, improved AMS performance would make it useful for detection and characterization of chemical and biological weapons attacks. For engine manufacturers, especially manufacturers of diesel engines, the improved performance of the aerodynamic lens combined with the capability to directly obtain size resolved soot measurements is critical to guide efforts to design end-of-pipe exhaust treatments. In the biomedical field, aerosol drug delivery is an important therapy for a growing number of treatments, including insulin. Moreover, the potential human health impacts of nanotechnology and nanotechnology enhanced consumer products is becoming an area of increasing concern. In the chemical industry, nanoparticles have become an important part of many commercial products and chemical processes. On-line characterization of functional nanoparticles is therefore an important application of the new technologies. For energy applications, PM emissions of clean coal power plants are to come under tighter regulation and an instrument that can monitor and characterize the PM emissions will improve efforts to reduce power plant emissions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Particle and Fields
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 A2.02-9878
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC82P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Scramjet Combustion Stability Behavior Modeling

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gloyer-Taylor Laboratories, LLC
2212 Harton Blvd.
Tullahoma, TN 37388-5583
(931) 393-5108

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Gloyer
paul.gloyer@gtlcompany.com
2212 Harton Blvd.
Tullahoma,  TN 37388-5583
(931) 931-5108

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A recent breakthrough in combustion stability analysis (UCDS) offers the potential to predict the combustion stability of a scramjet. This capability is very important due to the extreme scramjet operational environment, which makes cut-and-try development approaches impractical. With UCDS, it will be possible to accurately predict the scramjet pressure oscillation amplitudes, along with critical parameters, including the unsteady wall heat flux. The UCDS tools were recently applied to the Ares I thrust oscillation issue in support of NASA's Thrust Oscillation Focus Team (TOFT). After validating the UCDS capabilities by analyzing the RSRM, GTL applied the tool to identify a relatively minor motor modification that should eliminate the organized motor oscillations. Building upon this validation, GTL took the first step towards extending UCDS to scramjets in the Phase I effort. While a variety of issues and challenges were uncovered during the effort, the effort confirmed that the UCDS framework is fully applicable to scramjets. However, the effort also revealed that the DCR scramjet is far more complicated and difficult to analyze than a typical rockets. In the Phase II effort, GTL proposes to address the key issues that were identified during the Phase I effort.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Since the UCDS models are built from a general formulation, they can be used to analyze practically any combustion device, including rockets (liquid, solid, hybrid), turbojets (combustors, augmentors), ramjets, scramjets, combined cycle engines and so on. As such, UCDS can be used by NASA in the development of practically any propulsive device. Specific near term NASA applications for UCDS include: - Continued effort to mitigate the Ares I thrust oscillation effort - Working with the Ares V team to avoid potential thrust oscillation issues - Supporting the Constellation Program by identifying and avoiding potential stability issues that will arise when engines and motors are scaling up to meet performance requirements - Supporting the development of new propulsion devices, such as scramjets

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
With its broad capabilities, UCDS can be used by any combustion device developer, including the Air Force, Navy, Army, MDA, DARPA, DOE, and commercial propulsion developers, such as ATK, Aerojet, Pratt & Whitney and others. One specific non-NASA applications for UCDS is the Air Force/Aerojet Hydrocarbon Boost Engine development program.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Monopropellants
Simulation Modeling Environment
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 A2.03-9848
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CF01P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aero-Acoustics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Numerical and Physical Modeling of the Response of Resonator Liners to Intense Sound and High Speed Grazing Flow

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hersh Acoustical Engineering, Inc.
22305 Cairnloch Street
Calabasas, CA 91302-5875
(818) 182-2446

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alan Hersh
haeash@charter.net
22305 Cairnloch Street
Calabasas,  CA 91302-5875
(818) 224-4699

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An aeroacoustic computational code based upon a numerical solution of the full Navier-Stokes equations will be developed to provide a deep understanding of the physical behavior of resonator liners exposed to intense sound and boundary-layer grazing flow. The code computes the entire flow and acoustic field inside the flow duct. The user has the option to choose the flow Mach number, boundary-layer thickness, duct mode of incoming sound, frequency and SPL. For broadband sound, the user has the option to specify an incident noise spectrum. The code is designed to operate at both standard temperatures and very high temperatures. A semi-empirical three-dimensional resonator liner impedance code will developed for resonators also exposed to intense sound and boundary-layer grazing flow. The liner empirical parameters will be calibrated with NASA furnished resonator test data. Because of its simplicity, it can be used to provide realistic liner geometries for sound propagation codes that are used in both NASA and industry to determine optimum wall impedances to control excessive sound generated in jet engines and other flow duct environments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
An aeroacoustic computer code will be developed capable of predicting the impedance of liners exposed to intense sound, high subsonic grazing flows and at high temperatures. This will provide an essential tool for the aircraft engine acoustic designers to understand how resonators behave in harsh engine environments. A 3-D liner impedance model will be developed capable of determining the incident sound pressure far-field face-plate distances from resonator orifices. This represents an initial step in improving our understanding of how to effectively use the Dean Two-Microphone impedance measurement method. This is especially important because the Dean method is one of the current benchmark standards used to measure the effects of grazing flow and SPL on the impedance of cavity-backed liners.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
An aeroacoustic computer code will be developed capable of predicting the impedance of liners exposed to intense sound, high subsonic grazing flows and at high temperatures. This will provide an essential tool for the aircraft engine acoustic designers to understand how resonators behave in harsh engine environments. A three dimensional liner impedance model will be developed and mated to a flow duct sound propagation code to provide the designer of HVAC centrifugal and axial with the necessary tools to design highly efficient sound absorbing HVAC centrifugal and axial products. This technology is capable of being ported, for example, to manufacturers of space heaters and other products requiring quiet airflows.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 A2.04-8952
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CF02P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeroelasticity
PROPOSAL TITLE: ZEUS-DO: A Design Oriented CFD-Based Unsteady Aerodynamic Capability for Flight Vehicle Multidisciplinary Configuration Shape Optimization

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zona Technology, Inc.
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale, AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ping-Chih Chen
pc@zonatech.com
9489 E. Ironwood Square Dr.
Scottsdale,  AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6 to 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CFD-based design-oriented (DO) steady/unsteady aerodynamic analysis tools for Aeroelastic / Aeroservoelastic (AE/ASE) evaluation lag significantly behind other multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) developments for flight vehicle design. In practically all studies to date involving configuration multidisciplinary shape optimization, dynamic AE/ASE constraints were left out, thus, rendering the design results incomplete. Flutter, gust stresses, vibration, fatigue, ride comfort, handling qualities all extremely important still cannot be accounted for in an automated design process involving configuration shape variations. Proposed here is the creation of a comprehensive design-oriented CFD-based unsteady-aerodynamic methodology to enhance current flight vehicle shape MDO capabilities by the creation of AE/ASE shape sensitivities and efficient approximations tailored for large-scale design optimization. ZONA Technology's proven ZEUS code serves as the aerodynamic base for this development. In Phase II aerodynamic shape sensitivities for AE/ASE shape optimization will be developed for general 3D configurations made of lifting surfaces and bodies. The subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic flight regimes will be covered. Integration with shape optimization finite-element structural codes will be demonstrated, covering diverse AE/ASE constraints including flutter and gust response. This new general capability will fit any aerospace vehicle MDO environment, and will provide a critically needed MDO building block.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
CFD-based design-oriented software for steady/unsteady aerodynamic loads for Aeroelastic/Aeroservoelastic shape design of flight vehicles is still non-existent, leading to a gap in every current flight vehicle MDO capability. NASA has been working for years to develop a universal MDO system that would cover both sizing and shape optimization and would include integration with advanced structures, CFD aerodynamics, and controls. The proposed development aims at providing an expedient CFD-based aerodynamic computation capability for rapid evaluation of static and dynamic Aeroelastic/Aeroservoelastic constraints (such as flutter and gust response) and their sensitivities and approximations for flight vehicle design. This development will enhance NASA's flight vehicle MDO system developments with capability for generating Aeroelastic/Aeroservoelastic sensitivity and constraints. It will support design studies of practically every category of flight vehicles, including blended wing body, joined-wings, supersonic transports, morphing aircraft, truss and strut braced wings, space planes, RLVs, Mars planes, and any revolutionary concept pursued.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed design-oriented software (ZEUS-DO) will become the unique and the only CFD-based Aeroelastic / Aeroservoelastic-Aerodynamic tool for shape sensitivity, uncertainty evaluation, and shape optimization of flight vehicles. ZEUS-DO will provide design-oriented aerodynamics for Aeroelastic / Aeroservoelastic constraints and their sensitivities and approximations throughout the full Mach number and frequency ranges. It will be adopted by the aerospace industry for MDO of a wide class of aerospace vehicles: UAVs/UCAVs, supersonic business jets and transports, advanced transonic transports, fighter aircraft, hypervelocity missiles and winged projectiles (with optimized fin/canard/wing). It has the potential to be adopted by, in addition to flutter and loads departments, conceptual design and configuration development departments of airplane manufacturers nationally and world-wide. With its shape sensitivity and robust approximations capability for aerodynamic and aeroservoelastic behavior functions it will also be potentially used for design "what-if" studies and probabilistic systems analyses.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Modular Interconnects
Structural Modeling and Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 A2.06-9653
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CF08P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerothermodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Comprehensive CFD Tool for Aerothermal Environment Around Space Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805-1944
(256) 726-4800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vladimir Kolobov
sxh@cfdrc.com
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville,  AL 35805-1944
(256) 256-4858

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of this SBIR project is to develop an innovative, high fidelity computational tool for accurate prediction of aerothermal environment around space vehicles. This tool will be based on the Unified Flow Solver (UFS) developed at CFDRC for hybrid simulations of rarefied, transitional and continuum flows. In this project, UFS will be enhanced to include: radiation transport, non-equilibrium chemistry with real gas effects, and weakly-ionized plasma. The unique strengths of our proposal are: (i) smart software with self-aware physics and adaptive numerics for hypersonic flows with non-equilibrium chemistry, (ii) direct Boltzmann solvers for charged and neutral particles in rarefied regimes, and (iii) a high-fidelity multi-scale radiation transport model that can handle orders of magnitude variation of optical thickness. During Phase 1, we evaluated the relevant physical models and numerical algorithms, and started initial implementation and demonstration of the new capabilities. In Phase 2, these capabilities will be fully developed, validated and demonstrated for selected benchmark problems of interest to NASA. The proposed tool will significantly upgrade the modeling fidelity of high-speed weakly-ionized flows of molecular gases, and enable computational investigation of innovative hypersonic plasma technologies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project will result in a high fidelity, non-equilibrium reentry computational tool with unique predictive capabilities. The tool will find direct and immediate application in a multitude of NASA technology development programs such as the Constellation and New Millennium Programs. Multiple operational risks may be mitigated, including but not limited to ascent and descent aerothermal effects on Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) components such as the crew capsule and Launch Abort System, plume impact during orbital maneuvering, plume environments during Altair lunar landing operations or spacecraft landing near planetary outpost habitat structures. The accurate modeling of aerothermal environments is essential for protecting space vehicles and ensuring crew safety and overall mission success. The code will be used as a design tool for development of new generation reentry vehicles (such as CEV) and components of future hypersonic vehicles. The code will be also used for plasma flow control for subsonic and supersonic aerospace applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Technology applications beyond NASA include Ballistic Missile Defense vehicles performing exo-atmospheric missile intercepts, interceptor divert thruster plume interaction, and the generation of target missile plume signatures. The tool will have wide appeal to rocket engine manufacturers (e.g., ATK, Pratt & Whitney, and Aerojet) and to universities developing rocket engine technology (e.g. Purdue, Penn State, and University of Alabama in Huntsville). Advanced space propulsion systems such as arcjets, ion thrusters, and plasma thrusters must be evaluated for their installed performance and environmental impact. The Air Force is actively pursuing development of high-speed, long-range, scramjet-powered strike aircraft that will operate at high altitudes presenting complex propulsion airframe interaction challenges. The software may also find numerous commercial and research applications in material processing (hypersonic plasma particle deposition for nanomaterial fabrication) and semiconductor manufacturing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 A2.08-8438
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC85P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aircraft Systems Analysis, Design and Optimization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Multidisciplinary Optimization Objects

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
M4 Engineering, Inc.
4020 Long Beach Blvd
Long Beach, CA 90807-2617
(562) 981-7797

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Katherine Alston
kalston@m4-engineering.com
4020 Long Beach Blvd
Long Beach,  CA 90807-2617
(562) 981-7797

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
During Phase I, M4 Engineering integrated a prototype system into OpenMDAO, a NASA GRC open-source framework. This prototype system was a proof-of-concept that M4 physics based modules could be integrated in OpenMDAO. The results generated in OpenMDAO compared well to the results generated in another framework, ModelCenter. Phase II will be a demonstration of enhanced system functionality with the integration of additional modules and design tools. The integrated objects will perform discipline-specific analysis across multiple flight regimes at varying levels of fidelity. The process will also deliver system-level, multi-objective optimization. Phase II will also showcase a refined system architecture that allows the system to be less customized to a specific configuration (i.e., system and configuration separation) as well as additional example problems. By delivering a capable and validated MDAO system along with a set of example applications to be used as a template for future users, this work will greatly expand NASA's high-fidelity, physics based MDAO capabilities and enable the design of revolutionary vehicles in a cost effective manner. This proposed work compliments M4 Engineering's expertise in developing modeling and simulation toolsets that solve relevant subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic demonstration applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA GRC has a far-term goal of demonstrating OpenMDAO by September 2012. This Phase II proposal directly supports NASA's goals by integrating existing M4 Engineering discipline-specific and common object modules into OpenMDAO framework and giving users a baseline set of modules available for immediate use in constructing and solving MDAO problems. Disseminating NASA software is achieved when modules such as the propulsion module are integrated in OpenMDAO. The propulsion module is based on NPSS, which is NASA software. When the propulsion module is integrated, users automatically have access to NPSS. Other NASA codes that will be integrated as a result of this effort are ANOPP (Noise Module), FLOPS (Mission Module), and MaSCoT (S&C Module). These NASA codes were integrated in Gen1 framework and their integration in OpenMDAO will give users of OpenMDAO access to the same codes as users of Gen1, which will help make OpenMDAO more functional. This open-source framework with ready-to-use M4 components will help create an unbounded development platform that establishes commonality (Python language) without restrictions (open-source) and allows versatility as modules and design tools are available for use as required per configuration.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
M4 Engineering has discovered that developing the technology components and integrated MDAO processes such as those proposed in this Phase II has significant impact in our capturing related commercial work. Getting M4 modules into NASA's open-source framework increases the commercialization potential for those M4 modules and other associated M4 products. The applications developed in Phase II and transitioning to Phase III will not only serve as demonstrations of M4's capability, but will also provide exposure of the technology to the technical leadership of future development efforts, giving excellent chances of technology transition to these programs. M4 Engineering will explore commercializing our technology by developing components that can be used as plug-ins to Phoenix Integration's ModelCenter framework. We would exploit Phoenix Integration's established customer base to showcase our products. M4 Engineering's GMAP application is the first component that would be enhanced to be a ModelCenter plug-in. This component is being used within the Integrated MDO Objects to handle geometry morphing and querying capabilities. M4 Engineering participated in the NASA Glenn Infusion Assistance Program, which culminated in the June 2009 NAVY Opportunity Forum (NOF) / NASA Showcase (NS). Through this program, M4 Engineering learned about Phase III funding mechanisms and Phase III transition strategies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ablatives
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Simulation Modeling Environment
Reuseable
Thermal Insulating Materials
Structural Modeling and Tools
Database Development and Interfacing
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Composites
Metallics
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 A2.09-8605
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CF12P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Metal Rubber Sensor Appliqus for Rotor Blade Air

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NanoSonic, Inc.
1485 South Main Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060-5556
(540) 953-1785

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Claus
roclaus@nanosonic.com
1485 South Main Street
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-5556
(540) 953-1785

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Thin film Metal RubberTM sensor appliqus have the potential to reduce the time, complexity and cost of measuring air flow-induced skin friction during the development of rotary wing and fixed wing aircraft and related systems. Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> skin friction sensor appliqus allow near real-time detection 2D mapping of air flow conditions over surfaces of air vehicles. This is important for analysis of laminar to turbulent flow transitions, flow separation and reattachment mechanisms, and other instabilities, during rotor blade and fuselage design, blade tracking adjustments, and active flight control. The sensors act as mechano-electrical transducers to convert air flow-induced tangential surface forces into electrical output signals. They are thin and surface-mounted so cause minimal interaction with the flow, are easy to apply as an appliqu, and require no cavities or recesses other than holes to connect the sensor leads to data acquisition wiring. The material is resistant to normal aircraft fluids and solvents, can operate over a temperature range of -65 to +150C, and is capable of withstanding moderate rain and dust erosion. During Phase II, NanoSonic will Develop an improved understanding of the operation of thin film Metal RubberTM skin friction sensors, Standardize sensor design and sensor fabrication processes, Develop a method to calibrate sensor elements as part of manufacturing, Develop a means to compensate for cross-sensitivity effects, Develop and optimize means for data acquisition, Use developed sensors in cooperation with the NASA LaRC Subsonic Rotary Wing program to investigate rotorcraft research and development problems, and Use and demonstrate the sensors in cooperation industry and academic colleagues. The significance of the proposed NASA Phase II SBIR program is in transitioning these sensors from analytical and FEM modeling to commercial products for experimental use by NASA and industry.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> skin friction elements and arrays have applications in multiple NASA program areas, with specific use in Aeronautics Research. Applications include 1. direct distributed measurement of skin friction on wind tunnel models to verify computational fluid dynamics (CFD) boundary conditions as part of rotary wing and fixed wing air vehicle development, 2. specific measurements of air flow directly on helicopter rotor blades, 3. measurement of air flow-induced shear forces on the helicopter fuselage and on the flight deck during landing or near-ground operations, 4. measurements of air flow-induced noise and vibration as part of efforts to mitigate both during rotorcraft operations, 5. two-dimensional mapping of air flow effects near surface-mounted MEMS actuators or flow injection ports to validate flow control approaches, 6. measurement of skin friction on full-scale flight test rotorcraft and aircraft, 7. two-dimensional tactile sensor 'skin' arrays for astronaut-assisted or astronaut-controlled tele-robotic manipulators, and 8. distributed physiological sensor arrays of blood pressure, and heart and respiration rate for astronauts during extended space missions and extracurricular activities. Thin film skin friction sensor products developed during this program would directly support rotorcraft research within the Subsonic Rotary Wing Project, and extensive experimental instrumentation onsite at the NASA LaRC.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications of Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> 'sensor skin' arrays include 1. measurement of skin friction during the research and development of advanced commercial aircraft and hydrocraft by universities, industry, and other non-NASA government agencies, 2. instrumentation of air and water flow as part of industrial process control, 3. measurement of flow effects in energy production systems such as wind and water-driven turbines, and ocean wave-based electrical generators, 4. instrumentation in environmental monitoring, such as determination of air flow interactions with buildings and bridges, and water flow interactions with levies, and erosion control rip-rap, and 5. tactile sensor arrays to measure and map forces in biomedical prostheses. Additional applications of Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> materials themselves include as lightweight replacements for conventional tin-lead solder for the mechanical, electrical and thermal interconnection of electronic and mechanical components, in high performance, highly flexible, mechanically robust and lightweight electronic flex circuits, flexible displays and smart electronic fabrics, as low modulus conducting electrodes for high strain mechanical actuator and sensor devices, such as in medical prostheses, and as low-weight, electrically conductive and mechanically flexible coatings for systems requiring physically-robust electromagnetic shielding or ground planes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Attitude Determination and Control
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 A2.09-9022
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CF13P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fast Responding PSP for Rotorcraft Aerodynamic Investigations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc.
2766 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440-3638
(937) 374-2949

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jim Crafton
jwcrafton@innssi.com
2766 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton,  OH 45440-3638
(937) 429-4980

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The overall objective of the Phase I program was to demonstrate a system for simultaneous measurements of unsteady pressure and model geometry. During the Phase I program, system components were identified, evaluated, and selected and a preliminary system for model deformation and unsteady pressure measurements was demonstrated. This system utilized Porous Polymer fast PSP, lifetime-based detection, and a pulsed Laser for illumination to produce single-shot measurements. During the Phase II program, the basic system will be expanded in several steps. The final goal is to produce a mobile system that can be integrated quickly into a wind tunnel and produce near-real time pressure and deformation data. If an existing VMD system is available, it may be desirable to simply synchronize data acquisition with this system, and therefore, an external control capability is essential. Combining pressure and deformation data quickly, a process we refer to as data fusion, is essential for productive wind tunnel tests. Rapid data fusion will enable understanding of the flow while the model is in the tunnel, and therefore, facilitate quick and accurate decisions as the test evolves. The proposed Phase II system will include tools to facility combination of the PSP data with the model geometry.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential products of this research include pressure and skin friction sensors for unsteady flowfields including rotorcraft, flopping airfoils, compressors, and turbines. The unique frequency response of these sensors will allow investigations into the unsteady fluid dynamics of these systems. The resulting distributed measurements of pressure and model geometry are of significant interest to NASA in a variety of aeronautical applications. These systems would be employed directly in NASA wind tunnels and test stands. ISSI is currently pursuing commercial applications in these fields by developing and demonstrating production and research grade PSP systems to NASA and Federal Laboratory (DOD and DOE) customers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential products of this research include pressure and skin friction sensors for unsteady flowfields including rotorcraft, flopping airfoils, compressors, and turbines. The unique frequency response of these sensors will allow investigations into the unsteady fluid dynamics of these systems. The resulting distributed measurements of pressure and model geometry are of significant interest in a variety of fields including aeronautical, hydrodynamics, and bio-medical engineering. ISSI is currently pursuing commercial applications in these fields by developing and demonstrating production and research grade PSP systems to customers in North and South America, Euorpe, and Asia. These measurements include traditional aerodynamic models, rotor-craft models, micro-channels, bridge aerodynamics, and automotive aerodynamics. Several commercial customers have expressed interest in a combined PSP/VMD capability as well as significant interest in a fast PSP. system for flight testing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Testing Facilities
Particle and Fields
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Biomolecular Sensors
Instrumentation
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Biochemical
Optical
Photonics
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 A2.09-9167
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CF14P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid Finite Element Analysis for Rotorcraft Interior Noise Simulations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michigan Engineering Services, LLC
2890 Carpenter Road, Suite 1900
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-1100
(734) 355-0084

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Geng Zhang
gengz@miengsrv.com
2890 Carpenter Road, Suite 1900
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-1100
(734) 477-5710

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
One of the main attributes contributing to the competitiveness of rotorcraft, is the continuously increasing expectations for passenger comfort which is directly related with reduced vibration levels and reduced interior noise levels. Such expectations are amplified in the VIP market where people are used in the acoustic and vibration levels of civil and executive jets. One of the most critical excitations for interior noise in helicopters is the one from the gearbox. Thus, the structure-borne noise path (i.e. excitation propagating from mounting locations through the fuselage structure to the panels of the cabin and to the interior) must be captured in rotorcraft interior noise computations. This proposal addresses the need stated in the solicitation for developing physics based tools that can be used within a multi-disciplinary design-analysis-optimization for computing interior noise in rotorcraft applications. Currently, there is no robust simulation capability for this type of acoustic simulations. The hybrid FEA method can be used for structure-borne helicopter applications and can be integrated very easily (due to the finite element based model) with models from other disciplines within a multidisciplinary design environment. It combines conventional FEA with Energy Finite Element (EFEA) and it extends the frequency range of applicability of an existing finite element model by converting the elements that model the flexible panels into EFEA type of elements. A seamless Hybrid FEA capability of commercial quality will be developed based on MES' commercial EFEA code. UTRC will participate in the proposed effort for validating the new developments through comparisons to test data for a rotorcraft structure and for providing technical consultancy.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Structural-acoustic concerns are present in rotorcraft, aircraft, launch vehicles, and crew modules since they are directly related with occupant comfort and noise induced vibration on payloads and electronic equipment. In all of these areas simulations are utilized during design. Currently, structural-borne paths are difficult to address, since the excitation propagates through the stiff load bearing members to the flexible panels and capturing the behavior of both within the same simulation model is challenging. The proposed Hybrid FEA innovation will allow including structure-borne noise simulations within a multidisciplinary design environment and it will enable the evaluation of advanced concepts and reaching cost and weight savings. Therefore, the proposed developments will be useful to all NASA groups and contractors interested in reducing weight and cost when designing rotorcraft, aircraft, launch vehicles, and crew modules.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Structure-borne interior noise or radiated noise concerns are present in Naval applications where mechanical excitation from the propulsors is transmitted through stiff foundations to the outer hull of a vehicle; in automotive applications structure-borne noise comprises a major issue due to excitation applied at the shock towers from the suspension system, or due to excitation applied at the engine mounts of the vehicle's subframe from an operating engine; in heavy construction equipment excitation from the engine and the hydraulic system is transmitted through the load bearing structure to the interior cabin. In all of these areas simulations are utilized during design. Therefore enabling structure-borne noise computations and linking them with other simulation models within a multidisciplinary environment will offer cost and weight savings. Thus, there is a great commercial market potential for the outcome of this SBIR.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Structural Modeling and Tools
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 A2.10-8761
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC88P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Efficient Design and Optimization of a Flow Control System for Supersonic Mixed Compression Inlets

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SynGenics Corporation
5190 Olentangy River Road
Delaware, OH 43015-7990
(740) 369-9579

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michelle McMillan
michelle@syngenics.com
5190 Olentangy River Road
Delaware,  OH 43015-7990
(314) 324-4482

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SynGenics Corporation proposes a program that unites mathematical and statistical processes, Response Surface Methodology, and multicriterial optimization methods to design optimized, failsafe technologies to control shockwave-boundary-layer interactions and realize improvements in supersonic inlet performance and vehicle efficiency. The innovation described in this proposal is the development of SynGenics Optimization System (SynOptSys), a software product that will provide expert guidance to the user in the capture and documentation of response variables, identification of factors, and statistical design of experiments (DOE). Furthermore, the software system will assist the user in the analysis of DOE data, model building, diagnostics, and system optimization. The software will implement multicriteral optimization methods developed by SynGenics personnel, which will enable the simultaneous optimization of the flow-control (FC) system with respect to multiple, competing inlet-system requirements. SynOptSys will help designers and product developers overcome the barriers that prevent them from using powerful mathematical and statistical techniques to develop better products in a less costly manner. SynOptSys will implement the final task in a suite of methods developed by SynGenics to transform a need and candidate solution concepts to an affordable solution. Use of these powerful techniques enables the development of high-value systems. The significance of this program is that it will provide tools necessary to conduct multicriterial, inlet system-level-assessments and optimizations of enabling technologies, including, but not limited to flow-control technologies This program supports the Propulsion Efficiency key research area of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Supersonics Program by working to develop inlet FC technologies that will facilitate low TSFC of highly integrated supersonic inlets and improved overall cruise efficiency through reduced inlet drag.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed innovation supports the Propulsion Efficiency key research area of the NASA Supersonics Aeronautics Program. Moreover, it is applicable to any system whose suitability can be described in terms of measurable responses (e.g., stability, distortion, fuel consumption, cost, TRL, producibility) and that have associated factors that can be manipulated to influence the level of achievement of one or more of the desired responses. SynOptSys could be used for optimization of a high-temperature material, a mixed compression inlet system, an individual component within such a system, solution of acoustics problems associated with rotary-wing aircraft, hypersonic system concept optimization, and improving the return on investment of resources in physical testing and modeling, such as CFD. SynOptSys is also applicable to Long Range Strike Aircraft, and supersonic commercial and business aircraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA similarly include optimization of any product with attributes associated with customers' perception of its value. If the suitability of the product or system can be described in terms of measurable characteristics (e.g., strength, wear resistance, taste, cost, number of defects) and if there are factors whose values influence the level of achievement of one or more of the desired responses, then SynOptSys can be used in its design and optimization. It is also likely that SynOptSys can be used in the design and optimization of the process to produce it. Examples include nearly all products manufactured and sold in the world. Examples include rubber formulations for tires and windshield wipers, a severance system for aircraft canopies, the shape of turbine blades in a jet engine, a high-temperature material for thermal protective systems or engine components, an alloy for a specific application, manufacturing processes for a broad range of industries. Ceramic products like bathroom fixtures and dinnerware, chemicals, ophthalmic lenses, food products, pharmaceuticals, commercial aircraft seating configurations, fluffy pulp for disposable diapers, laundry detergent, and an endless list of other products could be designed using the proposed innovation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Expert Systems
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 A3.01-8875
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC09P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NextGen Airspace
PROPOSAL TITLE: ACES-Based Testbed and Bayesian Game-Theoretic Framework for Dynamic Airspace Configuration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Goutam Satapathy
goutam@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville,  MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5249

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR effort is focused on developing a Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) concept where-in ARTCCs can benefit from re-configuring airspaces based on Traffic Flow Management (TFM) restrictions, and the development of a preliminary Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES)-framework and initial algorithms to demonstrate that ARTCCs need to engage in a coordination framework of exchanging TFM restriction until they determine mutually-agreeable optimal airspace configuration. The development of algorithms that leverage and recognize the interactions and interdependencies between DAC and TFM is the key innovation of this effort. Some examples of expected operational improvements include 1) reduction in congestion and delays when sector capacities (Monitoring Alert Parameter or Dynamic Density) are violated, 2) reduction in controller workload and improved safety, 3) ability to accommodate user preferred routes and weather uncertainty and 4) achieve a balance between airborne delay and grounding holding delay. The SBIR Phase-I effort demonstrated how a combined DAC-TFM algorithm determines an optimal airspace configuration different from a DAC-only algorithm and could result in minimization of peak count and dwell time variance. The effort also included the design and preliminary implementation of a TFM model that uses ARTCC sector configuration to determine the delays that is generated, absorbed and propagated. The Phase II effort includes development of DAC-TFM framework as an enhancement to NASA's ACES- DADS (Dynamic Airspace Design Service) work and interaction of NASA's airspace partitioning DAC algorithms such as MxDAC, DAU slicing and Sector Combination algorithms with the TFM models using the same framework.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We anticipate the post applications for this technology to be initially tied very closely to NASA's Airspace DAC research efforts. We anticipate that the algorithms and framework developed in this effort will be further enhanced and integrated into ACES main branch under ongoing ACES effort in the 2012 -2014 timeframe. This research will complement ongoing NASA research in DAC and will support the following NASA DAC milestones Validate by simulation that airspace could be reconfigured every x hours without adverse effects (AS.3.3.04, due FY09) Candidate airspace allocation algorithms proposed (AS.2.3.01,) Candidate airspace allocation algorithms validated (AS.2.3.02,) DAC concepts experimentally validated (AS.4.3.01) In addition to Airspace DAC research, the ACES products will also significantly benefit from the enhancements made to ACES software. ACES is currently actively used by NASA contractors and researches. IAI has been involved in NASA's ACES development since its inception in 2001. IAI is thoroughly familiar with the ACES software and actively supports it for NASA's researchers and analysts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
System integrators who will prime the deployment of technologies in the roll out of NGATS, and the ones working with the US Air Force for Special Usage Airspace (SUA) management will use the technology developed under this Phase II. Both JPDO and FAA are working on modernizing the NAS (under SE2020 FAA) anticipates spending over $1billion over the next 10 years in various efforts for this goal. DSTs for concept evaluations, modeling and simulation and airspace design are integral components of this transition. The products developed under this phase II will help IAI, as a key player in the market, as a leading ATM R&D organization. SUA is required by the military to fly military aircraft for training and combat purposes. The proposed DAC-TFM based airspace management tool can be enhanced for SUA management to provide DOD and FAA advisories in terms dynamically changing structure and control of SUA, and optimize SUA utilization, NAS capacity, workload and delay.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 A3.01-9117
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC10P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NextGen Airspace
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integration of Performance Based Operations into ATM and TFM Simulations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerotech Research
11836 Fishing Point Drive, Suite 200
Newport News, VA 23606-4507
(757) 577-2313

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Robinson
paulrobinson@atr-usa.com
11836 Fishing Point Drive, Suite 200
Newport News,  VA 23606-4507
(757) 723-1300

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
FAA predicts that air traffic will double or even triple by 2025 and unless solutions that enable improvements in the use of airspace can be developed and implemented, significant airspace congestion will occur. Advancements in aircraft capabilities via new technologies can enable aircraft to operate more efficiently in the NAS and to operate safely in areas previously restricted. AeroTech proposes to enhance the assessment of Performance Based Operations (PBO) by implementing the Autonomous Weather Hazard Avoidance Model (AWHAM) into ATM simulations providing autonomous guidance for aircraft thru hazardous weather regions. PBO and traffic flow schemes can be assessed for any scenario by varying the detection capabilities of simulation aircraft, regulations, and/or policies, and examining deviation decisions, flight paths, safety impacts, and NAS throughput. Phase II will involve implementing the hazard avoidance model into an operational simulation and performing a proof of concept study that will establish and quantify the benefits of aircraft equipped with particular hazard detection capabilities from the perspective of an aircraft operator. AeroTech also proposes to develop the structure and architecture for integrating the AWHAM with the Autonomous Operations Planner, which provides pilots assistance in determining flight paths that comply with safety constraints and reduce operational costs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
When the goals of the Phase II research and development are met, the Autonomous Weather Hazard Avoidance Model will be supportive of NASA's NextGen-Airspace program's goal to develop methodologies and techniques to minimize or solve the demand/capacity imbalance problem in the NextGen future. The proposed Model will support level 1 and 2 research areas in Traffic Flow Management (TFM), Separation Assurance, and System-Level Design Analysis & Simulation Tools by improving the autonomous decision making capabilities of simulation aircraft, enabling the exploration of Performance Based Operations (PBO) based on aircraft weather detection capabilities, enabling the assessment of 4-D weather cube information for PBO, and enabling the development and testing of new TFM techniques that maximize airspace usage through PBO. AWHAM will also enhance NASA's laboratories and simulation tools and efforts in Modeling and Simulation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
AeroTech's Autonomous Weather Hazard Avoidance Model will provide benefits to ATM research efforts, autonomous maneuvering of UAV, and as a technology cost-benefit analysis tool. The proposed Model will provide the FAA, the Joint Planning and Development Office, higher educational institutions, and commercial research organizations a tool to examine NextGen capacity and throughput issues due to aircraft weather detection and mitigation capabilities and weather avoidance policies. Understanding the benefits of aircraft capabilities (PBO) will enable the development of techniques to safely maximize airspace usage. Aircraft operators and system developers can use the proposed Model in simulations to analyze the cost-benefits (operational efficiency and safety) of specific aircraft weather hazard detection systems and weather hazard information dissemination systems to support purchase decisions and development decisions respectively. The Model when integrated with UAV sensors, data links, and flight controls will enable enhanced autonomous maneuvering around weather and could assist certification for NAS operations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airport Infrastructure and Safety


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 A3.01-9466
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC12P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NextGen Airspace
PROPOSAL TITLE: Use-Driven Testbed for Evaluating Systems and Technologies (U-TEST)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aptima, Inc.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801-1765
(781) 496-2424

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Amy Alexander
aalexander@aptima.com
12 Gill St, Ste 1400
Woburn,  MA 01801-1753
(781) 496-2471

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NextGen will require the development of novel solutions to shape the airspace of tomorrow. Along with the ability to generate new systems and technologies comes the need to rigorously evaluate, and eventually validate, the effectiveness of these concepts. However, it is often challenging to translate simulation data into useful, integrated, and contextually-based assessments. Many critical findings are not identified for this reason, which could otherwise guide researchers toward advancements with NextGen technologies. Aptima proposes to develop the Use-driven Testbed for Evaluating Systems and Technologies (U-TEST), a flexible toolset that helps NextGen researchers to efficiently extract findings on pilot performance in simulated flight environments. Three primary components are: (1) context-capturing software will guide researchers to key events and allow important contextual information to be gathered for analysis; (2) a data integration platform that will automate organization of data sources into a format conducive to analysis; and (3) context-based analysis software that will enable deep, focused analysis by combining a quick-look function, an algorithm for focusing analysis, and context-based playback of key events and trials. U-TEST will be an extensible toolset that can help NextGen researchers improve the amount and quality of findings across a range of studies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
U-TEST will be designed with flexibility and extensibility in mind, and will therefore offer utility to a range of aviation research groups within NASA. In particular, U-TEST will help researchers meet multiple milestones within NASA's Airspace Project, Airportal Project, and Aviation Safety Program. In the NextGen ATM-Airspace Project, U-TEST will provide the capability to rapidly assess the impact of emerging NextGen technologies on pilot performance to inform redesign. This will include providing feedback on NASA's Cockpit Situation Display to guide future modification efforts. In the NextGen ATM-Airportal Project, U-TEST will assist with the collection, integration, and analysis of human performance data within the airportal environment, including gates, taxiways, runways, and approach airspace. In the Aviation Safety Program, U-TEST can support evaluations of pilot performance with novel human-machine integration designs and operations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The flexibility and extensibility of U-TEST will also offer utility to many groups external to NASA that conduct flight simulations. First, avionics developers (e.g., Boeing, Honeywell, Garmin, Avidyne) can use U-TEST to collect evaluation data throughout the technology development lifecycle, thus reducing certification time. Second, many human factors researchers (e.g., FAA, MITRE, ARINC, universities) perform similar research and development tasks as NASA, and would benefit from the collection, integration, and analysis capabilities provided by U-TEST. Third, training directors must understand the effects of flight deck technologies to develop the training curriculum that prepares pilots for NextGen. Therefore, flight schools can use U-TEST to explore the effects of new technologies on performance, and develop or adjust the curriculum accordingly.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Data Input/Output Devices
Human-Computer Interfaces
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 A3.02-8623
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC15P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NextGen Airportal
PROPOSAL TITLE: Trajectory Design to Benefit Trajectory-Based Surface Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimal Synthesis, Inc.
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos, CA 94022-2777
(650) 210-8282

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Victor Cheng
vcheng@optisyn.com
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos,  CA 94022-2777
(650) 650-8585

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Trajectory-based operations constitute a key mechanism considered by the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) for managing traffic in high-density or high-complexity airspace in the Next-Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). With this concept applied to surface operations at major airports, NASA's NextGen-Airportal Project is exploring the use of surface 4-dimensional (4D) trajectories, which use required times of arrival (RTAs) at selected locations along the route. Observing these RTAs as constraints along the taxi route, the flight still has many degrees of freedom in adjusting its state profiles (i.e., position, velocity, etc. as functions of time) to achieve the timing constraints. This research will investigate whether and how these degrees of freedom in trajectory control may be used to achieve desirable behaviors for the taxi operations. Previous research has applied the trajectory control freedom to assure passenger comfort by keeping the accelerations and decelerations within pre-specified limits, and yet there is still untapped flexibility in designing the trajectories. The proposed research will explore this trajectory design problem to achieve additional desirable behaviors, beginning with the consideration of fuel burn, emissions, and noise. A flight-deck automation experimental prototype will provide the platform for simulating the designs, augmented by models developed to evaluate environmental benefits. The findings will benefit future designs of flight-deck automation systems, as well as tower automation systems which rely on accurate understanding of the flight deck's operational behaviors to plan efficient and safe operations for the entire surface traffic.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed research contributes directly to trajectory-based surface operations (TBSO), which constitute an important area of research being pursued by the NextGen-Airportal Project under NASA's Airspace Systems Program. The research will produce realistic and favorable surface 4D trajectory designs to enable TBSO. Sharing these design models with the control tower will allow its automation system to plan safe and efficient operations, and enhance separation assurance by using the models to infer intent when monitoring the traffic movements.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Whereas NASA's NextGen-Airportal Project investigates innovative new technologies, approaches, and procedures to enable capacity enhancements within the airport and terminal domains to meet the JPDO NextGen capacity goals, products from the proposed research will contribute to this cause. The research findings will strengthen the understanding of flight-deck automation potentials for trajectory-based surface operations (TBSO) to help avionics companies design and develop flight control systems that enable such operations. Knowledge of the flight-deck automation will also help developers of air traffic management systems develop control tower automation to realize the full potential of the TBSO concepts. NASA research products, including the technologies envisioned from the proposed research, can be transferred to the FAA through the Research Transition Teams (RTT) set up between NASA and the FAA, to promote transition of these products to real-world applications and acceptance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Human-Computer Interfaces
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 A3.02-9120
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CF17P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NextGen Airportal
PROPOSAL TITLE: In Situ Wake Vortex Encounter Detection and Reporting System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerotech Research
11836 Fishing Point Drive, Suite 200
Newport News, VA 23606-4507
(757) 577-2313

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bill Buck
BillBuck@atr-usa.com
11836 Fishing Point Drive, Suite 200
Newport News,  VA 23606-4507
(757) 723-1300

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Wake vortices are a critical constraint to aircraft separation and therefore airportal throughput, which is already at or near capacity at many major airports in the NAS. Improvements to current methods of spacing aircraft could significantly increase airportal capacity, but there is currently limited awareness of wake encounters and information with which to assess spacing in real-time or to design new spacing schemes. AeroTech proposes to improve situational awareness of wake vortices and enhance the prediction of wake vortex transport and decay by continuing development of the In Situ Wake Vortex Encounter Detection and Reporting System (VEDARS). The VEDARS will quantitatively detect wake encounters from flight data; downlink encounter reports in real-time to enhance ATC awareness and enable assessment of spacing schemes; and collect and report meteorological parameters from aircraft for use in wake transport and decay predictions. AeroTech is also proposing to improve the accuracy and reliability of reported wind speed and direction (and hence crosswind estimation) by improving and validating an estimator for sideslip angle. A reliable and accurate crosswind estimate is a key component in predicting the transport of wakes. By the end of Phase II, the operational feasibility concept for the VEDARS will have been established.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The In Situ Wake Vortex Encounter Detection and Reporting System (VEDARS) will directly support NASA's NextGen-Airportal project goal to realize an airportal environment that will achieve the highest possible throughput and operational efficiency, while balancing safety and environmental requirements. VEDARS will support the Safe and Efficient Surface Operations and Coordinated Arrival and Departure Operations Management (CADOM) focus areas by enhancing researchers' awareness of wake encounters; supporting the assessment and optimization of merging and spacing schemes; providing data that assists in the characterization and prediction of wake transport and decay; and providing a capability for simulations that can be used to assess airportal operations and procedures within various weather conditions and airfield layouts. VEDARS data could be used in the development and assessment of automated wake vortex advisory and spacing systems. VEDARS will also support NASA's research efforts under the JPDO in NextGen Super Density Arrival/Departure Operations and Trajectory-Based Operations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
AeroTech's In Situ Wake Vortex Encounter Detection and Reporting System (VEDARS) will provide benefits to aircraft separation and wake research, real-time situational awareness of wake encounters for controllers and pilots, and merging and spacing operations at airportals. The VEDARS will enable the FAA Wake Vortex Program, RECAT, and researchers to assess historical aircraft separation schemes through identification of wake encounters from historical flight data, and develop new spacing techniques for various airfield configurations. Real-time implementation of VEDARS on aircraft and within ground decision support systems will enhance controllers' and pilots' awareness of wake encounters and their decision making regarding merging and spacing. Additionally, the meteorological information provided will enhance wake transport and decay predictions and weather forecasts for airportal operations. Finally, data from the VEDARS can be used by commercial organizations to develop and validate the performance of wake vortex detection systems and automated spacing systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Attitude Determination and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Architectures and Networks
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 A4.01-9399
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC91P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Versatile Fiber Optic 6-Component Force Measurement System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle, Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016-4962
(540) 552-5128

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Matthew Davis
davism@lunainnovations.com
3157 State Street
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-4692
(540) 558-1696

