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NASA 2008 SBIR Phase 1 Solicitation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A1.01-9133
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mitigation of Aircraft Aging and Durability-related Hazards
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hydrophobic Polymers with Adherend Complexing Sidechains as Durable Aerospace Adhesives

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanosonic, Inc.
1485 South Main Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060-5556
(540) 953-1785

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jennifer Lalli
jlalli@nanosonic.com
1485 South Main Street
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-5556
(540) 953-1785

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In support of NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate, NanoSonic would optimize our moisture-resistant aerospace adhesives with in-situ corrosion mitigating surface treatments to improve aviation safety by reducing durability related hazards on subsonic commercial aircraft. NanoSonic specializes in the production of advanced, non-commodity resins as adhesive, sealant, and novel coupling agents. One aspect of our synthetic method involves the systematic replacement of nonpolar groups along well defined polymer backbones with sidechain chemical moieties capable of complexing with metals, hence significantly increasing adhesion to metal or composites relative to nonpolar resins. Synthetically engineered hybrid copolymers allow the inherently hydrophobic backbone to mitigate moisture ingress, while the tailored sidechain moieties offer adhesion orders of magnitude greater than unmodified commodity resins. NanoSonic also tailors the number and type of crosslinking sites available to minimize CTE, while maximizing the mechanical properties and cohesive strength to prevent catastrophic disbonding from aircraft adherend. The specialty adhesives are available in 1-55 gallon drum quantities. Down-selected adhesives and coupling agents shall be tested under harsh thermal (-90şF to 800şF) and environmental conditions and in a wind tunnel (subsonic, Mach <1) along-side state-of-the-art structural aerospace adhesives to increase the TRL from 4 to 6 during Phase I.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NanoSonic's high performance polar, yet hydrophobic adhesives would result in advanced aerospace adhesives and surface treatments with increased durability to minimize subsonic aircraft aging and durability related hazards with a TRL of 6 upon completion of the Phase I program. NanoSonic's polar resins are synthetically engineered to offer stronger adhesion over commercial aircraft adhesives, and the hydrophobic backbone allows for superior moisture resistance and corrosion mitigation. The down-selected polymers would also serve as adhesives or sealants with solvent resistant against jet fuel, sea water and harsh aircraft solvents. The adhesives offered will be delivered in volumes up to 55 gallon drums and are roll-to-roll compatible for repair appliqué. TRL 9 would be reached via successful flight testing and platform integration of the adhesives onto commercial subsonic, supersonic and near-space aircraft such as 787 Dreamliner, V-22, AH-1, UH-60 F/A-18, JSF, HAA and ISIS.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NanoSonic's hydrophobic yet polar hybrid adhesives and coupling agents shall offer excellent adhesion, moisture and corrosion resistance over a wide service temperature range of -90<SUP>o</SUP>C to > 350<SUP>o</SUP>C. While typical epoxies offer good adhesion, the proposed copolymers offered herein are synthetically engineered to provide service over a wider thermal range with enhanced solvent resistance (sea water, jet fuel and solvents) and weatherability against UV and ozone. The backbone allows for cryogenic compliance, while the novel copolymer design offers inherently higher thermal stability relative to commodity structural adhesives. During Phase I, accelerated ageing studies will be carried out to verify peel and lap shear adhesion of > 10,000 psi up to 1,000 hours. Additional thermomechanical studies shall be carried out under cryogenic and elevated temperatures (-65şF to 285şF) for supersonic simulations and after soaking metal-to-appliqué peel specimens in boiling water and heated solvents.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Inflatable
Thermal Insulating Materials
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
General Public Outreach
Composites
Radiation Shielding Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A1.02-8907
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensing and Diagnostic Capability for Aircraft Aging and Damage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Micromechanical Models for Composite NDE and Diagnostics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
JENTEK Sensors, Inc.
110-1 Clematis Avenue
Waltham, MA 02453-7013
(781) 642-9666

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrew Washabaugh JENTEK Sensors, Inc.
jentek@shore.net
110-1 Clematis Avenue
Waltham,  MA 01453-7013
(781) 642-9666

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Modern aircraft increasingly rely on composite components, due to their excellent material properties. However, fastening/joining and design methodologies in current use are artifacts of metallic aircraft component use and are not yet optimized for use with composites. Furthermore, limitations in our current ability to observe manufacturing quality and in-service damage evolution of composite structures may prevent designers from realizing their full potential. Current NDE practices are incapable of overcoming these limitations. Thus, a new framework and methodology is needed for high resolution imaging and tracking of manufacturing quality and damage evolution. The goal of this program is to enable assessment of the matrix, fiber, and bonding conditions for composites using a combination of detailed physics based models, high resolution imaging, and controlled loading sources to isolate the composite characteristic of interest. In Phase I we will focus on magnetic field sensing (i.e., eddy-current) methods that can be combined with structural analysis to enhance the diagnostic capabilities of these NDE methods. JENTEK and MR&D are well-positioned to deliver this methodology in the form of commercial software and NDE equipment. We will also work with a major aircraft OEM to maintain our focus on practical solutions to high priority needs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
If the program is successful, it will provide NASA with a framework in which a variety of NDE methods can deliver enhanced performance for manufacturing quality assessment and life management of composite components and bonded structures. This will be enabled by improving the understanding of the interactions between the incident energy associated with particular NDE methods and the composite constituents, including the use of thermal and mechanical loading sources.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Civilian aircraft designers will experience the same benefits in terms of being able to more fully utilize the capability of composite aircraft components to provide weight reductions, payload improvements and fuel efficiency. As composite component design, quality assessment and life management mature, composites will be increasingly integrated into automotive and transportation systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A1.02-9028
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensing and Diagnostic Capability for Aircraft Aging and Damage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultrasonic Guided Wave Simulation Toolbox for Virtual Inspection of Composites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
George Zhao
xzhao@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville,  AK 20855-2737
(301) 294-5232

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Ultrasonic guided wave nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are being used to detect flaws and damage in fracture critical structures such as composites. In order to provide early detection of aging and damage processes in composites, we propose to develop a "virtual inspection" simulation toolbox specifically for ultrasonic guided waves. This toolbox will be able to evaluate ultrasonic guided wave NDE methods for its feasibility as part of the design process for critical system components, and it would include modeling the changes in critical material properties as indicators of material aging and then quantifying the levels of detectability of these material properties with the guided wave NDE technique. This computational tool will be able to accurately model the interaction between the changes in the material properties and the probing energy of guided waves to allow the development of the inspection parameters needed for application on a particular structure.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Substantial budget expenditures and schedule delays are often required to develop and demonstrate effective NDE techniques for critical components not designed for inspection. To avoid such problems as NASA moves forward in the Constellation Program to develop the CEV, CLV, and follow-on spacecraft and habitat structures, it is essential to provide design tools that will enable rapid assessment of the feasibility of NDE methods as part of the design process for critical system components (thermal protection systems, pressure systems, composite structures, etc.). Computational NDE methodologies will help to predict the response from a variety of NDE methods (ultrasonic, radiographic, thermographic, electromagnetic, optical, etc.) in complex aerospace structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NDE and structural health monitoring is also important for many military and commercial systems such as aircraft, automobiles, trains, home appliances, nuclear reactors, etc. A computational NDE tool will help the maintenance staff and Original Equipment Manufactures (OEMs) for better design the structures and inspection practices to ensure the structure integrity. The success of such software toolbox will greatly benefit the NDE community for enhancing the structural safety while reducing the maintenance costs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Structural Modeling and Tools
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A1.02-9322
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensing and Diagnostic Capability for Aircraft Aging and Damage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nonlinear Time Reversal Acoustic Method of Friction Stir Weld Assessment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Artann Laboratories, Inc.
1753 Linvale Harbourton Road
Lamberville, NJ 08530-3302
(609) 883-0100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Armen Sarvazyan
armen@artannlabs.com
1753 Linvale Harbourton Rd.
Lambertville NJ,  NJ 08530-3302
(609) 333-0710

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of the project is demonstration of the feasibility of Friction Stir Weld (FSW) assessment by novel Nonlinear Time Reversal Acoustic (TRA) method. Time reversal acoustic focusing provides the means to concentrate sound energy at any point in a material, inducing elastic nonlinear effects in the focal area. The level on nonlinearity depends on crack and defect presence and measurements of nonlinear effects in TRA focused wave are the basis of the proposed Nonlinear TRA NDE method. This method is especially sensitive to detection of kissing bond that is difficult to detect by other methods. The experimental setups for measurements of local nonlinearity in FSW will be developed and results of the measurements will be compared with the standard weld NDE methods including dye penetrant, radiographic and ultrasonic inspection.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The suggested work will lead to a simple, cost-effective technology and instrumentation for assessment of Friction Stir Weld (FSW). The developed method will be primary orientated to NASA needs and can be used for FSW control in production of Space Shuttle's gigantic External Tank. The developed method can be used by other airspace companies including: Boeing Delta II and Delta IV Expendable Launch Vehicles and the SpaceX Falcon 1 rocket as for another NASA application.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed novel technology will have broad civilian applications for the quality control of Friction Stir Weld (FSW) and other kinds of welds. Friction welding is cost-effective method of joining highly dissimilar materials and geometries; it is a versatile process that had been successfully used in many industries. By assessment of the FSW quality, the life expectancy of the pars will be extended, replacement costs lowered and downtime reduced, higher production volume and increased capacity will be possible. Consumer based applications of the proposed method for FSW include as light and heavy automotive, electrical, chemical and civil engineering; pump, agricultural and construction equipment; electric motors; drilling, marine and printing industries. FSW produced components include air bag canisters, axle cases and tubes, drive shafts, drill pipes, tunneling rods, electrical connectors, hydraulic piston rods and cylinders, pump shafts, swivel pins, track rollers and turbo chargers. Materials which can be friction welded include nickel alloys, low and medium carbon, micro alloyed, case hardened, heat and corrosion resistant, nitriding and carburising steels, and titanium. Defense industry applications of the proposed method for FSW include assessment of armor plating for amphibious assault ships, and welding the wings and fuselage panels of the new Eclipse 500 aircraft from Eclipse Aviation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Testing Facilities
Instrumentation
Production
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
Metallics
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A1.04-8545
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation External Hazard Sensor Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fiber Laser Coherent Lidar for Wake-Vortex Hazard Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fibertek, Inc.
510 Herndon Parkway
Herndon, VA 20170-5225
(703) 956-3646

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Shantanu Gupta
dmyer@fibertek.com
510 Herndon Parkway
Herndon,  VA 20170-5225
(703) 956-3646

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose a 1.5um fiber-optic pulsed coherent lidar as a highly effective sensor sub-system for airborne wake-vortex hazard detection. The proposed design is based on a recently developed platform at Fibertek, for fiber-optic pulsed coherent lidar capable of 6km range, and operating at high pulse rate to give high-resolution spatial map and circulation strength, characteristic of typical wake-vortex signatures. The proposed system uses all COTS 1.5um fiber-optic component technology and COTS high-speed digital electronics, to provide a cost-effective system, that is amenable to rapid transition for field testing and adoption.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
(1a) Ground-based wake vortex hazard monitoring at airport terminal area take-off/landing interval optimization (1b) Airborne wake-vortext hazard monitoring for pilot assistance, during landing in congested airports. (2) Wind-shear turbulence monitoring (3) Investigate & map atmospheric boundary layer dynamics for improved local weather scientific understanding, and local weather forecasting

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
(1) Wind vector sensor for aiding and/or extending Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) flight duration, for extended surveillance missions (2) Tracking of hazardous aerosol plume detection, for providing advance warning to affected entities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A1.04-9335
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation External Hazard Sensor Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Cost LIDAR for Wake Vortex Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Q-Peak, Inc.
135 South Road
Bedford, MA 01730-2355
(781) 275-9535

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Flint
flint@qpeak.com
135 South Rd
Bedford,  MA 01730-2355
(781) 275-9535

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has been tasked with supporting the development of key technologies to facilitate the evolution of the National Airspace System to NextGen, the Next Generation Air Transportation System. One of these key technologies is the detection of wake vortices generated by other aircraft. This is of particular concern during take-off and landing, both because the danger is particularly acute, and because of the large economic impact of having to widely space the aircraft. About $5 billion of revenue is lost each year due to delays and lower throughput in our nation's airports. Ground-based lidars have the ability to detect and track wake vortices, but mounting similar systems on aircraft would be prohibitively expensive. We propose to develop an intrinsically low-cost lidar that would be suitable for deployment on commercial airliners. Costs are kept low through an extremely simple design: a passively Q-switched single-frequency laser that uses a fiber delay-line in place of a local oscillator. The Phase I effort will also include a modeling task to explore detecting wake vortices using an on-axis lidar instead of imaging from the side. Since the primary flow components will be perpendicular to the lidar beam, we anticipate that looking for an increase in the width of the coherent return may prove to be the best approach.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications of coherent lidar relate to flight safety (clear air turbulence, wind shear) and Earth sensing (wind sensing for weather, as well as wind sensing for pollution and CO2 source/sink studies). Low-cost laser technology has much broader appeal to lasers for deep-space communication, automated docking, and DIAL.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications of coherent lidar also relate to flight safety (clear air turbulence, wind shear) and to Earth sensing activities, but not from space. These include wind sensing for pollution tracking (especially if a pollution credit market develops) and for wind-farm site assessment. Low-cost laser technology has many applications including communication, materials processing, process control, and medical.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Optical
Photonics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A1.05-8676
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Systems Technologies for Improved Aviation Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flight Crew State Monitoring Metrics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Emerald Sky Technologies, LLC
6106 Hour Hand Court
Columbia, MD 21044-4702
(443) 745-4109

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steven Fritz
StevenFritz@fly-esky.com
6106 Hour Hand Court
Columbia,  MD 21044-4702
(443) 745-4109

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
eSky will develop specific crew state metrics based on the timeliness, tempo and accuracy of pilot inputs required by the H-mode Flight Control System (HFCS). Specific scenarios will be developed which define required inputs by the pilot and metrics of timeliness, tempo and accuracy will be developed for each required input. An existing HFCS simulator will be enhanced to support the full scenarios and crew state metric capture. Human subject testing will validate the stability of the metrics in normal situations and the responsiveness of the metrics to crew state degradation due to high workload. Strategies for continuous real-time function allocation to crew and automation will be developed. At the end of phase 1 crew state monitoring metrics will be at TRL 4/5. In phase 2 we will incorporate these metrics and strategies into the HFCS simulator and evaluate the usability and validity of these metrics and strategies using both workload and hypoxia as means of controlled crew state degradation. At the end of phase 2 metric-based function reallocation will be implemented in a collaborative flight control system ready for incorporation into a full motion simulator at TRL 5.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Crew state monitoring through performance-based metrics will be applicable to any manned flight, whether of aircraft or spacecraft. The metrics could be used for simple crew monitoring or embedded in a collaborative flight control system that bases assignment of specific functionality to crew or automation on the measured crew functional state. Specific applications include: 1. Orion crew monitoring on space flight missions 2. Space shuttle crew monitoring 3. Crew monitoring on any NASA aircraft 4. Enhancement of any Flight Management System on any NASA aircraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Crew state monitoring through performance-based metrics will be applicable to any manned flight, whether of aircraft or spacecraft. The metrics could be used for simple crew monitoring or embedded in a collaborative flight control system that bases assignment of specific functionality to crew or automation on the measured crew functional state. Specific applications include: 1. Private spacecraft such as the Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne 2. General aviation Flight Management Systems 3. General aviation collaborative flight control systems 4. Air transport Flight Management Systems 5. Military aircraft Flight Management Systems 6. Light Sport Aircraft 7. Uncrewed Aerial Vehicles operator workstations

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Human-Robotic Interfaces
Intelligence
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Human-Computer Interfaces


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A1.05-9347
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Systems Technologies for Improved Aviation Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Voice to Text Language Translation (VTLT)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ingenium Technologies Corporation
4216 Maray Drive
Rockford, IL 61107-4970
(815) 399-8803

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Foskett
Jim.Foskett@IngeniumTech.com
2902 Spring Creek Road
Rockford,  IL 61107-1062
(815) 315-0741

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A feasibility analysis of adding a second modality to pilot/Air Traffic Control (ATC) communications. The real time availability of text in Air Traffic Control ground systems and pilot displays promises improvements in the safety and efficiency of pilot/ATC communication. The improvements would be especially applicable in high density/high workload environments such as low altitude terminal operations(<10,000ft) and airport ground operations. The phase 1 evaluation consists of the design of a conceptual systems model of the human-technology interface, an assessment of independent variables that affect information processing skills and a test of dual modality communications to show the impact of a second modality on task performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Safety statistics show that 1 runway incursion or close call occurs each day in the US alone. In addition, air traffic volume is reaching a saturation point putting a strain on the system and its users. Long lines on the tarmac, wasted fuel and increasing congestion that threaten safety and efficiency. The technology addressed in this proposal will fill a gap in the Trajectory Based Operations by providing a system and method for unambiguous communication between pilots and Air Traffic Controllers in high density environments. For pilots who don't speak English as their first language this will enhance safety and efficiency of communication by significantly improving understanding.Radio frequency congestion will be reduced for all ATC end users by simplifying or significantly reducing the need for readbacks.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Personal, business, combat and industrial applications where the voice/audio signal is affected or compromised by factors such as noise, multiple rapid transmissions by multiple speakers on one radio frequency or by the psycho cognitive limitations of the receivers of such information. For example, this application could be applied in medivac where the high noise environments of helicopter cabins makes it difficult for the reception and transmission of auditory transmissions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Pilot Support Systems
Human-Computer Interfaces


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A1.05-9507
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Systems Technologies for Improved Aviation Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cognitive Modeling for Closed-Loop Task Mitigation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christine Bredfeldt
cbredfeldt@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville,  MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-4763

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As flightdeck equipment becomes more sophisticated and complex, operations become significantly more cognitively demanding. When tasks demands exceed the operator's available cognitive resources, potentially costly errors occur. A task mitigation system that is able to monitor the task and the operator's functional state (OFS) and implement task mitigation strategies before an operator becomes overloaded could significantly reduce errors and allow operators to work more efficiently. This proposal describes the development of a closed-loop task mitigation system that uses advanced regression techniques to identify the relationships between the OFS, the physiological measurements, the mission-related context, and the task mitigation strategies. To maximize accuracy, we use task analysis to develop a computational cognitive model of the planned mission profile, which is then used to train the regression model. The computational cognitive model describes the OFS as a continuous function along four dimensions: executive function, spatial working memory, verbal working memory and attention. The task analysis is also used to develop task mitigation strategies for each psychological dimension that assist the operator with task switching, maintaining awareness of multiple task "threads", and performing cognitively demanding tasks. Finally, the task mitigation strategies enable the system to dynamically allocate tasks among multiple operators.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed research is in direct support of NASA's mission in multiple areas. The research supports the mission of the Aviation Safety group, by providing a system that identifies cognitive states that are likely to lead to operational errors and aids operators to optimize performance and minimize risk. In addition, the proposed research is directly applicable to work currently underway in Operator State Assessment. Finally, the proposed system could be useful for both training and operations of air traffic controllers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The task mitigation system will be applicable in any environment, military or civilian, where human operators perform complex tasks over long periods of time, including UAVs, air traffic controllers, pilots and heavy equipment operators. The proposed work provides the following key benefits: 1) a closed loop system that monitors OFS, predicts performance decrements, selects the appropriate task mitigation strategy, and implements the task mitigation to maintain operator performance at optimal levels; and 2) the development of a task analysis process suitable for developing initial continuous models of OFS and identifying appropriate task mitigation strategies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Pilot Support Systems
Computer System Architectures
Human-Computer Interfaces
Mission Training


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A1.07-8601
SUBTOPIC TITLE: On-Board Flight Envelope Estimation for Unimpaired and Impaired Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aircraft Flight Envelope Identification through On-Board Model Based Estimation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618-2302
(609) 538-0444

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jefrfrey Keller
jeff@continuum-dynamics.com
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing,  NJ 08618-2302
(609) 538-0444

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To improve aviation safety with anticipated growth in capacity, it is necessary to develop flight control technologies that enable safe operations as anomalous conditions occur. These developments are particularly important to reduce fatal loss of control accidents due to aircraft degradation and abrupt aerodynamic changes including upsets. It is necessary to develop methods to identify and characterize anomalies in flight, as well as to estimate the impacts on the flight envelope and the ability to effect control forces for recovery and/or flight planning to achieve safe landing. An approach to identify anomalies including aerodynamic upsets based on model-based fault detection methods will be combined with physics-based models to assess the impact on the aircraft flight envelope and controllability. These tools will permit off-line analysis and will facilitate the development of on-board guidance and control algorithms to support NASA goals for greater aircraft resiliency during adverse flight conditions. In Phase I, development and demonstration of a generalized system architecture to identify and assess the effects of aircraft anomalies will be performed, which builds upon previous work toward model-based aircraft upset detection. Phase I demonstrations will include simulation evaluation for a generic transport aircraft and test demonstration for a small unmanned aircraft.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary outcome of this research and development will be design and simulation tools to develop detection algorithms for aircraft anomalies and to assess the impacts of these anomalies on the aircraft controllability and recovery capability, including intelligent flight guidance for potentially degraded aircraft. These methods will form the basis of design toolbox for supporting development of aircraft resilient control and on-board guidance algorithms. Potential NASA applications include development of aircraft anomaly diagnostics and flight directors, which may be integrated with resilient flight control demonstration technology. These technologies support NASA Aviation Safety Program objectives for safe operations during adverse conditions and aircraft anomalies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to improving safety of existing and future commercial aircraft systems, the results of this research and development will also benefit general aviation, in particular for aircraft with modern avionics systems. Detection and assessment of a subset of aircraft anomalies and upset conditions may potentially be performed using reduced, low-cost sensor packages. This spin-off technology application may be incorporated into a retrofittable (portable) system, thus permitting development of a stand-alone avionics package that may have broad application beneficial to all general aviation aircraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Pilot Support Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A1.07-8708
SUBTOPIC TITLE: On-Board Flight Envelope Estimation for Unimpaired and Impaired Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Algorithm Design and Validation for Adaptive Nonlinear Control Enhancement (ADVANCE) Technology Development for Resilient Flight Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scientific Systems Company, Inc.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801-6562
(781) 933-5355

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jovan Boskovic
Jovan.Boskovic@ssci.com
500 West Cummings Park Suite 3000
Woburn,  MA 01801-6562
(781) 933-5355

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SSCI proposes to develop and test a framework referred to as the ADVANCE (Algorithm Design and Validation for Adaptive Nonlinear Control Enhancement), within which we plan to perform a comparison study of the state-of-the-art adaptive flight control algorithms on two challenging testbeds: (i) a small tailsitter unmanned aerial vehicle that is characterized by highly uncertain nonlinear dynamics, and (ii) F/A-18 aircraft under wing damage. The results of this study should give rise to a set of recommendations and guidelines regarding the use, tuning and implementation of different advanced nonlinear adaptive control algorithms to problems in flight control in the presence of large modeling uncertainties. Based on this study, we also propose to develop the ADVANCE algorithms and techniques as the most suitable combination of those that represent the state-of-the-art in nonlinear adaptive flight control. This combination will focus on retaining the most favorable features of the existing algorithms, while minimizing their disadvantages and unfavorable interactions. Specific Phase I tasks will include: (i) Problem formulation; (ii) Testbed modeling and simulation development; (iii) Simulation testing of flight control algorithms; (iv) Performance evaluation & trade study. Phase II will include further enhancement and development of the proposed ADVANCE algorithms and comprehensive testing of methods of interest through pilot-in-the-loop simulations of F/A-18 aircraft, and flight testing of the tailsitter UAV. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Prof. Jonathan How) and Boeing Phantom Works (James Urnes, Sr.) will provide technical support under the project.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Design of effective adaptive flight control systems capable of accommodating highly nonlinear vehicle dynamics and large uncertainties is fundamental to the future advancement of aircraft development and design. For most aerospace applications nonlinear dynamics and uncertainty can either be inherent to the airframe design or induced from flight sustained upsets, damage and/or external hazards. Hence the proposed technique will find wide applications in flight control design for both commercial and military aerospace vehicles. In addition, effective adaptive control designs are directly applicable to GNC problems in space exploration.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Efficient adaptive control system designs are applicable to a wide variety of engineering systems including general Unmanned Systems (aerial, ground, surface, underwater), robotics, automotive industry, process control, and power systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Guidance, Navigation, and Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A1.07-9537
SUBTOPIC TITLE: On-Board Flight Envelope Estimation for Unimpaired and Impaired Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Upset Prevention and Recovery for Unimpaired and Impaired Aircraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Techno-Sciences, Inc.
11750 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300
Beltsville, MD 20705-3194
(240) 790-0600

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gaurav Bajpai
bajpai@technosci.com
11750 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300
Beltsville,  MD 20705-3194
(240) 790-0600

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed project will develop and deliver a software system that integrates tools required for a complete analysis of loss-of-control incidents. The system will include a graphical user interface that provides easy access to symbolic and numerical computing tools that support aircraft modeling, nonlinear dynamic analysis and control analysis; sophisticated data base management; and visualization. We also propose and will implement an innovative methodology and associated computer tools for analysis and control synthesis in the context of upset prevention and recovery for unimpaired and impaired aircraft. Our approach will address: aerodynamic modeling of aircraft operating outside of the normal flight envelope, multi-mode operation of aircraft, automated assembly of analytical and simulation models – including real time models, analytical methods and tools for identifying conditions for departure from controlled flight and identification of 'safe' operating states, and analytical methods and tools for identifying the set of recoverable states and associated recovery strategies. The goal is to provide easy to use, verifiable design software to improve commercial flight safety.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposal will significantly advance NASA's Aviation Safety Programs technical goals of developing on-board flight envelope investigation for unimpaired and impaired aircraft alike. In particular, the technology proposed is closely linked to Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control project's goal of "Stability, maneuverability and safe landings in presence of adverse conditions". The proposed technology will go a long way in making not just commercial aircraft safer but it has the potential to improve the understanding of flight dynamics and control including that required for space shuttle safety.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary users of the proposed tools will be commercial aircraft manufacturers where air transport must provide improved capabilities to enhance passenger safety and mission performance, and commercial airline operators and manufactures where improving safety is an increasing imperative as air passenger miles expand. The secondary market is the Department of Defense agencies. We expect that the secondary market may be the first adopter of proposed technology. The proposed research addresses the need to reduce accidents caused by loss-of-control in flight, the leading cause that accounted for 59% of the fatal transport aircraft accidents in the past ten years.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Facilities
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A1.07-9900
SUBTOPIC TITLE: On-Board Flight Envelope Estimation for Unimpaired and Impaired Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Adaptive Flight Envelope Estimation and Protection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Impact Technologies, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd.
Rochester, NY 14623-2893
(585) 627-1923

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Roemer
mike.roemer@impact-tek.com
200 Canal View Boulevard
Rochester,  NY 14623-2893
(585) 424-1990

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Impact Technologies, in collaboration with the Georgia Institute of Technology, proposes to develop and demonstrate an innovative flight envelope estimation and protection system for aircraft under damage upset conditions or severe flight variations. Through the integration of advanced fault detection (IVHM) algorithms, real-time system identification of the damage/faulted aircraft and flight envelop mapping, real-time decision support can be executed autonomously for improving damage tolerance and flight recoverability. The core tasks to complete of this proposed workscope include: 1) Development of a strong-tracking health identification algorithm for assessing the dynamics and performance limitation of impaired aircraft; 2) Development of the adaptive flight envelope estimation process; 3) Development of the envelope protection algorithm based on adaptive neural networks that can learn the generated online dynamic models; and 4) Demonstration of the proposed technologies under realistic flight control actuator and propulsion fault conditions. A core innovation of this program is the use of the on-line, adaptive learning neural networks that are capable of generating the dynamic models and operational envelop in real-time, which can then be used to estimate limits on the controller commands while preventing envelope exceedances. The developed techniques will be demonstrated in Phase I using an integrated aircraft model that uses the NASA MAPSS propulsion model and Generic Transport Model (GTM), with eventual demonstration using the NASA Flight Simulator at NASA Langley.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful completion of the proposed work will substantially improve the performance, reliability, and survivability of the general aviation (GA) aircraft. Potential applications of the software include design and testing of Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC), aircraft IVHM, Crew Exploration Vehicle, Reusable Launch Vehicles, Unmanned Air Vehicles and future generation general aviation platforms.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential commercial use of the developed technologies is broad. Examples of key customers that could benefit through use of the developed technologies include: JSF, military and commercial fixed-wing aircraft, rotorcraft, and high-performance land vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Intelligence
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A1.09-8478
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Robust Flare Planning and Guidance for Unimpaired and Impaired Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robust 3-D Algorithm for Flare Planning and Guidance for Impaired Aircraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimal Synthesis, Inc.
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos, CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
P. K. Menon
menon@optisyn.com
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos,  CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Development of a robust nonlinear guidance law for planning and executing the flare-touchdown maneuver for impaired aircraft under adverse wind conditions is proposed. The approach employs estimated operational envelope of the damaged aircraft and ambient winds to plan flap deployment schedule and the flare-touchdown maneuver. The algorithm will also provide guidance for precise execution of the terminal de-crab maneuver in the presence of crosswinds. The guidance law will be formulated in terms of aircraft attitude components to enable direct coupling with the autopilot or for providing pilot guidance through the flight director. Phase I research will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed guidance law in an aircraft simulation. Robustness to unmodeled dynamics and uncertainties will be demonstrated. Phase II research will develop standalone guidance law implementation in a real-time operating system for NASA-specified aircraft model. This implementation will then be coupled with a high-fidelity manned simulation to assess its performance under realistic operational scenarios. Algorithms and software developed under the proposed research will be provided to NASA at the end of Phase II research. Phase III work will focus on flight test evaluation of the robust flare guidance law.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed research will contribute towards NASA's Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control program.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed research will develop a robust guidance law for impaired aircraft. This guidance law is also useful for use under normal operating conditions. Algorithms and software developed under the proposed SBIR work will contribute significantly towards improving the safety of military, commercial and general aviation aircraft operations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Intelligence
Guidance, Navigation, and Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A1.09-9907
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Robust Flare Planning and Guidance for Unimpaired and Impaired Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Robust Flare Planning Logic for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110-2702
(703) 369-3633

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Antonio Abad
aabad@aurora.aero
1 Broadway, 12th Floor
Cambridge,  MA 02142-1189
(617) 500-7048

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aurora Flight Sciences proposes to develop a flare planning logic that would provide aircraft guidance during this critical phase of flight. The algorithms that Aurora seeks to leverage address the reachability problem in the fields of Optimal Control and Hybrid Systems. Two competing technical approaches will beconsidered; Aurora collectively refers to them as "Safety Verification-based algorithms."To this end, Aurora proposes the innovation of applying a suitable version of these algorithms to the design of a flare maneuver guidance and planning logic. The planner will be capable of dynamically producing a flare maneuver guaranteed not to violate the aircraft flight envelope and other stipulated constraints. The planner will meet the robustness requirements stipulated in the topic solicitation; namely, it will apply to both impeded and unimpeded aircraft, and it will operate under significant weather disturbances. The main technical challenge in developing the planning logic is extending and applying the chosen control algorithms to 6-DOF aircraft dynamics models under the required variety of operating conditions. The ultimate goal of the Phase 1 effort is to explore the feasibility of applying Safety Verification-based optimal control algorithms to an appropriately sophisticated model of the aircraft dynamics during the flare maneuver.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aurora envisions two related NASA Commercial Applications resulting from the proposed innovation, both of which align with NASA's Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) project. First, the planning logic is envisioned as a separate, specialized module tailored specifically to the flare phase of flight, thus fulfilling the multi-disciplinary IRAC project goal for one flight phase. In a broader context, the success demonstration of applying Safety Verification-based algorithms to this difficult flight regime would spur similar efforts and thus, applications to many other flight regimes.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aurora envisions two possible non-NASA Commercial Applications resulting from the proposed innovation. The first, and immediate application of the planner is to UAV Automatic Take-off and Landing (ATOL) systems on Aurora'sfleets of UAVs. A second, and broader application is based on the opportunity of becoming experts in developing Safety Verification-based algorithms and their application to both manned and unmanned systems. An example application in the manned systems domain is the extension of the planner to autolander systems.For unmanned systems, Auroraviews this effort as a technical opportunity that will eventually assist in improving UAV safety and reliability.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Pilot Support Systems
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A1.10-9580
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detection of In-Flight Aircraft Anomalies
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Nonlinear Adaptive Approach to Isolation of Sensor Faults and Component Faults

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Impact Technologies, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd.
Rochester, NY 14623-2893
(585) 627-1923

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Liang Tang
liang.tang@impact-tek.com
200 Canal View Boulevard
Rochester,  NY 14623-2893
(585) 424-1990

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Impact Technologies, LLC in collaboration with Wright State University and Pratt & Whitney, propose to develop innovative methods to differentiate sensor failure from actual system or component failure for advanced propulsion systems. In sharp contrast to many conventional methods which deal with either sensor failure or component failure but not both, our method considers sensor failure and component failure under one systematic and unified framework. The proposed solution consists of two main components: a bank of real-time nonlinear adaptive fault diagnostic estimators for residual generation and a Transferable Belief Model (TBM) based component for residual evaluation. By employing a nonlinear adaptive learning architecture, the presented approach is capable of directly dealing with nonlinear engine models and nonlinear faults without the need of linearization. Fault sensitivity and robustness to modeling uncertainty is enhanced by several important techniques including adaptive reference nonlinear engine model, adaptive diagnostic thresholds, and TBM based residual evaluation method. Software modules will be developed and integrated into the NASA C-MAPSS engine model for performance evaluation. A subset of core algorithms will be implemented and used in a hardware-in-the-loop demonstration under dSPACE environment to justify a Technology Readiness Level of 4-5 at the conclusion of Phase I.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful completion of the proposed work will lead to improvements in the safe operations of commercial and general aviation (GA) aircraft and address the goals of the NASA Aviation Safety program. The proposed fault diagnostic technologies with an emphasis on sensor/component failure isolation will be directly applicable to Propulsion IVHM, Crew Exploration Vehicle, Reusable Launch Vehicles, Unmanned Air Vehicles and future generation general aviation platforms. It will lead to benefits in the form of improved reliability, maintainability, and survivability of safety-critical aerospace systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential commercial use of the developed technologies is broad. Examples of key customers that could benefit through use of the developed technologies include: commercial and military aircraft, unmanned combat air vehicles, JSF, future combat systems, land and marine propulsion systems, industrial actuation systems, and robotic applications. The aero propulsion domain alone has thousands of potential systems to address with this technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A1.11-8886
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Integrated Diagnosis and Prognosis of Aircraft Anomalies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Prognostic and Fault Tolerant Reconfiguration Strategies for Aerospace Power Electronic Controllers and Electric Machines

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Impact Technologies, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd.
Rochester, NY 14623-2893
(585) 627-1923

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Myra Torres
myra.torres@impact-tek.com
200 Canal View Boulevard
Rochester,  NY 14623-2893
(585) 424-1990

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Impact Technologies proposes to develop a real-time prognostic and fault/failure accommodation system of critical electric power system components including power converters and electro-mechanical drives for the aerospace and aeronautical industry. The innovation of project is focused on the integration of emerging prognostic technologies with fault tolerant methodologies to improve system reliability and mission readiness for NASA's next generation electrical power systems. The proposed concept will utilize incipient fault detection techniques to provide longer predicted horizons prior to failures, and time to trigger the appropriate reconfiguration scheme. Impact Technologies' approach uses fault detection circuits and algorithms to analyze data from several sources including electrical and environmental measurements, model estimates, and usage conditions. Up-to-date assessments of the electrical system health and remaining useful life of critical components will be made possible via an on-board embedded processing system, which continuously updates prognostic models with sensed data and predicts the best fault accommodation strategy to meet mission objectives. The proposed electrical system fault prognosis and accommodation approach will be demonstrated with a Motor/Generator/Drive test bench adapted for use in this program and with data from the modern aerospace power system and electromechanical actuators.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Reliability assessment and diagnostic methods for power electronics device and actuator will increase safety and controllability for Crew Exploration Vehicles, Reusable Launch Vehicles, Unmanned Air Vehicles, and future generation of general aviation platforms. It will lead to benefits in the form of improved reliability, maintainability, and survivability of safety-critical aerospace systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential commercial use of the developed technologies is broad. Examples of key customers that could benefit through use of the developed technologies include: unmanned combat air vehicles, JSF, future combat systems, commercial airlines, land and marine propulsion systems, industrial actuation systems, and robotic applications. The aero propulsion domain alone has thousands of potential systems to address with this technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Solar
Feed System Components
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Highly-Reconfigurable
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A1.11-9405
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Integrated Diagnosis and Prognosis of Aircraft Anomalies
PROPOSAL TITLE: All-Fiber-Optic Ultrasonic Health Management System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle, Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016-4962
(540) 769-8400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vladimir Kochergin
submissions@lunainnovations.com
3157 State Street
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-6604
(540) 769-8400

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Health management of composite airframe components is essential for safety and reliability of future aircrafts. It reduces the risk of catastrophic failures and reduces operating costs. Luna Innovations proposes to develop a revolutionary airframe health management system on the basis of an all-fiber optic ultrasonic structural health monitoring system (SHM) and accurate prognostics algorithms. The key component of SHM system is a highly multiplexible transducer generating ultrasonic waves in the predefined locations of the optical fiber. Using such a technique, 10s of transducers and 1000s of sensors can be placed on the optical fiber embedded or surface-mounted to the airframe component thereby providing unmatched multiplexing capability. Origination and propagation of defects will be retrieved with high spatial resolution thus providing a basis for an accurate estimation of a component's Remaining Useful Life. During the Phase I, efforts will focus on demonstrating feasibility of an efficient ultrasound generation with the proposed fiber optic transducer and selecting appropriate prognostics algorithms. In Phase II, sensors, transducers will continue to be refined and will undergo extensive testing and validation. By the end of Phase II, the proposed health management system will reach TRL 5. In Phase III, Luna will commercialize the developed system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Due to the unique benefits (high accuracy, lightweight, cost-effectiveness, EMI-immunity and harsh-environment compatibility) over competing technologies, the proposed airframe health management system is expected to find a number of NASA applications. Besides the health management of composite and metallic airframe components, the proposed system is expected to find applications in structural health monitoring and health management of aircraft engine, fuselage and other parts. This is due to a proven harsh environment compatibility of the proposed sensors and a predicted harsh environment compatibility of the proposed actuators. In each of these applications the proposed health management system is expected to provide a significant impact on important characteristics such as safety, reliability of the structural components, and minimization of maintenance/replacement cost. This, in turn, will cause a significant impact on the cost, safety and reliability of future NASA missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA applications, the proposed all-fiber optic ultrasonic sensing system (the heart of proposed health management system) can be potentially applied to such fields as health monitoring and management of structural components including naval vehicles, civil structures (buildings and bridges), power plants (wind turbines, stuck liners). However, the most promising market for the proposed system is believed to be the structural health monitoring and management of military airframe and engine components.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A1.11-9707
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Integrated Diagnosis and Prognosis of Aircraft Anomalies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Model Updating and Uncertainty Management for Aircraft Prognostic Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sentient Corporation
850 Energy Drive
Idaho Falls, ID 83401-1503
(802) 861-6300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nate Bolander
nbolander@sentientscience.com
850 Energy Drive
Idaho Falls,  ID 83401-1503
(208) 522-8560

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal addresses the integration of physics-based damage propagation models with diagnostic measures of current state of health in a mathematically rigorous method for the determination of remaining useful life. The principle goal of the proposed Phase I research is the investigation of issues associated with the integration of three independently developed algorithms (physics-based damage progression, diagnostics, and model updating architecture) in a single functioning system. Of particular interest is the ability of the proposed architecture to adequately represent the uncertainty associated with both diagnostic state estimation and loading conditions, and the propagation of such uncertainties to the remaining useful life prediction. The integrated prognostic system will be demonstrated using bearing damage (spallation) propagation models coupled with vibration derived diagnostic measures of spall severity obtained from in house testing. Following V&V of the baseline component-level prognostic system, extension of the existing technology towards support of subsystem-level (multi-model) prognostics will be pursued.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed general-purpose set of reusable tools and code will substantially reduce the time and cost of developing on-board prognostics for new aircraft and spacecraft health management systems, while helping to ensure robust and accurate performance of the final system. Any system that uses sensor-based diagnostics to indicate state and models to predict fault progression (which includes most prognostics and health management systems) would benefit from the proposed toolset. This includes vehicle health management systems in spacecraft, launch vehicles, propulsion systems, and similar applications. Potential NASA applications are many, and include the Shuttle program and its successors, satellite health management systems, and exploration programs. Both orbiters and planetary rovers have components that do or could utilize autonomous health management technologies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed toolset will have extensive military and commercial applications. Again, any system that uses sensor-based diagnostics to indicate state and models to predict fault progression would benefit from the proposed toolset. Our vision for this technology is to develop a complete solution for most prognostics and health management applications, including the onboard framework and software components. System integrators or PHM/VHM developers will only need to add the application specific signal processing/diagnostics algorithms and fault progression model to rapidly assemble a complete prognostic capability. Sentient will strive to eventually make the architecture the de facto standard for prognostics by utilizing open interfaces, publishing all standards, and providing robust plug-and-play components. Aircraft and specifically propulsion systems are currently leading the way in implementation of new prognostic health monitoring technologies. Sentient is already working with the JSF program office, DARPA, and OEMs to develop new PHM technologies for this application.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Facilities
Structural Modeling and Tools
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Computer System Architectures
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Database Development and Interfacing
Expert Systems
Human-Computer Interfaces
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A1.12-9820
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mitigation of Aircraft Structural Damage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Structural Health Management

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cornerstone Research Group, Inc.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440-3638
(937) 320-1877

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher Hemmelgarn
hemmelgarncd@crgrp.net
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton,  OH 45440-3638
(937) 320-1877

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) proposes to advance the state of the art in composite health management through refinement of an existing technology developed by CRG called Reflexive Composites. Reflexive Composites are the current state of the art in health management integrating piezoelectric structural health monitoring, healable polymer matrix composites, and intelligent controls delivering highly aware structures capable of identifying location and magnitude of damage with 1/16" spatial resolution. Reflexive Composites respond to damage with a healing cycle capable of restoring up to 90% of mechanical performance post failure. CRG proposes to advance the state of the art in health management through the development of a next generation control system capable of analyzing structural health monitoring (SHM) data and determining the appropriate healing cycle, identifying the type of failure in the composite, make predictions to the loss in mechanical performance, generating custom healing cycles based on failure type, healing, and making predictions of restored mechanical strength. The results of this analysis will allow the vehicle user to make any necessary mission adjustment to ensure vehicle survivability with the damaged structures on the vehicle.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Supporting NASA's IVHM Program, this project's technologies directly address requirements for integrated vehicle health monitoring as well as prediction models for remaining mechanical performance of aircraft systems and sub-systems for all vehicles, primarily air vehicle systems. This project's technologies offer a highly aware structure to identify and repair damage in flight as well as reduced preventative maintenance through scheduled active scanning capabilities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project's technologies developed for NASA systems would directly apply to systems operated by other government and commercial enterprises. Government systems that would derive the same benefits would include but not be limited both manned and unmanned air vehicles, ground vehicles, and marine vehicles operated by Army, Navy, and Air Force. This technology's attributes for damage identification and repair should yield a high potential for private sector commercialization for commercial air vehicles and high-end automobiles by companies such as Boeing, Vought, Spirit, and Mercedes Benz.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Composites
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.01-8427
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multifunctional Core Materials for Airframe Primary Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Patz Materials & Technologies
4968 Industrial Way
Benicia, CA 94510-1006
(707) 748-7577

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nick Patz
nickpatz@patzmandt.com
4968 Industrial Way
Benicia,  CA 94510-1006
(707) 748-7577

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As the use of composite materials on commercial airlines grows the technology of the composites must grow with it. Presently the efficiency gained by the utilization of core materials on composite structures can not be implemented into commercial aviation primary structures due to the poor impact performance of commercially available core materials. Patz Materials and Technologies proposes to develop a new multifunctional composite core material for airframe primary structures. The new composite core material will combine high impact performance with low weight, high acoustical absorption and high mechanical strength to greatly improve the structural efficiency of future commercial airframes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The cost per weight of material placed into space is astronomical. The creation of stronger lighter core materials could significantly reduce the weight of a structure, sub structure and even the launch vehicle enabling higher payload capacities less fuel consumed and less overall cost to produce the structure.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial and Military Aerospace: Increasing the strength of core material will lend itself to the application of cored fuselages. Transportation Industry: Lowering the weight of a ground transportation vehicle such as a "big rig" trailer or even a commercial automobile would reduce fuel consumption and increase efficiency. Marine: Both commercial and military naval vessels have the same efficiency versus weight problem that plagues the other transportation industries reducing the weight of naval vehicles could

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.01-8646
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development of Fast Response SME TiNi Foam Torque Tubes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shape Change Technologies
1731 Hendrix Avenue
Thousand Oaks, CA 91360-3316
(805) 312-5665

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Peter Jardine
jardine@shapechange.com
1731 Hendrix Ave
Thousand Oaks,  CA 91360-3316
(805) 312-5665

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Shape Change Technologies (SCT) has pioneered the use of Self-propagating High Temperature Synthesis (SHS) to manufacture open celled, porous TiNi. Recently, we have been able to demonstrate the shape memory effect in these foams, which is a unique capability. Unlike solid, monolithic TiNi, the open-celled foam structure allows for very rapid response times when immersed in fluids, such as hot water or hot air. The SHS process makes net shape components, and so the cost of the tube can be dramatically reduced, and can have features introduced into the end of the tube to allow for simple torque transfer into a structure. Thus, in developing a foam torque tube using SHS, all of the key obstacles to its incorporation into existing aerostructures can be resolved, while preserving the key benefits of a lightweight, solid-state structure.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of porous foam TiNi torsional actuators fits into a niche of a large torque, large strain, fast response, solid state actuator. Our initial thoughts on NASA applications are to introduce these into new NASA concepts, such as in "morphing" UAVs, or such as the concept vehicles where wing twist can be used to control flexible wing structures. In addition to aircraft, the torsional actuators can also be used for deployment of booms, both for deploying sensors in aircraft but also in spacecraft where the lightweight, minimal part count actuators could be heated electrically. For next generation shuttles, where the actuators must also be space qualified, this type of actuator to control wing twist, nacelle structures or ancillary aircraft structures would be of great benefit.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications take two forms, one is introduction of these tubes to control variable nacelle structures, for example in Boeings new concept. More aerodynamically efficient structures via actuation control can also be introduced into windmills and turbines for more efficient energy generation. Light weight torsional actuators can also find application in assisting the disabled, for example as a lift device, as the cost of the device could be reduced to levels similar for hydraulic actuators but with less bulk. If the cost can be reduced sufficiently , this SME technology can be introduced within the broader cast of SME actuators now being introduced into the vehicle fleet.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Kinematic-Deployable
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Metallics
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.01-8800
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel High Temperature Strain Gauge

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Boston Applied Technologies, Inc.
6F Gill Street
Woburn, MA 01801-1721
(781) 935-2800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kewen Li
kkli@bostonati.com
6F Gill Street
Woburn,  MA 01801-1721
(781) 935-2800

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced high-temperature sensor technology and bonding methods are of great interests in designing and developing advanced future aircraft. Current state-of-the-art high temperature strain sensors are made of wires or thin film deposited by PVD on shims and then welded or glued onto strainable member, which is suffering the disadvantages such as creep, relaxation hysteresis and a limited range of operational temperatures. In this proposal, Boston Applied Technologies Incorporated (BATi) proposes to develop a novel high temperature strain gauge system through direct deposition technique. The strain gauge material features lower temperature coefficient, high structural stability and resistance to oxidation at high temperature. A temperature compensation circuit is employed in this design to minimize the effect of temperature change. Moreover, the insulating coating and protective coating are deposited by the same direct deposition technique to secure the accurate strain measurements on various hot structures, and making the whole system in a high efficient and low cost manner.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development effort of this program will directly contribute to NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP). This technique will provide a viable and promising solution in developing advanced high temperature sensors in measuring strain of structural components at elevated temperatures, which will enable the design and development of advanced future aircraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful development of high temperature strain gauge has wide application in both commercial and military industries. The high temperature strain gauge can be used to monitor the leading edges of hypersonic vehicles or gas turbine blades working under high temperature (up to1000 oC), thus provide important information for system design and safety evaluation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Particle and Fields


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.01-8997
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Calibration of 3D Woven Preform Design Code for CMC Materials

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Research and Design
300 E. Swedesford Road
Wayne, PA 19087-1858
(610) 964-9000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Sullivan
brian.sullivan@m-r-d.com
300 E. Swedesford Road
Wayne,  PA 19087-1858
(610) 964-6131

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future hypersonic vehicles will utilize thermal protection system (TPS) designs and propulsion system components that are capable of experiencing high temperatures within oxidative environments during their operation. These TPS and propulsion system components will include high temperature ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), such as C/SiC and SiC/SiC. Both hot structure control surfaces and hot wall propulsion system components are two examples of CMCs for which prototype parts have thus far been fabricated and subjected to mechanical performance and/or durability testing. Mechanical and thermal performance of these CMC components will benefit from low part count, integrally fabricated designs. In integrally fabricated designs, the reinforcement preforms have included 3D woven construction. The advantages of these designs include the elimination of the need for post-fabrication mechanical attachment as well as the higher interlaminar properties offered by the through thickness paths of the fibers within the 3D preform architectures. The specific innovations MR&D is proposing in this Phase I SBIR program are the following: 1)Extend the capabilities of an existing MR&D 3D preform design code to include material property calculations; 2)Automatically link the MR&D 3D preform design code to provide 3D solid model images of the 3D preform designs using the TexGen imaging freeware code, and 3)Calibrate the completed code specifically for 3D CMC materials through fabrication, imaging and mechanical property measurements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology developed here will directly support the design of existing and future NASA space exploration vehicles utilizing CMC materials as hot structure control surfaces and hot wall propulsion system components. Proposed CMC TPS elements, ranging from thick leading edges to doubly-curved acreage TPS panels, to hot structure control surfaces, will all benefit from the proposed program, if successful. Hot structure propulsion system components, such as turbojet transition ducts, will also benefit from the proposed effort. Additionally, the preform design and CMC property prediction code developed in the Phase I program, if successful, may support the development of any hot structure materials used on the Crew Exploration Vehicle and subsequent airframes required for the Mission to Mars.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology proposed in the Phase I program will also be of direct interest to the Department of Defense (DOD) to support the development of CMC scramjets, hypersonic missiles, and maneuvering reentry bodies. The results are also expected to be of direct interest to programs including the USAF Common Aero Vehicle, and the DARPA Hypersonic Cruise Vehicle.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Structural Modeling and Tools
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.01-9047
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low AC-loss MgB2 Superconductors for Turbo-Electric Aircraft Propulsion Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hyper Tech Research, Inc.
1275 Kinnear Road
Columbus, OH 43212-1155
(614) 481-8050

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Matt Rindfleisch
mrindfleisch@hypertechresearch.com
1275 Kinnear Rd.
Columbus,  OH 43212-1155
(614) 481-8050

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The development of magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconducting wires makes possible the potential to have much lighter weight superconducting stator and rotor coils for heavy aircraft motors and generators than with any other metal or ceramic superconductor. The MgB2 superconductor can be cooled to 20 K by liquid hydrogen fuel or conductively with a cyrocooler. The lighter weight coils, especially in the stator, will enable a lighter weight motor/generator. In a NASA SBIR Phase I and Phase II program we want to develop low AC loss MgB2 superconductors for the stators of synchronous motors or generators. For turbo-electric aircraft propulsion systems, it is desirable to have very light weight superconducting wires that can operate at greater than 1.5 T field and 500 Hz electrical frequency with input power between 10 and 100 kW. This SBIR Phase I aims to design, fabricate, and characterize AC-tolerant superconductors with a targeted loss budget less than 10 W/kA-m. This will be accomplished by reducing the hysteretic losses in MgB2 superconductors by fabricating wires with very small filaments, reducing the eddy current component of AC losses in MgB2 superconductors, and characterizing the transport current and AC losses of MgB2 wires.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Besides stator and rotor coils, magnesium diboride superconductors can benefit NASA applications for many applications where light weight power components are required such as cables, generators, motors, transformers, inductors, and power conditioning equipment. Other magnet applications that magnesium diboride wires can be considered for are magnetic shielding in space applications, ADR coils, magnetic bearings, actuators, MHD magnets, and magnetic launch devices.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Manufacturers of large electrical systems desire to increase the efficiency, and decrease the size and weight of their systems in order to reduce costs. Presently manufacturers of transformers, motors, generators, fault current limiters, transmission cables, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems are pursuing superconductor wires to achieve these objectives. To make major cost improvements with superconducting systems, the barriers have been the higher cost of cooling at liquid helium temperature (4 K) for traditional metallic superconductors and the high wire cost for ceramic high temperature superconductors at 20-30 K temperatures. Low cost MgB2 superconductor wires operating at 4 25 K can overall lower the upfront and ongoing operational costs of superconducting systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Superconductors and Magnetic


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.01-9433
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Thermoset Nanocomposites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Claytec, Inc.
5901 E. Sleepy Hollow Lane
East Lansing, MI 48823-9706
(517) 862-3928

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joel Dulebohn
jidulebohn@comcast.net
5901 East Sleepy Hollow Ln
East Lansing,  MI 48823-9706
(517) 388-7321

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Low-cost, environmentally compatible synthesis methods are used to prepare silicate nanoparticles with surface areas, surface polarity and hierarchical lamellar and mesoporous structures ideally suited as barrier and reinforcing agents for epoxy and polyimide thermoset polymers for use in next generation air transport systems (NGATS) and related aerospace vehicles. Unlike organoclays, which require temperature-sensitive organic modification for dispersion in polymer matrices, the new nanoparticles require no organic surface modification to achieve compatibility in the polymer matrix. Thus, thermoset nano-composites made from Claytec's purely inorganic nanoparticles exhibit superior thermal and oxidative stability, in addition to improved strength, stiffness and toughness. The technical objective of the proposal is to provide silicate nanoparticles that will improve substantially the thermal and oxidative stability properties, as well as the mechanical properties, of epoxy and polyimide polymers without the need for organic surface modifiers to achieve particle dispersion in the polymer matrix. The specific tasks associated with the proposed research project are (i) the synthesis and characterization of lamellar and mesoporous silicate nanoparticle suitable as barrier and reinforcing agents, respectively (ii) the preparation of representative epoxy and polyimide thermoset nanocomposites containing well-dispersed lamellar and mesoporous nanoparticles and (iii) the characterization of the nanocomposites with regard to oxygen permeability, oxidative stability, and tensile and impact properties.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The polyimide nanocomposites of interest will be used for the fabrication of high temperature ductwork, bushings and feed lines in engine compartments where thermal and oxidative stability is essential. The epoxy composites are targeted for use in fan casings where strength and toughness is needed to contain failed turbine blades. The anticipated improvements in performance properties will be realized at nanoparticle loadings in the range 2.0 to 15 wt %. The improvements in mechanical strength and oxidative stability will make it possible to reduce the weight of aeronautic and aerospace vehicle components and to improve the durability of those components, particularly for high temperature applications. Decreasing the weight of a vehicle while improving materials performance will improve vehicle fuel efficiency and safety and decrease environmental emissions due to the improved fuel efficiency.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We expect our new nanocomposite technology to improve the performance properties of thermoset polymers used as components in the domestic appliances, sporting goods, recreational marine (boating) and building construction sectors, as well as those used in high-value niche areas such as thermoset dental materials. As in the case of NASA applications, the savings in polymer costs provided by the technology will more than compensate for the cost of the nanoparticles, thus providing significant value to the user at no added cost.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Tankage
Composites
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.01-9677
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Thermal Management System for Superconducting Aircraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-0071
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anthony Dietz
ajd@creare.com
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-0071
(603) 640-2310

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aircraft powered by hydrogen power plants or gas turbines driving electric generators connected to distributed electric motors for propulsion have the potential to transform the aircraft design space by decoupling power generation from propulsion. Resulting aircraft designs such as blended wing bodies with distributed propulsion can provide the large reductions in emissions, fuel burn and noise required to make air transportation growth projections sustainable. The power density requirements for these electric machines can only be achieved with superconducting materials. However, their feasibility is dependent on improving the power density of the cryocoolers needed to cool the superconductors to their operating temperatures. We propose a Cryoflight turbo-Brayton cryocooler, optimized for low weight and high efficiency. Our initial design studies indicate that this design will exceed the mass and performance targets identified by NASA for superconducting aircraft. In Phase I of this project we will extend our initial design study to include a system trade study and individual component designs (TRL 3). In Phase II we will demonstrate the turbomachine, the most critical component in the system (TRL 4). In Phase III we will demonstrate a complete cryocooler (TRL 4 and TRL 5). Our proposed Cryoflight cryocooler development effort will provide an enabling technology for superconducting aircraft, which have the potential to revolutionalize future air transportation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Cryoflight cryocooler development effort will support NASA's long term goal to increase aircraft efficiency and reduce aircraft emissions and noise. By providing a cryocooler optimized to meet the aggressive power density target required for aircraft systems, we will remove a key obstacle hindering the development of superconducting aircraft. While such aircraft are still two or three decades from production, supporting technology development needs to begin now if such aircraft are to become a viable alternative to the aircraft configurations in production today. The results of this SBIR project will support NASA design trade studies, system demonstrations, and eventual superconducting aircraft demonstrations. Other NASA applications include space applications such as cryogen liquefaction and storage for planetary and extraterrestrial exploration missions, CEVs, extended-life orbital transfer vehicles, in-space propellant depots and extraterrestrial bases. Terrestrial NASA applications include cooling for spaceport cryogen storage and transportation systems and for demonstration hydrogen production and transportation systems. The highly reliable and space-proven turbo-Brayton cryocooler is ideal for these applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary private application for this cryocooler is for cooling superconducting devices on electric aircraft once these aircraft are accepted in the commercial market. Other private sector applications include cooling for laboratory- and industrial-scale gas separation, liquefaction, cryogen storage and cryogen transportation systems; high-temperature superconducting magnets in motors and alternators; liquid hydrogen fuel cell storage for the automotive industry; and commercial orbital transfer vehicles and satellites.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.01-9683
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multifunctional Composite Materials