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The mission of NASA's ATP is to maintain and advance the testing capabilities of the United States' extensive infrastructure of aerospace research facilities. One key component to these ground based test facilities are the force balances used to measure aerodynamic loads on models undergoing characterization and testing. NASA currently maintains an inventory of balances that were designed for previous model designs and operating ranges that may not be as relevant to current test conditions. Project resources do not always allow a balance to be designed for specific testing applications due to the associated costs and schedule. Luna Innovations is proposing to develop new and innovative force balance technology that will reduce the cost of facility instrumentation and allow for reduced design and instrumentation time, while providing more accurate and reliable results when compared to current balances. This development utilizes proven fiber optic sensor technology that integrates active thermal compensation with a highly accurate, multi-channel sensing network. The versatile operating range of this technology with respect to temperatures and loading conditions, combined with a high channel count data processing system designed by Luna, will provide advanced measurement capabilities for NASA facilities and enable accurate testing of emerging propulsion and transport technologies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The implementation of fiber optic technology into a 6-component force balance will enable improved accuracy in aerodynamic measurements made across NASA facilities under a variety of test conditions at a reduced cost when compared to traditional, electrically instrumented balances. Operating at a reduced cost will allow more extensive testing of design features and system level designs in support of the next generation CEV, Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), and advanced propulsion systems. The reduced machining and instrumentation cost of the balances themselves will also enable individual designs to be completed for specific models at a scale that was previously not feasible due to project resource limitations. The versatile operating ranges of this technology will also reduce the design time as the limits of aerodynamic testing are extended. This technology will demonstrate itself as being vital to increasing the future design and testing capabilities of NASA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
While NASA is the leader in fundamental research for advancing aerospace technology within the United States, commercial entities are also working to advance the state-of-the-art in high and low-speed propulsion, flight vehicles, and fundamental aerospace sciences. Key to verification of computer simulations is the ability to cost effectively obtain data under ground based simulated flight conditions. The technology developed during this project will enable commercial air and spacecraft developers to obtain vital data which will improve vehicle design, safety, and efficiency. In addition, the strain gauges and system developed during this program will also be applicable across industry to all harsh-environment applications in which electrical gauges cannot survive. Fiber optic gauges provide a miniature, non-intrusive method of accurately measuring strain and temperature while, as opposed to electrical gauges, are EMI-resistant. Luna expects this system will act as a significant upgrade to existing facilities in which current systems have become obsolete.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Testing Facilities
Structural Modeling and Tools
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 A4.02-9033
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC67P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fused Reality for Enhanced Flight Test Capabilities

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Systems Technology, Inc.
13766 South Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne, CA 90250-7083
(310) 679-2281

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Edward Bachelder Systems Technology, Inc.
edbach@systemstech.com
13766 S Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne,  CA 90250-7083
(310) 679-2281

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In terms of relevancy to piloted evaluation, there remains no substitute for actual flight tests even when considering the fidelity and effectiveness of modern ground-based simulators. In addition to real world cueing, flight test provides subtle but key intangibles that cannot be duplicated in a ground-based simulator. There is, however, a cost to be paid for the benefits of flight in terms of budget, mission complexity, and safety. New technologies and test procedures are therefore needed to maximize the investments and reduce some of the related costs associated with flight test. To address this need, Systems Technology, Inc. is developing a Fused Reality (FR) Flight system that allows a virtual environment to be integrated with the test aircraft so that tasks such as aerial refueling, formation flying, or approach and landing can be accomplished without additional aircraft or risk of operating in close proximity to the ground or other aircraft. Furthermore, for the first time, the dynamic motions of the simulated objects can be directly correlated with the responses of the test aircraft. The FR Flight system will allow real-time observation of and manual interaction with the cockpit environment that serves as a frame for the virtual out-the-window scene.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Following the successful completion of a Phase 2 in-flight evaluation program, a prototype FR-based flight test system will be ready to transition into a commercially viable product. The FR system will have potential applications for NASA, other government agencies, and commercial aviation. For NASA this product will directly address the stated need for highly innovative and more efficient flight test techniques. FR will reduce the need for specific aircraft that are costly and often difficult to schedule. Critical flight test evaluation tasks involving other aircraft and related dynamic elements can still be conducted in a safe and repeatable manner.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For other government agencies, specifically the DoD, a FR-based flight test system will find new uses in addition to those identified for NASA. These include: engagement of simulated enemy aircraft and/or ground targets, safe in-situ training for somatogravic and other hazardous optical/vestibular illusions, human-in-the-loop accident reconstruction, interaction of test aircraft with unmanned aerial vehicles, mission training and rehearsal, and degraded visibility training such as rotorcraft brownout. For commercial aviation, a FR-based flight test system can be used for up-and-away collision avoidance training, poor visibility approach and landings, runway incursions, etc. Finally, a powerful FR application is in-flight synthetic vision for actual operations during impoverished or uncertain visual environments. Here, the entire cockpit window area can be a virtual HUD where symbology/objects are superimposed on or replace the actual out-of-the-window scene. In this application an intended runway can be highlighted, the precise location of other aircraft can be displayed, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Facilities
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Pilot Support Systems
Human-Computer Interfaces
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Optical



PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X1.01-8449
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC43P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automation for Vehicle and Habitat Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: SAFE-P: System for Assurance of Flight Executable Procedures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SIFT, LLC
211 N. First Street, Suite 300
Minneapolis, MN 55401-1480
(612) 339-7438

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Musliner
musliner@sift.info
211 N. First Street, Suite 300
Minneapolis,  MN 55401-1480
(612) 612-9314

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA operates manned spacecraft according to rigorously-defined standard operating procedures. Unfortunately, operating procedures are often written in different languages. For example, Orion will use automatic procedures written in SCL, the Spacecraft Command Language, while backup manual procedures may be developed in PRL, the Procedure Representation Language. However, procedures developed in different languages may diverge, so that the backup PRL procedures do not operate in the same way as the SCL procedures. This could lead to unintended effects that may range from simply unexpected to inefficient or even catastrophic. We propose to develop the SAFE-P tool, which will use formal model-checking methods to prove that PRL and SCL procedures have the same underlying execution semantics. Our Phase 1 effort validated the effectiveness of our approach; Phase 2 will completely automate the model checking process and integrate with the Procedure Integrated Development Environment (PRIDE). SAFE-P will thus allow procedure authors to easily compare procedures as they are being developed. When differences are found by SAFE-P, they will be highlighted immediately in the PRIDE interface, allowing the operators to either fix problems or annotate the respective procedures to explain the differences. Using SAFE-P, NASA personnel will rapidly and confidently verify that if an automatic SCL program cannot be executed, a backup manual procedure in PRL will be equivalent and safe. Furthermore, as automatic translators are developed to transform procedures in one language into another NASA-relevant language (e.g., Tietronix's current effort to translate PRL into SCL), the SAFE-P tool will provide a critical validation mechanism to double-check the correctness of the translation and highlight areas where the translator makes mistakes (or deliberate approximations that yield different behavior).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed SAFE-P tool will be applicable to a wide variety of NASA missions including ISS, Shuttle, and Constellation operations. For manned and unmanned spacecraft operations, SAFE-P will bridge a critical gap in NASA's safety procedures, preventing the possibility of inadvertent commands that do not conform to standard operating procedures and that could lead to dangerous or even catastrophic consequences. SAFE-P fits directly within NASA's Automation for Operations (A4O) system concept, helping support significant reductions in operations costs and increases in operational efficiency while maintaining or improving system safety. The SAFE-P tool will be designed to integrate with NASA's Procedure Integrated Development Environment (PRIDE), seamlessly supporting efficient development of future executable procedures and scripts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Large-scale industrial control systems, in particular oil refineries, paper mills, and food processing plants, also maintain a large library of standard operating procedures which have been developed by system designers and installers. These must be adapted on a daily basis to the specific system configuration and product targets for manual or automatic execution. The SAFE-P technology will be directly applicable to ensuring that industrial plants' daily operating plans and scripts conform to the standard operating procedures. SAFE-P technology may also be applied when manually-operated industrial control systems are being transitioned to more automated control systems, to verify that newly-written executable control scripts conform to legacy manual (textual) operating procedures.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Intelligence
Teleoperation
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Expert Systems
Human-Computer Interfaces
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X1.01-9682
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC47P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automation for Vehicle and Habitat Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Embedding Procedure Assistance into Mission Control Tools

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Traclabs, Inc.
100 N.E. Loop 410 Suite 520
San Antonio, TX 78216-3586
(210) 637-7819

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Kortenkamp
korten@traclabs.com
1012 Hercules
Houston,  TX 77058-4727
(281) 281-7884

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Procedures are the accepted means of commanding spacecraft. Procedures encode the operational knowledge of a system as derived from system experts, testing, training and experience. In current Space Shuttle and ISS operations procedures are displayed using applications separate from the applications used to display commands and telemetry. This means that procedures cannot interact with commands and telemetry to help an operator's situation awareness. This leads to slower procedure performance and greater opportunity for errors. TRACLabs is building on existing NASA Constellation program technology to combine procedures, commanding and telemetry into a single, consistent framework in which to operate space vehicles. Instead of viewing procedures in static displays, flight controllers will have interactive, reconfigurable procedure displays and assistants that can be tailored for specific situations. The displays will have different views tailored to specific operations, including browsing, assigning, editing, executing and monitoring procedures. A procedure executive automates some procedure execution and provides procedure assistance. Automation is always under the control of the flight controller via level of automation feature. Each step or instruction of a procedure can be labeled as manual, automated or consent. This will increase the efficiency of procedure performance and reduce procedure errors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We have identified four NASA programs that can immediately use the results of this project to enhance their current and future capabilities. These programs are: * Constellation Procedure Application Software Suite (CxPASS): This program is chartered with providing software support and requirements for both on-board and ground procedure viewing and execution for all Constellation vehicles including Orion. Phase I discussions with CxPASS personnel have identified key areas of mutual interest including procedure viewing, procedure editing and situation awareness. * Mission Controls Technology (MCT): This program is producing the next generation command and telemetry software application for the Mission Control Center (MCC). This project is intended to provide procedure capability to MCT. * Automation for Operations (A4O). This research program is producing prototype software systems to demonstrate advanced automation capabilities to Constellation. We expect that the software produced in this project will be used by A4O as their procedure display environment for forthcoming demonstrations. * Lunar Surface Systems (LSS). This program is developing concepts for Lunar habitation and robotics infrastructure. Procedures will be a core part of operating Lunar surface assets. This project can provide procedure assistance software to LSS for testing of their operations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
All complex systems use procedures as the core of their operations. Industries such as refineries, petrochemical plants, power plants (both nuclear and conventional), pharmaceutical plants and ethanol plants currently use manual procedures represented in PDF, similar to the current NASA state-of-practice. The benefit that NASA will receive from moving to electronic, automated procedures can be duplicated in many of these industries. Plants that already have some level of automation such that telemetry and commanding is available electronically are the most likely to adopt this technology. Just as at NASA, safety, workflow and cost concerns must be addressed before this technology will be adopted.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Human-Computer Interfaces
Software Development Environments


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X1.02-8609
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC48P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Reliable Software for Exploration Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Efficient Parallel SAT Solver Exploiting Multi-Core Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aries Design Automation, LLC
6157 N Sheridan Road, Suite 16M
Chicago, IL 60660-5818
(773) 856-6633

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Miroslav Velev
miroslav.velev@aries-da.com
6157 N Sheridan Road, Suite 16M
Chicago,  IL 60660-5818
(773) 856-6633

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The hundreds of stream cores in the latest graphics processors (GPUs), and the possibility to execute non-graphics computations on them, open unprecedented levels of parallelism at a very low cost. In the last 6 years, GPUs had an increasing performance advantage of an order of magnitude relative to x86 CPUs. Furthermore, this performance advantage will continue to increase in the next 20 years because of the scalability of the chip manufacturing processes. The goal of this project is to efficiently exploit the GPU parallelism in order to accelerate the execution of a Boolean Satisfiability (SAT) solver. SAT has a wide range of applications, including formal verification and testing of software and hardware, scheduling and planning, cryptanalysis, and detection of security vulnerabilities and malicious intent in software. We bring a tremendous expertise in SAT solving, formal verification, and solving of Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPs) by efficient translation to SAT. In our previous work (done on the expenses of our company) we achieved 2 orders of magnitude speedup in solving Boolean formulas from formal verification of complex pipelined microprocessors, 4 orders of magnitude speedup in SAT-based solving of CSPs, and 8 orders of magnitude speedup in SAT-based routing of optical networks. During Phase 1 we implemented a prototype of a parallel GPU-based SAT solver that is 1 2 orders of magnitude faster than the best sequential SAT solvers. In Phase 2, we will continue to exploit the GPU parallelism to accelerate SAT solving, and expect to achieve speedup of 3 4 orders of magnitude.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Efficiently solving of challenging Boolean formulas is critical to NASA, as this will increase both the speed and scalability of the following applications: 1) formal verification and testing methods for complex mission software and hardware, including those of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the next generations of Mars Rovers, and other spacecraft; 2) formal methods to check the robustness of radiation-hardened circuits; 3) SAT-based methods for scheduling, planning, and solving of other Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPs); 4) formal methods for network coding that will increase both the bandwidth and reliability of space communications by using the existing communications equipment that is already deployed in space after updating the firmware; 5) SAT methods for reliability-based optimization of hardware, software, and mechanical systems; 6) power consumption analysis for circuits; 7) design of experiments; 8) design of error-correction codes; and 9) FPGA technology mapping and routing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential non-NASA commercial applications include: 1) Formal verification and testing of software and hardware, where the potential customers will be all major semiconductor and software companies. 2) Scheduling, planning, and solving of Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPs), where the potential customers will be all companies that use scheduling and planning tools. 3) Electronic Design Automation (EDA) problems, such as FPGA technology mapping and routing, power consumption analysis for circuits, and formal methods to check the robustness of radiation-hardened circuits, where the potential customers will be all EDA and semiconductor companies. 4) Formal methods for cryptanalysis, where the potential customers will be the Department of Defense, the NSA, and all companies that use cryptanalysis. 5) Formal methods for cyber security, such as for detection of security vulnerabilities and malicious intent in software, where the potential customers will be all companies that develop robust virus scanners based on formal methods, and companies that develop formal methods for detecting security vulnerabilities in software. Because of the potential for a very wide range of software obfuscations that can be used to hide malicious intent, future virus scanners will have to employ efficient formal methods to detect malware, and thus the importance of speed and scalability that will be possible with an efficient SAT solver.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Intelligence
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Facilities
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Computer System Architectures
Expert Systems
Software Development Environments
Highly-Reconfigurable


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X1.03-8518
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD74P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Hardened/Tolerant and Low Temperature Electronics and Processors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electronics Modeling and Design for Cryogenic and Radiation Hard Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CoolCAD Electronics
7101 Poplar Avenue
Takoma Park, MD 20912-4671
(240) 432-6535

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Siddharth Potbhare
siddharth.potbhare@coolcadelectronics.com
7101 Poplar Avenue
Takoma Park,  MD 20912-4761
(240) 432-6535

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We are developing CAD tools, models and methodologies for electronics design for circuit operation in extreme environments with a focus on very low temperature and radiation effects. These new tools will help enable NASA to design next generation electronics especially for planetary projects including the Europa Jupiter System Mission. The new models and tools will be directly incorporated into industry standard CAD products to ensure their usability and extend their applicability to extreme environments. Such capabilities will significantly improve reliability, performance and lifetime of electronics that are used for space missions. This will be achieved through the development of novel compact and distributed device modeling capabilities for radiation-hard and extreme temperature instrument design, as well as techniques for circuit design that help to predict the vulnerability of circuits to degradation and upset from radiation. Research and development is indicating that standard bulk silicon CMOS and SOI processes operate well under these extreme conditions so that there is little need for NASA to commit to large expenditures for exotic materials. Models and CAD tools are relatively inexpensive as compared to fabrication costs; thus the results of this project should provide a very large return on investment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The work proposed in this program will help NASA develop electronics for space missions where ambient temperatures are in the cryogenic region. We plan to provide Verilog-A models for compact SPICE-type simulators for electronics design in radiation rich environments at cryogenic temperatures. This will help allow NASA to design and operate low temperature, radiation hard, ruggedized electronics for future space applications. The design tools will help to allow NASA to develop a unique capability in cryogenic and radiation hard instrument design. The tools will also provide a competitive advantage to develop specific radiation-hard and cryogenic operating circuits that NASA requires for their EJSM and related missions, including analog to digital converters and charge amplifiers. Related NASA commercial applications include low noise cryogenic detectors, infrared focal plane arrays and related long wavelength optical devices, and communication electronics.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA, there is a large civilian space applications business, especially with respect to communications satellites. There is also a large commitment by the Department of Defense to space applications. This work should find applications with these types of organizations as well. There is also a need for cryogenic electronics in terrestrial low noise applications. Such applications can be found in infrared and far infrared optical detectors. Furthermore, any application where the input signal is extremely weak, and a very large signal to noise ratio is required, may be enhanced by cryogenic operation. The developing field of quantum computing is also in need of circuits operated at cryogenic temperatures as input and readout subsystems. CoolCAD is currently working with agencies and industry for developing design methodologies for infrared photo-detector arrays, and for very low noise communication circuits.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Cooling
Reuseable
RF
Instrumentation
Production
Optical
Photonics
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X1.03-8589
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CF29P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Hardened/Tolerant and Low Temperature Electronics and Processors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Radiation Mitigation Methods for Reprogrammable FPGA

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
RNET Technologies, Inc.
240 W Elmwood Drive, Suite 2010
Dayton, OH 45459-4248
(937) 433-2886

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
V. Nagarajan
vnagarajan@rnet-tech.com
240 W Elmwood Drive, Suite 2010
Dayton,  OH 45459-4248
(937) 937-2886

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has been tasked to develop new and advanced capabilities to support both future manned and robotic missions to the lunar and Martian surfaces. It is the purpose of this program to develop advanced avionics, software, and information technologies for exploration missions. In particular, NASA is concerned with the extreme radiation present on the lunar surface, Martian surface, and in deep space. Spacecraft electronics will need to be radiation hardened against a TID of 100 krads (Si) or more and provide SEL immunity of 100 MeV cm2/mg or greater. Furthermore, electronics in these environments are also subjected to multiple thermal-cycling and wide temperature ranges. Our innovation provides solutions for the mitigation of radiation effects on reprogrammable SRAM-based FPGA processor elements through the use of an advanced foundry process combined with innovative and RHBD methods to mitigate total ionizing dose and provide SEL immunity, and SEU tolerance. These techniques will be utilized to develop a prototype of radiation hardened, reprogrammable FPGA that will be fabricated and tested, suitable for consideration in future NASA Flagship programs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Several NASA missions have been identified as prospective customers for technologies developed under this SBIR, although others are possible. The Constellation Program is one of NASA's new space programs which entail both manned and unmanned spaceflights beyond Earth. In support of the program spacecraft electronics will need to be radiation hardened against a TID effects and provide SEL immunity. Another potential Flagship program is the Europa Jupiter System Mission where the goal of the program is the general exploration of the Jupiter System, as well as, additional focus on Europa and Ganymede. The baseline mission consists of two orbiters, Jupiter Europa Orbiter and Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter. It is expected that the Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter will have experienced a TID of 5 Mrads after nine years in operation. Development of our rad-hard mitigation methods and rad-hard FPGA technology would be timely for consideration in these programs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The same technology would also have applicability with the DoD. Example applications could include satellites, high attitude UAVs and aircraft, nuclear power plants (i.e. ship or submarine), or basically any electronic circuits requiring extended radiation hardness. This technology could also be applied in several DOE focused areas. The first and most obvious application would be the support electronics in a nuclear reactor. Another, potential area would be in support of electronics of a particle collider. There are also multiple places in industry where radiation hardened integrated circuits are needed. Some are not obvious as others. Certain medical equipment does require a degree of radiation tolerance. Apparently, some communication equipment and servers used in the banking industry have radiation mitigation requirements.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Highly-Reconfigurable
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X1.04-8866
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC50P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Integrated System Health Management for Ground Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Efficient Integration, Validation and Troubleshooting in Multimodal Distributed Diagnostic Schemes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Qualtech Systems, Inc.
100 Great Meadow Road, Suite 603
Wethersfield, CT 06109-2355
(860) 257-8014

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sudipto Ghoshal
sudipto@teamqsi.com
100 Great Meadow Road, Suite 603
Wethersfield,  CT 06109-2355
(860) 761-9341

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In general, development and validation of diagnostic models for complex safety critical systems are time and cost intensive jobs. The proposed Phase-II effort will automate some vital processes essential in developing integrated diagnostic schemes and cost-effective revalidation of the integrated models. The automated processes, resulting from this effort will be incorporated as tools in TEAMS Design and Analytic Platform. For reducing the burden of testing diagnostic models, capability for automatically generating test cases, regression test suites along with the options for their playback will be developed under this effort. Additionally, an option for efficient diagnostics and troubleshooting in multi-mode systems will be introduced in TEAMS via this SBIR effort. To ensure the readiness of the TEAMS tools and options developed through this effort, those will be verified and validated with one or more NASA's ground support systems that are associated with the ARES or Constellation Program Ground Support. Collectively, these achievements will significantly reduce the time and cost in developing and better utilizing large scale fault diagnostic systems using TEAMS.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The outcomes from the effort will be useful in developing diagnostic models and applications for large and complex onboard and offboard NASA systems involving aircraft and spacecraft. Health management of onboard systems, whose components or subsystems are interactive, such as power, climate control, thrusters, etc can be benefitted from the envisioned tools. HM of ground support systems including LH2, Pneumatics, LOX, Launch Control, etc will be the other area of application of the envisioned tools. The integration and revalidation helper tools will cut down the time and cost requirements for developing diagnostic schemes for both onboard and ground support systems. "Optimal diagnostic and troubleshooting options for multi-mode systems" will be especially useful for onboard systems in aiding fast and safe fault prevention and recovery actions during missions. It will be also useful in ground support systems for minimizing the cost of diagnosis and maintenance under time constraints.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The outcomes from the Phase-II effort will be useful in developing diagnostic models and applications for large and complex commercial systems such as commercial aviation, marine, automotive and other high-value industrial systems. In addition to the safety critical systems in aviation, marine and automotive sector, the "optimal diagnostic and troubleshooting option for multi-mode systems" will be especially useful for industrial systems that require high availability, such as medical equipment, semiconductor fabrication equipment etc. The tool facilitates HM in the high-availability centric systems by without pulling them out of operation. The test case generation, regression test suite generation and playback capabilities will be useful in cutting down the testing and retesting costs of diagnostic models. These capabilities are especially useful for systems that undergo update at periodic intervals, such as automotive, and plant machinery.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Expert Systems
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X2.02-8702
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CF42P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Cabin Atmospheric Resource Management and Particulate Matter Removal
PROPOSAL TITLE: Photocatalytic and Adsorptive System for Odor Control in Lunar Surface Systems Using Silica-Titania Composites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sol-gel Solutions, LLC
4110 SW 34th Street, Suite 22
Gainesville, FL 32608-6566
(352) 378-4950

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anna Casasus
aicasasus@Sol-Gel-Solutions.com
4110 SW 34th St. Suite 22
Gainesville,  FL 32608-6529
(352) 275-8969

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The work proposed herein focuses on waste subsystems with emphasis on odor control associated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The development of efficient odor removal systems for use inside lunar architectures is one of NASA's critical needs (2008 SBIR Topic X2.03). Because of the limited space and resources in both exploration vehicles and non-moving habitats, a treatment system must be compact, lightweight, and robust, and have low energy and material input requirements, with focus on reducing equivalent system mass (ESM). We have developed a novel, robust, and highly effective Silica-Titania Composite (STC) technology capable of adsorbing and oxidizing VOCs to harmless byproducts when irradiated with UV light. The effectiveness of the technology for removal of ethanol from air when irradiated continuously with UV was proven under Phase I. This Phase II proposal will focus on the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a prototype employing the STC technology with UV LEDs as the light source, challenged with several VOCs simultaneously. The prototype will be designed based on the requirements of the Lunar Habitat in NASA's Lunar Outpost mission. Revised ESM calculations will be completed after system optimization, and a final prototype will be delivered to NASA for future testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed system is equally well suited for use in space exploration vehicles, as well as permanent space habitats. The STC technology has numerous applications in air and water purification, most of which fit into the specific needs of NASA's Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) systems. This includes not only gas-phase odor removal related to VOCs, but also pathogen inactivation in both gases and liquids, removal of organic compounds from gray water, and removal from a number of inorganic compounds from air. Although VOC-related gas-phase odor removal is the primary application for which the system will be tailored, further development of the treatment system may make it suitable for other NASA applications. Some specific missions of interest within the Constellation Program include the Altair Lunar Lander, Lunar Outpost, Small Pressurized Rover, Payload, Mars Transit Vehicle, Mars Lander, Mars Outpost, Mars Rover, and ground support applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The STC technology is applicable to several non-NASA applications. For example, the technology can be used to remove VOCs from indoor air in commercial buildings, homes, hospitals, and schools. It may also be used by the military for air purification in submarines and aircraft. The technology is currently being developed for use in commercial aircraft cabin air purification. Significant work has been done in the development of the technology for methanol removal from gaseous exhaust at pulp and paper mills. Furthermore, the STC technology has been commercialized for mercury removal from caustic exhaust at a chlor-alkali facility, and a pilot-scale study is under way for mercury removal from coal-fired power plant flue gas.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Requirements and Architectures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X2.02-9538
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD14P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Cabin Atmospheric Resource Management and Particulate Matter Removal
PROPOSAL TITLE: Straight Pore Microfilter with Efficient Regeneration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Han Liu
hliu@ginerinc.com
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton,  MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0531

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Small Business Innovation Research Phase II project is directed toward development of a novel microfiltration filter that has distinctively narrow pore size distribution, low flow resistance, low pressure drop and simple regeneration process. The regeneration process, which requires minimal material and energy consumption, can be completely automated and the filtration performance can be restored within a very short period of time. The overall system filtration efficiency is targeted towards the HEPA standards, where the HEPA filters cannot be regenerated effectively.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Dust pollution is one of the major issues that threaten the health of the astronauts and system reliability for Moon and Mars exploration. NASA has a clear need to remove particulate matter suspended in habitat air. The filtration system needs to be highly efficient, durable, reliable, and simple to maintain. Preferably, the system would be capable of in situ regeneration that would be required infrequently. The proposed filtration system, capable of being regenerated in place by utilizing changes in the atmospheric humidity, is very promising. It would not require intense reverse air pulses to renew the filtration surface as conventional filters do. Elimination of the pulse cleaning allows the filtered particulate to be collected in aggregate form, thereby simplifying mission atmospheric control.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
While the novel filtration media contemplated in this proposal is directed toward NASA missions, substantial additional opportunities also exist, both within the Department of Defense and in civilian markets. Within land forces there are numerous vehicles and stationary installations that require atmospheric control to afford protection from biological and particulate (radiological) threats. Filtration is an integral part of that protection. However in remote and hostile environments, the efforts required to maintain the filtration equipment can be problematic. Thus an efficiently regenerative microfilter would be advantageous. Uses for such a device range from personnel carriers, battle tanks, remote command centers, and field hospitals. We estimate that there may be 50,000 such vehicles/installations in the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps that could utilize this technology. Other applications include biological filtration, protein purification, and precision filtration for the milk and beverage industry that requires good anti-fouling, and regeneration properties.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X2.03-8729
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC54P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Habitation and Waste Management Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Brine Dewatering Using Ultrasonic Nebulization

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
UMPQUA Research Company
PO Box 609
Myrtle Creek, OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-7770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Akse, Ph.D.
akse@urcmail.net
PO Box 609
Myrtle Creek,  OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-2653

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Recovery of water from brine is critically important for future manned space exploration. Resupply of water is prohibitively costly for such extended missions. Water reclamation processes typically recover 90-95% of the water present in wastewater formed by combining urine, hygiene water, and humidity condensate with the remaining concentrated in brine. This concentrated brine contains a significant amount of water, potentially a very valuable resource. The proposed prototype development will recover virtually all of the remaining water using an ultrasonic brine dewatering system (UBDS). In the UBDS process, extremely small nebulized droplets of the brine are created ultrasonically at the brineair interface. Small droplets enable quicker drying due to their high relative surface area. This is particularly important when drying brines that contain thermally labile materials, which require relatively low temperature drying. The UBDS prototype has no nozzles to become plugged, requires little power, is simple and small, requires minimal astronaut attention and is compatible with continuous, closed cycle operation that can be made gravity independent. The innovative Phase 2 prototype will fulfill the unmet need to significantly improve water loop closure during extended manned missions. The Phase 2 project will provide an automated UBDS prototype that will be delivered to NASA for further testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA application of this innovative technology will be as Hardware for Lunar Base and other Early Planetary Bases. The partial gravity at these locations will permit nebulization without the use of a wick. Gravity based water accumulation at the bottom of the condenser will be accomplished without the assistance of an air/water separator. This technology will enable efficient water recovery from brines resulting in a major mass closure for water usage on Lunar Base. Use as Flight Hardware for Transit Missions is also anticipated. With this application, a wick will be used to hold the brine at the desired location during nebulization. An air/water separator will be included to facilitate separation without the assistance of gravity.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For the private sector, a major application is improved drying processes for pharmaceuticals. Many biologically active compounds are thermally labile and would benefit from the use of this technology for preparation of inhalants. In addition, the ultra-small size of the resulting particles is desirable for inhalation because they are more easily suspended in air and because solvation and uptake through the alveoli in the lungs is more efficient for small particles. For example, NaCl particles are widely used in dry powder inhalers for bronchial provocation tests to identify people with active asthma or exercise-induced asthma. Such powders are currently made using laborious processes to control particle sizes and distributions. The technology developed during this SBIR project will allow continuous formation of small, dried NaCl crystallites, in a process more amenable for large-scale production.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Waste Processing and Reclamation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X2.03-9021
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC55P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Habitation and Waste Management Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Compact, Efficient Pyrolysis/Oxidation System for Solid Waste Resource Recovery in Space

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Fuel Research, Inc.
87 Church Street
East Hartford, CT 06108-3728
(860) 528-9806

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Serio
mserio@AFRinc.com
87 Church Street
East Hartford,  CT 06108-3728
(860) 860-9806

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Pyrolysis processing can be used in near term missions for volume reduction, water recovery (drying), stabilization, and enhanced water and oxygen recovery through thermochemical reactions. For longer term missions, the added benefits include production of fuel, multi-purpose carbon, and reactants for in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The objective of the Phase I SBIR program was to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating pyrolysis, tar cracking, and oxidation steps into a compact, efficient, system for processing spacecraft solid wastes. This integration, which was based on a microwave pyrolysis/cracking/oxidation unit, has resulted in a significant reduction in energy consumption per gram (~70% when compared to a conventional unit), and an overall reduction in system complexity. These improvements should lead to a lower Equivalent System Mass (ESM) for a full scale system. Under Phase II, a prototype microwave pyrolysis/tar cracking/oxidation unit will be developed in collaboration with ETM Electromatic, Inc., a leading manufacturer of microwave power systems for commercial, space and military markets.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed work would make it technically feasible to process solid waste streams in space which will benefit long term space travel, such as an extended Lunar stay or a mission to Mars. The proposed approach is beneficial to NASA in allowing for volume reduction, solid waste sterilization and stabilization, and water recovery for near term missions and enhanced water and CO2 production, fuel and multi-purpose carbon production and in-situ resource utilization for longer term missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In the near term, the technology would have applications to solid waste resource recovery problems in remote areas such as underdeveloped countries, oil production platforms, rural areas, farms, submarines, ships, etc. analogous to the uses for NASA technology developed for water purification. In the long term, the technology could be integrated with microturbines or fuel cells and have widespread business or residential use for solid waste removal and power generation. It could also be used by the DOD in military operations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomass Production and Storage
Biomedical and Life Support
Sterilization/Pathogen and Microbial Control
Waste Processing and Reclamation
Radiation Shielding Materials
Renewable Energy


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X2.04-9115
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE17P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Environmental Monitoring and Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reagent-Free Compact Online TOC Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840-4023
(979) 639-0017

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jinseong Kim
jinseong.kim@lynntech.com
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station,  TX 77840-4023
(979) 693-0017

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A priority in Environmental Control and Life Support systems for extended space missions is to recover and process wastewater to provide potable water for crew consumption and oxygen generation. Total organic carbon (TOC) indicates the overall quality of reclaimed and stored water and their suitability for crew consumption by indicating the potential presence of hazardous chemicals. For extended missions, water monitoring requires reliable, real-time, online sensors, with limited or no need for resupplied chemicals, and low equivalent system mass (ESM). The goal of this project is to develop a reliable, compact, flight-qualifiable, microgravity-compatible, TOC analyzer (TOCA) for online, real-time water monitoring with an operational lifetime of 5 years with no need to resupply chemicals or water. Key components include an electrochemical unit that eliminates the need to resupply or store chemicals, an effective oxidation processor for TOC conversion to carbon dioxide, a compact, stable inorganic carbon sensing unit, and mesofluidic design for reduced ESM. During Phase I, Lynntech successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed system by designing, fabricating, and testing both the critical components and an integrated breadboard TOCA. During Phase II, an optimized, reliable, compact, flight-qualifiable, microgravity-compatible TOCA prototype will be designed, fabricated, tested, and delivered to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful development of a compact online total organic carbon analyzer (TOCA) will lead to quality monitoring of the reclaimed and stored water supplies on-orbit and their suitability for crew consumption by indicating the potential presence of hazardous chemicals. Improved monitors are desired for the ISS and are essential for crew safety on the planned long-duration missions to the moon and Mars. The proposed technology will provide reliable, real-time monitoring of water quality by indicating the level of organic contaminants in the recycled water. It will solve key issues for manned space missions: there is no need to supply chemicals or water; chemical storage and handling as well as sample pre-dilution are eliminated; minimal crew maintenance time is required; the unit has a low equivalent system mass; and testing water volumes used are minimal.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Total organic carbon (TOC) analysis is a well-defined and commonly used analytical tool. Many water utilities monitor TOC to determine raw water quality or to evaluate the effectiveness of processes designed to remove organic carbons. Successful development of a compact online total organic carbon analyzer (TOCA) will have a high commercial applicability to a wide range of industries where water quality assurance and control is important, such as the semiconductor or pharmaceutical industries.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Waste Processing and Reclamation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X2.04-9678
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE18P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Environmental Monitoring and Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniaturized, Multi-Analyte Sensor Array for the Automated Monitoring of Major Atmospheric Constituents in Spacecraft Environment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innosense, LLC
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance, CA 90505-5245
(310) 105-3049

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Uma Sampathkumaran
uma.sampathkumaran-1@innosense.us
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance,  CA 90505-5245
(310) 310-2011

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6 to 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of the Phase II SBIR project is to develop a prototype sensor system to detect gaseous analytes in support of the spacecraft environmental monitoring and control system. InnoSense LLC (ISL) has utilized its Chemical Fingerprint sensor array fabrication technology in Phase I to establish the feasibility of a miniature device with multi-analyte detection capability. In particular, we have detected oxygen, carbon dioxide and humidity as potential target analytes. The oxygen sensor performed over 3-45% concentrations under a variable pressure of 8-14.7 psia. The Phase I working model could generated discernible signal with 0.1% O2 concentration. Upon fine-tuning the indicators in Phase II, the system performance will be tested with a prototype hardware that will also be developed in Phase II. ISL has received technology endorsement letter from a prime contractor in the NASA application area. ISL has also secured Phase III follow-on funding commitment from a commercialization partner. For assuring success of this project, ISL has assembled a technical team with a cumulative 100 person-years of experience in developing commercially viable sensor systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA vision calls for safe, affordable human missions beyond Earth orbit to Moon, Mars, and through the Solar System. To support the transport of small crewed missions to the moon with capabilities to extend this to outer space, monitoring and controlling of the life-support process needs to be performed by devices having attributes such as: (a) high accuracy and precision, (b) reduced size and weight, (c) long operational life, (d) reliable performance, (e) minimal maintenance requirement, and (f) in-line operational ability. Hazardous trace gases within the space-craft crew habitat pose risks to human health during long duration missions. Therefore, the proposed sensor technology provides NASA with a low-cost, robust, real-time monitoring format for protecting both the crew and spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The multi-analyte capabilities of the device make it very attractive for applications ranging from environmental monitoring to process control. The study by Frost & Sullivan on World Gas Sensors, Detectors and Analyzers Market reveals that these markets earned revenues of over $1 billion in 2005 and estimates this to exceed $1.4 billion in 2012 (Source: Frost and Sullivan Report MC1377591, August 31, 2006). Pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, fermentation monitoring, cell culturing, and tissue culturing represent some important applications. Upon repackaging, the device will have applications in a variety of civilian emergency response and occupational environment monitoring or related research facilities. Examples include: firefighting, hazardous material response, hazardous material workers, industrial safety workers (e.g., coal miners, steel workers, etc.), and industrial confined space monitoring associated with many occupations (e.g., industrial chemical manufacturing).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Perception/Sensing
Testing Facilities
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Biomedical and Life Support
Waste Processing and Reclamation
Data Input/Output Devices
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Biochemical
Optical
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Portable Life Support
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials
Organics/Bio-Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X2.05-9375
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD15P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Fire Protection
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Portable Fine Water Mist Fire Extinguisher for Spacecraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ADA Technologies, Inc.
8100 Shaffer Parkway, Suite 130
Littleton , CO 80127-4107
(303) 792-5615

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Butz
jimb@adatech.com
8100 Shaffer Parkway, Suite 130
Littleton,  CO 80127-4107
(303) 874-8276

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Fine water mist (FWM) is a promising replacement technology for fire suppression on the next generation of manned spacecraft. It offers advantages in performance, ease of cleanup, compatibility with on-board environmental systems, and ability to recharge during a mission. ADA Technologies has designed and built a prototype hand-held extinguisher that successfully extinguished test fires in an atmosphere of 34% oxygen and 8 psia total pressure, representing manned spacecraft environments. In this Phase II SBIR project ADA proposes to advance this FWM prototype toward production status by incorporating design improvements compatible with space-based operation and validating the new configuration in fire tests in the spacecraft environment chamber (34% O2 & 8 psia) operated by team member Colorado School of Mines. We will also plan for microgravity (aircraft) testing and prepare a Flight Qualification Test Plan to be used to estimate costs for flight qualification of the hardware. Finally, the production prototype will be tested against UL standard 711 class 2B and 5B flammable liquid fires. A comprehensive specification and drawing package will be prepared. All Phase II project activities will be directed toward advancing the TRL of the technology to Level 8. In Phase II we have added a partner experienced in the production and qualification of flight test fixtures and experiments. ADA has also initiated discussions with a NASA contractor for spacecraft as well as with a commercial supplier of fire protection equipment to take this technology into the broader commercial marketplace, targeting aerospace and flammable fuels storage as early market segments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Fine Water Mist (FWM) is a versatile fire suppression technology ideal for application in manned spacecraft and planetary habitats. It is effective and efficient, with a small mass and volume impact. NASA recently identified FWM as a leading candidate technology for fire protection on the Altair lunar lander. The ADA prototype design can be operated in any gravity environment, including microgravity, and with the gravity vector in any orientation with respect to the extinguisher. The ADA FWM extinguisher is rechargeable on-station, a key feature for extended lunar and planetary missions. In addition, FWM is fully compatible with spacecraft systems, using only water and nitrogen as agents which offer no adverse impact to human health. ADA has identified two candidate partners to advance our technology through flight qualification to supply hardware for Constellation family of manned spacecraft. Fine Water Mist Fire Suppression is also useful and effective in a range of applications in NASA facilities and Ground Support Equipment. ADA has designed, built, and tested specialized FWM systems for use in hazardous environments on board US Air Force aircraft, and has worked on conceptual designs for such applications as flammable liquid storage and ground protection of aircraft. We believe that Fine Water Mist would prove ideal for many NASA fire protection situations. ADA plans to partner with a commercial supplier of fire suppression equipment to bring this technology to market.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Significant market opportunities exist outside the base applications within NASA. ADA will leverage these to create a commercial opportunity for our FWM technology that is of significant potential impact to the company while satisfying the NASA need/requirement. Aerospace applications (airlines) constitute one major opportunity. Airplanes are currently equipped with halon extinguishers both automatic and handheld. However, halon is no longer in production and the European Union is mandating its replacement even prior to the depletion of Halon stockpiles. FWM is an excellent candidate for this application as it is very effective, safe for human exposure, and environmentally friendly. ADA's fine water mist system is also a great fit for fire protection in vehicle and enclosed space applications. Military vehicles, subway trains, museums, passenger and merchant ships, hotels, data centers, flammable fuel storage locations are among promising markets. Overall, this is a several hundred million dollar market opportunity, and FWM will have a positive impact on safety, human health, and the environment. ADA has begun discussions with companies that have existing fire protection products and market share to update their product lines and increase market opportunities. ADA's strong grasp and intellectual property in this emerging technology make us an ideal partner for firms seeking to deploy new and improved products into the fire protection market.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Biomedical and Life Support
Combustion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X3.02-9269
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD16P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reactive-Separator Process Unit for Lunar Regolith

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Reactive Innovations, LLC
2 Park Drive, Unit 4
Westford, MA 01886-3525
(978) 692-2613

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Kimble
mkimble@reactive-innovations.com
2 Park Drive, Unit 4
Westford,  MA 01886-3525
(978) 692-4664

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's plans for a lunar habitation outpost call out for process technologies to separate hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide gases from regolith product gas streams. A low-pressure drop separation unit is needed to remove these sulfur compounds from regolith process streams that is compact and lightweight. To this end, Reactive Innovations, LLC proposes a Phase II SBIR program to continue the development of an electrochemical reactive-separation unit to selectively bind and remove the sulfur compounds into a separated stream of sulfur-based compounds. During the Phase I program, we developed and successfully demonstrated an electrochemical reactive-separation platform that binds sulfur compounds via a charge transfer process to a redox carrier that is subsequently transported across a membrane separator releasing the sulfur components. The Phase II program will continue to develop the membrane electrode assemble to improve the separation process as well as transition this technology to RIL's advanced reactor platform for more extensive testing. The Phase I effort has brought this lunar regolith reactive-separator unit to a Technology Readiness Level of 3. The Phase II program will deliver an operational prototype at a TRL of 4-5.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Specific uses of the proposed lunar regolith reactive-separator for NASA are directed toward the removal of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide from regolith process streams. The continuous removal of these compounds in a lightweight and efficient reactive-separator unit will enable regolith to be processed continuously for lunar habitation development.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications of this reactive-separation unit may find applications in processing and removing sulfur-based compounds from exhaust streams including automotive gasoline and diesel engine exhausts and coal-fired utility operations and burners. The low-pressure drop design of the reactive-separator unit in a compact and lightweight design would lessen the impact of removing sulfur on the engine and combustion efficiency.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Portable Life Support
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X3.02-9483
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE48P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microchannel Methanation Reactors Using Nanofabricated Catalysts

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Makel Engineering, Inc.
1585 Marauder Street
Chico, CA 95973-9064
(530) 895-2770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Susana Carranza
scarranza@makelengineering.com
1585 Marauder Street
Chico,  CA 95973-9064
(512) 512-0718

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) and the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) propose to develop and demonstrate a microchannel methanation reactor based on nanofabricated catalysts. Our innovative approach of combining microchannel reactor technology with nanofabricated catalysts provides the synergy between these two emerging technologies with the potential to enhance reaction efficiency by orders of magnitude. This improvement in efficiency leads to more compact and lower mass reactor systems. Thermal and mass diffusion distances in microchannel reactors range from tens to hundreds of microns versus tens to hundreds of millimeters in conventional reactors. Slow heat and mass transfer dominate the operation of conventional reactor designs, thus limiting reaction kinetics. As is well known, catalytic efficiency increases with decreasing catalyst particle size (reflecting higher surface area per unit mass) and chemical reactivity frequently is enhanced at the nanoscale. By virtue of their nanoscale dimensions, nanotubes and nanorods geometrically restrict the catalyst particle size that can be supported upon the tube walls. By confining catalyst particles to sizes smaller than the CNT diameter, a more uniform catalyst particle size distribution may be maintained. The high dispersion provided by the vast surface area of the nanoscale material serves to retain the integrity of the catalyst by reducing sintering or coalescence. To maximize catalyst exposure, our design includes hierarchical support structures, consisting of a 3-d network of open pores within the microreactor structure, and finally the nanofabricated support. Additional advantages of the hierarchical catalyst support structure include minimal pressure drop (while providing superior catalyst contact) without the need to resort to fluidized bed configurations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary target application of this technology is the inclusion of our prototype methanation reactor in the demonstration of an integrated carbothermal reduction system for the production of oxygen from lunar regolith. The development of highly efficient microchannel reactors will be applicable to multiple ISRU programs. As this technology can be applied to a wide range of processes, the applications are numerous. NASA is currently pursuing technologies to convert plastics and other crew solid waste to carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and/or water (per NASA SBIR 2009 Phase I solicitation). Our proposed microreactor could be used to subsequently convert these carbon oxides to methane as a fuel. Propellants can be produced from carbon dioxide (Mars atmosphere). Methane reformation can be used to produce hydrogen onboard fuel cell power rovers, enabling many mobility concepts. Ethylene can be produced from methane. Ethylene is a feedstock for production of polyethylene and ethanol. Methane reformation can produce hydrogen on board rovers to feed fuel cell power systems. Polyethylene can be used in the construction of habitats, tools, and replacement parts. Ethanol can be used as a nutrient for Astrobiology experiments, as well as a precursor for the production of nutrients (e.g. sugars) for human crew.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Makel Engineering has strong interest in the development and utilization of renewable fuels. Makel Engineering has ongoing research and field test demonstration activities in the utilization of biogas (e.g., dairy, landfill) for stationary power generation, and is currently partnering with the California Energy Commission and a major California utility (Sacramento Municipal Utility District SMUD). In most cases, clean up of the biogas stream is required. To date, the commercially available method is the use of a sorbent, like activated carbon filters, which eventually saturate and need to be disposed. If microreactor-based systems are successfully developed, catalytic clean-up will become cost-effective, and would eliminate the need to dispose of saturated filters. Processes of interest include desulfurization, removal of siloxane, etc. There is also growing interest in the production of biofuels from a variety of sources. Commercially, biodiesel is produced utilizing homogeneous catalysts. However, there is growing interest and research in the utilization of heterogeneous catalysts to simplify the production process and enable distributed production as smaller scales. Our proposed hierarchical support design is well suited for liquid biofuel production, as it provides excellent catalyst exposure, and precludes the need of separation of the catalyst from the product stream.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X3.02-9651
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE74P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Self-Heated Cell Reactor using Large Scale Inert Anode for Molten Oxide Electrolysis

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Electrolytic Research Corporation, LLC
73 Winsor Road
Sudbury, MA 01776-2370
(978) 443-9861

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Yurko
jyurko@electrolyticresearch.com
73 Winsor Rd.
Sudbury,  MA 01776-2370
(978) 443-9861

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) is a demonstrated laboratory-scale process for producing oxygen from JSC-1A and other lunar simulants; however, the technological readiness of critical subsystems must be improved before a flight-ready reactor can be built. In Phase 1 experimentation, scaleable iridium and iridium-alloy anodes demonstrated a capability for generating more than 1 L of oxygen from a silicate melt. The use of external heaters in the lab-scale cell imposed severe limitations on its performance, which constrained the duration and the rate of oxygen production in these experiments. Based on the successful Phase 1 results and the demonstrated need for a robust, long-duration, larger-scale electrolysis cell, ERC proposes a plan for the design, construction and demonstration of a reactor capable of producing oxygen at a rate of 1 kg/day or more. A self-heating cell is critical for resolving reactor containment issues, and a critical innovation will allow this to be realized at much smaller scales than those previously required with other electrolytic processes. Successful demonstration will greatly enhance the technology readiness level of molten oxide electrolysis for oxygen generation by means of in-situ resource utilization.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has identified In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) as a key paradigm behind the establishment of a permanent lunar base. An important resource is oxygen, and Molten Oxide Electrolysis has been identified as a potential technology for extracting this resource in-situ. While MOE has produced oxygen on a laboratory scale, critical systems must be developed to meet the goals of producing in excess of 1 metric ton of oxygen per year in the lunar environment. The proposed work, Advanced Self-Heated Cell Reactor using Large-Scale Inert Anode for MOE, significantly advances the technology readiness level of the MOE process for ISRU oxygen generation. The proposed self-heated cell reactor using larger scale anodes would resolve two major challenges in scaling operations, and provide a platform for studying the MOE process in much greater depth and for longer periods than ever before.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to producing oxygen for lunar exploration, inert-anode MOE has the potential to make an even greater impact on the global metals industry. Capable of reducing metals from their oxide states, the process is under development as a lower-energy, environmentally-sustainable method for producing titanium. Currently, research is conducted with carbon anodes, which are consumed to produce CO2. The introduction of inert anodes would make the process CO2-free. While the rewards of commercialization are high, electrolytic metal process development has traditionally been risky because of the size-scales necessary to reach a self-heated reactor. Thus, development of a lab-scale, self-heated reactor using large inert anodes would revolutionize the commercialization of MOE processes. An advanced, inert-anode reactor would increase experimental throughput and process development in the multi-billion dollar global titanium industry. Such a reactor would also allow the process to be adapted for the production of other metals such as iron, chromium, and nickel. In the future, we envision MOE with inert anodes as a method for the green, electrochemical extraction of steel, the world's most-used structural material. The development of the advanced self-heated reactor with a scaled-up inert anode for use in molten oxides is a pivotal enabling technology for these revolutionary goals.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In-situ Resource Utilization
Ceramics
Metallics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X3.02-9756
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE76P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Surface Area Iridium Anodes and Melt Containers for Molten Oxide Electrolysis

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Plasma Processes, Inc.
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville, AL 35811-1558
(256) 851-7653

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Angela Hattaway
ahattaway@plasmapros.com
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville,  AL 35811-1558
(256) 256-7653

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Direct electrochemical reduction of molten regolith is the most attractive method of oxygen production on the lunar surface, because no additional chemical reagents are needed. The process is proven on a laboratory scale, but the cathode-anode system and melt containers need to be improved for practical applications. The electrochemical processing of molten oxides requires high surface area inert anodes. Such electrodes need to be structurally robust at elevated temperatures (1400-1600<SUP>o</SUP>C), resistant to thermal shock, have good electrical conductivity, resistant to attack by molten oxide (silicate), electrochemically stable, and support high current density. Iridium is a proven material for this application. Innovative concepts for large scale, high surface area iridium anodes and long life, self-heating containers for the melts are proposed. The result of this program will be the development, manufacture, and test of high surface area iridium anodes and melt containers for molten oxide electrolysis to produce oxygen.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In-Situ resource utilization is critical for permanent establishment of a lunar base. Molten regolith electrolysis will be used for ISRU oxygen generation and metals manufacturing on the moon. Same materials used by NASA for rocket nozzles and oxygen protection.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Large scale, high surface iridium anodes will be used for titanium production from molten oxide electrolytes. High surface, dimensionally stable iridium anodes could also be used in the chlorine production industry and extractive metallurgy. Non-consumable iridium anodes could be used in copper foil electrochemical production. Another potential application is for dimensionally stable iridium-based composite anodes is the electroplating industry. Other applications are the petro-chemical industry, catalyst production, crystal growth, spark plugs, and rocket nozzles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Monopropellants
In-situ Resource Utilization
Composites
Metallics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X3.03-9828
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD20P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar ISRU Development and Precursor Activities
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lunar Soil Particle Separator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pioneer Astronautics
11111 W. 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood, CO 80215-5516
(303) 980-0890

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Berggren
mberggren@pioneerastro.com
11111 W. 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood, CO,  CO 80215-5516
(303) 980-0231

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) is an innovative method to beneficiate soil prior to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LSPS can improve ISRU oxygen yield by boosting the concentration of ilmenite or other iron-oxide bearing materials found in lunar soils. This can substantially reduce hydrogen reduction reactor size and drastically decrease the power input required for soil heating. LSPS particle size separations can be performed to de-dust regolith and to improve ISRU reactor flow dynamics. LSPS mineral separations can be used to alter the sintering characteristics of lunar soil. The LSPS can also be used to separate and concentrate lunar minerals useful for manufacture of structural materials, glass, and chemicals. The LSPS integrates an initial centrifugal particle size separation with magnetic, gravity, and electrostatic separations. The LSPS centrifugal separation method overcomes the reduced efficiency of conventional particle sieving in reduced gravity. The LSPS hardware design integrates many individual unit operations to reduce system mass and power requirements. The LSPS is applicable to ISRU feed processing as well as robotic prospecting to characterize soils over wide regions on the Moon. The LSPS is scalable and is amenable to testing and development in vacuum and reduced gravity.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary initial application of the LSPS is for lunar particle separations in support of improving the feed to hydrogen reduction ISRU. The LSPS has direct use to improve the overall efficiency of hydrogen reduction by boosting the iron oxide content of soils. In addition, the LSPS has uses for de-dusting and optimizing particle size distribution to improve material flow properties. The LSPS can also serve as a component of a robotic lunar prospector to characterize soils and their potential for ISRU applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications are directed toward small-scale terrestrial mineral processing. The LSPS can be useful in remote locations where a compact, low-power device is needed to perform dry separations for production of mineral concentrates. The LSPS can be used as a pilot scale device for process development and plant optimization, providing quick turnaround if used in conjunction with portable analysis hardware.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X4.01-9712
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD21P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Temperature Mechanisms
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Performing, Low Temperature Operating, Long Lifetime, Aerospace Lubricants

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Sciences, Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077
(978) 786-8990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bryan Bergeron
bergeron@psicorp.com
20 New England Business Center
Andover,  MA 01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to synthesize, characterize, and test new ionic liquids and formulations as lubricants for aerospace applications. The compounds will have low vapor pressures/outgassing and appropriate thermal stability. Upon addition of the innovative ionic liquids to the base lubricants, a 20% decrease in viscosity, friction coefficient, and wear will result. Minimal corrosive effects of the formulations at will be observed. The formulations will be shown more effective as liquid lubricants for use at low temperatures (-70oC) with long-term operational stability in aerospace systems. Several new ionic liquids will be scaled and a novel formulation will be evaluated in a NASA test bed. The technology will be at a TRL range from 3-4 upon completion of Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed lubricants and formulations will have direct applications to NASA aerospace systems that require minimal/no maintenance over extended periods of time. These systems include rovers and machinery used in constructing the lunar habitat. The compounds will provide lower volatility, decreased wear effects, and better tribological characteristics than those of standard liquid lubricants that are currently used, particularly at lower temperatures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed lubricants and formulations have applications in terrestrial machinery. They will substantially increase performance, and reduce maintenance costs and frequencies of industrial transportation and construction systems. The compounds will also be valuable in gyroscope bearings on board satellites.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Mobility
Airframe
Airlocks/Environmental Interfaces
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Erectable
Inflatable
Kinematic-Deployable
Manned-Maneuvering Units
Portable Life Support
Tribology


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X4.02-8428
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC56P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Radiation Shielding Materials and Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multifunctional B/C Fiber Composites for Radiation Shielding

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Modification, Inc.
2721-D Merrilee Drive
Fairfax, VA 22031-4429
(703) 560-1371

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Krishnaswamy Kasturirangan
kris@matmod.com
2721-D Merrilee Dr
Fairfax,  VA 22031-4429
(703) 560-1371

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Components of lunar habitat and crew modules in the lunar vehicle are constantly exposed to hazardous space conditions, such as ionizing radiation, electromagnetic interference, orbital debris, and solar flares. The safe functioning of crew and instruments and survivability require effective radiation protection. There is also the desire to reduce the weight of parts in Space missions. In Phase I, Materials Modification Inc. developed a series of novel multifunctional composites using a proprietary high-hydrogen epoxy incorporating boron and carbon fiber layers with enhanced radiation shielding, structural, thermal and electrical properties compared with high density polyethylene (HDPE). Radiation shielding of B/C composites against high-energy neutrons were measured. The boron composites had approximately the same shielding effectiveness as HDPE and aluminum for the energetic neutrons. This is remarkable since the multifunctional properties of these hybrid boron/carbon fiber composites offer so much more than the overall properties of HDPE or Al, especially in the area of lightweight structural applications for aerospace. In Phase II, a series of composite laminates with a range of %B will be fabricated using unidirectional boron fiber and unidirectional carbon fiber in a non-autoclave process. Mechanical properties of the most promising composite compositions, including lamina and laminate properties at cryo temperature, RT, and elevated temperature will be determined. Radiation shielding studies with energetic charged particles such as, protons, heavy ions, and neutrons that would simulate conditions encountered in space will be performed. By the end of the Phase II, we would have manufactured and tested several compositions that provide optimum radiation shielding. We plan to address specific NASA mission requirements with our partners Boeing, Raytheon and Lockheed Martin who have expressed great interest in the results of the Phase I effort.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Multifunctional structures that will be developed in this Phase II effort can protect crew in a spacecraft, crew exploration vehicle, lander, rover, or lunar habitat from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR), Solar Energy Particles (SEP) and micrometeroid impact and at the same time keep both the weight of the structure and the cost of fabricating the structure to a minimum. Areas include structural N/P protected personnel areas, Electronic systems & instrument shielding and hardcase transfer containers, Structural shape-conforming Metal alloy and ceramic faced N/P backer composite, Flexible N/P shielding for supplemental N/P protective work garments and flexible N/P shielding for pressurized work/transfer tubes

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Land-based commercial applications of the composites developed in this project include linear particle accelerators, high-energy radiation rooms, cancer treatment facilities, nuclear power plants and MRI rooms where direct and secondary neutron and positron shielding are required.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Radiation Shielding Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X4.05-9752
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CF33P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Composite Structures - Cryotanks
PROPOSAL TITLE: Composite Matrix Systems for Cryogenic Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied Poleramic, Inc.
6166 Egret Court
Benicia, CA 94510-1269
(707) 747-6738

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Moulton
poleramic@aol.com
6166 Egret Court
Benicia,  CA 94510-1269
(707) 747-6738

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As an alternative material to aluminum-lithium, cryotanks developed from fiber reinforced composites can offer significant weight savings in applications for fuel containment of liquid oxygen and hydrogen. For composite materials to be accepted and utilized in these structures, they must be resistant to microcracking. It is the objective of this work to develop a matrix system for aerospace composites that alleviates all forms of microcracking from cryogenic cycling regardless of the lay-up and configuration. This will be accomplished by using a novel chemistry that provides the necessary inherent network and backbone structure for this environment combined with newly developed nano-modifiers. This technology and approach will result in a high performance matrix system that has low or no cure shrinkage combined with very low CTE and extremely high toughness. Such a matrix will be combined with carbon fibers to fabricate lightweight, high performance composites that are expected to have the microcrack and permeability resistance required for cryotank structures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology developed in this research program will enable the development of lower weight cryotanks for NASA launch vehicles. The microcrack resistant composite cryotanks will also provide reduced hydrogen permeability over that of traditional composite materials and enable the development of linerless composite pressure vessels. Applications that would benefit from this technology include EDS propellant tanks, Altair propellant tanks, lunar cryogenic storage tanks, Ares V tanks, and composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPV's). In addition to the utilization of these materials for cryotanks, other space and aerospace applications may be found which require highly tough, low CTE composite matrices such as space and aerospace structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to cryotank composite structures, many composite applications and designs will benefit from the high toughness, low cure shrinkage, and low CTE of the matrix technology developed in this research. Commercial composite applications that have been limited by current matrix technology can be found in space, aerospace, and airplane structures. Specific applications that may benefit from the low CTE include high precision antennas, reflector components, and precision optical devices. The high toughness of these matrices will enable more damage tolerant composite for commercial aircraft structures, engine components such as fan blades and core cowls, and ballisitic applications. Also, this technology will enable stitched and advanced multiaxial preforms to be utilized in many new applications that have been limited before by microcracking. Film adhesives for advanced structural bonding and composite cocure applications will also benefit from this technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Airframe
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Tankage
Fluid Storage and Handling
Composites
Organics/Bio-Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X4.06-9326
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CF46P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Composite Structures - Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Composite Thrust Chambers for the Altair Lunar Lander

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Plasma Processes, Inc.
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville, AL 35811-1558
(256) 851-7653

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Angela Hattaway
ahattaway@plasmapros.com
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville,  AL 35811-1558
(256) 256-7653

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Radiation-cooled, bipropellant thrusters are being considered for the Ascent Module main engine of the Altair Lunar Lander. Currently, iridium-lined rhenium combustion chambers are the state-of-the-art for radiatively cooled thrusters. To increase the performance of radiation-cooled engines, improved chamber materials are needed that will allow higher operating temperatures, better resistance to oxidation, and reduce mass. During this effort, an innovative composite thrust chamber is being developed that will incorporate advanced ceramic oxide and iridium liner techniques as well as replacing the expensive, high density rhenium with a low mass carbon-carbon composite. The Phase I results have demonstrated the potential of combining innovative fabrication techniques to produce an advanced ceramic-Ir lined C-C thrust chamber. Hot gas testing has shown the ability of the ceramic oxide coating to reduce the exterior temperature of the C-C jacket, which will enable the use of higher temperature propellants for improved performance. No damage was observed in the ceramic-Ir liner as a result of hot gas testing. During Phase II, the techniques will be optimized to allow fabrication of a 3000 lbf chamber that will be delivered to NASA-MSFC for hot-fire testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
PPI's targeted NASA application is for the Altair Ascent Module main engine. Other NASA applications include in-space propulsion components for apogee insertion, attitude control, orbit maintenance, repositioning of satellites/spacecraft, reaction control systems, and descent/ascent engines, nuclear power/propulsion, oxygen generators, and lunar regolith processing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Both government and commercial entities in the following sectors use advanced high-temperature materials for the following applications: coatings, defense, material R&D, nuclear power, aerospace, propulsion, automotive, electronics, crystal growth, and medical. PPI's targeted commercial applications include net-shape fabrication of refractory and platinum group metals for rocket nozzles, crucibles, heat pipes, and propulsion subcomponents; and advanced coating systems for x-ray targets, sputtering targets, turbines, rocket engines, wear and thermal/electrical insulation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Micro Thrusters
Monopropellants
Thermal Insulating Materials
Ceramics
Composites
Metallics
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X4.06-9473
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC58P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Composite Structures - Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Carbon Foam Self-Heated Tooling for Out-of-Autoclave Composites Manufacturing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Touchstone Research Laboratory, Ltd.
The Millennium Centre, 1142 Middle Creek Road
Triadelphia, WV 26059-1139
(304) 547-5800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rick Lucas
rdl@trl.com
The Millennium Centre, 1142 Middle Creek Road
Triadelphia,  WV 26059-1139
(304) 547-5800

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Touchstone Research Laboratory, Ltd. (Touchstone) has developed a novel and innovative Out-of-Autoclave (OOA) composites manufacturing process with an electrically heated carbon foam tooling system. Electrically Heated Tooling (EHT) utilizes a coal-based carbon foam (CFOAM<SUP>REG</SUP>) core that serves as both the tool substrate and the heating source for a composite part being cured. The tool heating is a result of flowing current through the carbon foam, which results in heating. This approach to self-heated tooling is a potentially enabling technology for manufacturing large composite structures by eliminating the need for autoclaves and large curing ovens, as well as by reducing costs, weight, and improving composite part quality. The overall objective of the NASA Phase 2 program will be to optimize critical factors for thermal uniformity in a CFOAM Electrically Heated Tool (EHT) and to validate the electrically heated cure process with current state-of-the-art OOA materials. The data generated will be used to produce a Scaled Composite Shroud (SCS) cylindrical mandrel EHT that will be designed, fabricated, tested, and used to cure a large composite part without an autoclave or oven. The SCS demonstration tool will be up to an 8' diameter and 12' length mandrel, which will be approximately one-forth of the scale as a tool necessary for an ARES V composite structure.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Carbon Foam Electrically Heated Tooling (EHT) has direct application for NASA programs that involve manufacturing large composite structures in an out-of-autoclave (OOA) process. Programs such as the ARES V Heavy Launch Vehicle as well as the ARES I Crew Launch Vehicle are utilizing composite materials in order to maintain weight efficiency. Manufacturing composites OOA with a CFOAM EHT will maintain process cost efficiency while keeping weights low. The EHT technology application is not limited to large structures, however, and does have utility for any NASA component made from composite materials. Specifically, on ARES V, the Composite Payload Shroud, the Composite Interstage, and the Composite Structures of both the Core Stage and the Earth Departure Stage are all targeted applications for CFOAM EHT technology. On ARES I, the Composite Frustrum of the First Stage, the Composite Interstage structures, and others are also applications for CFOAM EHT technology. Composite components of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle are another application of EHT cure process.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Carbon Foam Electrically Heated Tooling (EHT) also has several commercial applications in the commercial and defense industry, which also share NASA's issue of manufacturing composite structures in an out-of-autoclave environment. These industries also rely heavily on composite material to maintain low-weight and high-strength designs. Touchstone is actively working with prime contractors and DoD agencies such as the Air Force and Missile Defense Agency to utilize CFOAM tooling technology. Programs that can potentially benefit from CFOAM EHT development are the SM3, THAAD, and KEI missile systems along with other commercial aerospace programs. Aerospace applications that will benefit from OOA EHT technology development include helicopter blade spars, missile fairings, airplane fuselage sections, and numerous others.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Composites
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X5.01-8585
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE78P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar Surface Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Radiation Tolerant 802.16 Wireless Network

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aeronix, Inc.
1775 W. Hibiscus Blvd., Suite 200
Melbourne, FL 32901-2627
(321) 984-1671

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steven Iezzi
siezzi@aeronix.com
1775 W. Hibiscus Blvd, Suite 200
Melbourne,  FL 32901-2627
(321) 984-1671

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Exploration of planetary surfaces will require a communication architecture that supports operational capabilities in which fixed and mobile assets on the planetary surface can communicate seamlessly and securely to coordinate planetary exploration as well as communicate back to Earth. Communication systems operating on planetary surfaces will also require innovative solutions for analyzing and characterizing the lunar propagation environment. Communications capabilities will need to include bi-directional, multi-point links to provide on-demand, autonomous interconnection between base stations, mobile robotic rovers, mobile humans, and in-space relay stations. Communications could consist of voice, video, data and control. Current available system solutions do not fulfill this need with respect to range, mobility, bandwidth, size, weight, and power. Aeronix understands these issues and believes that the solution lies in the development of wireless devices that employ the radiation tolerant semiconductors and software radios as an underlying architecture feature.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has planned future exploratory Lunar and Mars missions that could use radiation hardened architecture to support wireless user applications. NASA plans to place both astronauts and sensors on Lunar and Mars surfaces. Robust communication links will be needed in support of these missions for Astronauts to secure communications with NASA's control center, transmission of medical data, transmission of sensitive sensor data, transmission of sensitive video and information.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There a number of future activities and potential customers for a radiation hardened wireless transceiver modem. One example is a robotic controlled system for a nuclear power plant. A robotic controlled system could take the place of human activities in a nuclear power plant, thus improving overall safety and mitigating undesired events. Another example is to use the transceiver modems in satellite relay applications. The small form factor, low power, and light weight makes the modem ideal for satellite relay applications. The examples used for future activities and future customers have the potential to increase safety and reduce power consumption.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Teleoperation
Architectures and Networks
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
RF
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Highly-Reconfigurable
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X5.01-8674
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE51P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar Surface Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Autonomous Utility Connector for Lunar Surface Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics Ltd.
460 W 34th Street
New York, NY 10001-2320
(212) 966-0661

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Herman
herman@honeybeerobotics.com
460 West 34th Street
New York,  NY 10001-2320
(646) 459-7819

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Lunar dust has been identified as a significant and present challenge in future exploration missions. Significant development is called for in the area of devices and structures that tolerate or mitigate the presence of lunar dust. Honeybee Robotics seeks to develop a scalable dust-tolerant, autonomous utility connector for lunar surface system applications with a focus on small pressurized rover recharge. Honeybee has heritage in developing mechanisms for extreme, dusty environments. There are many near-term applications of such a connector including: the utility and electrical connections that will be used on the next-generation lunar EVA suit, cryogenic utility connections that will be used to pass liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen during in-situ resource utilization activities, and high-power electrical connectors capable of thousands of cycles for the Lunar Electric Rover (LER) battery recharge and data transfer functions. The Phase I program has resulted in (1) environmental testing of breadboard lunar dust-tolerant alignment features for autonomous utility connections capable of accommodating 20&#730; angular and 1.5cm lateral approach misalignment; and (2) a conceptual design that integrates the dust-tolerant alignment features with our dust-tolerant electrical connector and mechanical connection mechanisms based on lessons learned during environmental testing of the alignment feature breadboard. In Phase II, Honeybee will develop a prototype autonomous utility connector that integrates the alignment features, mechanical connection mechanism and electrical connection mechanism; testing the prototype in our lunar Dusty environment Simulation Test chamber that is capable of closely reproducing the conditions of the lunar surface. This effort will lead to the development of an autonomous dust-tolerant utility connector to TRL 6 with a focused application to the battery recharge connector for the LER being developed for the Constellation program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The dust-tolerant autonomous connection mechanisms to be developed through this project will be an enabling technology for extended lunar operations in that they will allow several cycles of utility connection and disconnection for EVA and surface operations. Future mission scenarios involving erectable structures, diverse EVA-compliant tools, Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU)-to-rover or EMU-to-robot interfaces, and other in-situ assembly or interconnection activities will all call for dust-tolerant reusable connectors. In particular, the Constellation Lunar Electric Rover utility recharge connectors will require dust-tolerant technology. Discussions have already begun to this effect with engineers from NASA, Oceaneering, and Ball Aerospace.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Military and homeland security operations are often conducted in uncontrolled environments. An increasing use of high-technology tools provides for improved performance, but also introduces new risks. The incorporation of dust-tolerant autonomous connection mechanisms in military couplings will allow greater reliability and flexibility for modular electronics in operational scenarios, especially in dusty, dirty, sandy environments. Incorporation of dust-tolerant connectors would also reduce maintenance, repair, and overhaul costs by reducing select component failures due to degradation by dust and sand. Current connectors meet stringent mil-spec environmental requirements when connected, but the connection itself must be made under clean conditions. We expect that adding a tolerance to making and breaking connections under off-nominal conditions will result in an increased service life for modular electronics for use in military and homeland security applications. There is also broad commercial potential for dust-tolerant autonomous connectors in several commercial applications requiring the reliable performance of modular electronics in uncontrolled environments, including oil and gas exploration, first responders and emergency services, heavy and highway construction, and mining. By employing dust-tolerant connectors, rather than attempting to seal dust intolerant connectors against the environment, the connectors used in these applications may be truly ruggedized.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Manipulation
Airlocks/Environmental Interfaces
Testing Facilities
Modular Interconnects
Fluid Storage and Handling
Manned-Maneuvering Units
Portable Life Support
Suits
Tools
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X5.01-9850
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC59P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar Surface Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lunar Navigator - A Miniature, Fully Autonomous, Lunar Navigation, Surveyor, and Range Finder System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Microcosm, Inc.
4940 W. 147th Street
Hawthorne, CA 90250-6708
(310) 726-4100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Wertz
jim@smad.com
4940 W. 147th Street
Hawthorne,  CA 90250-6708
(310) 219-2700

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Microcosm will use existing hardware and software from related programs to create a prototype Lunar Navigation Sensor (LNS) early in Phase II, such that most of the effort can be spent in extensive field-testing, making corrections as needed, and critical evaluation of the LNS performance on Earth and projected performance on the Moon. By using NGS survey markers, with centimeter-leve position accuracy, as test sites, we expect to create a truth model for both absolute and relative position measurements that is essentially error free (relative to the LNS accuracy), thus allowing very accurate characterization of both random and systematic errors for both absolute and relative position measurements. This unambiguous characterization of the total error will allow validation (or correction) of the navigation error models and assessment of system performance with a high level of confidence. Additionally, the LNS prototype hardware is sufficiently small (roughly shoebox size with a laptop PC for data collection) and easy to set up (put on a tripod over the NGS marker), that it can easily be taken to multiple test locations. Finally, a detailed technology roadmap will be created showing how the TRL 6 LNS can be raised to TRL 9, ready for flight.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This lunar navigator technology is applicable for navigation of landers, rovers, balloons, or airplanes on or above the surface of any planets, asteroids, or moons for which stars can be seen from the surface. The navigator device is potentially low cost, light weight, and exceptionally robust in that it does not depend on any external resources for navigation. A modified form of this technology (replacing the gradiometer with a set of Earth sensors) could also be used for robust spacecraft navigation in low planetary orbits. This system, with initial operational success on the Moon, is directly applicable to surface navigation on Mars, both day and night.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology is applicable for air, sea, and land navigation on the Earth as a back-up to GPS. There is an identified Navy need for comparable technology (with, of course, different structural, qualification, and environmental constraints). It could be used for GPS-independent aircraft navigation as well. It could also be used for many types of commercial transportation systems as an alternative to GPS.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Guidance, Navigation, and Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X5.02-9458
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE81P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface System Dust Mitigation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Dust Mitigation for the Lunar Surface

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Adherent Technologies, Inc.
9621 Camino del Sol NE
Albuquerque, NM 87111-1522
(505) 346-1685

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jan Gosau
adherenttech@comcast.net
11208 Cochiti SE
Albuquerque,  NM 87123-3361
(505) 346-1685

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The lunar surface is, to a large extent, covered with a dust layer several meters thick. Known as lunar regolith, it has been produced by meteorite impacts since the formation of a solid lunar surface billions of years ago. The regolith, while promising as a future building material for lunar installations, also poses a hazard in the form of dust clouds being generated by all forms of gas expansions in the high vacuum environment of the lunar surface. This is especially pronounced during spacecraft operations; a single lunar landing and take-off emits the same amount of gas as the whole lunar atmosphere contains. Instruments placed on the moon by the Apollo mission showed marked degradation due to damage from dust released during the lander's takeoff. Since there is no air movement to remove the dust after it is deposited, it is essential that dust is not displaced during everyday operations of a permanent lunar installation. Adherent Technologies, Inc. (ATI) has over the last decade developed a number of specialty UV-curing resins for NASA applications in space. In the Phase I program, ATI developed a resin and dispenser system to coat large areas of lunar surface around landing pads and atmosphere locks with a thin, dust-stabilizing coating. The coating is UV stable and elastic enough to weather the temperature extremes of a lunar day and night cycle. Special emphasis was given to a low outgassing, solvent-free system that does not contaminate the lunar atmosphere. In the Phase II program, ATI will optimize the resin formulations from the Phase I for thin film coatings. By comparing those to two-part resin systems, a balance between required properties and needed launch weight can be struck for different mission profiles. The engineering development will concentrate on a lightweight, reliable spray system to be added onto existing NASA moon vehicles.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary application for the new coating is dust mitigation for future lunar missions, especially near the landing pad for a permanent installation. It can be combined with ATI's penetrating two-part formulations for roads and landing pads in a single applicator, potentially as an add-on to the planned lunar earth mover. The resin development also supports application of UV-cure resins in Rigidization on Command<SUP>TM</SUP> systems for inflatable structures like shelters and antennas as well as structural repair tapes.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Initial commercialization of the dust mitigation resin system will center on terrestrial dust mitigation and leaching prevention for industrial waste sites like mine tailings. Other applications include asbestos remediation, quick-erect shelters for military and disaster relief applications, as well as self-sealing tank inserts.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X5.02-9672
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD23P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface System Dust Mitigation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multi-Use Coating for Abrasion Prevention, Wear Protection, and Lunar Dust Removal

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Plasma Processes, Inc.
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville, AL 35811-1558
(256) 851-7653

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tim McKechnie
timmck@plasmapros.com
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville,  AL 35811-1558
(256) 256-7653

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The deleterious effects of lunar dust, typically less than 50 m in diameter, have to be addressed prior to establishing a human base and long duration human presence on the surface of the moon. These effects include abrasion of seals, gaskets, motors, actuators, gimbals, bearings, blocking of optical windows, and coating of thermal control surfaces and solar panels with lunar dust. Negative physiological effects due to dust inhalation by astronauts must be mitigated. Issues related to lunar dust have been identified since the Apollo missions; however, no credible mitigation techniques have been implemented to date. The essence of this proposed activity is to develop a multi-use coating system - a highly wear resistant coating surface for use in the space environment that can also perform as part of an electrically conductive circuit upon demand to minimize wear surface abrasion and, when electrically activated, repel fine lunar dust particles from wear surfaces, sealing surfaces, and complex geometries.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lunar surface operations and all materials/equipment exposed to the lunar surface environment, such as rovers and robotic systems, prospecting equipment, habitat materials, EVA suits and astronaut apparel, thermal radiators, power systems, communications equipment, gimbal joints and trundle bearings in space station solar arrays, solar concentrators, airlock systems and seals, and measuring equipment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Wear protection of air intakes and ventilation apparatus for heavy equipment and vehicles, and dust removal from electronics and communication equipment in combat situations. Commercial applications include prospecting equipment, communications protection, valves, bearings, and industrial dust mitigation for electronics and sealing mechanisms.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Suits
In-situ Resource Utilization
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Tribology


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X5.03-9734
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE56P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extravehicular Activity (EVA)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact, Efficient, and Reliable Ventilation Fan for EVA Suits

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-0071
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Izenson
mgi@creare.com
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-0071
(603) 603-3800

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced EVA suits for space exploration will need a portable life support system (PLSS) that is compact, lightweight, highly reliable, and meets stringent requirements for oxygen safety. A key component is a blower that circulates gas through the space suit ventilation loop. We propose to develop an innovative blower that can meet the challenging requirements for circulating ventilation gas in an EVA suit using a reliable system that consumes little power. The innovative design enables use of a wide range of materials that can be selected to maximize safety in an oxygen environment. In Phase I we proved the feasibility of our approach by testing and optimizing blower components, producing a conceptual design for the blower and motor, and demonstrating a proof-of-concept blower under prototypical conditions. In Phase II we will optimize the blower and motor designs to achieve small size and maximum efficiency while meeting requirements and constraints for operation in exploration space suits. We will demonstrate lifetime and reliability of critical components in a prototypical oxygen environment and deliver a prototype blower that can be used in system tests of advanced portable life support systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ventilation fan is a critical technology need for the Constellation Space Suit System (CSSS), since the exploration PLSS design calls for a dedicated ventilation fan instead of a combined fan/pump/water separator like the one used in the current shuttle EMU. The blower that we develop will meet the requirements for circulating ventilation gas in the CSSS.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The head, flow, and efficiency requirements for the space suit ventilation blower are very similar to the requirements for personal cooling systems based on filtered air ventilation needed for terrestrial applications. The military needs these blowers to provide a lightweight cooling and ventilation system for soldiers and marines wearing body armor or chem/bio protective gear in hot environments. Civilian applications include portable ventilation systems for HAZMAT teams and nuclear or chemical plant workers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Portable Life Support


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X6.01-8889
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD26P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Fuel Cells for Surface Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Thermacore, Inc.
780 Eden Road
Lancaster, PA 17601-4275
(717) 569-6551

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sergey Semenov
s.y.semenov@thermacore.com
780 Eden Road
Lancaster,  PA 17601-4275
(717) 519-3133

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of the Phase II program is to complete the development of the titanium heat pipe thermal plane and establish all necessary steps for production of this heat pipe. The main aerospace application for this titanium heat pipe design is fuel cell thermal management. Electronics cooling is expected to be the largest commercial market for this technology. The Phase I program was successfully completed five weeks sooner than deadline. All main technical objectives were met. Three thermal plane units were produced and thermally tested. One unit was shipped to NASA GRC and one unit is currently in a "burn-in" setup for Non-Condensable Gas (NCG) generation prevention. NCG generation still remains the most important issue to be resolved before heat pipe will be ready for production. Another limiting factor for wide commercial application of the titanium heat pipes is their high manufacturing cost. These issues will be addressed in the Phase II program. The Phase II work effort is divided into eleven tasks: ten technical tasks plus one reporting task. The work involves reviewing requirements, thermal plane design, alternative materials development, design optimization, non-condensable gas abatement concluding with the fabrication test and delivery of several titanium thermal planes to NASA. All tasks will be accomplished at Thermacore, Inc. facility.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Passive Fuel Cell or Electrolysis Cell Heat Removal/ Thermal Control: Passive thermal control of individual cells within a fuel cell or electrolysis stack has the potential to eliminate actively pumped liquid coolant loops. A planar lightweight conductive heat pipe that is also electrically conductive is sought to passively remove the heat from the individual fuel cells or electrolysis cells within a cell stack. Spacecraft onboard electronics cooling is another area for application of the developed planar titanium heat pipe. Modern electronic components are small in size and generate heat fluxes that cannot be handled by pure conduction or direct forced convection cooling technologies. Planar heat pipe can be integrated with a Print Circuit Board (PCB) allowing it to stay at near uniform temperature. As a result several components can be cooled utilizing a single cooling device located at the edge of the PCB. Isothermal panels for heat radiation into space can be made using the same technology as well. High thermal conductivity and low effective density make these heat pipes applicable for RDU panels. Another important heat pipe advantage over the composite materials is CTE match with titanium round heat pipes.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
To support this "high end-technology to Commercialization" business model, Thermacore has been and remains active in research and technology development programs, supporting DARPA, NASA, DOD, DOE and NSF. Military/Aerospace applications drive advances in our technology. This technology eventually gets applied to Military/Aerospace applications. Thermacore in turn also uses these advances that they helped develop to benefit their OEM customers and their products thereby creating jobs and benefiting the U.S. economy. High volume manufacturing of these advanced products helps to drive down the price of the product, which in turn comes back and benefits the Military/Aerospace sector with reduced costs. Maintaining this cycle is important to the Military/Aerospace sector, to Thermacore, to the local economy and to the overall U.S. economy.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X6.01-9321
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD27P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Fuel Cells for Surface Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Cathode Electrolyzer (ACE)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Infinity Fuel Cell and Hydrogen, Inc.
431A Hayden Station Road
Windsor, CT 06095-1373
(860) 688-6500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Smith
wsmith@infinityfuel.com
431A Hayden Station Road
Windsor,  CT 06095-1373
(860) 688-6500

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovation is a static, cathode-fed, 2000 psi, balanced-pressure Advanced Cathode Electrolyzer (ACE) based on PEM electrolysis technology. It electrolyzes water vapor supplied to the hydrogen-evolving electrode and eliminates the need to circulate hydrogen and water on the cathode side of the cell. Innovations include the application of Infinity proprietary cell sealing technology to electrolysis to minimize high-pressure seals and the use of innovative passive current-control techniques to eliminate potential hydrogen gas in feedwater chambers. ACE produces hydrogen and oxygen that is free of liquid water droplets without using dynamic product gas/liquid water phase separation and/or other motorized equipment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A simple reliable modular electrolyzer, that passively and efficiently generates high pressure hydrogen and oxygen, has wide potential application in future NASA missions. These include lunar and planetary fixed base energy storage, recharge of lunar rovers and portable power fuel cells as well as generation of oxygen for crew life support.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non NASA commercial applications include recharge of fuel cells for telecom backup power, remote off-grid power, undersea fuel cell systems and aircraft and airship energy storage systems

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Propellant Storage
Portable Life Support
In-situ Resource Utilization
Energy Storage
Photovoltaic Conversion
Power Management and Distribution
Renewable Energy


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X6.01-9699
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE20P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Fuel Cells for Surface Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Static Water Vapor Feed Electrolyzer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cortney Mittelsteadt
cmittelsteadt@ginerinc.com
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton,  MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0529

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Development of a static vapor feed electrolyzer utilizing an advanced bipolar plate that produces sub-saturated H2 and O2 is proposed. This novel bipolar design can greatly simplify electrolyzer systems, as it eliminates the need for water/gas phase separation, which is particularly challenging in a zero gravity environment. Maintaining water in the vapor phase greatly reduces membrane swelling which should increase durability. Finally, by keeping water in the vapor phase the MEA is not exposed to ion and other contaminants that are carried by a liquid water stream, further increasing durability and simplifying the system by reducing the need for ultra-pure water. The primary goal of this Phase I program is to demonstrate a high-pressure (1000 psi) static vapor feed electrolyzer and demonstrate that the system can operate without purge of the water feed stream for up to 100 hours.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lunar and space stations, satellites, high altitude aircraft. Terrestrial water electrolyzers typically utilize an abundance of recirculated water to the electrolyzer, usually on the anode (oxygen) side, where it serves reactant, coolant, and as the "carrier" phase wherein the product oxygen is carried from the anode by the pumped water. Subsequent to leaving the electrolyzer the phases are separated by gravity in a receiving tank. In near-zero or low-gravity environments, this separation is difficult to achieve. Doing so results in additional system complexity and compromised process efficiency. As part of a regenerative fuel cell system, NASA has a need for highly-efficiency, but robust technologies capable of storing energy in the form of stored hydrogen and oxygen. The Static Water Vapor Feed (SWVF) Electrolyzer is an elegant solution to overcome and simplify the above problems. Thus NASA will be the first to utilize electrolyzers with this technology, possibly in the Constellation mission in the lunar-based and Martian energy storage systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Utilizing a water vapor feed is highly attractive for laboratory and small industrial scale electrolyzers. Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC. is the world's largest supplier of laboratory electrolyzer stack and stack parts. The electrolyzers and the corresponding stacks have excellent proven durability, greatly exceeding five years. However, they require an extremely pure deionized water feed. The ability of a vapor-fed electrolyzer to operate on tap water would make this technology even more attractive for these applications. In a similar fashion to water permeation through an ionomeric membrane, alcohols such as methanol and ethanol can permeate membranes. Thus the static vapor feed technology may be useful in alcohol-air batteries such as those used for portable power. In all these applications, the management of the gases and liquids involved generates significant complexity that inevitably increases the cost and reduces reliability of such devices. As such, they will all benefit from static water vapor feed technologies. Those benefits actually create the market for this technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Energy Storage
Renewable Energy


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X6.02-8492
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD29P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Space-Rated Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: SiLix-C Nanocomposites for High Energy Density Li-ion Battery Anodes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Superior Graphite Co.
10 South Riverside Plaza, Suite 1470
Chicago, IL 60606-3700
(312) 648-3630

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Francois Henry
FHenry@superiorgraphite.com
10 South Riverside Plaza, Suite 1470
Chicago,  IL 60606-3700
(773) 209-4793

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
For this project Superior Graphite Co. (Chicago, IL, USA), the leading worldwide industrial carbon manufacturer and the only large scale battery grade graphitic carbon producer in the USA, will develop, explore the properties of, and demonstrate the enhanced capabilities of novel nanostructured SiLix-C anodes, capable of retaining high capacity at a rapid 2 hour discharge rate and at 0oC when used in Li-ion batteries. By thye end of Phase I we have demonstrated advanced anode materials with the specific capacity in excess of 1000 mAh/g, minimal irreversible capacity losses and stable performance for 20 cycles at C/1. We are confident that by the developing and applying a variety of novel nano-materials technologies, fine-tuning the properties of composite particles at the nanoscale, optimizing the composition of the anodes, and choosing appropriate binder and electrolytes we will be able to revolutionize Li-ion battery technology. In order to achieve such a breakthrough in power characteristics of Li-ion batteries, the team will develop new nanostructured SiLix-C anode materials to offer up to 1200 mAh/g at C/2 at 0oC and a long cycle life with less than 20% fading when cycled for 2000 cycles at C/2 at 0oC

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Advanced Li-ion batteries are state-of-the-art in serving as low-weight, high energy, and high power density energy storage systems. These outstanding features make Li-ion batteries an excellent candidate for numerous spaceflight applications, considering the high costs of transporting objects to orbit. Selected applications are listed below: 1) High capacity anodes for Li-ion battery-based Ascent Module of the Altair Lunar Lander 2) High capacity anodes for Li-ion battery for the Lunar EVA Suit and integrated Portable Life Support Systems 3) High capacity anodes for Li-ion battery for Lunar Surface Systems and Mobility Systems 4)High capacity anodes for Li-ion batteries to be used in Uninterruptable Power Systems (UPS) for ORION space shuttle, International Space Station (ISS) and other spaceflight vehicles

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) Anodes for high power density and high energy density Li-ion battery-based power sources for Hybrid Electrical and Electrical Vehicles (HEV and EV) 2) Anodes for high energy density Li-ion batteries for portable consumer electronics 3) Anodes for high energy density and high powder density Li-ion batteries for handheld military equipment, exploration robots and drones

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Manned-Maneuvering Units
Portable Life Support
Suits
Tools
Composites
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X6.02-9113
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD30P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Space-Rated Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: Silicon Whisker and Carbon Nanofiber Composite Anode

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Sciences, Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077
(978) 786-8990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Junqing Ma
ma@psicorp.com
20 New England Business Center
Andover,  MA 01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has successfully developed a silicon whisker and carbon nanofiber composite anode for lithium ion batteries on a Phase I program. PSI has demonstrated a technology readiness level of 3 with an anode composite capacity of greater than 1100 mAh/g for over 200 cycles (100% depth-of-discharge) at 1C using 2 mAh cells. This anode provides high capacity, high power, and improved cycle life at a competitive cost. Silicon is low cost and has a theoretical capacity of 4200 mAh/g but it has a limited cycle life. The nanocomposite design provides a synergistic improvement in reversible capacity and electrochemical cycling as a result of the unique silicon architecture and structural reinforcement provided by the nanofibers. In the Phase II program, PSI will increase cell size to 2.5 mAh and optimize cell design to further improve cycle life. PSI will deliver to NASA 2.5 Ah lithium ion cells with an energy density greater than 220 Wh/kg that is required by NASA's future robotic and human exploration missions. In collaboration with a battery manufacturer, PSI will also demonstrate that this anode technology is scaleable to reach industrial production level.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Energy storage with improved weight and volume performance are required for various NASA applications which are both orbital and planetary surface. Flight elements of the Exploration Vision initially include the Orion and ARES crew and launch vehicles, respectively. For lunar capability, additional elements include the Lunar Lander or Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM), robotic missions, and surface systems. Surface systems include human habitats, Extravehicular Activities (EVA), science measurements, and the utilization of in situ resources. This lithium-ion battery system has the capability to provide an energy density of greater than 220 Wh/kg with a 1-year calendar year service life. The battery system contains no toxic materials and lends itself to being human rated for Exploration missions. These mission applications include portable power for landers, rovers, and astronaut equipment; storage systems for crew exploration vehicles and spacecraft; and stationary energy storage applications such as base power or peaking power applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have rapidly become the primary choice to power the next generation hybrid electric vehicles. These battery packs require large volumes of low cost anode materials that provide higher charge and rate capability than graphite anodes. This proposal will utilize carbon nanofiber stabilized silicon whisker as active materials that will provide unmatchable capacity and rate capability. Success in the proposed Phase II research will result in a novel silicon whisker composite anode that can be readily incorporated in lithium ion batteries. The scalable synthesis process would allow the anode to be produced at a sufficiently low cost to allow incorporation in the targeted electric vehicle and bulk energy storage markets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X7.01-9013
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD77P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Storage for Space Exploration Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Load Responsive MLI: Thermal Insulation with High In-Atmosphere and On-Orbit Performance