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied Poleramic, Inc.
6166 Egret Court
Benicia, CA 94510-1269
(707) 747-6738

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Hayes
hayesb1@sbcglobal.net
6166 Egret Court
Benicia,  CA 94510-1269
(707) 747-6738

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Polymeric composite materials that are currently utilized in aircraft structures are susceptible to significant damage from lightning strikes. Enhanced electrical and thermal conductivity in these polymeric composites could eliminate this damage. The addition of this multifunctional capability to composites will result in lower manufacturing costs and weight reductions in future aircraft since the addition of coatings, conductive mesh, or expanded foil materials can be eliminated. A combined materials and engineering approach will be utilized to accomplish this objective by modifying a high performance composite system with a combination of conductive nano and micron size filler materials. The large difference between the two filler sizes will create a stratified composite structure that consists of the conductive micron size particles residing in the interlayer region of the composite with the nanomaterials dispersed evenly throughout the matrix and in the fiber tows. Using this approach, these composites will have the same or better balance of mechanical properties as current state-of-the-art composite systems but also have the added functionality of a conductive interlayer and network to eliminate damage from lightning strikes. The Technology Readiness Level will be between 3 and 4 after the Phase 1 program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful completion of the Phase 1 and 2 research programs will enable the development of lower weight and low cost composite structures that traditionally require lightning strike protection from secondary applications of conductive materials. All four of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Programs would benefit from this technology including Subsonic Fixed Wing, Subsonic Rotary Wing, Supersonic, and Hypersonic programs. Specific composite applications that would benefit from this technology include primary and secondary aircraft structures, such as fuselage sections, aircraft control surfaces, leading edges, fixed panels, and fairings. In addition, propeller blades, turbine blades, and engine core cowl applications may benefit from this technology. Other applications may be found in missile and rocket components that would benefit from enhanced electrical and thermal conductivity. Also, applications that involve EMI shielding and electrostatic discharge could benefit from this technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Next generation commercial, military, and civil aircraft, as well as helicopters can benefit from this technology to reduce weight and costs from the elimination of added lightning strike protection to composite structures. Since the lightning strike protection is built into the composite, better reliability and reduced maintenance will be observed over that of conductive paints, meshes or foils. This technology provides enhanced conductivity in every ply, not just on the surface plies. In addition to lightning strike applications, this technology may find use in composite structures that could benefit from better heat dissipation or heat transfer. Military ships, aircraft, missiles, and rockets may benefit from this added multifunctionality. Also, enhanced electrical conductivity and those applications requiring EMI shielding and electrostatic discharge could benefit from this technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Cooling
Composites
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.01-9769
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Piezoelectrical Structural Sensor Technology for Extreme Environments (> 1800 F)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRS Ceramics, Inc.
2820 East College Avenue
State College, PA 16801-7548
(814) 238-7485

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Xiaoning Jiang
xiaoning@trstechnologies.com
2820 East College Avenue
State College,  PA 16801-7548
(814) 238-7485

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
High temperature piezoelectric crystal (HTP) sensors are desired for future propulsion component structure health monitoring, operating parameters optimization, turbine engine control and health monitoring, as well as improving performance and maintainability of power production facilities and other rotary combustion engines. Recently discovered high temperature piezoelectrics showed stable piezoelectric properties and high resistivity at temperatures close to its melting point (~ 1500 C) , which is very promising for high temperature sensor applications. The preliminary results showed excellent temperature sening performance at temperature up to 1000 C. Piezoelectric structural sensors on the basis of piezoelectric effect (non-resonant) and impedance measurement (resonant) have been widely demonstrated for pressure, stress, strain, temperature, acceleration, etc. measurements because of their high sensitivity, quick response, low profile, high reliability and low cost. The goal of this program is to develop highly sensitive HTPC based piezoelectric structural sensors for temperature, strain and acceleration measurements at temperatures up to 2000 oF.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High temperature piezoelectric crystal (HTPC) based structural sensor technology is desired for NASA future aerospace propulsion systems under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP). Specifically, high temperature sensors will be used for future propulsion component structure health monitoring and operating parameters optimization. The HTPC sensors can also benefit the current space vehicles health monitoring by providing high temperature structural data.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High temperature sensors can be used for turbine engine control and health monitoring, high mach flight tests, as well as improving performance and maintainability of power production facilities and other rotary combustion engines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Perception/Sensing
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Ceramics
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.01-9810
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Cost Innovative Hi-Temp Fiber Coating Process for Advanced Ceramic Matrix Composites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MATECH Advanced Materials
31304 Via Colinas, Suite 102
Westlake Village, CA 91362-4586
(818) 991-8500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
heemann Yun
heemann@matechgsm.com
31304 Via Colinas, Suite 102
Westlake Village,  CA 91362-4586
(818) 991-8500

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
MATECH GSM (MG) proposes 1) to demonstrate a low-cost innovative Hi-Temp Si-doped in-situ BN fiber coating process for advanced ceramic matrix composites in order to eliminate performance barriers that prevent practical use of advanced future NASA aircraft by performing interfacial coating on single fiber tows and fiber preforms that are applicable to the shape and structural requirements of advanced SiC/SiC super- and hyper-sonic components, and 2) to examine and model environmental durability of the fiber coating constituent in various hot-section CMC components. The CVI coating process is costly and yields a porous non-uniform BN structure due to the low temperatures needed for diffusion and infiltration of the gaseous precursors. MG has discovered a faster, more economical and more versatile process for fiber interface coating formation, reactive-transformation-process (RTP), where the interface coating is formed from the ceramic fiber itself, a new innovative in-situ Si-doped BN-based fiber coating that is more stable during fabrication and service of Si-based CMC. The formation of an in-situ BN surface layer creates a more environmentally durable fiber surface not only because a more oxidation-resistant BN is formed, but also because this layer provides a physical barrier between contacting all single fibers with oxidation-prone SiC surface layers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future NASA's high-speed super- and hyper-sonic aircraft propulsion / power components, where low-noise, low-emission, high efficiency, and low-weight are crucial requirements. The versatility of this concept makes all high temperature advanced CMC relevant to a variety of hot section propulsion-engine and airframe-control components exposed to high-temperature salt/fog-containing oxidizing environments including combustion liner, HPT vanes/blades, HPT shrouds, hypersonic vehicle guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) components.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A wide rage of aerospace and defense applications that require low-cost material possessing, high temperature oxidation stability, high temperature moisture resistance, high strength, and low mass. These applications include many propulsion and power generating components with the advanced CMC such as hot gas generators, hot gas valves and components, and heat exchangers. Non-defense related uses include industrial high-temperature heat-treatment damage-tolerant furnace heating-element and insulation materials.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ceramics
Composites
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.01-9890
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Cost Method of Manufacturing Cooled Axisymmetric Scramjets

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ORMOND, LLC
4718 B Street NW, Suite 104
Auburn, WA 98001-1750
(253) 854-0796

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Alberts
dana@ormondllc.com
4718 B Street NW, Suite 104
Auburn,  WA 98001-1750
(253) 854-0796

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Scramjet engine developers are working on advanced axisymmetric engine concepts that may not be feasible due to limitations of currently available manufacturing methods. The primary goal of this SBIR is to make available a new technology that will make it feasible to manufacture small diameter one-piece cooled axisymmetric scramjet combustors. The availability of the proposed technology will result in scramjet program cost savings and engine design improvements and a strong near term technology commercialization is likely. In fact, scramjet developers have expressed that there is no other known means of manufacturing some of the most desired axisymmetric combustor designs. Although Ormond, LLC currently manufactures scramjet engine panels using a novel abrasivejet machining process and software that is available nowhere else in industry, new engine developments have created the need for key technology advancements. A principal advantage of the proposed technology is that it can generate small high-aspect-ratio channels in nearly any material, and is now used to machine the complex cooling flow field patterns found in the Inconel scramjet heat exchanger circuits. There are technical and economic benefits over all of the existing manufacturing methods because it is a cold, non-chemical low-mechanical load process that has no affect on workpiece material crystal structure. Developments that will be made under this SBIR are: 1.) miniaturization of the specialized cutting head to fit in the axisymmetric combustor, 2.) development of a new numerical model and software needed to implement the process, and 3.) development of an appropriate long reach manipulator arm and control software to provide appropriate tool motion in the combustor cylinder. The Phase I program will initiate the development and demonstrate feasibility of the proposed technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Scramjets: Commercialization of the technology developed in this program has a huge economic value when the scramjet application is looked at alone. It is projected that scramjet engines will be manufactured for 300 missiles per year and 3 reusable launch vehicles per year once production starts. ABMACH is already considered to be the baseline manufacturing method for scramjet panels by a major prime because it was found to be the only cost effective technology available. Channel Wall Combustors: Channel wall liquid rocket combustors will benefit from the successful completion of the proposed SBIR. Engine developers have asked Ormond to mill channels from the inside of the combustor, but the capability does not currently exist. This application has requirements very similar to the axisymmetric scramjet. Adaptation of the proposed technology to manufacture channel wall rocket combustors can have a huge impact on the economic and technical success in implementing channel wall combustor technology. A principal advantage is that it can economically generate geometries that are not possible by other methods. The global market estimate for rocket propulsion systems over the next ten years is $4 billion/year. The domestic market represents half of this. The cost of manufacturing the channel combustor accounts for a significant fraction of the propulsion system cost and the technology developed in this program addresses the market directly.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Ground based turbine engine transition ducts are consumable high-temperature heat exchangers used in power generating gas turbines. Currently, over 90% of electric power in the world is produced using gas turbines. In one Westinghouse design, 16 transition duct pairs are used per turbine. ABMACH reduces the manufacturing cost by nearly 70%, resulting in $10M in savings per year. Ormond is currently working under funding by ground turbine manufacturers to evaluate implementing ABMACH in the manufacture of these components. Ormond is currently working with a major down-hole energy company to develop tooling with internal features machined into integral cases. The development of the proposed technology will support this proprietary effort directly by making available a means of machining features in tubular components made from tough materials.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Launch Assist (Electromagnetic, Hot Gas and Pneumatic)
Cooling
Ceramics
Composites
Metallics
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.02-9195
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Instrumentation for In Situ Combustion Measurements

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Los Gatos Research
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041-1518
(650) 965-7772

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Douglas Baer
d.baer@lgrinc.com
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View,  CA 94041-1518
(650) 965-7772

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of the Phase I is to develop, demonstrate and test a novel instrument based on laser absorption diagnostics for fast, in situ measurements of important parameters (static gas temperature, bulk gas velocity, and gas concentration) in the high speed flows typical in NASA propulsion test facilities. In addition, the instrument will be easy to move (translate) during operation and thus allow measurements at different locations during a test run.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Instrumentation for rapid measurements in high speed, high enthalpy propulsion test facilities will enable NASA scientists and engineers to monitor the important parameters including: gas concentrations, gas temperatures and gas velocities under realistic engine operating conditions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA Commercial Applications include: Instrumentation for measurements, control and thus optimization of combustion engine flows (gas turbines, waste incinerators) based on measurements of gas concentrations, temperatures and velocities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Facilities
Optical
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.02-9318
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Ultra-Sensitive, Size Resolved Particle Mass Measurement Device

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerodyne Research, Inc.
45 Manning Road
Billerica, MA 01821-3976
(978) 663-9500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Timko
timko@aerodyne.com
45 Manning Rd
Billerica,  MA 01821-3976
(978) 663-9500

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The characterization of aircraft particulate matter (PM) emissions has benefited greatly by the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) by providing size resolved compositional information. AMS data have been critical to much of our understanding of aircraft PM emissions, but it has limited utility in probing the smallest (<100 nm) particles in the exhaust. Also, to date the AMS has been able to detect only volatile PM and other instruments have been required to characterize the non-volatile (soot). We propose to improve greatly the capabilities of a novel version of the AMS to cover two important gaps in our understanding of gas turbine engine particle emissions: 1) size resolved composition of particles with diameters less than 50 nm; 2) size resolved mass and chemical composition (e.g., fullerenic composition) of black carbon soot. Specifically in Phase I, we aim to: 1) improve AMS detection of particles smaller than 100 nm by refining an existing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model and use the CFD model to guide the design of new AMS particle focusing designs, and 2) evaluate for model soot characterization a newly developed instrument which combines a laser ablation system with AMS technology – an instrument which we have termed the SP2-AMS.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA provides substantial potential commercial applications for an improved AMS technology. NASA has a long-term commitment to understand and reduce the trace gas and particle emissions of gas turbine engines. The current lack of robust composition information for nucleation particles smaller than 50 nm and the lack of direct, size-resolved mass measurements of soot limit current understanding. We expect that NASA will be eager to take advantage of the advanced lens and laser ablation technologies that we will develop during this SBIR program. NASA provides at least two types of commercial opportunities for advanced AMS technology: 1) direct instrument sales and 2) research contract jobs. At this time, NASA has not purchased an AMS for its own use. An improved lens technology and soot detection capability may provide the motivation for NASA to purchase an AMS. Due in part to the unique insight provided by the standard AMS, we have been an active participant in a series of NASA sponsored PM measurement activities, including the APEX experiments. Enhanced AMS technology will continue to make us an attractive NASA contractor for future measurement activities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The general commercial applications of the improved AMS technology are extensive. Engine manufacturers are currently seeking reliable methods that directly measure the mass of soot emissions; we anticipate strong interest from enigne manufacturers in the SP2-AMS technology, either for direct sales or for contracting opportunities. US EPA and DOE have long-term commitments to understanding and reducing PM emissions and they are potential customers. The chemical content of the SP2-AMS data set may differentiate aircraft soot from other sources. The ability to distinguish aviation PM from other combustion sources would be of great interest to FAA and the airport community; their support will provide ample research contract opportunities. Optimization of the aerodynamic lens technology for particles smaller than 100 nm will also enhance our field measurement capabilities and provide new opportunities in our emissions characterization business. The new lens will also increase new sales of AMS technology and will be a stand-alone product for existing AMS owners. Over the past 5 years, we have sold over 60 instruments to customers in industry, academia, and government laboratories. Improved understanding of the lens performance may provide insight necessary to expand the range of particles detected by the AMS, which in turn will open new applications in pharmaceutical characterization and related fields.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Particle and Fields


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.02-9443
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Temperature, High Frequency Fuel Metering Valve

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Active Signal Technologies, Inc.
611-Q Hammonds Ferry Road
Linthicum, MD 21090-2712
(410) 636-9350

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Sewell
sewellactv@verizon.net
611Q N Hammonds Ferry Rd
Linthicum,  MD 21090-1322
(717) 235-9238

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Active Signal Technologies and its subcontractor Moog propose to develop a high-frequency actuator driven valve intended to achieve TRL 6 by the end of Phase II. This active control component will be capable of modulating fuel flow at multiple injection locations with minimum fuel pressure drop and thus enable critical improvements in aerospace vehicle turbine engine combustion dynamics, notably mitigation of thermo-acoustic instabilities. These instabilities have impeded development of advanced lean-burning combustors for reduction of NOx emissions and improvements in combustion efficiency. While passive approaches to control combustion instability have been successful on particular new engine designs, the ultimate solution is active combustion control where the greatest challenges are the bandwidth (1 kHz) and system temperature requirements. The Phase-I goal is to demonstrate that these are achievable by designing and building a proof-of-principle system complete with high-frequency, high-temperature actuator and valve. Active Signal has selected Terfenol as the most suitable actuator material and will apply 25 plus years of actuator, valve and pump experience to meet the goals. The system will be tested against pressure and flow requirements to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach before fabricating a prototype suitable for the GRC test stand in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA interest in this field is generic to the extent that it can cover ramjets air breathing jet engines rocket motors, etc. Each has a similar challenge but the categories contained within engines with combustors will vary to the extent that they may well require unique control systems with actuator needs proper to each. For instance, force and displacement requirements generated by pressure and flow requirements will imply actuator subsystems—the focus of this proposal—that are unique. This may well extend to frequency control and temperature requirements that will vary, having implications for the designer. At the same time, size, weight, and cost constraints will remain a significant factor set that a successful actuator designer teamed with a controls group can implement across a broad line of applications to build a business base with NASA. Teamed with Moog, it is this approach that Active Signal will pursue with NASA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Active Signal will team with Moog for the principal part of its Non-NASA applications given the fact that Moog is active in the turbine fuel control markets for both aero (military and commercial) and ground based turbine applications. There are numerous factors now driving the need for substantial advances in turbine engine technology to minimize emissions, suppress instabilities associated with lean-burning fuel efficient combustion, eliminate local hot spots and decrease noise. Clearly, Moog will have to see a path to market for the application of Active Combustion Control to make it part of their product line, but with the successful completion of both the proof of principle phase of this effort as well as the Phase II more realistic demonstration, we have been told that this can be an attractive product both directly in the aircraft applications as well as spin offs in the similar, while more cost constrained automobile market.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Feed System Components
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.02-9878
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Scramjet Combustion Stability Behavior Modeling

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gloyer-Taylor Laboratories, LLC
2212 Harton Blvd.
Tullahoma, MS 37388-5583
(931) 393-5108

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Gloyer
paul.gloyer@gtlcompany.com
2212 Harton Blvd
Tullahoma,  MS 37388-5583
(931) 393-5108

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A recent breakthrough in combustion stability analysis (UCDS) offers the means to accurately predict the combustion stability of a scramjet. This capability is very important due to the extreme scramjet operational environment, which makes cut-and-try development approaches impractical. With UCDS, it is now possible to accurately predict the scramjet pressure oscillation amplitudes, along with critical parameters, including the unsteady wall heat flux. The UCDS tools were recently applied to the Ares I thrust oscillation issue in support of NASA's Thrust Oscillation Focus Team (TOFT). This effort included the analysis of the Shuttle four segment solid rocket motor (RSRM) to validate the capabilities of UCDS. After analyzing the new five segment (RSRMV) motor being developed for Ares I, GTL used the UCDS insight to identify a relatively minor motor modification that will eliminate the organized motor oscillations. With this validation of the capabilities and effectiveness of UCDS, GTL proposes to extend the application of UCDS by applying it to examine the stability characteristics of a representative scramjet. In addition to predicting the amplitudes of the scramjet pressure oscillations, a UCDS sensitivity analysis will be used to identify critical design parameters and establish development guidelines.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Since the UCDS models are built from a general formulation, they can be used to analyze practically any combustion device, including rockets (liquid, solid, hybrid), turbojets (combustors, augmentors), ramjets, scramjets, combined cycle engines and so on. As such, UCDS can be used by NASA in the development of practically any propulsive device. Specific near term NASA applications for UCDS include: - Continued effort to mitigate the Ares I thrust oscillation effort - Working with the Ares V team to avoid potential thrust oscillation issues - Supporting the Constellation Program by identifying and avoiding potential stability issues that will arise when engines and motors are scaling up to meet performance requirements - Supporting the development of new propulsion devices, such as scramjets

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
With its broad capabilities, UCDS can be used by any combustion device developer, including the Air Force, Navy, Army, MDA, DARPA, DOE, and commercial propulsion developers, such as ATK, Aerojet, Pratt & Whitney and others. One specific non-NASA applications for UCDS is the Air Force/Aerojet Hydrocarbon Boost Engine development program.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Monopropellants
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.03-8712
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aero-Acoustics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Sonic Boom Vibro-Acoustic Simulations using Multiple Point Sources

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AVEC, Inc.
3154 State Street, Suite 2230
Blacksburg, VA 24060-6732
(540) 961-2832

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Patricio Ravetta
pravetta@avec-engineering.com
3154 State Street Suite 2230
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-6732
(540) 961-2832

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
AVEC proposes an innovative concept for the evaluation of human response studies to sonic booms inside realistic structures. The approach proposed is to simulate the distributed boom load on the structure using an array of discrete forces. The forces are applied sequentially making the approach effective and implementable in real structures. In addition, the method allows evaluating the contribution of individual structural components to the vibro-acoustic responses. The main goal of Phase I is to experimentally demonstrate the approach in a realistic environment. Phase II efforts should involve the experimental validation of the proposed technology in a real house subjected to real sonic booms. Fortunately, this data set exists and corresponds to the latest field test performed by NASA at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB) property. This will imply implementing the proposed method to the same house (preferred) or a similar one and use the outside pressure profile and direction to estimate the same vibro-acoustic responses measured by NASA in 2007. Comparison of the predicted and measured responses will provide the best validation of the approach. In support of this "real" validation of the method, a numerical model to better understand and improve the excitation methods should also be part of Phase II. At the conclusion of Phase II, it is expected that the method will be fully validated and ready for implementation on a range of structures for evaluating the human response to sonic booms as required by current industry needs. According to technology readiness levels (TRLs) guidelines, at the end of Phase II a TRL level of 6 would be achieved, i.e. system model/prototype demonstration in a relevant environment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is a clear increasing demand for supersonic commercial airplanes that can fly overland. This will be possible only if current restrictions are lifted. To this end, the human response inside buildings to the expected weak sonic boom will need to be accurately estimated. The proposed method here will provide a validated synthesis/auditory tool for the evaluation of human objection to these types of sonic booms in real structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a number of potential commercial opportunities for the technology proposed here. Obviously, the first potential clients are the industries directly involved in the development of supersonic business aircraft, e.g. Gulfstream, Lockheed, and so forth. In this sense, the developed technique/system can be commercialized as a service or turn-key product. Another potential commercialization market for the system is related to auditory protection of personnel exposed to explosions. For example, there is a need to assess and control the impact of impulsive noise (explosives) to military personnel inside different type of vehicles. The same technology proposed here can be used to estimate the response inside military vehicles, e.g. land, amphibious, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Structural Modeling and Tools
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.03-9755
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aero-Acoustics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid Element Method for Mid-Frequency Vibroacoustic Analysis

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Comet Technology Corporation
3830 Packard, Suite 110
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-2051
(734) 973-1600

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
S Raveendra
rraveendra@cometacoustics.com
3830 Packard, Suite 110
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-2051
(734) 973-1600

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In many situations, aerospace structures are subjected to a wide frequency spectrum of mechanical and/or acoustic excitations and therefore, there is a need for the development of numerical modeling techniques that are applicable for the resolution of dynamic response of complex systems spanning the entire frequency spectrum. However, the dynamic behavior of these structures at different frequency range is governed by different phenomena and as a result, a single numerical solution procedure is not suitable for the resolution of the entire frequency spectrum. Thus, on the basis of the numerical modeling techniques, the frequency spectrum is typically divided into three regions; low frequency region, mid-frequency region and high frequency region. The low frequency region is the frequency range where the characteristic dimensions of all component members of a vibroacoustic system are short with respect to wavelengths and these members are also referred to as 'short' members. On the other hand, in the high frequency region, the characteristic dimensions of all component members are long with respect to wavelengths and these members are referred to as 'long' members. There exists a broad mid frequency region in which not only some components are long and others are short with respect to wavelengths The proposal is directed towards the development of an innovative hybrid element method by coupling deterministic, transition and statistical Finite Element Methods to yield a solution system that is applicable for the solution of full frequency spectrum vibroacoustic prediction of nonuniform aerospace structures including metallic/composite configurations, accurately and efficiently.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of space vehicles and space stations requires the prediction of vibration levels to asses the fatigue life of critical components and noise levels to assess the comfort and functionality levels of crew members. The software product developed as part of the proposed project will enable NASA to effectively evaluate and apply noise and vibration control procedures spanning the entire frequency spectrum. It will also substantially reduce the effort involved in the design of products since the proposed development is based on finite element method that is already used extensively for low frequency noise and vibration analysis. Since low frequency (FEM), mid frequency (HEM) and high frequency (EFEM) analyses can be performed using mostly the same database, the modeling effort associated will be substantially reduced. The software will also enhance NASA's ability to evaluate the acoustic environment and resulting vibration in the payload bay of launch vehicle, diffuse sound field excitation on payloads during rocket launch and ground qualification, and structural integrity of airframe. Manufacturers of aircraft engines and components will also find the software useful for analysis and design.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed development will extend and enhance the computational modeling capabilities in many industries such as automotive, naval, heavy equipment and consumer products. Customers equate quality of a product with the sound the product makes. As a result of elevated demand for quieter products from customers together with the increased government regulations, manufactures of products with noise problem in all industries are searching for effective ways to make products with improved noise characteristics. For example, in automotive industry, the increased use of multi-media and telemetric devices demands quieter vehicle interiors and the manufactures and suppliers of interior products not only need to consider functionality, but also the noise control capability of the products. Consequently, there is increasing demand for tools based on computer simulation that can be used to guide design at the early design stage. Further, the software can be adapted to evaluate and improve radiated noise from engines, exhaust, tires, etc. It can be used to evaluate and improve consumer products such as compressors, air conditioners, hairdryers, vacuum cleaners, and washing machines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Structural Modeling and Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.03-9805
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aero-Acoustics
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Fidelity Simulation of Turbofan Noise

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
IllinoisRocstar, LLC
P. O. Box 3001
Champaign, IL 61826-3001
(217) 417-0885

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Brandyberry
mdbrandy@illinoisrocstar.com
P. O. Box 3001
Champaign,  IL 61820-3001
(217) 766-2567

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Broadband fan noise — closely tied to turbulent flow on and around the fan blades — represents a key challenge to the noise reduction community due to the interaction of a highly turbulent flow field with complex, moving geometries. Prediction and high-fidelity simulation of fan noise demands a fundamental innovation in CFD methods due to moving geometries and accuracy requirements. The objective this work is to develop a flexible approach to handling multiple, overset grids for use in simulations of turbomachinery. In Phase 1 we will develop an innovative computational software tool for efficiently managing multiple, overlapping structured meshes in relative motion. This application will be used concurrently with a compressible Navier-Stokes solver and is an enabling technology in enabling high-fidelity simulations of turbulent flows in complex, moving geometries. Phase 1 will demonstrate software feasibility using a simplified model of the NASA Glenn Source Diagnostic Test (SDT) fan at realistic take-off conditions. We propose a simulation that includes a moving "rotor" blade row adjacent to a static blade row. Tailored post-processing of simulation results will provide information on the turbulent flow — and implied turbulent noise sources — including unsteady blade surface pressures, acoustic modes, and overall radiated noise. In Phase 2 we focus primarily on broadband turbulent noise sources of modern turbofan engines. By utilizing a realistic NASA SDT fan geometry and take-off flow conditions, we will use our new tools to simulate real-world systems and commercialize our software product.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A new simulation technology will be available for prediction of turbofan noise, a key issue in the design of all modern civilian—and some military—aircraft. As reflected in the rapidly burgeoning number of airport regulations related to noise, aircraft must be quiet to be operated in populated areas and municipalities and must also be sufficiently quiet to sell in the multi-billion-dollar international market. NASA applications — New simulation technology available for prediction of turbofan noise — Analytical and consulting services to identify noise mechanisms and predict noise levels in novel designs

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other Government and Industry — CFD software for DNS and LES calculations employing multiple, overlapping structured meshes — analytical and consulting services to identify noise mechanisms and predict noise levels in novel designs Engineering services — Analytical and consulting services based on the new simulation capability — Engineering services to identify noise mechanisms and predict noise levels of novel designs for government prime contractors and the aircraft OEMs

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Simulation Modeling Environment
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.03-9848
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aero-Acoustics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Numerical and Physical Modeling of the Response of Resonator Liners to Intense Sound and High Speed Grazing Flow

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hersh Acoustical Engineering, Inc.
22305 Cairnloch Street
Calabasas, CA 91302-5875
(818) 224-4699

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alan Hersh
haeash@charter.net
22305 Cairnloch Street
CALABASAS,  CA 91302-5875
(818) 224-4699

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An innovative research program is proposed that numerically and physically models the response of resonator liners to intense sound and high speed grazing flow. The research program is divided into two parts. Part 1 addresses the feasibility of performing direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the sound and flow fields of the following: (i) one-slit and two-slit resonators in a normal incidence impedance tube, (ii) adjust and modify the computational algorithm and mesh design to allow the code to perform high temperature simulations, and (iii) use the simulation codes to initiate a study of the performance of high temperature liners. Part 2 develops the following: (iv) a grazing flow multi-slit orifice resonator impedance model, (v) a grazing flow 1-dof multi-circular orifice resonator impedance model and (vi) a 2-dof non-grazing flow multi-circular orifice resonator impedance model. The research program was motivated, in part, by high oil prices that place ever greater demands upon the near-term need to provide aircraft engine acoustic engineers with reasonably accurate tools to design optimized liners and the long-term need to develop sophisticated computational codes to provide physical understanding of the interaction between incident intense sound and grazing flow on resonator liners

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The resonator liner software can be used to design efficient sound absorbing liners that are lightweight, fuel efficient and operate with low static pressure losses for manufacturers of aircraft engine nacelles. The control of engine noise in the community surrounding commercial airports is known to be a difficult problem to solve given the cost, weight, safety and fuel cost constraints of the aircraft industry.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The resonator liner software can be used to design efficient sound absorbing liners that operate with low static pressue losses for manufactures of HVAC duct noise suppressors, space heaters and air conditioners.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.04-8952
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeroelasticity
PROPOSAL TITLE: ZEUS-DO: A Design Oriented CFD-Based Unsteady Aerodynamic Capability for Flight Vehicle Multidisciplinary Configuration Shape Optimization

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ZONA Technology, Inc.
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale, AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ping Chih Chen
pc@zonatech.com
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale,  AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In practically all air-vehicle MDO studies to date involving configuration shape optimization, dynamic Aeroservoelastic constraints had to be left out. Flutter, gust stresses, vibration, and ride comfort cannot still be accounted for in MDO involving configuration shape variations. Development of the missing MDO building block is proposed here: A design-oriented ZEUS-DO CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic capability with 3D configuration shape sensitivities, integration with commercial structural finite element codes and with aeroelastic / aeroservoelastic stability / response behavior analysis and sensitivity analysis in the time and frequency domains for non-linear and linearized flows. Phase I will focus on shape parametrization and mesh, pressure, and generalized force sensitivities with respect to shape design variables of multi-lifting-surface configurations. Accuracy and numerical efficiency of the new capability will be demonstrated. In Phase II the ZEUS-DO development effort will proceed to complex 3D configurations including fuselages, nacelles, and external stores. Integration with structural Finite Element design-oriented codes and aeroelastic stability / response solvers, together with validation, assessment of numerical efficiency, and commercialization will be pursued. The new ZEUS-DO capability will provide rapid CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic modeling, analysis, sensitivity analysis, and approximation for re-analysis and for optimization with industry standard accuracy and complexity of configurations modeled.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Enhance NASA's configuration MDO to include CFD-based Aeroelastic/Aeroservoelastic constraints in design studies of practically all flight vehicle categories and any revolutionary concept pursued. The new capability will allow coverage of aeroelastic / aeroservoelastic stability and response constraints in multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) of subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic flight vehicles of all types, whether conventional or revolutionary. ZEUS-DO will accelerate parametric and trade-off flight vehicle design studies through its rapid modeling and sensitivity analysis capabilities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Because of its generality and its ZAERO-based geometry parametrization, which is already compatible with industry standard CAD and Finite Elements aeroelastic codes such as NASTRAN and ASTROS, it is expected that companies and agencies outside of NASA will be able to quickly integrate the new ZEUS-DO into their own MDO systems. Applications of ZEUS-DO to the configuration shape optimization of flight vehicle will include all types of fixed wing vehicles, conventional and revolutionary.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Modular Interconnects
Structural Modeling and Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.04-9493
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeroelasticity
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Tools and Test Techniques for the Evaluation of Aeroservoelastic Free-Play

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Systems Technology, Inc.
13766 South Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne, CA 90250-7083
(310) 679-2281

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Danowsky
bdanowsky@systemstech.com
13766 S. Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne,  CA 90250-7083
(310) 679-2281

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Control surface free-play is important throughout the lifetime of a flight vehicle. Free-play can result in aeroservoelastic limit cycle oscillations (LCO) with significant amplitude causing degraded mission effectiveness, possibly leading to structural failure. Specifications for allowable free-play size can be overly conservative. Analytical tools are proposed for establishing free-play limits on aeroservoelastic aircraft systems without adverse consequences, justifying relief, which may otherwise be cost prohibitive or impossible to satisfy. The proposed tools include finite element modeling, model order reduction, nonlinear simulation, describing functions, and wavelet transforms. These tools will be integrated into the MatlabTM/SimulinkTM platform. A trade study is proposed that compares different free-play modeling techniques. Novel techniques will be used to determine the airspeed range over which limit cycles can occur, including the frequency and amplitude of the limit cycles. Novel techniques for the inverse problem are also proposed, whereby the free-play size is estimated based on diagnostic measurements. A general stabilator model will be used in Phase I to develop the analysis techniques and show feasibility. Wind tunnel test verification of the free-play analysis and estimation techniques will be conducted in Phase II using existing wind tunnel models and facilities at an industrial location.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is a research leader in aeroservoelasticity. Recent advances include innovative experimental excitation mechanisms for more accurate vibration data, wavelet analysis for signal processing, stability estimation and nonlinear identification, and robust flutter boundary prediction. The proposed work naturally follows from and compliments these topic areas. This program will lead to a validated software tool for control surface free-play analysis and identification. This will be a valuable asset for the many NASA programs that involve the design, analysis, and test of air vehicles. Free-play is an area of concern for both transports and high performance aircraft including those routinely used at NASA DFRC. These aircraft will normally go through analysis, ground loads testing, and aeroservoelastic testing to ensure safe operations for the given research mission. The tools developed for this program will provide a means to accurately analyze, predict and identify the effect of aeroservoelastic free-play for many NASA programs

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
STI also has long standing relationships with numerous manufacturers of both commercial and military aircraft. This places STI in a unique position to demonstrate this product directly to likely potential industry users. This program will lead to a validated software tool for control surface free-play analysis and identification. The software can be used for aircraft design, flight test operations, post-flight test analysis and actuator maintenance testing. On-line identification of free-play is also a potential application. Target markets are military and commercial aircraft manufacturers. Other markets include industrial machinery and structural analysis.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Simulation Modeling Environment
Structural Modeling and Tools
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.04-9607
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeroelasticity
PROPOSAL TITLE: Physics-Based Identification, Modeling and Risk Management for Aeroelastic Flutter and Limit-Cycle Oscillations (LCO)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Dynamics, Inc.
1500 Bull Lea Road, Suite 203
Lexington, KY 40511-1268
(859) 699-0441

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Patrick Hu
patrick.g.hu@advanceddynamics-usa.com
1500 Bull Lea Road, Suite 203
Lexington,  KY 40511-1268
(859) 699-0441

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed research program will develop a physics-based identification, modeling and risk management infrastructure for aeroelastic transonic flutter and limit-cycle oscillations (LCO). This capability will be built upon high fidelity state-of-the-art theoretical/computational methods as validated and verified by available experimental data bases, and will include (1) rapid flutter boundary determination for a wide range of configurations; (2) an assessment of the relative importance of various aerodynamic and structural nonlinearities for aircraft and aerospace configurations that are determined to be flutter critical and hence potentially capable of LCO; (3) an assessment of expected LCO amplitudes based upon high fidelity computational models; (4) an assessment of the potential for active and/or passive alleviation of LCO; and (5) a proposed risk management methodology that incorporates a prediction of tolerable LCO amplitudes and the capability for reducing unacceptable LCO response. Key challenges and milestones to by met include (1) a demonstration of the use of Navier-Stokes based CFD models and nonlinear structural models, including the use of system identification methods as appropriate and needed to predict flutter and LCO; (2) a demonstration of accurate modeling of aerodynamic and structural nonlinearities such as large shock wave motion, separated flow, structural freeplay and large geometric structural deflections and their impact on flutter and LCO; (3) characterization and evaluation of nonlinear dampers and nonlinear stiffness devices for alleviating LCO; (4) characterization and evaluation of active control systems for alleviating LCO; and (5) design and demonstration in wind tunnel test and flight test of an LCO alleviation device.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Installation of a prototype device in air vehicles to suppress transonic flutter and LCO and extend the flight envelope is highly demanded for safely operating civil as well as military aircrafts. The direct application of the SBIR effort to the current needs of NASA represents a prime opportunity for further product development and enhancement and represents a considerable potential revenue stream in engineering support, plus further technology acquisition.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Improvement of physics-based identification, modeling and risk management of (transonic) flutter and limit-cycle oscillations of an aeroelastic system is a common interest for wide range of engineering applications and, thus is highly demanded. It will be demonstrated that the proposed methodologies have great potential for enhancing the physics-based identification, modeling and risk management of flutter and limit-cycle oscillations of an aeroelastic system. DoD components likely to have interests in the technology developed in this SBIR project are the US Air Force, Navy and Army. The US industrial companies, including various aerospace & ocean as well as general engineering companies such as Boeing, Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, General Dynamics, Lockheed Martin andTextron, will be the major non-military potential customers. In addition, the corresponding industrial companies in Europe and Asia represent a very large marketing share of the resulting methods and technologies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Structural Modeling and Tools
Software Development Environments
Computational Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.05-8622
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Towards Efficient Viscous Modeling Based on Cartesian Methods for Automated Flow Simulation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Dynamics, Inc.
1500 Bull Lea Road, Suite 203
Lexington, KY 40511-1268
(859) 699-0441

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Patrick Hu
patrick.g.hu@advanceddynamics-usa.com
1500 Bull Lea Road, Suite 203
Lexington,  KY 40511-1268
(859) 699-0441

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed work aims at developing techniques that will address the current limitations of Cartesian-based Navier-Stokes CFD schemes by exploring three promising methods of implementing improved wall boundary conditions. The three methods are based on: (1) the diamond stencil approach of Delanaye et al., (2) the extrapolation boundary condition work by Marshall and Ruffin, and (3) the Material Point Method developed by Advanced Dynamics. The knowledge gained from prototype implementations of these schemes will lead to the development of an efficient viscous modeling algorithm suitable to general Cartesian CFD codes at the end of Phase I. Phase II will integrate this algorithm into a large-scale Cartesian CFD code in consultation with NASA technical representative. Phase III will commercialize the resulting techniques to be developed in Phases I and II and demonstrate their applicability to a wide range of problems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The direct application of the SBIR effort to NASA represents a prime opportunity for further product development and enhancement of efficient and accurate treatment of viscous boundary conditions for Cartesian-grid-based Navier-stokes CFD schemes, and represents a considerable potential revenue stream in engineering support, plus further technology acquisition.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Various DoD components likely to have an interest in the technology include Air Force, Navy and Army. Non-military applications represent another opportunity for sales. The development of viscous modeling methodologies and algorithms for Cartesian-based solvers should be of interest to a wide range of aerospace and ocean applications. Potential clients include Boeing, Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, General Dynamics, Lockheed Martin, Textron, and others. In addition, corresponding companies in Europe and Asia represent a very large potential market for the resulting methodologies and algorithms.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.05-9023
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators for Aerodynamic Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cellular Materials International, Inc.
2 Boars Head Lane
Charlottesville, VA 22903-4605
(434) 977-1405

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yellapu Murty
ymurty@cellularmaterials.com
2 Boars Head Lane
Charlottesville,  VA 22903-4605
(434) 977-1405

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Flow control is critical to the effective operation of space vehicles where high velocities must be achieved with minimum power consumption. Recent studies at Princeton have demonstrated the utility of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators for aerodynamic control. Nanosecond pulse sustained DC driven DBDs are predicted to have much higher flow velocities than conventional control systems. Our initial work in the area discovered that these devices produce charge build-up on pulse sustained DC driven DBDs which has hindered the realization of this prediction. If the charge build-up can be minimized, the DC driven DBDs have the potential for higher flow control efficiency than previously attainable with either AC or DC driven DBDs in laboratory experiments. The proposed research will develop integrated surface structures that simultaneously optimize the DBD performance to take advantage of the pulse or RF sustained DC bias approach while suppressing the surface charge build up. This success of this project will be critical for the development of a practical DBD actuator that can be implemented as a control device.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Important vehicle applications for transient operation of DBD devices include the enhancement of wing lift performance and reduction of stall probability during maneuvers, stall margin increase for high angle-of-attack slow flight (landing), enhanced performance of engine inlets under non-cruise conditions, initiation of transition from laminar to turbulent flow, and recovery from spin and other separation-related undesirable aerodynamic phenomena. If separation control can be accomplished with little penalty in power, then operation can be continuous. In such cases, contoured engine inlets may be designed with greater turning angles, higher lift may be achievable for in-flight operation, transition initiation or delay may be possible, and new methods for enhancement or suppression of shock induced separation may become practical.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Improved DBD technique with higher flow velocities than conventional control systems would be advantageous in many non-NASA commercial applications. For example, this technique could be utilized in civil aviation where drag reduction plays a crucial role in designing new high performance airplanes. Application of the improved DBD technology in turbine blades will attract the commercial sector to design high efficiency turbines. Other commercial applications of DBDs are as a source of ozone production and in medical applications where the weakly ionized plasma can be used to heal wounds. DBD medical applications can find wide markets especially in military and defense industries. DBD as an ultraviolet source of radiation could also be useful for disinfection and water cleaning.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.05-9072
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Morphing Control Surface for Improved Efficiency and Maneuverability

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Techno-Sciences, Inc.
11750 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300
Beltsville, MD 20705-3194
(240) 790-0600

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kothera Curt
kotherac@technosci.com
11750 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300
Beltsville,  MD 20705-0600
(240) 790-0600

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The current technology push in advanced aerospace flight systems is to replicate certain features seen in nature. Morphing aircraft, particularly unmanned air vehicles (UAVs), have thus received considerable attention in this respect. Aside from safety and aerodynamic efficiency, a single morphing UAV platform could possess the ability to carry out multiple mission objectives. Nearly all forms of conformal morphing vehicles have since been investigated, including twist, camber, span, and sweep, where simulation results showed the potential performance benefits that could be achieved. It was not until recently that material and actuator technology had reached a point of development that allowed viable prototypes to be fabricated and tested, however. Having successfully researched, designed, and evaluated supporting technologies, Techno-Sciences, Inc. proposes to develop an innovative morphing control surface system that is capable of in-plane (span extension) reconfiguration, sized and scaled for a candidate subsonic fixed-wing UAV platform. This morphing system will make use of high performance, light weight actuators to articulate the shape change, a morphing core to provide structural support, and a flexible skin as a viable aerodynamic surface layer. All components are custom-made in-house from COTS elements and have patents pending. The proposed research plan will work to design the morphing system to fit inside the volumetric constraints of the host vehicle with the goal of increasing efficiency and maneuverability. The Phase I program will end with prototype evaluations of a morphing wing section under representative loading. Successful demonstration here will lead to integration with the UAV and a flight test in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Throughout the Phase I effort, Techno-Sciences, Inc. will work in concert with NASA sponsors to ensure that the proposed morphing control surface technology can be seamlessly integrated with an existing and possible future unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). These include standard runway take-off vehicles, catapult launched vehicles, and vertical take-off vehicles. Typical UAV mission objectives include intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR), search and rescue (SAR) operations, and payload delivery, in addition to collecting meteorological and atmospheric measurements. Aside from UAVs, unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) also stand to benefit from this development. Not related to vehicle technology, but another possible application area is that of deployable systems, where the honeycomb-like core could be contracted during stowage and expanded to deploy a payload, while also serving as a stabilizing and controllable frame. To facilitate technology transfer, we will work in Phase I to address top-level hardware and software integration issues from a systems engineering perspective. Issues such as control electronics, software architectures, hardware interfaces, manufacturability, ruggedness, and reliability will be considered in Phase I and implemented in Phase II of the program.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The morphing control surface system for improved flight performance characteristics will be applicable to a wide range of end-users in the defense, commercial, and industry sectors. Its broad applicability is enabled by the custom-fabricated components. More efficient control surfaces featuring chord/span extension and contraction and camber change are particularly attractive to the military. Increased efficiency allows for longer missions to take place, whether they be mapping of unexploded ordnance, monitoring of assets, or other ISR-related tasks. Other applications include supporting mine detection, biochemical weapons cleanup, and operations in other hazardous environments or rough terrain. Additionally, research in biomimetics and reconfigurable dwellings are other opportunities for application. It should be emphasized that while the proposed development focuses on a small UAV, the enabling technologies are scalable to larger craft using established design laws and material selection criteria. Overall, the proposed technology will be an integrated hardware/software product that can be licensed for manufacture. Techno-Sciences, Inc. already enjoys market share of related technologies through our existing customers, and we plan to leverage these marketing outlets and offer custom-design morphing control surface systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.06-8900
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerothermodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Efficient, Multi-Scale Radiation Transport Modeling

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
PC Krause and Associates, Inc.
3016 Covington Street
West Lafayette, IN 47906-1108
(765) 464-8997

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alexander Heltzel
heltzel@pcka.com
5409 Clayton Road
Farmersville,  OH 45325-9211
(937) 255-8663

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Focusing on a reduced-dimension problem of a hypersonic orbital/lunar reentry capsule, an algorithm will be built which combines the stochastic Monte Carlo method for treatment of radiation transport in optically thin to moderate domains, with a single-term modified differential approximation (MP1) for use in optically thick domains. This numerical method will be verified against a known benchmark case before application to the reentry problem. The bandwise and cumulative distribution function (CDF) methods will be combined within the Monte Carlo framework, creating an efficient, dual-hybrid radiation transport algorithm. A detailed plan for the generation of the full algorithm will be developed, with a focus on parallelization and compatibility with existing commercial transport software. This plan will include thorough testing and validation stages.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed work offers a means to efficiently calculate thermal radiation transport in a broad range of NASA and defense technologies. Specifically, the program can be applied for accurate, efficient prediction of radiant heat transfer during manned spacecraft launch and reentry, as well as solar energy utilization and solar flux predictions for ground and space-based instrumentation or habitats. The proposed algorithm would be coupled to existing NASA CFD/thermal simulation codes for source term application in the energy equation. Compatibility and parallelization will exploit NASA's existing software and hardware resources, providing a powerful radiation transport capability.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The combined stochastic and diffusion-based algorithm will be modularly compatible with existing commercial codes, allowing wide access to accurate thermal radiation predictions within research, academic, and design communities. Other defense applications include thermal radiation characterization from rocket nozzles/plumes, combustion chambers, and nuclear explosions. Commercial space launch organizations will have access to state-of-the-art thermal calculation capability, as well as design firms supporting the nascent space tourism industry. Ground-based applications for efficient radiation transport predictions are numerous, and include metal forming, lithography, curing, and many other high-temperature manufacturing processes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ablatives
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Simulation Modeling Environment
Cooling
Structural Modeling and Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.06-8955
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerothermodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Computational Tool for Kinetic Modeling of Non-Equilibrium Multiphase Flows in Ablation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luminad Technologies
73 Pond
Sharon, MA 02067-2059
(781) 784-3907

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Zeifman
miz3@psu.edu
73 Pond
Sharon,  MA 02067-2059
(781) 784-3907

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Development of highly accurate tools to predict aerothermal environments and associated effects on vehicles is needed to enable advanced spacecraft for future NASA missions. At heating rates encountered during hypersonic reentry, the surface is ablating and the interaction of ablation products blowing into the boundary layer induces new interactions (chemical reactions, radiation absorption) that have strong impacts on surface heating rates and integrated heat loads. One important effect of the reentry phenomenon is the interaction of the ablated debris with the atmospheric gas molecules and vehicle surface. Even though the ablated debris may include particles ranging from the micron-scale down to the molecular scale, the available models of ablation flows only incorporate ablated molecules and neglect molecular clusters. In this project, we will develop computationally-efficient methodology for coarse-grained yet accurate characterization of cluster reactions with the aid of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and parametric chemistry models. The resultant product will be a software module which will provide the cluster reaction characterization for the given interaction potential. This module will be compatible with existent NASA codes applicable for continuous or rarefied gas regimes. Another software model will perform MD simulations of energetic gas flow – surface interaction.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The principal advantage of our product to be developed over Phases I and II is unprecedented physical accuracy of modeling the processes of particulate interactions within non-equilibrium gas environment. The proposed research will provide information on clustering in terms of spatial distributions of cluster size, kinetic and internal energies, and on the dependence of these distributions on the initial conditions and the reaction types. The product to be developed during Phases I and II is directly applicable to the NASA efforts in computational modeling of the entry and reentry space vehicles under the Aeronautics Research Directorate. It is also applicable to the needs of space exploration program under the Exploration Systems Directorate.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Modeling of aerodynamic ablation, including the ablation debris flow interactions is of interest to DOD. In particular, ablators are used in ballistic missiles and accurate modeling of ablation process is required for optimization of missile design. Another important aspect is the prediction of optical signatures of ballistic missiles and other objects. Since clusters strongly affect the flow in the vicinity of a hypersonic projectile, the luminous species such as CN will be affected as well. The more commercially-oriented applications are intended for the industry working in the fields of materials fabrication, nano-technology, space technology, MEMS and NEMS. The principal advantage of our product to be developed over Phases I and II is unprecedented physical accuracy of modeling the processes of cluster formation and evolution in non-equilibrium gas environment. To the best of our knowledge, no product of such capability is currently available in the market and we expect high interest and demand. The implementation of our product will allow the user to accurately model physical processes in such technological segments as pulsed laser deposition of thin films, cluster deposition, obtaining of size-selected clusters, micro-thrusters and other space application. This modeling will impart a better understanding of the underlying physics and provide a basis for technology improvement.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Ablatives
Simulation Modeling Environment
Cooling
Thermal Insulating Materials
Aerobrake


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.06-9653
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerothermodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Comprehensive CFD Tool for Aerothermal Environment Around Space Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805-1944
(256) 726-4800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vladimir Kolobov
vik@cfdrc.com
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville,  AL 35805-1944
(256) 726-4800

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of this SBIR project is to develop an innovative, high fidelity computational tool for accurate prediction of aerothermal environment around space vehicles. This tool will be based on the Unified Flow Solver (UFS) developed at CFDRC for hybrid simulations of rarefied, transitional and continuum flows. In this project, UFS will be enhanced to include: Boltzmann/continuum solvers for vibrationally excited molecules, advanced non-equilibrium chemistry coupled to non-gray radiative transport with real gas effects, and charged particle transport and chemistry. The unique strengths of our proposal are: (i) smart software with self-aware physics and adaptive numerics for hypersonic flows with non-equilibrium chemistry, (ii) direct Boltzmann solvers for charged and neutral particles in rarefied regimes, and (iii) a high-fidelity multi-scale radiation transport model that can handle orders of magnitude variation in the medium optical thickness. Phase 1 will include evaluation of physical models, initial implementation and demonstration of new capabilities. In Phase 2, these capabilities will be fully developed, validated for selected benchmark problems, and applied to practical cases relevant to NASA. The proposed tool will significantly upgrade the modeling fidelity of high-speed flows of molecular gases, and enable computational investigation of innovative hypersonic flow and plasma technologies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project will result in a high fidelity, non-equilibrium reentry computational tool with unique predictive capabilities. The tool will find direct and immediate application in a multitude of NASA technology development programs such as the Constellation and New Millennium Programs. Multiple operational risks may be mitigated, including but not limited to ascent and descent aerothermal effects on Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) components such as the crew capsule and Launch Abort System, plume impact during orbital maneuvering, plume environments during Altair lunar landing operations or spacecraft landing near planetary outpost habitat structures. The accurate modeling of aerothermal environments is essential for protecting space vehicles and insuring crew safety and overall mission success. The code will be used as a design tool for development of new generation reentry vehicles (such as CEV) and components of future hypersonic vehicles. The code will be also used for plasma flow control for subsonic and supersonic aerospace applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Technology applications beyond NASA include Ballistic Missile Defense vehicles performing exo-atmospheric missile intercepts, interceptor divert thruster plume interaction, and the generation of target missile plume signatures. The tool will have wide appeal to rocket engine manufacturers (e.g., ATK, Pratt & Whitney, and Aerojet) and to universities developing rocket engine technology (e.g. Purdue, Penn State, and University of Alabama in Huntsville). Advanced space propulsion systems such as arcjets, ion thrusters, and plasma thrusters must be evaluated for their installed performance and environmental impact. The Air Force is actively pursuing development of high-speed, long-range, scramjet-powered strike aircraft that will operate at high altitudes presenting complex propulsion airframe interaction challenges. The software may also find numerous commercial and research applications in material processing (Chemical Vapor Deposition and dry etching), semiconductor manufacturing, microelectronics, microsystems, MEMS, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.06-9763
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerothermodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Unified Multi-Dimensional Gaskinetic Hybrid BGK-DSMC Method for Nonequilibrium and Chemically Reacting Flows

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ZONA Technology, Inc.
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale, AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Danny Liu
danny@zonatech.com
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale,  AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A consistent and accurate Hybrid gaskinetic BGK and DSMC method, valid in the full Knudsen number (Kn) range, is proposed as a 3D tool to handle hypersonic aerothermodynamics from continuum to thermochemical nonequilibrium and ionized/plasma flows. By domain-decomposition, the proposed method will provide adjoint but automated sub-domain solutions by solving the gaskinetic BGK method of Xu (BGKX) and DSMC in their respective low and high Knudsen regimes, therein the BGKX and DSMC solvers have been proven comparatively efficient for thermo-chemical nonequilibrium flows with accurate heat rate prediction. The proposed approach is considered an advancement in rarefied gasdynamic methodology in that: BGKX is efficient for near continuum flows, say 0 <Kn <0.1, and its extension to the Burnett order of Kn~0.5 has been assured; BGKX /DSMC share compatible gaskinetic fluxes, hence a consistent and simpler flux reconstruction and numerically more stable scheme than that of hybrid Navier-Stokes/DSMC approach; and BGKX/DSMC can more suitably handle nonequilibrium/chemical reacting flow than the Direct Boltzmann Equation (DBE) approach. Phase I will construct 2D hybrid method, and validate its pressure/heat rate solutions with that of DSMC in full Knudsen range. Phase II will fully develop its 3D and aerothermodynamic capabilities for thermochemical nonequilibrium flows.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The developed hybrid BGKX/DSMC solver can be used for hypersonic applications from continuum to rarefied flow regimes for thermochemical nonequilibrium effects up to ionization/plasma flows. This solver can generate accurate aerodynamic forces and heat rates. Typical applications are for launch vehicles in space access, aerobrakes, entry command module and ballutes in atmospheric entry; plume flows in chemical engines or rockets pertinent to space maneuver and Lunar/Martian landing problems. Civilian dual-use applications include micro flows and micro heat transfer, such as those inside Micro- or Nano- Electro-Mechanical Systems, MEMS/NEMS; vacuum chambers. Examples include the heat flow rate prediction of microchips inside a vacuum packaged enclosure, gas flows through micro-thrusters, gas phase chemical sensors, lab-on-a-chip. Potential customers include the Air Force, DoD, NASA and private sectors using the solver for hypersonic vehicle design/analysis. Civil applications will provide design/analysis methods for MEMs, vacuum facility and biomedical equipments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential Non-NASA Commercial Applications Non NASA applications are supported by non-aerospace domains and private industry for rarefied gas flows applications with a wide range of Kn number and Mach number. Examples of such examples include hypersonic flows around missiles; aerosol effects on weather prediction; materials processing inside vacuum chamber, especially for the semi-conductor industry; air purification with tools made of fine fibers, such as masks; rarefied gas flows associated with MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS), such as various gas sensors. ZONA will extend the proposed BGKX/DSMC method, and package them into a commercial software. Potential customers include DoD, Department of Homeland security, chemical and civil engineering firms, vacuum industry, semiconductor industry, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Micro Thrusters
Inflatable
Aerobrake


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.07-9068
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight and Propulsion Control and Dynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robust Switching Control for Hypersonic Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Barron Associates, Inc.
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901-2559
(434) 973-1215

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alec Bateman
bateman@bainet.com
1410 SAchem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville,  VA 22901-2559
(434) 973-1215

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Flight in the hypersonic regime is critical to NASA's goals because access to earth orbit and re-entry from orbit to earth or to other planets with atmospheres require flight through this regime. Hypersonic flight poses a wide array of difficulties, including significant guidance and control challenges. For example, flexible airframes and highly integrated airframe and propulsion systems common in scramjet designs mean that aerodynamic and propulsion control are closely coupled. Control laws for hypersonic vehicles must also handle a very broad range of dynamics as hypersonic vehicles often operate from subsonic through hypersonic speeds and possibly with multiple propulsion modes for different speed ranges. Actuator saturation and significant models uncertainty also pose control challenges, and demanding energy management requirements make guidance and trajectory optimization challenging tasks as well. The proposed research will develop innovative control strategies to address the challenges of hypersonic flight. These will be based on recent advances in switching control methods that provide large stable regions and disturbance rejection guarantees in the presence of actuator saturation. The proposed control methods will ultimately be integrated with advanced guidance approaches for hypersonic vehicles developed by Barron Associates.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed guidance and control approaches will help to facilitate successful hypersonic flight. Reaching and returning from orbit both involve hypersonic flight, and hypersonic flight is therefore essential to NASA's mission, which traditionally includes space access and exploration. In particular, hypersonic flight is an integral part the Highly Reliable Reusable Launch Systems (HRRLS) program and the High Mass Mars Entry Systems (HMMES) program. The HRRLS program calls for air-breathing horizontal takeoff/horizontal landing launch vehicles to provide reliable and cost effective access to space. The HMMES program is closely related to the strategic goals set by the President, which include manned exploration of Mars. Supporting humans on Mars will require landing of higher mass cargo than has been previously attempted, and targeting this cargo more precisely. The HMMES program addresses these needs, and advanced guidance and control techniques will be critical to the success of the program.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
With the significant recent interest in commercial space access and enhanced military space access, control technology for hypersonic vehicles has the potential for significant non-NASA applications. Several private companies are currently working to provide commercial space launch capabilities. For example, Orbital Sciences has several commercial launch vehicles and has conducted a number of successful launches already, and SpaceX has made several launch attempts in recent years. As these and other companies field the next generation of launch vehicles, improved guidance and control technology will be of interest. The rapid mission planning capabilities currently being developed by Barron under other funding, combined with the highly robust inner-loop control approach to be developed under the proposed research should have significant appeal to these organizations. Technology for rapid and robust access to space will also serve the goals of the military to rapidly deploy surveillance assets and to conduct rapid long range strikes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Guidance, Navigation, and Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.07-9546
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight and Propulsion Control and Dynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: System-Level Development of Fault-Tolerant Distributed Aero-Engine Control Architecture

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Impact Technologies, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd.
Rochester, NY 14623-2893
(585) 627-1923

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Carl Byington
carl.byington@impact-tek.com
200 Canal View Boulevard
Rochester,  NY 14623-2893
(585) 424-1990

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's vision for an "intelligent engine" will be realized with the development of a truly distributed control system and reliable smart transducer node components; however a significant hurdle in its realization is the reliability of these components when subjected to the harsh operating environment throughout the engine. In this Phase I award, Impact Technologies, in collaboration with GE Aviation, will develop a fault-tolerant smart transducer node through a Distributed Engine Control Simulator (DECSim) design tool that will utilize a commercial of-the-shelf (COTS) open-system communications standard and will interface with the C-MAPSS engine model. In Phase I, Impact will successfully develop: i) the DECSim utility, ii) the smart node self-validation and cross-validation capabilities, iii) the overall distributed control architecture, and iv) the firmware code that will reside on hardware. At the end of the Phase I program, Impact will demonstrate the functionality of a candidate DEC smart node in hardware within the DECSim framework. The final smart node technology will alleviate the severe system-level limitations of current centralized architectures that include a large weight imposition, limited design flexibility, and life cycle cost burdens associated with certification and obsolescence management.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed fault-tolerant smart node technology and the DECSim software will enable the development of distributed aircraft propulsion control systems and flight control avionic systems, which is well-aligned with the Fundamental Aeronautics program mission. The final transducer hardware device will be integrated with DEC hardware prototype tests for inclusion in NASA DEC demonstrators.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aside from safety-critical aircraft propulsion applications, the array of applications for distributed smart transducers is vast. The interest in fault-tolerant distributed control systems and fault-tolerant smart transducer node technologies spans across many industries, particularly the automotive and manufacturing systems areas. Ground-based and marine gas turbines also stand to benefit from the proposed distributed control technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Software Development Environments
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.07-9951
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight and Propulsion Control and Dynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hypersonic Control Modeling and Simulation Tool for Lifting Towed Ballutes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Global Aerospace Corporation
711 West Woodbury Road, Suite H
Altadena, CA 91001-5327
(626) 345-1200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kristin Medlock
kristin.g.medlock@gaerospace.com
711 West Woodbury Road, Suite H
Altadena,  CA 91001-5327
(626) 524-2244

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Global Aerospace Corporation proposes to develop a hypersonic control modeling and simulation tool for hypersonic aeroassist vehicles. Our control and simulation testbed will be focused on the particularly important problem of a lifting, towed ballute for planetary aerocapture. The importance of this technology innovation is in the understanding it can provide NASA on the control of hypersonic vehicles, in particular, of lifting towed ballutes. Lift control of a towed ballute will enable the use of smaller and lighter-weight ballutes for planetary orbit capture, which will make ballutes more attractive and feasible for missions to planets such as Neptune where high heating rates require extremely large ballutes for ballistic capture. The application of the comprehensive tool, to be developed in later phases, will be extensive including, but not limited to, control studies for entry and descent, aerocapture, and aero-gravity-assist with a range of hypersonic aeroassist systems (e.g. rigid and deployable aeroshells, waveriders, etc.). This proposal responds directly to the request in subtopic A2 to "leverage the foundational research to develop technologies and analytical tools focused on discipline-based solutions." In addition, in the hypersonic focus arena, we are responding directly to the interest in "system dynamic models incorporating the essential coupled dynamic elements with varying fidelity for control design, analysis and evaluation" and "simulation test beds for evaluating hypersonic concept vehicle control."