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Quest Product Development Corporation
4900 Iris Street
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033-2215
(303) 670-5088

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scott Dye
sdye@quest-corp.com
4900 Iris Street
Wheat Ridge,  CO 80033-2215
(303) 670-5088

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Lightweight, high performance thermal insulation is critical to NASA's next generation Exploration spacecraft. Zero or low cryogenic propellant boiloff is required during extended missions and lengthy on-orbit times. Heat flow through multilayer insulation is usually the largest heat leak in cryogenic systems, so improvements are desirable. Load Responsive Multi-Layer Insulation (LRMLI) is an innovative new technology using micro-molded polymer dynamic spacers that provide high performance insulation both in-atmosphere and on-orbit. LRMLI under atmospheric pressure compresses dynamic spacers to support an integrated, thin vacuum shell for high performance in-atmosphere operation, and disconnects the spacers during on-orbit/lunar surface operation to reduce heat leak and provide ultra-high performance thermal insulation. LRMLI was successfully proven feasible in Phase I work, reaching TRL4. A LRMLI prototype was built and tested and a 3-layer, 0.25" thick blanket demonstrated 7.1 W/m2 (0.19 mW/m-K) heat leak for on-orbit and 14.3 W/m2 (0.34 mW/m-K) for in-atmosphere operation. Equal heat leak on-orbit of a 0.25" LRMLI blanket (2.1 kg/m2) would require 16" of SOFI (15 kg/m2), with LRMLI having a 64X advantage in thickness and a 7X advantage in mass. LRMLI insulation can provide superior cryogen insulation during ground hold, launch and on-orbit/vacuum conditions without need for purge. Total heat gain into cryogenic systems could be substantially reduced. Terrestrial non-NASA applications include LH2 powered aircraft and cars in development. This proposal is to further develop LRMLI toward commercialization. Tasks proposed include a study of both NASA& non-NASA applications to select two for further optimization, next generation design of dynamic spacers and modular vacuum shells, and building and testing prototypes in realistic environments such as a 3' diameter cryotank similar to a selected use like NASA Altair or Boeing HALE tanks.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lightweight, high performance thermal insulation is critical to NASA's next generation spacecraft. Zero or low cryogenic propellant boiloff is required during extended missions. Load Responsive Multi-Layer Insulation (LRMLI) could provide high performance cryopropellant thermal insulation both in-atmosphere (pre-launch and ascent) and on-orbit for NASA Exploration EDS and Altair vehicles. Current insulation uses MLI, or SOFI/MLI, with purge systems. LRMLI could reduce thickness, mass and purge needs, provide lower heat leak than SOFI or purged conventional MLI systems, and is a more robust insulation system. LRMLI has a unique ability to provide high performance thermal performance during ground hold, launch and on-orbit operation. It can provide substantially lower total mission heat gain, helping enable longer LEO and lunar surface missions. LRMLI could provide insulation for cryogenic systems on space instruments, satellites, spacecraft cabins, lunar surface habitats and LH2 powered aircraft. LRMLI might provide micrometeorite protection. LRMLI could provide high performance insulation with adjustable thickness, mass and thermal conductance to fit mission requirements, with inherent control of layer dimension and spacing, more predictable performance, and a robust structure.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Terrestrial non-NASA applications of LRMLI are numerous since LRMLI operates efficiently in-atmosphere. LH2 powered aircraft are in design, with a critical aspect LH2 storage. A trade study found LRMLI the best choice with lower mass and heat leak than SOFI or MLI with heavy vacuum shell. LH2 powered cars are in development and would also benefit from LRMLI. Extremely efficient thermal insulation has use in a broad range of non-aerospace markets, including commercial applications such as cryogenic vessels & pipes in scientific and industrial applications. A major use is insulating cryogen dewars used in research, medical (personal LOX tanks) and industry, and insulating superconducting devices for MRI and high energy physics. Other potential applications include large commercial tanks, industrial boilers and hot and cold process equipment, refrigerated trucks/trailers, insulated tank, container and rail cars, liquid hydrogen fuel cells, appliances such as refrigerators and freezers, hot water heaters, mobile containers to keep foods hot or cold, marine refrigeration, potentially even thin insulation panels for buildings. Refrigerator/freezers and water heater appliances, alone, are a large market that could benefit from superior insulation with improved energy efficiency. We have had discussions with dewar, refrigerator/freezer, vacuum insulated pipe and building insulation panel manufacturers, who have shown interest in this insulation technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Thermal Insulating Materials
Fluid Storage and Handling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X7.01-9093
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE82P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Storage for Space Exploration Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight Non-Compacting Aerogel Insulation for Cryotanks

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aspen Aerogels, Inc.
30 Forbes Road, Bldg. B
Northborough, MA 01532-2501
(508) 481-5058

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Wendell Rhine
wrhine@aerogel.com
30 Forbes Road
Northborough,  MA 01532-2501
(508) 466-3130

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The exploration of space requires that new technologies be developed for long-term cryogenic propellant storage applications in-space, on the lunar surface, and on the Earth. The Altair (Lunar Lander) ascent stage requires LO2 and LCH4 storage durations of up to 14 days in LEO and up to an additional 210 days on the lunar surface. Long term storage (224 days) of LO2 cryogenic propellant on the lunar surface is required to support space power systems, spaceports, spacesuits, lunar habitation systems, robotics, and in situ propellant systems. Long term storage of LO2/ LH2/ LCH4 cryogenic propellants on the surface of the Earth with minimal propellant loss is required to support launch site ground operations. This SBIR Phase II proposal focuses on improving the strength of aerogels which are the best cryogenic insulation materials known and proposes to develop non-compacting aerogel insulation that could be used to insulate cryotanks on launch vehicles and Earth, and in-space cryogenic fuel storage tanks. During the Phase II effort, we will optimize and scale-up preparation of the crosslinked hybrid aerogels developed during the Phase I effort. The best aerogels will be thoroughly characterized and tested in a relevant environment to attain a TRL of 5.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The material developed in the Phase II effort could have a variety of applications in the aerospace industry and within NASA. Aerogels are the most efficient thermal insulation known, and NASA has several applications that would benefit from the low density and thermal conductivity of aerogels. Aerogels could also be applied to NASA spacesuit applications, and insulation for cryogenic fuel tanks and cryogenic fuel transfer lines, and internal insulation applications on re-usable launch vehicles. The insulating structural aerogels could be used to build insulated habitats on the Moon or Mars.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The resulting insulation system from this program will also have far reaching effects in both military and commercial applications. The potential exists for insulating weapons, fuel tanks, electronics, and landing gear bays of military aircraft. The products will have a commercial impact in areas such as: appliance insulation, airliner fuselages, LNG fuel storage tanks and transfer lines. The aerogels with high compression moduli and strengths investigated during this effort could find applications as structural materials that are fire resistant and have lower thermal conductivities than commercially available structural foams.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Thermal Insulating Materials
Fluid Storage and Handling
Composites
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X7.01-9289
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE59P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Storage for Space Exploration Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Regenerators for Liquid Hydrogen Cryocoolers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Atlas Scientific
1367 Camino Robles Way
San Jose, CA 95120-4925
(408) 507-0906

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Maddocks
jmaddocks@atlasscintific.com
1415 Engineering Drive, Rm 1339A
Madison,  WI 53706-1607
(608) 265-4246

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future NASA exloration, planetary and astrophysics missions will require various enhancements in multi-stage cryocoolers. These include increased efficiency, reduced vibration and reductions in overall system mass and power consumption. For the small coolers required, pulse tube and Stirling coolers offer the best opportunities. At present, the efficiency of these coolers is limited by the effectiveness of low-temperature-stage regenerators. Below about 60 K, two factors play key roles in reducing the effectiveness of regenerators. One is that the heat capacity of most materials falls rapidly with decreasing temperature, thereby, severely limiting the number of useful materials to a few in common use. A second factor is that these commonly used materials are only available in powder form, a form known to raise reliability issues. In this effort, we will address both factors. We will use newly developed materials with high heat capacities at temperatures below 80 K, higher than that of commonly used materials. Further, we will develop novel low-temperature regenerator matrix configurations that will address both the aspect of high-efficiency and regenerator durability. Both the void fracton and the ratio of surface area to solid fracton of the regenerator matrix will be varied to achieve high efficiency.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is considering missions to the outer planets carrying significant amounts of propellant. Cryogenicly stored propellants offer the highest specific impulse of any chemical system. Zero boil-off (ZBO) propellant storage can directly impact these long-term exploration missions. It minimizes the launch mass such missions require. For ZBO missions high efficiency cryocoolers capable of providing cooling at 20 K are required. Other coolers being developed by NASA for use in astrophysics studies and radio-astronomy, will also greatly benefit from the londurable high efficiency low-temperature regenerators.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a number of commercial applications which require cryocoolers that will benefit from high efficiency low-temperature regenerators. A partial list includes: - Superconducting electronics - Superconducting magnets for MRI systems - Superconducting magnets for power generation and energy storage - SQUID magnetometers for heart and brain studies - HTS filters for the communication industry - Liquefaction of industrial gases - Cryopumps for semiconductor manufacturing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Cooling
Fluid Storage and Handling
Instrumentation
Production


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X7.02-8558
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE60P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Transfer and Handling
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Transfer Components Using Single Crystal Piezoelectric Actuators

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRS Ceramics, Inc.
2820 East College Avenue
State College, PA 16801-7548
(814) 238-7485

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Xiaoning Jiang
xiaoning@trstechnologies.com
2820 East College Avenue
State College,  PA 16801-7548
(814) 814-7485

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Cryogenic fluid transfer components using single crystal piezoelectric actuators are proposed to enable low thermal mass, minimal heat leak, low power consumption and fast response for cryogenic fluid transfer and handling systems to support NASA Lunar Lander, Ground Operations, Ares, and Lunar Surface Systems programs. Single crystal piezoelectrics are attractive because they exhibit 3 to 5 times the strain as conventional piezoelectric ceramics, have very low strain hysteresis, and retain excellent piezoelectric performance at cryogenic temperatures. Single crystal piezoelectric actuators including flextensional actuators and piezomotors were developed in Phase I and incorporated into cryogenic valves. The prototyped piezoelectric cryogenic valves were tested showing excellent flow control performance at temperature ranged from room temperature to liquid nitrogen temperature and pressure ranged from 50 psi to 3000 psi. In Phase II PMN-PT single crystal flextensional actuators and piezomotors design, fabrication and integration into cryogenic valves will be optimized, reliability of these piezoelectric cryogenic valves and actuators will be investigated. These advanced cryogenic actuators also hold promise for shape, motion and force controls in NASA, DOD and industrial applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
PMN-PT single crystal piezoelectric fluid components can be used for cryogenic fluid transfer and handling systems to support NASA Lunar Lander, Ground Operations, Ares, and Lunar Surface Systems programs. Piezoelectric actuators can also be used for NASA high precision deformable mirrors in coronagraphic instruments, interferometric telescopes, and space-based observatories. ORIGINS missions SUVO, SAFIR, and Planet Imager, Earth Science applications, such as LIDAR systems as well as Coastal Ocean Imaging systems will all benefit from this technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Adaptive optics for high energy laser, active vibration control and structure morphing, RF communication tuning, bio-medical manipulators, cryogenic microscopy, photonic tooling, micro/nanofabrication and nanoassembly, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Testing Facilities
Cooling
Fluid Storage and Handling
Instrumentation
Production
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X7.02-9609
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD78P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Transfer and Handling
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Advanced Cooling System for In-Situ Resource Utilization

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-0071
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffrey Breedlove
jfb@creare.com
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-0071
(603) 643-3800

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA plans to produce cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen to power regenerative fuel cells for lunar surface exploration. The oxygen and hydrogen will be produced by electrolysis of water from In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) reactors. The electrolysis products will be warm high-pressure gases, requiring significant cryocooler power to achieve the desired storage conditions. This power can be reduced by expanding the gases adiabatically from the electrolysis pressure to storage pressure. We propose to develop innovative turboalternators to maximize this effect and convert the extracted fluid power into useful electric power. Small flow rates and high fluid densities require turbine rotors that are extremely small and operate at high speeds. Cryogenic gas bearings and miniature rotor fabrication techniques are key features that create high efficiency in our approach. The gas bearings also enable reliable, long-life, maintenance-free operation. The proposed development will leverage decades of Creare experience with cryogenic gas-bearing turbomachines. In Phase I, we developed optimized turboalternator designs by conducting trade studies, specifying design details, analyzing performance, and demonstrating bearing operation with two-phase rotor flow. During Phase II, we will create a complete set of fabrication drawings, develop critical fabrication processes, fabricate a prototype turboalternator, and measure its performance at representative operating conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA application for this technology is cryogenic fluid production to support extraterrestrial exploration and science. Initial designs will focus on oxygen and hydrogen production for regenerative fuel cells on the lunar surface. Future applications include liquid methane production, and alternative locations include other moons and planets in our solar system. Such systems could also be used for in-situ reactant production and storage aboard space stations and transportation spacecraft. Another potential application is to re-liquefy cryogens that boil off during in-space refueling of orbiting spacecraft. Broader uses include improved efficiency for turbo-Brayton cryocoolers and power generators. Development of small, efficient turbines would benefit both of these technologies, which have numerous NASA, DoD, and civilian applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications focus on small to moderate scale production of cryogenic fluids for laboratory and industrial uses. Specific applications include: gas separation, superconductors, magnetic resonance imaging systems, material conditioning, cryogenic manufacturing techniques, academic research, cryogenic storage, re-liquefaction of LNG boil-off, and liquid hydrogen production for automotive fuel cells.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fluid Storage and Handling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X8.01-8631
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC60P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detachable, Human-Rated, Ablative Environmentally Compliant TPS
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight Hybrid Ablator Incorporating Aerogel-Filled Open-Cell Foam Structural Insulator, Phase II

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ultramet
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331-2210
(818) 899-0236

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Williams
brian.williams@ultramet.com
Ultramet
Pacoima,  CA 91331-2210
(818) 899-0236

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In previous work for NASA and DoD, Ultramet developed lightweight open-cell foam insulators composed of a carbon or ceramic structural foam skeleton filled with a high temperature nanoscale aerogel insulator. Structural integrity and high insulation behavior have been demonstrated when used in combination with a non-ablating, coated carbon/carbon or ceramic matrix composite outer shell. In Phase I, Ultramet demonstrated the initial feasibility of a foam-reinforced hybrid ablator/aerogel insulator thermal protection system (TPS) in which a portion of the thickness (front face) of a low thermal conductivity structural foam was infiltrated with an ablative material and the remainder of the thickness (back face) was filled with the high temperature aerogel insulator. The potential benefit is a reduction in the ablator mass required to reject the aerothermal heat load. The three-dimensionally interconnected foam reinforcement is anticipated to provide increased char retention relative to alternative fiber and honeycomb reinforcements. The vehicle interface temperature will be controlled by the highly insulating aerogel-filled portion of the foam structure. In Phase II, Ultramet will team with Materials Research & Design (MR&D) for continued thermomechanical design optimization, and ARA Ablatives Laboratory for ablator infiltration of Ultramet structural foam. Performance will be evaluated through high heat flux ablation testing and a demonstration of scaleup potential up to 18" diameter.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed foam-reinforced hybrid ablator-insulator may meet NASA requirements for increased TPS heat flux capability and reduced mass. NASA applications include the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle for which entry velocities ranging from 8 km/s for International Space Station missions to as high as 15 km/s for Moon mission return are anticipated, and planetary sample return missions. Use of ablatives in rocket nozzles has been extensive, and NASA also stands to benefit in that application.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications for the proposed advanced TPS include conventional satellite launch system solid rocket motors, nanosatellite launch systems, launch platform protection, and tactical solid rocket motors, internal and external motor case insulation, and nosetips.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ablatives
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Thermal Insulating Materials
Structural Modeling and Tools
Ceramics
Composites
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X9.01-9771
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE61P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Exercise System
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact, Controlled Force Crew Exercise System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Streamline Automation, LLC
3100 Fresh Way SW
Huntsville, AL 35805-6720
(256) 713-1220

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stelu Deaconu
Stelu.Deaconu@StreamlineAutomation.biz
3100 Fresh Way SW
Huntsville,  AL 35805-6720
(256) 256-1220

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Spaceflight adaptations include muscle atrophy, decreased bone mineral density and reduced aerobic capacity making effective resistance exercise countermeasure hardware necessary for safe and successful space exploration. Real-time control is applied to an electric servo-motor to provide resistance in a lightweight, compact, and reconfigurable design. The key real-time force control with the ability to accurately simulate a freeweight lift was successfully demonstrated during Phase 1. A cycle ergometer will be integrated into the system to provide aerobic exercise and power generation. The technical objectives for Phase 2 include the development of a compact flight configuration prototype that supports a variety of exercise modes. The loads are adjustable in 2.5 kg increments to maintain muscle strength and bone density. Limited human subject testing will demonstrate functionality spanning entire anthropometric range.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed exercise countermeasure could be used in virtually any aspect of NASA's current and proposed human spaceflight missions. Near-term application aboard the International Space Station could serve as an on-orbit trial for the system. The next major application envisioned for the system is aboard the Altair lunar lander. Initial lunar missions are expected to be a week duration, but Altair is designed to allow the crew to operate on the lunar surface for more than 200 days. Later missions are expected to be of relatively long duration in order to enable NASA to prepare for Mars missions that will involve extended stays. These long term missions will require a resistance exercise system in order to enable the crew to maintain muscle mass and bone density.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Free weights are the gold standard for resistance exercise, but a sizable market has developed that revolves around alternatives to free weights. Spring-based systems are well known, do not accurately simulate the lifting of free weights. Free weights and weight stack-based system tend require significant floor space. There is a market for a compact exercise system that can be easily stored, but that provides the benefits associated with free weights. Stroke victims often experience muscle weakness and paralysis of one or both sides of the body. Intensive movement practice helps "rewire" the brain. More specifically, undamaged cortical areas can assume control functions that were previously allocated to damaged areas. Streamline Automation is pursuing the development a derivative controlled physical therapy system. It will be capable of providing motion assistance to guide the upper and lower-body limbs to help restore coordination, balance, and strength.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X10.01-9124
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE31P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Flight Diagnosis and Treatment
PROPOSAL TITLE: Portable Cathode-Air-Vapor-Feed Electrochemical Medical Oxygen Concentrator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840-4023
(979) 639-0017

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alan Cisar
alan.cisar@lynntech.com
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station,  TX 77840-4023
(979) 693-0017

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future space exploration missions present significant new challenges to crew health care capabilities, particularly in the efficient utilization of on-board oxygen resources. The International Space Station and future exploration vehicles require a light weight, compact, portable oxygen concentrator technology (OCT) that can provide medical grade oxygen from the ambient cabin air. Current OCTs are heavy, bulky, have a narrow operating temperature range (ambient to 40 degree Celsius), and require 15 to 30 minutes start-up time to reach their full operating capacity. Lynntech's proposed electrochemical OCT solves these issues by operating the OCT with a cathode-air vapor feed, unlike conventional electrochemical OCTs which require a liquid water feed. This is possible due to the use of in-house developed proprietary nanocomposite proton exchange membrane and catalyst technologies. Cathode-air vapor feed operation eliminates the need for a bulky on-board water supply, significantly reduces the complexity of the balance-of-plant, and greatly increases the system efficiency. OCT will be a quarter the size and weight of conventional OCTs, be capable of instant start-up, and have a wide operating temperature range. Lynntech will develop a Phase II prototype that is capable of delivering 4 SLPM of 60% oxygen and deliver it to NASA for further testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lynntech's lightweight, portable electrochemical oxygen concentrator technology has the potential to provide a compact, robust, on-demand/continuous oxygen concentrating device. Providing lightweight compact oxygen concentrator devices will have applications for NASA, ISS and future exploration vehicles supporting long duration missions that require improved medical capabilities and enhanced on-board resource utilization, particularly oxygen delivery. This technology will enable both ambient pressure operating devices (for portable applications) and pressurized (up to 3600 psia) oxygen concentrator devices (for stationary applications). With minor design changes, this OC system can also be used as high pressure oxygen compressor (up to 3600 psi).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A lightweight, portable and/or mobile, oxygen concentrator, and one, in particular, that is capable of delivering minimum 60% humidified oxygen gas at pressures of 5 psi and above, would find many applications in the health services industry. It is estimated that 2 to 4 million cardiopulmonary patients in the U.S. require supplementary oxygen; approximately 500,000 of which require continuous oxygen therapy. Current means to supply oxygen include compressed oxygen cylinders (heavy and expensive); liquid oxygen (cryogenic and expensive); and molecular sieve-bed oxygen concentrators that use molecular sieve technology. Weight, size, power, and cost requirements for current commercially available oxygen concentrators have been the major hurdles for gaining the market acceptance, thus limited availability to those in need of oxygen therapy. With Lynntech's advanced electrochemical oxygen concentrator technology, this need can be satisfied very easily to improve the quality of lifestyle of those in need of a portable, compact oxygen generator.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Portable Life Support


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X10.01-9385
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE32P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Flight Diagnosis and Treatment
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The DNA Medicine Institute
727 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02139-3323
(617) 233-7656

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eugene Chan
echan@dnamedinstitute.com
727 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge,  MA 02139-3323
(617) 233-7656

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of our nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, is to provide rapid, low-cost, powerful multiplexed analyses in a diminutive form so that whole body health checks can be performed on a single drop of blood. The approach is conceptually similar to pH or urinalysis test strips which allow multiplexed measurements in a linear format. The main difference is that we are proposing test strips at the nanoscale, shrunk in size over a billion-fold in volume, allowing multiple sensing elements to be included in a tiny area. In Phase I, we fabricated, tested, and demonstrated functional parathyroid hormone and vitamin D nanostrips for bone metabolism. Furthermore, we developed thrombin aptamer and immune IgG antibody nanostrips. For Phase II, we will develop a breadth of nanostrips designed to address key space-flight medical needs. These will be for assessment of bone metabolism, immune response, cardiac status, liver metabolism, and lipid profiles. We plan to enhance our technology capabilities by developing a Rapid Nanostrip Assay Capability, mix-and-run assay capability, in-house aptamer production, advanced lyophilization technology, and nanostrip accelerated stability tests. The nanostrips will be read out in a time-of-flight flow-based manner utilizing our rHEALTH sensor.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Routine assessment of bone biomarkers during space flight enables diagnosis of bone loss and remodeling. Rapid assessment of altered immune response biomarkers allows detection of infection, immunocompromised states, and hematological malignancies. The stresses of space flight put the heart at increased risk for coronary events; measurement of cardiac biomarkers is vital to cardiac health. Liver function assessment gives insight into drug side effects and nutritional status. Lipid measurements allow early diagnosis of elevated levels and can prevent coronary and vascular disease. The technology can be utilized in diagnose-to-treat scenarios, where rapid diagnosis leads to life-saving treatments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Nanostrips allow comprehensive monitoring of health status in real-time at the bedside or doctor's office. The technology can be utilized in diagnose-to-treat scenarios, where rapid diagnosis allows immediate life-saving treatments. Detection of acute myocardial damage rapidly allows prompt administration of therapy. Point-of-care monitoring of bisphosphonate therapy allows dosage optimization for patients with osteoporosis. Emergent diagnoses of acute cholecystitis correctly triage patients with acute abdominal pain. Point-of-care lipid nanostrips give immediate results to patients. rHEALTH and nanostrips facilitate home-based tests and measurements. Myocardial damage can be studied by measuring cardiac biomarkers in hypoxic situations. Immune function can be assessed daily for patients with autoimmune disorders. Bone remodeling in Paget's disease can be studied. The effects of drugs and diet on liver function can be assessed. The immune system can be studied after exposure to stress, toxins, allergens, and other agents.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Biomolecular Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X10.01-9543
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE33P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Flight Diagnosis and Treatment
PROPOSAL TITLE: Thioaptamer Diagnostic System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AM Biotechnologies, LLC
12521 Gulf Freeway
Houston, TX 77034-4509
(409) 771-1981

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Xianbin Yang
xianbin.yang@thioaptamer.com
12521 Gulf Freeway
Houston,  TX 77034-4509
(832) 379-2175

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
AM Biotechnologies (AM) in partnership with Sandia National Laboratories will develop a Thioaptamer Diagnostic System (TDS) in response to Topic X10.01 Reusable Diagnostic Lab Technology. The TDS will quickly quantify clinically relevant biomarkers in flight using only microliters of virtually any complex sample. The system combines ambient-stable, long-shelf-life affinity agent assays with a handheld microfluidic gel electrophoresis affinity assay quantification technology. The system is easy to use, compatible with operation in microgravity, and designed to permit simultaneous quantification of 32 or more biomarkers from a single astronaut sample. Phase 1 of this project demonstrated that a thioaptamer assay used in the microfluidic instrument can quantify a specific biomarker in serum in the low nanomolar range. AM also successfully identified novel affinity agents to bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and demonstrated their use to detect BAP using the microfluidic instrument. Phase 2 will expand the number of ambient stable affinity agents and demonstrate a TDS prototype to NASA. AM anticipates that the TDS at the end of Phase 2 will be at TRL 4 to 5. In Phase 3, AM and Sandia will produce flight units for NASA research use on the International Space Station (ISS) as well as for diagnostic use on future long duration missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful development of this system will provide NASA with both near-term as well as long-term advantages. Near-term, a non-clinical version of the system will be extraordinarily useful for conducting research on ISS into human adaptation to microgravity. The TDS could monitor levels of numerous biomarkers in astronauts on orbit and would eliminate the need to freeze samples on orbit and return them to Earth for ground-based testing. Long-term, the clinical version of the TDS will provide a robust, flight tested diagnostic capability for missions to the moon and Mars. Virtually any type of ambient stable assay that is of interest to NASA could be developed for the system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Thioaptamer Diagnostic System will be commercialized first in the research support market, and then later as an FDA-approved hand-held clinical diagnostic system for non-traditional and resource poor locations. Clinical TDS units will be targeted for use in physician offices and by emergency responders. Research support market units will be targeted at lower-throughput biomedical research laboratories in universities and companies with limited capital budgets that have limited or no access to core support laboratories.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Biomolecular Sensors
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Biochemical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X11.01-8824
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE34P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Behavioral Assessment Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Individualized Fatigue Meter for Space Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pulsar Informatics, Inc.
3624 Market Street, Suite 5E
Philadelphia, PA 19104-2614
(215) 520-2630

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Mollicone
Daniel@PulsarInformatics.com
3624 Market Street, Suite 5E
Philadelphia,  PA 19104-2614
(215) 520-2630

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To ensure mission success, astronauts must maintain a high level of performance even when work-rest schedules result in chronic sleep restriction and circadian misalignment, both of which contribute to fatigue and performance deficits unless effective countermeasures are used. We are proposing to build an Individualized Fatigue Meter that incorporates light inputs, sleep history, work schedule information, and brief performance tests (e.g. PVT SelfTest) to provide immediate individualized feedback about alertness. For the past 8 years, we have been actively developing many of the system components (funded by NASA, DOD, and NIH) that can be leveraged in this project. The result of this project will be a system prototype that can be evaluated using data already being collected in space flight analog expeditions (e.g., NEEMO, HMP) and on ISS. The critical need for an Individualized Fatigue Meter has been identified as a priority outlined in the Behavioral Health and Performance Integrated Research Plan GAP 1.1.1. During Phase 2 we will build a prototype Individualized Fatigue Meter by developing: (1) an interactive graphical console; (2) a model-independent computational architecture; (3) a hybrid biomathematical fatigue model; and (4) a data fusion algorithm that statistically combines multiple inputs (Phase 2 TRL of 5-6).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Individualized Fatigue Meter will meet the specific requirements of space exploration to provide astronauts with feedback about alertness and fatigue levels as well as select fatigue countermeasures. It will be designed to be unobtrusive, transparent to crews, and require minimal crew time or effort to operate. The resulting product will be primarily relevant to NASA's Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) research Gap 1.1.1 (What are the best measures and tools to use for assessing decrements in cognitive function due to fatigue and other aspects of spaceflight?). When validated, the Individualized Fatigue Meter will be deployed in the constellation program, lunar and Mars missions. The individualized Fatigue Meter will also be adapted for use by mission control personnel (e.g., working long duty schedules or on Mars sol), and for use during training and activities overseas (i.e., launch/recovery in Russia).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Given the large inter-individual differences in performance vulnerability to fatigue that have been scientifically documented, an Individualized Fatigue Meter has potential commercial applications in industries where human performance is required 24/7, with precise operational constraints and important safety implications. Examples of this relevance include but are not limited to military operations, first responders, transportation workers, power plant operators, hospital personnel, manufacturing work forces, etc. Military operations, for example, involve sleep deprivation and circadian misalignment, particularly during sustained operations and/or when multiple time zones are crossed during deployment. The Army has an estimated 238,000 soldiers deployed overseas in 120 countries (source: US Army) coordinating to provide continuous global 24-7 operations. An individualized fatigue meter has the potential to provide biologically optimized work schedules and recommendations for fatigue countermeasures such as power naps, caffeine, light exposure, that will increase safety and the likelihood of successful operations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Training Concepts and Architectures
Pilot Support Systems
Architectures and Networks
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Computer System Architectures
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Database Development and Interfacing
Expert Systems
Human-Computer Interfaces
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X11.01-8978
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE35P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Behavioral Assessment Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Automated Behavior and Cohesion Assessment Tools

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cybernet Systems Corporation
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-1639
(734) 668-2567

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Marcus Huber
proposals@cybernet.com
727 Airport Blvd
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-1639
(734) 668-2537

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An important consideration of long duration space flight operations is interpersonal dynamics that effect crew cohesion and performance. Flight surgeons have stated the need for unobtrusive monitoring to help detect if crews are having difficulties with coping with long duration spaceflight environments. The long-term goal of this project is to develop a set of applied technologies that can monitor crew health and cohesiveness in an unobtrusive manner and identify potential abnormalities for feedback to astronauts and flight surgeons for further investigation. The new Constellation vehicles will have thousands of procedures represented in XML, which facilitates automatic translation. Our approach is to determine nominal performance metrics during training and then compare that against data acquired during actual missions. Deviations between the nominal and current performance can be flagged for additional attention. Since crew members can perform upwards of hundreds of procedures a week, there will be substantial data with which to assess crew behavior and performance. Social interactions are also a significant factor in team cohesion and performance and we plan to establish, and then compare against, social norms using Sociometric Badges and communications (spoken and text) analysis. During Phase I research, we determined those objectives measures that are acquirable in an unobtrusive manner directly and via tractable processing and have a high likelihood of providing flight surgeons with the information they can use to best assess crew cohesion, performance, and mental state. In Phase II, we will develop and then evolve a prototype ABCAT system by iterating through a cycle of gathering test data in experiments, evaluating its effectiveness with feedback from project personnel and NASA flight surgeons, and refining or redesigning aspects of the system to improve performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology could be applied to all current and future NASA missions. While it is being developed for application to long duration space flight operations, the techniques are amenable to application in shorter duration flight operations as well, such as related to the International Space Station and Space Shuttle. This is particularly true with respect to behavioral and psychological health (whereas crew cohesiveness is anticipated to be less of an issue as duration decreases). This technology could also be applied to NASA's Aerospace activities. For example, it could be used to measure stress on air traffic controllers. Adaption to commercial airlines, in which the standardized procedures and repetitive nature of their execution within the close confines of an aircraft facilitates the modeling and establishment of norms for the behavior for individual crew.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The military has teams of individuals working in high stress environments over long durations. Examples include submarine crews, aircraft carriers, embedded special operations forces and pilots flying unmanned air vehicles for hours on end. Therefore we expect this same technology to transfer to military applications. A variety of commercial activities also have similar characteristics to NASA missions. As mentioned, air traffic controllers work in high-stress environment where small mistakes can be costly. Likewise, teams of operators control nuclear power plants, petrochemical plants, oil refineries, etc. They often perform standard operating procedures and need to be monitored closely for degraded performance. Even in situations in which lives or property are not at risk, monitoring and detecting problems with individual and team performance is useful for managers interested in achieving peak performance. Further possibilities include competitive sports teams, particularly professional sports teams with their highly paid teams, where team cohesiveness and particularly team performance are significant concerns.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Computer System Architectures
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Expert Systems
Human-Computer Interfaces


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X11.01-9344
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE36P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Behavioral Assessment Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Behavior Tracking Software Enhancement and Integration of a Feedback Module

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Horizon Performance
121 Edinburgh S. Drive, Suite 214
Cary, NC 27511-6448
(919) 624-6644

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Thompson
jat@horizonperformance.com
121 Edinburgh S. Drive, Suite 214
Cary,  NC 27511-6490
(919) 674-6644

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Horizon Performance designed a Behavior Tracking Software System to collect crew member behavior throughout a mission, giving NASA the capability to monitor behavioral patterns that may identify if crews are at increased risk related to interpersonal or psychosocial problems. Building upon the alpha version of the software developed as a part of the Phase I SBIR, the proposed software will allow crewmembers and/or personnel watching video footage to periodically document salient crewmember behaviors which will then be used to identify behavioral patterns. When a behavioral pattern is identified and deemed important to investigate, users would be able to review all collected data. Furthermore, this software includes an integrated feedback module that offers automated reports based on identified behavioral patterns. Flight surgeons can create a knowledge base of feedback based on specific attributes or behavioral patterns, and the software will then generate automated feedback reports based upon identified attributes or behavioral patterns. Flight surgeons will be able to: 1) generate a variety of reports that describe crew member behavioral patterns; 2) use the behavioral timestamps to view incidents of behaviors on video footage; 3) compare behaviors with other data (e.g., performance reports); and, 4) generate feedback reports.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Behavior Tracking Software System is designed to monitor flight crew behavior and behavioral patterns for the purpose of identifying potential interpersonal and psychosocial issues (e.g., team cohesion) and automatically generating appropriate feedback. In addition to the needs of the Human Research Program ISS Medical Operations Constellation Program (Lander and Lunar Habitat Projects), the Behavior Tracking Software System has several potential NASA applications in the Exploration Systems Directorate, Space Operations Directorate, and NASA Agency Training and Development Office. These applications include personnel selection, personnel training, tracking employee and team performance, team selection, assessment centers, human behavior research, and leadership development.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Several organizations have expressed interest in the ability to record occurrences of behavior, identify behavioral patterns, easily view video of when behaviors occurred, and generate automated feedback based on the occurrences of behaviors. The Behavior Tracking Software System could be used by the U.S. military and law enforcement groups for monitoring human performance for personnel selection and training, as well as assisting with the identification and treatment of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Horizon Performance currently is under contract with U.S. Army Special Forces to assist with the monitoring of student performance during training. Horizon Performance recognizes the increased demand for tools that can help trainers monitor and evaluate performance in austere environments. Other industries plagued by monitoring people working in austere environments, such as mines, could also use this software. For health care, doctors could monitor outpatient recovery by allowing patients and their caretakers to assess a patient during recovery or after an intervention. In athletics, coaches and trainers could use this software to monitor an athlete's performance by connecting behavioral assessments to video footage. Coaches could generate performance reports that show behavioral patterns which would guide coaches and trainers to specific points during a performance. They could then review video footage at these points and use them to further enhance an athlete's performance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Training Concepts and Architectures
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Database Development and Interfacing
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Development Environments
Mission Training


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X12.01-9244
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE37P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Human Factors Assessment Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Semantic Language and Tools for Reporting Human Factors Incidents

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Traclabs, Inc.
100 N.E. Loop 410 Suite 520
San Antonio, TX 78216-4727
(210) 637-7819

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Debra Schreckenghost
schreck@traclabs.com
1012 Hercules
Houston,  TX 77058-2722
(281) 461-7884

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Incidents related to impaired human performance in space operations can be caused by environmental conditions, situational challenges, and operational deficiencies. Detecting, reporting, and correlating related incidents are key to preventing future incidents. NASA has made significant progress in standardizing the reporting of space incidents by developing electronic data entry and storage of information. While such information technology improves report consistency, incident data are not represented in a way that enables advanced computer-based reasoning about incidents. TRACLabs proposes to develop a human factors incident-reporting tool for authoring and utilizing human factors incident data. This project is innovative in combining semantic web technologies with automated assistive technologies to aid users in finding relationships among incidents. The semantic indexing provided by the use of incident reporting language permits more sophisticated search of archives. During Phase I we defined a semantic language for incident reporting in XML and designed a technology approach for authoring and utilizing incident reports represented in this language. In Phase II we will implement this software and evaluate its effectiveness for the space human factors community at JSC. At the end of Phase II, software for reporting space human factors incidents will be delivered to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Incident reporting is an important part of handling issues that arise during space operations. NASA missions currently report flight incidents using approaches such as the Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) process for Shuttle and Station, Shuttle In-Flight Anomaly (IFA) reports, and Station Items for Investigation (IFI). The semantic language and tools for incident reporting TRACLabs is developing are complementary but not duplicative with these approaches. They are intended to support user groups that have information needs not well addressed by programmatic incident reporting systems. For example, the space human factors organization needs to track incidents related to human factors and habitability issues not captured in current incident archives. We use semantic web technologies to embed domain semantics in incident data and utilize these semantics to improve database search and reporting. The software is customized by defining new domain semantics or adding XML tags for special domain needs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial tools for incident reporting are available in a diverse range of domains from crime incidents to corporate security incidents to customer complaints. Like the proposed software, most of these products support electronic submission and reporting of incident data, and archival of incident reports. The proposed approach differs from these commercial tools in providing a semantic basis for customization and improved search, and in representing incidents in an XML-based language. Such capabilities permit applying much of the incident reporting software developed for NASA in non-NASA applications. Promising applications include reporting incidents arising in chemical and nuclear plants, such as incidents arising from human error during plant operations, and reporting medical incidents, such as incidents that arise when monitoring the aged or impaired in performing the activities of daily living.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Database Development and Interfacing
Human-Computer Interfaces


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X12.02-9041
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE38P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Food Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flexible High-Barrier Polymers for Food Packaging

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
EIC Laboratories, Inc.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062-2612
(781) 769-9450

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stuart Cogan
scogan@eiclabs.com
111 Downey Street
Norwood,  MA 02062-2612
(781) 781-9450

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The development of a polymer laminate with water and oxygen barrier properties suitable for food packaging and preservation on 3-5 year manned space exploration missions is proposed. The laminate is a multilayer structure comprising polymer and inorganic dielectrics that will provide near-hermetic encapsulation of food items for the duration of these missions. In Phase I, flexible polymer barriers with an oxygen transport rate of <0.005 cc/m2-day and water transport rate of <0.005 g/m2-day were developed. The barriers contain no metal foils, have a areal density of <34 g/m2 for a 40 micron thick film, and tolerate high temperature sterilization treatments. The polymer laminates are mechanically robust exhibiting a 165MPa yield strength, 200MPa tensile strength, 550MPa tensile modulus, and 3% elongation to yield. In Phase II, we propose to optimize barrier properties to reduce weight, minimize ash on incineration, develop heat-sealing methods, and expand the testing to include heat sealed enclosures. The Phase II effort also includes a collaboration with a potential high-volume manufacturer of the barrier films for aerospace applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The specific NASA applications for the proposed barrier polymers are the following: food packaging for long-duration space missions; packaging for medicines on long-duration space missions; packaging of air and moisture sensitive chemicals used in science exploration on long-duration missions; packaging of astronaut physiological samples; packaging of extraterrestrial materials for return to earth. All these applications will benefit from the availability of a lightweight, high-strength flexible packaging material. Besides having exceptional barrier properties, the proposed barrier polymers have several other features that are important to these NASA applications including: 1) transparency to allow inspection and identification of package contents; 2) an internal surface to which biocompatible and non-thrombogenic coatings can be added; and 3) a low temperature heat sealing capability that allows astronauts in space to create sealed packages that exclude water and oxygen and also prevent bacteriological and viral contamination.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-Nasa commercial applications in both the private and Government sectors have been identified. These applications included: meals-ready-to-eat (MREs) packaging for the military electronics packaging flexible packaging for primary and secondary lithium, ion batteries packaging of battlefield medical supplies for treating trauma (e.g. biologically active hemostatic agents very long storage of food and medicines in rapid response materiel caches packaging emergency supplies at remote locations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Organics/Bio-Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X13.02-9726
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE42P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technology/Technique for Imaging Radiation Damage at the Cellular Level
PROPOSAL TITLE: Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
KromaTiD, Inc.
515 E. Laurel Street
Fort Collins, CO 80524-3151
(505) 662-5626

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Edwin Goodwin
eds_email@msn.com
2110 Deer Valley Lane
Laporte,  CO 80535-9750
(970) 493-0661

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose the continued development of a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions) have profound genetic effects, such as disrupting regulatory sequences that control gene expression, or creating genetic chimeras. These chromosome aberrations play a causative role in cancer, and ionizing radiation is one of the most efficient agents known to induce them. As such, chromosome aberrations are relevant to three NASA needs, biodosimetry, analysis of astronaut lymphocytes for cumulative radiation damage, and space radiation risk modeling. Of all structural chromosomal anomalies, inversions a reversal of orientation of material within a chromosome are the most difficult to detect. This is especially true of small inversions, most of which are invisible to all current cytogenetic techniques. Yet small inversions are likely the most transmissible (nonlethal) form of chromosomal damage, so they persist for long periods. This is a useful feature for retrospective biodosimetry, and may also prove to be useful as an indicator of radiation quality.. In Phase 1 we demonstrated the use of a human chromosome 3, partial chromatid paint to detect a known inversion. During Phase 2, we will continue to improve the efficiency of the technology, an essential goal for commercialization (Phase 3) ultimately creating an improved and complete chromatid paint for chromosome 3. Finally, we will test the chromosome 3 'chromatid paint's' ability to detect radiation-induced inversions, and establish their frequency. The technology readiness level at the end of the Phase 2 contract is expected to be 5, i.e. validated in laboratory and relevant environments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Three applications of interest to NASA are: 1) Retrospective biodosimetry, the estimation of radiation dose based on observed biological damage at a time point considerably after the exposure; 2) Ongoing chromosomal analysis of astronaut lymphocytes provides a measure of accumulated genetic damage caused by space radiation exposure. Chromatid paints will increase sensitivity of this analysis by adding a new class of observable aberrations; and 3) Biology-based space radiation risk analysis efforts. Chromosome aberrations play a causative role in carcinogenesis, as does gene copy number imbalance and cytogenetically invisible point mutations. One way to bring knowledge of cancer genetics into risk analysis is to estimate dose- and LET-dependent probabilities for specific cancer-related genetic alterations. Although some large inversions that can be detected are known to be associated with certain cancers, adequate investigation of cancer-specific chromosomal inversions is currently not possible, and therefore many such inversions, especially small ones, undoubtedly remain undiscovered. This shortcoming is pertinent with regard to charged particle exposures in that small inversions are likely to be among the most common and most stable chromosome aberration created. Chromatid paints have the potential to contribute to biology-based risk analysis through their ability to reveal these previously cryptic, currently predicted small cancer-related inversions for the first time.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We expect that chromatid paints will fulfill multiple needs in several fields related to human health. A major market for inversion detection is the screening of cancer cells for previously undetected inversions that are causal. New cancer specific inversions may lead to diagnostic and prognostic tests and may even lead to eventual drug targeting. Other markets include, but are not limited to: clinical cytogenetics (cancer diagnosis and prognosis, detection and diagnosis of certain neurological disorders associated with inverted copy number variants, infertility diagnosis and genetic counseling); biomedical research (mechanistic studies of cancer induction, radiation effects, and chemical toxicology); and governmental agencies (retrospective biodosimetry-evaluation of radiation exposure as might occur accidentally or from a terrorist attack). Ultimately, multi-color chromatid paints will provide genome-wide translocation identification, just as mFISH and SKY currently do, and in addition will allow simultaneous and sensitive detection of inversions, making it possible, even probable, that chromatid paints may eventually capture much of the market currently held by chromosome paints.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Biomolecular Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X14.02-9395
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE43P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: On Orbit Cell Counting and Analysis Capability
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microfluidic Multichannel Flow Cytometer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Space Hardware Optimization Technology
7200 Highway 150
Greenville, IN 47124-9515
(812) 923-9591