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary applications for the proposed control modeling and simulation tool will be for carrying out trade studies to evaluate control and technology options and concept studies of planetary orbit capture missions that utilize controlled lifting towed ballutes. The technology from this effort may have additional applications for the study of controlled lifting towed ballutes for return of injection stages, NASA Exploration missions to the Moon and Mars, and robotic Space Science missions to all planets and moons that have substantial atmospheres. The applications of the comprehensive tool, to be developed in later phases, will be extensive. This tool could be used by NASA to design and assess the performance of control concepts for hypersonic vehicles used in crewed exploration vehicles and stages for the Moon and Mars and unmanned planetary exploration systems including entry, descent and landing, aerocapture, and aero-gravity-assist systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology from this effort will have additional commercial applications outside of NASA. This tool could be used by prime spacecraft system and vehicle developers, in early lifting towed ballute design trade studies, to assess their performance as a function of control schemes and uncertainties. The comprehensive tool, to be developed in later phases, could be applied by industry to the full range of aeroassist problems, including entry and descent, aerocapture and aero-gravity-assist, to study the performance of control schemes as a function of aerodynamic and environmental uncertainties.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Inflatable
Simulation Modeling Environment
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Aerobrake


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.08-8438
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aircraft Systems Analysis, Design and Optimization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Multidisciplinary Optimization Objects

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
M4 Engineering, Inc.
4020 Long Beach Blvd
Long Beach, CA 90807-2617
(562) 981-7797

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Katherine Alston
kalston@m4-engineering.com
4020 Long Beach Blvd
Long Beach,  CA 90807-2617
(562) 981-7797

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
M4 Engineering proposes to implement physics-based, multidisciplinary analysis and optimization objects that will be integrated into a Python, open-source framework and used in a wide variety of simulations. The integrated objects will perform discipline-specific analysis across multiple flight regimes at varying levels of fidelity. The process will also deliver system-level, multi-objective optimization. Addressing physics-based, system-level objectives that span more than one discipline will have profound effects on improving decision-making abilities during the conceptual design phase when evaluating advanced technological concepts. In the proposed effort, existing capabilities will be leveraged to create a high fidelity, physics based, multidisciplinary analysis and optimization (MDAO) system. This proposed work will compliment M4 Engineering's expertise in developing modeling and simulation toolsets that solve relevant subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic demonstration applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The goal of this SBIR project is to tie directly into the current efforts coming from the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). Specifically, NASA Glenn Research Center has a long-term goal (ALPHA) of developing an open-source Python framework by 2012. Integrating existing discipline-specific and common object modules into GRC's framework gives users a baseline set of modules available for immediate use in constructing and solving MDAO problems. This open-source framework with ready-to-use objects will help create an unbounded development platform that establishes commonality (Python language) without restrictions (open-source) and allows versatility as modules and objects are available for use as required per configuration. It is also expected that this technology will be directly applicable to the research projects planned in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The multidisciplinary nature of the technology makes it an ideal candidate for use any time a very high performance vehicle is designed, where interactions between components and disciplines is important. Examples include future high efficiency subsonic aircraft, quiet supersonic aircraft, high-altitude, long-endurance aircraft, hypersonic aircraft, and next-generation launch vehicles (either airbreathing or rocket powered).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
M4 Engineering has discovered that developing the technology components and integrated MDAO processes such as those proposed in this Phase I has significant impact in our capturing related commercial work. Getting M4 modules into NASA's open-source framework increases the commercialization potential for those M4 modules and other associated M4 products. The applications developed in Phase I and transitioning to Phases II and III will not only serve as demonstrations of M4's capability, but will also provide exposure of the technology to the technical leadership of future development efforts, giving excellent chances of technology transition to these programs. M4 Engineering is participating in the NASA Glenn Transition Assistance Program. Through this program, M4 Engineering is increasing its potential to infuse its technology into the marketplace by learning how to transition projects to Phase III awards. The modules implemented in this proposal will be candidates for moving from Technology Research and Development to Technology Development and Demonstration and then on to System Development. Commercial Products, Services, and Systems are derived from projects, which reach the System Development stage. M4 is receiving the background and training to satisfy NASA's objective of moving SBIR funded R&D towards products available to NASA and the free market.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Simulation Modeling Environment
Software Development Environments


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.08-8820
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aircraft Systems Analysis, Design and Optimization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integration of an Advanced Cryogenic Electric Propulsion System (ACEPS) to Aerodynamically Efficient Subsonic Transport Aircraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Empirical Systems Aerospace, LLC
P.O. Box 595
Pismo Beach, CA 93448-0595
(805) 275-1053

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrew Gibson
staff@esaero.com
P.O. Box 595
Pismo Beach,  CA 93448-0595
(805) 275-1053

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal defines innovative aerodynamic concepts and technology goals aimed at vehicle efficiency for future subsonic aircraft in the 2020 – 2030 timeframe. Noise, emissions and fuel burn are all vehicle efficiency concerns which can be addressed by aerodynamic concepts either on the component, subsystem, or aircraft design system level. In line with the NASA, an assumption is made that by 2025, higher air traffic demand (2-3 times the 2004 level) will require a significant increase in airport throughput, improved air traffic control procedures, and a significant decrease in noise. Empirical Systems Aerospace (ESAero) has a design and analysis team to address high risk/high pay-off technologies on the aircraft aerodynamics concept level and airframe/propulsion integration to dramatically reduce noise, pollution, and fuel burn in the 2020-2030 timeframe. The key technology for these breakthroughs is the use of an advanced cryogenically-cooled electric propulsion system installed in advanced unconventional aircraft configurations. An important feature of this study is to understand and evaluate the impact of this propulsion system on the design and aerodynamic performance of the total aircraft. In addition, ESAero will examine the applicability of STOL performance to potential improvements in airport throughput using multiple configuration and aerodynamic performance concepts.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This research could provide the NASA with cutting edge airplane configurations incorporating unique aerodynamic concepts and a propulsion system which could drastically increase efficiency over SOTA aircraft. The vehicles and propulsion concepts proposed here are directly applicable to NASA's current SSFW directives and a complement to its current activities in the SBIR and NRA arenas. NASA is looking for improved sub-sonic transport aerodynamics and noise improvements, of which the results of this proposal can meet in the near-term. As new airplanes generally take almost a decade for production, the propulsion system proposed here can be available much earlier than that. Electric distributed propulsion systems are available now, and with the addition of cryo, can be available in as early as 5 to 7 years. The cryo-electric distributed propulsion system can be adapted to 737NGs which are available today and will likely still be available as an N+1.5 aircraft in 2015.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Various non-NASA commercial applications exist for the proposed technologies. Currently, the C-130 replacement, the EAGL C-5 replacement, and the Joint Future Theater Lift are three major military tactical airlift vehicles being considered. From the proposed research, both the aerodynamically efficient concepts and the propulsion system are applicable to these on-going military mission studies. In addition, the research is applicable to the rapidly growing UAV industry. Resulting UAVs from the propulsion study would be smaller and more efficient than current fuel powered aircraft. The noise of the proposed propulsion system and aerodynamic concepts would also be less than that of current generation UAVs. A large UAS such as the Global Hawk can benefit greatly from the proposed propulsion system as an increase of efficiency will lead to longer loiter times for the BAMS mission and longer range flights for Air Force Reconnaissance missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Airframe
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Cooling
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Fluid Storage and Handling
Superconductors and Magnetic
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.08-9150
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aircraft Systems Analysis, Design and Optimization
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Physics-Based Starting Model for Gas Turbine Engines

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
EcoPro Technologies, LLC
P.O. Box 4051
Berkeley, CA 94704-3448
(510) 549-1779

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Angela Chen
ecoprotechnologies@gmail.com
P.O. Box 4051
Berkeley,  CA 94704-3448
(510) 549-1779

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing an integrated starting model for gas turbine engines using a new physics-based combustion dynamics model that accurately simulates flow interactions among the compressor, combustor, and turbine. Replacing conventionally costly guess-and-test techniques, this new process for starting system analysis, design, and optimization promises a new generation of predictive capability that will allow system engineers to design engines with higher fidelity and eliminate the need for multiple iterations and testing cycles found in current industry practice. EcoPro Technologies' physics-based starting model is built from an innovative solution algorithm which solves the 1-D speed-dependent conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy for each starting system component. From this integrated algorithmic model, we will be able to achieve predictive capabilities for the most vital engine dynamics, including starting/transient instabilities of combustor flameout, compressor surge and over-temperature shutdowns. Our integrated design tool allows for complex starting simulations, thus enabling successful engine design and modeling with rapid determination of sensitivities with respect to all engine design variables and constraints. This empowers engineers to choose optimized design directions without violating constraints and make appropriate design changes to engines prior to costly manufacturing and testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Achieving altitude starting capability is one of the most important design requirements for any gas turbine engine used in both military and commercial aircraft. Any shortfalls of altitude starting performance discovered during qualifications or flight tests will cause expensive engine re-design and significant schedule delay. Therefore, NASA can apply this innovative R&D program in the following ways: 1. The first and most urgent potential application of this R&D program is for NASA to use this model as a conceptual design tool for mitigating program risks of engine re-design. 2. Optimizing engine transient/starting performance including altitude light-off, starter cut-off, and transient load operations during preliminary and detailed design. 3. Troubleshooting any existing development or production engine starting problems including fail-to-lights, combustor flameouts, compressor surges, over-temperature shutdowns and any starting instabilities. 4. The starting model also can be used to help identify the component failure modes and improve engine starting reliability.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
All commercial aircrafts have design requirements for reliable altitude starting. Some newer commercial aircraft under development additionally demand ETOPS-proven starting requirements of > 99.99% reliability for altitude environments up to 43,000 ft. With these stringent design requirements, an altitude starting model which allows clear analytical understanding and physical predictions during high altitude starts for gas turbine engines is in urgent need commercially. In addition to being used for NASA applications, EcoPro Technologies' altitude starting model will be commercialized as a gas turbine industry design "best-practice" to help improve engine starting reliability to meet ETOPS-proven starting requirements of >99.99% reliability for altitudes environments up to 43,000 ft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Simulation Modeling Environment
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.08-9454
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aircraft Systems Analysis, Design and Optimization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Variable-Fidelity Conceptual Design System for Advanced Unconventional Air Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618-2302
(609) 538-0444

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Glen Whitehouse
glen@continuum-dynamics.com
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing,  NJ 08618-2302
(609) 538-0444

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Ongoing work in unconventional air-vehicles, i.e. deformable mold-lines and bio-mimetics, is beginning to provide the insight necessary to exploit performance benefits associated with unsteady flow phenomena. However, the current generation of conceptual design/analysis tools, based on empirical and heuristic models, is incapable of analyzing advanced concepts with confidence, and a new approach, which exploits recent and ongoing developments in unsteady aeromechanics, is needed. The proposed effort addresses these shortcomings by developing a hierarchical system of validated variable-fidelity physics-based aeromechanical tools for designing, analyzing and evaluating advanced concepts that employ aerodynamic shape change and other unsteady phenomena. This suite of state-of-the-art tools will be integrated as a design and analysis system which can rapidly and reliably perform "virtual expeditions" through the design space. In addition, validated subcomponents, ranging from real-time free-wake analyses and fully-coupled non-linear fluid-structure interaction tools to highly efficient CFD solvers with automated grid generation, will be made available as retrofittable modules for current tools. The capability to design and evaluate advanced concepts offered by this system directly addresses the long-term aircraft systems development goals of prospective users in both government and industry. The software will achieve TRL=4 during Phase I and TRL=7-8 by the end of Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed effort directly supports the long-term aircraft systems design and analysis goals of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program by developing a state-of-the-art variable-fidelity physics-based design and analysis system that will encompass validated numerical models for the development and evaluation of advanced conventional and unconventional air-vehicle concepts that exploit aerodynamic shape change and other unsteady flow phenomena for lift, propulsion and noise reduction. Moreover, unlike the current generation of conceptual design tools, this suite will not rely on linear/empirical techniques or heuristic models and thus will not be constrained by airframe configuration. Consequently, the proposed system will be able to support current air-vehicle design and evaluation tasks already underway in NASA, as well as future unconventional air-vehicle development efforts under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. Additional NASA applications will be made available by the leveraging of emerging research into multidisciplinary technologies for systems level design and optimization. For example, recent NASA sponsored work developed unsteady flow-control devices to enhance the performance of current generation aircraft; the physics-based nature of the tools proposed here will make them ideal for further developing and optimizing such devices for various applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A successful Phase I/II effort will produce a suite of commercial products for the design, analysis and evaluation of advanced conventional and unconventional air-vehicle concepts that exploit aerodynamic shape change and other non-linear unsteady flow phenomena for lift, propulsion and noise reduction. This suite would include a complete state-of-the-art variable-fidelity physics-based stand-alone design and analysis system and a set of modular aero-structural analyses that can be coupled to contemporary multidisciplinary aircraft synthesis tools. Significant commercialization opportunities are anticipated from licensing the new modeling tools and components, as both stand-alone software and retrofittable modules, to major air-vehicle manufacturers and other branches of the government involved in air platform development and support. In addition, because of the physics based nature of these tools, this suite will be able to support to design and development of emerging technologies such as unsteady flow control devices under development to enhance the performance of current generation air-vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.09-8605
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Metal Rubber Sensor Appliqu‚s for Rotor Blade Air

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanosonic, Inc.
1485 South Main Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060-5556
(540) 953-1785

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Claus
roclaus@nanosonic.com
1485 South Main Street
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-5556
(540) 953-1785

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of this NASA SBIR program is to develop conformal Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> sensor skins for the distributed measurement of wall shear or skin friction on rotorcraft rotor blades. The sensor skin arrays would allow the direct two-dimensional mapping of both orthogonal components of tangential skin friction on rotor blade surfaces without requiring large recessed cavities within the blade structure. Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> skin friction sensor element prototypes have been demonstrated on small laboratory flow test articles. Wall shear measurement data are important to 1) establishing boundary conditions for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of air vehicle boundary layer flow and turbulence, and 2) active flight control of air platforms. During Phase I, NanoSonic would design, fabricate and test new, large-area Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> sensor skin materials and arrays capable of surviving the thermal, mechanical, UV and chemical environment of operational aircraft, and work with NASA and industrial partners to transition the use of such sensor skins to use on rotor blade wind tunnel models. The new high performance Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> materials, sensor skin arrays, and data acquisition and signal processing electronics would be evaluated using multiple air and water flow systems at NanoSonic and in wind tunnel facilities at a partner institution.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications of conformal Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> 'sensor skin' arrays include 1) direct distributed measurement of air data on wind tunnel models to establish CFD boundary conditions as part of air vehicle development, 2) co-located measurement and mapping of skin friction and pressure on full-scale flight test aircraft, 3) conformal, skin-like 2D tactile sensor arrays for astronaut-assisted or telerobotic manipulators, and 4) distributed physiological sensor arrays of blood pressure, and heart and respiration rate for astronauts during extended space missions and extravehicular activities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications of similar conformal Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> 'sensor skin' arrays include 1) measurement of skin friction and pressure on operational hydrocraft, 2) tactile sensor skin arrays that can flex in addition to bend, 3) 2D strain and pressure sensor arrays for biomedical instrumentation, and 3) sensors for high performance military aircraft, especially UAVs and Morphing Aircraft that require active air data sensing and flow control to optimize performance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Attitude Determination and Control
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.09-8759
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Surface-Mounted Rotor State Sensing System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618-2302
(609) 538-0444

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert McKillip, Jr.
bob@continuum-dynamics.com
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing,  NJ 08618-2302
(609) 538-0444

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A surface-mounted instrumentation system for measuring rotor blade motions on rotorcraft, for use both in flight and in wind tunnel testing, is proposed for development. The technology builds upon previous Navy- and NASA-sponsored SBIR work in the design of a system for measuring rotor blade motion and loads, by combining several separate measurement technologies into a single instrumentation unit. The device may be applied onto the underside of any rotor system, and has a sufficiently small weight and form factor to minimize any impact on either blade aerodynamic or inertial properties. Data transfer to and from the unit is performed using optical telemetry, and power for the system is provided from self-contained conformal batteries. A novel feature of the new approach is the dual-use nature of the telemetry link to provide additional blade position measurements. These features eliminate the need for specialized rotor hub hardware for blade angle measurement or sliprings for power or data exchange, thus enabling its use on a wide range of rotor systems of interest to NASA and commercial customers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The instrumentation system to be developed here would significantly enhance the capabilities of NASA researchers to improve rotorcraft aeromechanical modeling and prediction tools by providing much-needed high-quality data on rotor blade motion during rotorcraft testing. These data would be used to validate analyses of distributed aerodynamic and aeroelastic loads on rotor systems both in-flight and in wind tunnel test environments. The additional detail available from these datasets would improve physical understanding of the complicated aeromechanical interactions present in rotor system response, thereby leading to the development of better design tools for characterizing the rotor's behavior.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications for this measurement system include supporting rotorcraft flight test operations, functioning as a condition monitoring system for rotor motion limit checking, and aiding routine maintenance for rotor blade vibration reduction through enhanced blade tracking. Future applications could include rotor state measurement for enhanced rotorcraft flight control feedback functions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Facilities
Attitude Determination and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.09-8904
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: ROBUST (Rotorcraft Blade Universal Shape Transformation) System for Controlled Aerodynamic Warping

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Technologies Corporation
57 Maryanne Drive
Monroe, CT 06468-3209
(203) 814-3100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Yogesh Mehrotra Materials Technologies Corp
ymehrotra@aboutmtc.com
57 Maryannne Drive
Monroe,  CT 06468-3209
(203) 874-3100

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In rotorcraft flight dynamics, optimized warping camber/twist change is a potentially enabling technology for improved overall rotorcraft performance. Recent research efforts have led to the application of active materials for rotorcraft blade actuation to dynamically change the blade camber/twist. However, full-scale aircraft application of these systems in demanding rotor blade environments gets significantly degraded by dynamic operational factors including friction, free play, and, aerodynamic and inertial loads. In a radical departure from current techniques, MTC proposes an innovative three-dimensional concept wherein typically closed section blade is cut open to create a torsionally compliant mechanism that acts as its own amplification device; blade deformation is dynamically driven by out-of-plane warping. During Phase I, this concept will be analyzed under dynamic operational factors. Required analytical and finite element tools will be developed within the framework of multibody dynamics that enable comprehensive aeroelastic evaluation of the concept. Feasibility of the concept for (i) swashplateless rotor system and (ii) higher harmonic control will be investigated and first-order actuator and blade cross-sectional design requirements will be established. Applications include both rotorcraft and fixed wing aircraft in the government and commercial sectors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
3D warping has potential application to all vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft. Fixed blade twist is a design compromise between forward flight and hover performance thus limiting the overall aircraft efficiency. The technology proposed here will be a suitable candidate for NASA wind tunnel testing to quantify the degree of improvement offered by both quasi-steady and 1-per-rev twist (swashplateless rotor).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applications of 3D warping include both civilian and military VTOL aircraft. 3D warping can reduce the empty weight of helicopters and tiltrotors by lessening the weight dedicated to vibration suppression. For example, on the UH-60M, the weight of the current vibration systems is about 270 lbs. On the MH-60S the vibration control weight is about 400 lbs. Similar weight savings will likely be accrued for tiltrotors including the heavy lift tiltrotor being pursued by the Army and NASA Ames. The 3D warping concept can significantly reduce these values thus allowing more payload and/or flight range. Additionally, to the extent that variable blade twist can improve rotor L/De, the warping concept will result in further improvements in payload / flight range. Our warping concept will have application in the Worldwide Wind Turbine industry for power generation. An effective camber/twist change is needed to benefit most from the dynamic airflow through wind turbines. The potential for this rapidly growing "green" power generation industry is enormous.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Structural Modeling and Tools
Composites
Computational Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.09-9022
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fast Responding PSP for Rotorcraft Aerodynamic Investigations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc.
2766 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440-3638
(937) 429-4980

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Jim Crafton
jwcrafton@innssi.com
2766 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton,  OH 45440-3638
(937) 429-4980

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 7 to 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed work focuses on implementing fast-response pressure-sensitive paint and Surface Stress Sensitive Films for measurements of unsteady pressure and skin friction in rotorcraft applications. Significant rotorcraft problems such as dynamic stall, rotor blade loads in forward flight, and blade-vortex interaction all have significant unsteady pressure oscillations that must be resolved in order to understand the underlying physics. Often these unsteady pressures are difficult to resolve in the rotating frame due to difficult installation of pressure transducers, and data is available only at discrete points. Pressure-sensitive paint formulations have been developed to provide surface pressure information in situations such as this, but conventional PSP formulations have slow response times. Conventional skin friction measurements, for example oil flow, do not offer significant frequency response. In order to improve the frequency response characteristics of PSP, sprayed porous paint binders have been developed for measurement of unsteady pressures. Fast-responding Surface Stress Sensitive Films provide both quantitative skin friction and qualitative flow visualization measurements. These techniques can provide high-spatial-resolution, time-resolved pressure and skin friction information that will provide unparalleled insight into the physical mechanisms driving certain rotorcraft problems. Both of these techniques will be demonstrated in Ohio State's unique 6"x22" transonic wind tunnel, where an airfoil may be tested for dynamic stall simulation in compressible flow. Successful demonstration of fast-responding PSP and S3F on a dynamic stall test in the 6"x22" tunnel will serve as a proof of concept that will allow transition of the technologies into larger-scale wind tunnels at NASA and elsewhere.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Distributed measurements of skin friction and pressure are of significant interest in a variety of fields including aeronautical and bio-medical engineering. ISSI is currently pursuing commercial applications in these fields by demonstrating skin friction and pressure measurements on aerodynamic models, micro-channels, artificial heart models, and contact force measurements such as force distribution under a foot. In the aeronautical community, the skin friction and pressure measurements offered by this technique are essential for the validation of CFD codes and the design of low Reynolds number airfoils for micro air vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non NASA commercial applications of this technology are mostly in the bio-medical field where measurements of skin friction are essential to the design of artificial implants to minimize the occurrence of clotting. Also with respect to contact force measurements, ISSI has developed a sensor based on the S3F technology which is being used to study the effect of shear and on diabetic ulceration in feet. In conjunction with these proof of concept tests, ISSI has recently developed a commercial Pressure Sensitive Paint system. The components of the skin friction technology have been developed to be compatible with this commercially deployed system and therefore, extension of these systems to include skin friction measurements is offered as a system upgrade. Along with internal marketing efforts of ISSI, TekMark has been retained as an external contractor to assist ISSI with marketing of the PSP/Skin Friction system. Over the past 12 months, eight complete systems and several components have been sold with total revenue of over $500,000.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Testing Facilities
Optical
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.09-9167
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid Finite Element Developments for Rotorcraft Interior Noise Computations within a Multidisciplinary Design Environment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michigan Engineering Services, LLC
2890 Carpenter Road, Suite 1900
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-1100
(734) 358-0792

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aimin Wang
wangam@miengsrv.com
2890 Carpenter Road, Sute 1900
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-1100
(734) 477-5710

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
One of the main attributes contributing to the civil competitiveness of rotorcraft, is the continuously increasing expectations for passenger comfort which is directly related with reduced vibration levels and reduced interior noise levels. Such expectations are amplified in the VIP market where people are used in the acoustic and vibration levels of civil and executive jets. One of the most critical excitations for interior noise in helicopters is the one from the gearbox. Thus, the structure-borne noise path (i.e. excitation propagating from mounting locations through the fuselage structure to the panels of the cabin and to the interior) must be captured in rotorcraft interior noise computations. This proposal addresses the need stated in the solicitation for developing physics based tools that can be used within a multi-disciplinary design-analysis-optimization for computing interior noise in rotorcraft applications. The hybrid FEA method can be used for structure-borne helicopter applications and can be integrated very easily (due to the finite element based model) with models from other disciplines within a multidisciplinary design environment. During the Phase I project the main focus will be in demonstrating the feasibility of the hybrid FEA technology for computing rotorcraft structure-borne interior noise from gearbox excitation. A multi-discipline optimization rotorcraft case study will also be performed for demonstrating how the hybrid FEA facilitates the design of a rotorcraft fuselage based on simultaneous crash landing/passenger safety and structure-borne noise considerations. The new developments will become part of MES' commercial EFEA code and of its implementation within SOL400 of NASTRAN. UTRC will participate in the proposed effort for ensuring relevance of the work to rotorcraft interests and for providing technical consultancy.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Structural-acoustic concerns are present in rotorcraft, aircraft, and launch vehicles, since they are directly related with occupant comfort, and noise induced vibration on payloads and electronic equipment. In all of these areas simulations are utilized during design. Currently, structural-borne paths are difficult to address, particularly in rotorcraft applications due to the nature of the excitation and the physics of the rotorcraft structure. Bringing structure-borne noise simulations within a multidisciplinary design environment will enable the evaluation of advanced concepts and offer cost and weight savings. Therefore, the proposed developments will be useful to all NASA groups interested in reducing weight and cost when designing rotorcraft, aircraft, and launch vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Structure-borne interior noise concerns are present in the shipbuilding, the automotive, the military ground vehicle, and heavy construction equipment industries since structural-acoustic performance is directly related with the perceived product quality, occupant comfort, and health regulations. In all of these areas simulations are utilized during design. Therefore enabling structure-borne noise computations and linking them with other simulation models within a multidisciplinary environment will offer cost and weight savings. Thus, there is a great market potential for the outcome of this SBIR.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Simulation Modeling Environment
Structural Modeling and Tools
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Composites
Computational Materials
Metallics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.09-9451
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Physics Based Tool for Rotorcraft Computational Aeroacoustics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618-2302
(609) 538-0444

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Glen Whitehouse
glen@continuum-dynamics.com
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing,  NJ 08618-2302
(609) 538-0444

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Reduction of noise is critical to the public acceptance and mission suitability of rotorcraft. Accurate prediction of rotorcraft noise is directly related to the ability to predict the highly complicated interaction between the aerodynamic surfaces and their wakes, and while current numerical tools can, in principle, model the complete rotorcraft, they are severely hampered by modeling assumptions or numerical formulation. Consequently, commonly used tools fail to adequately predict the load distribution, and hence noise, of arbitrarily shaped rotors and fuselages. The proposed effort directly supports NASA's mission of assisting the development of advanced rotorcraft by developing an innovative physics-based multidisciplinary tool for predicting rotorcraft aeroacoustics. This tool, consisting of a fully coupled FUN3D CFD code, VorTran-M module and acoustic propagation model, will be able to address interactional aeroacoustics problems unique to rotorcraft, capturing rotor-fuselage interactions that lead to both structural vibration and undesirable interactional acoustics. This effort will build upon recent work addressing critical issues such as numerical diffusion, grid generation, turbulence modeling and rotorcraft noise prediction and reduction at CDI, GIT and elsewhere. The hybrid code will achieve TRL=4 during Phase I and TRL=7-8 by the end of Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed effort directly supports NASA's Subsonic Rotary Wing Fundamental Aeronautics Program goals by leveraging emerging research into first-principles multidisciplinary technologies for simulating advanced rotorcraft configurations. This system will incorporate validated NASA design and analysis tools with CDI's novel VorTran-M low diffusion CFD wake module and an acoustic propagation model to create a hybrid system for the development and aerodynamic/aeroacoustic evaluation of manned and unmanned rotorcraft. A critically important result of this effort would be cost savings associated with the reduction in resources required to setup (i.e. grid generation) and perform adequate aeroacoustic predictions, as well as the ability of NASA rotorcraft design practitioners to exploit the large amount of NASA research into aerodynamic design and optimization that has previously been exclusive to the fixed-wing community. Moreover, this system will also support interest within NASA in vorticity dominated flows, such as bluff body (i.e. unsteady vortex shedding from the shuttle and other rockets when sitting on the launch pad), aircraft in landing configurations and wake vortex hazards.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A successful SBIR effort would produce a fully-validated physics-based multidisciplinary tool for rotorcraft performance and external noise analysis that directly addresses the failings of current methods. This tool could significantly diminish the cost and risk of new designs by reducing the need to perform tests and modifications (i.e. the evolution of the AH-64 empennage from T-tail to cruciform configuration) to ensure both mission suitability and public acceptance. Thus beyond direct commercial gain to CDI, the tool will provide a large indirect commercial benefit to the government and to the rotorcraft community at large. While CDI cannot market FUN3D directly, significant commercialization is anticipated from licensing the VorTran-M module to rotorcraft manufacturers and government branches involved in rotorcraft development/support. Further interest would come from organizations that routinely use CFD to analyze vortex-dominated flows such as meteorology, submarine and ship wakes, building and vehicle aerodynamics. Moreover, the wind turbine community could us this methodology to optimize turbine performance and acoustical signature.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.10-8761
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Optimal Shockwave Boundary Layer Interaction Control for Supersonic Mixed Compression Inlets

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SynGenics Corporation
5190 Olentangy River Road
Delaware, OH 43015-7990
(740) 369-9579

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michelle McMillan
michelle@syngenics.com
5190 Olentangy River Road
Delaware,  OH 43015-7990
(314) 324-4482

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SynGenics Corporation proposes a program that incorporates systems engineering processes, Response Surface Methods, and state-of-the-art numerical methods to develop optimized, fail safe technologies to control shockwave boundary layer interactions and demonstrate improvements in supersonic mixed compression inlet performance. Specific program objectives are to apply structured, mathematically based methods to evaluate, compare, rate, and downselect flow control concepts that will enable improved inlet stability and control shockwave boundary layer interactions in supersonic, mixed compression inlets, to develop and demonstrate an approach to flow control system design and optimization based on designed experiments and response surface methodology, and to obtain a better understanding of the physics driving supersonic inlet performance improvements enabled by fail safe, supersonic inlet flow control and quantify the benefit in terms of inlet total pressure recovery and dynamic distortion. The significance of this program is that it will provide inlet system-level assessments of flow control technologies, including stationary micro-devices, active devices, and hybrid systems comprised of stationary and active devices. In addition, this program will quantify flow control effectiveness in terms of total pressure recovery and distortion computed at the inlet/engine aerodynamic interface plane. This program supports the Propulsion Efficiency key research area of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Supersonics Program by working to develop fail safe inlet flow control technologies that will facilitate low TSFC of highly integrated supersonic inlets and improved overall cruise efficiency through reduced inlet drag.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The advanced flow control techniques developed under this program support the Propulsion Efficiency key research area of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Supersonics Program by working to develop fail safe inlet flow control technologies that will facilitate low thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC) of highly integrated supersonic inlets and improved overall cruise efficiency through reduced inlet drag.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Fail safe advanced flow control technologies and guidelines developed under this program may be tailored to future high-speed commercial and business type aircraft employing mixed compression inlet systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.10-8880
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Plasma Control of Turbine Secondary Flows

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Spectral Energies, LLC
2238 Hunters Ridge Blvd.
Dayton, OH 45434-7065
(937) 266-9570

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sivaram Gogineni
spgogineni@gmail.com
2238 Hunters Ridge Blvd
Dayton,  OH 45434-7065
(937) 266-9570

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose Phase I and II efforts that will focus on turbomachinery flow control. Specifically, the present work will investigate active control in a high speed turbine flow. The flow control actuators will be Single Dielectric Barrier Discharge (SDBD), or "plasma actuators." The work will be primarily experimental, with a focus on realistic operating environments for investigating the efficacy of the actuators. The proposed measurements will be the first to utilize plasma flow control in an aerodynamically realistic LPT environment. The objective of the research will be to study the secondary flows in a modern low pressure turbine (LPT) environment, and use active flow control to provide enhanced aerodynamic and/or heat transfer characteristics by controlling the secondary flows through the nozzle and rotor sections of the turbine. The research will build upon extensive experimental development and numerical modeling of weakly-ionized plasma actuators for flow control applications. The study of these actuators in realistic operating environments will be made possible using a new transonic turbine rig located at the University of Notre Dame. The objectives of the proposed research will involve measurements of the baseline flow field, including the secondary flows produced by the inlet nozzle vanes and the rotor vanes. These data will be used to motivate the actuator design for reduced secondary flows and losses. Specifically, a conceptual model will be constructed to describe how vorticity from the endwall boundary layers, blade surface, and tip gap is stretched and convected into regions of high loss. The actuators will be used to modify the unsteady surface vorticity flux through the plasma body force in order to reduce the net secondary flow losses.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed flow control technology will lead to advances in the cycle efficiency of air breathing propulsion systems. This will impact NASAąs efforts to develop the next generation of engine technology that will reduce fuel burn and decrease air pollution from future aircraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed flow control technology will also provide efficiency increase in land based power generation systems. Many medium scale as well as large scale power generation systems have turbines that could benefit from active flow control in order to reduce fuel burn.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Testing Facilities


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A2.10-9784
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Sensitivity-Based Simulation Software for Optimization of Turbine Blade Cooling Strategies

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jabiru Software and Services
3819 Sunnycroft Place
West Lafayette, IN 47906-8815
(765) 497-3653

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sanjay Mathur
sm@jabirusoft.com
3819 Sunnycroft Place
West Lafayette,  IN 47906-8815
(765) 497-3653

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In recent years, there has been a tendency to use ever-higher gas turbine inlet temperatures, resulting in ever-higher heat loads necessitating efficient cooling. Internal cooling designs have evolved from the use of simple curved ducts in early designs to very complex geometries. Similar complexities govern film cooling as well, leading to complex fluid-structure interactions and turbulence physics. These complexities make it impossible to obtain optimal cooling designs by intuition alone. In this project we propose to develop optimization software for the design and optimization of turbine blade cooling strategies. The objectives of Phase I are to (i) demonstrate the feasibility of accurate single-point physical modeling of internal and film cooling geometries using our CFD solver TETHYS, (ii) demonstrate the feasibility of sensitivity computation and uncertainty quantification using TETHYS, (iii) apply these sensitivity and uncertainty quantification approaches to turbine blade cooling and to demonstrate their advantage over single-point CFD simulations, and (iv) develop and demonstrate multivariate optimization of a chosen turbine blade cooling problem. Phase II will extend our methodology to geometry optimization, the improvement of physical models and numerical schemes, parallel processing on shared and distributed memory platforms and multicore architectures, as well as application to more complex optimization problems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The solver developed during Phases I and II of this project will find wide applicability in NASA. Efficient and accurate flow solvers based on unstructured meshes addressing compressible and incompressible flows will find use in NASA's aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, space entry, internal fluid mechanics, turbomachinery, microgravity, propulsion and materials processing programs. Sensitivity, uncertainty and optimization software will find use in every application in which computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used, but especially in aerodynamics, propulsion, turbomachinery, space re-entry, and materials processing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The solver developed in Phases I and II will find non-NASA applications in virtually every application in which computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used today. This includes aerodynamics, automotive, chemicals processing, electronics cooling, food processing, materials processing, power generation, propulsion and many others.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Cooling
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A3.01-8748
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NextGen Airspace
PROPOSAL TITLE: An ADS-B Emergency Respone System for NextGen Airspace Safety

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Munro and Associates
1749 Northwood
Troy, MI 48084-5524
(248) 362-5110

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Weiss Joe Feord
jfeord@leandesign.com
1749 Northwood
Troy,  MI 48084-5524
(248) 362-5110

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
FAA NextGencontrollers can employ the ADS-B datalink to send aircraft flight plans guiding the around traffic conflicts that the on-board system hasn't seen or hasn't resolved quickly by ATC standards. The emergency function that has 2 features; 1, if the on-board system detects an anomaly it will initiate a priority message and datastream to report a potential safety problem to NextGen ATC controllers; 2 in event of rapid airspace congestion issues ATC can use such a priority datalink to re-route the aircraft. This emergency route to the nearest suitable airport will avoid traffic, restricted airspace, weather and terrain.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Phase III goals are to provide a unique safety systems evaluatein for NASA's NextGen Airspace technology development database.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Phase III goals are the development of enormously productive, FAA certifiable, precise, highly automatable, and attractive ADSB-ADS-B-ER. MUNRO will commercial exploit the LWB process with its MISATS industry partners. There is no other market focused product development effort that has the potential to provide such systems for NextGen.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A3.01-8875
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NextGen Airspace
PROPOSAL TITLE: ACES-Based Testbed and Bayesian Game-Theoretic Framework for Dynamic Airspace Configuration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Goutam Satapathy
goutam@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville,  MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5249

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The key innovation in this effort is the development of algorithms and a framework for automated Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) using a cooperative Bayesian game framework. Given an initial sector plan, we propose an approach for dynamic re-sectorization in which boundaries can be redefined in response to changing demand, weather or other user preferences. Advantages of this approach are that it models the human coordination process, provides a rich domain independent framework for modeling collaboration and a theoretical framework to analyze issues related to convergence, decision-making complexity and stability. The communicative aspects of the game-framework also make it well suited for an agent-based implementation. In this agent-based implementation, each agent represents a player (Sector ATC/TMC) in the air traffic domain. Sector ATC's collaborate with neighboring Sector ATC's within the current sector, and across center boundaries to "collapse", "split" or borrow airspace to optimize traffic flow. The players engage in an "automated collaborative negotiation search" with each other to determine sector geometries that will optimize the overall airspace efficiency. We propose to implement DAC algorithms in Cybele's Decision Support System Infrastructure and demonstrate feasibility using NASA's ACES software.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our initial target for the product developed in this effort is the NextGen airspace design, modeling and simulation community within NASA and FAA. The proposed approach and testbed will provide a unique capability to model and simulate DAC concepts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA applications the proposed agent-based game theoretic has several applications in DOD strategic and tactical planning warfare scenarios where joint forces are teaming against red forces. The proposed framework has direct application to DOD and FAA SUA management in terms dynamically changing SUA structure to optimize SUA utilization, en-route capacity, controller workload and overall all delay.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Guidance, Navigation, and Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A3.01-9117
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NextGen Airspace
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integration of Performance Based Operations into ATM and TFM Simulations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerotech Research
11836 Fishing Point Drive, Suite 200
Newport News, VA 23606-4507
(757) 723-1300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Robinson
paulrobinson@atr-usa.com
11836 Fishing Point Drive, Suite 200
Newport News,  VA 23606-4507
(757) 723-1300

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
FAA predicts that air traffic will double or even triple by 2025 and unless solutions that enable improvements in the use of airspace can be developed and implemented, significant airspace congestion will occur. Advancements in aircraft capabilities via new technologies can enable aircraft to operate more efficiently in the NAS and to operate safely in areas previously restricted. AeroTech proposes to enhance ATM simulations and the assessment of Performance Based Operations (PBO) by developing an Autonomous Aircraft Decision Making Model for Weather Hazard Avoidance based on the aircraft's weather hazard detection capabilities, ATC constraints, FAA regulations, and operator policies. The model will provide autonomous guidance for aircraft in ATM simulations such as FACET and ACES. PBO and traffic flow schemes can be assessed for any scenario by varying the detection capabilities of simulation aircraft, regulations, and/or policies, and examining deviation decisions, flight paths, safety impacts, and NAS throughput. Phase I will develop and test the Model's methodology and algorithms, and perform a proof of concept study. By the end of Phase II, the Model will have been implemented and tested in ATM simulations, and will enable researchers to improve NAS operations through new traffic flow techniques based on PBO.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
When the goals of the proposed R/R&D are met, the Autonomous Aircraft Decision Making Model for Weather Hazard Avoidance will be supportive of NASA's NextGen-Airspace program's goal to develop methodologies and techniques to minimize or solve the demand/capacity imbalance problem in the NextGen future. The proposed Model will support level 1 and 2 research areas in Traffic Flow Management (TFM), Separation Assurance, Performance Based Services, and System-Level Simulation Tools by improving the autonomous decision making capabilities of simulation aircraft, enabling the exploration of Performance Based Operations (PBO) based on aircraft weather detection capabilities, enabling the assessment of 4-D weather cube information for PBO, and enabling the development and testing of new TFM techniques that maximize airspace usage through PBO. The Autonomous Aircraft Decision Making Model will also enhance NASA's Aviation Systems Division simulation tools and efforts in Modeling and Simulation, Tactical ATM, and Strategic ATM.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
AeroTech's Autonomous Aircraft Decision Making Model for Weather Hazard Avoidance will provide benefits to ATM research efforts and as a technology cost-benefit analysis tool. The proposed Model will provide the FAA, the Joint Planning and Development Office, higher educational institutions, and commercial research organizations a tool to examine NextGen capacity and throughput issues due to aircraft system capabilities and Performance Based Operations policies. Understanding the benefits of PBO will enable the development of techniques to safely maximize airspace usage. Aircraft operators and system developers can use the proposed Model in simulations to analyze the cost-benefits (operational efficiency and safety) of specific aircraft weather hazard detection systems and weather hazard information dissemination systems to support purchase decisions and development decisions respectively.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Computer System Architectures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A3.01-9422
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NextGen Airspace
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flexible Tube-Based Network Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Innovation Laboratory, Inc.
2360 SW Chelmsford Avenue
Portland, OR 97201-2265
(503) 242-1761

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Joseph Krozel
Joe.Krozel@gmail.com
2360 SW Chelmsford Ave.
Porltland,  OR 97201-2265
(503) 242-1761

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Innovation Laboratory, Inc. builds a control system which controls the topology of an air traffic flow network and the network flow properties which enables Air Traffic Management (ATM) to adapt to hazardous weather constraints and provide high capacity flows in the National Airspace System (NAS). The Network Flow Organizer automatically adjusts the flows of air traffic with respect to weather hazards and Special Use Airspace (SUA) constraints and allows for parallel flows along the network (a 2-times (2x) to 3-times (3x) increase in today's flow rates) without conflicts at intersection points.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For NASA, the proposed software product offers a R&D capability that enables NASA researchers to investigate future NextGen concepts. Used in conjunction with a NAS-wide simulator like FACET or ACES, our software can be used to study Dynamic Airsapce Configuration (DAC) and Traffic Flow Management (TFM) NextGen concepts. DAC adjustments in the NAS can potentially maximize capacity in highly constrained hazardous weather regions given our recommended network flow design that is adaptable to moving weather constraints and provides high capacity parallel flows of traffic where needed. In the process of dynamically defining airspace regions for controllers, the Network Flow Organizer can establish the tube network that handles the majority of traffic in the NAS. TFM researchers will want to study the efficiency of a tube network in delivering safe and efficient travel for the largest city pair markets in the NAS.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed software has application to military systems as well. In wartime, the constraints are very dynamic and automated airspace usage planning is required to support the pilot and the mission. The airspace may be constrained by weather, but also by hostile threats, both moving and stationary. With minor modifications, our solution approach for estimating the avenues of approach and for estimates of total troop movement flow rates.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Pilot Support Systems
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A3.01-9466
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NextGen Airspace
PROPOSAL TITLE: Use-Driven Testbed for Evaluating Systems and Technologies (U-TEST)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aptima, Inc.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801-1765
(781) 496-2487

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Amy Alexander
aalexander@aptima.com
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn,  MA 01801-1765
(781) 496-2471

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The limitations of current airspace management have necessitated the planning and development of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). NextGen seeks to change the fundamental structure of airspace management to increase the safety and efficiency of flight operations. This effort will require the introduction of advanced flight deck technologies capable of meeting NextGen requirements, such as assimilating weather information into navigation displays. To rigorously evaluate the effectiveness of these new human-machine interface designs, we propose the Use-driven Testbed for Evaluating Systems and Technologies (U-TEST). This proposed innovation will provide a platform for collecting and integrating human performance measures for evaluating NextGen technologies in simulated environments. At the core of U-TEST will be a data integration platform that combines multiple data streams (i.e. observer-based, system-based, and self-report measures), producing a comprehensive evaluation of pilot performance using novel systems and technologies. The 3D Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) will serve as a vehicle for U-TEST development during this SBIR effort. System engineers can utilize the U-TEST environment to acquire rapid, comprehensive, and cost-effective feedback to inform the modification of emerging flight deck systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
U-TEST will be useful to NASA researchers within the NextGen ATM-Airspace Project as a platform that will allow them to meet multiple milestones related to assessing emerging NextGen technologies. The use-driven approach to evaluating pilot performance in simulated environments will inform redesign efforts, such as further developing the 3D CDTI's weather integration functionality.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
U-TEST will appeal to groups external to NASA who are developing flight deck technologies aimed at NextGen integration. Research organizations (e.g. MITRE, FAA) and universities may also benefit from this application, as they are often interested in experimentation and publication of emerging technologies. In the future, U-TEST could also be applied toward evaluating military applications (e.g. Defense, Homeland Security, Intelligence), as well as commercial products such as automobiles and consumer electronics.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Human-Computer Interfaces
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A3.01-9867
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NextGen Airspace
PROPOSAL TITLE: Analysis and Development of UAV Operations in the NAS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110-2702
(703) 369-3633

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Antonio Abad
aabad@aurora.aero
1 Broadway, 12th Floor
Cambridge,  MA 02142-1189
(617) 500-7048

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aurora Flight Sciences, in collaboration with Air Network Simulation and Analysis, Inc. (ANSA), proposes to develop a simulation-based methodology to analyze and guide the development of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operations in the National Airspace System (NAS).The key technical accomplishment of the Phase I effort will be the integration of Aurora's 4D Path Planner with ANSA's stochastic NAS simulation. Within this framework, the path planner generates trajectories inside a single ARTCC of interest, and is supported by a coarser ANSA model of the remaining NAS.Simulation requirements will be developed for civil aircraft routing and planning in dynamic, stochastic environments, and will include realistic performance models for both manned and unmanned vehicles. The initial, proof-of-concept simulation environments will be comprised of exactly one ARTCC and one Terminal Area. Aurora will use this simulation to conduct a Capacity Impact Study during the Phase I effort. A major focus of the study will be a parametric analysis in which the effects from varying the UAV separation standards, flight performance, quantity relative to manned aircraft, and total operations growth on NAS performance will be simulated.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aurora envisions two NASA Commercial Applications resulting from the proposed innovation. First, the simulation platform, as well as any results, analysis and capabilities, can be used by NASA to assist in bringing the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) to fruitition. Another application is made possible because a portion of the Phase 2 effort will be devoted to extending the simulation capability across the entire NAS. Given that the standard airspace simulation for many research applications is NASA's Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), this portion of the effort could be tailored to porting specific elements of our platform and approach to it.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aurora envisions several possible non-NASA Commercial Applications resulting from the proposed innovation. First, the simulation platform could be used as a tool to guide the company's strategy for integrating UAVs into the NAS. Second, the simulation platform could be used to make an informed case to system managers for opening or increasing access to target locations in the NAS. In this form, Aurora could license the platform to air transportation stakeholders, while also providing related consulting and support services. In addition, the simulation platform could be used to position Aurora as the first third-party developer of FAA-approved UAV operations in the NAS. Given some future FAA-specified certification process, Aurora could use the platform to design approved routes and procedures for other UAV operators and vendors. In this capacity, Aurora would resemble third-party developers that currently design approved RNP procedures and routes that are then processed through an abbreviated certification process.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Guidance, Navigation, and Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A3.02-8432
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NextGen Airportal
PROPOSAL TITLE: Future Airportal Surveillance and Prediction

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
801 Sycolin Road, Suite 212
Leesburg, VA 20175-5686
(703) 737-7637

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bryan Wood
wood@mosaicatm.com
801 Sycolin Road, Suite #212
Leesburg,  VA 20175-5686
(800) 405-8576

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Recent advances in airport surface surveillance and other sensor, automation, and data sharing technologies now allow the consideration of a significant change in the control paradigm for aircraft and vehicles on the airport surface. Through the use of airport surface surveillance displays, and other computer information systems, it is conceptually possible to provide ATC services without the ATC tower. This Virtual Tower concept has been identified as a primary component of the Joint Planning and Development Office operational concept for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Remote video surveillance of the airfield is likely to play a key role in any such Virtual Tower implementation. However, significant research on computer vision and video surveillance capabilities to support the Virtual Tower concept must first be addressed. These video surveillance capabilities will also provide information to support flight and airport status monitoring. Mosaic ATM proposes to research and develop image processing algorithms to integrate video and airport surface surveillance data to enable NASA researchers to conduct detailed evaluation of fundamental issues associated with the Virtual Tower concept.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This proposed effort will provide a design and initial prototype of the Future Airportal Research Environment. This environment will be available for use by NASA to support the study of future airport ATC operational concepts. The completion of the project objectives and tasks will allow major advances in NASA's research capability, and will be a catalyst for even greater steps in NASA's airportal research program. Through this research, critical enhancements for the prediction of flight push-back times will be researched and prototyped. The deployment of such capabilities would provide significant benefit to the Traffic Flow Management system in reducing demand uncertainty and enabling better planning. The integration of the computer vision capabilities into an advanced ATC Tower automation system will provide additional required data to support SMS operation that is not available through other means. For example, if an aircraft pushes back from its gate without turning on its transponder or ADS-B system, it will be 'invisible' to airport surface multi-lateration systems without some other means of detection. Optical recognition and tracking is a much more cost-effective means of such recognition and tracking than existing airport surface radar equipment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary non-government commercialization of this technology that we will pursue is as a product for airlines and airports to use to monitor the operation on the airport surface. By using this surveillance capability, improved planning and operations can be conducted on the airport surface. In addition to the aviation market, Mosaic ATM is already pursuing other markets and business opportunities for the computer vision technology. Key market areas that Mosaic ATM has identified for pursuit include security and education. Our approach to each of these markets is to use the future airportal concept prototype that will be developed in this effort with a focus on the aviation sector, as a demonstration capability and test-bed for applications to other markets. The computer vision processing for integration of video and surveillance data can be directly extended to numerous security surveillance applications including building, airport, border, battlefield, and other security surveillance needs. Through the use of the virtual tower concept and extended video surveillance, security personnel will be able to perform their monitoring tasks more efficiently and effectively.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A3.02-8623
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NextGen Airportal
PROPOSAL TITLE: Trajectory Design to Benefit Trajectory-Based Surface Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimal Synthesis, Inc.
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos, CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Victor Cheng
vcheng@optisyn.com
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos,  CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Trajectory-based operations constitute a key mechanism considered by the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) for managing traffic in high-density or high-complexity airspace in the Next-Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). With this concept applied to surface operations at major airports, NASA's NextGen-Airportal Project is exploring the use of surface 4-dimensional (4D) trajectories, which use required times of arrival (RTAs) at selected locations along the route. Observing these RTAs as constraints along the taxi route, the flight still has many degrees of freedom in adjusting its state profiles (i.e., position, velocity, etc. as functions of time) to achieve the timing constraints. This research will investigate whether and how these degrees of freedom in trajectory control may be used to achieve desirable behaviors for the taxi operations. Previous research has applied the trajectory control freedom to assure passenger comfort by keeping the accelerations and decelerations within pre-specified limits, and yet there is still untapped flexibility in designing the trajectories. The proposed research will explore this trajectory design problem to achieve additional desirable behaviors, beginning with the consideration of fuel burn, emissions, and noise. A flight-deck automation experimental prototype will provide the platform for simulating the designs. The findings will benefit future designs of flight-deck automation systems, as well as tower automation systems which rely on accurate understanding of the flight deck's operational behaviors to plan efficient and safe operations for the entire surface traffic.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed research contributes directly to trajectory-based surface operations (TBSO), which constitute an important area of research being pursued by the NextGen-Airportal Project under NASA's Airspace Systems Program. The research will produce realistic and favorable surface 4D trajectory designs to enable TBSO. Sharing these design models with the control tower will allow its automation system to plan safe and efficient operations, and enhance separation assurance by using the models to infer intent when monitoring the traffic movements.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Whereas NASA's NextGen-Airportal Project investigates innovative new technologies, approaches, and procedures to enable capacity enhancements within the airport and terminal domains to meet the JPDO NextGen capacity goals, products from the proposed research will contribute to this cause. The research findings will strengthen the understanding of flight-deck automation potentials for trajectory-based surface operations (TBSO) to help avionics companies design and develop flight control systems that enable such operations. Knowledge of the flight-deck automation will also help developers of air traffic management systems develop control tower automation to realize the full potential of the TBSO concepts. NASA research products, including the technologies envisioned from the proposed research, can be transferred to the FAA through the Research Transition Teams (RTT) set up between NASA and the FAA, to promote transition of these products to real-world applications and acceptance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Autonomous Control and Monitoring


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A3.02-8710
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NextGen Airportal
PROPOSAL TITLE: Safe and Efficient Dynamic Airportal Traffic and Resource Planner

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scientific Systems Company, Inc.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801-6562
(781) 933-5355

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jovan Boskovic
Jovan.Boskovic@ssci.com
500 West Cummings Park Suite 3000
Woburn,  MA 01801-6562
(781) 933-5355

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) strives to transform the existing National Airspace System (NAS) into the safest, most efficient system feasible. This proposal addresses the automated surface traffic and resource planning for the NextGen Airportal concept. Current system is primarily reliant on manual planning and human decision making with minimal computer support. The proposed Collaborative Aircraft Planning System (CAPS) will implement advanced evolutionary algorithms to achieve Airportal usage optimality in real-time while maintaining the required safety margins in aircraft separation and conflict resolution. CAPS will be designed to be flexible to accommodate future aircraft capabilities and equipage, modeling of arbitrary pre-requisite and post-requisite resource requirements, weather driven changes in Airportal constraints, and will be scalable to larger metro-plexes of multiple airportals while maintaining real-time planning capabilities. CAPS will also provide intuitive graphical operator interfaces with enhanced visualization and safety alert capabilities. SSCI will leverage its expertise and past experience in implementing evolutionary algorithms for large planning problems in designing the CAPS software tool. Phase II will lead to a CAPS software package delivery that can be integrated with NASA's FACET and ACES software for evaluation and demonstration.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed effort directly supports the NASA Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen NGATS) and provides advanced algorithms and software tools to perform integrated NextGen Airportal traffic and resource management. Phase II deliverable software package will be designed to interface with the existing tools like FACET and ACES that NASA uses for analysis and evaluation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
FAA and other government agencies will benefit from automated Airportal resource and traffic management through improved throughput of the airports with minimal delays. Performance based automated traffic planning will also enable efficient and safe operations of diverse aircraft types including unmanned vehicles alongside commercial flights. Besides aerospace, the proposed algorithms and software can easily be generalized towards transportation, manufacturing, logistics and military resource and asset planning.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A3.02-9120
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NextGen Airportal
PROPOSAL TITLE: In Situ Wake Vortex Encounter Detection and Reporting System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerotech Research
11836 Fishing Point Drive, Suite 200
Newport News, VA 23606-4507
(757) 723-1300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bill Buck
billbuck@atr-usa.com
11836 Fishing Point Drive, Suite 200
Newport News,  VA 23606-4507
(757) 723-1300