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Todd
ptodd@techshot.com
7200 Highway 150
Greenville,  IN 47124-9515
(812) 923-9591

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Techshot, Inc. proposes continued research and development of an on-orbit cell counter culminating in a deliverable hand-held blood cell counter in the form of a "Microfluidic Multichannel Flow Cytometer". Crew health monitoring, the Human Research Program and research in Fundamental Biology will all benefit from the availability of on-orbit cell counters that can provide immediate and repeated blood counts to assess potential anemia, neutropenia, neutrophila or possibility of infections, and signs of immune cell dysfunction. Three sequential objectives will be completed: (1) Subsystems consisting of a disposable microfluidics chip with multiple channels, fluorescence and light-scatter optics for cell detection, cell labeling protocols and reagents, electronics for controls and data processing and digital analysis and display hardware and software will be constructed and tested on the basis of Phase I research results. (2) Subsystems will be integrated into a benchtop flow cytometer for counting red and white blood cells and three subsets of white blood cells. (3) A compact hand-held cytometer device will be delivered to the sponsor. This handheld device can be operated by any on-board personnel and requires only a single drop of blood with fully automated processing of blood on-chip.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Sample preservation, especially blood cell samples, on ISS has been a long-standing problem, and a cytometer that can process fresh samples on orbit will solve many problems, especially in space immunology, where knowledge is critical to future space exploration. The immune system of crew members, compromised by weeks of low gravity, renders them more susceptible to acute radiation effects of a solar proton storm. Post-irradiation blood cell counts of irradiated humans has always been vital to their appropriate medical care. Thus a (very compact) blood cytometer will also be critical to future deep space exploration missions. Therefore, infusion into NASA mission needs and projects constitutes providing this technology for (1) cell and immunology research aboard the ISS and ISS National Lab, (2) medical monitoring of ISS crew members via the Human Research Program (HRP), and (3) medical monitoring of deep-space exploration crews, especially following a solar proton storm.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
With its low cost and potential for automated manufacturing the proposed Microfluidic Multichannel Flow Cytometer, in specialized versions can be used for the monitoring of CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts in AIDS patient care in underserved populations, blood cell counting in neonates using a drop of heel-prick blood (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development), in-field blood tests of military personnel, and of research and testing laboratories that cannot afford, or do not have access to, a cytometry facility. A major advantage is that it processes a single drop of whole blood automatically inside the chip allowing it to be used in low-resource settings. The potential market for such a device is large. Many of these customers are identifiable personally by the investigators, and the product can be advertised in cell biology journals and scientific instrument catalogues.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Biochemical
Biophysical Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 X14.02-9864
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE44P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: On Orbit Cell Counting and Analysis Capability
PROPOSAL TITLE: On Orbit Immuno-Based, Label-Free, White Blood Cell Counting System with MicroElectroMechanical Sensor (MEMS) Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Payload Systems, Inc.
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110-2702
(617) 868-8086

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Jessica Edmonds
jedmonds@auror.aero
1 Broadway, 12th Floor
Cambridge,  MA 02142-1189
(617) 500-0552

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and partner, Draper Laboratory, propose to develop an on-orbit immuno-based label-free white blood cell counting system using MEMS technology (OILWBCS-MEMS) for human spaceflight experimental and medical monitoring practices. Our proposed system is designed to meet NASA's requirements for a microgravity compatible, miniaturized, light weight peripheral blood cell counting instrument capable of on-orbit cell counting, without high energy lasers, requiring minimal sample volume or exogenous (sheath) fluid, and generating minimal bio-hazardous waste: SBIR topic X14.02 "On Orbit Cell Counting and Analysis Capability". The proposed detection technology leverages changes in optical transmission through a surface due to molecular binding (e.g., antibody-antigen binding). Antibodies specific to the white blood cell surface protein markers (antigens) are pre-coated on the sensor surface to recognize specific white blood cell types with inherently high specificity and sensitivity. In Phase I we developed surface chemistry and demonstrated surface chemistry sensitivity and specificity for total white blood cells and two lymphocyte subtypes (B-cells, CD4+ T-cells). During phase II we will develop a functional prototype of the OILWBCS-MEMS device to demonstrate that end-to-end operations from sample-in to signal-out produces clinically relevant results. The OILWBCS-MEMS design will include single-use replaceable cartridges for fluid loop and sensor components.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed OILWBCS-MEMS white blood cell counting system could provide on orbit white blood cell counting capability, currently not available on orbit, for experimental support and monitoring astronaut health and performing biomedical research on International Space Station (ISS), Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV), and etc. White blood cell counts are extremely important as a diagnostic tool. With its high specificity/sensitivity, compact size, multiplexed counting capability, and automated operation, the proposed system can also provide a powerful cell counting capability for NASA's ground based biomedical research and development Physiological testing and experimentation will be supported through the use of a white blood cell counting system. White blood cell counts, however, are also extremely important as a diagnostic tool.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Besides NASA's on orbit application, the proposed white blood cell counting system could be used to perform immuno-based cell counting for ground applications, similar to that done by flow cytometers. In general, any existing immuno-based cell counting performed for research and development, could potentially be accomplished with our proposed approach. The benefits of our proposed nanohole array cell counting system include high specificity and sensitivity for simultaneous counting of multiple cell types, compact size, low power consumption, and full automation. The OILWBCS-MEMS will be particularly suited as a tool for remote applications for example in battlefield medical facilities or in other mobile medical centers, such as ambulances, triage centers, disaster response and for use in third-world medical facilities. In these applications, rapid accurate diagnosis is highly desirable, as are ruggedness, portability and containment, all of which are also required features of our OILWBCS-MEMS device.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Biomedical and Life Support
Biomolecular Sensors
Biochemical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.01-8652
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD36P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Space-Qualifiable High Reliability Frequency-Stabilized CW Laser Source

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fibertek, Inc.
510 Herndon Parkway
Herndon, VA 20170-5225
(703) 471-7671

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Ti Chuang Fibertek, Inc.
tchuang@fibertek.com
510 Herndon Parkway
Herndon,  VA 20170-5225
(703) 471-7671

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose the SBIR Phase II effort to develop and space-qualify a 1.06 micron high reliability frequency-stabilized CW laser source that fully satisfies the requirements of this SBIR opportunity (Lidar System Components) . Our recommended approach builds on extensive experience developed through numerous spaceflight programs, and using single frequency laser sources in the near infrared, both for aerospace and commercial applications. Our technical approach is based on emerging technology, spawned by the telecom industry that is only now reaching the maturity level where space qualification can be undertaken. NASA requires highly reliable frequency stabilized laser sources for a variety of ongoing and planned missions including LISA and GRACE. The Phase II program plans to place emphasis on the material selection, design verification and radiation testing to the proposed space laser. The proposed Phase II effort seeks to demonstrate the feasibility to space-qualify a high reliability frequency-stabilized laser source, to advance current space-based laser to TRL 6 level and to present a clear path to build a space-based ultrastable laser source for a 10 year space mission.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is planning space-based sensors, a critical component of which is the high reliability frequency-stabilized CW laser source. These missions include LISA (Laser Interferometric Space Antenna), upgraded GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiments), terrestrial and space-based distributed aperture telescopes, interferometric instruments such as SIM and TFP (Space Interferometer Mission and Terrestrial Planet Finder) and general space-based metrology, where ultrastable wavelength stability is the dominant requirement. These missions require lasers with sub-kHz linewidth at wavelengths from 1.06 to 1.5 micron. Several nearer-term missions also require single-frequency seed or local oscillator lasers with MHz linewidth. These missions include global Doppler winds lidar and coherent sensing of atmospheric constituents including CO2 and water vapor.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA commercial applications may include: 1) telescopes, 2) Injection seeders for pulsed lidar systems. There are currently NO flight qualified lasers available domestically, 3) Long range communication, requiring absolute wavelength stability, 4) Microwave Local Oscillators, 5) Spectrometer Instruments, 6)UAV, Spaceflight and Manned flight system, 7) Interferometry, 8) Spectroscopy instruments and science requiring an absolute wavelength standard, 9) Dye laser replacement scientific lasers, 10) Injection seed laser with superior absolute wavelength stability, 11) Ground based telescope utilizing adaptive optics.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Laser
Gravitational
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.01-9291
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CF19P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: 1.26 Single Frequency Fiber Laser

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NP Photonics, Inc.
9030 S. Rita Road
Tucson, AZ 85747-9102
(520) 799-7424

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jianfeng Wu
jfwu@npphotonics.com
9030 S. Rita Road, Ste. 120
Tucson,  AZ 85747-9102
(520) 799-7498

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal is for the development of an innovative compact, high power, and extremely reliable 1.26 micron Ho-doped single frequency fiber laser. The proposed single frequency seeder fiber laser consists of Raman pump laser and single frequency 1.26-micron fiber laser, which will be constructed by using Ho3+-doped fluoride glass fiber. A Raman fiber laser is used as a resonant pump laser source for Ho3+-doped fiber laser. High gain per unit length at 1.26 micron can be achieved in Ho-doped fluoride glass fiber due to the strong pump absorption and strong emission at 1.2 micron transition. 5 W single frequency 1.26-micron MOPA system with high-speed frequency modulation capability will be developed. It consists of a 1.26 micron single frequency seeder fiber laser and a 2-stage fiber amplifier. This type of fiber based seed laser is needed for remote sensing of O and O -N for measuring atmospheric pressure. The single frequency 1.26-micron fiber laser with high-speed frequency modulation capability and electronic control can be used to build coherent laser radar to perform instantaneous measurement. It offers much higher resolution compared to currently existing Raman fiber laser.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The high power single frequency 1.26-micron fiber laser with high-speed frequency modulation capability is needed for remote sensing of O and O -N for measuring atmospheric pressure. Concurrent on-board O2 measurements using lines at 1.26 m to allow for the best relative compensation for aerosol scattering along the line-of-sight of the CO2 and O2 measurements. The particular O2 band was chosen so that the surface and atmospheric scattering characteristics from aerosols and thin clouds would be nearly the same as for the measurement of CO2 at 1.57 m. It's a part of program to provide space-based active measurements of CO2 for Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) Mission.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are several potential non-NASA commercial applications. The 1.26 micron seed laser can be used for commercial coherent LIDAR, remote sensing for environment monitor, and non-linear frequency conversion.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Laser
Optical
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.01-9294
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD38P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: High SBS-Threshold Er/Yb Co-Doped Phosphate Glass Fiber Amplifiers for High Power, Sub-us Pulsed, Narrow Linewidth, All Fiber-Based Laser Transmitter

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NP Photonics, Inc.
9030 S. Rita Road
Tucson, AZ 85747-9102
(520) 799-7424

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Wei Shi
wshi@npphotonics.com
9030 S. Rita Road, Ste 120
Tucson,  AZ 85747-9102
(520) 799-7413

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Phase I, NP Photonics has achieved 1.2 kW peak power for 105 ns fiber laser pulses, and successfully demonstrated the feasibility to produce monolithic high SBS threshold narrow linewidth fiber amplifiers for all fiber-based laser transmitters ideally suited to NASA's active remote sensing spectroscopy. In Phase II, NP Photonics proposes to develop prototypes or products of the high SBS-threshold, Single-Mode (SM), polarization maintaining (PM), high power amplifiers operating with sub-microsecond pulses and transform-limited linewidth. This is based on the successful demonstrations in Phase I by using NP's proprietary patented large core SM PM highly Er/Yb co-doped phosphate glass fibers. Furthermore, in order to push the SBS threshold to the 100s kW level and to demonstrate even higher SBS threshold and improved conversion efficiency for 100-500 ns transform-limited fiber laser pulses, a new large core SM PM photonic crystal phosphate fiber 100/400 will be designed and fabricated in Phase II. It will be used to build the 3rd power amplifier stage in order to offer prototype/product services by achieving 10s kW peak power and 5-mJ pulse energy free of SBS effects. This will more fully enable NASA's active remote sensing with fiber laser pulses at 765 nm by using NP's Single Mode phosphate fiber amplifiers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Langley Research Center, and Ames Research Center have been investigating a number of remote sensing concepts using fiber lasers. For example, they are developing the fiber laser spectroscopic instruments for absorption lines of oxygen in the range of 760-770 nm to determine atmospheric pressure and temperature from their effect on the shape and strength of the A band absorption lines. The proposed high SBS-threshold high power amplifiers result in high power narrow linewidth pulsed fiber laser transmitter at 765 nm that is ideal source for NASA's fiber laser spectroscopic instruments from ground, airborne, and space-based platform. Also, it can be used in other planned missions or technology programs, such as Doppler Wind Lidar, Lidar for Surface Topagraphy (LIST), and Earth and Planetary Atmospheric Composition (ASCENDS).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed monolithic amplifier can be used for narrow linewidth CW and pulse amplification in nanosecond/microsecond regime due to the high SBS-threshold. The proposed narrow linewidth pulsed fiber lasers in MOPA can be used for high resolution laser spectroscopy, velocimetry, anemometry, coherent Lidar, imagery, laser frequency conversion, and ranging finding owing to their high spatial and spectral qualities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Perception/Sensing
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Attitude Determination and Control
Pilot Support Systems
Laser
Optical
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Manned-Maneuvering Units
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.01-9372
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CF20P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact, Wavelength Stabilized Seed Source for Multi-Wavelength Lidar Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ADVR, Inc.
2310 University Way, Building 1
Bozeman, MT 59715-6504
(406) 522-0388

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shirley McNeil
mcneil@advr-inc.com
2310 University Way, Building #1-1
Bozeman,  MT 59715-6504
(406) 522-0388

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA LaRC is developing a compact, multi-wavelength High Spectral resolution Lidar (HSRL) system designed to measure various optical and microphysical properties of aerosols and clouds. The HSRL system uses a high power, pulsed, seeded Nd:YAG laser, whose seed is wavelength-stabilized to an iodine vapor absorption line. The primary goal of the Phase II effort is to provide a robust, next generation seed laser system which is significantly reduced in size, weight, and required "wall-plug" power for HSRL and other lidar applications. This approach is enabled by use of a suitable compact laser diode source, together with AdvR's integrated Planar Lightwave Circuit (PLC) technology. Furthermore, AdvR's multi-element waveguide technology will be utilized in this Phase II effort to provide a compact 355nm source, derived from the same seed laser, for calibration of the HSRL UV interferometric filter. A compact, next generation seed laser system utilizing AdvR's PLC and UV technology, integrated with a high performance compact laser diode source will advance NASA's lidar systems due to its compact, efficient, and reliable design, thus enabling use on small aircraft and satellites.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary customer is NASA Langley's High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) program for aerosol and cloud characterization. This system is being considered for the ACE lidar by NASA's ACE Science Working Group because of the higher information content it provides over backscatter lidar on key aerosol optical and microphysical properties. The proposed technology will find multiple uses in other NASA lidar remote sensing programs, such in altimetry and DIAL lidar at NASA/GSFC, where compact, low cost, stabilized single-frequency lasers are required, and also has potential application in spectroscopic measurement techniques.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA's use in various lidar systems, the combination of a compact, low cost, single wavelength diode laser, together with AdvR's PLC technology will find use in fiber and free-space communications where rapid, moderate power phase modulation is required. This technology can also be applied for systems used for environmental and pollution monitoring, stabilizing laser sources used for precision metrology, as well as for amplitude modulation of visible sources for the display industry.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Laser
Optical
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.01-9416
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CF21P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Q-Switched High Power Single Frequency 2 Micron Fiber Laser

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AdValue Photonics, Inc.
4585 S. Palo Verde Road, Suite 405
Tucson, AZ 85714-1962
(520) 790-5468

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shibin Jiang
sjiang@advaluephotonics.com
4585 S. Palo Verde Road, Suite 405
Tucson,  AZ 85714-1962
(520) 790-5468

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Accurate measurement of atmospheric parameters with high resolution needs advanced lasers. In this SBIR program we propose to develop innovative Q-switched high power 2.05micron fiber laser with pulse energy greater than 10mJ, repetition rate of 10Hz to 1KHz, and pulse duration of 200ns using our proprietary innovative highly efficient Tm-doped glass fiber. This new fiber laser will be an all-fiber laser system consisting of actively Q-switched fiber laser oscillator and fiber amplifiers. This proposed all-fiber laser system is compact, highly efficient, robust and highly reliable, which is especially suited for NASA's application where operating environment is always extremely rough. In Phase II we will further optimize Tm-doped glasses and fibers based upon Phase I results, design and engineer 2.05micron Q-switched single frequency fiber laser oscillator, design and engineer 2.05micron fiber amplifiers, integrate Q-switched single frequency fiber laser oscillator and fiber amplifier, build and deliver a prototype high power Q-switched single frequency 2.05micron fiber laser.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) encompasses research in the areas of Astrophysics, Earth Science, Heliophysics, and Planetary Science. A major objective of SMD instrument development programs is to implement science measurement capabilities with smaller or more affordable spacecraft so development programs can meet multiple mission needs and therefore make the best use of limited resources. This proposed innovative Q-switched high peak power single frequency fiber laser can be used as innovative lidar component for measurements of the atmosphere and surface topography of the Earth, Mars, the Moon, and other planetary bodies. Because it is fiber based, this Q-switched high peak power single frequency laser is compact, efficient, and extremely reliable.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a number of potential non-NASA commercial applications for Q-switched high peak power single frequency Tm3+-doped fiber laser. This eye-safe laser source can be used to build commercial lidar for ranging and surface topography applications, as the light source for generating mid-IR lasers, and for research and development.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Photonics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.01-9464
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CF22P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Efficient and Compact Semiconductor Laser Transmitter Modules

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
EM4, Inc.
7 Oak Park Drive
Bedford, MA 01730-1413
(781) 275-7501

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alex Rosiewicz
arosiewicz@em4inc.com
7 Oak Park Drive
Bedford,  MA 01730-1413
(781) 781-7501

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Continue development of a Compact Transmitter Module (CTM). Modules will be voltage controlled to adjust wavlength using temperature and drive current settings. The electronics will be designed to be space qualifiable. Modules will be designed and manufactured capable of operating at 1.2x m and 1.57 m. Reductions in size, weight and power will be pursued using either small conventional coolers or thin film thermoelectric coolers (nano-coolers) to replace the conventional larger TEC. Weight reductions will be explore by using alternative which are composites of Aluminum Silicon (AlSi) and Aluminum Graphite.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ASCENDS mission; LIDAR ; analog and digital fiber and free space communication systems; sensors. UAV borne LIDAR systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
LIDAR ; analog and digital fiber and free space communication systems; sensors; ranging; radar remoting; RF countermeasures ;phased array radar; sensors for oil and gas exploration.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomolecular Sensors
Laser
RF
Biochemical
Optical
Photonics
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.01-9608
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CF23P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Single-Frequency Semiconductor Lasers Operating at 1.5 and 2.0 microns

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
nLight Photonics
5408 NE 88th Street, Building E
Vancouver, WA 98665-0990
(360) 566-4471

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Leisher
paul.leisher@nlight.net
5408 NE 88th Street, Building E
Vancouver,  WA 98665-0990
(360) 360-5230

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6 to 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
While conventional injection seeding sources (such as DFB diode lasers and rare-earth doped solid-state microchip lasers) are available at 1.5 microns, these sources typically lack the ultra-narrow (<50 kHz), ultra-stable output spectrum required for use in applications such as Doppler shift measurements of the tropospheric winds. Furthermore, similar sources which operate at 2.0 microns (a preferred wavelength for space-based atmospheric measurements) are simply unavailable. Based on promising results obtained under NASA Phase 1 SBIR funding, nLight proposes the parallel development of 1.5 and 2.0 micron injection seeding sources based on our well-established, wavelength-scalable, industry-leading InP semiconductor laser design. Optical feedback provided by external volumetric or fiber Bragg gratings serves to narrow the semiconductor linewidth to the appropriate level. If necessary, further linewidth reduction can be achieved by means of electronic feedback circuitry. The line-stabilized diode lasers will be integrated with nLight's exiting space-qualified (space flown), hermetically-sealed, compact single-mode diode package, efficiently coupled to single mode fibers, and delivered to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA commercial applications include: 1. Ultra-narrow linewidth LIDAR injection-seeding sources for Doppler shift measurements of the tropospheric winds. 2. Narrow-linewidth eyesafe pump sources for 3D LIDAR imaging for autonomous precision landing including hazard detection and avoidance

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential Non-NASA commercial applications include narrow-linewidth eyesafe pump sources for: 1. Military Infrared countermeasures, eyesafe rangefinders, eysafe 3D LIDAR imaging for surveillance, and unmanned autonomous ground and airborne vehicles 2. Medical Tissue bonding, dentistry

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Optical
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.01-9781
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CF24P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: A High Reliability Frequency Stabilized Semiconductor Laser Source

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Princeton Optronics, Inc.
1 Electronics Drive
Mercerville, DE 08619-2054
(609) 584-9696

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
L.S.Watkins Princeton Optronics
lwatkins@princetonoptronics.com
1 Electronics Drive
Mercerville,  NJ 08619-2054
(609) 584-9696

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Ultrastable, narrow linewidth, high reliability MOPA sources are needed for high performance LIDARs in NASA for, wind speed measurement, surface topography and earth and planetary atmosphere composition measurements. Princeton Optronics is developing a MOPA laser source for these applications. Phase I experiments concluded that the optimum approach will use a DPSS microchip laser with the SOA. This would provide a MOPA source with narrow linewidth, <10kHz, and an output power of 1W. The Phase II program would develop the MOPA laser technology and build prototypes for testing in NASA. These prototypes would be ready for final engineering test and manufacture. The microchip laser will be upgraded to incorporate our patented noise reduction technology to suppress RIN. This reduces noise >55dB in our Telecom tunable lasers. This would provide a seed laser with 1kHz linewidth, low RIN and >10mW power. The SOA designed in Phase I would be developed for 1W output power in the 1550nm band. Filtering will be incorporated to minimize noise and linewidth broadening. Bench experiments will be performed to determine optical configuration for the final rugged package design. Packaged prototypes will be built and tested. Final prototypes will be built and available to NASA laboratory for testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA applications include (the NASA applications are from Dr Farzin Amzajerdian) 1) Coherent Doppler LIDAR systems: Global measurements of atmospheric winds for weather forecasting and climate research, windshear and wake vortex detection for aircraft, and ground velocity and range for landing vehicles. Once the product is developed, a significant number of the products would be required by NASA. 2) Differential Absorption LIDAR: Measuring CO2 concentration for climate research and pollution control Once the product is space qualified, we could expect a need from NASA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Princeton Optronics has been selling products into the commercial market for the last 10 years. PRO products include low noise tunable laser products as well as VCSEL devices and arrays. There is a large market for narrow linewidth, stable lasers for commercial applications which include atomic spectroscopy, interferometry for oil exploration, LIDARs, magnetometers for military application, analog and coherent communications, etc. PRO will commercialize this product once it is developed from this SBIR. Low noise and stable lasers have a market of $50M. Princeton Optronics is in a very good position to commercialize the products through their manufacturing and sales organization. Princeton Optronics has raised $30M from venture capital and is in a position to manufacture and sell this product very efficiently. PRO has a strong manufacturing operation and a strong sales team as well as a national and international distribution network to take advantage of the market demand.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Laser


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.02-8466
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD85P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Novel Low-cost, Ka-band, High Altitude, Multi-Baseline Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Sensor for Surface Water Ocean Topography

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Remote Sensing Solutions, Inc.
3179 Main Street, Unit 3, P.O. Box 1092
Barnstable, MA 02630-1105
(508) 362-9400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Delwyn Moller
dkmoller@remotesensingsolutions.com
3179 Main Street, Unit 3
Barnstable,  MA 02630-1105
(626) 921-5212

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6 to 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal presents the Ka-band SWOT Phenomenology Airborne Radar (KaSPAR) to support the surface water ocean topography (SWOT) mission for science and algorithm development and calibration and validation. KaSPAR is a modular system with multiple temporal and cross-track baselines to fully characterize the scattering and statistics expected from SWOT, provide data for developing classification algorithms, and understanding instrument performance and limitations over the vast variety of scenes that SWOT will encounter (ie sea-ice, vegetation covered water, frozen/partially frozen rivers etc). Furthermore a wide-swath (>5km) high-accuracy elevation mapping capability provides the necessary framework to translate traditional point or profile calibration/validation measurements to the spatial framework that SWOT will measure. Beyond SWOT, KaSPAR's unique 4D imaging capability (2D intensity, elevation and velocity mapping) can be uniquely applied to topography applications, local water resource management and monitoring, weather reconnaissance (e.g. floods & storm surge), electronic vision applications and much more. The Phase II activities will build out a complete multichannel radar system to realize the potential of KaSPAR. Key developments include the highly phase-stable high-bandwidth receivers, low-sidelobe antennas and integration with a high power (40W) solid-state power amplifier. The modular, compact design will be compatible between platforms and is directly compatible without modification with two NASA King Air aircraft. Long-term KaSPAR is designed to support unpressurized high altitude operations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In contrast with previous implementations at lower frequencies (L-, C- and X-band), millimeter-wave interferometry (Ka-band for KaSPAR) enables improved accuracy with a constrained antenna and baseline size. These advantages make the KaSPAR development applicable to potential solution for interplanetary ice mapping missions (e.g. Europa) and planetary topography mapping missions. KaSPAR componentry, integrated subsystems and techniques including the phase-stable receivers and calibration methodologies could readily be integrated, or adapted for specific system requirements. A key element of KaSPAR is that it will utilize a solid-state power amplifier (SSPA) (rather than a tube amplifier). The 40W state-of-the-art SSPA KaSPAR will use would enable an operational airborne ice-surface topography mapper that would not only improve performance over that previously achieved, but also be capable of operating on long-range UAV's to enable ice surface topography mapping of remote, yet critical regions of Antarctica. This is highly relevant to NASA's ongoing IceBridge activities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The KaSPAR and its technology also fill technology gaps that exist in several other commercial and governmental applications. US Coast Guard and US Geological Survey have expressed interest in using KaSPAR to build such a data base for high use (recreational and navigation) rivers. This would improve the performance of models used to predict discharge rate and flow patterns of rivers that use stage level data from in situ river gauges, and in the future, from SWOT elevation. In turn, this would aid navigation and would provide critical information to search and rescue operations. KaSPAR could also be deployed rapidly during time-critical events such as flooding, or to provide storm surge spatial measurements prior to land-fall. Ka-band interferometry has the potential to provide 3D mapping of scenes during limited low visibility conditions (i.e. fog, drizzle, etc). The technology developed for KaSPAR may be used to realize Ka-band radar interferometer electronic vision systems that would complement existing infrared systems. The aircraft industry has expressed significant interest in this area. Although designed for mapping rivers and oceans, a KaSPAR system could be used to provide 3D terrestrial imaging. However, it is significant that the high-bandwidth phase-stable multichannel architecture and processing techniques are applicable and transferable to other geometries (for example off-nadir viewing for dedicated terrain mapping).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
RF
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Microwave/Submillimeter
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.02-8501
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD86P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microfabricated Millimeter-Wave Antenna Arrays

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nuvotronics, LLC
7586 Old Peppers Ferry Loop
Radford, VA 24141-8846
(540) 552-4610

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kenneth Vanhille
kvanhille@nuvotronics.com
3155 State Street
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-6604
(540) 540-4610

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal addresses the need for an antenna technology platform that meets the requirements of high-performance materials, exacting dimensional tolerances, and the geometrical design freedom to enable planar antenna array technologies for frequencies greater than 90GHz. The PolyStrata fabrication technology, being developed at Nuvotronics, LCC, Blacksburg, VA., is capable of meeting or exceeding all of the requirements outlined to be a solution for these frequencies. Air-filled copper rectangular coaxial transmission lines are fabricated using a photolithographically defined layer-by-layer process. The resulting transmission lines are extremely broadband, low-dispersion, high-isolation, and low loss compared to other forms of planar transmission lines. These lines are smaller than rectangular waveguides because the transverse cross-sections of the lines are not resonant. Phase II of this work will include the design, fabrication and characterization of prototypes that will enable PolyStrata-based frequency-scanned antenna-array operating from 140-160GHz with +/-16 degree beam steering, a beamwidth of 0.5 degrees and 400MHz per beam bandwidth. An antenna array with this performance would require roughly 24cm by 24cm. This is possible using 4 sub-arrays that each are fabricated on a single wafer and then tied together to achieve the overall system performance. We will develop and deliver prototypes that will be smaller versions of this, but demonstrate all the necessary aspects of the system including the feed network, the antennas, the tiling of subarrays and the connection to the outside world. The approach will offer a high-yield, cost effective product that will meet the NASA needs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Primary applications for the frequency scanned antenna array are to provide significant improvements over existing Ka-band radar used for planetary landing missions. Ka-band radar sensors are planned for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission scheduled for 2009/2010, but future missions are anticipated to employ radar at frequencies centered above 90GHz, such as G-band (Pollard et al., 2005). Antennas operating in this frequency range will reduce landing radar size and weight substantially while maintaining or improving the system performance for topographic and velocity data acquisition by providing greater resolution. Pollard and Sadowy (JPL under NASA contract), have outlined in detail their requirements for the G-band radar system needed for future MSL missions, including antenna specifications and phase shifting capabilities. We believe that missions after the MSL will be our first targeted application for the Nuvotronics G-band antenna solutions. Future NASA missions, especially those involving autonomous landing in rough terrain, would be the next target applications for the proposed antenna innovations. In addition, antenna arrays and feed networks operating at these frequencies would have applications in space-based radiometers such as those aboard the NASA AQUA earth-observing satellite.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other agencies (Air Force, Navy) could use the advantages of a PolyStrata-based millimeter-wave array in low-weight, high performance applications for autonomous landing and harbor guidance. The FSA would provide a substantially smaller payload for aircraft and heightened resolution in topography and velocity measurements. The millimeter-wave landing radar realized by the batch-level PolyStrata process can reduce costthereby making the autonomous landing radar a viable solution on many aircraft increasing long-term safety of craft and personnel. Harbor guidance for ships deals with the same weather and atmospheric-related issues. Additional applications include weather warnings and atmospheric research, especially where radar is mounted on aircraft or other vehicles to conduct surveys. The cost advantages would aid in the proliferation of radar at these frequencies. Since many of the current generation radars used for weather warning systems and meteorological forecasts are being updated with newer technologies (Heinselman, 2008), these microfabricated antenna array solutions could offer cost and size advantages.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
RF
Microwave/Submillimeter


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.02-8521
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD40P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: A High Cross-Pol Isolation Multi-Frequency Antenna for Cloud and Precipitation Research

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Remote Sensing Solutions, Inc.
3179 Main Street, Unit 3, P.O. Box 1092
Barnstable, MA 02630-1105
(508) 362-9400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Carswell
carswell@remotesensingsolutions.com
3179 Main Street, Unit 3
Barnstable,  MA 02630-1105
(508) 362-9400

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6 to 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposed Phase II SBIR would realize a prototype of an offset Gregorian antenna design that will be delivered to NASA for integration in the D3R GPM ground validation radar system, for which RSS is currently fabricating the radar transceiver through a Phase III project. During the Phase I effort for this antenna system, Remote Sensing Solutions developed a design for a novel dual-wavelength Ku/Ka-band radar remote sensing antenna system with high integrated cross-polarization isolation (> 30 dB) and low sidelobes (< -25 dB). The design provides high gain (< 1 deg beamwidth) and matched antenna patterns in a rugged mechanical configuration that is transportable in a standard sea-container. The primary innovations realized in the Phase I design that would be implemented in the Phase II effort include: an ultra-low cross-pol reflector, a rugged compact feed with very low cross-polarization supporting multiple polarizations at Ku and Ka-band and a robust mechanical structure to meet the antenna electrical tolerances over a wide range of environmental conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Phase II effort will develop and demonstrate the critical technologies required to achieve a dual polarized, dual wavelength antenna capable of providing accurate, quantitative measurements of precipitation and addressing NASA's critical needs with regards to GPM and precipitation measurements, and supporting research in cloud formation and in precipitation initiation that would benefit the NASA ACE program. CloudSat follow-on missions and other future missions focusing on Earth Science will benefit from this antenna's unique ability to ensure accurate measurement of precipitation and cloud properties.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology developed will benefit the greater weather research community by allowing weather radar systems to more precisely quantify precipitation. Adapting the technology to other radar wavelengths in future efforts will also allow Remote Sensing Solutions to market to the operational weather research community using long and medium range weather radars.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Perception/Sensing
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Particle and Fields
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
RF
Microwave/Submillimeter
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Substrate Transfer Technology
High-Energy
In-situ Resource Utilization
Composites
Radiation Shielding Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.02-9783
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD41P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: A 10kWatt 36GHz Solid-State Power Amplifier using GaN-on-Diamond

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Group4 Labs, LLC
1600 Adams Drive, Suite 112
Menlo Park, CA 94025-1449
(650) 688-5760

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
FELIX EJECKAM
FELIX.EJECKAM@GROUP4LABS.COM
1600 Adams Drive, Suite 112
Menlo Park,  CA 94025-1449
(408) 887-6682

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 7 to 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase-II SBIR proposal proposes for the first time ever, the use of a new class of materials - Gallium Nitride-on-diamond - in the manufacture of very high power, high-temperature, Ka-band solid-state MMICs. In this particular Phase-II, the first ever 34-38GHz GaN-on-Diamond FETs will be demonstrated, exhibiting a record 5-10 W/mm at record efficiency and temperature levels. Arrays of these FETs will be used to form (power combined) 10KWatt Power Amplifiers (PA) MMICs. Polycrystalline free standing CVD diamond nature's most efficient thermal conductor enables nearly perfect heat extraction from a "hot" device (Thermal conductivities of GaAs, Si, and SiC are 35W/m/K, 150W/m/K and 390W/m/K respectively; diamond ranges from 1200-2000 W/m/K depending on quality). In the proposed scheme, the device's active epitaxial layers are removed from their original substrate and transferred to a specially treated low-cost CVD diamond substrate using a proprietary low-cost manufacturable scheme. The active junction rests just 20-nm from diamond. The semiconductor-on-diamond technology proposed here may be applied to GaAs, SiC, SiGe, etc. at up to 8" in wafer diameter.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
2-10KW Ka-band (34-36GHz) solid-state Power Amplifiers for use in the manufacture radar equipment. Radar may be used in SWOT, GLISTIN, clouds and precipitation studies

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
GaN-on-Diamond Power Amplifiers may be used for Base-stations (3G and WiMax). Also, GaN-on-Diamond wafers ay be used for blue/white LEDs (displays), and Laser Diodes (storage, DVD, litho).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ablatives
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Cooling
Reuseable
Thermal Insulating Materials
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Laser
RF
Computer System Architectures
Microwave/Submillimeter
Optical
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Substrate Transfer Technology
High-Energy
Highly-Reconfigurable
Photonics
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Ceramics
Composites
Computational Materials
Optical & Photonic Materials
Radiation Shielding Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Power Management and Distribution
Renewable Energy
Wireless Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.03-9640
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD88P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Passive Microwave Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Cost Automated Module Assembly for 180 GHz Devices

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NxGen Electronics, Inc.
9771 Clairemont Mesa Blvd., Suite A
San Diego, CA 92124-1300
(858) 309-6610

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Donald Hayashigawa
don@nxgenelectronics.com
9771 Clairemont Mesa Blvd
San Diego,  CA 92124-1332
(858) 309-6610

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 7 to 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Despite the obvious advantages of millimeter wave technology, a major barrier to expanded use is high assembly costs due to: need for specialized equipments; need for precision impacts on yields; design technologies for manufacturability; and experienced personnel with demonstrated track records. The challenges of this R&D project are to expand and fully develop the Phase 1 technologies for: Methods to use common manufacturing equipment to achieve the high accuracy die placement required for millimeter wave frequencies (+/- 5 micron accuracy) Automation methods and processes to achieving speed and precision for production of low cost modules Modeling to arrive at cost effective trade-offs for achieving customer specifications with minimum capital investment and labor cost As part of the research, NxGen will conduct a demonstration effort utilizing two existing JPL module designs facilitating the collection statistical data both in terms of yields as well as baseline data for cost estimating.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Since 2003 JPL has been developing Miniature MMIC low power radiometers for a number of observational satellites employing both infrared (IR) and microwave (MW) atmospheric sounders. Clouds are almost completely opaque at infrared wavelengths, satellites require cloud free observation. Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES) provide coverage in relatively narrow swaths, and with revisit time of 12-24 hours. GeoSTAR offers the possibility of MW temperature and water vapor soundings as well as rain mapping from GEO. The project will develop the infrastructure to assemble thousands of devices necessary to support these and other similar NASA/JPL projects, while providing the opportunity for commercialization in Phase 3. Bids on future requirements at NASA will be: GeoSTAR Surface Water Land Hydrology & topology (SWOT) Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite Wilkerson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications of millimeter wave modules are important to many applications which include: &#61656; Radar applications (e.g., imaging radar, radio frequency identification, speed detection) &#61656; Wireless uncompressed video/audio transport (MP3, HDTV), &#61656; Wireless local and personal area networking (WLAN and WPAN), &#61656; High accuracy sensors (e.g., Doppler, displacement, sub-wavelength resolution microwave impedance microscopy, passive radiometry measurements) &#61656; Extremely high security communications and sensors with very low probability of intercept (LPI). The drive for millimeter wave products and systems in wireless applications results from: Improved performance for both short and long range distance applications Operate at higher data rates Results in small diameter transmitter and receiver elements Have good propagation characteristics under all weather conditions Opens new frequency operating regions These are only some of the examples of applications that will benefit from our proposed work to establish automated low cost assembly processes for mmWave modules.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Architectures and Networks
RF
Data Input/Output Devices
Microwave/Submillimeter
Highly-Reconfigurable


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.04-8762
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD89P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hyperspectral Longwave Infrared Focal Plane Array and Camera Based on Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
QmagiQ
22 Cotton Road, Unit H, Suite 180
Nashua, NH 03063-4219
(603) 821-3092

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mani Sundaram
msundaram@qmagiq.com
22 Cotton Road, Unit H, Suite 180
Nashua,  NH 03063-4219
(603) 821-3092

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a hyperspectral camera imaging in a large number of sharp hyperspectral bands in the thermal infrared. The camera is particularly suitable for the multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) imager of NASA's HyspIRI Mission. In Phase 1, we successfully developed a crucial camera component: a 640x512 focal plane array (FPA) with 8 - 12 micron broadband longwave infrared spectral response. In Phase 2, we will integrate the FPA with a linear variable filter in a dewar cooler assembly and package the resulting sensor engine with electronics and optics into a camera system. The camera, featuring digital and analog video outputs, will be delivered to NASA at the end of Phase 2 for feasibility testing for the HyspIRI and other NASA missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) HyspIRI Mission - Multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) imager. 2) Ground- and space-based astronomy and astrophysics. 3) Chemical/spectral mapping of forests, vegetation, crops, and landmasses. 4) Temperature mapping of oceans and landmasses. 5) Atmospheric mapping. 6) Pollution monitoring.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) Gas sensing (e.g. for the petrochemical industry). 2) Security and surveillance. 3) Thermography. 4) Medical imaging.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.04-8855
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CF25P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Digital Array Gas Radiometer (DAGR)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
GATS, Inc.
11864 Canon Blvd., Suite 101
Newport News, VA 23606-4253
(757) 873-5920

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Larry Gordley
l.l.gordley@gats-inc.com
11864 Canon Blvd., Suite 101
Newport News,  VA 23606-4253
(757) 873-5920

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The digital array gas radiometer (DAGR) is a new sensor design for accurate measurement and monitoring of trace gases in the boundary layer from space, aircraft, or ground-based platforms using scattered sunlight. Target gases include CH4, CO, CO2, N2O and other species critical to climate science, environmental monitoring and commercial pollution compliance efforts. The DAGR approach builds on traditional gas-filter correlation radiometry (GFCR), a well-known and proven technology for trace gas sensing. The effectiveness of GFCR, however, has historically been limited in downlooking applications primarily because variations in surface albedo degrade its performance. In our Phase I effort, we investigated and demonstrated the ability of the DAGR design to overcome these limitations. With the successful completion of these feasibility studies, the technology has been increased to TRL-3. In the Phase II effort, we will construct and test a prototype DAGR sensor for CH4 detection and monitoring, advancing the technology to TRL-5. CH4 was chosen as our target gas to meet the pressing commercial need for an improved natural gas leak detection system. For NASA, the DAGR prototype will significantly advance the technology needed for future missions such as ASCENDS, GEOCAPE, and GACM. DAGR represents a major advance in using backscattered light for detecting concentrations of key molecular species.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The DAGR technology proposed here will directly demonstrate high sensitivity remote sensing of CH4 in the boundary layer. With minor adaptations, DAGR could provide simultaneous measurements of additional trace gases such as CO, N2O and SO2. These capabilities are of direct relevance to three NASA Decadal Survey missions: ASCENDS, GEOCAPE and GACM. In order to separate physiological carbon fluxes from biomass burning and fossil fuel use, ASCENDS must simultaneously measure boundary layer CO2 and additional tracers, ideally CO and CH4. Observations of CO at 4.7 &#956;m are primarily sensitive to the mid-troposphere, but observations at 2.3 &#956;m are needed to extend sensitivity to the surface. A DAGR instrument can provide high precision measurements of both CH4 and CO at 2.3 &#956;m. GEOCAPE and GACM will focus on the carbon cycle, regional air quality, and long-range transport of pollution. Measurements from a DAGR sensor are directly relevant to these goals. Mr. Gordley has been consulting with NASA investigators on the GEOCAPE mission to help advance the technology needed for this mission. Developing a DAGR prototype would be an important step in this direction.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary commercial application targeted by this proposal is natural gas pipeline monitoring. The landscape of Federal regulations in this area is rapidly changing, and the energy industry is highly motivated to move quickly and efficiently towards compliance. Demand for surveillance systems outstrips the services currently available. Based on results from Phase I, the DAGR sensor is superior to state-of-the-art remote detection systems now in operation, and will help meet this demand. A second commercial application for DAGR is ground-based monitoring of CO2 in sequestration fields. Using current technology, CO2 can be stored in depleted oil and natural gas fields, saline reservoirs and basalt formations. Geologic storage of CO2 can account for over half of the emission reduction needed to achieve atmospheric stabilization. With only minor modifications, the DAGR design could be adapted to sense boundary layer CO2 using backscattered sunlight. Tower-based DAGR sensors would be used for monitoring the ambient level of CO2 at and around the sequestration site during preparation, injection, decommissioning, and finally for long-term monitoring.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.04-8859
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD43P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Spatial Filter Array

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luminit, LLC
1850 W. 205 Street
Torrance, CA 90501-1526
(310) 320-1066

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jun Ai
kyu@luminitco.com
1850 W. 205 Street
Torrance,  CA 90501-1526
(310) 320-1066

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6 to 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To address the NASA Earth Science Division need for spatial filter arrays for amplitude and wavefront control, Luminit proposes to develop a novel Integrated Spatial Filter Array (iSFA) comprising integrated waveguides mapped with a pair of commercial lenslet arrays. Thousands of precisely spaced waveguides can be mass-produced with state-of-the-art photonic fabrication technology, which eliminates the tedious and error-prone alignment of up to a 1000 individual optical fibers in legacy fiber bundle SFA. The integrated waveguides are inherently polarization preserving. In Phase I, we designed and fabricated a 16-waveguide iSFA and demonstrated 22 dB polarization extinction ratio and superior coupling efficiency and uniformity over legacy fiber bundle SFA. In Phase II, we will tailor waveguide array parameters for optimum coupling with commercial lenslet arrays and fabricate a fully functioning prototype iSFA with 1,000 buried single-mode waveguide channels operating in a broad wavelength range in the 400-1,000 nm visible band. The iSFA will benefit NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder mission for detection of earth-like planets, climates, habitability and life beyond our solar system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed iSFA will precisely control the phase and amplitude of optical wavefront and enhance the performance of nulling coronagraph, which will benefit NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and Stellar Imaging (SI) missions for detection of earth-like planets, climates, habitability and life beyond our solar system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The iSFA technology will find applications in a variety of industries that need to precisely control the phase and amplitude properties of generalized optical wavefront. Such markets include: free-space laser communications, adaptive optics systems, remote sensing, optical metrology, medical imaging, photogrammetry, environmental monitoring, LADAR imager sensors, and microscopy applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.04-8873
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD44P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Polarimetric Multiwavelength Focal Plane Arrays for ACE and CLARREO

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Phoebus Optoelectronics, LLC
12 Desbrosses Street
New York, NY 10013-1704
(718) 484-7033