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Wake vortices are a critical constraint to aircraft separation and therefore airportal throughput, which is already at or near capacity at many major airports in the NAS. Improvements to current methods of spacing aircraft could significantly increase airportal capacity, but there is currently limited awareness of wake encounters and information with which to assess spacing in real-time or to design new spacing schemes. AeroTech proposes to improve situational awareness of wake vortices and enhance the prediction of wake vortex transport and decay by developing an In Situ Wake Vortex Encounter Detection and Reporting System (VEDARS). The VEDARS will quantitatively detect wake encounters using flight data; downlink encounter reports in real-time to enhance ATC awareness and enable assessment of spacing schemes; and collect and report meteorological parameters from aircraft for use in wake transport and decay predictions. Additionally, the VEDARS software can process historical flight data to identify prior wake encounters and assess spacing for a given weather day at an airportal. Phase I will develop and test the VEDARS methodology and algorithms, and perform a feasibility assessment. By the end of Phase II, the VEDARS will have been both ground and flight tested, and will be enhancing wake awareness.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
When the goals of the proposed R/R&D are met, the In Situ Wake Vortex Encounter Detection and Reporting System (VEDARS) will directly support NASA's NextGen-Airportal project goal to realize an airportal environment that will achieve the highest possible throughput and operational efficiency, while balancing safety and environmental requirements. VEDARS will support the Safe and Efficient Surface Operations and Coordinated Arrival and Departure Operations Management (CADOM) focus areas by enhancing researchers' awareness of wake encounters; supporting the assessment and optimization of aircraft separation schemes; providing data that assists in the characterization of wake transport and decay; and providing a capability for simulations that can be used to assess airportal operations and procedures within various weather conditions and airfield layouts. The VEDARS will also support NASA's research efforts under the JPDO in NextGen Super Density Arrival/Departure Operations and Trajectory-Based Operations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
AeroTech's In Situ Wake Vortex Encounter Detection and Reporting System (VEDARS) will provide benefits to both research efforts and real-time situational awareness of wake vortices. The VEDARS will enable the FAA Wake Vortex Program and other commercial researchers to assess historical spacing schemes through identification of wake encounters from historical flight data, and develop new techniques for various airfield configurations. Real-time implementation of the VEDARS on aircraft and within wake vortex spacing systems will enhance controller's awareness of wake encounters and their decision making regarding the current separation distances. Additionally, the meteorological information provided can be incorporated into wake transport and decay predictions to assess real-time safety issues for parallel runway operations. Finally, data from the VEDARS can be used by commercial organizations to develop and validate the performance of wake vortex detection systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Attitude Determination and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Architectures and Networks
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A3.02-9942
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NextGen Airportal
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wake Vortex Lidar Monte Carlo Simulation and Visualization Tool

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerospace Innovations, LLC
4822 George Washington Memorial Hwy, Suite 200
Yorktown, VA 23692-2768
(757) 875-5144

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chi Nguyen
chi@ai-llc.com
4822 George Washington Memorial Hwy, Ste 200
Yorktown,  VA 23692-2768
(757) 875-5144

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) sensors have been successfully demonstrated and implemented capabilities to detect and measure wake vortices in and around the terminal area. Although LIDAR systems have been used to measure wake vortex strength and position in NASA and FAA measurement campaigns and too little is known about their accuracy in quantifying location and strength in different regimes. Field data analysis suggests that strength may be commonly overestimated compared to theoretical models, but no study has been conducted to determine the validity and accuracy of the sensing techniques to determine these estimates. Additionally, these uncertainties cannot be determined since no other remote sensing system has been verified to accurately measure and characterize the wake vortices. A risk with no quantitative assessment is that it may negatively impact the separation standards. Aerospace Innovations, LLC proposes to design and develop a physics-based Monte Carlo LIDAR Simulation and Visualization (LiSiVi) Tool to provide NASA and industry researchers the ability to accurately model the performance of LIDAR based wake vortex sensing systems. The significance of this innovation is that it combines the advancement of knowledge in the wake vortex modeling research and the laser technology areas.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential NASA commercial application exists in aeronautics and sensors research. LIDAR sensors are being considered for remote detection of wake vortices in the National Airspace System both in the terminal area and en route. NASA Langley researchers could use this tool in their current work in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck Project to evaluate and assess current and candidate LIDAR systems for their ability to accurately measure wake vortices. No simulation tool is commercially available to provide the comprehensive modeling and analysis capabilities that LIDAR Simulation and Visualization Tool will be able to provide.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As laser technology advances, companies interested in developing LIDAR sensors for wake vortex, turbulence, and other atmospheric phenomena could use LiSiVi Tool to help conduct parametric studies for the design of their LIDAR sensor system. The application of this simulation extends beyond wake vortex detection and measurement to other atmospheric phenomena. The simulation will be designed to incorporate measurement other atmospheric targets such as winds, turbulent kinetic energy, turbulence, and clouds. Commercial application of LiSiVi exists and will be considered in the definition of the requirements for the design.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Airport Infrastructure and Safety


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A4.01-9399
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Versatile Fiber Optic 6-Component Force Measurement System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle, Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016-4962
(540) 769-8400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Matthew Davis
submissions301@lunainnovations.com
3157 State Street
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-6604
(540) 769-8400

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The mission of NASA's ATP is to maintain and advance the testing capabilities of the United States' extensive infrastructure of aerospace research facilities. One key component to these ground based test facilities are the force balances used to measure aerodynamic loads on models undergoing characterization and testing. NASA currently maintains an inventory of balances that were designed for previous models and operating ranges that may not be as relevant to current test conditions. Project resources do not always allow a balance to be designed for specific testing applications due to the associated costs and schedule. Luna Innovations is proposing to develop new and innovative force balance technology that will reduce the cost of facility instrumentation and allow for reduced design and instrumentation time, while providing more accurate and reliable results when compared to current balances. This development utilizes proven fiber optic sensor technology that integrates active thermal compensation with a miniaturized, highly accurate, multi-channel sensing network. The versatile operating range of this technology with respect to temperatures and loading conditions, combined with a high channel count data processing system designed by Luna, will provide advanced measurement capabilities for NASA facilities and enable accurate testing of emerging propulsion and transport technologies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The implementation of fiber optic technology into a 6-component force balance will enable improved accuracy in aerodynamic measurements made across NASA facilities under a variety of test conditions at a reduced cost when compared to traditional, electrically instrumented balances. Operating at a reduced cost will allow more extensive testing of design features and system level designs in support of the next generation CEV, Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), and advanced propulsion systems. The reduced machining and instrumentation cost of the balances themselves will also enable individual designs to be completed for specific models at a scale that was previously not feasible due to project resource limitations. The versatile operating ranges of this technology will also reduce the design time as the limits of aerodynamic testing are extended. This technology will demonstrate itself as being vital to increasing the future design and testing capabilities of NASA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
While NASA is the leader in fundamental research for advancing aerospace technology within the United States, commercial entities are also working to advance the state-of-the-art in high and low-speed propulsion, flight vehicles, and fundamental aerospace sciences. Key to verification of computer simulations is the ability to cost effectively obtain data under ground based simulated flight conditions. The technology developed during this project will enable commercial air and spacecraft developers to obtain vital data which will improve vehicle design, safety, and efficiency. In addition, the strain gauges and system developed during this program will also be applicable across industry to all harsh-environment applications in which electrical gauges cannot survive. Fiber optic gauges provide a miniature, non-intrusive EMI-resistant method of accurately measuring strain and temperature. Luna expects this system will provide a significant upgrade to existing facilities in which current systems have become obsolete.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Testing Facilities
Structural Modeling and Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A4.01-9846
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Elastic Films for Cyrogenic Skin Friction Measurements

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc.
2766 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440-3638
(937) 429-4980

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Jim Crafton
jwcrafton@innssi.com
2766 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton,  OH 45440-3638
(937) 429-4980

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6 to 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Here we introduce a new sensor for measurement of skin friction and pressure, Surface Stress Sensitive Film (S3F). This technique can operate over a range of temperatures from cryogenic (160 K, -113„aC) to well above ambient (470 K, 197„aC). The operation of the sensor is based on the deformations of an elastic film that distorts under the action of the applied normal and tangential loads. Skin friction and pressure gradients are determined by monitoring these distortions and applying a finite element model to the film. Quantitative measurements of skin friction and pressure have been demonstrated on aerodynamic models from 10-m/s to Mach 5. Among these tests was an experiment that included S3F on one side of the model and PSP on the other side. Data from each sensor was acquired simultaneously, thus demonstrating the compatibility of the S3F with existing PSP hardware. Tunnels with existing PSP systems could be upgraded to include skin friction capability. The opportunity to develop this sensor system for measurements of skin friction in production facilities, including cryogenic tunnels as well as tunnels with operating temperatures up to 200C, is recognized and this is the focus of this proposal.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Distributed measurements of skin friction and pressure are of significant interest in a variety of fields including aeronautical and bio-medical engineering. ISSI is currently pursuing commercial applications in these fields by demonstrating skin friction and pressure measurements on aerodynamic models, micro-channels, artificial heart models, and contact force measurements such as force distribution under a foot. In the aeronautical community, the skin friction and pressure measurements offered by this technique are essential for the validation of CFD codes and the design of low Reynolds number airfoils for micro air vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non NASA commercial applications of this technology are mostly in the bio-medical field where measurements of skin friction are essential to the design of artificial implants to minimize the occurrence of clotting. Also with respect to contact force measurements, ISSI has developed a sensor based on the S3F technology which is being used to study the effect of shear and on diabetic ulceration in feet. In conjunction with these proof of concept tests, ISSI has recently developed a commercial Pressure Sensitive Paint system. The components of the skin friction technology have been developed to be compatible with this commercially deployed system and therefore, extension of these systems to include skin friction measurements is offered as a system upgrade. Over the past 12 months, eight complete systems and several components have been sold with total revenue of over $500,000.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Facilities
Instrumentation
Biochemical
Optical
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A4.02-9033
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fused Reality for Enhanced Flight Test Capabilities

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Systems Technology, Inc.
13766 South Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne, CA 90250-7083
(310) 679-2281

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Edward Bachelder Systems Technology, Inc.
edbach@systemstech.com
13766 S Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne,  CA 90250-7083
(310) 679-2281

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
While modern ground-based flight simulators continue to improve in fidelity and effectiveness, there remains no substitute for flight test evaluations. In addition to real world cueing (vestibular, visual, aural, environmental, etc.), flight test provides intangibles that can not yet be duplicated in a ground-based simulator. There is, however, a cost to be paid for the benefits of flight in terms of budget, mission complexity, and safety including the need for ground and control room personnel, additional aircraft, etc. New technologies and test techniques are therefore needed to maximize the investments and perhaps even reduce some of the related costs associated with flight test. Systems Technology, Inc. proposes to develop a Fused Reality (FR) system that will allow an animated virtual environment to be integrated with the test aircraft so that tasks such as aerial refueling, formation flying, or air-to-air tracking can be accomplished without additional aircraft resources. Furthermore, for the first time, the dynamic motions of the simulated objects (e.g., refueling drogue or tanker) can be directly correlated with the test aircraft. The FR system will allow real-time observation of and manual interaction with the cockpit environment that serves as a frame for the virtual out-the-window scene.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Following the successful completion of a Phase 2 in-flight evaluation program, a prototype FR-based flight test system will be ready to transition into a commercially viable product. The FR system will have potential applications for NASA, other government agencies, and commercial aviation. For NASA this product will directly address the stated need for highly innovative and more efficient flight test techniques. FR will reduce the need for specific aircraft that are costly and often difficult to schedule. Critical flight test evaluation tasks involving other aircraft and related dynamic elements can still be conducted in a safe and repeatable manner.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For other government agencies, specifically the DoD, a FR-based flight test system will find new uses in addition to those identified for NASA. These include; target tracking of simulated enemy aircraft and/or ground targets, interaction of test aircraft with unmanned aerial vehicles, mission training and rehearsal, degraded visibility for all aircraft or brownout training for rotorcraft, etc. For commercial aviation, a FR-based flight test system can be used for advanced training involving up-and-away collision avoidance, poor visibility approach and landings, runway incursions, etc. Finally, potential applications for all areas include in-flight synthetic vision. Here, the entire cockpit window area can be a virtual HUD where symbology/objects are superimposed on the actual out-of-the-window scene. In this application, an intended runway can be highlighted, important landmarks/hazards can be identified, the precise location of other aircraft can be displayed, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Facilities
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Pilot Support Systems
Human-Computer Interfaces
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 A4.02-9904
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniature Network Data Acquisition System for Airborne Sensors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Erigo Technologies, LLC
P.O. Box 899
Enfield, NH 03748-0899
(603) 632-4156

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Matthew Miller
matt.miller@erigo.com
P.O. Box 899, 64 Main Street
Enfield,  NH 03748-0899
(603) 632-4156

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Over-the-horizon communications and information networks are beginning to produce sustainable capabilities for Earth science operations using advanced unpiloted vehicles. There is a growing need for affordable desktop access to globally deployable data acquisition and data processing sensor-web networks on board these airborne platforms. Central to meeting this need is further miniaturizing on-board computing, data acquisition, and satellite network communication equipment. With current technology, the associated on-board components weigh several pounds. We propose to reduce the weight to mere ounces while also lowering cost and power consumption. This will greatly expand the deployment of this technology to new-generation ultra-small unmanned air vehicles, other space and weight-constrained airborne systems, and a wide range of terrestrial applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA vision for a Global Test Range (GTR) will be greatly enhanced through the significant miniaturization and portability of the Suborbital Telepresence and REVEAL technology. This will open up its utility and lower its cost to enable deployment on a wider range of unmanned air vehicle (UAV) and other remotely deployable sensor web platforms.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The flagship non-NASA commercial application will be micro-UAV over-the horizon control and communication for military, homeland security, and law enforcement surveillance. Other commercial applications include remote environmental sensing by science researchers as an extension and enhancement to the activities of the Open Source DataTurbine community. Extremely miniaturized data acquisition and recording equipment with wireless satellite network connectivity will have a broad range of benefits and commercial applications for both land and airborne vehicular-borne recording systems for remote sensing such as surveillance and security.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Architectures and Networks
Computer System Architectures
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X1.01-8449
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automation for Vehicle and Habitat Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: SAFE-P: System for Assurance of Flight Executable Procedures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SIFT, LLC
211 N. First Street, Suite 300
Minneapolis, MN 55401-1480
(612) 339-7438

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Musliner
musliner@sift.info
211 N. First St., Suite 300
Minneapolis,  MN 55401-1480
(763) 449-9373

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Problem: Ensuring that command execution scripts do not deviate from Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) is time-consuming, costly, and error-prone. Deviations can be inefficient or hazardous. Solution: We propose to design and develop SAFE-P, an interactive tool to ensure conformance between command scripts and procedures, or guide users to clarify their rationale for deviations. Using semantic differencing and formal verification of bisimulation relations, SAFE-P will ensure that the scripts comply with SOPs and will highlight differences for the operators, so that they can double-check their work and confirm any deviations from standard procedures. SAFE-P's design will begin with relatively simple syntactic mechanisms to find differences between command sequences and textual procedures that can be applied directly to current flight control practices, including the use of SOPs captured in simple XML or PDF files and command scripts in ThinLayer. To reduce false error detection and assess the criticality of differences, we will incorporate knowledge of the space platform's architecture. For future missions, we will extend SAFE-P to richer languages (PRL, PLEXIL, SCL) and employ more complex verification of program-equivalence relationships (bisimulation) to ensure conformance between scripts and procedures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed SAFE-P tool will be applicable to a wide variety of NASA missions including ISS, Shuttle, and Constellation operations. For manned and unmanned spacecraft operations, SAFE-P will bridge a critical gap in NASA's safety procedures, preventing the possibility of inadvertent commands that do not conform to standard operating procedures and that could lead to dangerous or even catastrophic consequences. SAFE-P fits directly within NASA's Automation for Operations (A4O) system concept, helping support significant reductions in operations costs and increases in operational efficiency while maintaining or improving system safety. The SAFE-P tool will be designed to integrate with NASA's Procedure Integrated Development Environment (PRIDE), seamlessly supporting efficient development of future executable procedures and scripts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Large-scale industrial control systems, in particular oil refineries, paper mills, and food processing plants, also maintain a large library of standard operating procedures which have been developed by system designers and installers. These must be adapted on a daily basis to the specific system configuration and product targets for manual or automatic execution. The SAFE-P technology will be directly applicable to ensuring that industrial plants' daily operating plans and scripts conform to the standard operating procedures. SAFE-P technology may also be applied when manually-operated industrial control systems are being transitioned to more automated control systems, to verify that newly-written executable control scripts conform to legacy manual (textual) operating procedures.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Intelligence
Teleoperation
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Expert Systems
Human-Computer Interfaces
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X1.01-8469
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automation for Vehicle and Habitat Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Authoring Procedures with Timing and Ordering Constraints

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., Suite 360
San Mateo, CA 94404-1585
(650) 931-2700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Mohammed
mohammed@stottlerhenke.com
951 Mariner's Island Blvd, Ste. 360
San Mateo,  CA 94404-1560
(650) 931-2700

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The paper-based manual crew procedures that formed the basis of mission management for the manned space program are being replaced by electronic procedure representations and execution engines that support adjustable autonomy. Adhering to the conventions of the legacy procedures makes procedure authoring intuitive and less error prone than approaches that require the author to program in a formal planning language. However, this approach also preserves a drawback of the paper-based procedure: inflexibility in execution due to a lack of information about constraints implicit in the procedure. We propose to develop the Procedure Authoring with Constraints Tool (PACT), an intuitive graphical drag-and-drop and WYSIWYG authoring environment that preserves the conventions of the paper-base procedure, but adds the capability to capture timing and ordering constraints with minimal additional effort. During this Phase I project, we will specify user interface and functional requirements, create representative use cases, design the Phase II system, and develop and evaluate a proof-of-concept prototype to illustrate our approach and demonstrate its utility and feasibility.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
PACT software technologies will increase the trustworthiness of semi-autonomous procedures by making explicit the timing and ordering constraints that are normally implicit in the representation of such procedures. This will ensure compliance with these constraints, and safely enable flexible execution.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We will market PACT technologies to organizations such as the U.S. Department of Defense and its contractors to develop and operate semi-autonomous systems such as unmanned vehicles as well as non-robotic software agents. In addition, the technology will complement Stottler Henke's own procedure authoring toolkits such as TaskGuide.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Expert Systems
Human-Computer Interfaces


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X1.01-8867
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automation for Vehicle and Habitat Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Procedure Execution and Projection System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cybernet Systems Corporation
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-1639
(734) 668-2567

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Marcus Huber
proposals@cybernet.com
727 Airport Blvd
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-1639
(734) 668-2567

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There is a persistent pressure upon NASA crew members to achieve very high productivity during their missions. Significant challenges exist to maintaining manageable workload while the crew is performing their many and varied tasks allotted for each day while ensuring the crew maintain situation awareness. NASA crew members deal with a large amount of very high technology equipment and perform experiments and procedures that can be extremely long and complex. The solution will require the development of automated management technologies that will operate synergistically with the crew, automating tasks of varying complexity in a dynamic, flexible manner with representations of automation state that the crew is familiar and comfortable with. In this proposal, Cybernet proposes to leverage crew members' capabilities with the design of a distributed Procedure Execution and Projection (PEP) system that focuses on supporting automation of complex procedures while ensuring crew situational awareness and anticipating future problems. Our team will leverage the recent work on the Procedure Representation Language (PRL) and the flexible, distributed and hierarchical capabilities of holonic systems. PRL is an XML encoding of the vehicle/habitat procedures in a form that both crew and automation can use, and the PEP systems' intelligent holonic modules will support crew with a range of capabilities, including automation of procedures, projection of procedures to look for problems and determine courses of action to prevent or mitigate the problems, and make sure that the crew maintain situational awareness of the procedural state. The objectives of the Phase I project are to establish critical requirements for NASA vehicle and habitat crew automation and to design and implement a prototype of the PEP system to demonstrate approach viability.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology could be applied to all current and future NASA missions wherein procedures can be at least partially automated. This applies to current space shuttle, international space station, upcoming Constellation project systems, and manned Mars expeditions. The leverage of PRL for the project provides significant benefits, but even without such its use, the PEP system is suitable for executing, monitoring, and projecting at least portions of any vehicle or habitat procedure.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Because the design approach for the PEP system is modular and adaptive, there is a broad range of commercialization opportunities: • Military squads who need to use remote robotic systems for tactical surveillance and engagement, such as the US Army Maneuver Center and the US Army Infantry. These groups are currently developing Operational Requirements Documents that specify the need for remotely controlled robotic systems. The US Marine Corps is also developing an ORD for a larger, remotely controlled system (Gladiator Tactical Unmanned Ground Vehicle). • Search and rescue teams, who need flexible, robust, controllers that will be deployed to natural disasters. The National Guard has planned the deployment of multiple remotely controlled robots for search and rescue. The robots will be stationed with various National Guard units, ready to be sent to any area that needs robotic support. • The Department of Energy (DoE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), need robust robotic control for cleanup of hazardous waste sites and chemical contamination. Large amounts of highly toxic wastes were stored on sites maintained by the DOE and pose significant hazards to personnel who need to characterize the level of contamination. The EPA has also been actively working to characterize other contaminated sites. Both the EPA and DOE have used robots fitted with monitors and sensors in order to reliably and accurately characterize the site and a high level of control is needed.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Computer System Architectures
Expert Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X1.01-8979
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automation for Vehicle and Habitat Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Unified Framework for Graphical Authoring and Visual Debugging of PLEXIL, SCL and PRL Programs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., Suite 360
San Mateo, CA 94404-1585
(650) 931-2700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Emilio Remolina
remolina@stottlerhenke.com
951 Mariner's Island Blvd, Ste. 360
San Mateo,  CA 94404-1560
(650) 931-2700

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Execution and monitoring of command plans are central for spacecraft operations. Diverse execution engines and languages exist to define such command plans. Language dependent development tools have been created for such languages. However, there is not a reusable framework and code base that can be used to create such automation tools even thought there are many commonalties in the functionality and form of such tools. As a consequence, existing automation tools cannot be easily adapted across missions or languages. We proposed the development of an authoring and debugging framework for the definition of spacecraft operation plans. The framework provides a reusable code base that facilitates the creation of authoring and debugging tools tailored to a particular language and particular user type. Traditional text based authoring will be complemented with graphical representations of plans that provide friendly abstractions of a language's low level execution details. Traditional in-line debugging techniques will be enhanced with context-based visual debugging techniques suitable to understand the rationale of why a plan or rule has been applied and the interactions between different plans running in parallel. The Phase I prototype will illustrate the utility of the proposed framework by developing editors and debuggers for PLEXIL and SCL.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed framework for graphical authoring and visual debugging will provide NASA with a unified toolkit with enough out of the box functionality to reduce the time and manpower needed to build IDEs for NASA command languages. The use of the APIs here proposed will facilitate the reuse and adaptation of related tools created by different NASA groups, like the Planning and Scheduling group at NASA Ames.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology will complement Stottler Henke's own advanced automation toolkits such as SimBionic and its MadCap real-time planning system used for controlling intelligent simulated agents in training, wargaming, and entertainment games. These toolkits are used by the U.S. Department of Defense and its contractors to develop and operate semi-autonomous systems such as unmanned vehicles as well as non-robotic software agents.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Software Development Environments


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X1.01-9682
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automation for Vehicle and Habitat Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Embedding Procedure Assistance into Mission Control Tools

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Traclabs, Inc.
8620 N. New Braunfels, Suite 603
San Antonio, TX 78217-3586
(210) 822-2310

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Kortenkamp
korten@traclabs.com
1012 Hercules
Houston,  TX 77058-3586
(281) 461-7884

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Procedures are the accepted means of commanding spacecraft. Procedures encode the operational knowledge of a system as derived from system experts, testing, training and experience. NASA has tens of thousands of procedures for Space Shuttle and the International Space Station, which are used daily by both flight controllers and crew. It is expected that the new Constellation vehicles, including Orion, Altair and Lunar habitats, will have thousands of procedures to ensure safe operation. Currently procedures are executed manually using standard command and control displays. We are proposing a new paradigm whereby procedures interact closely with the next generation telemetry and command displays being developed for NASA and with a procedure assistant that can automatically dispatch commands and evaluate telemetry under tight supervision of the operator. The procedure assistant will consist of an interactive procedure display, a procedure assistant executive, a set of procedure support services and an editor for modifying existing procedures or building simple new procedures. In our paradigm rocedures will be just like any other component of an integrated suite of mission control tools. This will greatly enhance the efficiency of flight controllers and reduce training costs associated with having a separate set of tools for procedures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is currently designing the next generation of mission control software and displays. This new software will begin rolling out in the next several years. This makes for perfect timing to infuse new procedure technology into NASA mission operations. We will work with NASA JSC Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) personnel such as Alan Crocker to ensure that our SBIR technology meets NASA's needs. Our goal is for our software to be a piece of a larger delivery of new mission control software and displays into Mission Control Center (MCC).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
All complex systems, such as nuclear power plants, oil refineries and petrochemical plants, use procedures as the core of their operations. Just like current NASA operations, these procedures are often on paper and are manual. Given the hundreds of nuclear power plants in the US alone and many more overseas and the thousands of oil refineries and petrochemical plants the potential market for software and services that move these industries from paper to electronic procedures is enormous.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Human-Computer Interfaces


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X1.02-8609
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Reliable Software for Exploration Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Efficient Parallel SAT Solver Exploiting Multi-Core Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aries Design Automation, LLC
6157 N Sheridan Road, Suite 16M
Chicago, IL 60660-5818
(773) 856-6633

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Miroslav Velev
miroslav.velev@aries-da.com
6157 N Sheridan Road, Suite 16M
Chicago,  IL 60660-5818
(773) 856-6633

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The hundreds of stream cores in the latest graphics processors (GPUs), and the possibility to execute non-graphics computations on them, open unprecedented levels of parallelism at a very low cost. We will investigate ways to efficiently exploit this parallelism in order to accelerate the execution of a Boolean Satisfiability (SAT) solver. SAT has a wide range of applications, including formal verification and testing of software and hardware, scheduling and planning, cryptanalysis, and detection of security vulnerabilities and malicious intent. We bring a tremendous expertise in SAT solving, formal verification, and solving of Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPs) by efficient translation to SAT. In our previous work (done on the expenses of our company) we obtained 2 orders of magnitude speedup in solving Boolean formulas from formal verification of complex pipelined microprocessors, as well as 4 orders of magnitude speedup in SAT-based solving of CSPs. We expect to achieve speedups of up to 1 – 2 orders of magnitude in Phase 1, and up to 3 – 4 orders of magnitude in Phase 2.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Efficiently solving of challenging Boolean formulas is critical to NASA, as this will increase both the scalability and speed of formal verification and testing methods for complex mission software and hardware, as well as of SAT-based methods for solving of scheduling and planning problems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential non-NASA commercial applications include: 1) Formal verification and testing of software and hardware, where the potential customers will be all major semiconductor and software companies. 2) Scheduling, planning, and solving of Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPs), where the potential customers will be all companies that develop scheduling and planning tools. 3) Formal methods for cryptanalysis, where the potential customers will be the Department of Defense, the NSA, and all companies that use cryptanalysis. 4) Formal methods for cyber security, such as for detection of security vulnerabilities and malicious intent in software, where the potential customers will be all companies that develop robust virus scanners based on formal methods, and companies that develop formal methods for detecting security vulnerabilities in software. Because of the potential for a very wide range of software obfuscations that can be used to hide malicious intent, future virus scanners will have to employ efficient formal methods to detect malware, and thus the importance of speed and scalability that will be possible due to an efficient SAT solver.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Intelligence
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Training Concepts and Architectures
Testing Facilities
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Architectures and Networks
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Computer System Architectures
Data Input/Output Devices
Expert Systems
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Highly-Reconfigurable


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X1.02-8839
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Reliable Software for Exploration Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrating Multi-Vendor Software Analysis into the Lifecycle for Reliability, Productivity, and Performance

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SureLogic, Inc.
5806 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15217-1602
(412) 422-1980

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aaron Greenhouse
aaron.greenhouse@surelogic.com
5806 Forbes Ave
Pittsburgh,  PA 15217-1602
(412) 787-6395

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of the proposed work is to create new ways to manage, visualize, and share data produced by multiple software analysis tools, and to create a framework for integrating diversely-sourced analysis tools into software practices, across the lifecycle, in a way that improves both reliability and productivity. Software analysis tools are used by software programmers, analysts, and managers to find potential defects in software source code, to enhance compliance with organizational development standards of practice, and to assist developers and teams in expressing and managing key information regarding design intent. While analysis tools have been shown to offer quality and productivity benefits to programmers, the present user experience limits their effectiveness and is a substantial barrier to their adoption into mainstream software development practices. Additionally, there is a growing number of tools now becoming available, and the tools are proving to have complementary capabilities, which means that groups seeking some comprehensiveness of coverage must develop multi-tool approaches. Finally, a suite of tools can produce more than 10,000 individual findings for a mid-sized software system, creating challenges for prioritization and focus. The project addresses the challenge through the development and evaluation of an analytic tool suite, called Sierra client and server, to support data management, integration, filtering, and querying of large numbers of findings drawn from multiple tools. It does this in a way that supports teams and collaboration, auditing and tracking, longitudinal analysis, interactive visualization, and management analytics.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Sierra tool, along with the JSure and Flashlight tools in the SureLogic tool suite, have been field tested on a diverse representation of mature and developing NASA mission software. These tools already have proven value to NASA, based on multiple field tests. This project builds on that experience, and also on the most recent developments in analysis and tooling technology, to augment that value and provide a capability that can be readily integrated with the software lifecycle in a wide range of NASA development efforts. SureLogic's strategy of developing partnerships will be enhanced through this effort in several ways. First, new capabilities will be added to augment the value provided by the tools. Second, any field evaluations undertaken will reduce the risk of adoption by any potential commercial partners. Finally, the tools will embody an understanding of NASA requirements that will make them more attractive and valuable to a broader segment of the NASA software development community.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA reliability requirements are often a leading indicator of reliability requirements for non-NASA applications, both commercial and government. They are also representative of requirements for critical systems in industry and government. By developing an experience that integrates tooling, lifecycle support, and team experience that is highly valuable to NASA developers and readily used by them in practice, SureLogic is better prepared to address the broader market. SureLogic's market strategy of developing partnerships with vendors will enable the SureLogic tools to be provisioned along with vendor environments for development and operations, both. The SureLogic tools and technology will be enhanced through this effort in several ways. First, new capabilities will be added to augment the value already provided by the tools. Second, any field evaluations undertaken will reduce the risk of adoption by any potential commercial partners. Finally, the tools will embody an understanding of NASA requirements that will make them more attractive and valuable to a broader segment of the NASA software development community.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Software Development Environments


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X1.02-9163
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Reliable Software for Exploration Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Automated, Real-Time Targeting and Guidance Software for Lunar Descent and Precision Landing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Emergent Space Technologies, Inc.
6301 Ivy Lane, Suite 720
Greenbelt, MD 20770-6330
(301) 345-1535

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dilmurat Azimov
dilmurat.azimov@emergentspace.com
2900 South Congress Ave. Ste 206
Austin,  TX 78704-6444
(512) 215-4977

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
he objective of this proposal is to research, design and develop an automated real-time targeting and guidance (ARTGUID) software for precision lunar landing and descent. The software tool will be reliable, extensible, scalable and verifiable based on the complex mission-driven requirements on the Altair Lunar Lander and other landers for NASA's future exploration missions. It will provide an integrated real-time targeting, guidance, navigation and control (TGNC) capability to perform autonomous vehicle-centered operations to accomplish mission objectives. The algorithms provide a fuel-optimal powered descent and precision landing at any desirable site on the Moon. The method of technical approach is based on the revalidation, operational assessment and qualitative improvement of all Apollo-era programs. The real-time targeting and guidance operations are performed on all phases of the descent trajectory by employing exact closed-form solutions for constant thrust arcs on braking phase. Development of the real-time TGNC capability represents an innovative approach in advancing the state-of-the-art autonomous landing GNC technology. The preliminary development of the advanced targeting algorithms has demonstrated the reliability, functionality and likelihood of success of the proposed software by re-constructing the Apollo 11 and 12 post-flight lunar-descent trajectories and guidance performances.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed design of the high-fidelity automated real-time targeting and guidance software and the resulting capabilities for the landing missions to the Moon will contribute - to the NASA human space exploration by extending and enhancing the existing capabilities of autonomous spacecraft, and by providing precision landing on any celestial body, including automatic re-designation of landing site, terrain mapping from high altitudes, terrain and hazard relative navigation, topographic data analysis, etc.; - to the progress in the NASA Lunar return program as it is a new real-time targeting and guidance (TGNC) system, which provides precision landing and extends the capabilities of the hazard avoidance technology (ALHAT) applicable to the Moon. The proposed investigation of constant thrust solutions and high-fidelity software development on real-time targeting and guidance would enrich the NASA science environment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
It is known that the high-fidelity automated real-time targeting and guidance software and the resulting capabilities of TGNC for the landing missions to the Moon and other celestial gravitational bodies are under active development at the research centers of the European Space Agency and other commercial organizations associated with space exploration and related business. In the commercial market of software and advanced technologies, such as state-of-the-art autonomous guidance technology or real-time targeting technology, Emergent will be able to provide engineering analysis and architecture design services to spacecraft manufacturers and service organizations in the development of TGNC and related software. In addition, Emergent will be able to sell documentation, consulting, and software maintenance and development services to users of the proposed software.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Guidance, Navigation, and Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X1.03-8518
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Hardened/Tolerant and Low Temperature Electronics and Processors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electronics Modeling and Design for Cryogenic and Radiation Hard Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CoolCAD Electronics
7101 Poplar Avenue
Takoma Park, MD 20912-4671
(240) 432-6535

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Neil Goldsman
neil.goldsman@coolcadelectronics.com
7101 Poplar Avenue
Takoma Park,  MD 20912-4671
(240) 432-6535

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We are developing CAD tools, models and methodologies for electronics design for circuit operation in extreme environments with a focus on very low temperature and radiation effects. These new tools and methodologies will help enable NASA to design next generation electronics. Such capabilities will significantly improve reliability, performance and lifetime of electronics that are used for space applications, including satellites and space travel. This will be achieved through the development of novel physics-based modeling techniques and verified by experiment. The new cryogenic design tools will greatly reduce the chances of error during actual circuit implementation, and thus reduce the number of design cycles, thereby substantially decreasing fabrication times and expenses. Models and CAD tools are relatively inexpensive as compared to fabrication costs; thus the results of this project should provide a very large return on investment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The work proposed in this program will help NASA develop electronics for space missions where ambient temperatures are in the cryogenic region. We are developing CAD tools for DC, AC and Transient device modeling for very low temperatures. We plan to provide model cards for compact spice-type simulators for electronics design at cryogenic temperatures. This will help allow NASA to design and operate low tempeature, ruggedized electronics for future space applications. Related NASA commercial applications include cryogenic detectors and communication electronics.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA, there is a large civilian space applications business, especially with respect to communications satellites. There is also a large commitment by the Department of Defense to space applications. This work should find applications with these types of organizations as well. There is also a need for cryogenic electronics in terrestrial low noise applications. Such applications can be found in infrared and far infrared optical detectors. Furthermore, any application where the input signal is extremely weak, and a very large signal to noise ratio is required, may be enhanced by cryogenic operation. The developing field of quantum computing is also in need of circuits operated at cryogenic temperatures as input and readout subsystems. CoolCAD is currently working with agencies and industry for developing design methodologies for infrared photo-detector arrays, and for very low noise communication circuits.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
RF
Instrumentation
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Optical
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X1.03-8589
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Hardened/Tolerant and Low Temperature Electronics and Processors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Radiation Mitigation Methods for Reprogrammable FPGA

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
RNET Technologies, Inc.
240 W Elmwood Drive, Suite 2010
Dayton, OH 45459-4248
(937) 433-2886

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
V. Nagarajan
vnagarajan@rnet-tech.com
240 W Elmwood Dr, Ste 2010
Dayton,  OH 45459-4248
(937) 433-2886

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
One of the needs of NASA is the development of avionic systems and components that have the capability to operate in extreme radiation and temperature environments found in deep space, as well as the lunar and Martian surfaces. As a result, spacecraft electronics will be required to be hardened against radiation environment and temperature cycling. In fact, they should withstand a total ionizing dose (TID) of at least 100 krads (Si) and provide single-event latchup (SEL) immunity of at least 100 MeV cm2/mg. As part of these needs, NASA is interested in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology with reliable reprogrammability and a degree of radiation hardness. We intend to answer NASA's need for FPGA technologies suitable for future exploration systems. In Phase I, we plan to focus on the integration of radiation hardening technologies involving both the structure of the FPGA and its sub-components, as well as use of an advanced foundry process and specialized circuits to mitigate radiation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The first application that we would pursue is one of NASA's future exploration missions of the moon, Mars, and beyond. The missions are in the early planning stages, which leaves plenty of opportunities to transition our technology into a real system. Opportunities exist in space and surface vehicles, orbiters, satellites, etc. Although the topic is interested in the mitigation of radiation on reprogrammable FPGAs, the technology could be applied other types of ICs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The same technology would also have applicability with the DoD. Example applications could include satellites, high attitude UAVs and aircraft, nuclear power plants (i.e. ship or submarine), or basically any electronic circuits requiring radiation hardness. This technology could also be applied in several DOE focused areas. The first and most obvious application would be the support electronics in a nuclear reactor. Another, potential area would be in support of electronics of a particle collider. There are also multiple places in industry where radiation hardened integrated circuits are needed. Some are not obvious as others. Certain medical equipment does require a degree of radiation tolerance. Apparently, some communication equipment and servers used in the banking industry have radiation mitigation requirements.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X1.03-8730
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Hardened/Tolerant and Low Temperature Electronics and Processors
PROPOSAL TITLE: SEU/SEL Resistant Ultra-Low Power Asynchronous Processor Design for Low-Temperature Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Space Photonics, Inc.
700 West Research Center Blvd
Fayetteville, AR 72701-7175
(479) 856-6367

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Matthew Leftwich
mleftwich@spacephotonics.com
700 West Research Center Blvd
Fayetteville,  AR 72701-7175
(479) 856-6367

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase I SBIR proposal seeks funding to develop a radiation-hardened circuit architecture to achieve SEU and SEL immunity by using delay-insensitive asynchronous logic, and to demonstrate its feasibility, effectiveness, and efficiency. Further, early studies reveal that an operational temperature range of 2K to 400K will be highly feasible. Delay-insensitive asynchronous logic removes the concept of a global clock by incorporating handshaking protocols to control the circuit. The handshaking protocols allows for flexible timing requirements, high power efficiency, and low noise/emission generation. The flexible timing nature of delay-insensitive logic makes this type of circuits an excellent candidate for mitigating radiation effects in digital electronics. Compared to the existing radiation-hardening techniques, the proposed solution has several substantial benefits including cost efficiency, SEU/SEL immunity without weak points, and the ability to retain data during power cycling while mitigating SEL. In addition, significantly improved supply voltage variation sustainability and security against power-based side-channel attacks can also be achieved.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Early applications for the proposed technology are limited to space and defense electronics in which detrimental ionizing radiation environment effects must be mitigated and/or in which broad, low temperature operation is required, e.g. 2K - 400K.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
However, once mature and due to the low cost nature of processing that may be utilized to fabricate the device, commercial applications are more feasible, especially those involving harsher terrestrial environments,e.g. defense, homeland security, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X1.03-9316
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Hardened/Tolerant and Low Temperature Electronics and Processors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Design Methodologies and to Combat Radiation Induced Corruption in FPGAs and SoCs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle, Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016-4962
(540) 769-8400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lee Lerner
submissions303@lunainnovations.com
1 Riverside Circle, Suite 400
Roanoke,  VA 24016-4962
(540) 769-8400

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Traditional radiation hardened by process (RHBP) and radiation hardened by design (RHBD) techniques have seen success in mitigating the effects of radiation induced corruption, but are often cumbersome, slow and expensive. Current RHBP hardening techniques include foundry processing methods which take place at the manufacturing level such as the use of radiation resistant device packaging, radiation doping, and one-time programmable architectures. To date, RHBP approaches are often unavailable, prohibitively expensive, or too far behind the state of the art for many designers, forcing them to investigate RHBD techniques. RHBD design methods attempt to mitigate the effects of radiation by integrating principles of redundancy, error correction, and self-testing at multiple levels of the design, including the physical layout of a system function, the programming of the device, and the software running on the device. Traditional RHBD methods are often flawed when implemented on modern FPGA devices due to unique device architectures and supporting vendor CAD tools. Luna Innovations Incorporated proposes to develop susceptibility metrics and innovative RHBD methods to minimize the vulnerabilities of reprogrammable FPGAs in radiation prone environments. Luna will combine these developments into Luna PAR, a software program that optimizes designs for radiation hardening.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Any NASA program or mission with space based platforms would be improved by adding more effective, efficient and less expensive radiation hardened techniques created through the successful completion of this program and any subsequent products and services generated from this research. The creation of susceptibility metrics will also aid in the evaluation of past and future designs for radiation tolerance. Susceptibility metrics can also be used to guide and enhance existing FPGA implementation tools. Luna PAR will integrate with existing tools to enhance radiation hardening in FPGA designs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful research and development efforts will generate additional market interest and sales within the DoD marketplace in any space based applications / platforms. Similarly, any space system manufacturer or commercial industry that relies on space based systems (telecommunications, broadcast television, satellite radio, navigation systems, weather, etc.) would also realize cost reductions through better efficiencies in any value added features provided by Luna Innovations

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Expert Systems
Software Development Environments


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X1.04-8866
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Integrated System Health Management for Ground Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Efficient Integration, Validation and Troubleshooting in Multimodal Distributed Diagnostic Schemes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Qualtech Systems, Inc.
100 Great Meadow Road, Suite 603
Wethersfield, CT 06109-2355
(860) 257-8014

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sudipto Ghoshal
sudipto@teamqsi.com
100 Great Meadow Road, STE 603
Wethersfield,  CT 06109-2355
(860) 805-1828

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Qualtech Systems Inc. (QSI) proposes to develop a well defined process for integration of distributed diagnostic schemes. The process includes a set of guidelines to build component diagnostic models/schemes that will undergo integration and an automated/semi-automated tool that will assess the diagnostic efficacy of the integrated scheme so as to suggest modification/redesign of the component diagnostic schemes. Parametric and functional dependencies will be the prime criteria in devising the integration process, while measures of diagnosability (e.g., ambiguity, fault masking, etc) will determine the modification/redesign directives.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology proposed for development in this Phase I effort will result in novel diagnostic, prognostic, degradation and power capability evaluation techniques. In addition, it will develop a process of automated recovery and power availability-based reactive mission planning. The diagnostic, prognostic, and degradation analysis techniques are expected to be integrated into QSI's TEAMS product suite. TEAMS is currently used in NASA Constellation program for early design decisions related to testability and maintainability, as well as for developing solutions for diagnostics, fault isolation and guided maintenance of fielded systems. The reactive mission planner software will be provided by NASA; we would incorporate the capabilities into TEAMS-RDS (remote diagnostic server) to communicate with such software directly. This will enhance TEAMS product suit's compatibility with third party software products.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Industries and agencies who use complex reschedulable mission plans (such as automotive industry) will also be targeted for commercialization of this product. NASA's current vision to enhance the level of autonomy for vehicle health management and reactive mission planning makes the proposed effort worthy of funding from several branches within it. Among the other agencies, DoD and Air-force and Navy are the most potential customer for the resulting technologies. Large scale military systems (systems of systems) such as NORAD, Space Command ground segments, the Joint Strike Fighter fleet, the Navy shipboard platforms, Submarine Commands and ballistic missile defense (BMD) systems, can be potential areas to field the reactive planning technology. The product is expected to be of commercial value to the manufacturers of DoD and military's remotely guided weapons and reconnaissance systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Requirements and Architectures
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Expert Systems
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X2.01-9303
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation and Thermal Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Scaling of Two-Phase Systems Across Gravity Levels

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Energy Research, Inc.
P.O. Box 2034
Rockville, MD 20847-2034
(301) 881-0866

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shilp Vasavada
sxv@eri-world.com
P.O. Box 2034
Rockville,  MD 20847-2034
(301) 881-0866

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There is a defined need for long term earth based testing for the development and deployment of two-phase flow systems in reduced-gravity, including lunar gravity, conditions. The proposed study intends to develop a scaling methodology to meet this requirement. A hierarchical two-tiered scaling approach will be used to obtain scaling relations for an entire system (integral scale), individual components of the system and local phenomena. The final product of the Phase I effort will be a rigorous scaling methodology along with important non-dimensional numbers which can be used for developing earth-based systems to study reduced-gravity two-phase systems and/or phenomena. The feasibility of the approach will be demonstrated in Phase I by using data available in literature that has been acquired in reduced-gravity as well as earth based conditions. As part of Phase II a scaled experimental facility will be designed and confirmatory experiments performed.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA requires significant advances in the areas of two-phase flow and heat transfer which are essential for thermal management and advanced life support systems for future missions (manned and unmanned) and the establishment of a lunar base. However, uncertainties prevail in the understanding of the operation and behavior of such systems due to the lack of data and limitations of performing experiments. The results of this project will significantly aid and speed up the design, testing and deployment of thermal management systems for heat removal from components and for advanced life support.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of the scaling methodology will benefit the experimental design and operation of facilities. The chemical industry where liquid-liquid flows involving small density differences exist which are similar to reduced-gravity conditions due to the reduction in buoyancy can use the scaling methodology applied as part of the proposal to scale experimental facilities. The rapidly growing biomedical field is a prime example where such a method can be applied since multiple scales and different processes exist in any biological system of interest.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Cooling
Microgravity
Biophysical Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X2.01-9663
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation and Thermal Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Foil Gas Bearing Supported Quiet Fan for Spacecraft Ventilation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
R&D Dynamics Corporation
15 Barber Pond Road
Bloomfield, CT 06002-1421
(860) 726-1204

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Giri Agrawal
agragiri@rddynamics.com
15 Barber Pond Road
Bloomfield,  CT 06002-1421
(860) 726-1204

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Developing a quiet fan for Environmental Control and Life Support systems to enhance the livable environment within the spacecraft has been a challenge. A Foil Gas Bearing Supported Fan is proposed which will be quiet, efficient, reliable, contamination free, compact, and lightweight. In Phase I a set of foil gas bearings necessary to prove out the feasibility of the program will be manufactured and tested. In Phase II a complete prototype fan will be manufactured and tested incorporating the technology proved out in Phase I. In Phase III the developed fan will be system tested for airworthiness.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary, near term, NASA use for this fan is in ventilation of spacecraft. This fan can be scaled to a smaller size and can be used for SPACESUIT ventilation also. Since the fan will be quiet and compact it can be used in UAV applications where noise level and compactness are key.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is a range of private sector applications for this technology including, commercial aviation, UAV's and fuel cell applications. Commercial fuel cell systems need compact and efficient blowers to feed air into the stack. This fan will be well suited for that use.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling
Air Revitalization and Conditioning


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X2.02-8702
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Cabin Atmospheric Resource Management and Particulate Matter Removal
PROPOSAL TITLE: Photocatalytic and Adsorptive System for Odor Control in Lunar Surface Systems Using Silica-Titania Composites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sol-gel Solutions, LLC
4110 SW 34th Street, Suite 22
Gainesville, FL 32608-6566
(352) 378-4950

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anna Casasus
aicasasus@Sol-Gel-Solutions.com
4110 SW 34th St. Suite 22
Gainesville,  FL 32608-6566
(352) 378-4950

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed work herein focuses on waste subsystems with emphasis on odor control associated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The development of efficient odor removal systems for use inside lunar mission architectures is one of NASA's critical needs (Topic X2.03). Because of the limited space and resources in both exploration vehicles and non-moving habitats, it is important for a treatment system to be compact, lightweight, and robust, and have low energy and material input requirements with the ultimate focus on reducing equivalent systems mass (ESM). Professors at the University of Florida have developed a novel, robust, and highly effective Silica-Titania Composite (STC) capable of adsorbing and oxidizing VOCs to harmless byproducts. The technology has been licensed by Sol-gel Solutions, LLC. In preparation for the design and fabrication of a prototype for validation in a relevant environment during a Phase II study, the evaluation and optimization of two potential configurations employing the STC is proposed. One configuration would employ continuous UV irradiation, and the other would employ intermittent UV. The ultimate goal is to determine which configuration results in a lower Equivalent Systems Mass (ESM).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
After successful completion of the proposed Phase I study, all the information required for design and fabrication of a prototype that can be validated in the space environment will have been acquired. The initial NASA application of focus is odor removal from waste subsystems in lunar architectures. This includes moving and stationary structures. However, the two proposed system configurations would be well suited for other NASA applications related to environmental control and life support, including, for example, air revitalization in spacecraft ventilation and thermal control systems. With some minor reconfiguration an STC system may also be used as a post-processor to NASA's existing water recovery systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The STC technology is applicable to several non-NASA applications. For example, the technology can be used to remove VOCs from indoor air in commercial buildings, homes, hospitals, and schools. It may also be used by the military for air purification in submarines and aircraft. The technology is currently being developed for use in commercial aircraft cabin air purification. Significant work has been done in the development of the technology for methanol removal from gaseous exhaust at pulp and paper mills. Furthermore, the STC technology has been commercialized for mercury removal from caustic exhaust at a chlor-alkali facility, and a pilot-scale study is scheduled for mercury removal from coal-fired power plant flue gas.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Requirements and Architectures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X2.02-9538
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Cabin Atmospheric Resource Management and Particulate Matter Removal
PROPOSAL TITLE: Straight Pore Microfilter with Efficient Regeneration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Han Liu
hliu@ginerinc.com
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton,  MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0531

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is directed toward development of a novel microfiltration filter that has distinctively narrow pore size distribution, low flow resistance, low pressure drop and simple regeneration process. The regeneration process, which requires minimal material and energy consumption, can be completely automated and the filtration performance can be restored within a very short period of time.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Particulate matter removal for cabin atmosphere; Other filtration processes for water/air recovery

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In-door air filtration; Biological filtration and protein purification; Precision filtration for milk and beverage industry that requires good anti-fouling and regeneration properties

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X2.02-9643
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Cabin Atmospheric Resource Management and Particulate Matter Removal
PROPOSAL TITLE: Regenerable Lunar Airborne Dust Filter

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
UMPQUA Research Company
PO Box 609
Myrtle Creek, OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-7770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Atwater
jatwater@urcmail.net
PO Box 609
Myrtle Creek,  OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-2652

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Effective methods are needed to control pervasive Lunar Dust within spacecraft and surface habitations. Once inside, airborne transmission is the primary mode of dispersion. Inhalation of this fine powder may pose a serious health risk. Lunar dust may cause degradation of materials, interfere with proper operation of instrumentation & controls, and may prevent formation of adequate seals. To solve this problem, we propose the development of a fully regenerable hypogravity compatible filtration system for removal of Lunar Dust from air, suitable for deployment within the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) and Lunar Outpost (LO). Using microgravity and hypogravity compatible Gradient Magnetically Assisted Filtration/Fluidization Bed (GMAFB) technology, we will develop a fully regenerable Airborne Lunar Dust Filtration System. The system will minimize Equivalent System Mass (ESM) by the elimination of expendables.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA application will be as Flight Hardware for deployment in support of NASA's return to the moon. The Regenerable Airborne Lunar Dust Filter will be suitable for near term use in the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM), and may later be used in a permanently manned Lunar Outpost.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications include a host of industrial filtration processes which recover value-added materials or which are plagued by excessive particulate loads and therefore require frequent filter change-out. For recovery of value-added materials, the innovation can facilitate recovery of airborne and waterborne particles and then easily produce concentrates of recovered particles. This application will directly benefit the bio-pharmaceutical industry for recovery of therapeutic agents produced in expanded bed bioreactors, and the mineral processing industry, particularly in hydrometallurgical methods for recovery of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc, where small incremental increases in overall metal recovery percentages can translate into millions of dollars of increased profit over the life of a particular recovery operation. The innovation also offers a means of effective treatment of industrial process streams bearing excessive particle loads. A dual filter system offers flexibility in process design and execution, as one filter loads while the other regenerates.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Biomedical and Life Support


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X2.03-8729
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Habitation and Waste Management Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Brine Dewatering Using Ultrasonic Nebulization

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
UMPQUA Research Company
PO Box 609
Myrtle Creek, OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-7770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Akse, Ph.D.
akse@urcmail.net
PO Box 609
Myrtle Creek,  OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-2653

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Recovery of water from brine is critically important for manned space exploration. Resupply of water is prohibitively costly for extended missions. It is anticipated that NASA will pool urine, hygiene water and humidity condensate into a combined waste stream that will subsequently be concentrated into a brine while recovering some but not all of the water, 90-95%. The concentrated brine that results from primary water recovery systems contains a significant amount of water. The proposed innovation will recover virtually all of the remaining water. This will be accomplished by ultrasonically creating nebulized droplets of the brine that can be readily dried under a partial vacuum with moderate temperature microwave heating. The process bears some resemblance to spray drying, but uses much smaller droplets (1.6 µm as compared to ~100 µm). Small droplets enable quicker drying due to their high relative surface area. This is particularly important when drying wastewater brines which contain ingredients that are thermally labile and require drying at relatively low temperatures. The proposed system has no nozzles to become plugged, requires no chemical additives, uses a minimal amount of power, is simple and small, requires minimal astronaut attention and uses a continuous, closed cycle process that is gravity independent.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA application of this innovative technology will be as Hardware for Lunar Base and other Early Planetary Bases. The partial gravity at these locations will permit nebulization without the use of a wick. Gravity based water accumulation at the bottom of the condenser will be accomplished without the assistance of an air/water separator. This technology will enable efficient water recovery from brines resulting in a major mass closure for water usage on the Lunar Base. Use as Flight Hardware for Transit Missions is also anticipated. With this application, a wick will be used to hold the brine at the desired location during nebulization. An air/water separator will be included to facilitate separation without the assistance of gravity.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For the private sector, a major application is improved drying processes for pharmaceuticals. Many biologically active compounds are thermally labile and would benefit from the use of this technology for preparation of inhalants. In addition, the ultra-small size of the resulting particles is desirable for inhalation because they are more easily suspended in air and because solvation and uptake through the alveoli in the lungs is more efficient for small particles. For example, NaCl particles are widely used in dry powder inhalers for bronchial provocation tests to identify people with active asthma or exercise-induced asthma. Such powders are currently made using laborious processes to control particle sizes and distributions. The technology developed during this SBIR project will allow continuous formation of small, dried NaCl crystallites, in a process more amenable for large-scale production.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Waste Processing and Reclamation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X2.03-9021
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Habitation and Waste Management Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Compact, Efficient Pyrolysis/Oxidation System for Solid Waste Resource Recovery in Space

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Fuel Research, Inc.
87 Church Street
East Hartford, CT 06108-3728
(860) 528-9806

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Serio
mserio@AFRinc.com
87 Church Street
East Hartford,  CT 06108-3728
(860) 528-9806

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Both pyrolysis and oxidation steps have been considered as the key solid waste processing step for a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). Pyrolysis is more amenable to handling mixed solid waste streams in a microgravity environment, but produces a more complex product stream. Oxidation (incineration) produces a simpler product stream, but the oxidation of mixed solids is a complex unit operation in a microgravity environment. Pyrolysis is endothermic and requires no oxygen, while oxidation is exothermic and requires oxygen. A previous NASA SBIR Phase I and Phase II project has successfully integrated pyrolysis of the solid waste and oxidation of the fuel gases into a single, batch processing prototype unit. This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project addresses the feasibility of integrating pyrolysis, tar cracking, and oxidation steps into a compact, efficient system for processing of spacecraft solid wastes. This integration will result in a reduction in energy consumption, an overall reduction in system complexity, and a lower Equivalent System Mass (ESM). The objective of the Phase I study is to demonstrate the feasibility of this integration process using bench scale experiments. This will be accomplished in three tasks: 1) design and construct integrated bench scale unit; 2) laboratory studies using simulated solid waste sample; 3) evaluation of laboratory results and preliminary design of Phase II prototype.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed work would make it technically feasible to process solid waste streams in space which will benefit long term space travel, such as an extended Lunar stay or a mission to Mars. The proposed approach is beneficial to NASA in allowing for solid waste sterilization and stabilization, water purification and recovery, fuel gas production for propulsion or power generation, and/or production of chemical feedstocks and carbon materials in a single processing unit.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In the near term, the technology would have applications to solid waste resource recovery problems in remote areas such as underdeveloped countries, artic regions, oil production platforms, rural areas, farms, submarines, ships, etc., analogous to the uses for NASA technology developed for water purification. In the long term, the technology could be integrated with microturbines or fuel cells and have widespread business or residential use for solid waste removal and power generation. It could also be used by the DOD in military operations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomass Production and Storage
Biomedical and Life Support
Sterilization/Pathogen and Microbial Control
Waste Processing and Reclamation
Radiation Shielding Materials
Renewable Energy


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X2.04-8707
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Environmental Monitoring and Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Optical Monitor for Major Air Constituents

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vista Photonics, Inc.
67 Condesa Road
Santa Fe, NM 87508-8136
(505) 466-3830

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joerg Kutzner
jkutzner@vistaphotonics.com
67 Condesa Road
Santa Fe,  NM 87508-8136
(505) 466-3830

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The well-being of the crew on manned missions depends critical on the composition of the habitat air. Oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapor are the most important air constituents that have to be monitored continuously. Optical monitoring with its features of high precision, strong species selectivity and fast response is the preferred method if lightweight, small and low power-draw instrumentation can be developed. Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) are now available covering a broad wavelength range. These single frequency light sources are ideal candidates for high performance gas monitoring and especially suited for space applications due to their small size and extremely low power consumption. Vista Photonics proposes to develop technology based on these lasers that leads to small sensors that fulfill the strict requirements of spaceflight. The narrowband output of these lasers combined with wavelength modulation spectroscopy and a compact absorption cell will provide superior sensor performance. Inherent features like sensor health monitoring and recalibration without the use of expendable gases will be incorporated. The developed sensor will be fully automated and no maintenance will be required.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The targeted NASA application is monitoring of air composition on spacecraft and space stations. The emerging technology is adaptable to changing pressure conditions and suitable to operate in diverse environments, including corrosive atmospheres. The technology will be developed for major air constituents monitoring but is extendable to selective detection of trace contaminants. Trace gas detection capabilities might be incorporated into the same sensor. Relevant NASA applications are contaminant sensing in air revitalization and water recovery processes.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The developed sensor will be a general device for highly reliable, sensitive monitoring and/or detection of different gas species. The developed sensor platform will be broadly deployable for simultaneous detection of a variety of molecules with a cost-effective, small device. Applications include environmental monitoring and protection, occupational safety, modern manufacturing, and biomedical applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X2.04-9115
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Environmental Monitoring and Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reagent-Free Compact Online TOC Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840-4023
(979) 693-0017

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jinseong Kim
jinseong.kim@lynntech.com
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station,  TX 77840-4023
(979) 693-0017

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
One of the highest priorities in Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) for longer missions is to recover and process wastewater to provide clean water. There is an important need for a total organic carbon (TOC) sensor to assure that the organic chemical content of water environment of the astronaut crew habitat falls within acceptable limits, and that the chemical life support system is functioning properly. For longer missions, water monitoring requires sensitive, fast response, online analytical sensors. Lynntech has successfully developed a novel regenerative TOC analyzer for real-time monitoring of water quality with an operational lifetime of 5 years with no maintenance required and no need to supply reagents. In addition, the TOC analyzer was flight-qualifiable and microgravity-compatible. This proposal concerns further development of the TOC analyzer as a compact online analytical sensor utilizing (i) electrochemical components producing two key elements in TOC analysis, acid and oxidant; (ii) photolysis/photocatalysis for the complete oxidation of organic carbons to carbon dioxide; and (iii) mesofluidic design. During the Phase I effort, the feasibility of the proposed system and approach will be demonstrated. A prototype will be designed, fabricated, tested, and delivered to NASA during the Phase II project.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful development of a compact online total organic carbon analyzer (TOCA) will lead to water quality monitoring assuring that the chemical contents of the water environment of the astronaut crew habitat falls within acceptable limits for potable or hygienic water, which is essential to enable human planetary exploration missions ranging from a return to the Moon and through an initial Mars mission, including using the International Space Station.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Total organic carbon (TOC) analysis is a well-defined and commonly used analytical tool. Many water utilities monitor TOC to determine raw water quality or to evaluate the effectiveness of processes designed to remove organic carbons. Successful development of a compact online total organic carbon analyzer (TOCA) as a hand-held device will have a high commercial applicability to a wide range of industries where water quality assurance and control is important, such as semiconductor industries or pharmaceutical industries.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Waste Processing and Reclamation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X2.04-9678
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Environmental Monitoring and Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniaturized, Multi-Analyte Sensor Array for the Automated Monitoring of Major Atmospheric Constituents in Spacecraft Environment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innosense, LLC
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance, CA 90505-5245
(310) 530-2011

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Uma Sampathkumaran
uma.sampathkumaran-1@innosense.us
2531 W. 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance,  CA 90505-5245
(310) 530-2011

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
InnoSense LLC (ISL) proposes to develop a miniaturized, multi-analyte sensor for near real-time monitoring of analytes in the spacecraft environment. The proposed innovations will build on ISL's past NASA SBIR project to develop an oxygen sensor for aircraft fuel tanks and DOE funded project to develop a carbon dioxide sensor for unattended remote deployment. In this project ISL will incorporate the disparate sensors on a single chip and develop a space-worthy sensor array. Through iterative development, ISL will expand capabilities of the system to monitor chemical, microbial and particulate content in the spacecraft environment. The proposed Phase I studies will demonstrate the sensor array approach by detecting oxygen, carbon dioxide and moisture simultaneously at the low parts per million (ppm) levels with a signal to noise ratio (SNR) of at least 3. A prototype sensor array system will be constructed and field-tested during Phase II. To assure success of this project, InnoSense LLC has assembled an engineering team with a cumulative 80 person-years of experience in developing commercially viable optical sensor systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA vision calls for safe, affordable human missions beyond Earth orbit to Moon, Mars, and through the Solar System. To support the transport of small crewed missions to the moon with capabilities to extend this to outer space, monitoring and controlling of the life-support process needs to be performed by devices having attributes such as: (a) high accuracy and precision, (b) reduced size and weight, (c) long operational life, (d) reliable performance, (e) minimal maintenance requirement, and (f) in-line operational ability. Hazardous trace gases within the space-craft crew habitat pose risks to human health during long duration missions. Therefore, the proposed sensor technology provides NASA with a low-cost, robust, real-time monitoring format for protecting both the crew and spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The multi-analyte capabilities of the device make it very attractive for applications ranging from environmental monitoring to process control. The study by Frost & Sullivan on World Gas Sensors, Detectors and Analyzers Market reveals that these markets earned revenues of over $1 billion in 2005 and estimates this to exceed $1.4 billion in 2012 (Source: Frost and Sullivan Report MC1377591, August 31, 2006). Pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, fermentation monitoring, cell culturing, and tissue culturing represent some important applications. Upon repackaging, the device will have applications in a variety of civilian emergency response and occupational environment monitoring or related research facilities. Examples include: firefighting, hazardous material response, hazardous material workers, industrial safety workers (e.g., coal miners, steel workers, etc.), and industrial confined space monitoring associated with many occupations (e.g., industrial chemical manufacturing).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Testing Facilities
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Particle and Fields
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Pilot Support Systems
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Biomass Production and Storage
Biomedical and Life Support
Biomolecular Sensors
Sterilization/Pathogen and Microbial Control
Waste Processing and Reclamation
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Database Development and Interfacing
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Biochemical
Gravitational
Optical
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Portable Life Support
Suits
General Public Outreach
K-12 Outreach
Photonics
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X2.04-9786
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Environmental Monitoring and Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Microsensor for Measuring Oxygen, Water and Carbon Dioxide in the Spacecraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
H.V. Setty Enterprises, Inc.
12110 Red Oak Court, South
Burnsville, MN 55337-3312
(952) 894-2792

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
H.V. Venkatasetty
venka006@umn.edu
12110 Red Oak Ct South
Burnsville,  MN 55337-3312
(952) 894-2792

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A microsensor cell with interdigitated micron-size three electrode structure cell of thin film platinum sensing and counter electrodes and platinum pseudo or silver quasi reference electrodes deposited on silicon dioxide over silicon will be fabricated. A unique thin film composite polymer membrane electrolyte with high ionic conductivity and wide voltage window and hydrophobic property will be prepared and characterized and coated on the electrodes of the cell. The prototype sensor will be assembled in a suitable container covered with thin film PTFE membrane and feasibility demonstrated for sensing oxygen, water vapor and carbon dioxide.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The light weight, low power and low cost solid state microsensors with potential capability for self calibration have applications for monitoring oxygen, water vapor and carbon dioxide and trace contaminant gases and vapors for Spacecraft Cabin Environmental Monitoring and Control system. They have the capability for detecting trace contaminant toxic gases and vapors. They will be highly useful to NASA for future human Exploration missions as well as Space Station and Space Shuttle.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Long life and low cost sensors with multi-gas/vapor sensing capability have potential application for detecting toxic vapors at the Department of Energy Hazard Waste Sites and EPA applications for toxic gases. These sensors have the potential for use in monitoring toxic and polluting gases such as SO2, NOx and CO2 at power plants and industrial boilers using fossil fuels. They find use detecting CO and volatile organic compounds(VOCs)for Indoor Air Quality monitoring homes and buildings.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Control Instrumentation
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X2.05-9325
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Fire Protection
PROPOSAL TITLE: Comfortable and Durable Clothing Ensemble with Flame-Resistant Properties

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840-4023
(979) 693-0017

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Waheguru Singh
waheguru.singh@lynntech.com
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station,  TX 77840-4023
(979) 693-0017

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is now concerned with maintaining, validating, and improving fire safety on the ISS throughout its lifetime while providing maximum flexibility in the types of experiments and operations that can be conducted by the crew members. Thus, more comfortable, durable and flexible flame retardant crew clothing is required, especially during long term missions. Current cotton clothing is highly flammable and not suitable for fire fighting. There is urgent need to develop non-flammable alternatives for shirts, shorts, sweaters, and jackets without compromising the comfort and flexibility. This Phase I project aims to develop flame retardant textiles using a new class of chemicals called polyoxometalates (POMs). We have devised methods to anchor this class of compound to a variety of conventional (cotton based) fabrics. The overall goal is to take existing fabrics, with their desirable physical properties and high level of comfort, and add a flame retardant capability. The functionalized textile material will have thermal stability, reduction in smoke generation and flammability, reasonable cost, no skin and environmental toxicity, and permanence while retaining the desired properties of the starting material. Our novel flame resistant textile material will withstand harsh conditions without leaching of the agents.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Development of this technology will lead to non-flammable alternatives for NASA crew clothing items like shirts, shorts, sweaters, and jackets without compromising the comfort and flexibility. This technology can also be applied to develop other fire resistant materials used in the space craft like the insulation materials, packing materials, foams etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
At home : Clothes, Sleepwear, bed linen, blankets, mattresses, upholstered furniture covers, furniture fabrics, carpets, textile wall lining, curtains At work: Protective clothes for workers, military personnel and firemen, agricultural workers, technical fabrics such as belts and ropes, sunshades, sunblinds, tarpaulins Others: Tents (military or private), flags

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X2.05-9375
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Fire Protection
PROPOSAL TITLE: Test of Advanced Fine Water Mist Nozzles in a Representative Spacecraft Atmosphere

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ADA Technologies, Inc.
8100 Shaffer Parkway, Suite 130
Littleton , CO 80127-4107
(303) 792-5615

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Butz
jimb@adatech.com
8100 Shaffer Parkway, Suite 130
Littleton ,  CO 80127-4107
(303) 874-8276

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Fine water mist is being considered as a replacement technology for fire suppression on the next generation of manned spacecraft. It offers advantages in performance, ease of cleanup, compatibility with on-board environmental systems, and ability to recharge during a mission. ADA Technologies has designed a prototype hand-held extinguisher that is being tested at ambient environmental conditions. In this SBIR program ADA Technologies proposes to advance this prototype with a new design for a reduced-momentum nozzle to generate a fine water mist that can be discharged into confined and obstructed spaces to attack hidden fires as well as open fires in manned spacecraft. In Phase I multiple nozzle concepts will be designed, fabricated, and competed to identify the most promising concepts. In addition, we will adapt a vacuum chamber at team member Colorado School of Mines to evaluate the advanced nozzles against fires in an atmosphere of 34% oxygen and 7.6 psia total pressure, representative of the conditions in manned spacecraft. These tests will validate the efficacy of Fine Water Mist at these nonstandard atmospheric conditions. Phase I products will include a comprehensive specification for a beta prototype hand-held FWM extinguisher that incorporates the best advanced reduced momentum nozzle. In Phase II we will carry the beta prototype design forward to testing in microgravity and develop a plan for flight qualification of the hardware. We will work with a partner experienced in the production and qualification of flight test fixtures and experiments. ADA will partner with a commercial supplier of fire protection equipment to take this technology into the broader commercial marketplace, targeting aerospace and flammable fuels storage as early market segments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Fine Water Mist is a versatile fire suppression technology ideal for application in manned spacecraft and planetary habitats. It is effective and efficient, with a small mass and volume impact. The ADA prototype design can be operated in any gravity environment, including microgravity, and with the gravity vector in any orientation with respect to the extinguisher. The ADA extinguisher is rechargeable on-station, a key feature for extended lunar and planetary missions. In addition, FWM is fully compatible with spacecraft systems, using only water and nitrogen as agents which offer no adverse impact to human health. ADA has identified two candidate partners to advance our technology through flight qualification to make hardware available for the full next generation of manned spacecraft. In other configurations, Fine Water Mist Fire Suppression is also useful and effective in a range of applications in NASA facilities and Ground Support Equipment. ADA has designed, built, and tested specialized FWM systems for use in hazardous environments on board US Air Force aircraft, and has worked on conceptual designs for such applications as flammable liquid storage and ground protection of aircraft. We anticipate that Fine Water Mist would prove ideal for many NASA fire protection situations. ADA intends to partner with a commercial supplier of fire suppression equipment to bring this technology to market in the coming years.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Significant market opportunities exist outside the base applications within NASA. ADA will leverage these to create a commercial opportunity that is of significant potential impact to the company while satisfying the NASA need/requirement. Aerospace applications (airlines) constitute one major opportunity. Airplanes are currently equipped with halon extinguishers both automatic and handheld. As noted elsewhere in this proposal, halon is no longer in production and the European Union is mandating its replacement even prior to the depletion of Halon stockpiles. FWM is an excellent candidate for this application as it is very effective, safe for human exposure, and environmentally friendly. ADA's fine water mist system is also a great fit for the needs in vehicle and enclosed space applications. These applications are found in military vehicles, subway trains, tunnels, museums, passenger and merchant ships, hotels, data centers, flammable fuel storage locations and many other places. Overall, this is a several hundred million dollar market opportunity, and will have a positive impact on safety, human health, and the environment. ADA's approach is to partner with companies that have existing products and market share to update their product lines and increase market opportunities. ADA's strong grasp and intellectual property in this emerging technology make us an ideal partner for firms seeking to deploy new and improved products into the fire protection market.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Facilities
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Biomedical and Life Support
Combustion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X3.01-8567
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar Regolith Excavation and Material Handling
PROPOSAL TITLE: Impact-Actuated Digging Tool for Lunar Excavation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics Ltd.
460 W 34th Street
New York, NY 10001-2320
(212) 966-0661

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kris Zacny
zacny@honeybeerobotics.com
460 W 34th Street
New York ,  NY 10001-2320
(646) 459-7836

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Honeybee Robotics proposes to develop a vacuum compatible, impact-actuated digging tool for the excavation of frozen and compacted regolith on the lunar surface and in the permanently shadowed craters of the lunar poles. This technology development effort will address the most challenging aspects of excavation in the lunar environment and work to develop a design relevant to a range of future lunar missions. This effort will also serve to guide and inform the requirements for the vehicles and systems that will be necessary for such missions. The fundamental architecture of an impact-actuated digging tool has been demonstrated for terrestrial applications for the Department of Defense. Honeybee's digging tool design is a novel approach ideally suited for lunar applications to defeat compacted and frozen regolith. By using the impact energy imparted by a reciprocating hammer transferred through the scoop to defeat the target material, the need for large reaction loads from the vehicle is minimized, allowing for a much smaller, lower mass system. This ongoing effort will serve to instruct and maximize the benefit to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's draft lunar architecture calls for an outpost at a single location at the lunar pole and a proposed ISRU system for life support and EVA by 2023 and propulsion activities by 2027. The potentially frozen regolith at the lunar poles has been identified as a likely source for volatile extraction activities to support the presence of humans and provide a resource for the generation of fuel on the lunar surface. In order to meet these objectives, lunar regolith prospecting and excavation technologies such as the impact actuated digging tool will need to be brought to a high TRL for ISRU activities. The technologies stemming from this research will directly meet the Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program (LPRP) and human lunar exploration mission objectives. The resulting technologies will be robust enough to operate under the extreme lunar conditions, particularly in terms of exposure to the abrasive lunar regolith, and be scalable and adaptable to a wide range of potential system architectures for regolith excavation and volatile extraction. The same technology will be relevant to future Mars missions as well. Honeybee will build upon its proven record of bringing R&D efforts such as this one to successful flight contracts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is an established interest from the Department of Defense in the development of digging tool technology appropriate for integration with small platform unmanned vehicles. Over 2000 such robotic platforms are currently fielded in Iraq and Afghanistan to deal with the persistent threat posed by Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs), with more on the way. Currently these systems are unable to access buried IEDs commonly deployed as roadside bombs due to the inadequate end-of-arm tooling and the limited reaction forces available. Honeybee sees this related effort to develop an impact actuated digging tool for lunar applications as helping to advance the state of the art for this critical application. With the completion of this Phase I and Phase II effort and the related effort for the DoD for whom we have delivered and fielded a prototype of a very similar system, Honeybee Robotics will have matured the fundamental technology to a high TRL for both lunar and terrestrial applications. This will position Honeybee well to pursue flight contracts for future NASA missions, support activities critical to the military, and seek out commercial markets for robotic digging technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X3.02-9269
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reactive-Separator Process Unit for Lunar Regolith

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Reactive Innovations, LLC
2 Park Drive, Unit 4
Westford, MA 01886-3525
(978) 692-4664

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Kimble
mkimble@reactive-innovations.com
2 Park Drive, Unit 4
Westford,  MA 01886-3525
(978) 692-4664

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's plans for a lunar habitation outpost call out for process technologies to separate hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide gases from regolith product gas streams. A low-pressure drop separation unit is needed to remove these sulfur compounds from regolith process streams that is compact and lightweight. To this end, Reactive Innovations, LLC proposes to develop an electrochemical reactive-separation unit to selectively bind and remove the sulfur compounds into a separated stream of sulfur-based compounds. During the Phase I program, we will develop and demonstrate an electrochemical reactive-separation platform that binds sulfur compounds via a charge transfer process to a redox carrier that is subsequently transported across a membrane separator releasing the sulfur components. In this effort, we will demonstrate the redox carrier for binding and releasing sulfur components, develop and assess electrodes that are corrosion resistant to the sulfur compounds, and culminate with a prototype reactive-separator unit design and evaluation for removing sulfur components from regolith streams. By the end of the Phase I effort, this lunar regolith reactive-separator unit will be at a Technology Readiness Level of 3 with a Phase II program delivering an operational reactive-separator at a TRL of 4-5.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Specific uses of the proposed lunar regolith reactive-separator for NASA are directed toward the removal of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide from regolith process streams. The continuous removal of these compounds in a lightweight and efficient reactive-separator unit will enable regolith to be processed continuously for lunar habitation development.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications of this reactive-separation unit may find applications in processing and removing sulfur-based compounds from exhaust streams including automotive gasoline and diesel engine exhausts and coal-fired utility operations and burners. The low-pressure drop design of the reactive-separator unit in a compact and lightweight design would lessen the impact of removing sulfur on the engine and combustion efficiency.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Waste Processing and Reclamation
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X3.02-9483
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microchannel Methanation Reactors Using Nanofabricated Catalysts

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Makel Engineering, Inc.
1585 Marauder Street
Chico, CA 95973-9064
(530) 895-2770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Susana Carranza
scarranza@makelengineering.com
1585 Marauder Street
Chico,  CA 95973-9064
(512) 589-0718

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) and the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) propose to develop and demonstrate a microchannel methanation reactor based on nanofabricated catalysts. Sustainable/affordable exploration of space exploration will require minimization of re-supply from Earth by implementation of In-Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU) strategies. For exploration of the Moon, one of the most significant resources is the lunar regolith, which is a complex mix of minerals with large oxygen content in their composition. Oxygen finds its main uses as a propellant, and for life support systems. There are currently many technologies being developed addressing the production of oxygen from lunar regolith, including carbothermal processes. The key to sustainability is to make sure any consumables carried from Earth are recycled to the maximum extent possible, minimizing the need of re-supply. In the case of carbothermal based oxygen production, carbon oxides must be converted to methane for reintroduction in the carbothermal system. This proposed program specifically addresses topic X3.02 Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith, by developing a methanation system that will efficiently convert mixed carbon oxides and hydrogen to methane and water.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of highly efficient microchannel reactors will be applicable to multiple ISRU programs. Propellants can be produced from carbon dioxide (Mars atmosphere). Ethylene can be produced from methane. Methane reformation can produce hydrogen on board rovers to feed fuel cell power systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Small scale, integrated, autonomous reactors can be used to enable in situ chemical processes which are not cost effective otherwise. Markets include: • Hydrocarbon reformers (fuel cells) • Natural gas upgrading (light hydrocarbons, GTL, etc.)

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X3.02-9651
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith
PROPOSAL TITLE: Large Scale Inert Anode for Molten Oxide Electrolysis

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Electrolytic Research Corporation, LLC
73 Winsor Road
Sudbury, MA 01776-2370
(978) 443-9861

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Yurko
jimyurko@hotmail.com
73 Winsor Rd.
Sudbury,  MA 01776-2370
(616) 405-5327

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Molten oxide electrolysis is a demonstrated laboratory-scale process for producing oxygen from the JSC-1a lunar simulant; however, critical subsystems necessary for a larger-scale, lunar-ready reactor must be further developed to increase technology readiness. An enabling technology of the MOE system that must be scaled is the iridium inert anode. Iridium, a proven inert anode in the process, is expensive, scarce, extremely dense, and difficult to fabricate. Electrolytic Research Corporation will develop a larger-scale anode optimized for cost, weight, material availability, and manufacturability. ERC proposes an optimized iridium-based alloy or composite anode using electrochemical and thermophysical materials selection criteria validated with experiments (electrolysis testing) and modeling. The iridium alloy and composite screening will generate results necessary for Phase 2, where a surface engineered, multi-layer anode will be designed that includes either a refractory-metal or carbon substrate, a conductive diffusion-barrier inner layer, and an iridium outer layer. Completion of the work will greatly enhance the technology readiness level of the NASA molten oxide electrolysis in-situ resource utilization program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has identified In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) as a key technology for permanent establishment of a lunar base. An important product is oxygen, and Molten Oxide Electrolysis has been identified as a potential technology for this application. While MOE has been demonstrated at a laboratory-scale to produce oxygen, critical systems must be developed to meet the goals of producing in excess of 1M tons of oxygen per year in the lunar environment. The proposed work, Large-Scale Inert Anode Development for MOE, would significantly advance the technology readiness level of the MOE process for ISRU oxygen generation. NASA is currently increasing the MOE process size to produce 5 10 kg of oxygen, and an optimized anode would allow NASA to continue scaling operations with greater confidence, while also providing the future foundation of moving to much larger reactor sizes that could meet the goal of producing 1M tons per year.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
While Molten Oxide Electrolysis can produce oxygen from lunar regolith, the process has the potential to make a much larger impact on the global metals industry. Capable of reducing numerous metals from their oxide states, the process is already under development as a lower-energy, more environmentally friendly method for producing titanium. This research is being conducted with carbon anodes, which are consumed in the process. The use of carbon limits the number of metal reduction candidates, and does not earn the process the attribute of being CO2-free. Development of a cost-effective, large-scale inert anode would be significant in the MOE commercialization process. In the global titanium reduction market, a more than $1B industry, an inert anode could be retrofitted into the MOE reactor to render the process carbon-free. This is particularly significant in the case of chromium, which cannot be made without carbon contamination by the existing technology, i.e., carbothermic reduction of Cr2O3 in an electric arc furnace. Ultralow levels of carbon confer enhanced metallurgical properties on chromium and, hence, stainless steel. In the extreme, we envision green electrochemical extraction of steel. The development of an inert anode for use in molten oxides is the pivotal enabling technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In-situ Resource Utilization
Ceramics
Composites
Metallics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X3.02-9723
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith
PROPOSAL TITLE: Counterflow Regolith Heat Exchanger

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pioneer Astronautics
11111 W. 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood, CO 80215-5516
(303) 980-0890

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Douwe Bruinsma
dbruinsma@pioneerastro.com
11111 W. 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood,  CO 80215-5516
(303) 468-6718

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The counterflow regolith heat exchanger (CoRHE) is a device that transfers heat from hot regolith to cold regolith. The CoRHE is essentially a tube-in-tube heat exchanger with internal and external augers attached to the inner, rotating tube to move the regolith. Hot regolith in the outer tube is moved in one direction by a right-handed auger and the cool regolith in the inner tube is moved in the opposite by a left-handed auger attached to the inside of the rotating tube. In this counterflow arrangement a large fraction of the heat from the expended regolith is transferred to the new regolith. The spent regolith leaves the heat exchanger close to the temperature of the cold new regolith and the new regolith is pre-heated close to the initial temperature of the spent regolith. Using the CoRHE can reduce the heating requirement of a lunar ISRU system by 80%, reducing the total power consumption by a factor of two.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The counterflow regolith heat exchanger (CoRHE) provides an efficient means to transfer heat from hot regolith to cold regolith. The ability to conserve the heat from the expended regolith can lead to significant energy savings for a lunar oxygen production system. If, for example, oxygen is produced at a rate of 1 metric ton (MT) per year with an oxygen content of 2% in the soil, then 50 metric tons of regolith must be processed per year. With oxygen production occurring 50% of the time (only during daylight) then the heating load is an average of 2.8 kW. In comparison, the electrolysis power required to produce 1 MT of oxygen per year at 50% duty cycle is about 1.1 kW. Thus, heating the regolith is one of the major power consumers of a lunar oxygen production system. The counterflow regolith heat exchanger is intended to reduce the heating requirement for the lunar oxygen production system by 80% with minimal hardware and power requirements. This reduces the total power requirement of the oxygen production system from 3.9 kW to 1.7 kW, a power savings of 55%.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many chemical processes where powders or granular materials are processed at high temperatures. In each of these processes energy is spent heating and cooling the chemicals. The CoRHE can be used to simultaneously heat and cool the chemicals for a significant energy savings.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X3.02-9756
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Surface Iridium Anodes for Molten Oxide Electrolysis

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Plasma Processes, Inc.
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville, AL 35811-1558
(256) 851-7653

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anatoliy Shchetkovksiy
ashchetkovksiy@plasmapros.com
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville,  AL 35811-1558
(256) 851-7653

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Processing of lunar regolith into oxygen for habitat and propulsion is needed to support future space missions. Direct electrochemical reduction of molten regolith is most attractive method of processing because no additional chemical reagents are needed. The electrochemical processing of molten oxides requires high surface area inert anodes. Such electrodes need to be structurally robust at elevated temperatures (1400-1600<SUP>o</SUP>C), be resistant to thermal shock, have good electrical conductivity, be resistant to attack by molten oxide (silicate), be electrochemically stable and support high current density. Because of high melting point, good oxidation resistance, superior high temperature strength and ductility, iridium is the most promising candidate for anodes in high temperature electrochemical processes. Two innovative concepts for manufacturing such anodes by electrodeposition of iridium from molten salt electrolyte (EL-Form<SUP>TM</SUP> process) are proposed. This technique is characterized by its ability to produce dense, ductile, pore-free, 99.9% pure iridium in form of complex shape components and coatings. The result of this program will be the development, manufacturing and testing of high surface iridium anodes for molten oxide electrolysis. The testing will be performed in cooperation with NASA and MIT.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
oxygen generators, metal refiners, and rocket nozzles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High surface iridium dimensionally stable anodes will be used in the chlorine production industry and extractive metallurgy. Non consumable iridium anodes will be used in copper foil electrochemical production. Another potential application for dimensionally stable iridium based composite anodes is electroplating industry. Other applications are petro-chemical industry, catalyst producers, crystal growth, spark plugs and rocket nozzles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In-situ Resource Utilization
Microgravity
Ceramics
Metallics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X3.03-8561
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar ISRU Development and Precursor Activities
PROPOSAL TITLE: Production of Synthetic Lunar Simulants

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zybek Advanced Products, Inc.
2845 29th Street
Boulder, CO 80301-1229
(303) 530-2727

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Weinstein
mike@zybekap.com
2845 29th Street
Boulder,  CO 80301-1229
(303) 530-2727

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Zybek Advanced Products has proven the ability to produce industrial quantities of lunar simulant materials, including glass, agglutinate and melt breccias. These are critical components in the NU-LHT-series and OB1 lunar simulants. The feed stock for this simulant is a mining industry by-product. The feedstock contains many contaminates, may not always be available, and can be inconsistent. Although the standard lunar simulant produced from the mineral industry byproduct feedstock is useful for some applications, many projects require a simulant with a higher fidelity. This project provides the means to produce individual components that are not available from terrestrial sources. These components can be mixed in different proportions to determine the effect on a particular process. The basic theory of the innovation is to mix known industrial ingredients, bring to molten temperatures, allow time for full reaction (in molten state), and then control the cooling rate to cause re-crystallization. These components are readily available and can be processed at multi-ton rates in the plasma melter.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applications inside of NASA include: Oxygen Production, testing of mechanical equipment, bio-medical research, specific beneficiation of lunar materials, development of database of spectrometry data from NASA space equipment, testing excavation and drilling equipment, and connector mating tests.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Contractors and researchers for other Space Agencies, and University Researchers. Also, the strong potential exists for using this material production means as a medium for producing nanophase elements that cannot be exposed to Oxygen (e.g., Fe0). This has been demonstrated in the production of iron-bearing agglutinate.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Mobility
Manipulation
Perception/Sensing
Manned-Maneuvering Units
Suits
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X3.03-8930
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar ISRU Development and Precursor Activities
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lunar Excavator Validation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Energid Technologies
124 Mount Auburn Street, Suite 200N
Cambridge, MA 02138-5787
(888) 547-4100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James English
jde@energid.com
124 Mount Auburn Street, Suite 200N
Cambridge,  MA 02138-5787
(888) 547-4100

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Energid Technologies proposes to create a tool for simulation-based verification of lunar excavator designs. Energid will combine the best of 1) automatic control system generation from computer aided design (CAD) models, 2) rapid validation of complex mechanism designs, and 3) detailed simulation models of the lunar environment, including regolith, dust, temperature, remote supervision, and communication latency to create a system of high value to NASA. Energid has previously developed unique algorithms for controlling and simulating complex robotic mechanisms automatically from just a CAD description. These algorithms will be leveraged to create a system to quickly test excavation systems by generating optimal control algorithms for use in studies. Energid has also developed high-fidelity real-time physics-based simulation algorithms that include models of internal forces and the forces produced when a mechanism interacts with the outside world. This existing capability will be combined with an innovative organization for simulation algorithms, new regolith simulation methods, and a unique control and study architecture to make a powerful tool with the potential to transform the way NASA verifies and compares excavator designs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The excavator validation tool will have application to all of NASA's future lunar missions. It will reduce cost and improve schedule in these efforts. Following completion of Phase II--to some degree, even upon completion of Phase I--the software will be ready for use by NASA, and Energid will partner with larger NASA contractors to commercialize the capability through contracts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Outside of NASA, Energid will offer the software firstly to the construction and mining industries. We receive contacts and needs from representatives of these industries, and the new capability developed under this project is needed. Beyond the construction and mining industries, Energid will provide the software components developed under this effort as a software toolkit that can be licensed across all industries. Potential customers will purchase the toolkit as software libraries and header files. By linking these libraries into their code, developers will have full access to all the capability provided by the toolkit. The new capability will allow developers to leverage our simulation and remote-control technologies into new applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X3.03-9097
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar ISRU Development and Precursor Activities
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development of a Direct Carbon Fuel Cell for Power and Fuels Cogeneration Directly from Plastic Trash

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials and Systems Research, Inc.
5395 West 700 South
Salt Lake City, UT 84104-4403
(801) 530-4987

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Greg Tao
gtao@msrihome.com
5395 West 700 South
Salt Lake City,  UT 84104-4403
(801) 530-4987

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This small business innovation research is intended to develop a simple processing concept based-on an advanced direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) technology enabling directly converting plastic trash into life support consumables (such as H2, CO2 and H2O) and electricity simultaneously, for supporting Lunar ISRU development. The proposed innovation involves the areas associated with the advanced DCFC characteristics and simplified processes turning plastic trash into renewable energy at a high efficiency. In Phase I, the decomposition/oxidation electrochemistry of polyethylene-based plastic bags and spoons, catalyzed by molten carbonate anode composites, will be characterized. Tubular electrochemical cells built upon the proposed DCFC technology will be studied at elevated temperatures, followed by performance optimization.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The DCFC-based device integral with a water-gas-shift reactor, a Sabatier reactor and solar cells can in-situ convert plastic trash and crew solid waste directly into electricity, methane fuel and water, providing a residential environment for supporting human extraterrestrial exploration activities. For such applications, the weight and volume of the life support consumables are important considerations, because both must be as low as possible to decrease payload and thus cost significantly. The Applicant's state-of-the-art DCFC innovation will have the potential to prolong the NASA long-duration missions with substantial savings in mission costs and launch/landing masses.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
DCFC, which co-generates electricity and fuels directly from plastic trash, can be viewed as an energy recovering device. Presently polymer and plastic industry values at around $1.6 trillion. DCFC integral with a water-gas-shift reactor can be used to recover the ecology-unfriendly plastic waste into electricity and hydrogen for power parks and H2 internal combustion engines applications. DCFC is also capable of running on locally available low-value waste feedstock or coal for distributed power generation application.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Renewable Energy


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X3.03-9281
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar ISRU Development and Precursor Activities
PROPOSAL TITLE: Solid-Solid Vacuum Regolith Heat-Exchanger for Oxygen Production

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Grainflow Dynamics, Inc.
1141 Catalina Drive, PMB #270
Livermore, CA 94550-5928
(925) 447-4293

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Otis Walton
walton@grainflow.com
1141 Catalina Drive, PMB #270
Livermore,  CA 94550-5928
(925) 447-4293

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase-1 project will demonstrate the feasibility of using a novel coaxial counterflow solid-solid heat exchanger to recover heat energy from spent regolith at 1050<SUP>o</SUP>C to pre-heat inlet regolith to 750<SUP>o</SUP>C, either continuously, or in 20kg batches. In granular solids the area of contacts between 'touching' grains is quite small. Thus, solid-solid conduction often plays only a minor role in heat transfer through granular solids (i.e., 'effective' conduction), and when an interstitial gas is present, heat transfer occurs primarily via conduction through the gas. If the granular solid is also flowing, then solids convection becomes a significant factor in overall heat transfer and effective 'conduction'. Under vacuum conditions, and at temperatures above 700<SUP>o</SUP>C, radiation will dominate most heat transfer processes; however, solids convection can also play a very significant secondary role. Utilizing judicious placement of radiation baffles, and a novel counterflow configuration, the approach proposed in this SBIR can accomplish the desired heat transfer between spent and fresh regolith with only one moving mechanical part, by making effective use of both radiative heat transfer and solids convection. Discrete-element simulations of regolith flow will be utilized to refine the concept. Utilization of an existing ~1.4 cubic meter partial-vacuum facility at the University of Florida will facilitate construction of feasibility demonstration prototypes during Phase-1 and/or Phase-2. The Phase-1 project will demonstrate the effectiveness of combining solids convection with radiative heat transfer to rapidly transfer heat from 1050C spent material to heat fresh regolith to 750C under vacuum conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As currently envisioned, the production of oxygen from lunar regolith requires heating the material to a temperature of 1050C. Since the minerals of interest for oxygen production are stable to temperatures of 750C, the regolith can be preheated to that temperature, before entering the actual reactor without loss of potential product. Utilization of the sensible heat of the spent regolith (exiting the reactor at 1050C) to preheat the fresh regolith to 750C, can provide significant energy savings, dramatically increasing the efficiency of the oxygen recovery process. Other lunar volatile recovery operations may, also, benefit from the efficiency of preheating fresh regolith in a vacuum using the sensible heat of the spent material exiting the process.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Similar configurations may also be of use in terrestrial mineral recovery operations; however, the potential existence of an interstitial gas in most terrestrial environments dramatically changes the character of heat transfer in/to/from granular solids. Thus, terrestrial applications of the specific configurations designed for lunar conditions may be limited to situations where interstitial gases need to be excluded for some other chemical or operational reason.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X3.03-9724
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar ISRU Development and Precursor Activities
PROPOSAL TITLE: Vacuum Compatible Percussive Dynamic Cone Penetrometer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics Ltd.
460 W 34th Street
New York, NY 10001-2320
(212) 966-0661

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kris Zacny
zacny@honeybeerobotics.com
460 W 34th Street
te: New York ,  NY 10001-2320
(646) 459-7836

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Honeybee Robotics proposes to develop a vacuum compatible percussive dynamic cone penetrometer (PDCP), for establishing soil bin characteristics, with the ultimate intent of taking it to a flight system level. Penetrometers are used to determine the Cone index (CI), which is a composite index influenced by both soil compressibility and shear strength. A dynamic cone penetrometer is used to estimate bearing strength, soil compressibility, and shear strength (when compared with calibration data), consisting of a percussive actuator and a rod with a sharp 60 degree cone at the end. The penetrometer is driven into the soil under constant load and the penetration, converted to California Bearing Ratio (CBR), which gives an indication of soil trafficability. The Honeybee-developed percussive dynamic cone penetrometer offers the significant advantage of being a low mass, low power, low force, stand alone device that requires limited to no human intervention to operate, as opposed to heavy and cumbersome manual Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) widely used today. This percussive system is also of further advantage with its capability to reach much greater depths than typical surface tools such as Bevameter. The high-frequency vibration of the percussive rod also reduces the force required for pushing a rod into regolith by almost two orders of magnitude. This translates directly into smaller rover/lander or less effort on behalf of an Astronaut.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The vacuum compatible PDCP will enable surveying of extra terrestrial sites to determine their candidacy for establishment of site preparation and outpost infrastructure emplacement, and it will provide vital characteristics for efficient design and future development of all related components, mechanisms, and systems, set up resource mining operations, and survey exploration sites, and routes. In addition, soil physical properties are used to help interpret surface geologic processes and to constrain the origins and formation processes of the soils. This vacuum compatible PDCP is, therefore, not only a necessary surveying, and exploratory tool, but a valuable scientific instrument as well, which would prove to be most useful for lunar missions and for ongoing exploration on Mars. It is also very simple, quick, and efficient way of reaching significant depth. This would be useful to any application ranging from, burying sensory equipment to digging a post-hole.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Within the scope of a flight ready system is going to be the task of making this system not only vacuum compatible, but reliable, heat resistant, and capable of coping with lunar dust. It will also have to be compact and light weight. All of the scientific and technological advances obtained from this project will translate directly to development of a technically advanced, and robust terrestrial surveying tool ideal for commercial, scientific, and defense applications, where its portability and ease of use with minimum user input will be most valuable assets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Structural Modeling and Tools
Tools
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X3.03-9828
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar ISRU Development and Precursor Activities
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lunar Soil Particle Separator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pioneer Astronautics
11111 W. 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood, CO 80215-5516
(303) 980-0890

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Berggren
mberggren@pioneerastro.com
11111 W. 8th Ave, Unit A
Lakewood,  CO 80215-5516
(303) 980-0231

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) is an innovative method to beneficiate soil prior to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LSPS improves ISRU oxygen yield by boosting the concentration of ilmenite or other iron-oxide bearing materials found in lunar soils. LSPS particle size separations can be performed to improve gas-solid interactions and reactor flow dynamics. LSPS mineral separations can be used to alter the sintering characteristics of lunar soil. The LSPS can eventually be used to separate and concentrate lunar minerals useful for manufacture of structural materials, glass, and chemicals. The LSPS integrates an initial centrifugal particle size separation with magnetic, gravity, and/or electrostatic separations. The LSPS centrifugal separation method overcomes the reduced efficiency of conventional particle sieving in reduced gravity. Feed conditioning, such as charge neutralization, can be incorporated into the LSPS to release and disperse surface fines prior to particle separations. The conceptual LSPS hardware design integrates many individual unit operations to reduce system mass and power requirements. The LSPS is applicable to ISRU feed processing as well as robotic prospecting to characterize soils over a wide region on the Moon. The LSPS is scalable and is amenable to testing and development under simulated lunar environmental conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary initial application of the LSPS is for lunar particle separations in support of improving the feed to hydrogen reduction ISRU. The LSPS has direct use to improve the overall efficiency of hydrogen reduction ISRU by boosting the iron-oxide content of feeds. In addition, the LSPS has uses for optimizing particle size distribution to improve material flow properties and gas-particle interactions in fluidized bed and other reactors as well as adjusting mineral composition to minimize sintering during reduction. The LSPS can also serve as a component of a robotic lunar prospector to characterize soils and their potential for ISRU applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
One non-NASA commercialization application is directed toward small-scale terrestrial mineral processing. In particular, the LSPS is useful in remote locations where a compact, low-power device is needed to perform dry separations for production of mineral concentrates. A device such as the LSPS can be tailored to dry separation prospecting or small-scale minerals production to reduce the transportation of large amounts of un-beneficiated samples or ore to laboratories or downstream processing facilities. Applications may include prospecting or small-scale production of gold ores and heavy mineral sands.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X4.01-9369
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Temperature Mechanisms
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Friction Surfaces for Low Temperature Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840-4023
(979) 693-0017

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alan Cisar
alan.cisar@lynntech.com
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station,  TX 77840-4023
(979) 693-0017

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Lunar and other extraterrestrial environments put extreme demands on moving mechanical components. Gears must continue to function and surfaces must continue to slide over a wide temperature range, the low end of which renders most conventional lubricants solidified while the high end vaporizes them, especially in a vacuum. Extremely long service lives are needed, and dust can cause abrasive damage. The solution is to use a high lubricity wear resistant solid, but not even all solid lubricants are suitable for the full range of challenges. We propose to use a novel electrocodeposition process to produce a quasicrystalline coating on the surface of metal parts. Quasicrystals are a unique family of alloys having symmetries found nowhere else. They are exceptionally hard, with low surface energies. Quasicrystalline coatings have been demonstrated to be stable over wide temperature ranges and to have low friction over the entire range. Our process produces solid, high-density, low friction coatings on a variety of metal substrates. The coatings are stable for the long periods needed to achieve long operating lives. They are applied under relatively mild conditions using readily available equipment and can be applied to substrates of any shape or size. In this project we will demonstrate the application of low friction coatings to gear alloys and show their low friction and wear properties over a temperature range that extends from above ambient to cryogenic.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The initial NASA target application for electrodeposited quasicrystal coatings is as a high lubricity surface suitable for use at all temperatures with no risk of loss of lubricant due to evaporation, even in a hard vacuum. Additional potential applications include locations where the temperature concerns are less severe, but the gears or sliding surfaces must remain free to move for long periods of time, times sufficiently long that a fluid lubricant could deteriorate, be lost, or just puddle up from surface tension and fail to properly coat the working surfaces. These applications can be on the surface of extraterrestrial bodies or in space. Quasicrystalline coatings aren't just for low temperature applications. These materials are stable to above 650 <SUP>o</SUP>C. This makes them suitable for many high temperature applications as well, including applications where conventional fluid lubricants would be oxidized or thermally decomposed.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
While commercial space craft do not comprise a large market for these lubricants, there are many other applications available where the high durability and lubricity of electrocodeposited quasicrystal coatings have promise. These include many types of machine equipment and other devices with moving parts, especially those operating in harsh environments or where access to the components is difficult making regular lubrication challenging. One completely unrelated application that makes use of these properties is as a non-stick coating for cookware that can be cleaned and scoured like a conventional metal pan. Extensive testing is already under way for this application.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Tribology


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X4.01-9712
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Temperature Mechanisms
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Performing, Low Temperature Operating, Long Lifetime, Aerospace Lubricants

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Sciences, Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bryan Bergeron
bergeron@psicorp.com
20 New England Business Center
Andover,  MA 01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to synthesize, characterize, and test new ionic liquids and formulations as lubricants for aerospace applications. The compounds will operate effectively at low temperatures with appropriate viscosities, high viscosity indices, large heat capacities, and high thermal decomposition temperatures. The innovative, versatile, lubricants will also have an extremely wide liquidus range, nearly zero vapor pressure, low friction coefficients, small wear effects, and low outgassing for long-term operational stability in aerospace systems. In the Phase II program, additional ionic liquids will be identified, synthesized, characterized, formulated with various additives, and tested as liquid lubricants and base lubricants in greases for use at low temperature. Their tribological performance will be evaluated in an aerospace system(s) for TRL 3.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed lubricants and formulations will have direct applications to NASA aerospace systems that require minimal/no maintenance over extended periods of time. These compounds will provide lower volatility, decreased wear effects, and better tribological characteristics than those of standard liquid or grease lubricants that are currently used, particularly at lower temperatures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed lubricants and formulations have applications in terrestrial machinery. They will substantially increase performance, and reduce maintenance costs and frequencies of industrial transportation and construction systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Airlocks/Environmental Interfaces
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Erectable
Inflatable
Kinematic-Deployable
Tribology


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X4.01-9798
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Temperature Mechanisms
PROPOSAL TITLE: Improved Ionic Liquids as Space Lubricants

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
UES, Inc.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432-1894
(937) 426-6900

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Amarendra Rai
arai@ues.com
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton,  OH 45432-1894
(937) 426-6900

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Ionic liquids are candidate lubricant materials. However for application in low temperature space mechanisms their lubrication performance needs to be enhanced. UES Inc in collaboration with Covalent Technologies Inc propose to improve the tribological (lubrication) characteristics of the appropriate ionic liquids through formulation with innovative additive technology. The formulated ionic liquids will be thoroughly characterized to demonstrate their extremely low volatility and non-corrosive extreme pressure anti wear characteristics. The performance of the formulated ionic liquids will be ranked. Highly ranked formulations will be further optimized in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lubrication for low temperature space mechanisms is critical to enable reliable and efficient operation of NASA's exploration vehicles. Formulated ionic fluids will be a critical component for longer life of low temperature mechanisms.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Formulated ionic liquid based lubricants can be used in many moving mechanical assemblies such as bearings, gears etc. It can also be used in several electrochemical applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Tribology


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X4.02-8428
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Radiation Shielding Materials and Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multifunctional B/C Fiber Composites for Radiation Shielding

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Modification, Inc.
2721-D Merrilee Drive
Fairfax, VA 22031-4429
(703) 560-1371

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ramachandran Radhakrishnan
radha@matmod.com
2721-D Merrilee Drive
Fairfax,  VA 22031-4429
(703) 560-1371

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Radiation shielding is an enabling technology required for extended manned missions to the Moon, Mars and the planets beyond. Multifunctional structural must protect crew in a spacecraft, crew exploration vehicle, landers, rover, or habitat from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR), Solar Energy Particles (SEP) and micrometeroid impact and at the same time keep both the weight of the structure and the cost of fabricating the structure to a minimum. Materials Modification, Inc. (MMI) proposes to develop and evaluate a series of versatile, novel, multifunctional hybrid structural composites comprised of a high hydrogen epoxy matrix

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
These new lightweight, high performance composites have three key functions: (1) protect astronaut crews from hazardous long-term GCR and SEP space radiation; (2) help fabricate space structural components such as crew exploration vehicles, landers, rovers, habitats, ISS applications, planetary fly-bys and rovers, and any space structural item requiring radiation shielding; and (3) provide protection against impact of meteoroid and space debris.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applications will focus on commercial aircraft structure and interiors, satellites, wind turbine blades, and ballistic protection for law enforcement officers. Companies building satellites for commercial communication applications as well as DoD organizations building critical space satellites may be potential customers since these our new materials may be useful in mitigating not only cosmic radiation but also solar radiation so destructive to satellites.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Radiation Shielding Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X4.02-9329
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Radiation Shielding Materials and Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Polyolefin-Nanocrystal Composites for Radiation Shielding

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
EIC Laboratories, Inc.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062-2612
(781) 469-9450

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jane Bertone
bertone@eiclabs.com
EIC Labs, 111 Downey Street
Norwood,  MA 02062-2612
(781) 769-9450

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
EIC Laboratories Inc. is proposing a lightweight multifunctional polymer/nanoparticle composite for radiation shielding during long-duration lunar missions. Isolated nanoparticles homogeneously dispersed throughout the polymer reinforce polymer matrices relative to conventional powder dispersion. This will enable the exploitation of the high hydrogen density of the polyolefin while improving the mechanical and structural properties of polymer composites used in radiation shielding. The goal of this program is to demonstrate that hydrogen dense polyolefins loaded with neutron shielding nanoparticles demonstrate improved shielding and mechanical properties relative to commercially available alternatives. In Phase I, polyolefin/nanoparticle-shielding composites will be fabricated and characterized for thermal, mechanical, and particle dispersion properties relative to commercial products.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications of the radiation shielding material include: retrofits and upgrades on International Space Station, space vehicles for human return to the Moon and human Mars Exploration, and for lunar and Martian habitats.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Terrestrial and commercial applications in radiation shielding in nuclear reactor, particle accelerator, high-altitude aircraft, and radiation-based medical treatments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Erectable
Suits
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Radiation Shielding Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X4.02-9673
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Radiation Shielding Materials and Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Tailorable Structural Composite for GCR and Albedo Neutron Protection on the Lunar Surface

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Plasma Processes, Inc.
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville, AL 35811-1558
(256) 851-7653

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Elizabeth Schofield
eschofield@plasmapros.com
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville,  AL 35811-1558
(256) 851-7653

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A tailorable structural composite that will provide protection from the lunar radiation environment, including GCR and albedo neutrons will be developed. This composite will have increased structural strength combined with more efficient shielding of GCR and albedo neutrons when compared to previously developed composites, leading to increased TRL level. Boron coated fabric will be integrated precisely where it will have the most positive effect on shield characteristics (according to simulations and testing), providing an efficient and highly tailorable composite. A highly innovative processing method, Low Pressure Vacuum Plasma Spray (LPVPS), will be demonstrated during this effort to deposit a layer of boron containing natural abundance of 10B onto carbon fabric from the vapor phase. Benefits of this processing method include significantly higher deposition rates and through-put than PVD/CVD, significantly larger deposition footprint, and excellent quality control due to the exact nature of the deposition process. Composite strength will be increased by using carbon fabric as a carrier for the 10B, with bonding between the coated fabric and epoxy matrix enhanced through surface treatments. Thermal protection system incorporation for protection against temperature extremes and micrometeorite impact will be investigated during Phase 2.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial potential for the technology being developed is very high. Potential NASA applications for this technology developed through Phase 2 include structural radiation shielding for the protection of humans and electronics in aerospace transportation vehicles, space transportation vehicles such as the Ares V launch vehicle, large space structures, such as space stations, orbiters, landing vehicles such as the Altair Lunar Lander, rovers, habitats, and nuclear propulsion. Potential customers include Boeing, ATK, Lockheed, and other NASA contractors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications include shielding for particle accelerators, nuclear reactors, radioactive waste containment, satellite hardware shielding, radiation protection for passengers/crew in high-altitude commercial and military airliners, and medical patient shielding.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Erectable
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Simulation Modeling Environment
Suits
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Composites
Radiation Shielding Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X4.04-9057
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Composite Structures - NDE/Structures Health Monitoring
PROPOSAL TITLE: SAW Passive Wireless Sensor-RFID Tags with Enhanced Range

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied Sensor Research & Development Corporation
1195 Baltimore-Annapolis Blvd., Unit #2
Arnold, MD 21012-1815
(410) 544-4664

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jacqueline Hines
jhines@asrdcorp.com
1195 Baltimore-Annapolis Blvd., Unit #2
Arnold,  MD 21012-1815
(410) 544-4664

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal describes the development of passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) RFID sensor-tags with enhanced range for remote monitoring of large groups of conventional sensors. Passive wireless sensing tags using SAW technology have been demonstrated by Robert Brocato at Sandia National Labs and others. These sensor-tags consist of a SAW device with an antenna attached to one port and sensor(s) and reference impedance(s) connected to the other ports. RF signals are reflected off of the surface wave device, and their reflection characteristics are modified by changes in the impedance of the attached sensor(s). This proposal describes development of novel passive wireless SAW sensor tags that combine radio frequency identification (RFID) coding with dispersive and low-loss SAW transducers and reflectors. The proposed devices utilize RFID reflective delay line coding techniques to produce devices capable of data densities over 32 bits, enabling production of large codesets. Variations in the reflected RFID code are used to identify the device and to provide a measure of the attached sensor(s), along with any internal sensing function(s). The use of dispersive low-loss transducers and reflectors provides increased processing gain and over 10 times the range of conventional SAW RFID tags. The proposed sensor devices also operate in a manner that is inherently immune to RF backscatter signals, further enhancing S/N. Successful completion of the proposed Phase I activities will establish the technical feasibility of these sensor-tags, will evaluate their performance in the laboratory when used with at least two external sensor devices, and will provide performance projections for use with other sensors. At the end of Phase I, devices will be at TRL 4. Phase II will result in development of multiple uniquely identifiable passive sensor-tags and interrogation systems operable to wirelessly monitor sensors of interest to specific NASA programs (TRL6).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Throughout NASA programs and facilities, sensors and data acquisition systems that require a reduced wire infrastructure are needed. Exploration systems such as the Ares V launch vehicle require development of lightweight structure technology, and structural health monitoring of these systems is needed to reduce risk and extend operational lifetimes. Acoustic Emission (AE) sensors have been widely used in testing of composite and other materials, and can provide indications of growing defects as well as incipient failure. The proposed sensors will allow widespread distributed wireless monitoring of AE sensors for structural health monitoring. The high S/N ratio of these devices makes them ideal for use in metal environments. Diagnosis of aircraft aging and damage, detection of incipient failures in cryotanks, evaluation of the structural integrity of bonded assemblies, and inspection of numerous composite and metallic structures are all significant NASA applications. Ground operations would benefit from the capability to detect corrosion and deterioration in concrete and other structures. AE sensors and others may be useful in this application as well. Finally, non-NDE applications such as distributed wireless measurement of temperature throughout inflatable habitats, wireless evaluation of engine plume characteristics, and wireless monitoring of temperature and pressure on the skin of exploration vehicles during descent will also be enabled by these devices.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Distributed wireless monitoring of sensors using passive SAW sensor-tags will have widespread non-NASA commercial applications. AE sensors have been shown to be capable of real-time detection of cracks, delamination, and other growing failure mechanisms in concrete, metal, composites, and other materials. Given the current state of the nation's aging infrastructure, this technology will be widely used to monitor the condition of bridges, tunnels, and pavements. Combination of the proposed sensor-tags with novel AE sensor technologies such as sensors based on flexible piezoelectric materials will provide low cost solutions to this extensive monitoring problem. Development of intelligent wireless infrastructure monitoring networks utilizing such passive wireless sensors combined with data correlation and interpretation would be capable of providing infrastructure owners with automated information on structural conditions, including likely causative factors for detected fault conditions. This information would be useful to the owners in effectively prioritizing limited maintenance and repair resources. Other commercial applications will likely include monitoring of commercial airframes for aging and deterioration, inventorying and tracking high value industrial assets (even in extreme environments), and distributed sensing systems for environmental applications such as landfills. ASR&D has received inquiries from potential customers related to each of these applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Inflatable
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Structural Modeling and Tools
Tankage
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X4.04-9410
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Composite Structures - NDE/Structures Health Monitoring
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cable-Free Sensor-Bus for Large Area Composites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Metis Design Corporation
10 Canal Park, Suite 601
Cambridge, MA 02141-2250
(617) 661-5616

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Seth Kessler
skessler@metisdesign.com
10 Canal Park, Suite 601
Cambridge,  MA 02141-2250
(617) 661-5616

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Traditional structural health monitoring (SHM) methods have been limited due to the implied infrastructure, including wires for power and communication from each sensor to data acquisition units. Presently, Metis Design Corporation (MDC) has demonstrated the patented technique of point-of-measurement datalogging. During the proposed research, MDC will further exploit this SHM architecture to satisfy NASA mission specifications. This work focuses on a Boeing Proprietary technology that allows cable-free transfer of electrical signals. To date, this technology has been demonstrated to successfully power and transfer data from analog sensor arrays. During Phase I, MDC will work with Boeing to demonstrate this technology for a digital sensor bus. The first task will aim to modify the existing sensor hardware to be physically compatible with such a bus. The second task will investigate attachment mechanisms that will provide the necessary electrical connections while not sacrificing strength or structural coupling for wave propagation. The third task will seek to design an impedance matching circuit for the sensor-bus to support multiple sensors for both power and data on the same CAN-style bus. The final task will piece each of these components together to demonstrate damage detection and localization on a composite plate supplied by Boeing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Once this product is completed through Phase I and II SBIR research, it will be ready for deployment within several NASA applications. Of direct immediate relevance would be crew exploration vehicles (CEV's) that replace the shuttle orbiter. This technology could also be implemented as part of other reusable launch systems for quick turn-around times, expendable launch systems for pre-launch go/no-go decisions, and the international space station to detect impacts or other damage.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There will be many commercial applications for this technology beyond NASA. First would likely be for DoD Aerospace applications such as Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELV) and Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). Next would be ageing fixed and rotary-wing aircraft retro-fit, followed by new fixed and rotary-wing aircraft integration. Unmanned vehicles (UAV and UCAV) would so have a need for this technology. Commercial aviation would have similar needs. Outside of DoD there are other commercial applications such as naval vessels (ships, submarines, carriers), ground vehicles (cars, trucks, tanks) and civil infrastructure (bridges, tunnels, buildings).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Structural Modeling and Tools
Tankage
Architectures and Networks
Instrumentation
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Highly-Reconfigurable
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Ceramics
Composites
Computational Materials
Metallics
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X4.04-9795
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Composite Structures - NDE/Structures Health Monitoring
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flexible High Energy-Conversion Sensing Materials for Structural Health Monitoring

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SmartWear, LLC
1802 Ocean Park Blvd., Suite E
Santa Monica, CA 90405-4947
(310) 383-8524

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Pottenger
mpottenger@smartwearllc.com
1802 Ocean Park Blvd., Suite E
Santa Monica,  CA 90405-4947
(310) 383-8524

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The applicant is developing flexible highly-efficient piezoelectric materials for use in structural health monitoring (SHM) as contemplated in the solicitation topic. Phase I will demonstrate and verify the superior properties and sensing performance of these innovative materials, utilizing commercially available piezoelectric materials as a baseline for comparison. The proposed materials may have widespread application for sensing and monitoring vehicle and structure vibration and strain loading. The specific solution proposed by the applicant simultaneously solves several problems common to SHM systems, including the ability to easily realize distributed sensing networks; reduction or elimination of additional wiring and electrical power; minimal increase in vehicle or structure weight. Phase I will focus on the characterization and demonstration of the new sensing materials as they represent the primary technical innovation. Phase II would expand the project to a complete SHM system, combining the sensing materials developed in Phase I with data collection and reduction algorithms.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed materials could have widespread application in airframe construction to provide structural integrity monitoring, vibration damping, passive impact detection and/or energy harvesting capability. These materials could be added to all manner of space or air vehicles and structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed materials could have widespread application in airframe construction to provide structural integrity monitoring, vibration damping, passive impact detection and/or energy harvesting capability. These materials could be added to all manner of space or air vehicles, as well as non-aerospace applications such as ground vehicles, buildings, bridges and roadways. All of these represent dual-use or multi-use opportunities: NASA, DoD, other government agencies (e.g. DoT), industrial and commercial.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Composites
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X4.05-8468
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Composite Structures - Cryotanks
PROPOSAL TITLE: Investigation of Nanometal/Carbon Fiber Composite Structures for Use in Novel Lightweight Cryotank Designs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Integran Technologies USA, Inc.
2541 Appletree Drive
Pittsburgh, PA 15241-2587
(412) 638-1140