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Crouse
crousem238@gmail.com
12 Desbrosses Street
New York,  NY 10013-1704
(845) 519-7463

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
High-performance polarimetric and nonpolarimetric sensing is crucial to upcoming NASA missions, including ACE and CLARREO and the multi-agency VIIRS NPP project. The objective of the proposed project is to use single-layer metamaterial metal/dielectric composites to develop multiwavelength polarimetric focal plane arrays (FPAs) that far exceed performance requirements for ACE and CLARREO, while reducing costs through component integration. Phoebus's metamaterial films are an enabling technology and can be used to develop high spectral resolution, low-crosstalk components for other NASA missions, such as GEO-CAPE, as well as transparent metal contacts for high-efficiency sensors and solar cells. Phoebus's metamaterial films can eliminate several problems with current polarimetric detectors, such as diffraction, light scattering, moving parts, and the need to dice/bond components. This project will use recent discoveries in metamaterials research that allow for polarimetric control of the flow and focusing/superbeaming of light, concepts that have been analytically and experimentally verified during Phase I. Phoebus's Phase I results confirmed that its structures will allow for 2500x improvement in polarization extinction ratios - the key performance metric for polarimetric detectors compared with currently available polarimetric detectors. Phase I results also confirmed that the relevant structures can be fabricated using routine materials and fabrication techniques in widespread use throughout the semiconductor device industry. In Phase II, Phoebus will focus on improving several performance metrics of its polarizing filter arrays, such as wavelength selectivity and transmissivity, as well as optimizing fabrication processes necessary to produce high aspect ratio light-channeling dielectric apertures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed project will lead directly to commercialization of polarimetric sensors ideally suited to NASA's upcoming ACE and CLARREO missions and VIIRS NPP project. Through knowledge gained about theoretical modeling and fabrication methodologies, the project may also lead to other photonic devices of use to NASA. For example, the light-concentrating abilities of Phoebus's recently designed metamaterial Fresnel zone plates are well-suited to creation of pixel-sized microlenses, to be fabricated atop IR focal plane arrays. Such devices improve sensitivity of space-based imaging and remote sensing systems by enabling smaller, lower-noise detector elements without loss of light-gathering power while simultaneously reducing system mass. Fabry-Perot interferometers are currently used as narrowband wavelength filters for select remote sensing and astronomy applications. By tapping into very narrow bandwidth light-circulating modes, Phoebus's could also improve on current devices by providing even narrower bandwidths with a simpler, lighter and lower-cost device.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Phoebus's metamaterial films are an enabling technology with a variety of potential applications spanning multiple device types and industries. With relatively minor adjustments to their dimensions, geometries and material composition, Phoebus's metamaterial films can elicit extremely diverse light-management phenomena, ranging from wavelength filtering, polarization filtering and polarization beam splitting to light localization, focusing, circulation, weaving and trapping. Phoebus has developed a disciplined device development pipeline, which includes i) terrestrial polarimetric infrared sensors for improved target discrimination ii) antireflective invisible electrodes for silicon solar cells and iii) a solar biofuel platform capable of generating methanol from carbon dioxide. The total combined annual value of the targeted markets exceeds $100 billion. Phoebus is adopting an intellectual property (IP) licensing business model in which it will develop devices to their prototype stage prior to licensing the technology to device manufacturers. We have already established relationships with leading infrared sensor manufacturers and have begun preliminary collaborations around the commercialization of our polarimetric sensors for military imaging. Our collaborators estimate that our device designs will lead to at least 2500x performance improvements, while simultaneously reducing prices through component integration.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical
Photonics
Composites
Optical & Photonic Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.05-9008
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD47P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detector Technologies for UV, X-Ray, Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Longwave Imaging for Astronomical Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
QmagiQ
22 Cotton Road, Unit H, Suite 180
Nashua, NH 03063-4219
(603) 821-3092

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mani Sundaram
msundaram@qmagiq.com
22 Cotton Road, Unit H, Suite 180
Nashua,  NH 03063-4219
(603) 821-3092

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a compact portable longwave camera for astronomical applications. In Phase 1, we successfully developed the eye of the camera, i.e. the focal plane array (FPA) and produced good imagery with it. In Phase 2, we will optimize the FPA for quantum efficiency and pixel operability, integrate it into a dewar cooler assembly, and package the resulting sensor engine with electronics and optics into a camera system. We will deliver the camera to NASA for field testing. We expect the camera to be particularly useful in the search for cold objects in the universe and in the measurement of atmospheric gases with absorption lines in the spectral response band of the camera.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) Ground- and space-based astronomy and astrophysics. 2) Chemical/spectral mapping of forests, vegetation, crops, and landmasses. 3) Temperature mapping of oceans and landmasses. 4) Atmospheric mapping. 5) Pollution monitoring.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) Gas sensing (e.g. for the petrochemical industry). 2) Security and surveillance. 3) Thermography. 4) Medical imaging.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.05-9434
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD48P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detector Technologies for UV, X-Ray, Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultra-Low Noise Quad Photoreceiver for Space Based Laser Interferometric Gravity Wave Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Discovery Semiconductors, Inc.
119 Silvia Street
Ewing, NJ 08628-3200
(609) 434-1311

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shubhashish Datta
sdatta@chipsat.com
119 Silvia St.
Ewing,  NJ 08628-3200
(609) 434-1311

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to design and develop 2x2 quad p-i-n InGaAs Photoreceivers having the following characteristics: (a) Active area diameter 0.75 mm; (b) Wavelength coverage 850 to 1700 nm, with responsivity of 0.7 A/W at 1064 nm; (c) Bandwidth up to 20 MHz for the individual quadrant; (d) Group Delay < 6 degrees/MHz; (e) Photodiode capacitance for individual quadrant of <1.5 pF at a reverse bias of 5V; (f) Cross talk between the neighboring quadrants of -45 to -50 dB; (g) Equivalent excess noise per quadrant <2 pA/sq. rt. Hz in the pass band; and (h) Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) due to excess noise <2.9 pW/sq. rt. Hz in the pass band. Six prototype quad photoreceivers will be delivered during the Phase II contract. These devices will be an enabling technology for the success of the Laser Interferometry Space Antenna (LISA) which proposes to detect gravity waves by using a space based interferometric sensor having a baseline of 5 million kilometers. Detection of gravity waves is crucial to our fundamental understanding of nature, including the origin of the universe and experimental verification of the theory of relativity.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The low-noise large area photoreceivers are suitable for numerous space-based optical systems, such as: 1) Long baseline laser interferometry; 2) Global 3D profiling of wind velocity; 3) River flow, height, and width monitoring for improved water resource management; and 4) Remote sensing missions to other planets. These devices can also to be used for ground-based free-space NASA applications, such as wind mapping for rocket launches.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The dual-depletion region technology allows high speed quad photodiode operation in conjunction with good noise performance. Consequently, the low-noise, large area photoreceivers can be used for military and commercial applications, such as: 1) Infrared sensing including biomedical imaging & spectroscopy; 2) Laser targeted munitions tracking; 3) Wind profiling for airport safety and wind farm site selection.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Biomolecular Sensors
Laser
Gravitational
Optical
Photonics
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Optical & Photonic Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.05-9717
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD49P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detector Technologies for UV, X-Ray, Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Highly Efficient FUV Photodetector with AlGaN Nanowire Photocathode

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Optics Corporation, EP Division
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821
(310) 320-3088

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Shnitser
psproposals@poc.com
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance,  CA 90501-1821
(310) 310-3088

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To address the NASA GSFC need for significant improvements in wide bandgap materials and detectors for UV applications, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new AlGaN nanowire photocathode for Silicon Microchannel Plate solar-blind photodetector fabricated directly on the MCP entrance plane. This innovative photocathode and the technology of its growth on the Si microchannel plate enables us to meet NASA requirements for windowless operation in the FUV range with high quantum efficiency, low noise, radiation-hardness, reliability, and potentially low cost. In Phase I, POC demonstrated the technology of GaN and AlN nanowire growth by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy and investigated the properties of nanowire surfaces. In Phase II, POC will optimize this technology for fabrication of an AlGaN nanowire photocathode on a silicon MCP structure and demonstrate photodetector operation in the FUV range. This innovative, efficient, solar-blind, and radiation-hard UV photodetector with low background noise and a large sensing area will offer NASA capabilities to design new instrumentation with improved sensitivity and spatial or spectral resolution for FUV and UV instruments for several missions devoted to a better understanding of the origin of the Universe and its evolution to modern form.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future NASA applications of Si-based Microchannel Plate photodetectors with AlGaN NW photocathodes fabricated directly on the entrance plate include several missions such as THEIA, NWO, ATLAST, a cosmic web probe, and others. The highly sensitive, solar-blind, low noise, radiation-hard detectors for the FUV region (below 100 nm) will open new opportunities in the investigation of the evolution of the Universe, planet finding, the investigation of Sun-Earth interactims, etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Military applications for detectors with new photocathode include missile plume detection, fire detection, and detection of biochemical agents and many other scientific instruments. The higher quantum efficiency and extended spectral coverage of UV spectrum will facilitate development of new, more sensitive instruments for medical and industrial applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.06-8783
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD50P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Particles and Field Sensors and Instrument Enabling Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Laser Femto-Tesla Magnetic Gradiometer (LFMG)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Polatomic, Inc.
1810 N. Glenville Drive, #116
Richardson, TX 75081-1954
(972) 690-0099

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jean Isham
jhisham@tx.rr.com
1810 N. Glenville Drive, #116
Richardson,  TX 75081-1954
(972) 972-0099

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The LFMG instrument is used to make extremely high resolution scalar magnetic field and difference measurements at the Earthfs surface. The Phase 1 effort included development of a conceptual design and established the feasibility of designing, fabricating and demonstrating in Phase 2 two prototype LFMG instruments for use in a gradiometer configuration. The Phase 1 LFMG conceptual design includes a technical plan for approaching 10 fT/Hz resolution in the LFMG prototype. The breadboard LFMG demonstrated measurements of scalar field variations with a resolution of 45 fT/Hz in Phase 1. The LFMG has stability required to measure vector gradients (difference of scalar measurements between two LFMG instruments on the Earthfs surface) with very high stability over distances of the order of kilometers. The LFMG prototype will have a dynamic range of 25,000 nT to 75,000 nT, and achieves an accuracy and stability necessary to perform common mode noise rejection between two LFMG instruments. This advance in the state of the art represents an increase in sensitivity of more than an order of magnitude, and will permit new high performance gradiometer measurements for use in innovative exploratory research into the effects producing temporal variations in the magnetic field over the Earthfs surface.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The accurate measurement of the magnetic field components and their orientation in space is recognized as a basic requirement for space research. The LFMG will be used to observe magnetic fields at the Earthfs surface with extremely high resolution. The major features of the LFMG that set it apart from other magnetic measurement systems are its outstanding accuracy and its ability to difference scalar measurements at many kilometers separation. LFMG magnetic field measurements provide means for studying the structure and dynamics of Earthfs interior. On the Earth and other planets, the magnetic field provides unique information on the structure and dynamics of the planetary interior, fluid flow within and upon its surface, and the influence of the solar environment. The LFMG can be used for extremely high resolution investigations of geopotential changes in the Earthfs crust associated with earthquakes and volcanic activity and eruptions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The LFMG with its extremely high sensitivity and stability will have a variety of commercial and military applications. including measurement of the magnetic fields at the Earth's surface for geophysical airborne and marine prospecting. The LFMG can serve as the new standard for geomagnetic observatories. The LFMG instruments can be used to investigate surface and magnetospheric effects before and after earthquakes and volcanic activity. The LFMG can technology can be used in the next generation high-sensitivity magnetometers to be used by the US Navy for submarine detection and mine countermeasures applications. The LFMG instruments will add high resolution ELF capability for solving DoD magnetic detection problems. The miniaturized LFMG sensor will have applications in UAVs used for sea and land surveillance for submarines, tanks under trees, tunnels, and underground facilities. The LFMG characteristics of outstanding accuracy and high-frequency signal response will open up a variety of applications in commercial security and surveillance applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Particle and Fields


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.07-9379
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD52P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Systems for Sensors and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid High-Temperature Superconductor Current Leads for Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tai-Yang Research Corporation
9112 Farrell Park Lane
Knoxville, TN 37922-8525
(302) 593-4777

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Hilton
dkhilton@tai-yang.com
2031 E. Paul Dirac Drive
Tallahassee,  FL 32310-3711
(865) 805-0220

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Tai-Yang Research Company (TYRC) proposes to address the need for high temperature superconducting (HTS) current leads used in an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) for space applications, presently being developed at the NASA / Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The innovation is to use a hybrid of two different HTS conductors bonded together at a thermally and electrically determined optimum point along the length of the current lead. The HTS conductor positioned at the warm end of the current lead will have a higher critical temperature (Tc) than the conductor at the cold end. This hybrid lead uses commercially available 2nd generation HTS conductors optimized for currents less than 10A. The warm end Tc is extended by using a bulk or thin film form not yet commercially available. TYRC will custom-fabricate the higher Tc materials and develop processes for joining them to the lower Tc material. TYRC will develop fabrication processes and generate options for mechanical design of the lead assembly.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA commercial applications include current leads for compact, space-based cryogenics, including sensor-cooling adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration (ADR) systems. NASA systems requiring low-temperature electrical current feeds with a low heat leak will be enhanced by incorporating the hybrid high-temperature superconducting current leads proposed.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications outside of NASA include compact cryogenic systems for magneto-optical imaging (MOI), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mossbauer spectroscopy, and gyrotron amplifiers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Instrumentation
Superconductors and Magnetic
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.08-9098
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD53P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Technology Cloud Particle Probe for UAS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SPEC, Inc.
3022 Sterling Circle, Suite 200
Boulder, CO 80301-2377
(303) 449-1105

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
R. Paul Lawson
plawson@specinc.com
3022 Sterling Circle - Suite 200
Boulder,  CO 80301-2377
(303) 449-1105

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6 to 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Phase II SPEC will design, fabricate and flight test a state-of-the-art combined cloud particle probe called the Hawkeye. Hawkeye is the culmination of two decades of innovative instrument development at SPEC. The new probe will measure the size distribution of cloud and precipitation particles, provide high-resolution (2.3 micron pixel) images of cloud particles and remove artifacts from ice particle shattering. This will be accomplished by eclectic combination of technology developed in three existing SPEC optical cloud particle probes: 1) A fast FSSP, that measures size distributions from 1 to 50 microns and records individual particle statistics and remove shattered particles using inter-arrival times, 2) a cloud particle imager (CPI) with upgraded imagery capable of recording up to 500 frames per second, and 3) a 2D-S (Stereo) probe that is configured with one channel to provide full-view images of particles from 10 microns to 1.28 mm, and a second channel configured to provide full-view images of particles from 50 microns to 6.4 mm. Thus, using particle dimensions along the direction of flight will produce particle size distributions from 1 micron to several cm. Hawkeye will be designed for installation and autonomous (unattended) operation on NASA research aircraft, including the Global Hawk unmanned aerial system (UAS), and DC-8, WB-57F and ER-2 piloted research aircraft. Hawkeye will provide vastly improved measurements of particle and precipitation size distributions, particle shape, extinction coefficient, effective particle radius, ice water content and equivalent radar reflectivity. Hawkeye will be ready for installation on NASA aircraft for the upcoming ACE and GPM decadal missions, which are aimed at measurements of the effects of aerosols, clouds and precipitation on global climate change.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Based on this historical record and increasing interest in global climate change, we anticipate that the Hawkeye, a new advanced-technology standard for cloud particle probes, will be requested for all future NASA and other-agency climate research programs. In particular, ACE and GPM decadal missions will benefit considerably from Hawkeye measurements. Participation in these missions generates direct commercial benefit and also exposure for additional commercial sales.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is a growing international market in weather modification research and operational cloud seeding programs. Research/cloud seeding programs are now taking place on five continents. These programs are using aging technology to investigate clouds for weather modification applications and will benefit from a compact probe that will reliably measure changes in cloud particle distributions due to the effects of cloud seeding. Certification of new aircraft for flight in known icing conditions is another commercial application for the Hawkeye. Research in icing wind tunnels is yet another commercial application for Hawkeye.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.08-9310
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD54P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Fast-Response Atmospheric Turbulence (FRAT) Probe with Gas-Sampling Ducts

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AEROPROBE
1700 Kraft Drive, Suite 2350
Blacksburg, VA 24060-6150
(540) 409-5139

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Demetri Telionis
demetri.telionis@aeroprobe.com
1700 Kraft Drive, Suite 2350
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-6150
(540) 951-3858

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 8 to 9

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aeroprobe proposes to design, construct and test an air-data probe with substantially higher frequency response than currently available. This fast-response atmospheric turbulence probe (FRAT probe) will be able to sample ambient air, and measure CO2 and other gases. Phase I work demonstrated that with a proper design of the probe nose, ingestion holes for gas sampling do not interfere with port pressure measurements. Variations of this probe will be able to operate in harsh atmospheric environments. High-frequency response and resistance to water spray were accommodated by mounting the pressure sensors in small chambers very close to the probe nose surface. To return the absolute instantaneous velocity of air and calculate atmospheric turbulence, the motion of the probe and the aircraft will be measured. To this end, the components of an Attitude Heading Reference System (AHRS), namely accelerometers, magnetometers, GPS and other electronic equipment have been assembled, and tested. These components will be packaged into a stand-alone probe system that will include an A/D board converter and a microcomputer. Software for post-processing of data will be developed. This probe system will be tested on CO2 towers and mounted on an aircraft to measure gas contents, humidity, and other atmospheric thermodynamic quantities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The attractive features of this product are that it will include all components in a tightly packaged probe body half the size of a base ball bat, making it a stand alone, off-the-shelf item, at an affordable price, in the range of $6,000 to 20,000. This product will be readily available for mounting on micrometeorological towers or on any flying platform to measure atmospheric turbulence and gas contents as part of environmental research. Such measurements can improve our understanding of the high-wind boundary layer and the exchange of heat, moisture and momentum across the oceanic or terrestrial surface. This equipment may prove valuable in disclosing the fluxes of man-made or natural species like CO2, which are key elements of micro-meteorology. A variation of this probe could be flown into developing tropical storms or hurricanes, to measure wind turbulence, the size and number density of droplets, and the fluxes of momentum, humidity and other thermodynamic quantities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This instrument may appear useful in commercial micro-meteorological applications that require the measurement of sensible heat, water vapor and trace gas fluxes, as they relate to air quality. It could also be mounted on small platforms that could form a swarm of UAVs and monitor the dispersion of pollutants or atmospheric contamination generated by terrorist activities. It is anticipated that the US DoD or the Department of Homeland Security may be interested in such applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Facilities
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Biochemical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.08-9542
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC21P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Self-Calibrating Greenhouse Gas Balloon-Borne Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Southwest Sciences, Inc.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505-3993
(505) 984-1322

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joel Silver
jsilver@swsciences.com
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe,  NM 87505-3993
(505) 505-1322

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Understanding the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases has been recognized as critical to predicting climate change and global warming. A variety of research studies funded by DOE, NSF, NASA and NOAA to measure the fluxes and fluctuations of CO2 profiles throughout the troposphere and lower stratosphere have provided a great deal of useful information, but the instrumentation used has been restricted to airplane or large stratospheric-type balloon gondola platforms where a few measurements are very expensive. We propose a new approach where low cost, extensive measurement campaigns can be made using standard meteorological balloons. In this SBIR program, Southwest Sciences is developing a lightweight, inexpensive greenhouse gas sensor suitable for balloon sonde measurements, Using a novel measurement technique, this sensor will provide dry air mixing ratios of CO2 without the need for concurrent measurements of temperature, pressure or moisture. The Phase 1 research successfully demonstrated the viability of this approach and in Phase 2, a prototype sensor will be built and field tested in a series of balloon-sonde flights.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our sensor can be used on UAV, balloon, and aircraft platforms. A goal of NASA's Office of Science is to use satellite data and suborbital platforms to understand weather and climate of the Earth. Suborbital field campaigns composed of balloons, aircraft, and unmanned aerial vehicles identify processes, validate satellite data, and eventually create parameterizations that allow full use of satellite data. Measurements of the precise variations of carbon dioxide as a function of altitude have been tremendously difficult, and this sensor will allow more widespread measurements than currently possible.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA atmospheric research programs, a large network of academic researchers would also be interested in our sensor. Beyond the atmospheric science community, high precision gas measurements are needed in industrial applications. The proposed method will allow for non-intrusive measurements of fluids in fast flows in pipelines, chambers, and smokestacks. Such measurements are critically needed when caustic gases are used or when an integrated measurement is needed without disturbing laminar flow. Applications in petrochemical, semiconductor, and aviation industries are numerous.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Facilities
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.09-8507
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD93P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Grasp Algorithms For Optotactile Robotic Sample Acquisition

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cybernet Systems Corporation
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-1639
(734) 668-2567

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Katherine Jordan
proposals@cybernet.com
727 Airport Blvd
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-1639
(734) 668-2567

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 7 to 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Robotic sample acquisition is essentially grasping. Multi-finger robot sample grasping devices are controlled to securely pick up samples. Equations have been developed to provide optimal grasps for perfectly modeled objects, but grasping unmodeled objects like a random sample on planetary surfaces is an open research problem. Approaches to grasping unmodeled objects use various sensors, such as cameras, distributed pressure sensors, and strain gages, to characterize the object and the quality of a grasp. That information is then used to initiate or improve the grasp. A major source of difficulty in robotic grasping, therefore, is the sensing of object parameters and grasp quality. Humans combine the high information content of vision, several types of haptic/tactile sensors in the fingers (300 sensors per square centimeter), and a sophisticated learning process to grasp unknown objects. In comparison, current robotic graspers rely on a much more limited set of sensors, particularly for measuring tactile properties. This proposal focuses on an algorithm for improving grasp quality using several types of tactile information as well as the robotic grasper that can provide such information so that remote sample acquisition devices can perform as well as human sample gatherers

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The force sensitive contact control technology has many potential applications within NASA. This technology includes innovative pattern sensing capabilities that provide a novel, highly accurate and sensitive human-machine interface. It also has the potential for greater accuracy in force measurement and control in a different regime than current sensor (strain gauge) technologies and can be a new tool in the machine designer's toolkit. This technology will provide NASA with advanced, robust grasping solutions for unstructured environments. This will include both the computer vision algorithms that extract grasp quality metrics from an optotactile fingerpad, as well as the grasp algorithms that take advantage of that information. We will also investigate commercializing a monolithic hardware solution for an optotactile grasper, with a single board solution for image capture, lighting, and data processing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The human-machine interface can be used to develop novel computer input devices for art or entertainment purposes. This unique interface has additional applications in medical training dummies or orthopedic foot measurement devices. The algorithms developed can improve robustness in industrial settings. They can also be used in unstructured environments with fragile materials, such as remote explosive disposal, or nuclear materials handling. Finally, they would be useful for manipulators in complex environments, like assistive robotics in the home.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Manipulation
Perception/Sensing
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.09-8929
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC22P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Laser Ablation - Optical Cavity Isotopic Spectrometer (LAOCIS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied Spectra, Inc.
46661 Fremont Blvd.
Fremont, CA 94538-6410
(510) 657-7679

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alexander Bolshakov
alexandb@appliedspectra.com
46661 Fremont Blvd.
Fremont,  CA 94538-6410
(510) 657-7679

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose the detailed conceptual development of a device for analyzing key isotopic composition in surface materials without sample preparation. We will combine absorption spectroscopy with laser induced vaporization of solid samples for high-resolution isotopic measurements. An immediate focus is on Mars but our concept is also highly germane to other applications relevant to bio- and geochemical objectives. We will evaluate accuracy, sensitivity, and resolution of our technology for isotopic detection of the key elements associated with signs of life (C, S, H, O) in solid materials. All essential design components of the proposed analyzer have been separately developed and demonstrated in very compact form for other applications. We will demonstrate the overall performance of the proposed technique and build a breadboard prototype instrument. Commercial systems based on the Phase II prototype will be developed and marketed during Phase III.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
LAOCIS, a high-resolution compact analytical system will provide measurements of selected key isotopes associated with signs of life and can be further extended to many other chemical species and tasks. In future, LAOCIS can be applied to age dating of materials by measuring the isotopic ratios of Rb-Sr and/or U-Pb radiometric pairs. In situ geochronology was specified as "overarching" priority in the recent NRC survey. It will provide a rich field of LAOCIS applications. Because this technology combines physical principles of laser induced breakdown plasma and tunable laser absorption, the future integrated instrument will measure elemental composition (~30 elements simultaneously) and key isotopic abundances in condensed samples. This proposal is particularly focused on Mars but highly relevant to applications on the Moon, other planets, their moons (e.g., Titan, Europa, Io, etc.) and comets. In addition, the measurement system can be utilized for rapid, mobile isotopic measurements on Earth to study biogeochemistry, element cycle studies, human health and ecosystems. The most probable application is the analysis of bulk light element isotope systems, which are relatively abundant allowing minor isotopes to be seen with high signal/noise ratios.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential commercial applications for the LAOCIS will be varied throughout forensic and homeland security applications; government nuclear maintenance and non-proliferation activities; hydrological, petrochemical and geological exploration and relevant field applications; measurement of isotopic tracers/markers for medical practice and drinking water control, and in academic institutions (particularly environmental, medical, nutrient and biogeochemical research). A modification of LAOCIS may be used to increase sensitivity in halogen detection, an important requirement of analytical instruments for semiconductor package materials and RoHS substances. Due to worldwide concerns with terrorism, force protection, nuclear forensics and homeland security, we anticipate that a significant number of the government and private agencies will require compact analytical isotopic instrumentation for real-time field measurements and characterization. Our intention is to deliver our revolutionary technology to the broadest range of users.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biochemical
Optical
Photonics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.09-8964
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC23P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lab on a Chip LCVR Polarimeter for Exploration of Life Signatures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505-5217
(310) 530-7130

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Srivatsa Venkatasubbarao
sbirproposals@intopsys.com
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance,  CA 90505-5217
(424) 263-6344

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Life on Earth is unique in many ways; one of its great mysteries is that the building blocks of life on Earth (amino acids, nucleotides, sugars) are all chiral. One optical isomer of each amino acid or nucleic acid was selected by evolution. In our pursuit of finding life on Mars and beyond (Triton, Europa, etc.), it is likely that one of the clues to extant or extinct life could be the detection of non-racemic chiral molecules. This proposal describes the development of a highly miniaturized and ultrasensitive lab-on-a-chip polarimeter that will meet the NASA need to measure chirality in very small volumes of samples at very high sensitivity. The proposal builds on a novel technology that is based on a proprietary design, in which a modulated liquid crystal variable retarder (LCVR) enhances sensitivity and reduces size without sacrificing performance. This detection principle with a long-path-length microfluidic flow cell allows for the measurement of chirality in microliter volumes of samples. The Phase I effort has conclusively demonstrated the technical feasibility of the detection principle. A miniaturized polarimeter with microfluidic flow cell was designed and fabricated. The polarimeter was calibrated and tested with samples. In Phase II, we will build, fully characterize, and deliver a miniature polarimeter with optimized performance, enhanced mechanical stability, and integrated fluid handling capability. The primary goals are to further improve the polarimeter's sensitivity, accuracy, size, weight, reproducibility, measurement speed, and power needs, conduct extensive testing, and deliver a robust prototype, engineering drawings, software, and test results to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed device will contribute to NASA's search for life beyond Earth. The detection of chirality on Mars and moons of Jupiter and Saturn could yield insights into the existence of previous or current life. The device could also be incorporated in the completely unmanned and automated next-generation miniaturized satellites such as "Pharmasat." The Pharmasat, which will study microorganism survival in space, can be enhanced to measure optical rotation and chirality of the samples by incorporating the proposed device, adding insight into the viability of microorganisms. The miniaturization and light weight of the proposed polarimeter, in combination with its high sensitivity, will make it well suited for monitoring extraterrestrial samples for chirality.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology has many potential spinoff applications. The device will be valuable to the pharmaceutical and biotech industry, where the trend is to develop drug molecules that are chirally pure. Research institutions can use this device to study the efficacy of drugs in clinical applications. The device can also be very useful to educational institutions for research and training. Other applications for this polarimeter include bioprocessing and food monitoring, as well as chemical and fragrance quality testing. Most importantly, we expect the miniaturized lab-on-a-chip polarimeter to eventually become a valuable tool in clinical diagnostic settings.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomolecular Sensors
Biochemical
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.09-9227
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD94P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Deep UV Semiconductor Sources for Advanced Planetary Science Instruments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Photon Systems
15112 Industrial Park Street
Covina, CA 91722-3417
(626) 967-6431

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Hug
w.hug@photonsystems.com
1512 Industrial Park St
Covina,  CA 91722-3417
(626) 626-6431

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal addresses the need for miniature, narrow-linewidth, deep UV optical sources that operate at very low ambient temperatures for use in advanced in situ planetary science instruments for non-contact detection and classification of trace amounts of organic, inorganic, and biogenic materials using Raman and native fluorescence spectroscopic methods. The sources include aluminum gallium nitride semiconductor lasers and ultra-narrow-linewidth transverse excited hollow cathode lasers emitting between 210 nm to 250 nm, a spectral range with demonstrated higher detection sensitivity and specificity than sources emitting at longer wavelengths. Applications include non-contact robot-arm or body mounted chemical imaging instruments and detectors for direct analysis of trace levels of chemical species containing C, N, H, O, S, Cl, on surfaces or as extractions from soil, rock, or ice. We have achieved the highest recorded deep UV semiconductor internal quantum efficiencies at wavelengths below 250 nm. But continuing difficulties of attaining laser emission and prospects for narrow line-width compatible with Raman applications has caused us to redirect a significant portion of the Phase II effort to another class of deep UV laser with a more proven UV Raman track record and the potential for miniaturization for robot-arm-mounted applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
These fundamental deep UV optical source technologies are useful for a broad range of in situ measurements for: space science and terrestrial geochemical, geophysical and geobiological studies; planetary protection applications such as measuring/characterizing organic or biogenic contamination on outbound and inbound spacecraft; and for general application to high quality non-invasive, non-destructive measurement of trace levels of chemical species containing C, N, H, O, S, Cl, and/or water, ice, and hydrated minerals on surfaces, in liquids and in the air, such as aboard the International Space Station or for the 2018 Mars. The proposed sources will provide the ability to measure trace levels of organic material at working distances up to 1 meter or more. For space science applications, this would enable a Rover-body mounted instrument that could interrogate the vicinity of the Rover. For terrestrial applications the stand-off measurements could be made in full sun-light conditions at least for Raman and potentially for the deep UV native fluorescence emissions. For planetary protection applications it would enable direct measurement of bioloads on spacecraft surfaces without the need for sample collection using traditional methods.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The deep UV source technologies being addressed by this proposal are immediately useful for Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Homeland Security (DHS) applications as well as non-government commercial and industrial applications. DOD and DHS applications include in situ chemical, biological, and explosives sensors to detect trace levels of biological, nerve, and blister agents as well as low-volatility toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) and explosives at moderate standoff distances. In addition, a broad range of non-government commercial and industrial applications are addressed by the proposed deep UV sources including: environmental testing of water, soil and air; municipal and industrial water and waste-water quality testing; commercial product quality control testing of manufactured food, pharmaceutical, chemical, semiconductor, and other commercial products; clinical medical diagnosics instruments; and a wide range of research applications enabled by the core technologies developed on this program.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Perception/Sensing
Biomedical and Life Support
Biomolecular Sensors
Sterilization/Pathogen and Microbial Control
Waste Processing and Reclamation
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Biochemical
Optical
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Photonics
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
In-situ Resource Utilization
Ceramics
Optical & Photonic Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.09-9383
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD95P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Polymer Microfluidics Technology for In Situ Planetary Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Los Gatos Research
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041-1518
(650) 965-7780

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hong Jiao
h.jiao@lgrinc.com
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View,  CA 94041-1518
(650) 650-7772

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Los Gatos Research proposes to develop a novel microfluidic device that combines rigid monolithic porous polymer based micro-capillary electrochromatography (microCEC) with ultra-high sensitive UV laser induced fluorescence (LIF)optical detection capable of accurately measuring concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) molecules. This novel device is ultra-compact and light weight with low power consumption, ideally suited for NASA planetary science applications such as analyzing complex organic molecules on Mars, Titan and elsewhere in the solar system. Specifically for the Phase II work, we will design and fabricate a microfluidic prototype that offers vast improvements over current PAH separation methods as well as significant enhancements over the current detection sensitivities. The overall objective entails integrating this microfluidics technology with NASA miniaturized scientific instrumentation program, thereby significantly enhancing NASA organic compound separation capability. In addition this Phase II work will be performed in parallel with efforts to develop micorfluidics devices for the commercial analytical markets.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed polymer microfluidics and optical technologies can be readily adapted to NASA's miniature "Micro Laboratories" scientific instrumentations for in-situ exploration of the solar system. In particular, it is directly applicable to analyze PAH and other neutral organic molecules on Mars and Titan surfaces. The proposed technology has other broad NASA applications including on-chip biosensors, electrochemical sensors, wet-chemistry systems, as well as high pressure micropumps for fluid positioning, mixing, metering, storage, and filtering systems. In addition, the novel microfluidics technology is naturally suited to such applications as clinical diagnostics, spacecraft and biosphere environmental monitoring, and toxicology studies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The microfluidics technology described in this proposal is directly applicable for terrestrial analysis for PAH molecules in health and environmental studies. Compared to existing micellar electrokinetic chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC, the microCEC technology described in this proposal offers a natural alternative providing inexpensive, rapid, nondestructive, in-situ techniques for the measurement of PAH contamination in sediments. Additional commercial devices based on such microfluidics technology envisioned include components for DNA, protein and drug separation and analysis, chemical analysis systems, drug delivery systems, and embedded health monitoring systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Biomolecular Sensors
Biochemical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.11-9078
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE28P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar Science Instruments and Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: In Situ Water Isotope Analyzer for Moon Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vista Photonics, Inc.
67 Condesa Road
Santa Fe, NM 87508-8136
(505) 466-3953

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joerg Kutzner
jkutzner@vistaphotonics.com
67 Condesa Road
Santa Fe,  NM 87508-3136
(505) 466-3830

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Studying the isotopic composition of materials is an established method to obtain detailed insight into formation and evolution processes in our Universe. Water may play a dominant role in unraveling these processes. Isotope hydrology applied in situ on the Moon and other planets might develop into the key method to understand the history of our Solar system. The Moon provides unique opportunities to study trapped volatile compounds, like water, due to the special conditions at its poles. These conditions enable the long term storage of volatiles and preservation of their isotopic composition. A compact, precise isotope hygrometer operated on the Moon will be an invaluable tool if abundant water sources are found on the Moon in the LCROSS mission. This project seeks to develop a highly sensitive, portable water isotope ratiometer for precisely measuring water samples in situ on the Moon. The optical sensors developed on this project will have unique features including fast response, high precision and strong species selectivity. Design criteria such as a small footprint, low weight, low power consumption and continuous sensor health monitoring will be implemented to optimize the sensors for application to the Moon. An absorption approach using modulation techniques will be implemented on a lunar mission suitable platform.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The targeted NASA applications are analyzing water samples on the Moon as well as on other planets. The emerging technology is adaptable to changing pressure conditions and suitable to operate in diverse environments, including corrosive atmospheres. The developed technology can be extended to selectively detect trace gas species for NASA relevant applications such as contaminant sensing in air revitalization and water recovery processes, and atmospheric composition monitoring.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project will lead to a small portable sensor for use in isotope hydrology. Water isotope data provide information about past and present global climate and the global water cycle on Earth. They allow mapping of aquifers, conserving water supplies and trace transport and dispersion of contaminants in the subsurface. The fully-developed prototype instruments shall offer a compelling and desirable blend of compactness, performance, affordability, simplicity and ease-of-use relative to present commercial product offerings in these applications. Beyond these applications, the developed sensor platform will be broadly deployable for trace gas detection of a variety of molecules with a cost-effective, small device. Examples include contaminant monitoring in process gas streams in the chemical and microelectronics industries, medical diagnosis through detection of biogenic gases in human breath that correlate to specific pathologies, and environmental monitoring and regulatory compliance in agriculture, power production, and occupational safety.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.11-9152
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC24P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar Science Instruments and Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Deep UV Raman/Fluorescence (DUV-RF) Stand-Off Sensor for Lunar Science

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Photon Systems
15112 Industrial Park Street
Covina, CA 91722-3417
(626) 967-6431

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Hug
w.hug@photonsystems.com
1512 Industrial Park St
Covina,  CA 91722-3417
(626) 626-6431

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase II proposal is to develop a miniature, low power consumption, fused deep UV Raman and native fluorescence (DUV-RF) 1 meter stand-off sensor. The proposed instrument has an enhanced ability to measure the spatial distribution of chemical species containing C/N/H/O/S/Cl, and water, ice, and hydrated-minerals on a 1-5 mm spatial scale enabled by a novel wide-aperture, high-sensitivity ultraminiature UV Raman spectrometer. Raman spectroscopy is a non-contact, non-destructive, method of identifying unknown materials without sample acquisition or processing; ideal for in-situ rovers. However traditional Raman instruments are plagued with fluorescence backgrounds, require sample altering, high-powered lasers, and require the use fiber optics; an instrument design with operational constraints and high power requirements. Our innovative instrument design incorporates our deep UV lasers for fiberless resonance Raman spectroscopy in a fluorescence free zone where resonance effects lead to enhancements by > 2-3orders of magnitude over 532 and 785 nm systems and can be coupled to native fluorescence for ppt detection of aromatic organics compounds. The New Frontiers has placed a South pole-Aitken Basin sample return as a future mission scenario. The enhanced detection capabilities of DUV-RF can be used to provide an understanding of organics and water distribution in the lunar regolith.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology is useful for a broad range of in situ measurements for: space science and terrestrial geochemical, geophysical and geobiological studies; planetary protection applications such as measuring/characterizing organic or biogenic contamination on outbound and inbound spacecraft; and for general application to high quality non-invasive, non-destructive measurement of trace levels of contamination on surfaces, in liquids and in the air, such as aboard the International Space Station. The proposed instrument will provide the ability to measure trace levels of organic material at working distances up to 1 meter or more. For space science applications, this would enable a Rover-body mounted instrument that could interrogate the vicinity of the Rover. For terrestrial applications the stand-off measurements could be made in full sun-light conditions at least for Raman and potentially for the deep UV native fluorescence emissions. For planetary protection applications it would enable direct measurement of bioloads on spacecraft surfaces without the need for sample collection using traditional methods.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology being addressed by this proposal is immediately useful for Department of Defense (DOD) and Homeland Security (HS) applications as well as non-government commercial and industrial applications. DOD and HS applications include in situ biological and chemical warfare sensors to detect trace levels of biological, nerve, and blister agents as well as low-volatility toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). The ability of the sensor to measure hazardous materials at meters of working distance vastly improves their use by first responders.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomolecular Sensors
Biochemical
Optical
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S1.11-9560
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC25P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar Science Instruments and Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: X-Ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Instrument for Mineralogical Analysis at the Lunar Surface

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Microwave Power Technology
2551 Casey Avenue, Suite A
Mountain View, CA 94043-1135
(408) 379-5335

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
philippe sarrazin
psarrazin@inxitu.com
2551 Casey Avenue, Suite A
Mountain View,  CA 94043-1135
(650) 799-2118

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6 to 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop LUNA, a compact and lightweight X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) / X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) instrument for mineralogical analysis of regolith, rock samples and dust, in lunar surface exploration. LUNA is based from the concept of CheMin, the XRD/XRF instrument of MSL, but is redesigned to provide a more compact unit at much reduced costs. Many details of LUNA derive from the designs of a small portable XRD/XRF instruments developed and marketed by inXitu. Bringing LUNA to TRL 6-7 is possible within the scope of this Phase II because key components have been or are being developed. Phase 2 addresses the missing critical subsystems: a low-cost flight-qualifiable X-ray CCD, and flight-qualifiable electronics to drive the detector and control the instrument. LUNA is not frozen in a particular geometry or mechanical implementation, it is meant to be flexible to answer the specific needs of any lunar mission. Transmission or reflection geometries are possible as demonstrated by inXitu's commercial instruments. Phase 2 will demonstrate a reflection version of LUNA operating under vacuum. This work leverages on the extensive experience of the PI and the company with XRD-XRF instrumentation in terrestrial and planetary applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Primary application is fitting a LUNA instrument to a landed platform, rover or lander, to perform mineralogical analyses of the regolith, rocks, ices, and dust at the lunar surface. The LUNA concept opens XRD/XRF capabilities to small missions with limited payload. The project is structured to enable quick development at low cost once selected for flight. Although this development is focused on lunar applications, it would fit other planetary missions requiring a mineralogy instrument. Secondary applications are analysis of sample return in planetary sample curation box, and analysis on manned orbital or lunar stations for science and resource utilization.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This development will enable next generation portable field XRD/XRF instruments for geological analysis in the field, mining, oil, forensic, art, and also dedicated applications such as in-vacuum process monitoring tools for thin film deposition, robotic systems for quality control, or low cost benchtop instruments for routine analysis in the laboratory or for education. These instruments are a natural evolution of the company's current line of products. This research is well aligned with the marketing strategy of the company.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Perception/Sensing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S2.01-8499
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD96P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Precision Spacecraft Formations for Telescope Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Topology Control Algorithms for Spacecraft Formation Flying Networks Under Connectivity and Time-Delay Constraints

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scientific Systems Company, Inc.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801-6562
(781) 933-5355

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nima Moshtagh
nmoshtagh@ssci.com
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn,  MA 01801-6562
(781) 933-5355

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SSCI is proposing to develop, test and deliver a set of topology control algorithms and software for a formation flying spacecraft that can be used to design and evaluate candidate formation architectures. Properties of these topology control algorithms include: (a) Preserving the connectivity of the underlying state-dependent sensing graph during reconfiguration and re-targeting of the formation; (b) Achieving a balanced interplay between performance and robustness to communication delays; and (c) Using only local information to make local decisions that collectively guarantee global properties such as the network connectivity for formation flying. Phase I effort resulted in the development of a unified framework for the design and analysis of many topology control problems associated with formation flying spacecraft. A novel game-theoretic approach to network topology control was successfully applied to key trajectory design problems such as formation initialization and reconfiguration in the presence of local and global constraints. Phase II effort will deliver a complete set of algorithms and software tools to help the NASA TPF-I team plan and evaluate missions for candidate TPF-I architectures. In order to achieve these objectives, we plan to carry out the following tasks: (i) Further refinements and testing of the game-theoretic approach to state-dependent network synthesis problems and trajectory-following in the absence of centralization, (ii) Development and testing of convex parameterization of path-planning problems for multiple spacecraft formations, (iii) Demonstration of the application of the developed novel methods to TPF-I baseline mission. These algorithms and software will be tested on high fidelity formation flying testbeds at JPL such as FAST or FCT. Professor Mehran Mesabhi of University of Washington will provide technical support under the project.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
(TPF), NASA's first space-based mission to directly observe planets outside our own solar system, will rely on formation flying to achieve the functionality and benefits of a large instrument using multiple lower cost smaller spacecraft. Aqua mission of the Goddard Space Flight Center will use formation flying concepts (``A-Train'') to collaborate with multiple Earth observing spacecraft. The proposed techniques are directly applicable to those missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Among non-NASA applications are several current ongoing projects by the military. Department of Defense agencies, including DARPA, are focused on developing the next generation of collaborating and formation flying Unmanned Vehicles (UAVs, USVs, UUVs etc.) which can use the analysis methods and tools developed under this effort for designing and implementing distributed multi-agent networks of unmanned vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Guidance, Navigation, and Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S2.01-8869
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD99P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Precision Spacecraft Formations for Telescope Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Precise Thrust Actuation by a Micro RF Ion Engine