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Heard
rheard@integranusa.com
2541 Appletree Drive
Pittsburgh,  PA 15241-2587
(412) 638-1140

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal seeks to investigate the use of a novel high strength nanostructured metal (Nanovate<SUP>TM</SUP>) as a thin structural reinforcing shell on ultra-lightweight carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) propellant and cryogenic storage tanks. In the proposed project, Integran seeks to address the intrinsic deficiencies of CFRP by applying nanometal to the inside liner of the CFRP cryogenic storage tanks to provide a high strength pressure barrier with excellent mechanical performance and damage tolerance at cryogenic temperatures, thereby enabling the use of CFRP for cryogenic storage tanks. In addition, the nanometal liner will also provide increased surface durability, wear resistance and specific strength/stiffness of the CFRP substructure at cryogenic, ambient and elevated temperatures (temperatures at which conventional composites begin to soften). The high strength of the nanostructured material will allow a thin structural reinforcing coating, thus maintaining the overall lightweight nature of the component. The successful execution of this project will provide a proof-of-concept demonstration as well as baseline mechanical property data for nanometal/composite hybrid structures at a range of temperatures, thereby allowing engineering designers to incorporate the use of these structures into advanced engineering components, including cryogenic storage tanks.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology has application within NASA for use with cryogenic storage tanks, composite overwrapped pressure vessels, satellite propellant tanks. The proposed Nanometal/Composite hybrid structures also have applicability to where composite structures require enhanced functionality such as: wear resistance, reflectivity, EMI shielding, hardness, damage resistance, material compatibility.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology also has applicability to more conventional pressure vessels such as fireman's air tank or gas storage cylinders. While fiber reinforced plastics composites have incredible strength to weight characteristics, there are many potential applications which would benefit from a hard nanostructured metallic coating for wear resistance, reflectivity, EMI shielding, hardness, damage resistance, material compatibility. Additional markets which may benefit from the use of a nanometal/FRP composite include: sporting goods, defense, automotive, consumer goods and electronics.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fluid Storage and Handling
Composites
Metallics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X4.05-9108
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Composite Structures - Cryotanks
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Nanocomposite Approach to Microcrack Prevention in Composite Cryotanks

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NEI Corporation
201 Circle Drive N., Suite 102/103
Piscataway, NJ 08854-3723
(732) 868-3141

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Eberly
deberly@neicorporation.com
201 Circle Drive N., Suite 102/103
Piscataway,  NJ 08854-3723
(732) 868-3141

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Nanomaterials and nanocomposites offer great potential for improvement in many applications. One such NASA application is the prevention of microcracking as well as improvement in impact strength at cryogenic temperatures of composite cryotanks/carbon fiber-reinforced filament wound composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) as used in liquid fuel propulsion systems and other related fiber-reinforced structures as used in space exploration. Replacement of the currently-used aluminum-lithium cryotanks with composite cryotanks is advantageous from a weight-saving standpoint, but these composite structures are susceptible to microcracks from long- and short-term exposure to cryogenic temperatures from fuel storage and space environments. In Phase I, we propose to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel engineered nanocomposite in a fiber-reinforced composite in order to eliminate microcracks and enhance the impact strength at cryogenic temperatures. The program is a collaborative effort with a leading developer and manufacturer of COPVs. A key aspect of the proposed program is that it combines nanoscale additives with modifications to the conventional epoxy matrix polymer structure and morphology in ways never done before. The Phase II program will build upon the Phase I demonstration effort by implementing the technology in other epoxy systems and fiber systems used in the filament winding process combined with technological advances made by our strategic partner; implementation of the technology to linerless cryotanks will be a major focus as a drop-in replacement for current aluminum-lithium cryotanks. In addition, we will implement the technology in other fiber-reinforced composite structures as may be applicable to NASA applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications include lightweight composite cryotanks as a replacement to aluminum-lithium cryotanks for liquid fuel propulsion systems and storage of cryogenic fuels. These would include propellant tanks for EDS (Earth Departure Stage) and Altair lunar lander and for the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. Similar structures involving composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) as well as general structures involving fiber-reinforced composites that use commercial high-performance epoxy/fiber systems and are susceptible to cryogenic environments or varying forms of impacts would also benefit from this proposed technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications would include the use of the proposed technology in composite applications where microcrack prevention due to either cryogenic temperatures or impacts is an issue. These applications would include commercial jet aircraft, military aircraft and ground support vehicles having structures made of fiber-reinforced materials which may be susceptible to impacts or sub-ambient temperatures. Other possible applications may include lighter and safer fuel storage in automobiles and buses that run on hydrogen fuel, on-the-road transport of refrigerants such as liquid oxygen or liquid nitrogen, and self-contained breathing apparatus tanks for firefighters and homeland security. The technology is designed as an additive to commercial epoxy systems which will allow implementation in manufacturing with minimal changes to current processing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Tankage
Fluid Storage and Handling
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X4.05-9752
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Composite Structures - Cryotanks
PROPOSAL TITLE: Composite Matrix Systems for Cryogenic Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied Poleramic, Inc.
6166 Egret Court
Benicia, CA 94510-1269
(707) 747-6738

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rich Moulton
poleramic@aol.com
6166 Egret Court
Benicia,  CA 94510-1269
(707) 747-6738

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As an alternative material to aluminum-lithium, cryotanks developed from fiber reinforced composites can offer significant weight savings in applications for fuel containment of liquid oxygen and hydrogen. For composite materials to be accepted and utilized in these structures, they must be resistant to microcracking. It is the objective of this work to develop a matrix system for aerospace composites that alleviates all forms of microcracking from cryogenic cycling regardless of the lay-up and configuration. This will be accomplished by using a novel chemistry that provides the necessary inherent network and backbone structure for this environment combined with newly developed nano-modifiers. This technology and approach will result in a high performance matrix system that has low or no cure shrinkage combined with very low CTE and extremely high toughness. Such a matrix will be combined with carbon fibers to fabricate lightweight, high performance composites that are expected to have the microcrack and permeability resistance required for cryotank structures. It is expected that the Technology Readiness Level will be 3-4 at the end of this Phase I research.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful completion of the Phase 1 and 2 research programs will enable the development of lower weight cryotanks for NASA launch vehicles. The microcrack resistant composite cryotanks will also provide reduced hydrogen permeability over that of traditional composite materials. Applications that would benefit from this technology include EDS propellant tanks, Altair propellant tanks, lunar cryogenic storage tanks, and Ares V tanks. In addition to the utilization of these materials for cryotanks, other space and aerospace applications may be found which require highly tough, low CTE composite matrices such as space and aerospace structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to cryotank composite structures, many composite applications and designs will benefit from the high toughness, low cure shrinkage, and low CTE of the matrix technology developed in this research. Commercial composite applications that have been limited by current matrix technology can be found in space, aerospace, and airplane structures. Specific applications that may benefit from the low CTE include high precision antennas, reflector components, and precision optical devices. The high toughness of these matrices will enable more damage tolerant composite for commercial aircraft structures, engine components such as fan blades and core cowls, and ballisitic applications. Also, this technology will enable stitched and advanced multiaxial perform to be utilized in many new applications that have been limited before by microcracking. Film adhesives for advanced structural bonding and composite cocure applications will also benefit from this technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Tankage
Fluid Storage and Handling
Composites
Organics/Bio-Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X4.06-9326
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Composite Structures - Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Composite Thrust Chambers for the Altair Lunar Lander

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Plasma Processes, Inc.
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville, AL 35811-1558
(256) 851-7653

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John O'Dell
scottodell@plasmapros.com
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville,  AL 35811-1558
(256) 851-7653

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Radiation-cooled, bipropellant thrusters are being considered for the Ascent Module main engine of the Altair Lunar Lander. Currently, iridium-lined rhenium combustion chambers are the state-of-the-art for radiatively cooled thrusters. To increase the performance of radiation-cooled engines, improved chamber materials are being developed that will allow higher operating temperatures, better resistance to oxidation, and reduce mass. In an effort to increase performance, hafnium oxide thermal barrier coatings and improved iridium liners have been developed, and hot-fire tests of rhenium chambers with these improvements have shown higher operating temperatures, i.e., >200<SUP>o</SUP>C increase, are possible. To reduce engine mass, recent efforts have focused on the development of carbon-carbon composites. Replacement of a rhenium structural wall with carbon-carbon could result in a mass savings of >600%. During this effort, an innovative composite thrust chamber will be developed that will incorporate advanced hafnium oxide and iridium liner techniques as well as replacing the expensive, high density rhenium with a low mass carbon-carbon composite. As a result of this investigation, an advanced composite thrust chamber with improved performance capability and reduced mass will be produced. During Phase II, the fabrication methods will be optimized and a full-size Ascent Module chamber will be produced and hot-fire tested.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
PPI's targeted NASA application is for the Altair Ascent Module main engine. Other NASA applications include in-space propulsion components for apogee insertion, attitude control, orbit maintenance, repositioning of satellites/spacecraft, reaction control systems, and descent/ascent engines, nuclear power/propulsion, oxygen generators, and lunar regolith processing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Both government and commercial entities in the following sectors use advanced high-temperature materials for the following applications: coatings, defense, material R&D, nuclear power, aerospace, propulsion, automotive, electronics, crystal growth, and medical. PPI's targeted commercial applications include net-shape fabrication of refractory and platinum group metals for rocket nozzles, crucibles, heat pipes, and propulsion subcomponents; and advanced coating systems for x-ray targets, sputtering targets, turbines, rocket engines, wear and thermal/electrical insulation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Micro Thrusters
Monopropellants
Propellant Storage
Composites
Metallics
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X4.06-9473
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Composite Structures - Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Carbon Foam Self-Heated Tooling for Out-of-Autoclave Composites Manufacturing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Touchstone Research Laboratory, Ltd.
The Millenium Centre, RR 1, Box 100B
Triadelphia, WV 26059-9707
(304) 547-5800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rick Lucas
rdl@trl.com
The Millennium Centre
Triadelphia,  WV 26059-9707
(304) 547-5800

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal addresses NASA's need for non-autoclave composites manufacture. The Constellation program, including the Ares V launch vehicle, will require very large-scale structures and conventional autoclave-based composites which are very costly and suffer from logistical problems. Out of autoclave (OOA) composite manufacturing technology has the potential to solve the constraint issues of autoclave processes without suffering performance issues. However, several critical issues remain a technical challenge, and further development is required to bring OOA into the mainstream of composites manufacturing. Touchstone proposes to demonstrate that a composite tool made from its carbon foam materials can be self-heated by passing an electric current through the tool body, thereby heating only the tool and part and not requiring an autoclave or oven for curing. In Phase 1, a small prototype tool will be built and tested for self-heating performance in comparison to a conventional autoclave cure cycle on the same tool. Specific resin systems suited for OOA processing will be utilized, and performance properties of composite samples produced by both the self-heated carbon foam tool and a conventional carbon foam autoclave tool will be characterized. At the end of Phase 1, the TRL will be 4, and by the conclusion of Phase 2, the TRL will reach 6.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This proposal addresses NASA's need for non-autoclave composites manufacture. The Constellation program, including the Ares V launch vehicle, will require very large-scale structures and conventional autoclave-based composites which are very costly and suffer from logistical problems. Out of autoclave (OOA) composite manufacturing technology has the potential to solve the constraint issues of autoclave processes without suffering performance issues. However, several critical issues remain a technical challenge, and further development is required to bring OOA into the mainstream of composites manufacturing. Touchstone proposes to demonstrate that a composite tool made from its carbon foam materials can be self-heated by passing an electric current through the tool body, thereby heating only the tool and part and not requiring an autoclave or oven for curing. In Phase 1, a small prototype tool will be built and tested for self-heating performance in comparison to a conventional autoclave cure cycle on the same tool. Specific resin systems suited for OOA processing will be utilized, and performance properties of composite samples produced by both the self-heated carbon foam tool and a conventional carbon foam autoclave tool will be characterized. At the end of Phase 1, the TRL will be 4, and by the conclusion of Phase 2, the TRL will reach 6.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Developing the self-heated carbon foam tooling technology will not only benefit NASA's current and future missions but will also have significant implications in the commercial aerospace and large boat building industries. As Boeing is pioneering use of composites in commercial airplane manufacturing, other large airplanes will follow suit, and cost reductions will be critical in these applications. Demonstrating that large scale composite structures can be produced with OOA technologies, such as carbon foam tooling, Touchstone anticipates that commercial aerospace as well as DoD and commercial shipbuilding will adopt the technology. At the end of the Phase 2 effort, Touchstone and its prime contractor partners will have demonstrated a large-scale carbon foam self-heated tool and complementary fiber/resin systems that will be applicable to a wide range of non-NASA applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X5.01-8585
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar Surface Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Radiation Tolerant 802.16 Wireless Network

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aeronix, Inc.
1775 W. Hibiscus Blvd., Suite 200
Melbourne, FL 32901-2627
(321) 984-1671

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steve Iezzi
siezzi@aeronix.com
1775 W. Hibiscus Blvd., Suite 200
Melbourne,  FL 32901-2627
(321) 984-1671

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Exploration of planetary surfaces will require a communication architecture that supports operational capabilities in which fixed and mobile assets on the planetary surface can communicate seamlessly and securely. Aeronix understands the issues and believes that it can leverage it knowledge and expertise in its military IEEE-802.16 products towards a space qualified solution. Aeronix is currently developing two technologies that will be directly leveraged. • A 5.8GHz 802.16 based radio developed military wireless communication terrestrial applications. The radio is designed to support 20 nodes providing 40Mbps using omni-directional antennas. This is a fully reconfigurable product employing a DSP to configure re-configurable FPGA logic. • The development of a smaller 2.4GHz 802.16 based radio for UAV applications. Aeronix is currently in fabricating evaluation units that are approximately 10"3 intended video and audio applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
IEEE 802.16 (i.e. WiMax) is an industry-lead standard that is being targeted broadly for metropolitan area networks and last mile applications with extended range and high-speed data requirements. Aeronix is investing in 802.16 PHY and MAC intellectual property to address markets such as DoD, NASA, and commercial. Award of this SBIR will extend the capabilities. Commercial applications include applications that require Aeronix extended Doppler and rotor craft communication capabilities. Examples include air-to-ground commercial wireless LAN's (such as airto-ground Internet access) and ground-to-ground high speed mobile applications (automobiles). Traditional 802.16 last mile applications are also a market for Aeronix intellectual property and products. DoD applications include air-to ground and ground-to-ground tactical communications and last mile information distribution (voice, video, and data). As a means of rapidly bring products to market in volume, Aeronix leverages its expertise and designs to a commercialization partner with strong product manufacturing, support, and product sales capabilities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA Non-Commercial applications include spaced-based wireless networks, lunar-based wireless networks, and Mars-based wireless networks. Usage models include point-to-multipoint and Mesh networks for communication between base stations, mobile rovers, mobile humans, and sensors. Equipments supported via this SBIR include base station access points, subscriber stations, wireless bridges, and wireless NICs for radiation environments. NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Human-Robotic Interfaces
Mobility
Perception/Sensing
Teleoperation
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Architectures and Networks
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
RF
Manned-Maneuvering Units
Portable Life Support
Suits
General Public Outreach
Highly-Reconfigurable
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X5.01-8674
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar Surface Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Autonomous Utility Connector for Lunar Surface Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics Ltd.
460 W 34th Street
New York, NY 10001-2320
(212) 966-0661

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Herman
herman@honeybeerobotics.com
460 West 34th Street
New York,  NY 10001-2320
(646) 459-7819

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Lunar dust has been identified as a significant and present challenge in future exploration missions. The interlocking, angular nature of Lunar dust and its broad grain size distribution make it particularly detrimental to mechanisms with which it may come into contact. Honeybee Robotics Spacecraft Mechanisms Corporation (HRSMC) seeks to develop a dust-tolerant, autonomous connector to transmit data and power on Lunar surface systems. HRSMC has extensive heritage in developing mechanisms for extreme and dusty environments, including the development of a dust-tolerant electrical connector prototype and a dust-tolerant mechanical connector concept. There are many near-term applications of such a connector including: the utility and electrical connections that will be used on the next-generation Lunar EVA suit, cryogenic utility connections that will be used to pass liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen during in-situ¬ resource utilization (ISRU) activities, and high-power electrical connectors capable of thousands of cycles for Lunar Surface Mobility Unit (LSMU) battery recharge and data transfer. As noted in current Lunar architectural options, human EVA's, long range Lunar rovers, and ISRU activities are on the mission horizon and are paramount to the establishment of a permanent human base on the Moon. In Phase I, HRSMC will baseline prior dust-tolerant connector work to develop a conceptual design for an autonomous, dust-tolerant, re-usable connector to enable electrical transfer between a LSMU and a central resource outpost or a deployed solar power unit. This connector would be easily adaptable to the needs of other Lunar surface system utility connectors required for EVA suits or other systems such as ISRU utility connections. This development path will result in an autonomous Lunar dust-tolerant electrical connector with a TRL level of 3-4 at the end of Phase 1 with a goal of at least TRL 6 at the end of Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The dust-tolerant autonomous connection mechanism to be developed through this project will be an enabling technology for extended Lunar operations in that they will allow several cycles of utility connection and disconnection for EVA and surface operations. Future mission scenarios involving erectable structures, diverse EVA-compliant tools, Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU)-to-rover or EMU-to-robot interfaces, and other in-situ assembly or interconnection activities will all call for dust-tolerant reusable connectors. In particular, the Constellation LSMU battery recharge connector will require dust-tolerant technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Military and homeland security operations are often conducted in uncontrolled environments. An increasing use of high-technology tools provides for improved performance, but also introduces new risks. The incorporation of dust-tolerant reusable connection mechanisms in military couplings will allow greater reliability and flexibility for modular electronics in operational scenarios, especially in dusty, dirty, sandy environments. Incorporation of dust-tolerant connectors would also reduce maintenance, repair, and overhaul costs by reducing select component failures due to degradation by dust and sand. Current connectors meet stringent mil-spec environmental requirements when connected, but the connection itself must be made under relatively clean conditions. We expect that adding a tolerance to making and breaking connections under off-nominal conditions will result in an increased service life for modular electronics for use in military and homeland security applications. There is also broad commercial potential for dust-tolerant reusable connectors in several commercial applications requiring the reliable performance of modular electronics in uncontrolled environments, including oil and gas exploration, first responders and emergency services, heavy and highway construction, and mining. By employing dust-tolerant connectors, rather than attempting to seal dust intolerant connectors against the environment, the connectors used in these applications may be truly ruggedized.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Human-Robotic Interfaces
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Airlocks/Environmental Interfaces
Testing Facilities
Modular Interconnects
Fluid Storage and Handling
Manned-Maneuvering Units
Portable Life Support
Suits
Tools
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
In-situ Resource Utilization
Liquid-Liquid Interfaces
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X5.01-9230
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar Surface Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lunar Surface Solar Electric Power System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Deployable Space Systems (DSS)
955 Nysted Drive
Solvang, CA 93463-2247
(805) 693-1313

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Spence
Brian.Spence@DeployableSpaceSystems.com
955 Nysted Drive
Solvang,  CA 93463-2247
(805) 693-1313

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose a concentrated photovoltaic electric power system for lunar operations called C-Lite Lunar. The novel technology produces a near-term solar array system that provides substantially improved performance in terms of high specific power (>600 W/kg BOL, 10X lighter than rigid arrays), lightweight, high deployed stiffness (5X stiffer than rigid arrays), high deployed strength, compact stowage volume (>1,000 kW/m3 BOL, 30X more compact stowage than rigid arrays), affordability, and rapid commercial readiness. The proposed effort will provide a disruptively positive performance impact to the end-user, and allow for the rapid insertion of this mission-enabling technology for future applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
C-Lite Lunar Power System is primarily focused on the needs of lunar base missions. Future Mars base missions will also benefit from experience gained on the moon. The broader technology developed for the C-Lite Lunar Power System is widely applicable to most future NASA missions as a direct replacement for existing photovoltaic systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
C-Lite Lunar Power technology is also widely applicable to all non-NASA missions, including DoD and commercial missions, as a direct replacement for current state-of-the-art. The total solar array system market is estimated at $500M to $750M annually. C-Lite Lunar Power technology has the potential to ultimately replace many existing solar arrays. The compelling performance benefits of the proposed technology such as: Ultra-lightweight (10X lighter than rigid arrays), high deployed stiffness (5X stiffer than rigid arrays), high deployed strength, compact stowage volume (30X more compact stowage than rigid arrays), affordability, and rapid commercial readiness, will be mission-enabling for many applications. Applicable missions include: LEO DoD surveillance, reconnaissance, communications and other critical payload/equipment satellites, LEO commercial mapping and critical payload/equipment satellites, MEO DoD satellites, GEO commercial communications and critical payload/equipment satellites, and GEO DoD communications and payload/equipment satellites.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Erectable
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Composites
Photovoltaic Conversion
Renewable Energy


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X5.01-9850
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar Surface Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lunar Navigator - A Miniature, Fully Autonomous, Lunar Navigation, Surveyor, and Range Finder System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Microcosm, Inc.
4940 W. 147th Street
Hawthorne, CA 90250-6708
(310) 219-2700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Wertz
jim@smad.com
4940 W. 147th St.
Hawthorne,  CA 90250-6708
(310) 219-2700

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Microcosm proposes to design and develop a fully autonomous Lunar Navigator based on our MicroMak miniature star sensor and a gravity gradiometer similar to one on a ship-board celestial navigation system designed by Microcosm for the Navy. The new sensor will provide surface navigation on the Moon or Mars with accuracies comparable to state-of-the-art precision celestial navigation systems on Earth. The system can rapidly determine its location anywhere on the Moon or Mars where a large portion of the sky is visible, day or night. With the unique three field-of-view star sensor design, the sensor can also be used to provide precise surveying of surrounding terrain and, in either of two modes, can provide passive range-finding to artificial or natural objects. The entire package will be less than 10 cm on a side, weigh less than 1 kg, draw less than 10 W of power, and work in a wide range of temperature and illumination conditions. Phase I will focus on the system requirements, a preliminary navigator design, and initial performance estimate. Phase II will focus on fabricating and testing a functioning prototype of the Lunar Navigator, including ground testing with real stars at night.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This lunar navigator technology is applicable for navigation of landers, rovers, balloons, or airplanes on or above the surface of any planets, asteroids, or moons for which stars can be seen from the surface. The navigator device is potentially low cost, light weight, and exceptionally robust in that it does not depend on any external resources for navigation. A modified form of this technology (replacing the gradiometer with a set of Earth sensors) could also be used for robust spacecraft navigation in low planetary orbits. This system, with initial operational success on the Moon, is directly applicable to surface navigation on Mars both day and night.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology is applicable for air, sea, and land navigation on the Earth as a back-up to GPS. There is an identified Navy need for comparable technology (with, of course, different structural, qualification, and environmental constraints). It could also be used for many types of commercial transportation systems as an alternative to GPS.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Guidance, Navigation, and Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X5.02-8794
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface System Dust Mitigation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Liquid Crystal Membrane Dust Mitigation System for Lunar or Martian Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Sciences, Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Guiler
guiler@psicorp.com
20 New England Business Center
Andover,  MA 01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Lunar dust creates a number of hazards to lunar operations including, effect on human health, degradation of life support systems, wear to mechanical systems and loss of efficiency of solar arrays. Lunar operations require a system which mechanically removes dust from key systems and prevents its redeposition. While there is no wind on the moon, electrical phenomena allow the transport of lunar dust over long distances. Lunar dust is constantly in motion. There are currently no dust mitigation techniques that can be applied to a variety of surfaces which can mechanically remove dust and prevent its redeposition. Electrostatic dust removal techniques are being developed, but these have not been tested with the pure iron particles found in lunar dust and lack mechanical removal schemes needed for imbricated angular particles. Physical Sciences Inc. and West Virginia University proposes a novel liquid crystal membrane dust mitigation system (LCMDMS). This system uses both electro static (conductive layers for charge control) and mechanical (vibrating surface) dust removal/prevention techniques to maintain dust free operation of flexible, curved, transparent and opaque lunar based systems. This system is designed to be transparent and applied as a membrane to a surface which needs to be kept dust free.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
PSI's proposed liquid crystal membrane dust mitigation appliqué concept is a revolutionary concept and will have potential applications in the following areas: * Dust and debris removal from systems deployed in lunar and Martian exploration; * Spacesuit dust alleviation; * Boundary layer control through dynamic roughness, Military, commercial and general-aviation drag reduction and stall delay; * UAV and MAV control of flow separation and transition; * Control of flow separation in internal flow applications; * De-icing of aerodynamic surfaces.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
* De-icing of wind turbine surfaces; * Act as active "turbulators" in pipe flow; * Dust mitigation for earth based systems such as turbine intakes for ground power units; * Flow control for marine based systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airlocks/Environmental Interfaces
Erectable
Inflatable
Optical
Portable Life Support
Suits
Tools
Photovoltaic Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X5.02-8982
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface System Dust Mitigation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Innovative, EVA Compatible Fluid Coupling for Lunar Surface Systems Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SpaceDev, Inc.
1722 Boxelder Street, Suite 102
Louisville, CO 80027-3137
(303) 530-1925

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fred Beavers
fredb@starsys.com
1722 Boxelder Street, Suite 102
Louisville,  CO 80027-3137
(720) 407-3203

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SpaceDev Inc. is proposing an innovative fluid coupling enabling the transfer of consumables such as liquid oxygen while maintaining functionality in the presence of lunar regolith, including dust. SpaceDev initially designed and developed this coupler to support on-orbit fluid transfer of cryogenics, gases, and water. Further development of and enhancements to this existing design are planned under Phase 1 to demonstrate feasibility for lunar applications, with advanced prototype testing in Phase 2 to make-ready the coupling for formal flight qualification and production. At the heart of the fluid coupling is an innovative re-settable knife edge seal that requires low pre-loads to provide the fluid seal. The sealing surface can be quickly and easily reset with the application of a heater-type electric signal for only a few minutes at ambient conditions. Joint coupling is accomplished by a sharp-edged member piercing and embedding itself into a soft Indium seal ring. After coupling disconnect, reset is accomplished by heating the Indium seal to its melting point. Entrained in an arterial wick, the seal ring surface reflows, leaving a virgin seal surface upon cooling. The arterial wick allows for joint reflow in microgravity environments. The coupling is then reset to allow for successive servicing operations. Current prototypes have been tested with air, water and LN2 at pressures from 0 to 100 psi. SpaceDev recently completed a separate Phase 1 SBIR that demonstrated that the all-metal, knife-edge seal con-cept has the capability for maintaining seal integrity even in the presence of the abrasive, lunar dust. The knife edge seal offers two distinct advantages when attempting to mitigate the affects of lunar dust: 1) the knife edge tends toward self-cleaning and exclusion of foreign matter such as lunar dust due to metal cold-flow patterns during penetration, and 2) the Indium can be heated and re-flowed in between mate and demate cycles to reform a fresh seal.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA commercial applications include manned and unmanned lunar operations, operations on MARS, and other exploratory missions involving operations in abrasive environments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential Non-NASA commercial applications include on-orbit spacecraft servicing, and terrestrial fluid transfer applications in abrasive environments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Fluid Storage and Handling
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X5.02-9458
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface System Dust Mitigation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Dust Mitigation for the Lunar Surface

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Adherent Technologies, Inc.
9621 Camino del Sol NE
Albuquerque, NM 87111-1522
(505) 346-1685

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jan Gosau
adherenttech@comcast.net
9621 Camino del Sol NE
Albuquerque,  NM 87111-1522
(505) 346-1685

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The lunar surface is to a large extent covered with a dust layer several meters thick. Known as lunar regolith, it poses a hazard in the form of dust clouds being generated by all forms of gas expansions in the high vacuum environment of the lunar surface. This is especially pronounced during spacecraft operations. Instruments placed on the moon by the Apollo mission showed marked degradation due to damage from dust released during the lander's takeoff. Since there is no air movement to remove the dust after it is deposited, it is essential that dust is not displaced during everyday operations of a permanent lunar installation. Adherent Technologies, Inc. (ATI) has over the last decade developed a number of specialty UV curing resins for NASA applications in space. ATI is proposing to develop a resin and dispenser system to coat large areas of lunar surface around landing pads and atmosphere locks with a thin, dust-stabilizing coating. The coating will be UV stable and elastic enough to weather the temperature extremes of a lunar day and night cycle. Special emphasis will be given to a low outgassing, solvent-free system that does not contaminate the lunar atmosphere.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Dust mitigation is a major requirement for the successful operation of a lunar base or even to deploy instruments on short-term missions close to the take-off site. The novel new technology proposed here will enable NASA to quickly establish a dust-free zone without contaminating the atmosphere around the application site.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
On earth, dust is commonly fought using non-permanent means like water or oil sprays. There are several applications however that require long-term dust stabilization. This is especially true for mine tailings from toxic metal operations like uranium and lead mining. The resins developed under this program can be used with little modification to cover large areas with a coating stable to weather and sunlight degradation at a very reasonable cost.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
Composites
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X5.02-9672
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface System Dust Mitigation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multi-Use Coating for Abrasion Prevention, Wear Protection, and Lunar Dust Removal

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Plasma Processes, Inc.
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville, AL 35811-1558
(256) 851-7653

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Elizabeth Schofield
eschofield@plasmapros.com
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville,  AL 35811-1558
(256) 851-7653

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The deleterious effects of lunar dust, typically less than 50 µm in diameter, have to be addressed prior to establishing a human base and long duration human presence on the surface of the moon. These effects include abrasion of seals, gaskets, motors, actuators, gimbals, bearings, blocking of optical windows, and coating of thermal control surfaces and solar panels with lunar dust. Negative physiological effects due to dust inhalation by astronauts must be mitigated. Issues related to lunar dust have been identified since the Apollo missions; however, no credible mitigation techniques have been implemented to date. The essence of this proposed activity is to develop a dual-use coating system - a highly wear resistant coating surface that can also perform as part of an electrically conductive circuit upon demand to minimize wear surface abrasion and, when electrically activated, repel fine lunar dust particles from wear surfaces, sealing surfaces, and complex geometries. Multi-use wear resistant surfaces are also applicable to space structures such as the trundle bearings on the space station solar arrays.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications of the technology include all lunar surface operations and all materials/equipment exposed to the lunar surface environment, such as rovers and robotic systems, prospecting equipment, habitat materials, EVA suits and astronaut apparel, thermal radiators, power systems, communications equipment, solar concentrators, airlock systems and seals, and measuring equipment. This multi-use technology is greatly needed for any surface or component for which dust deposition or inclusion would interfere with its function, especially where typical dust removal methods (brushing, etc.) are ineffective, time consuming, or would destroy the surface properties due to the highly abrasive nature of the dust. Components of aerospace transportation vehicles, space station, space transportation vehicles such as the Ares V launch vehicle, space station, orbiters, landing vehicles such as the Altair Lunar Lander, rovers, and habitat components all provide potential insertion locations for Phase 2 technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications for this technology are found in the Defense Sector, namely dust removal from and wear protection of components within the U.S. Army's Objective Force Warrior uniforms or similar apparel, dust removal from and wear protection of air intakes and ventilation apparatus for heavy equipment and vehicles, and dust removal from electronics and communication equipment in combat situations. Commercial applications include prospecting equipment, communications protection, industrial dust mitigation for electronics and sealing mechanisms, and industrial bearings in all rotating or translating equipment.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Tools
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
In-situ Resource Utilization
Microgravity
Ceramics
Metallics
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Tribology


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X5.02-9839
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface System Dust Mitigation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Durable Dust Repellent Coating for Metals

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pioneer Astronautics
11111 W. 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood, CO 80215-5516
(303) 980-0890

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Zubrin
zubrin@aol.com
11111 W. 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood,  CO 80215-5516
(303) 980-0890

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Durable Dust Repellent Coating (DDRC) consists of nano-phase silica, titania, or other oxide coatings to repel dust in a vacuum environment over a wide range of temperatures. The coatings are engineered with dielectric properties to strongly repel particles from surfaces. Durability is attained by application methods such as sol-gel coating or physical vapor deposition onto stationary and rotating surfaces of EVA equipment, hatches and seals, lunar modules, ISRU hardware, and habitats prior to assembly. The application of the coating is followed by annealing at elevated temperatures. Initial development is planned for stainless steel, followed later by other metals and plastics. In addition to dust repellency, the DDRC provides abrasion resistance to lunar hardware. Some of the DDRC coatings also impart UV resistance to the substrate. Unlike convential dust removal methods such as brushing or blowing that may result in deep infiltration of particles, dust can be readily removed from DDRC surfaces by tilting or mild vibration.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
DDRC for stainless steel developed during Phase 1 will be useful for lunar operations that involve exposed stainless steel surfaces on the moon. Phase 2 coatings would have much wider application to activities on the lunar surface, including space suit fabric, other metals, and flexible materials. Pioneer would work with the Contracting Officer's Technical Representative (COTR) to establish Technology Infusion Advisors to help guide the Phase 1 work. Commercialization could be achieved in cooperation with targeted industries or government agencies willing to invest in adaptation of the DDRC to specific industrial needs and for use in specified environments. This would include developing efficient, economic methods of application to the surface that DDRC is needed for and a course of field testing to prove effectiveness prior to marketing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
DDRC coatings would also find wide applications for the Department of Defense during military deployment to dusty regions where similar equipment breakdowns occur as a result of dust contamination. Industries that create processing dust (such as mining and excavation activity) would be likely beneficiaries for the DDRC.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airlocks/Environmental Interfaces
Erectable
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Manned-Maneuvering Units
Suits
Tools
Composites
Metallics
Radiation Shielding Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X5.03-9413
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extravehicular Activity (EVA)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Liquid Membranes for CO2 and H20 Control in EVA Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Reaction Systems, LLC
1814 19th Street
Golden, CO 80401-1710
(303) 216-2950

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Wickham
wickham@reactionsystemsllc.com
1814 19th Street
Golden,  CO 80401-1710
(720) 352-7161

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The development of new, robust, lightweight systems for CO2 removal during EVA is a crucial need for NASA. With current activity focused on the development of Lunar outposts, mission times will need to be extended without increasing the size and weight of the portable life support system (PLSS). While much of the recent work on the development of new CO2 control strategies has centered on sorbents that can be regenerated during the mission, these system add "on back" hardware, increasing weight and complexity, and reducing reliability. A simpler approach is to use a membrane system to separate CO2 and H2O from the O2 environment. Unfortunately, separating gas phase molecules with the needed selectivity is difficult with standard membrane materials. However, converting CO2 and H2O to compounds with much different properties, could allow the needed separation to be achieved. Therefore in this Phase I project, Reaction Systems will develop a liquid membrane that will have high permeance and selectivity for CO2 and H2O compared to O2, resulting in a TRL = 4. In Phase II we will advance the TRL to 6 by designing and constructing a full scale prototype, which will be delivered it to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most immediate application of the technology being proposed herein is the control of CO2 and H2O levels in the space suits of astronauts during EVA. This is a critical need as NASA mission objectives include creating lunar outposts, with the eventual goal of exploring Mars. In addition, with only slight modification, the technology could be applied to CO2 control in spacecraft and on the surface of Mars.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to the wide spread use for NASA applications, identifying effective means to reduce CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion is an area that is receiving much attention. The wide spread use of fossil fuels has caused a substantial rise in the concentration of atmospheric CO2, a recognized green house gas and further increases in atmospheric CO2 are not desirable. Thus, there currently is a great deal of interest in the development of methods to sequester CO2 from combustion processes. Other commercial applications would include the control of CO2 in underwater vehicles and other enclosed spaces and the development of rebreathers for SCUBA gear.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Manned-Maneuvering Units
Portable Life Support
Suits


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X5.03-9689
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extravehicular Activity (EVA)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Conformal Light Augmented Single Substrate Head-Mounted Display

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821
(310) 320-3088

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Holmstedt
EOSProposals@poc.com
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance,  CA 90501-1821
(310) 320-3088

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To address the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) need for space suit displays and processing cores, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Conformal Light Augmented Single Substrate Head-Mounted Display (CLASS-HMD) for extravehicular activities (EVA), based on radiation-hardened COTS electronic components and a low-profile compact see-through head-mounted display (HMD) design. This approach incorporates compact conformal holographic projection optics instead of bulky lens system, which enables us to meet NASA EVA helmet-mounted display requirements for greater acceptance by astronauts, thus increasing their situational awareness during EVA. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of a space suit HMD system through system design, fabrication, and testing of key components of the system, and analysis of the performance in meeting NASA HMD requirements, as well as for commercial applications. A preliminary proof-of-concept prototype system will be developed, which will demonstrate TRL-4 by the end of Phase I. In Phase II, POC plans to develop a fully functional prototype and demonstrate a space suit HMD system. The results demonstrated will offer NASA capabilities to reduce workload on astronauts performing EVA tasks on the lunar surface.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The CLASS-HMD technology will provide new capabilities for astronauts during EVA in a radiation-hardened see-through display that allows them to monitor the conditions around them. This will allow astronauts to be more productive and take on less risk. Applications include space walks, harsh-environment training, and navigation during Martian dust storms.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We anticipate widespread appeal of the CLASS-HMD technology for such applications as gaming HMDs, flight simulators, and other immersive display systems, including medical and CAD/CAE 3D image displays, and virtual-reality displays for endoscopy/laparoscopy, and such environmentally risky professions as firefighting. Another potential commercial application for the CLASS-HMD system will be for the pilots of future private-sector space-tourism spacecraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Computer System Architectures
Software Development Environments
Photonics
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X5.03-9733
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extravehicular Activity (EVA)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Interchangeable Bearings for Profile and Weight Trade Studies

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Air-Lock, Inc.
Wampus Lane
Milford, CT 06460-4845
(203) 878-4691

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Battisti
bbattisti@airlockinc.com
Wampus Lane
Milford,  CT 06460-4845
(203) 878-4691

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Air-Lock, Incorporated is proposing to design fully sealed shoulder and arm bearings with interchangeable bearing housings. The interchangeable housings shall be utilized in trade studies to determine the optimal bearing profile and weight relative to the shoulder and arm position. It is assumed that the next generation of NASA pressure suits will require the crewmember to utilize their suit in both the pressurized and unpressurized mode. Historic, key design drivers have always been suited comfort in the unpressurized mode and suit mobility in the pressurized mode. As a minimum, bearings will be needed at the shoulder, bicep, and wrist to satisfy pressurized mobility requirements. To placate unpressurized comfort, the optimal bearing design shall be lightweight and low profile; often conflicting characteristics in bearing design. This SBIR proposal will provide NASA with a bearing design that facilitates quick trade studies to determine the optimal bearing profile and weight.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Due to the highly specialized nature of the proposed design effort, extending the application of the interchangeable bearings is unlikely. More feasible applications can be realized through the improved manufacturing techniques developed during Phase II. Reducing mass of historically metallic structures via composite, structural plastics or urethanes have been achieved in the past but proved to be very costly. Air-Lock plans to develop manufacturing techniques that would allow the molding of complicated geometries to "near net shape" to realize cost reduction of lightweight, robust structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The recent increase in commercial space business ventures (Virgin Galactic, Commercial Orbital Transportation Services, (i.e., COTS), Bigelow Aerospace, etc.) would present excellent opportunities to implement the pressure suit bearing. Additionally, and of equal importance are the manufacturing techniques to be developed throughout the proposed effort that can be utilized for any pressure suit hard mobility joint.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Suits
Composites
Metallics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X5.03-9734
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extravehicular Activity (EVA)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact, Efficient, and Reliable Ventilation Fan for EVA Suits

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-0071
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Izenson
mgi@creare.com
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-0071
(603) 640-2405

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced EVA suits for space exploration will need a portable life support system (PLSS) that is compact, lightweight, and highly reliable. A key component is a blower that circulates air through the space suit ventilation loop. We propose to develop an innovative air blower that can meet the challenging requirements for circulating ventilation air in an EVA suit using a reliable system that consumes little power. In Phase I we will prove the feasibility of our approach by producing a conceptual design for the blower and building and demonstrating a proof-of-concept blower. In Phase II we will optimize the blower and motor designs to achieve small size and maximum efficiency while meeting requirements and constraints for operation in exploration space suits. We will demonstrate lifetime and reliability of critical components and deliver a prototype blower that can be used in system tests of advanced portable life support systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ventilation fan is a critical technology need for the Constellation Space Suit System (CSSS), since the exploration PLSS design calls for a separate ventilation fan instead of a combined fan/pump/water separator like the one used in the current shuttle extravehicular mobility unit. The blower that we develop will meet the requirements for circulating ventilation air in the CSSS.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The head/flow requirements for the space suit ventilation blower are very similar to the requirements for personal cooling systems based on filtered air ventilation needed for terrestrial applications. The military needs these blowers to provide a lightweight cooling and ventilation system for soldiers and marines wearing body armor or chem/bio protective gear in hot environments. Civilian applications include portable ventilation systems for HAZMAT teams and nuclear or chemical plant workers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Portable Life Support


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X6.01-8440
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Fuel Cells for Surface Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Novel Heat Pipe Plate for Passive Thermal Control of Fuel Cells

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Amsen Technologies, LLC
1684 S. Research Loop, Suite 518
Tucson, AZ 85710-6740
(520) 546-6944

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hongxing Hu
hhu1@mindspring.com
1684 S. Research Loop, Suite 518
Tucson,  AZ 85710-6740
(520) 546-6944

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR project aims to develop a lightweight, highly thermally and electrically conductive heat pipe plate for passive removal of the heat from the individual fuel cells or electrolysis cells within a cell stack. The desired heat pipe plate will be fabricated from a novel composite based on carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes are possibly the best heat conducting material the world has ever known, as their unusually high thermal conductivity has been reported recently. In reality, however, such high thermal conductivity values have not yet been achieved in any carbon nanotube ensembles. This has been attributed to the thermal resistance presented at interface junctions between individual nanotubes. The Phase I effort will be focused on solving this problem by an innovative approach, which offers the potential of incorporating a high content of carbon nanotubes in the composite while interface thermal resistance being minimized. The Phase I work will build on our preliminary experimental results to establish the proof-of-concept.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The outcome of the innovation has the potential of providing NASA with a novel heat pipe plate for passive removal of the heat from the individual fuel cells or electrolysis cells within a cell stack.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology will find wide applications as heat pipes or heat sinks in military and commercial electronics, appliance, and equipment.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X6.01-8889
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Fuel Cells for Surface Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Thermacore, Inc.
780 Eden Road
Lancaster, PA 17601-4275
(717) 569-6551

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sergey Semenov
s.y.semenov@thermacore.com
780 Eden Road
Lancaster,  PA 17601-4275
(717) 569-6551

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Thermacore Inc. proposes an innovative titanium heat pipe thermal plane for passive thermal control of individual cells within a fuel cell stack. The proposed technology eliminates actively pumped liquid coolant loops, which improves system efficiency, reliability, safety, simplicity, life cycle as well as saves weight and volume. Although the main purpose for this technology is thermal management of fuel cells for space applications, the same technology can be applied for electronics cooling: heat spreaders and heat sinks, where thin design is required. The proposed titanium heat pipe thermal plane will be reliable passive heat transfer device with the following parameters: bulk density: under 3 grams per cubic centimeter, thickness: less than 0.050 inches, effective thermal conductivity: in excess of 2,000 W/(m K), electrical resistivity: less than 0.2 ohms-cm, operation against gravity: 4 inches

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The targeted area for the proposed titanium heat pipe thermal plane application is thermal management of advanced primary fuel cell and regenerative fuel cell energy storage systems. Other areas where the proposed titanium heat pipe thermal plane can be utilized are: - on-board electronics cooling, - heat spreading for in-flight sprain/strain therapeutic treatment devices, - isothermal enclosures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many potential non-NASA applications for the proposed titanium heat pipe thermal plane. Among them: - thermal management of fuel cells for automotive industry, - DARPA Thermal Ground Plane program, - High Energy Laser (HEL) cooling, - Avionics cooling, - 1-U server cooling, - Blade server cooling, - medical equipment thermal control, - thermal control of the phase-change energy storage units

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X6.01-9321
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Fuel Cells for Surface Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Cathode Electrolyzer (ACE)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Infinity Fuel Cell and Hydrogen, Inc.
431A Hayden Station Road
Windsor, CT 06095-1373
(860) 688-6500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Smith
wsmith@infinityfuel.com
431A Hayden Station Road
Windsor,  CT 06095-1373
(860) 688-6500

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovation is a static, cathode-fed, 2000 psi, balanced-pressure Advanced Cathode Electrolyzer (ACE) based on PEM electrolysis technology. It electrolyzes water vapor supplied to the hydrogen-evolving electrode and eliminates the need to circulate hydrogen and water on the cathode side of the cell. Innovations include the application of Infinity proprietary cell sealing technology to electrolysis to minimize high-pressure seals and the use of innovative passive current-control techniques to eliminate potential hydrogen gas in feedwater chambers. ACE produces hydrogen and oxygen that is free of liquid water droplets without using dynamic product gas/liquid water phase separation and/or other motorized equipment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A simple reliable modular electrolyzer, that passively and efficiently generates high pressure hydrogen and oxygen, has wide potential application in future NASA missions. These include lunar and planetary fixed base energy storage, recharge of lunar rovers and portable power fuel cells as well as generation of oxygen for crew life support.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non NASA commercial applications include recharge of fuel cells for telecom backup power, remote off-grid power, undersea fuel cell systems and aircraft and airship energy storage systems

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Energy Storage
Power Management and Distribution
Renewable Energy


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X6.01-9699
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Fuel Cells for Surface Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Static Water Vapor Feed Electrolyzer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cortney Mittelsteadt
cmittelsteadt@ginerinc.com
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton,  MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0529

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Development of a static vapor feed electrolyzer utilizing an advanced bipolar plate that produces sub-saturated H2 and O2 is proposed. This novel bipolar design can greatly simplify electrolyzer systems, as it eliminates the need for water/gas phase separation, which is particularly challenging in a zero gravity environment. Maintaining water in the vapor phase greatly reduces membrane swelling which should increase durability. Finally, by keeping water in the vapor phase the MEA is not exposed to ion and other contaminants that are carried by a liquid water stream, further increasing durability and simplifying the system by reducing the need for ultra-pure water. The primary goal of this Phase I program then is to demonstrate a high-pressure (1000 psi) static vapor feed electrolyzer and demonstrate that the system can operate without purge of the water feed stream for up to 100 hours.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lunar and space stations, satellites, high altitude aircraft

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Fuel cell vehicles hydrogen filling stations, Naval electrolyzers

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X6.01-9838
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Fuel Cells for Surface Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Innovative Fuel Cell Health Monitoring IC

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ridgetop Group, Inc.
6595 North Oracle Road
Tucson, AZ 85704-5645
(520) 742-3300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Milena Thompson
milena.thompson@ridgetopgroup.com
6595 North Oracle Road
Tucson,  AZ 85704-5645
(520) 742-3300

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Energy storage devices, including fuel cells, are needed to enable future robotic and human exploration missions. Historically, the reliability of the fuel cells has been problematic, including the scrubbed launch of the Atlantis Space Shuttle in September, 2006, and Endeavor in August, 1995. A 2007 Department of Energy report indicated that, "Component degradation and failure mechanisms are not well understood, which makes mitigation strategies necessary." A key method of monitoring the performance and mitigating voltage problems is to precisely monitor the voltage from the individual cells. This can be facilitated through the development of a novel Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). Ridgetop Group, Inc. proposes to develop this ASIC for NASA's Fuel Cell voltage monitoring, with the added features of being radiation-tolerant, and including in-situ component degradation functions, which support IVHM initiatives within NASA. In addition, Ridgetop will design the ASIC to add tolerance to space radiation effects, and prognostics-enable the ASIC to provide advance notice of impending failures using in-situ test structures from Ridgetop's Sentinel Silicon<SUP>TM</SUP> library. There is currently no ASIC that is capable of providing the foregoing capabilities, so it will be unique and very useful to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA programs that utilize fuel cells for power sources are ideal applications for the IC developed from this SBIR. In addition to precisely monitoring the cell voltages, the IC also supports its use in larger integrated vehicle health management (IVHM) applications, and is radiation-tolerant for space-based usage. Among the specific usage areas: > NASA/Ames Research Center Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Test Bed (ADAPT): This center provides best practices for the adoption of prognostics and IVHM. > NASA Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) > NASA Constellation Altair Lunar Lander

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Precise voltage monitoring of fuel cells provides much-needed observability to internal module state of health. The ability to link the measurements to an integrated vehicle health management system (IVHM) also transcends NASA and commercial applications, such as for cars and forklifts. Fuel cell-powered vehicles are currently in development and prototypes are being fielded for testing. In the commercial sector, other applications available for fuel cells include backup power for hospitals and critical infrastructure applications, telecom, and even cellular phones. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is also very interested in fuel cell development as a means of reducing our dependence on imported oil, and has expressed interest in Ridgetop's development in this area.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X6.02-8463
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Space-Rated Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: Phase I Advanced Battery Materials for Rechargeable Advanced Space-Rated Li-Ion Batteries

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yardney Technical Products, Inc.
82 Mechanic Street
Pawcatuck, CT 06379-2154
(860) 599-1100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joseph Gnanaraj
joeg@lithion.com
82 Mechanic Street
Pawcatuck,  CT 06379-2154
(860) 599-1100

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are attractive candidates for use as power sources in aerospace applications because they have high specific energy (up to 200 Wh/kg), energy density (~ 500 Wh/L) and long cycle life (1,000 – 30,000 cycles depending on the depth of cycling). Yardney/Lithion, Inc. the leader in cutting edge Li-ion batteries is dedicated in research, development, design and manufacturer of high performing battery systems for aerospace, land and sea applications. At the present moment, two of the Lithion batteries are operating on the surface of Mars with great success. Future robotic and human exploration missions require advanced human-rated energy rechargeable batteries level metrics should have specific energy of 300 Wh/kg at C/2 discharge rate and 0<SUP>o</SUP>C, and energy density greater than 500 Wh/l, with a calendar life of 5 years. The cycle life of the cell is required at 100% Depth of Discharge (DOD) in the range of 250 cycles. Yardney proposes to develop environmentally benign new electrode components and cell chemistries based on high capacity of 300mAh/g layered Li2MnO3 derivative cathode, composite silicon based anode with a capacity of over 600 mAh/g and suitable electrolyte.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The new composite anode and cathode based Li-ion batteries for NASA find various applications which include power for landers, rovers, and Extravehicular activities (EVA). Areas of emphasis include advanced component materials with the potential to achieve weight and volume performance improvements and safety advancements in human-rated systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High capacity and high energy applications include power tools, electric vehicles and telecommunications. Automotive and industrial sectors, where the slim, small-sized battery will deliver large amounts of energy. For example, the battery's advantages in size, weight and safety highly suit it for a role as an alternative power source for hybrid electric vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X6.02-8492
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Space-Rated Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: SiLix-C Nanocomposites for High Energy Density Li-ion Battery Anodes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Superior Graphite Co.
10 South Riverside Plaza, Suite 1470
Chicago, IL 60606-3700
(312) 648-3630

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Igor Barsukov
IBarsukov@SuperiorGraphite.com
10 South Riverside Plaza, ste#1470
Chicago,  IL 60606-3700
(312) 466-2891

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
For this project Superior Graphite Co. (Chicago, IL, USA), the leading worldwide industrial carbon manufacturer and the only large scale battery grade graphitic carbon producer in the USA, will develop, explore the properties of, and demonstrate the enhanced capabilities of novel nanostructured SiLix-C anodes, capable of retaining high capacity at a rapid 2 hour discharge rate and at 0oC when used in Li-ion batteries. We have already demonstrated advanced anode materials with the specific capacity of 600 mAh/g, minimal irreversible capacity losses and stable performance. We are confident that by the developing and applying a variety of novel nano-materials technologies, fine-tuning the properties of composite particles at the nanoscale, optimizing the composition of the anodes, and choosing appropriate electrolytes we will be able to revolutionize Li-ion battery technology. In order to achieve such a breakthrough in power characteristics of Li-ion batteries, the team will develop new nanostructured SiLix-C anode materials with dramatically improved capacity and stable cycling performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High power Li-ion batteries capable of efficiently operate at low temperature and providing high energy density are needed to power landers, rovers, and extravehicular activities. Development of the proposed anode materials will contribute to the development of such batteries.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Power Source for Hybrid Electrical and Electrical Vehicles. High power Li-ion batteries with high specific energy are considered to be the most attractive candidates for new generation of hybrid and electrical engines as well as mobile power tools. Batteries for Electronics. Consumer devices such as laptops, PDAs, smart cell phones, digital cameras, radios, portable DVD players and others are getting more sophisticated and require advanced Li-ion batteries, which can provide more power for longer time while being smaller in size and lighter in weight. Batteries for Army Missions and Expeditions in Cold Weather. Due to the expected combination of high energy and power densities the developed Li-ion batteries will decrease the weight burden for the soldiers on a mission or travelers to remote and cold locations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X6.02-9113
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Space-Rated Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: Silicon Whisker and Carbon Nanofiber Composite Anode

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Sciences, Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Junqing Ma
ma@psicorp.com
20 New England Business Center
Andover,  MA 01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a silicon whisker and carbon nanofiber composite anode for lithium ion batteries on a Phase I program. This anode provides high capacity, high power, and improved cycle life at a competitive cost. Silicon is low cost and has a theoretical capacity of 4200 mAh/g but it has a limited cycle life. The nanocomposite design provides a synergistic improvement in reversible capacity and electrochemical cycling as a result of the unique silicon architecture and structural reinforcement provided by the nanofibers. In the Phase I program, PSI will demonstrate a technology readiness level of 3 with an anode capacity of greater than 1000 mAh/g for over 100 cycles (100% depth-of-discharge) using 2 mAh cells. These performance goals will result in an overall battery energy density of greater than 300 Wh/kg. In the Phase II program, PSI will increase cell size to 2500 mAh and optimize cell design to further improve cycle life.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Energy storage with improved weight and volume performance are required for various NASA applications which are both orbital and planetary surface. Flight elements of the Exploration Vision initially include the Orion and ARES crew and launch vehicles, respectively. For lunar capability, additional elements include the Lunar Lander or Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM), robotic missions, and surface systems. Surface systems include human habitats, Extravehicular Activities (EVA), science measurements, and the utilization of in situ resources. This lithium-ion battery system has the capability to provide an energy density of greater than 300 Wh/kg with a 5-year calendar year service life. The battery system contains no toxic materials and lends itself to being human rated for Exploration missions. These mission applications include portable power for landers, rovers, and astronaut equipment; storage systems for crew exploration vehicles and spacecraft; and stationary energy storage applications such as base power or peaking power applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have rapidly become the primary choice to power the next generation hybrid electric vehicles. These battery packs require large volumes of low cost anode materials that provide higher charge and rate capability than graphite anodes. This proposal will utilize carbon nanofiber stabilized silicon whisker as active materials that will provide unmatchable capacity and rate capability. Success in the proposed Phase I research will result in a novel silicon whisker composite anode that can be readily incorporated in lithium ion batteries. The scalable synthesis process would allow the anode to be produced at a sufficiently low cost to allow incorporation in the targeted electric vehicle and bulk energy storage markets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X6.02-9350
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Space-Rated Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: New Li Battery Chemistry for Improved Performance

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TH Chem, Inc.
8415 Manuel Cia Place, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87122-2815
(505) 610-6027

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tuqiang Chen
tchen@thcheminc.com
8415 Manuel Cia Pl. NE
ALBUQUERQUE,  NM 87122-2815
(505) 610-6027

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Current state-of-the-art Lithium (Li) or Li-ion systems are unable to meet the performance goals of space-rated rechargeable batteries for many NASA's future robotic and human exploration missions. They either cannot provide sufficient energy and power or have poor cycle or calendar life. TH Chem, Inc. (THC) proposes to develop a new electrochemical system that is fundamentally different from the state-of-the-art, for advanced Li battery applications. Li batteries developed from the new system will show significantly improved battery performance characteristics including energy/power density, cycle/calendar life, cost, and abuse tolerance. The new system is based on development of novel polymeric cathode materials (PCMs) having high-energy functional groups chemically grafted to a robust polymer backbone. In Phase I, THC will prepare the proposed PCMs by functionalization of an inexpensive polymeric starting material. Li cells will be assembled using the PCMs and electrochemically evaluated. The concept of the new electrochemical system will be demonstrated. THC has extensive experience in Li battery chemistries and technologies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High performance Li-based batteries will provide more stored energy and power for NASA's power systems in robotic and human exploration missions, satellites, spacecraft, and probes.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lithium batteries have extensive applications in commercial products including electric vehicles, cellular telephones, lap-top computers, digital cameras, tools, and other consumer products.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X6.02-9358
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Space-Rated Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Capacity Anodes for Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 W. 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033-1916
(303) 940-2347

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Olson
jolson@tda.com
12345 W. 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge,  CO 80033-1916
(303) 261-1122

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Lithium-ion batteries are slowly being introduced into satellite power systems, but their life still presents concerns for longer duration missions. Future NASA goals for retuning to the Moon and the manned exploration of Mars will demand increased specific energy and life from batteries. The properties of the graphite anode, and in particular the 'solid electrolyte interface' (SEI) layer, are key focus areas for advancement. Improving the lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery anode for both life and specific energy are the goals of this proposed research. Nanocomposite Carbon/Silicon anodes for Li-ion batteries will be produced that can be safely used at high charge/discharge rates, have high specific capacity and a long cycle life. Silicon nanoparticles will be contained in an engineered nanoporous carbon matrix and have room to expand and contract, thus preventing deleterious interphase formation. Phase I is expected to achieve a TRL of 2 and will demonstrate the performance and feasibility of the new anode. Phase II will achieve a TRL of 3 and will successfully scale up the synthesis as well as demonstrate improved performance with commercial cell prototypes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The solicitation is specifically aimed at exploration applications (landers, rovers and extravehicular activities). Development of new, high performance anodes as proposed here could benefit all these applications with lower weight and volume, decreased cost and increased safety. We plan to partner with MeadWestvaco to manufacture the anode materials domestically. MeadWestvaco is one of the leading carbon manufacturers in the world and we have existing joint venture agreements for development of our engineered pore size activated carbons for ultracapacitors. In addition, we will partner with Quallion, a leader in high quality Li-ion battery manufacture, to produce commercial cell prototypes. Quallion was awarded a Title III program in 2006 to develop domestic sources of materials for Li-ion batteries for satellites.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Shifting transportation energy sources from CO2 generating imported oil to clean domestic electricity generation will decrease global warming and increase national security. In addition to electric and hybrid electric vehicles, lithium-ion batteries are used in many consumer electronic devices such as cell phones, cameras, laptops, etc. Improved carbon nanocomposite anode materials are needed to improve the performance and decrease the cost of lithium-ion batteries for all these applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X6.02-9442
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Space-Rated Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nanoshell Encapsulated Li-ion Battery Anodes for Long Cycle Life

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
EIC Laboratories, Inc.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062-2612
(781) 469-9450

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dharmasena Peramunage
pera@eiclabs.com
EIC Labs, 111 Downey Street
Norwood,  MA 02062-2412
(781) 769-9450

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A new high capacity rechargeable Li battery anode based on Li metal alloys protected by carbon nanoshells will be developed. A reversible Li-ion capacity exceeding 600 mAh/g or nearly twice that obtainable with graphite anodes is expected. Coupled with our advanced polymer electrolyte and high voltage cathode, we expect a fully developed battery to have a specific energy of >150 Wh/Kg, and energy density of >300 Wh/l and the capability to produce >1000 deep charge/discharge cycles and thus makes it very desirable for space power applications of NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Principal NASA applications will include power sources for landers, rovers, deep space probes, satellites and extravehicular activities. Coupled with a suitable electrolyte and cathode, Li-ion cells based on this anode will be adaptable for space exploration-related applications, in moon and other planetary habitats, requiring high specific energy rechargeable batteries with unique attributes such as non-flammability and sub-ambient temperature operation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The new anodes will result in high performance Li-ion batteries suitable for electric vehicle propulsion and for use in portable consumer products such as cellular phones, portable power tools, cameras and laptop computers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Mobility
Manned-Maneuvering Units
Portable Life Support
Suits
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X6.02-9700
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Space-Rated Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: Non-Flammable, High Voltage Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Giner, Inc.
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert McDonald
rmcdonald@ginerinc.com
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton,  MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0530

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An electrolyte will be demonstrated for lithium ion batteries with increased range of charge and discharge voltages and with improved fire safety. Experimental electrolytes will be prepared in the anhydrous state and compared with existing commercial electrolyte formulations for conductivity, voltage limits and flammability. Coin cells will be used to provide proof of concept and a prismatic cell design prepared to meet NASA mission goals for the Altair ascent stage and human safety for EVA suits.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
• Altair ascent stage • Human activity EVA suit

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
• Outdoor power tools • Electric vehicles • Polar research • Polar natural resource development

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X7.01-9013
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Storage for Space Exploration Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Load Responsive MLI: Thermal Insulation with High In-Atmosphere and On-Orbit Performance

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Quest Product Development Corporation
4900 Iris Street
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033-2215
(303) 670-5088

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scott Dye
sdye@quest-corp.com
4900 Iris Street
Wheat Ridge,  CO 80033-2215
(303) 670-5088

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Long term storage of cryopropellants with minimal loss is required for new Exploration spacecraft. Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) is used to insulate cryotanks, but is a high risk for Earth Departure Stage and Altair propellant maintenance. An ultra-high performance thermal insulation, Integrated MLI, is being developed for NASA as an MLI replacement, and offers significantly improved thermal performance under space vacuum conditions. This proposal is for Load Responsive MLI (LRMLI), an innovative thermal system that under atmospheric pressure compresses dynamic Posts to support an integrated, thin vacuum shell for high performance in-atmosphere operation, then disconnects the Posts during on-orbit and Lunar surface operation to provide ultra-high performance thermal insulation. LRMLI will use micro-molded Center-Beam Tripod Posts between radiation barriers with a novel combination of low area-to-length spoke arms to reduce heat leak via conduction under no load, and a dynamic center beam to support a vacuum shell under load. For on-orbit space operation the theoretical thermal conductance is 0.22 W/m˛ (e* = 0.00048). For in-atmosphere operation, atmospheric pressure compresses the Post until the center beam contacts the underlying layer, supporting an integrated 0.020" aluminum vacuum shell. The load bearing configuration has higher heat leak through the center beam (0.84 W/m˛), but has a heat leak 93X less than SOFI. LRMLI could offer superior on-orbit performance to MLI, much lower heat leak than SOFI during launch, and no need for N2 or He purge. Cryopropellant boiloff could be significantly reduced during pre-launch and launch operations, especially beneficial for Altair and EDS. In Phase I we would model, design, fabricate LRMLI prototypes and test thermal performance in vacuum and atmosphere, reaching TRL4. In Phase II we would move toward a commercially viable product and a TRL5.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Load Responsive MLI (LRMLI) could provide dramatically improved thermal insulation for cryopropellant storage, especially during in-atmosphere launch and ascent. MLI has been identified as a high risk component for EDS and Altair vehicles. EDS requires minimal cryopropellant boiloff during launch and LEO operation. Altair also requires minimal losses during LEO and extended Lunar surface operations, and is difficult to top off prior to launch. Current thermal insulation designs use MLI, or SOFI/MLI combinations, and require purge systems to reduce losses and condensation in-atmosphere. Recent IRAD studies by Ball Aerospace indicate the total heat addition to the cryotank due to high heat leak of the purged and venting MLI is significant - up to 36% of heat leak for a 30 day mission. LRMLI could provide thermal insulation and integrated vacuum shell to insulate cryogenic systems on space instruments, satellites, spacecraft cabins and lunar surface habitats. LRMLI could provide micrometeorite protection. LRMLI should provide a high performance thermal insulation with adjustable thickness, mass and thermal conductance to fit mission requirements. It will provide inherent control of layer dimension and spacing, and should provide more predictable performance with less labor intensive assembly. It may be able to provide substantially longer term cryogenic storage, helping enable longer term manned space flights.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Quest has studied commercial applications of our Integrated MLI insulation. Terrestrial non-NASA applications of Load Responsive MLI (LRMLI) are much greater since LRMLI operates efficiently in-atmosphere with an integrated vacuum shell. We have had discussions with dewar and appliance (refrigerator/freezer) manufacturers, who have shown good interest in this early stage insulation technology. Hydrogen powered aircraft are currently in design, with a critical aspect cryotank storage of LH2. Ball Aerospace conducted a trade study of insulations for a High Altitude Long Endurance aircraft, and found LRMLI to be by far the best insulation with lower mass and significantly lower heat leak than SOFI or MLI with heavy vacuum shell. Extremely efficient thermal insulation would have use in commercial cryogenic applications such as cryogenic vessels and pipes in scientific and industrial applications. A major use is insulating LN2, LHe and LOX dewars for research and industrial uses. Other potential applications include large commercial tanks, industrial boilers and industrial hot and cold process equipment, refrigerated trucks and trailers, insulated tank, container and rail cars, liquid hydrogen fueled cars, appliances such as refrigerators and freezers, hot water heaters, mobile containers to keep foods hot or cold, marine refrigeration, potentially even house insulation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Thermal Insulating Materials
Fluid Storage and Handling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X7.01-9093
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Storage for Space Exploration Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight Non-Compacting Aerogel Insulation for Cryotanks

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aspen Aerogels, Inc.
30 Forbes Road, Bldg. B
Northborough, MA 01532-2501
(508) 691-1161

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Wendell Rhine
wrhine@aerogel.com
30 Forbes Road, Bldg B
Northborough,  MA 01532-2501
(508) 466-3130

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The exploration of space requires that new technologies be developed for long-term cryogenic propellant storage applications in-space, on the lunar surface, and on the Earth. The Altair ascent stage requires LO2 and LCH4 storage durations of up to 14 days in LEO and up to an additional 210 days on the lunar surface. Long term storage (224 days) of LO2 cryogenic propellant on the lunar surface is required to support space power systems, spaceports, spacesuits, lunar habitation systems, robotics, and in situ propellant systems. Long term storage (6 months) of LO2/ LH2/ LCH4 cryogenic propellants in 1-g on the surface of the Earth with minimal propellant loss is required to support launch site ground operations. Thus, this proposed project will focus on improving the strength of aerogels, which are the lightest weight and best cryogenic insulation material known. Improvements in the strength of aerogels would allow these materials to be used as advanced non-compacting insulation materials capable of retaining structural integrity while accommodating large operating temperatures ranging from cryogenic to elevated temperatures. The properties of the aerogels will be tailored by controlling their densities and strengthened by reinforcing them with fibers and with organic polymer crosslinking agents.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The aerogel-based materials will have applications as advanced non-compacting cryogenic insulation to reduce propellant boil-off losses and as lightweight structural components for composite cryogenic tanks.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The aerogels developed in this project would find applications as the insulation used for LNG storage containers as well as for other cryogenic fluids. Lightweight structural aerogels would find applications as a component of composite sandwich panels that are both lightweight and insulating. Such panels could find many applications including uses in energy efficient buildings.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Thermal Insulating Materials
Fluid Storage and Handling
Composites
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X7.01-9289
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Storage for Space Exploration Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Regenerators for Liquid Hydrogen Cryocoolers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Atlas Scientific
1367 Camino Robles Way
San Jose, CA 95120-4925
(408) 507-0906

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Maddocks
jmaddocks@atlasscientific.com
1415 Engineering Drive, Rm 1339A
Madison,  CA 53706-1607
(608) 265-4246

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future NASA exloration, planetary and astrophysics missions will require various enhancements in multi-stage cryocoolers. These include increased efficiency, reduced vibration and reductions in overall system mass and power consumption. For the small coolers required, pulse tube and Stirling coolers offer the best opportunities. At present, the efficiency of these coolers is limited by the effectiveness of low-temperature-stage regenerators. Below about 60 K, two factors play key roles in reducing the effectiveness of regenerators. One is that the heat capacity of most materials falls rapidly with decreasing temperature, thereby, severely limiting the number of useful materials to a few in common use. A second factor is that these commonly used materials are only available in powder form, a form known to raise reliability issues. In this effort, we will address both factors. We will use newly developed materials with high heat capacities at temperatures below 80 K, higher than that of commonly used materials. Further, we will develop novel low-temperature regenerator matrix configurations that will address both the aspect of high-efficiency and regenerator durability. Both the void fracton and the ratio of surface area to solid fracton of the regenerator matrix will be varied to achieve high efficiency.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is considering missions to the outer planets carrying significant amounts of propellant. Cryogenicly stored propellants offer the highest specific impulse of any chemical system. Zero boil-off (ZBO) propellant storage can directly impact these long-term exploration missions. It minimizes the launch mass such missions require. For ZBO missions high efficiency cryocoolers capable of providing cooling at 20 K are required. Other coolers being developed by NASA for use in astrophysics studies and radio-astronomy, will also greatly benefit from the londurable high efficiency low-temperature regenerators.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a number of commercial applications which require cryocoolers that will benefit from high efficiency low-temperature regenerators. A partial list includes: - Superconducting electronics - Superconducting magnets for MRI systems - Superconducting magnets for power generation and energy storage - SQUID magnetometers for heart and brain studies - HTS filters for the communication industry - Liquefaction of industrial gases - Cryopumps for semiconductor manufacturing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Cooling
Fluid Storage and Handling
Instrumentation
Production


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X7.01-9295
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Storage for Space Exploration Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Liquid Hydrogen Cooler with a Cooling Capacity of 20 Watts

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Atlas Scientific
1367 Camino Robles Way
San Jose, CA 95120-4925
(408) 507-0906

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Maddocks
jmaddocks@atlasscientific.com
1415 Engineering Drive, Rm 1339A
Madison,  WI 53706-1607
(608) 265-4246

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
For the future spaceport and long-term storage of liquid hydrogen NASA requires cryocoolers that can provide cooling power in the range of 20 watts at 20 K. The closed-cycle cooling alternatives currently available for such applications are not well suited to the requirements. In many cases reliability is low and vibration high. In other cases coolers are too massive and inefficient. This proposal describes a two-stage pulse tube cryocooler that combines several innovative design features. The proposed pulse tube will be light-weight, efficient, reliable, vibration free, and easy to integrate with cryogenic dewars.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Missions to moon and Mars that involve the in-situ manufacture of propellant will require the capability to store hydrogen for long periods of time. To accomplish this, a cryocooler mounted on the storage vessel that is capable of sub-cooling the liquid, intercepting parasitic heat leaks, and re-liquefying hydrogen vapor will be required. The proposed two-stage pulse-tube cooler is ideally suited to such applications. For missions that will involve transportation or in-situ liquefaction of liquid cryogens such as hydrogen and oxygen, the proposed two-stage pulse-tube cooler is again ideally suited. The presence of two stages allows cooling at two temperatures. The proposed cooler is easily modified to liquefy hydrogen at the low temperature stage, and oxygen, for example, at the higher temperature stage.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A market of about $100 million/year currently exists for G-M cooler-based cryopumps for sputtering systems used in the semiconductor industry. Sputtering systems normally have several cryopumps per unit with each cryopump costing $20-25,000. We forecast that the more reliable pulse tube cooler would cost about the same as current G-M units and will be less expensive to maintain due to the lack of oil and rubbing surfaces. Other cooling applications include: superconducting magnets for MRI systems, superconducting magnets for power generation and energy storage, liquefaction of industrial gases and radio astronomy.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Propellant Storage
Cooling
Fluid Storage and Handling
Instrumentation
Production


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X7.01-9519
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Storage for Space Exploration Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: A High Fidelity Computational Tool for Modeling Thermal Vent Systems in Cryogenic Tanks

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Combustion Research and Flow Technology
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947-1020
(215) 766-1520

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ashvin Hosangadi
hosangad@craft-tech.com
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville,  PA 18947-1020
(215) 766-1520

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Control and management of cryogenic propellant tank pressures in low gravity is an important technical challenge to overcome for future long duration space missions. Heat leaking into the propellant tanks leads to self-pressurization of the tank due to vaporization. Advanced techniques such as thermodynamic vent systems (TVS) are currently being designed for low-gravity space systems. However, these systems are more complex to analyze and system level tools based on lumped, homogeneous models are inadequate for determining sensitivities to multi-dimensional fluid transport and dispersed multi-phase effects. The innovation proposed here is a comprehensive, CFD framework to support analyses of cryogenic tank management systems that will incorporate both real-fluid equations of state for cryogenic fluid mixtures with rigorous fluid property definitions, as well as an advanced dispersed phase spray model that permits non-equilibrium drag and heat transfer with the surrounding continuum fluid. The proposed effort will evaluate various sub-models for the vaporization/condensation of the cryogenic fluid droplets in an environment that includes a mixture of vapor and non-condensable gas. This technology will impact cryogenic systems for long duration space exploration activities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The end-product will be a high-fidelity, numerical simulation software (CRUNCH CFD<SUP>REG</SUP> code) that would be used as a design support tool for the efficient management of cryogenic propellants in both upper-stage and space exploration systems. Our product addresses core needs of NASA's longer term vision for the mission to Mars and other space exploration activities that are of long duration. The more advanced and efficient cryogenic propellant management techniques being developed such as thermal vent systems (TVS) are not amenable to analysis by simpler system level tools since they are governed by the physics of multi-dimensional, mixing and other fluid dynamic effects such as liquid break-up and droplet formation. Hence the higher-fidelity models being developed here would address this deficiency and impact cryogenic systems for space transportation orbit transfer vehicles, space power systems, spaceports, lunar habitation systems all of which are required to deal with long term cryogenic storage issues.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial market for our product includes industries dealing with liquefied gases who would be interested in more efficient and cost effective methods for long term storage and transportation of cryogenic liquids; with the immense interest in hydrogen as a green fuel we foresee increased opportunities. It is also relevant to the petroleum industry where liquefied natural gas use is increasing and safety issues with tankers and LNG terminals are important. The broader technology of multi-phase, spray modeling has wide applications as a fundamental technology for a wide array of industries including the chemical process industry, ink-jet printers, and fluidized bed among others. In addition to these traditional markets, commercial space ventures ranging from space transportation systems (COTS) for the international space station (ISS), to low-cost satellite launch systems are getting an infusion of venture capital and would be receptive to accurate simulation tools for low gravity propellant storage management.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Simulation Modeling Environment
Feed System Components
Fluid Storage and Handling
Liquid-Liquid Interfaces
Thermodynamic Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X7.02-8558
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Transfer and Handling
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Transfer Components Using Single Crystal Piezoelectric Actuators

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRS Ceramics, Inc.
2820 East College Avenue
State College, PA 16801-7548
(814) 238-7485

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Xiaoning Jiang
xiaoning@trstechnologies.com
2820 East College Avenue
State College,  PA 16801-7548
(814) 238-7485

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Cryogenic fluid transfer components using single crystal piezoelectric actuators are proposed to enable low thermal mass, minimal heat leak, low power consumption and fast response for cryogenic fluid transfer and handling systems to support NASA Lunar Lander, Ground Operations, Ares, and Lunar Surface Systems programs. Single crystal piezoelectrics are attractive because they exhibit 3 to 5 times the strain as conventional piezoelectric ceramics, have very low strain hysteresis, and retain excellent piezoelectric performance at cryogenic temperatures. Low voltage, low profile, highly efficient single crystal piezoelectric actuators including stack actuators, unimorph/bimorph benders and flextensional actuators will be designed, fabricated and characterized at temperature of 20 K -300 K. A fluid valve incorporating single crystal actuators will be prototyped for flow control experiments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Cryogenic fluid transfer and handling systems to support NASA Lunar Lander, Ground Operations, Ares, and Lunar Surface Systems programs. High precision deformable mirrors in coronagraphic instruments, interferometric telescopes, and space-based observatories. ORIGINS missions SUVO, SAFIR, and Planet Imager, Earth Science applications, such as LIDAR systems as well as Coastal Ocean Imaging systems will all benefit from this technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Adaptive optics for high energy laser, active vibration control and structure morphing, RF communication tuning, bio-medical manipulators, cryogenic microscopy, photonic tooling, micro/nanofabrication and nanoassembly, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Manipulation
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Fluid Storage and Handling
Ceramics
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X7.02-9609
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Transfer and Handling
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Advanced Cooling System for In-Situ Resource Utilization

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-0071
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffrey Breedlove
jfb@creare.com
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-0071
(603) 640-2442

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA plans to produce cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen to power regenerative fuel cells for lunar surface exploration. The oxygen and hydrogen will be produced by electrolysis of water from In Situ Resource Utilization reactors. The electrolysis products will be warm high-pressure gases, requiring significant cryocooler power to achieve the desired storage conditions. This power can be reduced by expanding the gases adiabatically from the electrolysis pressure to storage pressure. We propose to develop innovative turboalternators to maximize this effect and convert the extracted fluid power into useful electric power. Small flow rates and high fluid densities require turbine rotors that are extremely small and operate at high speeds. Cryogenic gas bearings and miniature rotor fabrication techniques are key features that create high efficiency in our approach. The gas bearings also enable reliable, long-life, maintenance-free operation. The proposed development will leverage decades of Creare experience with cryogenic gas-bearing turbomachines. In Phase I, we will develop optimized turboalternator designs by conducting trade studies, specifying design details, analyzing performance, and demonstrating bearing operation with two-phase rotor flow. During Phase II, we will fabricate a prototype turboalternator and measure its performance at representative operating conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA application for this technology is cryogenic fluid production to support extraterrestrial exploration and science. Initial designs will focus on oxygen and hydrogen production for regenerative fuel cells on the lunar surface. Future applications include liquid methane production, and alternative locations include other moons and planets in our solar system. Such systems could also be used for in-situ reactant production and storage aboard space stations and transportation spacecraft. Another potential application is to re-liquefy cryogens that boil off during in-space refueling of orbiting spacecraft. Broader uses include improved efficiency for turbo-Brayton cryocoolers and power generators. Development of small, efficient turbines would benefit both of these technologies, which have numerous NASA, DoD, and civilian applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications focus on small to moderate scale production of cryogenic fluids for laboratory and industrial uses. Specific applications include: gas separation, superconductors, magnetic resonance imaging systems, material conditioning, cryogenic manufacturing techniques, academic research, cryogenic storage, re-liquefaction of LNG boil-off, and liquid hydrogen production for automotive fuel cells.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fluid Storage and Handling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X7.03-8643
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Instrumentation for Ground and Flight Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fiber Optic Continuous Liquid Sensor for Cryogenic Propellant Gauging

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Broadband Photonics Incorporated
11 Bradford Road
Winchester, MA 01890-1110
(781) 640-4186

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Wei Xu
wei.xu@broadbandphotonics.com
11 Bradford Rd.
Winchester,  MA 01890-1110
(781) 640-4186

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Broadband Photonics Incorporated proposes to develop a patent-pending fiber optic continuous liquid sensor for low-thrust level settled mass gauging with measurement uncertainty <0.5% over fill levels from 2% to 98%. The fiber optic liquid sensor has significant advantages over the existing liquid sensors, including Delta-P pressure sensors, capacitance probes, ultrasonic sensors, and silicon diode point sensors in terms of gauging accuracy, reliability, simplicity, and maintenance. The proposed sensor is able to replace silicon diode point sensors currently used for propellant gauging without any modification on the tank. In Phase 1, we will prove the feasibility of the liquid sensor, including demonstration of 1 mm liquid level spatial resolution and development of the robust sensing fiber for cryogenic temperature applications. In Phase 2, we will further develop the prototype of the fiber optic liquid sensor.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Direct NASA application of the innovation is for reliable and accurate mass gauging of cryogenic propellant. The successful development of the proposed fiber sensor can meet the massive data sampling needs of on-orbit mass gauging, thermodynamic condition monitoring, and liquid/vapor distribution detection. Other NASA applications indirectly form the innovation can be an in-space propellant leak detector and an optical fiber monitor of structural health management for space vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial products of the innovation include a number of high-quality fiber optic sensors, such as distributed fiber optic liquid level sensor, distributed fiber optic temperature sensor, distributed fiber optic strain sensor, distributed fiber optic gas or liquid leak sensor, and distributed fiber optic multi-functional sensors. These sensors have wide ranges of applications in fuel storage, chemical industry, chemical liquid processing, oil exploration, oil and natural gas pipeline monitoring, electrical power cable operation monitoring, construction health monitoring, and smart materials.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Instrumentation
Optical
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X7.03-8963
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Instrumentation for Ground and Flight Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multi-Agent Optical Sensor Chip for Cryogenic Fluids Leak Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505-5217
(424) 263-6300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Manal Beshay
sbirproposals@intopsys.com
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance,  CA 90505-5217
(424) 263-6360

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In space missions, launch vehicles (LV) are filled with cryogenic propellant fluids. It is important to protect these LVs from any leakage of liquid propellants through a reliable, accurate, leak detection system. Currently used analytical methods do not meet space mission requirements of low power consumption, reliability, low weight, and cost effectiveness. To overcome these limitations, Intelligent Optical Systems (IOS) proposes to adapt, optimize, and integrate optical detection technologies into an accurate leak detection system for H2, O2, and CH4. Due to their extreme low temperatures, these cryogenic fluids induce a contraction of the materials they contact, creating a potential cause of leakage. Hydrogen leakage in air creates an explosive atmosphere for hydrogen concentrations (between 4% (v/v) – the lower explosive limit (LEL) and 74.5% (v/v) – the upper explosive limit (UEL)) at room temperature and pressure. The early detection of cryogenic fluid leakage is extremely important for reasons of safety, reliability, and economy. IOS will provide its expertise in optical sensing to develop a miniaturized, reliable, highly sensitive, multi agent detection prototype, a Multi-Agent Optical Sensor Chip for Cryogenic Fluids Leak Detection (MOSCLD). The study will target detection limits of 1ppm or less and a response time in the millisecond range.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's space shuttle missions are time-critical for launch. Since the risk of launch delay due to hydrogen, oxygen, or methane leakage is very high, avoiding launch delays is a high priority, particularly for the missions manifested for the Space Station. Sensors that can measure hazardous gas concentrations in real time, in situ, at multiple locations, from one part per million (ppm) to 100%, and in a high-vibration environment, are needed. Implementing a distributed sensing system offers significant improvement in detection capability with minimal weight impact and substantial cost savings. Miniaturized electronic sensors are also used to monitor leakage, with multiple sensors placed at strategic locations. The presence of electrical wiring in potentially explosive environment, coupled with electromagnetic interference from other systems, makes the use of electronic sensors less than desirable. IOS proposed (MOSCLD), will offer the real time, and multi-location early leak detection down to the ppm levels. The extended optical pathlength enables the achievement of the required detection levels, while the miniaturized sensor chip allows the non-powered multi-site leak monitoring. The MOSCLD sensor will be coupled with optical fibers to remote light sources and photodetectors to eliminate the electric wiring through the cryogenic fluids tanks and hence be intrinsically safe against dangerous spark generation in an explosive environment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Hydrogen fuel cells will soon be replacing highly emissive petroleum fuels. The integration of such cells in automobiles and other equipment requires the development of a hydrogen leak detector. The proposed sensor platforms, because of their reliability, size, energy consumption, and cost effectiveness, will lead to their application in many different areas, including fueling stations, tank storage, and service stations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fluid Storage and Handling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X7.03-9931
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Instrumentation for Ground and Flight Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cryogenic MEMS Pressure Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Wyoming Silicon, LLC
1923 Big Horn Avenue, Unit B
Sheridan, WY 82801-6028
(307) 752-2615

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zachary Gray
zg@WyomingSilicon.com
1923 Big Horn Ave Unit B
Sheridan,  WY 82801-6028
(307) 752-2615

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A directly immersible cryogenic MEMS pressure sensor will be developed. Each silicon die will contain a vacuum-reference and a tent-like membrane. Offsetting thermal effects allow the device to operate over a wide temperature range. Using a patented, proven design the device is capable of continuous low-power operation and provides accuracies as low as 0.002 % of reading.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications include: Tank leak detectors inside the vacuum/MLI space. Transfer line pressure sensors with no trapped volume, eliminating problems with vent/purge operations. PVT-based mass gauging systems requiring high accuracy.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications include process industries such as foods, chemical, and semiconductors; superconductor research; high-volume gas delivery systems such as LN2; and biological research applications such as cryopreservation and cryobiology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Instrumentation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X8.01-8631
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detachable, Human-Rated, Ablative Environmentally Compliant TPS
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight Hybrid Ablator Incorporating Aerogel-Filled Open-Cell Foam Structural Insulator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ultramet
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331-2210
(818) 899-0236

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Williams
brian.williams@ultramet.com
Ultramet
Pacoima,  CA 91331-2210
(818) 899-0236

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In previous work for NASA and DoD, Ultramet developed lightweight open-cell foam insulators composed of a carbon or ceramic structural foam skeleton filled with a high temperature nanoscale aerogel insulator. The structural integrity and high insulation behavior have been demonstrated when used in combination with a non-ablating, coated carbon/carbon or ceramic matrix composite outer shell. The potential exists to develop a hybrid ablator/insulator thermal protection system in which a portion of the thickness of a low conductivity, structural foam aeroshell is infiltrated with an ablative material (frontface) and the remaining thickness is filled with the high temperature aerogel insulator (backface). The potential benefit is a reduction in ablator mass required to reject the aerothermal heat load. The vehicle interface temperature will be controlled by the aerogel-filled portion of the foam structure, rather than by ablator thickness, thereby allowing the use of less ablator material. The reduced volume needed will allow use of a conventional high density, high heat flux capability ablator, offering greater mission flexibility. In this project, Ultramet will team with Materials Research & Design for preliminary thermomechanical design work and will construct a ceramic foam-reinforced hybrid ablator/insulator. Preliminary performance will be established through hot-gas testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed foam-reinforced hybrid ablator/insulator may meet NASA requirements for increased thermal protection system heat flux capability and reduced mass. NASA applications include the Crew Exploration Vehicle in which entry velocities ranging from 8 km/s for International Space Station missions to as high as 15 km/s for Moon mission return are anticipated. Use of ablatives in rocket nozzles has been extensive, and NASA also stands to benefit in that application.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications for the proposed advanced thermal protection system include conventional satellite launch system solid rocket motors, nanosatellite launch systems, launch platform protection, tactical solid rocket motors, nosetips, and internal and external motor case insulation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ablatives
Thermal Insulating Materials
Ceramics
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X8.01-9307
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detachable, Human-Rated, Ablative Environmentally Compliant TPS
PROPOSAL TITLE: Heatshield Ablation Pattern Roughness Onset and Effects

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
St. Croix Research
5535 Fern Drive
San Jose, CA 95124-6311
(408) 723-1216

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Charles Powars
capcap@aol.com
5535 Fern Dr.
San Jose,  CA 95124-6311
(408) 723-1216

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project will develop a practical method for predicting pattern roughness onset and quantitative effects on heat and mass transfer rates for heatshield materials such as Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) and environments such as those anticipated for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Surface roughness patterns (e.g., scallops, crosshatching) form on many materials ablating under turbulent flow conditions. Equivalent sand grain roughness models are inaccurate and inappropriate for calculating Stanton numbers. In Phase I, we will develop a near-term method based on pattern roughness data, observations, and models from diverse fields. This method may predict Stanton number increases directly from material and aerothermal environment information instead of sequentially predicting pattern dimensions, equivalent roughness height, and Stanton number effects. We will also plan a more rigorous longer-term model and validation tests to be implemented in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ablative material pattern roughness onset and effects prediction method we propose to develop is directly applicable to the PICA heatshield material tentatively planned for the Orion CEV. Unlike most previous earth and planet entry missions, turbulent flow conditions are anticipated for CEV. Although PICA-CEV pattern roughness development and effects are unknown, other materials ablating in turbulent flow conditions usually develop surface roughness patterns, and factor-of-two increases of heat transfer and ablation rates are not unusual. Current NASA aerothermal environment and heatshield ablation prediction tools do not account for pattern roughness development or effects on heat transfer and ablation. Our proposed technology will also be applicable to other future NASA exploration missions where heatshields are exposed to turbulent fluid flow.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
If our proposed project is successful, it may facilitate an understanding of how to tailor charring ablator material formulations or processing to control turbulent flow induced surface roughness pattern development and effects. This would provide opportunities to partner with material manufacturers and/or patent and license technology. Our predictive model, and possibly our control technology, may also be applicable in other fields where pattern roughness development and effects are issues. Examples include corrosion, ice accretion, dissolution, saltation, and geological erosion.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ablatives
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Thermal Insulating Materials
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X9.01-9771
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Exercise System
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact, Controlled Force Crew Exercise System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Streamline Automation, LLC
3100 Fresh Way SW
Huntsville, AL 35805-6720
(256) 713-1220

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stelu Deaconu
Stelu.Deaconu@StreamlineAutomation.biz
3100 Fresh Way SW
Huntsville,  AL 35805-6720
(256) 713-1220

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Spaceflight adaptations include muscle atrophy, decreased bone mineral density and reduced aerobic capacity making effective resistance exercise countermeasure hardware necessary for safe and successful space exploration. Real-time control is applied to an electric servo-motor to provide resistance and aerobic exercise in a lightweight, compact, and reconfigurable design with self-contained power generation. The technical objectives of the system design are that it be easily configured and stowed, and require minimal power to operate including a pedal generator to supply electricity. The hardware is instrumented to document exercise sessions and provide whole body axial loading and individual joint resistive loading that simulates free weights with eccentric overloading. The loads are adjustable in 2.5 kg increments to maintain muscle strength and bone density, and aerobic exercise is provided with pedal attachments. The Phase 1 work plan includes initial prototype design, fabrication, and demonstration. The portable design can provide resistance and aerobic exercise in virtually any aspect of spaceflight (extended use on ISS, short-term lunar sortie missions, and future Mars exploration). The system also has application for in-home neuromuscular rehabilitation and controlled resistance exercise.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed exercise countermeasure could be used in virtually any aspect of spaceflight (extended use on the International Space Station, short-term lunar sortie missions, and future Mars exploration) because of its compact size and portability. Moreover, the self-contained power generation capability provides not only aerobic exercise, but could also serve as an emergency or auxiliary power source.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The expected significance of the development of this device is that it has the potential to significantly advance the discovery of neuromuscular rehabilitation because it can adapt the level of resistance based on biomechanical feedback. Such a device could have very broad commercial appeal for athletes, aging populations requiring safe resistance exercise, and rehabilitation for patients with neuromuscular disorders such as stroke, Parkinson's Disease, or spinal cord injury. Therefore, the proposed research and development program will develop a device that could be incorporated into exercise and rehabilitation programs benefiting society at large.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X10.01-8856
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Flight Diagnosis and Treatment
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Compact Medical Oxygen Generator for Spacecraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 W. 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033-1916
(303) 940-2347

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gokhan Alptekin
galptekin@tda.com
12345 W. 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge,  CO 80033-1916
(303) 940-2349

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An on-board oxygen concentrator is required during long duration manned space missions to supply medical oxygen. Commercial medical oxygen generators are pressure swing adsorption (PSA) based systems that use nitrogen selective zeolites and are mostly large, massive, and power intensive. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) proposes to develop a small, lightweight, portable oxygen generator that uses a high capacity, long life, regenerable oxygen absorbent to produce concentrated medical oxygen from ambient cabin air. TDA's system will have less volume, mass, and power draw than current systems. In Phase I, we will demonstrate the ability of the oxygen concentrator technology to produce greater than 60% oxygen at 6 LPM from ambient cabin air. We will evaluate the sorbent performance in bench-scale experiments and carry out a preliminary design of the unit, determine its weight, volume and energy requirements, and compare them to those of other competing technologies. The technology will be at TRL-3 at end of Phase I. In Phase II, we will fabricate a sub-scale oxygen concentrator prototype with all key components to fully demonstrate the concept and reliable long duration operation. We will optimize cycle duration, stage length etc. The technology will be at TRL-5 at end of Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
An on-board oxygen concentrator will find application in long duration manned space missions and in International Space Station (ISS) to supply medical oxygen by recovering the excess oxygen from the cabin air.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The portable medical oxygen generator will also find immediate use in the medical evacuation platforms used in the military and civilian applications. The sorbent used in the system would also be applicable to bulk production of oxygen. Oxygen is a strategically important chemical, with a $2.0 billion market value. It supports the combustion of fuels that supply heat, light and power and enters into oxidative combination with many materials. TDA will supply a cost-effective air separation technology, which is expected to find immediate use in the U.S. energy, manufacturing and chemical industries.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Portable Life Support


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X10.01-9124
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Flight Diagnosis and Treatment
PROPOSAL TITLE: Portable Cathode-Air-Vapor-Feed Electrochemical Medical Oxygen Concentrator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840-4023
(979) 693-0017

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Roger van Boeyen
roger.vanboeyen@lynntech.com
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station,  TX 77840-4023
(979) 693-0017

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future space exploration missions present significant new challenges to crew health care capabilities, particularly in the efficient utilization of on-board oxygen resources. The International Space Station and future exploration vehicles require a light weight, compact, portable oxygen concentrator technology (OCT) that can provide medical grade oxygen from the ambient cabin air. Current OCTs are heavy, bulky, have a narrow operating temperature range (ambient to 40 degrees C), and require 15 to 30 minutes start-up time to reach their full operating capacity. Lynntech's proposed electrochemical OCT solves these issues by operating the OCT with a cathode-air vapor feed, unlike conventional electrochemical OCTs which require a liquid water feed. This is possible due to the use of in-house developed proprietary nanocomposite proton exchange membrane and oxygen reduction/evolution catalyst technologies. Cathode-air vapor feed operation eliminates the need for a bulky on-board water supply, significantly reduces the complexity of the balance-of-plant, and greatly increases the system efficiency. Lynntech's OCT will be a quarter the size and weight of conventional OCTs, be capable of instant start-up, and have an operating temperature range of 10 degrees C to 110 degrees C.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lynntech's lightweight, portable electrochemical oxygen concentrator technology has the potential to provide a compact, robust, on-demand/continuous oxygen concentrating device. Providing lightweight compact oxygen concentrator devices will have applications for NASA, ISS and future exploration vehicles supporting long duration missions that require improved medical capabilities and enhanced on-board resource utilization, particularly oxygen delivery. This technology will enable both ambient pressure operating devices (for portable applications) and pressurized (up to 3000 psia) oxygen concentrator devices (for stationary applications).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A lightweight, portable and/or mobile, oxygen concentrator, and one, in particular, that is capable of delivering minimum 60% humidified oxygen gas at pressures of 5 psi and above, would find many applications in the health services industry. It is estimated that 2 to 4 million cardiopulmonary patients in the U.S. require supplementary oxygen; approximately 500,000 of which require continuous oxygen therapy. Current means to supply oxygen include compressed oxygen cylinders (heavy and expensive); liquid oxygen (cryogenic and expensive); and molecular sieve-bed oxygen concentrators that use molecular sieve technology. Weight, size, power, and cost requirements for current commercially available oxygen concentrators have been the major hurdles for gaining the market acceptance, thus limited availability to those in need of oxygen therapy. With Lynntech's advanced electrochemical oxygen concentrator technology, this need can be satisfied very easily to improve the quality of lifestyle of those in need of a portable, compact oxygen generator.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Biomedical and Life Support
Portable Life Support


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X10.01-9385
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Flight Diagnosis and Treatment
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The DNA Medicine Institute
116 Charles Street, Suite 6
Boston, MA 02114-3217
(617) 233-7656

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eugene Chan
echan@dnamedinstitute.com
116 Charles Street, Suite 6
Boston,  MA 02114-3217
(617) 233-7656

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of our nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, is to provide rapid, low-cost, powerful multiplexed analyses in a diminutive form so that whole body health checks can be performed on a single drop of blood. The approach is conceptually similar to pH or urinalysis test strips which allow multiple measurements in a linear format. The main difference is that we are proposing test strips at the nanoscale, shrunk in size over 100,000-fold in surface area, allowing multiple sensing elements to be included in a small area. The fluorescence from each element assesses the concentration of each measured analyte. In this Phase I, we will fabricate, test, and characterize test nanostrips and fabricate ones for bone metabolism. For Phase II, we will develop an entire suite of nanostrips for cardiac function, bone metabolism, liver function, lipid analysis, and hormone measurements. The nanoscale test strips are read in a time-of-flight flow-based manner utilizing our rHEALTH (Reusable Handheld Electrolytes & Lab Technology For Humans sensor) sensor, which is a low-cost, handheld sensor that employs a reusable microfluidic chip, developed with NASA funding. At the end of Phase II, the nanostrip assay suite will be delivered together with a handheld rHEALTH sensor.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Real-time health monitoring the proposed nanostrips are designed to monitor daily astronaut status so that adverse health events can be managed. Real-time intervention monitoring of routine health status allows rapid intervention. Measurement of bone loss during space flight via measurement of PTH, vitamin D, phosphate, calcium, N-telopeptide, and alkaline phosphatase. Liver function measurements in times of need. Measurement of cardiac biomarkers for chest pain to rule out myocardial infarction. Measurement of full body health in response to astronaut illness. Monitoring of astronaut renal function to assess volume status. Tracking of bone biomarkers and calcium levels throughout duration of missions to assess intangible bone loss and remodeling. Study of astronaut health in response to micro- and hypo-gravity environments. Study of space radiation effects on astronaut health. Measurement of astronaut fluid status in response to diets on long space trips. Systematic monitoring of astronaut health status during training on Earth.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Real-time health monitoring development of the nanostrip panels allows monitoring of health status in real-time at the bedside or doctor's office. Real-time intervention rapid diagnosis allows immediate interventions. Measurement of acute liver damage to diagnose early hepatitis or hepatic encephalopathy. Detection of acute myocardial damage rapidly and outside the hospital so that life-saving therapy can be administered for heart attack patients. Monitoring resolution of a patient's osteoporosis with treatment so that therapy can be optimized. Monitoring daily renal function of patients with kidney transplants or those with renal disease. Measurement of athlete volume status during prolonged training for early diagnosis. Systematic measurement of lipid panels to optimize diet on more frequent intervals. Study of bone health during long journeys. Study dehydration and volume status in field personnel. Measurement of a drug's potential adverse effects on health during clinical trials. Study of myocardial damage by measuring cardiac biomarkers in hypoxic situations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomolecular Sensors
Biochemical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X10.01-9543
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Flight Diagnosis and Treatment
PROPOSAL TITLE: Thioaptamer Diagnostic System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AM Biotechnologies, LLC
6023 Avenue S, #228
Galveston, TX 77551-5419
(409) 771-1981

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Xianbin Yang
xianbin.yang@thioaptamer.com
6023 Ave S, #228
Galveston,  TX 77551-5419
(832) 858-8779

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
AM Biotechnologies (AM) will develop a diagnostic system in response to SBIR Topic X10.01 Reusable Diagnostic Lab Technology that will simultaneously detect and quantify numerous protein biomarkers with excellent sensitivity. AM will enhance the current clinical gold standard immunoassay methodology by using its proprietary bead-based aptamer selection process to select dithiophosphate backbone-modified (PS2) "thio" aptamers (PS2-thioaptamers) as replacements for antibodies in immunoassays. The PS2-thioaptamers are binding agents with functionality comparable to antibodies but with very long shelf-life under ambient environment storage. The PS2-thioaptamers bind much more tightly to their targets than regular aptamers without sacrificing specificity, and are much more nuclease resistant. AM's bead-based process allows fast selection and identification of PS2-thioaptamers, which cannot be directly selected using older aptamer technologies such as Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX). AM will demonstrate PS2-thioaptamer integration into a state-of-the-art microfluidics instrument from Sandia National Laboratory that meets NASA's form factor needs for space flight. The Phase I Project will demonstrate detection and quantification of osteocalcin (OC) using a PS2-thioaptamer in a prototype microfluidics device (TRL-4). Phase II will entail completing the panel of biomarkers for bone demineralization and delivering a prototype of the system to NASA. In Phase III, AM and Sandia will deliver a flight test system to NASA and begin FDA validation of the system for potential use in clinical diagnostics of osteoporosis as well as other conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The combination of AM's proprietary PS2-thioaptamers with the microfluidics technology from Sandia National Laboratory will result in a biomarker diagnostic system that is compatible with long duration spaceflight. The PS2-thioaptamers offer performance comparable to antibodies but have a very long shelf life and can be stored in ambient conditions. The Sandia microfluidics instrument is very sensitive (fM detection limit), small, low mass, easy to operate and draws little power. The combination of these two technologies would result in a flight system that would enable NASA to easily detect and quantify numerous biomarkers simultaneously during long duration missions and would also enable AM to develop for NASA clinical diagnostic assays for many conditions of interest. The stage of development of these technologies as well as the use of proven clinical diagnostic immunoassay methodologies enables AM to develop and deliver a flight test system quickly for near-term NASA flight research into many conditions of interest.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A PS2-thioaptamer assay for potentially any condition that has FDA-approved biomarkers could be developed and integrated into the microfluidics instrument, which provides significant clinical diagnostic market commercialization potential. The PS2-thioaptamer binding agents could also be used in almost any detection/quantification technology thus opening the possibility of faster diagnostic market commercialization using currently approved instrument hardware. Prior to FDA-approved diagnostic applications, the PS2-thioaptamers could readily be used in a manner similar to antibodies for life science research. Additionally, since the PS2-thioaptamers are very nuclease resistant, it is possible that the same binding agents selected for diagnostic/research use could also be used effectively as therapeutics.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Biomolecular Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X11.01-8824
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Behavioral Assessment Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Individualized Fatigue Meter for Space Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pulsar Informatics, Inc.
3624 Market Street, Suite 5E
Philadelphia, PA 19104-2614
(215) 520-2630

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Mollicone, Ph.D.
daniel@pulsarinformatics.com
3624 Market Street (Suite 5E)
Philadelphia,  VA 19104-2614
(215) 520-2530

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To ensure mission success, astronauts must maintain a high level of performance even when work-rest schedules result in chronic sleep restriction and circadian misalignment, both of which contribute to fatigue and performance deficits unless effective countermeasures are used. We are proposing to build an Individualized Fatigue Meter that incorporates light inputs, sleep history; physical activity; other physiological inputs; and brief performance tests (e.g. winSCAT, PVT SelfTest) to provide immediate individualized feedback about alertness. For the past 8 years, we have been actively developing many of the system components (funded by NASA, DOD, and NIH) that can be leveraged in this project. The result of this project through Phase II will be a system prototype that can be deployed in space analog environments for validation testing and ultimately deployed on ISS and missions to Moon and Mars. The critical need for an Individualized Fatigue Meter has been identified as a priority outlined in the Behavioral Health and Performance Integrated Research Plan GAP 1.1.1. During Phase I, we will perform a literature review of fatigue monitoring technologies, develop an engineering requirements document, and identify key features of mathematical models needed to design a state-of-art Individualized Fatigue Meter (Phase I TRL of 3-4).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Individualized Fatigue Meter will meet the specific requirements of space exploration to provide astronauts with feedback about alertness and fatigue levels as well as select fatigue countermeasures. It will be designed to be unobtrusive, transparent to crews, and require minimal crew time or effort to operate. The resulting product will be primarily relevant to NASA's Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) research Gap 1.1.1 (What are the best measures and tools to use for assessing decrements in cognitive function due to fatigue and other aspects of spaceflight?). When validated, the Individualized Fatigue Meter will be deployed in the constellation program, lunar and Mars missions. The individualized Fatigue Meter will also be adapted for use by Mission Control personnel (e.g., working long duty schedules or on Mars sol), and for use during training and activities overseas (i.e., launch/recovery in Russia).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Given the large inter-individual differences in performance vulnerability to fatigue that have been scientifically documented, an Individualized Fatigue Meter has potential commercial applications in industries where human performance is required 24/7, with precise operational constraints and important safety implications. Examples of this relevance include but are not limited to military operations, first responders, transportation workers, power plant operators, hospital personnel, manufacturing work forces, etc. Military operations, for example, involve sleep deprivation and circadian misalignment, particularly during sustained operations and/or when multiple time zones are crossed during deployment. The Army has an estimated 238,000 soldiers deployed overseas in 120 countries (source: US Army, 2006) coordinating to provide continuous global 24-7 operations. An individualized fatigue meter has the potential to provide biologically optimized work schedules and recommendations for fatigue countermeasures such as power naps, caffeine, light exposure, countermeasures that will increase safety and the likelihood of successful operations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Database Development and Interfacing
Expert Systems
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X11.01-8978
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Behavioral Assessment Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Automated Behavior and Cohesion Assessment Tools

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cybernet Systems Corporation
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-1639
(734) 668-2567

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Marcus Huber
proposals@cybernet.com
727 Airport Blvd
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-1639
(734) 668-2567

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An important consideration of long duration space flight operations is interpersonal dynamics. The crew will be working very closely for extended periods of time and the distance between the spacecraft and earth-bound flight surgeons will prevent real-time communication. Breakdown of morale or the psychology of crew may result in increased stress, conflict, erratic behaviors, reduced cohesion, and perhaps even rebellion. Flight surgeons have stated the need for unobtrusive monitoring to help detect if crews are having difficulties with coping with long duration spaceflight environments. NASA has tens of thousands of procedures for the space shuttle and ISS, and the new Constellation vehicles will also have thousands of procedures. These procedures, and the training in performing them, represent the models and data necessary to build a behavioral assessment tool. Currently procedures are authored in Word. Under this paradigm, developing behavioral models of crew procedure performance would require re-coding all procedures by hand. However, the Constellation program is planning to use an XML representation of procedures, which facilitates automatic translation. Nominal performance metrics can determined during training and then compared during the actual missions. Deviations between the nominal and current performance can be flagged for additional attention. Since crew members can perform upwards of hundreds of procedures a week, there will be substantial data with which to assess crew behavioral performance The long-term goal of this project is to develop a set of applied technologies that can monitor crew health and cohesiveness in an unobtrusive manner and identify potential abnormalities for feedback to astronauts and flight surgeons for further investigation. The goal of the Phase I will be to develop a set of recommendations regarding technologies and techniques to accomplish the objectives and a conceptual design of a system that implement the recommendations

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology could be applied to all current and future NASA missions. While it is being developed for application to long duration space flight operations, the techniques are amenable to application in shorter duration flight operations as well, such as related to the International Space Station and Space Shuttle, are obvious application areas. This is particularly true with respect to behavioral and psychological health (whereas crew cohesiveness is anticipated to be less of an issue as duration decreases). This technology could also be applied to NASA's Aerospace activities. For example, it could be used to measure stress on air traffic controllers. Adaption to commercial airlines, in which the standardized procedures and repetitive nature of their execution within the close confines of an aircraft facilitates the modeling and establishment of norms for the behavior for individual crew.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The military has teams of individuals working in high stress environments over long durations. Examples include submarine crews, aircraft carriers, embedded special operations forces and pilots flying unmanned air vehicles for hours on end. We expect this same technology to transfer to military applications. A variety of commercial activities also have similar characteristics to NASA missions. As mentioned, air traffic controllers work in high-stress environment where small mistakes can be costly. Likewise, teams of operators control nuclear power plants, petrochemical plants, oil refineries, etc. They often perform standard operating procedures and need to be monitored closely for degraded performance. Even in situations in which lives or property are not at risk, monitoring and detecting problems with individual and team performance is useful for managers interested in achieving peak performance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Computer System Architectures
Expert Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X11.01-9344
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Behavioral Assessment Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Behavior Tracking Software Enhancement and Integration of a Feedback Module

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Horizon Performance
121 Edinburgh S. Drive, Suite 214
Cary, NC 27511-6448
(919) 624-6644

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Thompson
jat@horizonperformance.com
121 Edinburgh S. Dr., Suite 214
Cary,  NC 27511-6448
(919) 674-6644

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Company is proposing to adapt a behavioral tracking program and feedback module specifically developed for the U.S. Army Special Forces for NASA human space exploration. To achieve this, this Company has developed a plan to identify the specific technical requirements needed to modify the software to properly operate with the NASA space program. This will include ensuring the software is unobtrusive, transparent to crews, requires minimal effort, and is compatible with NASA's current computing environment. Additionally, this Company intends to use a rigorous and methodical approach for identifying specific behavioral patterns that would indicate possible crewmember health issues. The current software product is designed to monitor a soldier's behavior in austere conditions relevant to the Special Forces Operating Environment. This project is proposing to enhance the current software's capabilities by redesigning the software to monitor behavior for NASA, accept and assimilate feeds from other software (e.g., biometric information), develop feedback tools, and generate customized reports to give flight surgeons pertinent information for making informed decisions about a crewmember's health.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This software would be designed to monitor flight crew behavior for the purpose of identifying potential health issues and possibly other areas of interest, like team cohesion. The software would provide a framework for NASA personnel to monitor and assess target behaviors demonstrated by the flight crew. Each behavior would be stored in the software database where reports could be generated that depicts patterns of behavior. Furthermore, these behaviors could be linked to video feeds via timestamps giving flight surgeons the capability of reviewing specific footage of tagged behaviors. This would allow flight surgeons to not only identify possible behavioral patterns but also view the context in which these behaviors occurred. This software could further link other information, like biometric data, to the behaviors. For example: A behavioral report may indicate that a crew member appeared agitated at a specific time period. The flight surgeon would be able to view video footage at that specific point in time along with the crew member's heart rate.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
One additional application of this software would be to assist the U.S. military with personnel suffering with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Specifically, this software could be used to monitor at risk personnel by monitoring their behavior and notifying medical staff of possible PTSD candidates. This could be achieved by providing at risk personnel with a handheld device that family members could use to identify specific behaviors when they occur. For example: the spouse could mark when her husband had a panic attack and how long the attack lasted. This information would be time stamped and sent back to a central database where it would be stored and used to monitor and assess behavioral patterns. Furthermore, the at-risk military personnel could use this software to answer questions daily to gauge their health, which would also be immediately delivered to the database. The software system could modify the questions asked of personnel based on their behaviors and responses to previous questions. The system could then notify medical staff of personnel that are showing signs of PTSD. Similarly, hospitals could use the same software to monitor outpatient recovery by allowing patients to assess their condition throughout the recovery process. All assessments would be collected in a database that would monitor patient recovery based on assessment patterns and notify medical staff of possible recovery issues.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Computer System Architectures
Data Input/Output Devices
Database Development and Interfacing
Human-Computer Interfaces
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Development Environments


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X12.01-9244
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Human Factors Assessment Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Semantic Language and Tools for Reporting Human Factors Incidents

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Traclabs, Inc.
8620 N. New Braunfels, Suite 603
San Antonio, TX 78217-3586
(210) 822-2310

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Debra Schreckenghost
schreck@traclabs.com
8620 N. New Braunfels, Suite 603
San Antonio,  TX 78217-3586
(832) 415-0109

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Incidents related to impaired human performance in space operations can be caused by environmental conditions, situational challenges, and operational deficiencies. Detecting, reporting, and correlating related incidents are key to preventing future incidents. NASA has made significant progress in standardizing the reporting of aviation incidents by developing electronic forms for reporting incidents. While such forms improve report consistency, incident data are not represented in a way that enables computer-based reasoning across reports (e.g., automatic linking of related reports.) TRACLabs proposes to develop a human factors incident-reporting tool for gathering incident data, documenting data in incident reports, and archiving incident data. We will define an XML-based semantic language for incident reporting to capture information about human factors incidents, including multi-modal data. We will develop software for authoring incident reports using this language, archiving these reports, and searching the archives using incident semantics. This project is innovative in defining an incident reporting language that uses an ontology-based vocabulary. This enables improved tools for gathering incident data, and for authoring and archiving incident reports. The semantic indexing provided by the use of incident reporting language permits more sophisticated search of archives, including automatic identification of prior incidents potentially relevant to the current incident.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Incident reporting is an important part of handling issues that arise during missions. It can be challenging, however, to capture incident information accurately and to discover similarities between an incident and prior incidents. These challenges are not specific to human factors incidents but are endemic in other types of incident reporting at NASA, including the reporting of space operations incidents, safety infractions, and accident investigations. The proposed incident reporting language and authoring tools can be applied for these other types of incident reporting. The language for capturing incident knowledge can be adapted by adjusting the domain ontologies used to represent the contents of incident categories. The authoring tools that produce reports using the incident reporting language can be used without change with new domain ontologies. The use of XML to develop the incident reporting language enables extending the language by adding tags for the special information needs of new domains.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial tools for incident reporting are available in a diverse range of domains from crime incidents to corporate security incidents to customer complaints. Like the proposed software, most of these products support electronic submission and reporting of incident data, and archival of incident reports. The proposed approach differs from these commercial tools in providing a semantic basis for customization and improved search, and in representing incidents in an XML-based language. Such capabilities permit applying much of the incident reporting software developed for NASA in non-NASA applications. Promising applications include reporting incidents arising in chemical and nuclear plants, such as incidents arising from human error during plant operations, and reporting medical incidents, such as incidents that arise when monitoring the aged or impaired in performing the activities of daily living.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Database Development and Interfacing
Human-Computer Interfaces


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X12.02-9041
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Food Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flexible High-Barrier Polymers for Food Packaging

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
EIC Laboratories, Inc.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062-2612
(781) 469-9450

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stuart Cogan
scogan@eiclabs.com
111 Downey Street
Norwood,  MA 02062-2612
(781) 769-9450

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The development of a polymer laminate with water and oxygen barrier properties suitable for food packaging and preservation on 3-5 year manned space exploration missions is proposed. The laminate is a multilayer structure comprising polymer and inorganic dielectrics that will provide near-hermetic encapsulation of food items for the duration of these missions. The properties and expected benefits of the multilayer packaging include: oxygen transport rate of <<0.005 cc/m2-day; water transport rate of <<0.005 g/m2-day; suitable for retort, microwave, and high pressure sterilization (>135oC); specific weight <40 g/m2 for a 34 micron thick laminate meeting H2O and O2 permeation goals; inorganic content of <2.4 g/m2; contains no metal foils; and, a higher strength-to-weight ratio than current barrier materials, providing a thin high-strength laminate with sufficient ductility for packaging and sealing operations. In Phase I, polymer laminates will be fabricated and characterized by oxygen and water permeation tests to demonstrate barrier properties. Mechanical and accelerated testing, using steam sterilization and high-temperature water immersion, will be included to demonstrate the suitability of the laminate for packaging applications. In Phase II, the manufacturing process would be scaled-up and methods for forming packages, vacuum and inert gas packaging; and heat sealing addressed.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercialization of the technology is anticipated through a combination of direct sales and licensing. The specific NASA applications for the proposed barrier polymer laminates include: food packaging for long-duration space missions; packaging for medicines; packaging air and moisture sensitive chemicals used in science exploration on long-duration missions; packaging of astronaut physiological samples; packaging of extraterrestrial materials for return.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For the more price-sensitive commercial market the proposed barrier polymers will be used for packaging high-value products that include: medicines; emergency supplies at remote locations; and physiological samples. Applications in OLEDs and for other display applications, or solar modules are also possible and present a significant opportunity if cost and optical performance requirements are met.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X12.02-9382
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Food Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultra High Barrier Nanocomposites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 W. 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033-1916
(303) 940-2347

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrew Myers
amyers@tda.com
12345 W. 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge,  CO 80033-1916
(303) 940-2339