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Busek Co., Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kurt Hohman
kurt@busek.com
11 Tech Circle
Natick,  MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The NASA Science Mission Directorate has plans to launch high-performance advanced space telescopes for astrophysics missions that require precision formation flying for synthetic aperture telescopes. These formations dictate the capability for precise alignment, synchronized maneuvers and reconfigurations. In order to accomplish the stated tasks, precise and low-noise micro-thrusters are needed. Busek Co. Inc. is proposing to continue the development of a micro RF ion engine propulsion system. Propulsion system is emphasized here because we believe we have all the building blocks needed to complete the system. The RF ion engine will operate in a dual thrust mode or low thrust, nominally 5-30 microNewtons (micro-N) for very precise, long duration missions and have the option to operate at high thrust, nominally 100 micro-N, for short applications such as spacecraft tip-off. This combination of thrust ranges from the same thruster is a unique and mission enabling technology. Busek has a flight qualified carbon nanotube field emission (CNTFE) cathode that is a near perfect fit for neutralizing the ion beam. The CNTFE is propellant-less and very low power, order of 1 Watt. Busek proposes to utilize a slightly modified microvalve for precise microflows. DC and RF electronics and control complete the system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applications of micro RF ion engines include many currently planned and future NASA missions that require precisely controlled and highly throttle-able thrust for formation flights. These missions include Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), Space Interferometer Mission (SIM), Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS), Space Astronomy Far Infrared Telescope (SAFIR), Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and Stellar Imager. Furthermore, micro RF ion engines can serve as tip-off control for formation flying satellites. Not only applicable to formation flight applications, micro RF ion engines are also the prime candidate for missions calling for zero drag. Zero drag can be achieved by varying thrust to counter the drag force measured from minute deceleration of the spacecraft. The thrust must be rapidly responsive and precise, which are the special features of RF ion engines.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential commercial applications include any micro and nano-satellite missions that would require precision thrust, drag-free flight or incondensable propellant. Terrestrial applications for the micro RF ion thruster include a micro machining and semiconductor fabrication by nano focused ion beams. The microvalve has many applications where precise control of micro flows is required. The miniaturized valve has potential in many ion engines including small Hall effect thrusters as well as gridded ion thrusters, miniature chemical thrusters typical of ACS or mini spacecraft propulsion. The CNTFE cathode has already shown applications in the colloid propulsion system Busek delivered to JPL in 2008. In addition, Busek is investigating CNTFE cathodes for terrestrial applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Micro Thrusters
Electrostatic Thrusters
Feed System Components


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S2.03-9065
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE03P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Precision Deployable Optical Structures and Metrology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Affordable, Precision Reflector Mold Technology (PDRT08-029-1)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
DR Technologies, Inc.
9431 Dowdy Drive
San Diego, CA 92126-4336
(858) 587-4200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eldon Kasl
ekasl@vanguardcomposites.com
9431 Dowdy Drive
San Diego,  CA 92126-4336
(858) 587-4200

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future NASA missions including the Cornell Caltech Atacama Telescope (CCAT) and Global Atmospheric Composition Mission (GACM), require 1 to 4 meter aperture, submillimeter-wavelength, primary reflector (mirror) segments. Astigmatic surface errors in a composite primary reflector and inconsistent radius of curvature in composite reflector segments limit application of composites to instruments. This project proposes to improve upon state-of-the-art passive reflector surface accuracy by characterizing the behavior and properties of actuated, graphite composite reflector laminates and panels that are suitable for space and earth science instruments. Surface error in composite primary reflectors and inconsistent radius of curvature in composite reflector segments currently limit application of composites to submillimeter wavelength primary mirrors. The goal is to minimize surface error including ROC error.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The capabilities proposed in this SBIR would be relevant to a variety of Space and Earth science missions currently in various stages of formulation. The nearest term targets for insertion of the reflector technology are the CCAT and SMLS missions. Mission study groups at JPL, Cornell, GSFC, and LaRC (LIDAR) are the most likely customers in this area.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Government: Renewable energy interests have indicated a desire to field an ever growing number of large solar concentrators. The maturing of the materials, process, and design competencies would position DR Technologies to capture additional work in this area. Key customers in this area are at the Department of Energy and possibly DoD. Commercial: Large, accurate, thermally stable reflectors may be needed for broadband wireless spacecraft. The increasing need to provide internet capabilities to remote locations for commercial applications has lead several service providers and spacecraft manufacturers to consider constellations of spacecraft to meet this need. Lightweight, large-aperture, thermally stable reflectors with micron level tolerances will be needed to meet the ever growing needs for traffic capacity per spacecraft. This program could provide enabling technology for these commercial spacecraft systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Kinematic-Deployable
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Structural Modeling and Tools
Microwave/Submillimeter
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S2.04-9926
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CF40P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optical Devices for Starlight Detection and Wavefront Analysis
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Cost Very Large Diamond Turned Metal Mirror

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dallas Optical Systems, Inc.
1790 Connie Lane
Rockwall, TX 75032-6708
(972) 564-1156

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Casstevens
c0029156@netportusa.com
1790 Connie Lane
Rockwall,  TX 75032-6708
(972) 564-1156

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Electrolytic plating of high phosphorus nickel phosphorus alloy will encapsulate a machined mirror substrate master made of fine cell plastic foam such as polystyrene that has been sealed and made electrically conductive with painted-on coatings. After encapsulation with up to one millimeter of NiP metal holes will be drilled and the plastic master will be dissolved with a solvent such as acetone and removed. Prior to encapsulation plating round or other cross section tubes are inserted thru holes in the plastic foam so that they are incorporated into the electroformed mirror structure when the master is encapsulated with more NiP. The tubes which connect the front and back surfaces of the mirror are made by electroforming with the same NiP alloy. The finished mirror substrate will be diamond turned and the very low cutting force diamond turning process will allow fabrication of a very thin mirror face plate without print through since there is only a very low pressure on the mirror from diamond turning. Machining of plastic foam is accomplished very quickly and the foam material is very low cost. In a production mode the expendable foam plastic masters could themselves be molded. The size of the mirrors is only limited by the capacities of the plating bath and the diamond turning machine. The process is applicable to any optical contour and to the manufacture of off-axis segments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This mirror fabrication process will allow low cost telescope and camera optical mirrors to be quickly fabricated for visible and IR optical instruments for NASA missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
his method of fabricating lightweight metal mirrors is suitable for use in the manufacture of optical instruments for military and scientific applications requiring any type of aspheric or flat mirror optical components.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Beamed Energy
Solar
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Microwave/Submillimeter
Optical
Metallics
Optical & Photonic Materials
Tribology
Photovoltaic Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S2.05-8681
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE04P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optics Manufacturing and Metrology for Telescope Optical Surfaces
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Reflectivity, Broad-Band Silver Coating

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Surface Optics Corporation
11555 Rancho Bernardo Road
San Diego, CA 92127-1441
(858) 675-7404

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Sheikh
dsheikh@surfaceoptics.com
11555 Rancho Bernardo Road
San Diego,  CA 92127-1441
(858) 675-7404

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Silver coatings for optics greater than 2-meters in diameter are sought by NASA for future space telescope systems. In the Phase I research, Surface Optics Corporation (SOC) investigated several new coating systems for protecting silver. The new coating designs are derivations based on a patented coating design created at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The new designs improve the coating's reflectance performance, particularly in the UV region, while maintaining stability in humid and/or corrosive environments. In addition, SOC devised and installed a new piece of coating equipment, which improves the ability to apply exceptionally thin protective layers, by better monitoring the shape of the evaporation plume.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Fills enabling technology need primarily for Astrophysics mission: SIM, TPF, JDEM (SNAP). Potential benefit to future misions in Heliophysics and Planetary Science.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
TMT, Hobby-Eberly (HET), SALT, GTC, and Solar Concentrator Systems for power generation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Optical
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S2.05-8983
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD57P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optics Manufacturing and Metrology for Telescope Optical Surfaces
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Stress Iridium Coatings for Thin-Shell X-Ray Telescopes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Reflective X-ray Optics, LLC
1361 Amsterdam Avenue, Suite 3B
New York, NY 10027-2589
(212) 678-4932

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Windt
davidwindt@gmail.com
1361 Amsterdam Avenue, Suite 3B
New York,  NY 10027-2589
(212) 212-4932

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop and commercialize a new type of low-stress iridium (Ir) X-ray mirror coating technology that can be used for the construction of high-resolution X-ray telescopes comprising thin-shell mirror substrates, such as the Flight Mirror Array (FMA) currently being developed for the IXO mission. The urgent need for low-stress Ir coating technology is driven by the current limitations on telescope angular resolution resulting from substrate distortions caused by conventional reflective Ir coatings that typically have very high stress. In particular, we have measured film stresses in excess of 4 GPa in the case of Ir films deposited by conventional magnetron sputtering. It is thought that the distortions in the thin glass mirror shells (such as those proposed for the IXO FMA) resulting from such extremely large coating stresses presently make the largest contribution to the telescope imaging error budget, of order 10 arcsec or more. Consequently, it will be difficult, if not impossible, to meet the imaging requirements of IXO, or other high-resolution X-ray missions in the future that use thin-shell mirror technology, unless high-quality Ir coatings having significantly lower stresses can be developed. The development of such coatings is precisely the aim of our proposal. Specifically, building on our successful Phase I effort, we propose to complete the development of low-stress Ir/Cr bilayers, and also investigate the use of Ir/Ti bilayers. We also propose to investigate the properties single-layer Ir films, as well as Ir/Cr and Ir/Ti bilayers, prepared by reactive sputtering with nitrogen. Finally, we plan to transfer the low-stress Ir coating technology to our large, production-class sputtering system so that we can coat GSFC-supplied thin-shell mirror substrates and conclusively demonstrate reduced stress-driven substrate distortions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The low-stress Ir coatings we propose to develop will be suitable for use in the IXO FMA telescope, as well as other future NASA X-ray telescopes comprising thin shell mirror elements.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Low-stress Ir X-ray coatings may also find application in non-NASA applications, such as diagnostic medical and homeland security (i.e., baggage and cargo screening) X-ray imaging.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S2.05-9938
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD60P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optics Manufacturing and Metrology for Telescope Optical Surfaces
PROPOSAL TITLE: RAP Figuring Slumped Mirrors to Remove Mid-Spatial Frequency Errors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
RAPT Industries, Inc.
46535 Fremont Blvd.
Fremont, CA 94538-6409
(925) 371-7278

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pradeep Subrahmanyan
pks@raptindustries.com
46535 Fremont Blvd.
Fremont,  CA 94538-6409
(510) 510-1001

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future X-ray telescopes require significant amounts of optical area. To accommodate this in a grazing incidence design, extremely thin mirrors are formed in concentric shell configurations. A slumping technique has been demonstrated with such thin, lightweight shells. However, the optical surface is found to contain a significant amount of mid-spatial frequency errors. Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) is a figuring technique that does not impart mid-spatial frequencies to the optical substrate geometries and can additionally remove specific spectra from the figure error. RAP is a sub-aperture, atmospheric pressure, non-contact figuring technology that relies on a deterministic gas-phase etching of the optical surface with high material removal rates. Further, RAP has the ability to modulate tool footprint on the fly, allowing the removal of specific spatial frequencies from the error spectrum. RAP has already been demonstrated as a very credible approach for fabricating the lightweight wedges required for the assembly of such mirrors and is especially suitable for figuring extremely lightweight mirrors given the non-contact operation. In phase 1, we demonstrated the ability of the RAP process to impart minimal mid-spatial errors into the optical surface. A fully automated figuring platform with adjustable footprints is to be developed for phase 2.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Key NASA applications that could immediately use the technology are those involving high energy X-ray telescopes such as NuSTAR and IXO. The technology developed is also applicable to other NASA programs that seek to minimize payload without sacrificing sensor performance. Besides attenuating mid-spatials on such lightweight mirror segments, wedges can be etched on the back surface for assembly. The process can also be eventually used to direct-write gratings for local phase control on aspheric surfaces.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Making precision surfaces with a high aspect ratio is a common problem across optics, semiconductors, compound semiconductors, photo-voltaics etc. The high aspect ratio results from a need to reduce mass (as in the case of lightweight mirrors), improve device performance/packaging (as in semiconductors), decrease costs (as in photo-voltaics). The methods developed in Phase 1 can be applied to the rapid manufacturing of such surfaces in these other areas. RAPT Industries, Inc. has already commercialized the edge cleaning of semi-conductor wafers through a licensing arrangement with Accretech, USA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Optical
Photovoltaic Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S3.02-9111
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD64P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Composite - Heatpipe Radiator Panel

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
k Technology Corporation
2000 Cabot Blvd. West, Suite 150
Langhorne, PA 19047-2411
(215) 375-3035

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Montesano
monte@k-technology.com
2000 Cabot Blvd. West, Suite 150
Langhorne,  PA 19047-2411
(215) 375-3035

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
High performance thermal control technologies are needed to achieve the near term goals of NASA's science spacecraft development programs. High conductivity materials to minimize temperature gradients and provide high efficiency radiators and heat spreader panels are required. Integrated panels that minimize the challenges caused by thermal interfaces, including those of attached heat pipes and cooling loops would provide high performance and high reliability. kTC proposes a general technology development that permits the design of a high performance thermal distribution panel (TDP). The panel will be fabricated with a high conductivity macro-composite skin and in situ heat pipes. This advanced TDP concept will have high conductance that will obviate the need for bulky metal thermal doublers and heat pipe saddles. The conductivity of the proposed material system can be configured to exceed 800 W/mK with a density below 2.5 g/cm3. This material can provide efficient conductive heat transfer between the in situ heat pipes permitting the use of thinner panels further reducing the mass. kTC proved the feasibility of producing the proposed TDP and confirmed by measurements the performance gains the technology affords in the Phase I program. The Phase II work will concentrate on process refinements and scale up.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIS), NASA GSFC instrument will form a part of the instrument compliment on the LANDSAT Data Continuity Mission. There are many bonded-on heat pipes in the current configuration. The proposed technology would, if fully developed and qualified, offer design simplicity, performance gains, and weight savings for this application. kTC is also working with NASA and NASA contractors for use of the proposed technology as part of the Constellation Program.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
kTC is working with a major space system prime on several DoD and other government satellite programs. kTC's encapsulated APG thermal doublers have been qualified and designed into these programs. Although, the configuration of these systems are established, there are future opportunities to integrate the proposed technology (if successful) on future builds whereas new technologies are added during the planned "tech refresh" activities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S3.03-8644
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD06P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Generation and Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Performance Elastically Self-Deployed Roll-Out Solar Array (ROSA)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Deployable Space Systems (DSS)
955 Nysted Drive
Solvang, CA 93463-2247
(805) 693-1313

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Spence
Brian.Spence@DeployableSpaceSystems.com
955 Nysted Drive
Solvang,  CA 93463-2247
(805) 693-1319

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Deployable Space Systems (DSS) has developed an ultra-lightweight elastically self-deployable roll-out solar array (ROSA) structural platform that when combined with ultra-thin 33% IMM PV or 29.5% standard ZTJ PV solar-cell flexible blanket technologies can produce a near-term and low-risk solar array system that provides revolutionary performance in terms of high specific power (>500 W/kg BOL with IMM & >225 W/kg with ZTJ), lightweight, high deployed stiffness, high deployed strength, compact stowage volume (>50 kW/m3 BOL), reliability, affordability, and rapid commercial readiness. ROSA's predicted performance metrics are incredible improvements over current state-of-the-art, and in many cases are mission-enabling for future applications. The ROSA technology innovation is applicable to practically all NASA and non-NASA missions as a direct replacement for current solar array technologies. The proposed Phase 2 program has been uniquely structured to methodically develop a feasible scaled-up ROSA solar array system specifically configured for NASA's Outer-Planets mission applications, collaboratively with all the technology stakeholders, and increase technology readiness to TRL 5/6. The successful completion of the proposed program will rapidly ready the mission-enabling ROSA solar array technology for commercial infusion into future programs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications for DSS's ROSA solar array include practically all missions as a direct replacement for classical state-of-the-practice solar array technologies. DSS's ROSA solar array is applicable for all LEO Orbital, GEO Orbital, Interplanetary, Deep Space, Outer-Planets, Lunar Surface, and Planetary Lander missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA applications for DSS's ROSA solar array include practically all commercial and military missions as a direct replacement for classical state-of-the-practice solar array technologies. DSS's ROSA solar array is applicable for all LEO Orbital, MEO Orbital, GEO Orbital, fixed-terrestrial, and mobile-terrestrial applications/missions. These missions include, but are not limited to: Operational Responsive Space (ORS), Nano-Satellite, MILSATCOM, Space Based Radar, Solar Electric (SEP) Tugs, SBIRS, DARPA space and/or terrestrial applications, and Army mobile power applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Kinematic-Deployable
Composites
Photovoltaic Conversion
Renewable Energy


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S3.03-9731
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD08P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Generation and Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: InGaN High Temperature Photovoltaic Cells

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Integrated Micro Sensors Inc.
10814 Atwell Drive
Houston, TX 77096-4934
(713) 748-7926

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris Boney
cboney@imsensors.com
10814 Atwell Drive
Houston,  TX 77096-4934
(713) 713-7926

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objectives of this Phase II project are to develop InGaN photovoltaic cells for high temperature and/or high radiation environments to TRL 4 and to define the development path for the technology to TRL 5 and beyond. The project will include theoretical and experimental refinement of device structures produced in the Phase I, as well as modeling and optimization of solar cell device processing. The devices will be tested under concentrated AM0 sunlight, at temperatures from 100C to 250C, and after exposure to ionizing radiation. The results are expected to further verify that InGaN can be used for high temperature / high radiation capable solar cells in NASA space missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Although solar cells are used on many NASA platforms for power generation, IMS envisions the cells developed in this project would be especially beneficial to missions near the sun and those in high radiation environments. Therefore, the missions Solar Orbiter and Solar Sentinels in the Living with a Star Program (LWS) could benefit from this technology. The photovoltaic panels in these missions will be exposed to much larger AM0 solar fluxes than typical near-Earth satellites approximately 25 suns for the Orbiter, and 16 suns for the Sentinels.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The high temperature stability of these materials will benefit operation under high concentrations in terrestrial DoD applications. InGaN solar cells are also viewed as an enabling technology for better efficiency terrestrial/space solar cells where environmental factors are less of an issue. The large commercial terrestrial market could benefit from the hybridization of InGaN materials to existing solar cell technology to significantly increase cell efficiency without relying on highly toxic compounds. In addition, further development of this technology to even lower bandgap materials for space applications could be of importance to DoD and commercial satellite manufacturers due to the extended lifetimes of satellite solar cell arrays arising from increased radiation hardness.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials
Photovoltaic Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S4.01-8692
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC26P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NanoSat Launch Vehicle Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Modular Minimum Cost Launch System for Nano-Satellites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Whittinghill Aerospace, LLC
265 Durley Avenue, Suite 208
Camarillo, CA 93010-8544
(805) 901-2297

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
George Whittinghill
grw@whittinghillaerospace.com
265 Durley Avenue, Suite 208
Camarillo,  CA 93010-8544
(805) 805-2297

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As minimum cost will be required for a dedicated Nano-Sat Launch Vehicle, a parallel staged, highly modular vehicle architecture is proposed for development. The principal advantage of a modular architecture for this size of vehicle is the single propulsion development for the boost stages at a relatively small scale. This approach drastically shortens development timelines and cost. A candidate launch vehicle with a cluster of seven identical modules would light 4 modules for the first stage, 2 for the second, 1 for the third, and fire 1 small spinning Apogee Kick Motor (AKM) for the fourth. Whittinghill Aerospace (WASP) proposes to refine the Phase 1 design of an all-composite, N2O-fed Hybrid Rocket Motor (HRM) propelled, 25 kg to LEO launcher. WASP will then build and fire the AKM, build and fire the core module HRM, then launch the full-scale core module as an unguided sounding rocket from a commercial range. At the conclusion of Phase 2, the technology will be at a TRL level of 6.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications include orbital nano-sat class launch vehicles and sounding rockets. Also viable as boosters and stages for integration with other expendable launch or experimental or air-breathing vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications include commercial and DoD satellite and sounding rocket launch operations, university launch operations, tactical missiles, and target vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Tankage
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S4.01-8862
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC27P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NanoSat Launch Vehicle Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: ESPA Based Secondary Payload Orbit Maneuvering System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Busek Co., Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Szabo
jszabo@busek.com
11 Tech Circle
Natick,  MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Busek proposes to develop an integrated propulsion, power, ACS, (ProPACS) system for micro-spacecraft deployed from the ESPA ring secondary payload ports. The standardized ProPACS system integrates the essential elements needed for highly capable micro-spacecraft bus including; 1) 600 W Hall effect thruster system for primary propulsion, 2) Xe cold gas thrusters for propulsive ACS, 3) articulated solar array, batteries and power management and distribution (PMAD) system with steady state power of 700W available to the payload when propulsion is off and 4) an integral structure that supports the payload and a LightBand separation mechanism for the ESPA ring. The ProPACS can provide over 1,800 m/sec deltaV to a 181 kg spacecraft with a 80kg payload. In Phase 1 ProPACS system architecture design was completed and all major components were identified. Mass, power, data budgets were developed and major interfaces were specified. Phase 2 focus will be on the ProPACS elements with lower TRL to achieve system wide TRL6 at the end of the program. The thruster will be advanced to near flight level, two PMAD systems will be evaluated and one selected and the ProPACS integral structure supporting the payload and separation ring will be designed and built.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed ProPACS system can distribute secondary payloads deployed at one location from a single ESPA to multiple other orbits separated by as much 800m/s deltaV. The proposed system will increase the number and value of flight opportunities for NASA and University researchers by more than an order of magnitude. By adapting the ProPACS to carry P-POD system for Cubesats, it could deliver 27 of 3kg CubeSats to nearly arbitrary orbits from a single ProPACS. A mix microsats and P-PODs on a single ESPA is also feasible, all with an option to go to widely disparate destinations. NASA Ames estimates there is an estimated 13,500 kilograms of excess lift capacity for ESPA payloads available between now and 2013.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are at least 3 upcoming Air Force ESPA class S/C (15 secondary payload rideshare opportunities) currently scheduled. For the military, this capability will produce launch opportunities and missions of interest to customers such as MDA, DoD, and NRO. For commercial users, a successful demonstration will greatly increase the utility of ESPA-derived launch opportunities and will increase demand for ProPACS within the commercial industry. Commercial users may also wish to adopt the CubeSat architecture to conduct on-orbit experiments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Modular Interconnects
Electrostatic Thrusters
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S4.01-9107
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC28P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NanoSat Launch Vehicle Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Thermal Control Nano-Sat

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eclipse Energy Systems, Inc.
2345 Anvil Street North
St. Petersburg, FL 33710-3905
(727) 273-4473

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kenneth Shannon
kshannon@eclipsethinfilms.com
2345 Anvil Street North
St. Petersburg,  FL 33710-3905
(727) 344-7300

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6 to 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Based on successful space testing onboard the Midstar1 satellite, Eclipse Electrochromics have been identified by a number of organizations as well as NASA as a high interest technology. For nanosats, the critical design challenge is achieving autonomous control of the EclipseVEDs<SUP>TM</SUP> for spacecraft thermal self regulation without the need for human intervention. To achieve this goal, Eclipse employed EclipseVED<SUP>TM</SUP> technology and demonstrated the capacity to have automated control thermal systems capable of in-flight thermal regulation of a cubesat or other small satellite. In Phase II, Eclipse will build a complete multi-panel cubesat and work with NASA to lab test a completely functional prototype and review the capacity to utilize the ECDs concurrently with photovoltaics.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The electrochromic technology and its control systems suggested in the present proposal possess a wide range of applications relative to the needs of the Agency in satellite, spacecraft and component thermal control, space communications, chemical and biological monitoring of environmental control and life support systems, and in optical processing of information. The EclipseVED<SUP>TM</SUP> developed by Eclipse Energy Systems, Inc. works as a voltage-controlled variable emissivity device to modify the thermal budget of satellites, spacecraft and space-based systems such as antenna networks, inflatable reflectors and habitable structures. The use of the technology with photovoltaics can also lead to longer missions, lower cost and more external area of the nano-sats used for other mission critical purposes.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Beyond the use as nanosat systems and the immense market for small space platforms for experiments in the commercial market, the EclipseVED<SUP>TM</SUP> will be sold as an alternative to thermal control louvers prevalent in mid-size to large satellite systems comprising a $15M to $20M market. Typical louver systems add considerable mass to satellites (4kg/m2) in comparison to that associated with an IR ECD (15g/ m2). The use of EclipseVED<SUP>TM</SUP>'s to reduce thermal distortion in space-based antenna networks, reflectors, high altitude airships and habitable structures will reach a market estimated at $60M per annum. The EclipseVED<SUP>TM</SUP> will find application in infrared beam steering for space-based communications, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometers and infrared spatial light modulators for image processing. ECD and Photovoltaic combination can lead to household heating cost reductions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Control Instrumentation
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Cooling
Reuseable
Thermal Insulating Materials
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Computer System Architectures
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Highly-Reconfigurable
Ceramics
Metallics
Optical & Photonic Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Energy Storage
Photovoltaic Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S4.01-9317
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC29P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NanoSat Launch Vehicle Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Small Space Platform Enhanced Internet Protocol Stack Device

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Broadata Communications, Inc.
2545 W. 237th Street, Suite K
Torrance, CA 90505-5229
(310) 320-3088

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Freddie Lin
flin@broadatacom.com
2545 W. 237th Street, Ste. K
Torrance,  CA 90505-5229
(310) 530-1416

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Wireless communication of small, nano and micro satellites will play a vital role to NASA mission and marketability of the satellite. The use of an Internet-based protocol, especially TCP/IP, can provide seamless network command and control continuity between terrestrial and space-based platforms and environments, as well as between distributed ground and space stations. However, long propagation and/or large transmission errors can significantly degrade current TCP/IP performance. In addition, current TCP is too complex to fit in a small footprint, which is required in microsats and nanosats. To address this NASA/ARC need for wireless networking technologies for small launch vehicles, Broadata Communications, Inc. proposes to develop a Small Space Platform Internet Protocol Stack with Space-Enhanced TCP technology (or SSP IP & TCP in short) to dramatically increase TCP/IP performance (20 times improvements over standard TCP/IP was demonstrated in Phase I) and enable the use of TCP/IP for processor-footprint constrained spacecraft in NASA missions. The overall goal of this Phase II project is to further develop the SSP IP & TCP technology, and to produce a full-scale, highly-optimized, IP embeddable SSP IP & TCP prototype system for placement in NASA networks with micro- or nano-satellite platforms. Our Phase II work plan is designed to complete SSP IP & TCP development and to produce: (a) a miniature, nanosat integrateable, standalone embedded network system module that provides all SSP IP & TCP functionalities and can directly meet NASA needs and resource-constraint integration requirements, and (b) a full-scale SSP IP &TCP software package that supports multiple network communication interfaces and provides automated installation for Linux or Windows operation systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to the NASA's direct application for the Space Networks, the SSP TCP technology can also be applied in many NASA, government, and military programs related to the Space Station, the Moon and Mars Initiative, C4I and tactical networking, and small, possibly secret devices where wireless links may be employed, especially in cases where thin platforms are employed in IP communications including but not limited to sensor networks, SATCOM, Gigabit SATCOM, JTRS DCRM or surrogate architectures, software radios, Link-16, and Link-11. In addition, the SSP TCP can be a space enabler for many sensors, devices, and components, which can gain communication effectiveness and efficiency due to the SSP TCP's features.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SSP IP & TCP is also directly applicable to commercial network applications that can benefit from wireless enhanced TCP performance, especially in devices that are resource constrained. Major markets are cell phones and wireless packet networks for public IP access. Potential applications include, but are not limited to, wireless Internet access networks (especially for satellite, mobile/wireless Internet Service Providers), performance management of wireless technology, and commercial sensor applications. The SSP IP & TCP can pervade cellular or wireless networks with long propagation, military embedded devices IP devices in ad hoc networking environments, and sensor networks with limited footprint modules, saving these private enterprises money and increasing their efficiency for consumers. Cell phone Internet access and small embedded wireless Internet Protocol use, as in sensor networks, will also benefit greatly from our SSP IP & TCP, helping consumers to have better Internet access, whether on earth or in the air.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Architectures and Networks


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S4.01-9499
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC30P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NanoSat Launch Vehicle Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Enabling Technology for Small Satellite Launch

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Design_Net Engineering LLC
16080 Table Mountain Parkway, Suite 500
Golden, CO 80403-1648
(303) 462-0096

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gerry Murphy
gmurphy@design-group.com
16080 Table Mountain Parkway, Suite 500
Golden,  CO 80403-1648
(303) 462-0096

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Access to space for Small Satellites is enabled by the use of excess launch capacity on existing launch vehicles. A range of sizes, form factors and masses of small sats need to be accommodated. An integration process that minimizes programmatic/technical risk to the primary, allows "late flow" integration and predictable cost/schedule for the secondary enables regular and cost-effective access. The integration process proceeds smoothly when the right adapter accommodates the secondary in a seamless way. Design_Net, with our commercialization partner SpaceAvailable Inc. has designed a family of adapters that meet these criteria and one has been selected by NASA to complete development for targeted NASA rideshare opportunities. We are also currently working with United Launch Alliance (ULA) for a broader class of rideshare accommodations, and development of interfaces that allow late access on Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELV)s. Design_Net will continue, via this SBIR Phase 2, to develop the selected adapter to a structurally tested engineering model. This adapter can accommodate everything from 6u and 12u carriers to full up "ORS class" (800lb) small satellites and is applicable to Minotaur IV, Falcon 9 and Taurus 2.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Different NASA centers have different uses for Small Satellite Rideshare. KSC is interested in flying P-POD class missions for education and technology; Ames desires to fly 6u and 12u form factors for biological purposes and is interested in potential Lunar missions; JPL has a number of technologies waiting for a ride. Adapters which enable NASA to make better use of its Launch Vehicle inventory and efficient use of lift mass will move some of the technology experiments from TRL 5 to TRL 8 and greatly assist the agency in buying down risk on its larger missions as well as flying the small ones for a predictable price. The particular adapter selected for development can accommodate all of these uses and take advantage of several launch vehicles. It is also very suitable for DoD/NASA opportunities which may happen more frequently in the future.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Design_Net Engineering LLC and our sister company SpaceAvailable Inc. are working with a large customer base of over 50 commercial government payloads (e.g., Iridium, space Test program and NRO). Our first technology rideshare flew on a Falcon 1 in August of 2008. With the right hardware, the right integration flow, and for the appropriate price point, a business can indeed be developed around this principle. We are bringing primary customers and LV providers into the process early, and developing fixed and affordable cost points, with regular flight opportunities. We currently have a backlog of approximately a dozen funded customers waiting for a flight opportunity and we expect this will grow significantly with DNet's broadly useful adapter. Both Design_Net and SpaceAvailable are investing IR&D funds as commercial money to develop Phase 3 opportunities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Launch and Flight Vehicle


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S4.02-8474
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC31P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rapid End-to-End Mission Design and Simulation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Small Sat Analysis Laboratory

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cybernet Systems Corporation
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-1639
(734) 668-2567

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Glenn Beach
proposals@cybernet.com
727 Airport Blvd.
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-1639
(734) 668-2567

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Develop Small Satellite Analysis Laboratory (SatLab): A simulation-of-simulations framework to integrate component and engineering simulations into a single larger simulation capable of full satellite system trade analysis and optimization, in order to reduce the cost and increase the quality of design and development of new small satellites and space vehicles, and test system upgrades and modifications on other space systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA Low-Cost Small Spacecraft Program is focused on the technologies, subsystems, methodologies, and mission concepts for space missions which lower the over-all cost for scientific exploration. We propose to support these efforts through building a "simulation-of-simulations" software suite that allows 1. Development of a standard small satellite architecture framework, 2. Capture of all available subsystems simulations or engineering models that provide design and functionality documentation for small satellite architectural elements, 3. Support for full small satellite systems' physical and functional simulations of simulations against mission profile descriptions using the captured subsystem sub-simulation elements, and 4. Support for mission planning and analysis trade-studies that change subsystem and system parameters, supports inclusion and exclusion of alternative subsystem elements, and 5. Support for mission effectiveness parameter evaluation and display (including cost optimization or optimization a particular performance factors). The proposed technology will be directly applicable to reducing the cost and increasing the quality of design and development of new small satellites and space vehicles. Furthermore, it can be used to test system upgrades and modifications on other space systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Small Satellite Analysis Lab will be an extension of our existing technology for automating and performing complex system of systems simulation. The Virtual Systems Integration Laboratory (VSIL) can be used to establish simulation standards on complex systems and can perform complex simulations for such systems. It has both military and commercial applications outside of the NASA uses. Military Uses The SatLab and VSIL technologies are directly applicable to ongoing systems development of all military branches. In particular, it can be used to make the ground vehicle building/design process more efficient. The technology can be used to create simulations to assess the reliability of new technology or modifying existing technology on Army vehicles. It is directly applicable to improving the quality of the design and cost to implement new military vehicles - such as all of the new FCS vehicles. Commercial Uses To continue increasing the capabilities of current technology, it is important to develop new materials and components. However, the development cycle of a new material or component can be very time consuming and costly. We are creating a virtual prototyping simulation architecture that can increase the speed and reduce the cost at which new materials and components are developed. In particular, Cybernet's VSIL is working to reduce the reliance on physical prototyping for the design and production of commercial vehicles and aircraft systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Structural Modeling and Tools
Database Development and Interfacing
Expert Systems
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Highly-Reconfigurable


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S5.01-9625
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE09P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Planetary Entry, Descent, Ascent, Rendezvous and Landing Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flash3D EDL Sensor Technology Advancement

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc.
135 Ortega Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101-1674
(805) 966-3331

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steve Silverman
ssilverman@asc3d.com
135 E. Ortega Street
Santa Barbara,  CA 93101-1674
(805) 966-3331

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6 to 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
3D Flash LIDAR is ideal for determining real-time spacecraft trajectory, speed, orientation, and range to the planet surface, as well as evaluating potential hazards at the landing site. The "framing camera" nature, of 3D Flash LIDAR systems, makes them well suited as hazard avoidance sensors for EDL. The Phase II effort seeks to improve the range precision of the existing TigerEye<SUP>TM</SUP> 3D Flash LIDAR system, and do so over a much wider signal dynamic range. A range capability of 1- 10,000 meter is feasible. This effort will demonstrate the capability by producing an advanced sensor module incorporating newer detectors and other system advancements. This advanced sensor module will be installed on NASA JPL's 3D Flash LIDAR TigerEye<SUP>TM</SUP> camera system. Advanced Scientific Concepts Inc. (ASC) is a small business, which has developed a number of 3D flash LADAR systems. Flash Ladar sensors are 3D video systems that return range and intensity information for each pixel in real time, and is functionally equivalent to 16000 range finders on one chip. The TigerEye<SUP>TM</SUP> is 1.2kg, 20 Watts, and 10 cm on a side.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This sensor will increase the success of NASA operations such as: Mars Landed Exploration Exploration of Moons (ALHAT, Jupiter Icy Moons) Asteroid and Comet Rendezvous and Sample Return ISS Rendezvous and Docking Space Situational Awareness Rock Abundance and Distribution Maps Topographical Mapping Rover Mobility and Navigation NASA Langley Research Center has procured and flown two of ASC's existing FLVC systems for evaluation of this technology for use on the ALHAT program. NASA JPL is evaluating the systems for use in Planetary EDL applications. SpaceX Corporation has flown an ASC system on TS-127, and is preparing a DragonEye for use on a SpaceX launch.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ASC is pursuing many non-NASA applications including: Automotive collision avoidance, helicopter landing in brown out conditions, mid-air refueling, surveillance, terrain mapping, autonomous navigation for UGVs, USVs and UAVs, smart intersection, ladar brakes, robotics, machine vision, hazard material detection and handling, underwater 3d imaging, sub nanosecond dynamic imaging, 3d sports imaging and data transmission, consumer electronics.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S5.02-9477
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE11P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sample Collection, Processing, and Handling
PROPOSAL TITLE: Improved Rock Core Sample Break-off, Retention and Ejection System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bear Engineering
2415 Two Turtles Road
Maidens , VA 23102-2238
(804) 240-0814

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tom Myrick
tom.myrick@gmail.com
2415 Two Turtles Road
Maidens ,  VA 23102-2238
(804) 240-0814

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed effort advances the design of an innovative core sampling and acquisition system with improved core break-off, retention and ejection features. Phase 1 successfully demonstrated, at TRL 4, the ability of the system to acquire rock core samples that are 10 mm diameter and 100 mm long. The proposed innovation employs a different drill tube design in the vicinity of the core that does not impose any loads on the core and does not rotate relative to the core. This novel technique actually envelopes and protects the core as it is generated. The benefits are two fold; first, the integrity of the core is maintained and second, core ejection is much easier which greatly reduces, if not eliminates the risk of the core jamming within the drill tube/bit. These improvements can be obtained without increasing the annulus of the drill bit that would otherwise require more down force, torque, power and bit wear. By the end of the proposed Phase 2 effort, a prototype design of the improved coring system will be tested at TRL 6 with Mars ambient conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential applications of the coring system include further exploratory missions to Mars, the Moon and other planetary bodies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed research is expected to have commercial applications for geological studies in the mining and environmental industries.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Manipulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S5.03-8527
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE12P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface and Subsurface Robotic Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Space/Flight Operable Miniature Six Axis Transducer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Futek Advanced Sensor Technology, Inc.
10 Thomas
Irvine, CA 92618-2702
(949) 465-0900

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
JOHN VARGAS
john@futek.com
10 Thomas
Irvine,  CA 92618-2702
(949) 949-0900

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
FUTEK will fully design and manufacture a sensor capable of measuring forces in and about each axis. The unit will measure forces up to 300 Newton's in the principle axes and measure moment forces about each axis up to 50 Newton meters. The overall design will be optimized for a multitude of applications in many different environments. As a result, the unit is capable of surviving temperatures ranging from -135<SUP>o</SUP>C and 125<SUP>o</SUP>C and will remain operable within specification between -80<SUP>o</SUP>C and 70<SUP>o</SUP>C. In addition, the sensor will be designed to accommodate vacuum conditions and all components will be covered with a protective coating. To further improve the unit, the size and weight has been minimized, making the sensor more ideal for dynamic applications and less obtrusive in assembly design. During the phase 1 contract, FUTEK has developed two operating prototypes to prove concept and feasibility. Also, different adhesives and coatings have been successfully tested beyond the survival temperatures expected in most applications. However, a continuation into phase 2 will be necessary to optimize the final design and meet all specifications and requirements. The design will be optimized to support specified loads with an acceptable factor of safety, while components are further researched and selected. In addition, the manufacturability and market of the product will be analyzed and assessed in order to commercialize such an advanced sensor.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Get full 6 axis force/moment feedback in cryogenic and vacuum environments from: Drilling profiles Robotic Arms Operator Platforms Thruster power and direction

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Get full 6 axis force/moment feedback in cryogenic and vacuum environments from: Cold regions drilling High altitude aerospace applications Telecommunication Satellite controls Environmental testing Unmanned vehicles Robotic Assembly/Part Insertion Suspension Systems

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Human-Robotic Interfaces
Perception/Sensing
Simulation Modeling Environment
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Pilot Support Systems
Fluid Storage and Handling
Instrumentation
Production
Data Input/Output Devices
Human-Computer Interfaces
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Mission Training


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S5.04-9735
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE15P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Low Mass Mars Ascent Vehicles (PAV)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Small, Light-Weight Pump Technology for On-Board Pressurization of Propellants in a Mars Ascent Vehicle

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ventions, LLC
818 Duncan Street
San Francisco, CA 94131-1832
(415) 543-2800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Amit Mehra
amit.mehra@ventions.com
818 Duncan Street
San Francisco,  CA 94131-1832
(202) 213-2846

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To-date, the realization of high-performance liquid bipropellant rocket engines in the micro-scale has largely been hindered by the inability to obtain "on-board" pressurization through a light-weight and low-complexity pump. Ventions seeks to fulfill this critical need by proposing the development of a low-risk pump that can be batch fabricated in a low-cost manner to provide significant performance improvements for a Mars Ascent Vehicle and other spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed pump concept overcomes a key challenge of providing on-board pressurization for high-performance rocket engines, especially in the micro-scale. Hence, upon eventual integration with complete propulsion systems (thrust chamber, valves / tanks, etc.), it serves as critically-enabling technology for a new generation liquid bipropellant rocket engines in the 50-1000lbf thrust class, with T/W ratios of 150-200, and an Isp of ~330 sec. These engines may be batch-fabricated in a cost-effective manner and modularly stacked to cover a wide range of NASA applications, including Mars sample return missions, nanosat launch vehicles, lunar ascent / descent missions (precursor rovers, cargo, etc.), and Near-Earth-Object missions (sample return, drill reaction for sample implantation, etc.).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications for high-performance micro-rocket engines enabled by the proposed pump technology are likely to include commercial / military launch vehicles for low-cost and on-demand access to space for a variety of micro / small satellite payloads, upper stage propulsion for orbit insertion of commercial satellites, and apogee kick motors for orbit circularization of commercial satellites, etc. Additionally, the pump itself is expected to have non-aerospace applications in industrial pumping settings, and as a replacement for other high-pressure liquid pumps.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Micro Thrusters
Propellant Storage
Feed System Components


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S6.03-9671
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CF27P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Data Analyzing and Processing Algorithms
PROPOSAL TITLE: Data Filtering and Assimilation of Satellite Derived Aerosol Optical Depth

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tech-X Corporation
5621 Arapahoe Avenue, Suite A
Boulder, CO 80303-1379
(303) 448-0727

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Fillmore
fillmore@txcorp.com
5621 Arapahoe Ave
Boulder,  CO 80303-1379
(303) 996-2024

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6 to 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Satellite observations of the Earth often contain excessive noise and extensive data voids. Aerosol measurements, for instance, are obscured and contaminated by clouds, possible only on the sunlit side of the globe, and difficult over bright land areas. We propose to extend filtering and data assimilation techniques for satellite derived aerosol optical depth based on the wavelet transform. The assimilation system is based on the Model for Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH) and include improvements such as the incorporation of satellite observed aerosol size modes and column water vapor. Initially we will focus specifically on aerosol measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments flying on the Terra and Aqua satellites. The assimilated fields will be tested against surface network observations of aerosol optical depth. We will employ the assimilation assimilation system to produce aerosol datasets for application in Earth radiation budget observations and atmospheric correction methods.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Phase II will produce an enhanced daily global aerosol dataset that will be provided to the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy Sys tem (CERES) project as an input to the the Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget (SARB) subsystem. This dataset will be based on the assimilation of the MODIS Collection 5 Level 2 Aerosol Product, and span the time period starting with the launch of Terra, year 2000 - present. This work will be continued for the next generation instruments that will replace MODIS and CERES; respectively, the Visible-Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and the Earth Radiation Budget Sensor (ERBS), which will fly on the tri-agency National Polar Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) and the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite, currently designated for launch in 2010.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The smooth daily aerosol fields will benefit atmospheric correction procedures for land surface and ocean spectral imaging. In particular, in Phase II we will build an improved atmospheric correction package for the Environment for Visualizing Images (ENVI) geospatial software syst em. The ENVI package will incorporate aerosol fields based on filtered MODIS and VIIRS optical depth retrievals.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Software Development Environments


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 S6.05-9646
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CF84P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Software as a Service to Large Scale Modeling
PROPOSAL TITLE: Software Infrastructure to Enable Modeling & Simulation as a Service (M&SaaS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Parabon Computation, Inc.
11260 Roger Bacon Drive, Suite 406
Reston, VA 20190-5203
(703) 689-9689

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steven Armentrout
sarmentrout@parabon.com
11260 Roger Bacon Drive, Suite 406
Reston,  VA 20190-5203
(703) 689-9689

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6 to 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase 2 project will produce a software service infrastructure that enables most modeling and simulation (M&S) activities from code development and compilation to runtime execution and collaboration to be performed from a standard web browser across cloud- and grid-enabled computing resources. By addressing the security, scalability and virtualization challenges that have heretofore prevented service-centric M&S from being practical, this first-of-its-kind Modeling and Simulation as a Service (M&SaaS) platform will allow M&S users and developers alike to avoid many of the obstacles that currently confound the delivery, accessibility and usability of traditional, non-service-oriented M&S software. Building upon its commercial Grid Software as a Service (GSaaS) platform, Parabon convincingly demonstrated M&SaaS feasibility in Phase 1, as well as its ability to deliver the M&SaaS solution, completing in Phase 1 a Phase 2 solicitation goal of executing a NASA climate model across a computational grid and displaying the results, all from a browser. By the completion of Phase 2, M&SaaS will support, at TRL 6-7, browser-based source code editing, management of distributed repositories, research collaboration via forums and wikis, and virtualized build and runtime environments, all from within richly featured and access-controlled web accounts.&#8232; M&SaaS has the potential to revolutionize how M&S is practiced across many industries including defense, finance and pharmaceuticals however, its benefit to NASA could be remarkable. Because the NASA mission often involves science that does not readily admit to direct experimentation, M&S is often the only means by which to answer significant scientific and engineering questions. The productivity improvements and cost reductions enabled via this new service paradigm will help NASA and other organizations generate discoveries more readily and realize significantly higher return on M&S investments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Use of M&S at NASA is pervasive and the commercialization applications for M&SaaS are numerous. For example, Earth climatologists at NASA rely heavily on climate models to assess the potentially far-reaching consequences of greenhouse gas emissions; NASA space mission programs use simulation extensively to orchestrate mission plans, engineer flight systems and conduct contingency planning exercises; and NASA space science programs model cosmological phenomena to answer some of humankind's deepest questions. None of these types of investigations are possible without extensive use of M&S. Nearly every M&S application at NASA that is built around the traditional software delivery paradigm (release, install, patch and upgrade) is a candidate for migration to a service-centric delivery model under M&SaaS. The M&SaaS solution applies equally well to many domains that do not strictly employ M&S. For example, modern scientific instruments, ranging from satellite imaging systems to particle accelerators to radio telescopes, can generate data at extraordinary rates and corresponding declines in data storage costs have invited researchers to generate tera- and now petabyte scale datasets. The researchers that work on such datasets share many characteristics in common with the M&S practitioners and the proposed M&SaaS solution will enable them to collaborate more effectively and perform computational analyses on their data with greater ease.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
M&S practitioners outside of NASA comprise a large and attractive market. Many large government contractors serving NASA perform M&S work for NASA and other federal agencies. Several of these contractors and Department of Defense representatives have already expressed procurement interest in the proposed M&SaaS solution. Additionally, the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is a collaborative effort between multiple federal organizations to provide information and models relating to space science research. Member organizations in this partnership which includes, among others, the Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC), the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Office of Naval Research (ONR) comprise an excellent collection of agencies that could benefit from M&SaaS. M&S activities span other lucrative commercial industries such as pharmaceuticals and finance, to list a few, and Parabon has existing customers in these sectors that will benefit from M&SaaS. The higher productivity, improved ease-of-use and reduced costs afforded by the proposed solution will be attractive to M&S practitioners in these and other industries where M&S is used. Moreover, the solution is generally applicable to domains not directly involved in M&S, for example, bioinformatics, photo-realistic rendering and intelligence data processing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Computer System Architectures
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 O1.03-9360
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC96P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Reconfigurable/Reprogrammable Communication Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reconfigurable, Cognitive Software Defined Radio

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arvind Bhat
abhat@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville,  MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5254

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
IAI is actively developing Software Defined Radio platforms that can adaptively switch between different modes of operation by modifying both transmit waveforms and receiver signal-processing tasks on the fly. The proposed software reconfigurable radio implementation technique and the system design will leverage IAI's experience in SDRs, RF design, signal processing and firmware design. Our innovation focuses on implementing maximum transceiver functionalities digital reconfigurable devices (FPGA), and minimizing the number of analog components. Our SDR designs are based on COTS components and are modular in nature. This makes it easier to upgrade smaller units of the design with development in state-of-the-art, instead of re-designing the entire SDR platform. The proposed innovations are: STRS implementation on COTS SDR platforms to realize NASA objectives of simultaneously capturing the benefits of SDR technology and the economies and benefits of an open architecture standard. Integration of cognitive capabilities (with focus on STRS compliant implementation) for the SDR which have been developed under the Phase-I contract. This would include Adaptive Modulation and Coding, Automatic modulation recognition and Spectrum Sensing. Reconfigurable digital transceiver design using high-speed FPGAs. This would enable multi-mode operation and scalable architecture for SDRs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology is built upon the Software-Radio communications system design expertise of IAI, developed over several SBIR and non-SBIR contracts. Our proposed SDR design can be used for a wide range of NASA STRS related communication applications, with enhanced cognitive capabilities. This includes: 1. Cognitive capabilities for NASA STRS like AMC, AMR and Spectral sensing 2. Reconfigurable communication radios for EVA and space missions IAI has a long history of successfully designing custom communication systems for NASA and DoD, and most NASA applications could be supported by our reconfigurable radio design.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most promising Non- NASA commercial applications are: 1. Cognitive Radios for DoD applications 2. High bandwidth, plug-and-play waveform synthesizer 3. Real-time digital processors 4. UAV based applications (due to the small form factor and low power). This would include UAV based communications and radar applications IAI has tremendous experience of designing customized radar assembly and packaging them as field-ready units.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
RF
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Microwave/Submillimeter
Highly-Reconfigurable


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 O1.06-9563
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD81P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Optical Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Bandwidth Photon-Counting Detectors with Enhanced Near-Infrared Response

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
aPeak, Inc.
63 Albert Road
Newton, MA 02466-1302
(617) 964-1709

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stefan Vasile
svasile@apeakinc.com
63 Albert Road
Newton,  MA 02466-1302
(617) 617-1709

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Long-range optical telecommunications (LROT) impose challenging requirements on detector array sensitivity at 1064nm and arrays timing bandwidth. Large photonic arrays with integrated beam acquisition, tracking and/or communication capabilities, and smart pixel architecture should allow the implementation of more reliable and robust LROT systems. Integration of smart pixel technology for parallel data acquisition and processing is currently available in silicon. Current silicon photon-counting detector arrays benefit from a worldwide manufacturing and R&D infrastructure but their response at 1064nm is not suitable for LROT. In Phase I we proposed to verify the feasibility of increasing the responsivity of aPeak's silicon photon counting arrays at 1064nm by increasing their quantum absorption efficiency and demonstrating sub-nanosecond timing resolution. Phase I resulted in photon counting arrays with enhanced response at 1064 nm. Modules to be implemented into the readout IC (ROIC) have been fabricated in compact ASIC designs, suitable for integration into the smart pixel fabric they have demonstrated 100ps timing jitter and have exceeded the dynamic range requirements. Noise, timing resolution, and linearity requirements meet updated program requirements Phase II program builds upon Phase I results and previous smart pixel development at aPeak Inc with the aim to develop photon-counting arrays with enhanced 1064nm response and integrated counters at pixel level, capable of high - timing resolution and high counting rate. We propose to develop the photon counting detector arrays, associated ROIC arrays in ASIC, technology to assemble the detector and ROIC arrays, as well as in process ASIC mapping and maskless correction methods critical for the detector fabrication. Detector array design will be improved to meet the detection efficiency at 1064nm, while preserving or improving the detector noise, timing resolution, and linearity demonstrated in Phase I

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The novel photon counting array has the advantage of using high-volume manufacturing processing to yield compact, reliable detectors for space communications. These arrays will find application in free-space optical communications, space-ground optical links, detection or imaging in media with high turbidity, interferometry, mapping, robotic vision, very high-resolution 3-D imaging, hyper-spectral imaging, and space docking.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to long-range optical communications, larger arrays could be fabricated for single-photon imaging in the infrared and visible spectra with applications to security cameras, imaging of non-cooperative targets, single-molecule detection, integration into micro fluidic devices, biochips for biomedical applications, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, underwater imaging to many attenuation depths, as well as laser Doppler imaging and optical tomography in medical applications and cancer research. Due to their extremely short integration time, infrared photon-counting arrays could find applications in high-speed imaging.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Perception/Sensing
Laser
Optical
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 O1.06-9602
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD82P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Optical Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Efficiency, High-Power Laser Transmitter for Deep-Space Communication

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vega Wave Systems, Inc.
1275 W Roosevelt Road, Suite 104
West Chicago, IL 60185-4815
(630) 562-9433

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tony Moretti
tmoretti@vegawave.com
1275 W Roosevelt Rd, Ste 104
West Chicago,  IL 60185-4815
(630) 562-9433

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There is demand for vastly improved deep space satellite communications links. As data rates dramatically increase due to new sensor technologies and the desire to pack even more sensors on spacecraft, it is imperative that new solutions be compact in size, light in weight, be high speed, and highly power efficient. NASA has recognized optical links offer potential improvements in power and in size due to a substantially narrower beam and smaller components. An ideal technology for such links is a laser transmitter master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) using pulse position modulation techniques. In Phase I, a design was developed for a laser transmitter MOPA with a wall-plug efficiency of up to 23% operating at 1560nm. Operating at longer wavelength offers a number of advantages including the use of numerous off-the-shelf components. This Phase II proposal will demonstrate a working prototype of the design at a Technology Readiness Level 4 by the end of the program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High power fiber master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) transmitters provide the basis of high speed deep space communications links using pulse position modulation. NASA has planned for such devices to be used in future spacecraft. Previous work has demonstrated laser transmitter MOPAs up to 100 MHz with wall plug efficiencies up to 18% and operating at 1064nm which requires bulky optical components. The techniques developed in this proposal will provide improvements in efficiency, data rate, size, and weight compared to designs already investigated by NASA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Fast rise time MOPA structures for optical communications can serve as ideal input sources for eye safe pulsed fiber laser based sources for material processing and other scientific applications. The flexible beam path and distributed thermal dissipation make fiber lasers ideal for many applications, especially CW ones, and for this reason fiber lasers have made significant inroads into many CW based laser markets such as material processing and long pulse laser marking. Pulsed fiber lasers have not been successful in penetrating laser markets due the adverse effects of fiber non-linearities on pulse width, and non-linear optical generation efficiency. At peak powers in the 100's of kW, nonlinear optical effects play a destructive role in widening pulses and lowering peak powers. A well designed MOPA structure can alleviate many of these problems. The narrow pulse width and fast rise times of the MOPA system create opportunities for temporal pulse shaping and multi-pulse operation. These techniques have already proven themselves successful in semiconductor memory repair and high speed resistor trimming. Eye-safe operation is crucial in many commercial and industrial settings in order to reduce the cost of additional containment enclosures.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Laser
Optical
Photonics
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 O1.07-8443
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD83P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Space RF Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: 3D Microfabricated Low Loss Reconfigurable Components

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nuvotronics, LLC
7586 Old Peppers Ferry Loop
Radford, VA 24141-8846
(540) 552-4610

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jean-Marc Rollin
jmrollin@nuvotronics.com
7586 Old Peppers Ferry Loop
Radford,  VA 24141-8846
(540) 230-4611

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Typical communication satellites use traditional waveguide front-end architectures due to the excellent electrical performance and high reliability. While the systems offer excellent performance and reliability they are large and heavy due to incorporation of waveguide-based switches, diplexers, and waveguide packaged solid-state power amplifiers. Replacement of the waveguide components by micromachined parts that provide significant size, weight, and cost reduction without substantially affecting the electrical performance, can lead to a breakthrough in wireless communications. During the Phase I program, Nuvotronics utilized its proprietary PolyStrataTM metal micromachining process to create X and Ka band filters with state-of-the-art performance. During Phase II, tunable filters will be fabricated using the PolyStrata process and tuned using reliable and low actuation voltage MEMS devices. The filters will be designed and tested for space operation and have immediate applications in the Deep Space Network communications system. The PolyStrata process is capable of producing high Q, low weight and therefore compact filters. The PolyStrata process is a new multi-layer technology that creates high quality air loaded copper microdevices. High quality cavity resonator filters can be fabricated using this high precision micro-fabrication process, enabling very high Q filters while being compact, surface mountable and compatible with the integration of active chips.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our primary goal is to provide NASA with robust space-capable technology that is lower cost, lower weight, and has improved performance over current technology. The initial application is within deep space probes that communicate with the Deep Space Network system in the X and Ka bands. Future missions require higher bandwidth capability, and as channels in the X band become crowded, NASA requires components at higher bandwidth in the Ka band with reduced size, weight, and power consumption. Nuvotronics will be capable of offering products to NASA and its subcontractors at the end of the Phase II to satisfy this requirement. The results of this Phase II will potentially support future on-board satellite communication requirements for NASA and millimeter wave sensing applications for landing and collision avoidance in radars on NASA platforms. Future missions supported include Juno - a solar powered spacecraft set to launch in 2011 and orbit Jupiter, Constellation - manned missions to Low Earth Orbit, the moon and ultimately Mars, and future spacecraft and rovers supporting the Mars Exploration Program.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential applications for devices enabled by the Polystrata components exist in both DOD and Commercial Markets. Advanced DOD communication systems under development such as the WIN-T tactical network require advanced microwave components in order to meet the demanding applications of satellite communications while on-the-move. In addition to communications, devices developed on this program applied to higher frequency operation have applications in DOD radar systems for short range all-weather radars and automotive collision avoidance radar. Non-defense communications applications exist in higher frequency communications systems (60 GHz, E, Q, and/or W bands) for high speed datacommunications servicing backhaul, wireless enterprise bridge, wireless fiber lateral emulation, government and public safety networks, WirelessHD, and WiMax markets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Architectures and Networks
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
RF
Microwave/Submillimeter
Highly-Reconfigurable


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 O1.08-9622
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD01P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar Surface Communication Networks and Orbit Access Links
PROPOSAL TITLE: Scalable Lunar Surface Networks and Adaptive Orbit Access

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Teranovi Technologies
10033 NE 140th Street
Bothell, WA 98011-5214
(425) 820-9853

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Xudong Wang
wxudong@teranovi.com
10033 NE 140th Street
Bothell,  WA 98011-5214
(425) 425-9853

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6 to 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Based on our proposed innovations and accomplished work in Phase I, we will focus on developing the new MAC protocol and hybrid routing protocol for lunar surface networks and orbit access. The new MAC protocol includes a novel mechanism of TDMA overlaying CSMA/CA and ensures scalable throughput and QoS performance in the hierarchical multihop wireless mesh networks proposed for lunar surface networks. The new MAC protocol will be implemented on top of a reconfigurable 802.11 radio and is compatible to legacy 802.11 networks. It also includes advanced features like efficiency power management, adaptive channel width for improving receiver sensitivity and communication range, and error control for eliminate errors due to radiation and radio burst. The hybrid routing protocol combines the advantages of ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing and disruption/delay tolerant network (DTN) routing. Its performance is significantly better than AODV or DTN, and is particularly effective to wireless networks with intermittent links, as in lunar surface networks and orbit access. In this proposal a detailed prototyping plan to implement the developed protocols is also presented. By the end of Phase II, a prototype system will be available for demonstrating the delivered technical objectives proposed in this proposal.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technologies can support lunar exploration and will be used to provide scalable lunar surface networking and orbit access. Similar application scenario can be found even in Earth environment, where the surface network will be on the Earth surface and the orbit access will be from Earth to its satellite. The same technologies can be applied to the explorations of other stars like Mars and also to any deep-space communication networks. They will become critical building blocks of Inter-Planetary Internet.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The same technologies can be adapted to DoD applications. For example, a communication network formed by both planes and ground battling units is similar to the integrated system of lunar surface networks and orbit access. The developed technologies can be applied other military networks such as batterfield networks and airborne networks. On the non-government market, the most promising application areas will be IEEE 802.11 mesh networks, IEEE 802.16 mesh networks, and their integrated systems. The technologies will draw tremendous attentions from service providers, chipset companies, and networking software companies. The hierarchical architecture and routing protocol will provide viable solutions for service providers to deploy cost-effective and reliable wireless mesh networks. The dynamic DTN routing protocol will also find good applications in system integration between satellite communications and wireless mesh networks.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Architectures and Networks
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Tools
Highly-Reconfigurable
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 O1.09-9103
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CC16P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Software for Space Communications Infrastructure Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Intelligent Agents for Scheduling Space Communications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Traclabs, Inc.
100 N.E. Loop 410 Suite 520
San Antonio, TX 78216-4727
(210) 637-7819

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Russell Bonasso
bonasso@traclabs.com
8620 N. New Braunfels, Suite 603
San Antonio,  TX 78217-4727
(281) 461-7884

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The new exploration initiative, and the planned new antenna types to be developed in support of that initiative will increase the number and complexity of missions to be supported by the NASA Space Communications infrastructure. In a new concept, the communications architecture will evolve from the present centralized system to one where user/missions will be given direct control of communication schedules, allowing them to directly change requests, while working with other user/missions to solve scheduling conflicts in a collegial environment. A radically new user interface paradigm will be needed to support this new approach. It is our contention that such an interface is best designed using intelligent agent technologies, resulting in an intelligent space communications scheduling agent for each user/mission. In Phase 1 we demonstrated the feasibility of using the Distributed, Collaboration and Interaction (DCI) intelligent agent software to support key activities of user schedule representatives of the Deep Space Network (DSN). These agents used models of mission preferences for preparing requests and posting notifications, and took actions on the part of the user to resolve schedule conflicts and take advantage of unexpected asset availability. In Phase 2 we will extend our prototype agents to support the full range of user scheduling activities, to add capabilities to support multi-user conflict management and to design them to integrate with DSN Service Scheduling Software as it evolves to support user/missions. We will also investigate the potential of using software agents to support the space and ground networks.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Scheduling is a primary enterprise at NASA and the new exploration initiative will only increase the need for efficient interactive scheduling. Besides space communications, we also see potential applications to assist geographically distributed users to schedule time on NASA's orbital and ground based telescopes. Mission planning is at the core of all space missions due to the high cost of space assets such as astronauts, equipment and communication links. Our new agent services, connected with planning engines, will have applications across many NASA programs, from Mission Control to on-board NASA vehicles and outposts, especially for EVA planning. With the new exploration initiative, EVA mission planning and scheduling will increase dramatically from an EVA every few months to one or two a day, and that will increase the need to integrate science and exploration training tasks into a coherent EVA plan/schedule. We also expect applications of our technology to immediately impact NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP), in particular, the Automation for Operations (A4O) managed at NASA ARC, which is investigating automated planning and scheduling to enhance spacecraft operations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
he military has a number of arenas wherein tasks are requested of limited availability assets. Examples are the Air Force Satellite Control Network (FSCN) and the defense intelligence use of high altitude aircraft and special operations surveillance assets. The needs of the user/missions of these assets are similar and would benefit from the application of our enhanced DCI technology. The military is also currently a large customer for unmanned vehicle operations. Unmanned vehicles, both air and ground, are becoming more and more common in battlefield situations. As these unmanned vehicles are increasingly deployed in tandem with dismounted forces, coordinating software will be necessary to ensure successful operations. In particular, unmanned surveillance vehicles, are becoming more and more common in battlefield situations as evidenced in Iraq and Afghanistan. As these unmanned vehicles are increasingly deployed, scheduling their use by an increasing number of users will require the kind of distributed agent systems described in this proposal. Mission planning will also play a large role in integrated manned and unmanned operations. Distributed planning and control systems will serve to better merge competing user needs to accomplish military missions. Finally, non-military applications include distributed scheduling of aircraft in municipal airports, trains and other transportation systems, as well as factory production lines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Architectures and Networks
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Database Development and Interfacing
Human-Computer Interfaces


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 O2.01-9162
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE65P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automated Collection and Transfer of Launch Range Surveillance/Intrusion Data
PROPOSAL TITLE: Marine ASV Range Surveillance System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Emergent Space Technologies, Inc.
6301 Ivy Lane, Suite 720
Greenbelt, MD 20770-6330
(301) 345-1535

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Higinbotham
john.higinbotham@emergentspace.com
6301 Ivy Lane, Suite 720
Greenbelt,  MD 20770-6333
(301) 345-1535

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
United States spaceports carry out the critical task of launching and recovering vehicles and payloads. These are extremely unique and expensive assets, and their successful deployment, operation, and recovery are essential to our nation's scientific discovery, economic prosperity, and national security. Surveillance and weather monitoring are significant factors in enabling safe, secure, reliable, and cost effective operations. Ranges encompass large marine regions that are expensive to monitor and not under the exclusive control of the spaceport. Marine regions include backwater areas (lagoon, river, and estuary) near the launch site, as well as the coastal and open-ocean regions extending hundreds of miles downrange. The most hazardous regions must be cleared and maintained clear in preparation for launch and reentry operations to ensure public safety as well as the safety and security of the vehicle itself. To support such operations, Emergent Space Technologies, Inc. (Emergent) proposes to develop the marine autonomous surface vehicle (ASV) range surveillance (MARS) system. MARS is an integrated solution that includes vehicle, payload and ground segments and will support automated collection and transfer of launch range surveillance and weather data. MARS provides enhanced situational awareness to range operators responsible for ensuring public safety, range availability, and mission success.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The MARS system is being developed to support NASA range surveillance and weather monitoring activities for spacecraft launch and recovery operations. MARS augments existing surveillance operations in the range's expansive marine corridor, which is expensive to monitor, and prone to incursion by commercial and recreational boats. Once developed, the system can support Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) and sounding rocket launches at the GSFC Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia and Constellation program launches at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The MARS payload technology can be deployed to other marine platforms including buoys, barges, and ships. When deployed to land-based towers, the technology can be used to monitor launch, processing, and recovery facilities. When paired with appropriate sensors, the MARS system will support autonomous in-situ oceanographic and atmospheric data collection and transmission for NASA Earth science applications including satellite calibration and validation, physical oceanography, algal bloom monitoring, and hurricane research.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A wide array of non-NASA government and commercial autonomous marine surveillance and in-situ data collection applications can be supported by the MARS system. Application domains include disaster response, energy, environmental, homeland security, law enforcement, defense, public health and safety, transportation, and weather forecasting. The MARS system offers the potential to decrease operational costs, decrease human workloads, reduce human exposure to hazardous environments, increase situational awareness, enable extended duration observations, and customize temporal and spatial surveillance and monitoring scales across domains. State and local governments tasked with conducting increased surveillance and environmental monitoring activities on increasingly limited budgets are expected to benefit from the MARS system which will ultimately enable more effective use of employees and resources.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Architectures and Networks
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Computer System Architectures
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 O2.01-9918
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE66P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automated Collection and Transfer of Launch Range Surveillance/Intrusion Data
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Smart Pan/Tilt/Zoom Sensor for Launch Range Video Surveillance

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Xigen, LLC
11001 Sugarbush Terrace
Rockville, MD 20852-3240
(301) 637-6828

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Geng
xigenllc@gmail.com
11001 Sugarbush Terrace
Rockville,  MD 20852-3240
(301) 910-9788

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has a pressing need for increasing the efficiency of launch range surveillance during mission launch operations. Difficulty in verifying a cleared range causes significant launch delay that may significantly affect the operation safety, cost and schedule. With the increase of workload on existing and/or newly-built spaceports, challenges in launch range clearance and surveillance call for new breakthrough in technologies to better serve for NASA's missions. We propose this SBIR to develop a novel "Smart Pan/Tilt/Zoom Visible/IR Sensor" platform, dubbed Smart PTZ(TM), especially suited for detection, tracking, recognition, and identification of persons and objects that have intruded areas of the range that must be cleared in order to conduct safe launch operations. Conventional optical sensors have limited field of views (FOV). They observe objects through a small solid angle. Simultaneous acquisition of target in panoramic view is not possible. Although optical amplification may provide detailed target image, detecting and tracking target(s) in a large area is difficult, resulting in lengthy search time, costly UAV maneuvers, low efficiency in verifying range clearance, even missing intruder due to limited FOV. Increasing FOV, however, is a double-edged sword that leads to a decreased spatial resolution, causing difficulties in target recognition and classification. To resolve the simultaneous yet contradicting requirements on the FOV and image resolution for range surveillance applications, we propose a novel Smart PTZ sensor concept that meets both needs with unprecedented performance. By integrating both wide FOV sensor and agile PTZ sensor within a compact package, together with a set of intelligent video analysis algorithms, the Smart PTZ sensor would enable high performance target detection, tracking, recognition and classification, within a very large FOV (up to 360-degree) for NASA launch range clearance and surveillance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The unique advantages of the proposed Smart PTZ Sensors include: (1) Novel optical design of wide FOV optics (up to 360-degree) for imaging sensor, no blind spot, no image distortion; (2) Simultaneous acquisition of both wide field of view and zoomed high resolution images; (3) Smart PTZ target tracking capability; (4) Intelligent video processing algorithms for automatic target detection and tracking; (5) Embedded on-board DSP processing module; (6) Novel optical design of 360-degree imaging applies to both visible and infrared sensors; (7) Flexible mounting options: on-board UAV, ground mobile vehicle mounted, and ground fixed camera installations. (8) Tremendous commercialization potential The Smart PTZ sensor designs allow for flexible mounting configurations and application scenarios. The compact light weight and low-power visible/infrared sensor package is ideally suited for mounting on UAVs and ground mobile vehicles for launch range surveillance. The Smart PTZ sensors can also be installed at fixed ground locations with critical importance for constant 7/24 real-time video surveillance with intelligent target detection capabilities. The proposed Smart PTZ visible/Infrared sensor technology offers an efficient, flexible, low-cost, and high performance solution to NASA launch range surveillance applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Beyond NASA's launch range clearance, the proposed Smart PTZ sensor technology has immediate commercial applications in homeland security, video monitoring, and IP based remote video surveillance. According to Frost & Sullivan, the global video surveillance industry is about $7 billion, which is expected to grow to $13 billion within five years, with 44% growth market on the verge of technological breakthrough. The video surveillance market is considered as a limitless growth market. "Cameras Everywhere" continues to be the best description of the trend in the video surveillance market. In addition, the novel Neo360 optical unwrapping technology developed in this project will enable development of new commercial products in automotive safety market, medical endoscope market and video projector market, with unprecedented performance, resolution, image quality, cost efficiency, and ease of use.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Perception/Sensing
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Data Input/Output Devices
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 O2.02-8624
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CF48P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Test Facility Instrumentation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Distributed Rocket Engine Testing Health Monitoring System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
American GNC Corporation
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley, CA 93065-1812
(805) 582-0582

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tasso Politopoulos
tpolito@americangnc.com
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley,  CA 93065-1812
(805) 582-0582

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Leveraging the Phase I achievements of the Distributed Rocket Engine Testing Health Monitoring System (DiRETHMS) including its software toolsets and system building blocks, the Phase II project seeks a comprehensive prototyping of the technology. Phase II not only expands the functionality and applications of the Phase I achievements, but utilizes evolving diagnostics due to the advanced intelligent algorithms built on AGNC's Optimized Neuro-Genetic Fast Estimator (ONGFE) framework. In this way, the Phase II effort culminates in a product that is able to adapt to unknown operating conditions and learn new failures in an unsupervised way. Additionally, a major effort consists of providing a novel, robust, and embedded software toolset for sensor Failure Detection and Identification (FDI): Sensor Data Validation and Self-Healing Scheme (SDV-SHS). To increase the commercialization potential and market values of the NASA and non-NASA applications, the Phase II project adapts DiRETHMS to the market requirements. The work in Phase II along with a modular architecture and standardization ensures a solid integration with NASA's Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) for enhanced health monitoring.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
DiRETHMS enhances NASA's Integrated System Health Management by providing a highly distributed system with embedded intelligent health monitoring functions and the ability to learn new failures and conditions through evolving diagnostics. Due to the modular and flexible design of DiRETHMS, desirable components can be introduced within NASA's existing framework for ISHM without necessarily including the entire system. The versatility of DiRETHMS allows it to be used for a wide range of NASA's space transportation propulsion systems for performing rocket engine ground testing (J-2X Rocket Engine, SSME) as well as health monitoring of any other space, lunar, or planetary vehicle/system of interest to NASA. Application areas include: the International Space Station and Launch Vehicle Development. DiRETHMS equips NASA with on-line real-time health monitoring using advanced diagnostic and prognostic algorithms, reliable sensor validation, control over the entire maintenance cycle, and novel sensors to significantly improve health monitoring while keeping costs low.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
One of the main objectives of the project is the commercialization of the research results from this project. This Distributed Rocket Engine Testing Health Monitoring System will find a large market in maintenance processes in both the civilian and government markets. DiRETHMS can be customized for a wide range of machinery application areas. Typical areas of application include the aerospace industry (aircraft engines and turbo-jets), on-ground maintenance, manufacturing, and other applications requiring smart sensors with embedded health monitoring and evolving diagnostic capabilities. Furthermore, the system can find considerable use in engine and structural health monitoring due to the thin, self-powered, and sensitive vibration sensors. Specific applications include: (a) health monitoring of steam turbines (both over and under 40 MW); (b) intelligent data acquisition systems for machinery health monitoring; (c) fluid and hydraulic systems (such as cooling systems); (d) motors; (e) pumps; and (g) health monitoring of vehicles and autonomous systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Architectures and Networks
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Computer System Architectures
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Database Development and Interfacing
Expert Systems
Human-Computer Interfaces
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 O2.02-9981
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CF51P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Test Facility Instrumentation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Passively Powered and Programmable Sensor-RFID for ISHM Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mobitrum Corporation
8070 Georgia Avenue, Suite 207
Silver Spring, MD 20910-4948
(703) 989-8096

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ray Wang
ray_wang@mobitrum.com
8070 Georgia Avenue, Suite 207
Silver Spring,  MD 20910-4948
(301) 585-4040

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To date there are several approaches for incorporating sensing capabilities into RFID. Active tags use batteries to power their communication circuitry, sensors, and microcontroller. Active tags benefit from relatively long wireless range and can achieve high data and sensor activity rates. However, the batteries required by active tags are disadvantageous for device cost, lifetime, weight, and volume. In contrast, passive sensor tags receive all of their operating power from external RF transmitting sources and are not limited by battery life. One attractive feature of passive sensor tags is the prospect of permanently embedding them in objects for structural monitoring. Another is their suitability for applications in which neither batteries nor wired connections are feasible, for weight, volume, cost, or other reasons. A limitation of purely passive sensor tags is the requirement of proximity to a RF transmitter. Since lower power consumption is one major trend in RF circuit design, a self-powered system by means of energy harvesting becomes very attractive. It can serve as the enabling technology for novel applications such as ambient intelligence. Using a power harvesting technique for wireless rechargeable battery smart sensor and enhanced RFID are the key elements for successfully distributing sensors across sensor networks.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Ground testing of propulsion systems is a critical requirement to enable NASA's New Vision for space exploration. The proposed power harvesting technology for sensor and RFID applications will enable a cost effective remote testing and health monitoring through shared sensor networks. Mobitrum anticipates the following applications that NASA will benefit from the proposed technology: 1) Data analysis, processing, and visualization for Earth science observations, 2) Rocket engine test, 3) Remote test facility management, 3) Field communications device for spatial data input, manipulation and distribution, 4) Sensor, measurement, and field verification applications, 5) RFID for identification and tracking, 6) Condition-aware applications, 7) Location-aware applications, 8) Biometric identification applications, 9) Data collaboration and distribution applications, 10) Wireless instrumentation for robotic manipulation and positioning for audio and visual capture, and real-time multimedia representation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed passively powered and programmable sensor-RFID device may apply to many commercial applications: 1) Medical RFID, 2) In-vehicle network the device could be used to network drive train electronic control units and communication systems for body electronics, 3) Aircraft and aerospace electronics the device could be a backbone network in aircrafts for flight state sensors, navigation systems and research PCs driving displays installed in the cockpit, 4) Home control the device could be sensor centric for Internet-based home utility control. This application would create a new service from the Internet Service provider, 5) Energy management for cost saving the device is an idea platform to integrate various sensors for energy management to save cost, 6) Security (intruder detection), 7) Safety (sensing), 8) Utility remote meter reading, 9) Building automation systems real-time monitoring and control of security and surveillance systems, alarms, HVAC, 10) Manufacturing and distribution industrial automation using RFID.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Solar
Human-Robotic Interfaces
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Intelligence
Mobility
Perception/Sensing
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Training Concepts and Architectures
Testing Facilities
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Attitude Determination and Control
Architectures and Networks
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
RF
Instrumentation
Production
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Computer System Architectures
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Database Development and Interfacing
Expert Systems
Human-Computer Interfaces
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Substrate Transfer Technology
Manned-Maneuvering Units
Portable Life Support
Tools
General Public Outreach
K-12 Outreach
Mission Training
Highly-Reconfigurable
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
Ceramics
Computational Materials
Radiation Shielding Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Energy Storage
Wireless Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 O3.01-9462
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE26P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Health and Safety Including Medical Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Medical Operations Decision Support System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
S&K Aerospace
63066 Old Highway 93
St Ignatius, MT 59865-9008
(406) 745-7500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arthur Molin
amolin@ska-corp.com
63066 Old Highway 93
St Ignatius,  MT 59865-9008
(281) 636-5592

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 7 to 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Risks associated with possible medical events during space missions are challenging to identify and manage. Resources must be applied judiciously and risk must not be ignored. NASA's researchers need the capability to identify the risks that arise from the potential medical events, gather all of the published evidence that is available, analyze the probability and severity of the risks, plan to mitigate the risks, investigate the interdependencies between risks and mitigation strategies, track and control the information, and support informed decisions about risks and risk mitigation strategies. S&K Aerospace (SKA) proposes an innovative Web-based system to support the continuous management of medical risk for future space missions. We propose to provide users with the ability to create and maintain a repository of medical risk information, including information about the probability of the risks and the severity of the outcomes. Users will be able to associate outside data with the risk information to support the decisions made regarding the risks. Users will also be able to plan mitigation strategies for the risks, to plan risk mitigation strategies across multiple missions, and to balance the interactions between risk mitigation strategies on a single mission. A continuous risk management system requires that the risks be re-evaluated as contributing factors change, as additional information is learned about the probabilities and consequences of the risks, and simply as time passes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This product will support NASA researchers in the identification and analysis of medical risks for future manned space mission, as well as planning, tracking, and controlling the risk mitigation strategies that will be used to handle those risks.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications include risk assessment and risk mitigation planning in any of a wide range of arenas, including business and project management. The project can be developed in any of a number of different ways, including a generalized risk assessment and management system, or a toolkit for building domain-specific risk management applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Human-Computer Interfaces


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 O3.02-9018
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD02P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human interface systems and technologies for spacesuits
PROPOSAL TITLE: Superior Speech Acquisition and Robust Automatic Speech Recognition for Integrated Spacesuit Audio Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
WEVOICE, Inc.
9 Sylvan Drive
Bridgewater, NJ 08807-2235
(908) 575-8955

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sherry Ye
sherryqye@gmail.com
9 Sylvan Drive
Bridgewater,  NJ 08807-2235
(908) 575-8955

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Astronauts suffer from poor dexterity of their hands due to the clumsy spacesuit gloves during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) operations and NASA has had a widely recognized but unmet need for novel human machine interface technologies to facilitate data entry, communications, and robots or intelligent systems control. The objective of this research project is to develop a speech human interface that can offer both crewmember usability and system operational efficiency. But loud noise and strong reverberation inside spacesuits make automatic speech recognition (ASR) for such an interface a very challenging problem. In Phase I, the feasibility of using WeVoice proprietary microphone array signal processing and robust ASR technologies was validated. In particular, it was found that novel multichannel noise reduction produces larger gain in SNR than conventional beamforming but the latter is more preferable as far as ASR is concerned. In addition, it was confirmed that the model adaptation algorithm can make an ASR system more robust inside spacesuits. An arithmetic complexity model for ASR was developed. It can direct the decision as to whether a specified speech interface is sufficiently efficient to be possibly implemented with a wearable system. Phase II will analyze and minimize the scientific and engineering uncertainties identified during Phase I. Furthermore, a voice command interface for future generations of a suit's processing system is proposed to be developed on DSP chips. The system should be ready for testing and use by NASA suited crewmembers at the end of Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) Voice Command Rover Navigation Systems, 2) Robot Control Using Voice, 3) Voice Entry for Information Search and Retrieval, and 4) Dictation Systems for Document Generation

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) In-Car Devices, 2) Mobile Phones, 3) Home Electronics and Appliances, 4) Video Games, 5) Toys, 6) Health Care, and 7) Military

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Human-Robotic Interfaces
Perception/Sensing
Human-Computer Interfaces


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 O3.03-8945
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE69P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vehicle Integration and Ground Processing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Photonic Sensor for Nondestructive Testing of Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Los Gatos Research
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041-1518
(650) 965-7780

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
An-Dien Nguyen
a.d.nguyen@lgrinc.com
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View,  CA 94041-1518
(650) 650-3459

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Los Gatos Research proposes to develop a new automated health monitoring sensor system capable of monitoring distributed load and acoustic emission (AE) for rapid inspection of damages in composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPV). Our novel sensor technology offers a number of advantages including sensor compactness and lightweight with multiplexing capability for load and AE for monitoring and characterizing damages in advanced composite structures and components. We achieve this by employing Bragg grating sensor arrays and using a novel interrogation technique combined with state-of-the-art AE method to detect and pinpoint composite defects in these structures. In Phase I, we have demonstrated the sensor's capability to measure crack-induced acoustic emissions in a composite overwrapped pressure vessel structure loaded up to rupture pressure. In Phase II, the grating sensors, interrogation system, and diagnostic software will be integrated into an automated system, capable of measuring and correlating the load history, acoustic emission activity, and determining the severity of damages and their location in the COPV. This dedicated prototype will include an integrated fiber optic conditioning hardware, state-of-the-art AE hardware and software, and address the power and stability requirements unique to ground based and in-flight studies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Optical fiber technology provides significant advantages for advanced aerospace platforms because they are lightweight, immune to electromagnetic wave interference, and do not produce short circuits or ground loops. Therefore the development of fiber optic sensors has the potential to increase reliability, enable lower cost, and facilitate more effective health monitoring and nondestructive evaluation of NASA's advanced aircraft and spacecraft components and systems. The FO sensor device LGR has demonstrated and proposed to further develop for Phase II will greatly enhance NASA efforts to develop state-of-the-art, compact, low-cost, waveform-based, quantitative strain and ultrasonic wave sensing technology for load, temperature, corrosion, and crack monitoring of advanced structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Advances in high-resolution, high sensitivity, and large dynamic range load and AE sensing technology has immediate applications in civil engineering for monitoring cracks, corrosion, and fatigue in steel and concrete structures such as bridges, freeways, and buildings. High frequency ultrasonic signal detection method development can be utilized in ultrasonic testing, medical ultrasonic imaging, and other non-destructive testing (NDT) technology. LGR's FO technology development can be readily incorporated into current fiber optics and optical cross-connect technology for next-generation telecommunication applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Optical
Photonics
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 O3.03-9387
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE70P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vehicle Integration and Ground Processing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Toxicity Corrosion Inhibitors for Smart Coatings

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 W. 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033-1916
(303) 422-7819

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ronald Cook
cookrl@tda.com
12345 W. 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge,  CO 80033-1916
(303) 303-2302

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6 to 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Kennedy Space Center maintains approximately $2 billion worth of ground support facilities to support its launch vehicle program. Maintenance of the ground facilities is a difficult and ongoing task since the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is located in one of the most aggressive corrosion environments in the U.S. The effects of the corrosive environment at the KSC are compounded by the exhaust of the Space Shuttle's solid rocket boosters which produce an estimated 17 tons of hydrochloric acid with each launch. The Phase II project will continue the development of the models began in Phase I for classification of corrosion inhibitors for structural steel. We will produce even more robust models for selecting synergistic corrosion inhibitor compositions through a sequential program of algorithm development and high throughput electrochemical screening. We will then demonstrate the efficacy of the new compositions in protective coatings by electrochemical impedance studies, cyclic corrosion tests and outdoor exposures. In addition we will also develop toxicity classification tools for organic corrosion inhibitors. We will also scale up production of the corrosion inhibitor additive packages for evaluation by coating manufacturers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology will have primary application to the ground support equipment and facilities at KSC, but the proposed technology could be used at any location where NASA maintains either equipment or facilities exposed to corrosive environments. The compositions of TDA's corrosion inhibitors and the nanostructured carriers arising from the Phase II efforts can be used as a low-toxicity, high performance corrosion inhibiting additive for protective coatings on the structural steel that makes up most of the ground facilities at KSC. Furthermore the methodology can be used to identify corrosion inhibiting packages for other metals and alloys that NASA needs to protect from the environment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The direct losses to the U.S. economy attributed to corrosion each year exceed $300 billion. The methodologies and materials arising out of the Phase II effort can be applied to protect not only steel, but aluminum and magnesium. For, example, the U.S. Navy, the U.S. Air Force and commercial airlines need low-toxicity, high-performance corrosion inhibiting additives for corrodible aerospace aluminum alloys. New and effective corrosion inhibitors could replace the toxic chromates that are still being used in aerospace applications. Protective coatings employing our corrosion inhibitors could be used for low-toxicity corrosion protection for metals employed in a wide range of applications, including, automotive, aerospace, bridges and buildings. Additionally, the corrosion inhibitors could be used in related products such as adhesives and sealants where low toxicity corrosion protection is desired.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 O4.01-9264
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CE71P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Metric Tracking of Launch Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Tracking Launch Vehicles in Interference and Jamming

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MARK Resources, Inc.
3878 Carson Street, Suite 210
Torrance, CA 90503-6707
(310) 543-4746

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stephen Hershkowitz
mri@markres.com
3878 Carson Street, Suite 210
Torrance,  CA 90503-6707
(310) 543-4746

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
During the Phase I program, MARK Resources very successfully demonstrated the feasibility of using several distributed small and simple FRPAs that do not need to be precisely arranged, to suppress wideband interference and/or jamming and to provide sufficiently accurate and timely position and velocity measurements from the C/A code for launch vehicle range safety, antenna pointing, and attitude determination. The new technology, demonstrated via software simulation, is compatible with existing launch-capable GPS antennas and receiver hardware, and requires the addition of cabling and a common processor (and can accommodate channel mismatch in the receivers or added hardware). The processing load for jammer suppression is small, less than that for GPS signal tracking. The Phase I program employed signal simulation at the intermediate frequency (IF) of the receivers, after digitization. During Phase II, we propose to develop a demonstration unit consisting of launch-compatible antenna and receiver hardware plus processing software; and to measure its performance using a high-fidelity RF simulation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The principal NASA application of the proposed technology is making GPS metric tracking for the Constellation Program's Ares launch vehicles robust to interference with and jamming of the GPS signals. Effective GPS metric tracking is a crucial component in the success of NASA's autonomous flight safety system and its space-based range demonstration and certification project. Besides the Ares launch vehicles, the same range safety technology applies directly to the United Launch Alliance Atlas V and Delta IV launch vehicles, and to the SpaceX Falcon 1 launch vehicle. Through the use of position measurements at multiple locations on the launch vehicle, the technology also applies to antenna pointing and attitude determination.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology applies directly to range safety in DoD's Common Range Integrated Instrumentation System (CRIIS). It is also particularly well suited to body worn units and platforms that are small or unusually shaped. These include Small Diameter Bomb and its variants; A-160 Humming Bird helicopter, High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) aircraft; and Scan Eagle UAV. The proposed technology would be particularly useful for mini-UAVs planned for urban deployment, for which there is a large homeland security market. Many nonmilitary missions could be enabled by a UAV that could safely fly autonomously in civilian airspace. Effective guidance depends on the availability of GPS signals. Cost and weight considerations preclude use of a CRPA. Hence, without the proposed approach, the UAV would be extremely vulnerable to being blinded by an inexpensive jammer or by inadvertent interference.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Attitude Determination and Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-2 O4.03-9024
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX09CD05P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar Surface Navigation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Precision Time Protocol Based Trilateration for Planetary Navigation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Progeny Systems Corporation
9500 Innovation Drive
Manassas, VA 20110-2210
(703) 368-6107

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ron Murdock
rmurdock@progeny.net
76 Hammarlund Way, Tech 3 Building
Middletown,  RI 02842-5278
(401) 846-0111

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's vision for planetary exploration requires development and field testing of the key technologies required for extended habitation. To support extended lunar operations with technologies directly extensible to the Mars environment, a high fidelity navigation system is needed. Precision localization and route mapping is required for planetary EVA, manned rovers and lunar surface mobility units. The innovation is the establishment of a fault tolerant, field scalable, high precision navigation system that can and support the size, weight, and power (SWaP) goals by integrating mature technologies to provide an navigation capability while naturally supporting data and voice communications on the same network. Perhaps most importantly, this system is bidirectional such that position information is provided to both the base and the mobile units. Such a system provides a precise and reliable navigation backbone to support traverse-path planning systems and other mapping applications and establishes a core infrastructure for long term occupation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA commissioned a Lunar Architecture Team (LAT) to develop a baseline architecture concept for lunar habitation. Communications and Navigation are two of the key focus elements of this architecture concept which are addressed by his topic. This system will be used primarily in planetary habitation, exploration, and mining but also has applications in landing systems for lunar, terrestrial, or Mars reentry. We expect NASA to use this technology for initial development of a lunar base and to support exploration and mining activities on the moon. Later the same technology may be used to perform these functions with only minor modifications during future planetary exploration.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed approach will have other military and commercial applications in the terrestrial environment. Modernization of the aging international LORAN infrastructure with a lower power more accurate digital solution stands out as a key cross-promotion for this system. There is strong domestic and international support for retaining and modernizing the LORAN infrastructure as a backup to GPS. LORAN remains a critical navigational aid for merchant ships, especially in port ingress during heavy storms where GPS is not available. Modernization of domestic and foreign air traffic control systems with a highly precise and reliable air traffic and runway monitoring system is also a large opportunity for this technology. The integration of the IEEE1588 time standard with the Sensis MDS product is expected to improve the accuracy and useful range of the system as well as reducing the cost and complexity of the system.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Erectable
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Thermal Insulating Materials
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Architectures and Networks
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
RF
Microwave/Submillimeter
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Highly-Reconfigurable
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Photovoltaic Conversion
Power Management and Distribution
Wireless Distribution