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As the length of manned space missions increase, requirements to sustain those missions increase proportionately. Daily food supplies require food packaged and sent from earth, preparation mechanisms and waste treatment. The window for food preservation could be 3-5 years. This will require food packaging that provides excellent barriers to water vapor and oxygen, is durable at the processing conditions (retort sterilizing, microwave processing), and has low mass. Storage and disposal of used food packaging becomes a significant issue. Incineration is a reasonable waste treatment strategy, but is incompatible with materials used currently for high barrier packaging, like aluminum foil (which leaves ash). TDA Research, Inc. proposes to develop a multilayer nanocomposite film with superb resistance to permeation by water vapor and oxygen, for use as an extended shelf life food packaging material. We propose to prepare nanocomposites from commercially available packaging plastics and TDA's surface-modified nanoparticles. TDA's nanocomposite research has focused on the design of surface treatments to produce nanoparticles compatible with targeted host polymers. We can form well-dispersed nanocomposites with several packaging plastics and have seen improved barrier properties – with nanoparticle contents less than 5%. TRL at the end of the Phase II contract will be at Level 5.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The high barrier films developed in this project would compliment work by the Advanced Food Technology Project, which plans and develops food technologies for astronauts. New packaging technologies for long shelf life, non-foil food packaging are needed that are compatible with NASA's planned food processing and waste disposal methods. A plastic-based packaging system with high resistance to permeation by oxygen and water vapor is necessary to protect food on long space missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Thin, high barrier nanocomposites are currently under development by many packaging companies. Since barrier properties are one advantage of nanocomposites, packaging applications are a reasonable market. However, difficulties in processing nanocomposites into traditional packaging plastics have delayed commercialization despite the significant promise (and hype) concerning nano-scale materials. TDA's surface modified boehmite nanoparticles have been developed to be compatible with traditional processing methods in mind. Our nanoparticles are easier to disperse in a wide range of plastics, using traditional polymer processing methods. Successful development of high barrier nanocomposite films would find application in a variety of areas including consumer packaging, packaging for food and food service applications and medical packaging. A high barrier plastic package that rivaled the barrier properties of the foil lined MRE pouches would also see significant military use.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Waste Processing and Reclamation
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
Composites
Organics/Bio-Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X12.02-9675
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Food Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Non-Foil High Barrier Food Packaging Materials for Human Centered Spacecrafts

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innosense, LLC
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance, CA 90505-5245
(310) 530-2011

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Uma Sampathkumaran
uma.sampathkumaran-1@innosense.us
2531 W. 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance,  CA 90505-5245
(310) 530-2011

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project aims to develop food packaging technologies for extending shelf-live toward maintaining healthy diet and psychological well being of the space crew. The underlying technology builds on sol-gel core competency of the company. InnoSense LLC (ISL) will collaborate with the Food Technology Department at Ohio State University (OSU) for independent testing of the Flexible ORMOSIL Nanocomposite (Flexorn<SUP>TM</SUP>) barrier materials. Through an iterative process of coating and testing, the Phase I project would demonstrate: (a) that the Flexorn barrier can be deposited onto polymeric substrates and can be adhesively bonded to a polypropylene layer for food packaging applications; (b) achievement of water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) < than 1 g/m2-day and oxygen transmission rate (OTR) < than 1 cc/m2-day for the flexible thin-film barrier. The focus of Phase II will be optimization of the barrier architecture, and the evaluation of prototype flexible pouches for their mechanical and barrier properties after retorting, a process typically used to package reheatable foods in flexible packaging applications. Prominent members of the Center for Advanced Processing and Packaging Studies (CAPPS) at OSU (e.g., Kraft Foods) have expressed strong interest in applying this NASA-funded technology to expand their market shares.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For long duration space exploration missions, crew members will find food whose natural characteristics are well preserved more appealing for consumption. Packaging materials that offer an effective barrier against oxygen and moisture for maintaining food quality also offer a secondary benefit boosting of the short-term behavior and morale of the crew. Appealing food has a proven effect on physiological factors such as appetite, alertness, relaxation, and cognitive skills. Cognitive skills and alertness are crucial during an extravehicular engineering task. Another area of importance that would be met by the proposed packaging materials is in solid waste management within the spacecraft. Currently waste is collected and stored in bags that act as environmental barriers to prevent the escape of noxious odors into the crew habitat. These issues are addressed by ISL's flexible, nanomaterials-based high barrier technology to the permeation of oxygen and water vapor.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Current consumer trends bode well for companies able to develop packaging materials that keep food natural while tasting good. The overall demand for packaged food items experienced a rise of nearly 14% annually to 3,200 units worldwide in 2003. Simmons Market Research Bureau data show that over half of adults (51%) like the trend toward healthier eating, and this trend—combined with tremendous consumer demand for convenience and the desire for more flavorful foods, including premium and gourmet offerings—is driving foodservice and retail sales across many breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snack food categories in many retail and foodservice venues. Other application areas of the ISL technology include conformal barriers for flexible electronics, in particular display applications like OLED market, transparent conducting oxide and electrochromic oxide thin film technologies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Sterilization/Pathogen and Microbial Control
General Public Outreach
K-12 Outreach
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
Composites
Optical & Photonic Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X13.01-9217
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Charged Particle and Neutron Radiation Measurement Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Solid State Tissue Equivalent Detector for Microdosimetry

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
QEL
453 4th Street,1R
Brooklyn, NY 11215-3051
(917) 991-0821

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Bardash
mjb@qelinc.com
453 4th Street,1R
Brooklyn,  NY 11215-3051
(917) 991-0821

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 7 to 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
QEL proposes to construct a tissue equivalent microdosimeter using a solid state tissue equivalent detector (SSTED). The Phase I study will produce the working SSTEDs and the Phase II will provide a viable completed microdosimeter. An organic semiconductor device based on QEL's novel design is described. The expected electrical properties of the device both in the quiescent state and under exposure are calculated. The fabrication process is described in detail and the supporting electronics are defined as well. A complete set of tests that will determine the feasibilty of the SSTEDs is defined. The first test will determine if the detectors' response matches the expected response based on detector geometry. The subsequent tests will determine the sensitivity, calibration factors, and tissues equivalence of the fabricated devices.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Phase II deliverable will be a solid state tissue equivalent microdosimeter. The primary application for these types of devices is the measurement of human exposure to ionizing radiation. There are a number of NASA applications where humans may be exposed to such radiation including, but not limited to: space flight, high altitude aviation, and space station visits. In all of these cases a simple, small solid state monitoring device would be ideal.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many occupations where humans are potentially exposed to ionizing radiation. The industries where workers may be exposed include but are not limited to: nuclear medicine, radiology, radiation-therapy, weapons production, nuclear power production, mining, high energy and synchrotron radiation experiments/applications, and air transporation. In all of these industries, a simple solid state tissue equivalent detector could play an important role in the radiation safety procedures. In addition radiation monitoring is commonly required for medical patients undergoing a variety of procedures.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Particle and Fields
High-Energy
Organics/Bio-Materials
Radiation Shielding Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X13.01-9762
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Charged Particle and Neutron Radiation Measurement Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: TEPC Microdosimeter for LEO and Beyond

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
LVI Systems, Inc.
1331 Broadview Road
West Richland, WA 99353-5207
(206) 600-2990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Thomas Conroy
tom@lvisystems.com
1331 Broadview Road
West Richland,  WA 99353-5207
(509) 430-5604

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A new generation of Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counters (TEPCs) for micro-dosimetric measurements will be designed, incorporating recent advances in the electronics industry and a new detector configuration. The unit is projected to be 2.5x4.5x1 in, weigh less than 8 oz, and consume less than 100 mW of power. A detector configuration of thirteen half-inch spheres arranged in a 2-D array will be used - twelve connected together to form an equivalent spherical 1.74-inch diameter detector for measuring low fluence environments, and the thirteenth detector connected independently allowing measurements during high fluence periods when the larger detector would saturate (such as during solar particle events). The new electronics will continuously convert the detector data at 1 Mhz. Digital methods will allow both the setting of any threshold and the determination of event peaks, and allow more sophisticated signal processing to be used to reduce noise and eliminate micro-phonics. In addition, a bi-processing method of analyzing the detector signals will allow determination of dose by both integration method and peak method which can then be analyzed to provide accurate total dose readings for the events from the threshold to below 0.05 keV/micron. The spectra below several kev/micron is important as it can contain up to 40% of the total dose. The detector filled with pure propane will simulate a 2 micron site size. Two spectra will be stored each minute, and total integrated dose, dose above threshold, dose equivalent dead-time will be provided every second. The spectra will have 2048 channels at 1 keV/micron for each channel, to a maximum of 2047 keV/micron. The threshold for peak detection and analysis can be set anywhere from 0.4 to 20 keV/micron. The unit will be capable of measurement ranging from less than 100 nGy/hr to over 100 mGy/hr.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Accurate monitoring of radiation exposure levels are required in order to access health risks, and to help limit exposures levels to an acceptable risk. Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counters (TEPC) have been used as a critical part of these measurements on the Space Shuttle and on the International Space Station (ISS) for many years. The current design has a number of technical limitations which should be improved for future missions, as well as the size and power consumption being reduced by updating the design with modern smaller, lower power electronics. The smaller, lower power, more capable TEPCs would satisfy the requirements of the upcoming Exploration class missions, and other human activities in space. This new TEPC design, or variants of it, will allow more extensive monitoring, not only in existing habitats such as ISS, but also in future habitats in space as well as on the moon and potentially Mars.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The miniaturized TEPC being proposed would be valuable to several mainstream industries. The nuclear industry and the commercial launch vehicle industry would both have a need for this type of personal radiation monitoring. Also, monitoring the radiation environment on high-flying military and commercial aircraft could be done with this smaller less expensive unit that currently available HAWK unit. The accelerator industry, as well as all other industries that have regulatory requirements for radiation monitoring (especially neutron radiation and mixed fields), would be potential applications for this new TEPC.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Particle and Fields
Pilot Support Systems
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
High-Energy
Radiation Shielding Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X13.01-9865
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Charged Particle and Neutron Radiation Measurement Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: ADIS-type Charged Particle Spectrometer for Manned Space Radiation Dosimetry

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110-2702
(703) 369-3633

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Merk
jmerk@aurora.aero
1 Broadway, 12th Floor
Cambridge,  MA 02142-1189
(617) 500-0281

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As manned missions to the moon and eventually Mars gain momentum, astronaut crews will be sent back to the deepest parts of space humans have ever traveled, and will continue deeper into space than ever before. Once outside the protection of the Earth's magnetic field, astronauts become fully exposed to an array of dangerous charged particles, both cosmic rays (CRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs). There exists a need to provide a comprehensive picture of the energetic charged particle environment within manned space vehicles to accurately measure and mitigate the crew's exposure to these hazardous radiations. Along with our partner, the University of New Hampshire (UNH), Aurora Flight Sciences proposes to develop a compact (low volume, mass and power) charged particle spectrometer for manned space vehicles based on heritage from similar spaceflight telescopes using Si solid state detectors and scintillators. The proposed instrument will be capable of detecting and identifying charged particles with single element resolution, performing on-board, real-time data reduction and providing rate and composition data over five to seven approximately logarithmically spaced energy intervals corresponding to ~10-200 MeV for protons, with integral measurements for higher energies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The principal application for the proposed technology is manned space radiation monitoring. The technology for a low mass telescope of this type, however, has several other potential applications for NASA: Probes to Mars and the Moon often include radiation instruments to learn more of potential hazards for future manned missions (e.g. RAD on the Mars Science Laboratory). Deep space missions, such as Solar Sentinels and Solar Probe, etc., almost invariably include space radiation instruments with similar capabilities for basic research. Missions for Space Weather research use such instruments as well. Reduced mass electronics would be of great benefit for any such applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Ground applications for heavy ion instrumentation is extremely limited. High energy heavy ions are only found in specialized accelerators on Earth. (Space radiation ions fragment in the atmosphere before reaching the ground.) Space based applications for space weather monitoring (e.g. the NOAA funded GOES-R program) is one obvious application. Since the particles measured by the proposed instrument are the main cause of Single Event Effects (SEE), other similar monitoring applications are a likely market. Other non-NASA applications include the Department of Defense. The DoD is moving more of its assets to higher orbits in response to the ASAT threat in low earth orbit, thereby increasing exposure to radiation events. As a result, monitoring of the radiation environment for these assets will be critical.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Particle and Fields
High-Energy
Photonics
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X13.02-9726
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technology/Technique for Imaging Radiation Damage at the Cellular Level
PROPOSAL TITLE: Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
KromaTiD, Inc.
515 E. Laurel Street
Fort Collins, CO 80524-3151
(505) 662-5626

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Edwin Goodwin
eds_mail@msn.com
515 E. Laurel St
Fort Collins,  CO 80524-3151
(505) 662-5626

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions) have profound genetic effects, such as disrupting regulatory sequences that control gene expression, or creating genetic chimeras. These chromosome aberrations play a causative role in cancer, and they are induced by radiation. As such, chromosome aberrations are relevant to three NASA needs, biodosimetry, analysis of astronaut lymphocytes for cumulative radiation damage, and space radiation risk modeling. Of all structural chromosomal anomalies, inversions – a reversal of orientation of material within a chromosome – are the most difficult to detect. This is especially true of small inversions, most of which are invisible to all current cytogenetic techniques. Yet small inversions are likely the most transmissible (nonlethal) form of chromosomal damage, so they persist, a feature which lends credence to their use in retrospective biodosimetry. This Phase 1 project is intended to provide a proof-of-principle demonstration of a new method of molecular cytogenetics that will permit highly sensitive inversion detection. The project will help us to perfect our bioinformatics strategy for probe design, optimize probe labeling reactions, refine hybridization conditions, and establish a procedure for cost analysis. In Phase 2, we will scale-up probe production to make whole chromosome analysis possible. This next step, although conceptually simple, relies entirely on the processes devised and tested in Phase 1. Moreover efficient, cost-effective probe-making will be essential to commercialization (Phase 3). The technology readiness level at the end of the Phase 1 contract is expected to be 4-5, i.e. validated in laboratory and relevant environments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Three applications of interest to NASA are: 1) Biodosimetry, the retrospective estimation of radiation dose based on observed biological damage; 2) Ongoing analyses of lymphocytes from astronauts. Chromosomal analysis of astronaut lymphocytes provides a measure of accumulated genetic damage caused by space radiation exposure. Chromatid paints will increase sensitivity of this analysis by adding a new class of observable aberrations; and 3) Biology-based space radiation risk analysis efforts. Chromosome aberrations play a causative role in carcinogenesis (as does gene copy number imbalance and cytogenetically invisible point mutations). One way to bring knowledge of cancer genetics into risk analysis is to estimate dose- and LET-dependent probabilities for specific cancer-related genetic alterations. For this approach to work it will be necessary to identify all of the major genetic changes that transform a normal cell into a cancer cell. Adequate investigation of cancer-specific chromosomal inversions is currently not possible, and therefore many such inversions, especially small ones, may remain undiscovered. This shortcoming is particularly pertinent with regard to charged particles in that small inversions are likely to be the most common stable chromosome aberration created by them. Chromatid paints have the potential to contribute to biology-based risk analysis through their ability to reveal these predicted small cancer-related inversions for the first time.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We expect that chromatid paints will fulfill multiple needs in several fields related to human health. Markets include, but are not limited to: clinical cytogenetics (cancer diagnosis and prognosis, infertility diagnosis, genetic counseling); biomedical research (mechanistic studies of cancer induction, radiation effects, and chemical toxicology); and biodosimetry (retrospective evaluation of radiation exposure as might occur accidentally or from a terrorist attack). Multi-color chromatid paints will provide genome-wide translocation identification, just as mFISH and SKY currently do, and in addition will allow simultaneous and sensitive detection of inversions, making it highly probable that chromatid paints will eventually capture much of the market currently held by chromosome paints.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Biomolecular Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X14.02-9395
SUBTOPIC TITLE: On Orbit Cell Counting and Analysis Capability
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microfluidic Multichannel Flow Cytometer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Techshot, Inc.
7200 Highway 150
Greenville, IN 47124-9515
(812) 923-9591

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Todd, Ph. D.
ptodd@techshot.com
7200 Highway 150
Greenville,  IN 47124-9515
(812) 923-9591

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovation is a "Microfluidic Multichannel Flow Cytometer." Several novel concepts are integrated to produce the final design, which is compatible with on-orbit operation from the standpoint of gravity-independence, low mass, low power requirement and automated operation. The unique design features of the Microfluidic Multichannel Flow Cytometer include compact optics based on diode technology for both illumination and measurement, tested channel branching schemes, no sheath fluid anywhere, bubble-free PDMS lithographic manufacture, and analysis based on quantum-dot technology. A design is proposed that counts RBC, WBC and three specified WBC subsets. Techshot, Inc. and scientists at Purdue University will collaborate to test the components of this innovation by pursuing the following Phase I objectives: (1) create a critical design requirements document for the Microfluidic Multichannel Flow Cytometer, (2) breadboard and test its three critical physical components (illumination, sensing optics and flow channels) and (3) critically test feasibility of each component and produce a top-level drawing suitable for initiating Phase II R/R&D to produce an integrated prototype. The final product will be robust for use in space flight and low-cost on Earth for eventual point-of-care blood analysis and global AIDS patient status monitoring.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Since the early 1980's a flow cytometer has been a planned component of the International Space Station's (ISS) on-orbit analytical capability one of nearly 100 instruments originally specified to make ISS the equivalent of a terrestrial laboratory in which experiments could be performed repeatedly without resorting to Earth to complete analytical steps and to provide data for experiment redesign. The proposed innovation will provide this longed-for on-orbit analytical capability for cell researchers. Real-time blood analysis on ISS crew members is also a longed-for goal. On deep space missions re-usable compact robust medical laboratory equipment will be critical. For example, the health status of crew members exposed to a solar proton storm will need to be critically determined using peripheral blood counts. Therefore, infusion into NASA mission needs and projects constitutes providing this technology for (1) cell and immunology researchers aboard the ISS and ISS National Lab, (2) medical monitoring of ISS crew members via the Human Research Facility (HRF), and (3) medical monitoring of deep-space exploration crews, especially following a solar proton storm.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Three major non-NASA commercial markets exist: (1) laboratories that do not have access to conventional flow cytometry facilities, (2) point-of-care blood cell monitoring and (3) monitoring of CD4 cell status in global AIDS populations. With its low cost and potential for automated manufacturing the proposed Microfluidic Multichannel Flow Cytometer, in a specialized version could be used for the monitoring of CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts in AIDS patient care in third-world countries, where such a low-cost diagnostic capability is desperately needed. There is an international movement to reduce the cost of CD4 measuring instruments to $5000 or less and reduce the cost of a single test for CD4 to 50 cents or less by building instruments that do not require large power or computer sources, are robust, very easy to use, and yet of very high quality. The adoption of this cytometer for this application alone would open the technology for this and other point-of-care applications affecting millions of individuals.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Biomolecular Sensors
Biochemical
Biophysical Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 X14.02-9864
SUBTOPIC TITLE: On Orbit Cell Counting and Analysis Capability
PROPOSAL TITLE: On Orbit Immuno-Based, Label-Free, White Blood Cell Counting System with MicroElectroMechanical Sensor (MEMS) Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110-2702
(703) 369-3633

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Liping Sun
lsun@aurora.aero
1 Broadway, 12th Floor
Cambridge,  MA 02142-1189
(617) 500-0279

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and our partner, Draper Laboratory, propose to develop an on orbit immuno-based, label-free, white blood cell counting system for simultaneous counting of peripheral blood cell subpopulations, including total white blood cells, the five white blood cell differential subgroups, and various lymphocyte subtypes, such as CD4 and CD8 positive cells, using Draper's MicroElectroMechanical Sensor (MEMS) based microfabricated arrayable Adhesive Stress Electrostatic Sensor (ASES) technology. The proposed ASES sensor uses a capacitance read-out method to electronically measure the sensor membrane displacement due to the surface stress caused by molecular binding, (e.g., antibody-antigen binding). Antibodies specific to the white blood cell surface protein markers (antigens) are precoated on the ASES sensor membrane to recognize the specific white blood cell types with inherently high specificity and sensitivity. Our proposed cell counting system can meet NASA's requirements for a microgravity compatible, miniaturized, light weight peripheral blood cell counting instrument capable of on-orbit cell counting, without high energy lasers, requiring minimal sample volume or exogenous (sheath) fluid to operate, and generating minimal biohazardous waste. This ASES blood cell counting system, once developed, can stand alone for white blood cell differential and subtype count, or become a complimentary instrument to others available on-orbit.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed ASES white blood cell counting system could provide on orbit white blood cell counting capability, currently not available on orbit, for monitoring astronaut health and performing biomedical research on International Space Station (ISS), Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV), and etc. With its high specificity/sensitivity, compact size, multiplexed counting capability, and automated operation, the proposed system can also provide a powerful cell counting capability for NASA's ground based biomedical research and development.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Besides NASA's on orbit application, the proposed white blood cell counting system could be used to perform immuno-based cell counting similar to that done by flow cytometers. In general, any existing immuno-based cell counting performed for research and development, could potentially be accomplished with our proposed approach. The benefits of our proposed ASES cell counting system include high specificity and sensitivity for simultaneous counting of multiple cell types, compact size (the size of a cell phone), low power consumption, and full automation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Biomedical and Life Support
Biochemical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.01-8652
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Space-Qualifiable High Reliability Frequency-Stabilized CW Laser Source

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fibertek, Inc.
510 Herndon Parkway
Herndon, VA 20170-5225
(703) 956-3646

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ti Chuang
tchuang@fibertek.com
510 Herndon Parkway
Herndon,  VA 20170-5225
(703) 471-7671

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose the development and space qualification of a high reliability frequency-stabilized CW laser source at 1064 nm wavelength region to satisfy the requirements of this SBIR subtopic opportunity. Our recommended approach is based on extensive experience developing and using single frequency laser source in the near infrared, both for NASA, DoD and aerospace/commercial applications. Our technical approach built on emerging technology spawned by the telecom industry, which has reached it maturity level such that space qualification of the propose laser can be undertaken. NASA requires proposed laser source for various missions under planning, including LISA, ICESat, LIST, etc.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has been planning many space missions, in which a space-qualifiable high reliability frequency-stabilized CW laser source will play an important role. These missions include LISA (Laser Interferometric Space Antenna), ICESat (Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite), LIST (Doppler Wind Lidar, Lidar for Surface Topography) ASCENDS (Earth and planetary atmospheric composition) and upgraded GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiments), terrestrial and space-based distributed aperture telescopes, interferometric instruments such as SIM and TFP (Space Interferometer Mission and Terrestrial Planet Finder) and general space-based metrology. All of these missions require laser sources with space qualification, high reliability, frequency stabilized having wavelengths in the region between 1.06 micron and 1.5 micron. Several near-term missions also require single frequency seed or local oscillator laser source with MHz linewidth, the requirement the proposed laser source can meet. These missions include global Doppler winds lidar and coherent sensing of atmospheric constituents such as CO2 and water vapor.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential commercial applications include: 1) Laboratory use of frequency-stabilized lasers; 2) Developmental work on the future flight systems; 3) Ground based telescope with adaptive optics; 4) Interferometry; 5) Spectroscopy instrumentation and science requiring an absolute wavelength standard; 6) Dye laser replacement scientific lasers; 7) injection seed laser requiring ultra-stable frequency stability.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Laser
Gravitational
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.01-8747
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Tunable Seed Lasers for Laser Remote Sensing of CO2 and O2

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vescent Photonics, Inc.
4865 E. 41st Avenue
Denver, CO 80216-4401
(303) 296-6766

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mike Anderson
anderson@vescentphotonics.com
4865 E. 41st Ave
Denver,  CO 80216-4401
(303) 296-6766

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Vescent Photonics propose to develop a chip-sized narrow linewidth (< 50 kHz), widely tunable (> 10 nm's) diode laser that will be suitable for a wide variety of NASA remote sensing missions. The proposed laser platform enables easy selection of the laser center wavelength; these lasers can be easily built for any wavelength that a diode laser gain chip exists (< 670 nm to > 2.5 microns). Since spectral features of important molecular species cover a large wavelength window this center-wavelength flexibility is advantageous. This effort will focus on lasers operating in the 1.57 and 2.0 micron CO2 band, and the 1.26 micron O2 band, such as is required for ASCENDS-type missions. Rapid wide wavelength tunability will enable scans over large portions of spectral bands, which can minimize the impact of contaminant and thermal effects on total column density measurement. These lasers will provide for very fast phase (up to 10 GHz) modulation and be built with space qualifiable components. Collaborative relationships with established aerospace companies will be exploited to facilitate insertion of this technology into NASA missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The goal of this development is to produce seed lasers that are required for future NASA remote sensing missions. For example, low-cost robust seed lasers at a wide variety of wavelengths will be needed for missions such as ASCENDS which will provide high spatial and temporal global carbon budget maps. ASCENDS will identify global CO2 sources and sinks, such as will be required for effective carbon trading policies, and detailed input for new global climate models. These lasers also find utility in laser mapping of atmospheric pressure, detection and quantification of numerous other molecular species (e.g., methane, ozone, water, etc..), which can be useful for both terrestrial, remote planetary and other extra-terrestrial missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A truly compact and low-cost tunable laser will create new commercial opportunities. Currently, reliable tunable lasers either don't exist or are cost prohibitive thus impeding commercial applications. Low-cost tunable laser systems can be used for trace-gas spectrometry in medicine, distributed fiber sensing in oil wells, environmental monitoring, and industrial process control. We are collaborating with a global leader in safety equipment that is in need of these lasers for remote explosive detection. Furthermore, tunable lasers are important for test and measurement of optical components in the telecommunications industry.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Perception/Sensing
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Biomolecular Sensors
Biochemical
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.01-8941
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: OptoCeramic-Based High Speed Fiber Multiplexer for Multimode Fiber

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Boston Applied Technologies, Inc.
6F Gill Street
Woburn, MA 01801-1721
(781) 935-2800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Xiaopei Chen
xpchen@bostonati.com
6F Gill Street
Woburn,  MA 01801-1721
(781) 935-2800

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A fiber-based fixed-array laser transmitter can be combined with a fiber-arrayed detector to create the next-generation NASA array LIDAR systems. High speed optical fiber multiplexers allow array LIDAR systems to efficiently share the same laser source. Boston Applied Technologies, Inc. (BATi) propose to develop an electrically switched, OptoCeramic<SUP>REG</SUP> based switch/multiplexer for 200micron core multimode fiber. OptoCeramic<SUP>REG</SUP> is the state-of-art electro optic material with high electro-optic coefficient, fast response speed and low loss. The innovative optical designs direct the laser into one of many possible output fibers. The main features of proposed high speed fiber multiplexer include ultra-high switching speed, low insertion loss, low power consumption, high power handling capability, compact packaging and scalability.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed switching technology can provide laser imaging with a shaped field of view for an enhanced lidar return signal and image resolution. The solid-state structure, ultra-fast speed, and high power handling will make the device suitable for working with the high power fiber lasers in the next generation space systems and instruments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to the application for NASA LIDAR system, the proposed high speed optical switches will have advantages in the fiber optic communications, remote sensing and bio-medical imaging systems. In addition, the proposed switch will be useful for all-fiber optical link and high power lasers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Laser
Optical
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.01-9291
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: 1.26 Single Frequency Fiber Laser

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NP Photonics, Inc.
9030 S. Rita Road
Tucson, AZ 85747-9102
(520) 799-7424

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jianfeng Wu
jfwu@npphotonics.com
9030 S. Rita Road, Ste 120
Tucson,  AZ 85747-9102
(520) 799-7498

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal is for the development of an innovative compact, high power, and extremely reliable 1.26 micron Ho-doped single frequency fiber laser. The proposed single frequency fiber laser consists of Raman pump laser and single frequency 1.26-micron fiber laser, which will be constructed by using Ho3+-doped fluoride glass fiber. A Raman fiber laser is used as a resonant pump laser source for Ho3+-doped fiber laser. High gain per unit length can be achieved in Ho3+-doped fluoride glass fiber due to the strong resonant pump. This type of fiber based seed laser is needed for remote sensing of O and O -N for measuring atmospheric pressure. The single frequency 1.26-micron fiber laser with high-speed frequency modulation capability and electronic control, which will be developed in Phase II as part of the seed laser, can be used to build coherent laser radar to perform instant measurement.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This innovative fiber based single frequency laser can be used to generate high energy pulsed 1.26 micron lasers, which are generally used for LIDAR applications in NASA, especially for the oxygen remote sensing. The single frequency 1.26-micron fiber laser with high-speed frequency modulation capability, which will be developed in this SBIR project as part of the seed laser, is needed for NASA's space exploration program. The single frequency fiber laser is needed to build coherent laser radar to perform instant measurement of velocity and concentration of oxygen and other gases. Such a fiber laser and seed laser are inherently offers much higher resolution compared to currently existing Raman fiber laser.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are several potential non-NASA commercial applications. The 1.26 micron seed laser can be used for commercial coherent LIDAR, remote sensing for environment monitor, and non-linear frequency conversion.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Perception/Sensing
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Particle and Fields
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Attitude Determination and Control
Pilot Support Systems
Laser
Optical
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Manned-Maneuvering Units
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.01-9294
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: High SBS-Threshold Er/Yb Co-Doped Phosphate Glass Fiber Amplifiers for High Power, Sub-us Pulsed, Narrow Linewidth, All Fiber-Based Laser Transmitter

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NP Photonics, Inc.
9030 S. Rita Road
Tucson, AZ 85747-9102
(520) 799-7424

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Wei Shi
wshi@npphotonics.com
9030 S. Rita Road, Ste 120
Tucson,  AZ 85747-9102
(520) 799-7413

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In order to implement the monolithic high power narrow linewidth pulsed all fiber-based laser transmitter by using a MOPA configuration for NASA's active remote sensing spectroscopy, NP Photonics propose to develop the high SBS-threshold, single-mode (SM), polarization maintaining (PM), high power amplifiers for the sub-microsecond pulses with transform-limited linewidth, leveraging on NP's proprietary patented large core SM PM highly Er/Yb co-doped phosphate glass fibers (LC-EYPhF). We will use our proprietary patented single-frequency Q-switched fiber laser seed that we have developed recently in order to make the whole high power narrow linewidth pulsed fiber laser transmitter compact and expandable to spaceborne or UAV platforms. In Phase I, one new SM PM LC-EYPhF fiber with large core of 25 micron will be fabricated and two power amplifier stages using NP's large core highly co-doped Er/Yb phosphate glass fibers will be implemented in order to demonstrate 5-kW peak power and 2.5-mJ pulse energy with SBS-free for NASA's active remote sensing fiber laser pulses at 765 nm by using NP's SINGLE-MODE phosphate fiber amplifiers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Langley research center, and Ames Research Center have been investigating a number of remote sensing concepts using fiber lasers. For example, they are developing the fiber laser spectroscopic instruments for absorption lines of oxygen in the range of 760-770 nm to determine atmospheric pressure and temperature from their effect on the shape and strength of the A band absorption lines. The proposed high SBS-threshold high power amplifiers result in high power narrow linewidth pulsed fiber laser transmitter at 765 nm that is ideal source for NASA's fiber laser spectroscopic instruments from ground, airborne, and space-based platform. Also, it can be used in other planned missions or technology programs, such as Doppler Wind Lidar, Lidar for Surface Topagraphy (LIST), and Earth and Planetary Atmospheric Composition (ASCENDS).planned missions or technology programs, such as Doppler Wind Lidar, Lidar for Surface Topagraphy (LIST), and Earth and Planetary Atmospheric Composition (ASCENDS).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed amplifier can be used for narrow linewidth CW and pulse amplification in ns/us regime due to the high SBS-threshold threshold. The proposed narrow linewidth pulsed fiber lasers in MOPA can be used for high resolution laser spectroscopy, velocimetry, anemometry, coherent Lidar, imagery, laser frequency conversion, and ranging finding owing to their high spatial and spectral qualities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Perception/Sensing
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Attitude Determination and Control
Pilot Support Systems
Laser
Optical
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Manned-Maneuvering Units
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.01-9372
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact, Wavelength Stabilized Seed Source for Multi-Wavelength Lidar Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ADVR, Inc.
2310 University Way, Building 1
Bozeman, MT 59715-6504
(406) 522-0388

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shirley McNeil
mcneil@advr-inc.com
2310 University Way, Building 1
Bozeman,  MT 59715-6504
(406) 522-0388

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase I effort proposes to establish the feasibility of developing a compact, high performance laser source for integration into the next generation seed laser system for high stability, multi-wavelength lidar applications such as NASA Langley's HSRL program. Combination of the high performance laser source together with ADVR's integrated Planar Lightwave Circuit (PLC) technology will provide the electro-optic control signals required for precise locking of the seed source to a reference wavelength. A next generation seed laser system which incorporates the PLC concept, together with improvements in the source laser technology will advance NASA's lidar systems due to its compact, efficient, and reliable design, thus enabling use on small aircraft and space based platforms. The focus of the Phase II effort will be the optimization and integration of this technology into the next generation HSLR seed laser system with > a 50% reduction in weight, size and cost.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary customer is NASA Langley's High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) program for aerosol and cloud characterization. This system is being considered for the ACE lidar by NASA's ACE Science Working Group because of the higher information content it provides over backscatter lidar on key aerosol optical and microphysical properties. The proposed technology will find multiple uses in other NASA lidar remote sensing programs, such in altimetry and DIAL lidar where compact, low cost, stabilized single lasers are required, and also has potential application in spectroscopic measurement techniques.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA's use in various lidar systems, the combination of a compact, low cost, single wavelength laser, together with PLC technology will find use in fiber and free-space communications where rapid, moderate power phase modulation is required. This technology can also be applied for systems used for environmental and pollution monitoring and in stabilizing laser sources used for precision metrology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Cooling
Laser
Optical
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.01-9416
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Q-Switched High Power Single Frequency 2 Micron Fiber Laser

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AdValue Photonics, Inc.
4585 S. Palo Verde Road, Suite 405
Tucson, AZ 85714-1962
(520) 790-5468

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shibin Jiang
sjiang@advaluephotonics.com
4585 S. Palo Verde Road, Suite 405
Tucson,  AZ 85714-1962
(520) 790-5468

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Accurate measurement of atmospheric parameters with high resolution needs advanced lasers. In this SBIR program we propose to develop innovative Q-switched high power 2-micron fiber laser with pulse energy greater than 10mJ, repetition rate of 10Hz to 1KHz, and pulse duration of 200ns using innovative highly efficient Tm-doped glass fiber. This new fiber laser will be an all-fiber laser system consisting of actively Q-switched fiber laser and fiber amplifiers. This proposed all-fiber laser system is compact, highly efficient, robust and highly reliable, which is especially suited for NASA's application where operating environment is always extremely rough. In Phase I we will design and fabricate Tm-doped glasses, design and fabricate single mode and double cladding single mode Tm-doped fibers, and demonstrate Q-switched single frequency 2-micron fiber laser and amplifiers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This proposed innovative Q-switched high peak power single frequency fiber laser can be used as innovative lidar component for measurements of the atmosphere and surface topography of the Earth, Mars, the Moon, and other planetary bodies. Because it is fiber based, this Q-switched high peak power single frequency laser is compact, efficient, and extremely reliable.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a number of potential non-NASA commercial applications for Q-switched high peak power single frequency Tm3+-doped fiber laser. This eye-safe laser source can be used to build commercial lidar for ranging and surface topography applications, as the light source for generating mid-IR lasers, and for research and development.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.01-9464
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Efficient and Compact Semiconductor Laser Transmitter Modules

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
EM4, Inc.
7 Oak Park Drive
Bedford, MA 01730-1413
(781) 275-7501

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alex Rosiewicz
arosiewicz@em4inc.com
7 Oak Park Drive
Bedford,  MA 01730-1413
(781) 275-7501

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Develop a Compact Transmitter Module (CTM) capable of operating at 1.26 µm, 1.57 µm and at 2 µm complete with all drive and control electronics for the TEC and the laser diode itself reducing size, weight and power while improving performance and reliability. The first part of the approach is to incorporate the electronics within the same hermetically sealed enclosure with the laser chip and associated optics. EM4 will take this basic design and make modifications to reduce size, weight and power consumption using thin film thermoelectric coolers (nano-coolers) to replace conventional TEC. Weight reductions will be realized by using alternative which are composites of Aluminum Silicon (AlSi) and Aluminum Silicon Carbide (AlSiC)

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ASCENDS mission; LIDAR ; analog and digital fiber and free space communication systems; sensors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
LIDAR ; analog and digital fiber and free space communication systems; sensors; ranging; radar remoting; RF countermeasures ;phased array radar; sensors for oil and gas exploration.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Laser
RF
Microwave/Submillimeter
Optical
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Photonics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.01-9608
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Single-Frequency Semiconductor Lasers Operating at 1.5 and 2.0 microns

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
nLight Photonics
5408 NE 88th Street, Building E
Vancouver, WA 98665-0990
(360) 566-4460

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Leisher
paul.leisher@nlight.net
5408 NE 88th Street, Building E
Vancouver,  WA 98665-0990
(360) 566-4460

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
While conventional injection seeding sources (such as DFB diode lasers and rare-earth doped solid-state microchip lasers) are available at 1.5 microns, these sources typically lack the ultra-narrow (<50 kHz), ultra-stable output spectrum required for use in applications such as Doppler shift measurements of the tropospheric winds. Furthermore, similar sources which operate at 2.0 microns (a preferred wavelength for space-based atmospheric measurements) are simply unavailable. To fill this need, nLight proposes the parallel development of 1.5 and 2.0 micron injection seeding sources based on our well-established, wavelength-scalable, industry-leading InP semiconductor laser design.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA commercial applications include: 1. Ultra-narrow linewidth LIDAR injection-seeding sources for Doppler shift measurements of the tropospheric winds. 2. Narrow-linewidth eyesafe pump sources for 3D LIDAR imaging for autonomous precision landing including hazard detection and avoidance

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential Non-NASA commercial applications include narrow-linewidth eyesafe pump sources for: 1. Military Infrared countermeasures, eyesafe rangefinders, eysafe 3D LIDAR imaging for surveillance, and unmanned autonomous ground and airborne vehicles 2. Medical Tissue bonding, dentistry

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Attitude Determination and Control
Laser
Optical
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.01-9778
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniature, Rugged, Pulsed Laser Source for LIDAR Application

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Princeton Optronics, Inc.
1 Electronics Drive
Mercerville, DE 08619-2054
(609) 584-9696

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Laurence Watkins Director- Optics & Optical Sys
lwatkins@princetonoptronics.com
1 Electronics Drive
Mercerville,  NJ 08619-2054
(609) 584-9696

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Princeton Optronics proposes to develop a high energy pulsed laser source based on a novel approach. The approach consists of a technique to combine a large number of diode pumped solid state lasers. The resulting laser can be packaged in a very small package. We will develop the laser and package it into a laser welded package which can be space qualified. We can achieve 50mJ or higher level of energy at repetition rate of 10- 1000Hz with pulse duration of approximately 200ns. In phase I we would do the feasibility study for the approach and in phase II develop the complete packaged unit.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High energy pulsed lasers has applications for LIDAR by NASA. The coherently coupled laser will be low cost and can be used for many other NASA applications including ranging, wavefront analysis, wind speed measurement, surface topography, atmospheric composition analysis. They can be used for remote sensing for entry descent and landing of spacecrafts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A high pulse energy laser will have a significant market for LIDAR, ranging, designation and remote sensing applications. The users will be military, NASA, homeland security, and for cutting, marking, welding and materials processing. Princeton Optronics will commercialize the product very soon after development.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Laser
Optical
Photonics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.01-9781
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: A High Reliability Frequency Stabilized Semiconductor Laser Source

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Princeton Optronics, Inc.
1 Electronics Drive
Mercerville, DE 08619-2054
(609) 584-9696

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Laurence Watkins Director -Optics & Optical sys
lwatkins@princetonoptronics.com
1 Electronics Drive
Mercerville,  NJ 08619-2054
(609) 584-9696

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA needs high stability laser source of 1W output power for Lidar applications. Princeton Optronics has developed ultra-stable, narrow linewidth diode pumped solid state lasers using stable packaging and high performance locker. We have also developed high power Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) semiconductor laser sources. We propose to develop a high reliability master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) type of source with VCSEL as a master oscillator and a semiconductor optical amplifier to obtain a power level of 1W CW. We would use our laser welded packaging technology to develop a rugged package which could be space qualified. By the end of the SBIR program we plan to develop a CW laser source in MOPA configuration for phase modulation and the packaged unit can be space qualified.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High stability lasers have applications for LIDAR by NASA. The semiconductor lasers will be low cost and can be used for many other NASA applications including ranging, wavefront analysis, wind speed measurement, surface topography, atmospheric composition analysis and communications. They can be used for remote sensing for entry descent and landing of spacecrafts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A high stability laser will have a significant market for LIDAR, RF photonics and sensor applications. The users will be military, NASA, homeland security, cable television distribution and oil exploration industry. The total market for ultrastable lasers is currently at tens of millions of dollars. Princeton Optronics will commercialize the product very soon after development.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Laser
Optical
Photonics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.02-8466
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Novel Low-cost, Ka-band, High Altitude, Multi-Baseline Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Sensor for Surface Water Ocean Topography

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Remote Sensing Solutions, Inc.
3179 Main Street, Unit 3, P.O. Box 1092
Barnstable, MA 02630-1105
(508) 362-9400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Carswell
carswell@remotesensingsolutions.com
3179 Main Street
Barnstable,  MA 02630-1105
(508) 362-9400

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The NRC Decadal Survey recommended the Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission to address terrestrial fresh water hydrology and physical oceanography science questions. The proposed effort will develop a low-cost, Ka-band, multi-temporal baseline radar sensor designed to fly on high altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (Global Hawk) and acquire phenomenology (i.e. temporal, coherence, near-nadir scattering cross-section and vegetation attenuation) measurements in support of the SWOT mission. To realize this sensor, innovations in the sensor design, transceiver digital receiver and antenna are required. The Phase I will result in a system design for these subsystems that can be realized in a Phase II effort. During the Phase I, analytic studies and modeling will be performed to demonstrate feasibility and to perform the necessary tradeoffs. Leveraging a high altitude, FPGA-based digital receiver system developed by RSS and its development system, the digital receiver capabilities will be extended and initial laboratory testing performed. The Phase II effort will realize a prototype of this sensor.At the end of the Phase I, a technology readiness level of 3 will be achieved.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NRC Decadal Survey recommended the SWOT mission for 2015. RSS proposes to develop a multi-temporal baseline, near-nadir Ka-band sensor (KaSPAR) that will gather critical data for SWOT mission design and planning over specific science targets. In particular, the KaSPAR's measurements would help characterize cross section and decorrelation of near nadir Ka-band observations of water bodies in low wind conditions and the effects of vegetation cover as a function of type and density on near nadir surface cross section measurements of water bodies. As such, RSS will target NASA and JPL as potential customers for this instrument. The KaSPAR could also serve as the basis for developing low-cost calibration/validation sensors for the SWOT mission. Once again, NASA would be the intended customer for such an instrument.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The KaSPAR system could serve as the basis to develop a Ka-band radar interferometer for mapping topology of water bodies. Being able to deploy such a sensor for the Global Hawk or other high altitude aircraft would enable rapid deployment of the sensor to any area within the continental United States in the event of significant flooding. Such information would be invaluable to NOAA and FEMA. Currently, NOAA is actively pursuing activities to develop a Global Hawk weather reconnaissance program to address these needs associated with severe weather. RSS will pursue these programs within NOAA as potential customers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Particle and Fields
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Microwave/Submillimeter
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.02-8501
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microfabricated G-Band Antenna Arrays

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nuvotronics, LLC
3155 State Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060-6604
(540) 552-4610

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ken Vanhille
kvanhille@nuvotronics.com
3155 State Street
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-6604
(540) 552-4610

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal addresses the need for an antenna technology platform that meets the requirements of high-performance materials, exacting dimensional tolerances, and the geometrical design freedom to enable planar antenna array technologies for frequencies greater than 100GHz. The PolyStrata fabrication technology, being developed at Nuvotronics, LCC, Blacksburg, VA., is capable of meeting or exceeding all of the requirements outlined to be a solution for these frequencies. Air-filled copper rectangular coaxial transmission lines are fabricated using a photolithographically defined layer-by-layer process. The resulting transmission lines are extremely broadband, low-dispersion, high-isolation, and low loss compared to other forms of planar transmission lines. These lines are smaller than rectangular waveguides because the transverse cross-sections of the lines are not resonant. Phase I of this work includes designing a frequency-scanned antenna-array operating from 140-160GHz that would provide ±16<SUP>o</SUP> beam steering with a beamwidth of 0.5<SUP>o</SUP> and 400MHz per beam bandwidth. An antenna array with this performance would require roughly a 24cm by 24cm aperture to fabricate. This is possible using 4 sub-arrays that each are fabricated on a single wafer and then tied together to achieve the overall system performance. The approach will offer a high-yield, cost effective product that will meet the NASA needs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Primary applications for the G-band Landing and Atmospheric Radar Antenna (GLARA) are to provide significant improvements over existing Ka-band radar used for planetary landing missions. Ka-band radar sensors are planned for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission scheduled for 2009/2010, but future missions are anticipated to employ radar centered at 160 GHz, at G-band [Pollard, 2005]. The new G-band antenna will reduce landing radar size weight substantially while maintaining or improving the system performance for topographic and velocity data acquisition. Pollard and Sadowy (JPL under NASA contract), have outlined in detail their requirements for the G-band radar system needed for future MSL missions, including antenna specifications and and phase shifting capabilities. We believe that the MSL would be our first targeted application for the Nuvotronics G-band antenna solutions. Future NASA missions, especially involving autonomous landing in rough terrain, would be the next target applications for the proposed antenna innovations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other agencies (Air Force, Navy) could use the GLARA's autonomous landing advantages as well as its small payload in autonomous landing and harbor guidance. The FSA would provide a substantially smaller payload for aircraft and heightened resolution in topography and velocity measurements. The GLARA realized by the batch-level PolyStrata process can reduce cost—thereby making the autonomous landing radar a viable solution on many aircraft increasing long-term safety of craft and personnel. Harbor guidance for ships deals with the same weather and atmospheric-related issues. Additional applications include weather warnings and atmospheric research, especially where radar is mounted on aircraft or other vehicles to conduct surveys. The cost advantages would aid in the proliferation of radar at these frequencies. Since many of the current generation radars used for weather warning systems and meteorological forecasts are being updated with newer technologies [Heinselman, 2008], the GLARA innovations could offer cost and size advantages.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Microwave/Submillimeter


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.02-8521
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: A High Cross-Pol Isolation Multi-Frequency Antenna for Cloud and Precipitation Research

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Remote Sensing Solutions, Inc.
3179 Main Street, Unit 3, P.O. Box 1092
Barnstable, MA 02630-1105
(508) 362-9400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Carswell
carswell@remotesensingsolutions.com
3179 Main Street
Barnstable,  MA 02630-1105
(508) 362-9400

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Remote Sensing Solutions will evaluate the critical parameters and generate a design approach for a portable, all-weather multi-wavelength antenna system suitable for supporting GPM ground validation and for use in other NASA cloud and precipitation research programs. The antenna system will have a number of unique characteristics including high gain (approximately 1 deg half-power beam width) and matched antenna beam shapes. The antenna will support multiple frequencies used for cloud and precipitation sensing. The basic design will provide Ku-band (14 GHz) and Ka-band (35 GHz) channels that can support a variety of polarization and absorption-based rain retrieval algorithms. An additional 95 GHz channel will be considered to augment the cloud-sensing capabilities of the antenna and to allow particle sizing in clouds. The antenna will have extremely high cross-polarization isolation suitable for identifying ice cloud particle habit.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology is directly relevant to satellite validation work that NASA will conduct for the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM). The antenna is a key element for developing a ground validation radar that will provide high quality data to support multiple algorithms that derive precipitation rate from polarization and differential absorption measurements. Radars such as DPR can be adapted to work in conjunction with the antenna to provide a complete precipitation sensing system for GPM and other NASA and non-NASA research programs. Although the CloudSat mission will end before deployment of this technology proposed future cloud research missions would also benefit from the proposed activity as the ultra-low cross-polarization characteristic of the antenna will allow improved discrimination of cloud and precipitation phase (ice/snow). CloudSat can measure precipitation and there is strong interest in further developing sensors that can measure both clouds and precipitation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology developed will benefit the greater weather research community by allowing weather radar systems to more precisely quantify precipitation. This will allow improvements algorithms used in space-borne and in long range ground-based cloud and weather radars. Participation in programs such as GPM will provide worldwide exposure for the antenna technology that is proposed, which will provide RSS with an opportunity to market a standard product to the global weather research community. Adapting the technology to other radar wavelengths in future efforts will also allow RSS to market to the operational weather research community using long and medium range weather radars.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Structural Modeling and Tools
RF
Microwave/Submillimeter
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Substrate Transfer Technology


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.02-9002
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: InGaP HBT Lift-Off for High Efficiency L-band T/R Module

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MicroLink Devices
6457 Howard Street
Niles, IL 60714-3301
(847) 588-3001

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Noren Pan
npan@mldevices.com
6457 Howard Street
Niles,  IL 60714-3301
(847) 588-3001

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal addresses the need for the development of higher efficiency power amplifiers at L-band using GaAs HBT (heterojunction bipolar transistors) for pulsed mode radar applications. In this proposal we offer a novel approach for signifcantly improving the thermal characteristics of high power GaAs based HBTs. This work will be accomplished by the development of a high-yield, 4-inch epitaxial liftoff (ELO) technology accompanied by the bonding of the GaAs device wafer onto a diamond substrate. The power added efficiency is expected to be at least 65% with an improvement in power density by 50%.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Radar remote sensing is a critical application of NASA's exploratory mission. Synthetic aperture radar can provide measurements to water cycle, global ecosystems, ocean circulation, and ice mass. L-band radar is particularly attractive for these applications. High efficiency, lightweight, and high reliability are key attributes for space-qualified components.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The major potential application for L-band power amplifiers is in wireless communications. As the capabilities of wireless devices expand, there is an increasing need for compact, efficient power amplifiers. The proposed structures are an excellent technology platform for meeting this market demand for improved power amplifier performance at high efficiency levels and lower DC power consumption

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
RF


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.02-9783
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: A 10kWatt 36GHz Solid-State Power Amplifier using GaN-on-Diamond

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Group4 Labs, LLC
1600 Adams Drive, Suite 112
Menlo Park, CA 94025-1449
(650) 688-5760

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
FELIX EJECKAM
FELIX_EJECKAM@GROUP4LABS.COM
1600 Adams Drive, Suite 112
Menlo Park,  CA 94025-1449
(408) 887-6682

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase-I SBIR proposal proposes for the first time ever, the use of a new class of materials - Gallium Nitride-on-diamond - in the manufacture of very high power, high-temperature, Ka-band solid-state MMICs. In this particular Phase-I, the first ever 34-38GHz GaN-on-Diamond FETs will be demonstrated, exhibiting a record 5-10 W/mm at record efficiency and temperature levels. Arrays of these FETs will be used to form 10KWatt Power Amplifiers (PA) MMICs in Phase-II. Polycrystalline free standing CVD diamond – nature's most efficient thermal conductor – enables nearly perfect heat extraction from a "hot" device (Thermal conductivities of GaAs, Si, and SiC are 35W/m/K, 150W/m/K and 390W/m/K respectively; diamond ranges from 1200-2000 W/m/K depending on quality). In the proposed scheme, the device's active epitaxial layers are removed from their original host substrate and transferred to a specially treated low-cost CVD diamond substrate using a proprietary low-cost manufacturable scheme. The active junction rests just 20-nm from diamond. The semiconductor-on-diamond technology proposed here may be applied to GaAs, SiC, SiGe, etc. at up to 8" in wafer diameter.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
2-10KW Ka-band (34-36GHz) solid-state Power Amplifiers for use in the manufacture radar equipment. Radar may be used in SWOT, GLISTIN, clouds and precipitation studies

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
GaN-on-Diamond Power Amplifiers may be used for Base-stations (3G and WiMax). Also, GaN-on-Diamond wafers ay be used for blue/white LEDs (displays), and Laser Diodes (storage, DVD, litho).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Beamed Energy
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Cooling
Thermal Insulating Materials
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
RF
Microwave/Submillimeter
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Substrate Transfer Technology
High-Energy
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Optical & Photonic Materials
Radiation Shielding Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.03-9278
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Passive Microwave Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Active Noise Sources

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Virginia Diodes, Inc.
979 Second Street, SE
Charlottesville, VA 22902-6172
(434) 297-3257

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffrey Hesler
Hesler@VADiodes.com
979 Second Street SE
Charlottesville,  VA 22902-6172
(434) 297-3257

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Microwave radiometry is a well-known and extremely useful method to study the chemistry and dynamics of the Earth's atmosphere. For accurate long term measurements, the calibration and stability of the radiometer is of primary importance. Thus, the noise-injection radiometer (NIR), which greatly reduces drifts due to gain and noise figure variation in the receiver system, is highly preferred. The NIR architecture requires an electronic noise injection system consisting of a noise diode, a switch and a coupler to inject the noise into the signal waveguide. NIRs are now commonly used at lower frequency, but above about 100 GHz the noise diodes become much more difficult to achieve. Recently, VDI has measured significant ENR above 100 GHz from GaAs Schottky barrier diodes. This preliminary measurement with a non-optimized diode design, coupled with the fact that the VDI diodes have been used as mixers and multipliers to well over 1 THz, offers some promise that GaAs diodes can be used to achieve useful noise power levels to well above 100 GHz. Thus, the focus of this Phase 1 proposal is the investigation of noise diodes and noise sources based on GaAs Schottky diode technology for noise-injection radiometer systems above 100 GHz.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The focus of this proposal is the development of electronic calibration systems based on noise diodes for frequencies in the range from about 100 GHz through 1,000 GHz. Such noise sources will be useful for a wide range of NASA applications, including the high frequency radiometers proposed for SWOT and other remote sensing missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
VDI's research program is focused on developing the fundamental technologies that are required for the full development of the terahertz frequency band for scientific and commercial applications. Noise sources based on diode technology are an incredibly useful tool that is routinely used in a wide variety of applications below 100 GHz. The lack of suitable noise diodes above 100 GHz significantly hinders the continuing development of terahertz applications. In the specific example of NASA's space based radiometer systems; the lack of electronic noise sources greatly complicates the routine calibration of radiometer systems, and thereby reduces the power and usefulness of remote sensing systems. Non-NASA applications include noise figure measurements, analog and digital test equipment, spectrum analyzer calibration, and a range of military applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Microwave/Submillimeter


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.03-9640
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Passive Microwave Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Cost Automated Module Assembly for 180 GHz Devices

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NxGen Electronics, Inc.
9771 Clairemont Mesa Blvd., Suite A
San Diego, CA 92124-1300
(858) 309-6610

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Donald Hashigawa
donh@nxgenelect.com
9771 Clairemont Mesa Blvd
San Diego,  CA 92124-1300
(858) 309-6610

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Emergence of Indium Phosphide IC's has made possible devices operating at frequencies up to 200GHZ and beyond. Building modules using these devices opens a goldmine of military and commercial applications. Systems integration of these devices into affordable and reliable modules has been a challenge due to costs associated with assembly requirements. Research into: placement precision requirements, material selection and cost, assembly processes, and automation are the subjects of this proposal. Because of its capabilities, NxGen Electronics is uniquely qualified to perform this research. Since 2003 JPL has been developing Miniature MMIC low power Radiometers for GeoSTAR and PATH Missions. Current weather and surface observational satellites employ both infrared (IR) and microwave (MW) atmospheric sounders. Since clouds are almost completely opaque at infrared wavelengths, sounds require cloud free observation. POES satellites provide coverage but provide coverage in relatively narrow swaths, and with revisit time of 12-24 hours. GeoSTAR offers the possibility of MW temperature and water vapor soundings as well as rain mapping from GEO. The results of this SBIR research will be a direct benefit to these programs by using their requirements as a focus for the study, and provide the groundwork for broader support for the commercialization process.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For years NASA/JPL and NOAA have been engaged in providing weather forecasting data to the meteorological community. Current systems are lacking in terms of real time, continuous measurements of temperature and water vapor. As recent Hurricane events have demonstrated, this data would be crucial to minimize dangers and damage from such events. Another important project involves research into how global precipitation, evaporation, and cycling of water changes. Together the GeoSTAR and PATH projects have developed instruments to support this need based on 90 GHz MMIC technologies. Satellite deployable designs will require assembling large arrays of 180GHz MMIC devices, which has proven to be costly and labor intensive. For the past two years NxGen has been a participant by providing many of the 90GHz modules. NxGen believes it can lead the research into assembling low cost MMIC module assemblies at 180 GHz which will benefit many future NASA/JPL designs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non NASA applications for low cost MIMIC devices operating at frequencies above 60GHz are enormous. Traditionally microwave designers have used discrete devices at great expense and size penalties limiting their applicability. The emergence of Indium Phosphide heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBT's) has now made it possible to offer 60-100GHz system solutions at lower cost with unprecedented performance advantages. Missile Radar (smaller antennas), Telecommunications (competing with cable), and Collision Avoidance systems are but a few of the applications where operation at these high frequencies in a compact and low cost implementation would benefit. Two major obstacles needed to be overcome are cost of assemblies in large volume and substrate costs. NxGen Electronics believes that full implementation of the proposed SBIR would greatly enhance its abilities to compete for some of these applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Teleoperation
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
RF
Manned-Maneuvering Units
Composites
Metallics
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.04-8762
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hyperspectral Longwave Infrared Focal Plane Array and Camera Based on Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
QmagiQ
22 Cotton Road, Unit H, Suite 180
Nashua, NH 03063-4219
(603) 821-3092

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mani Sundaram
msundaram@qmagiq.com
22 Cotton Road, Unit H, Suite 180
Nashua,  NH 03063-4219
(603) 821-3092

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a hyperspectral focal plane array and camera imaging in a large number of sharp hyperspectral bands in the thermal infrared. The camera is particularly suitable for the multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) imager of NASA's HyspIRI Mission. In Phase 1, we will develop a crucial camera component: a 640x512 focal plane array (FPA) with 8 - 12 micron broadband longwave spectral response. In Phase 2, we will integrate the FPA with a linear variable filter in a dewar cooler assembly and package the resulting sensor engine with electronics and optics into a compact portable camera. A sample FPA will be delivered at the end of Phase 1. The camera, featuring digital and analog video outputs, will be delivered to NASA at the end of Phase 2 for field testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) HyspIRI Mission - Multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) imager. 2) Ground- and space-based astronomy and astrophysics. 3) Chemical/spectral mapping of forests, vegetation, crops, and landmasses. 4) Temperature mapping of oceans and landmasses. 5) Atmospheric mapping. 6) Pollution monitoring.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) Gas sensing (e.g. for the petrochemical industry). 2) Security and surveillance. 3) Thermography. 4) Medical imaging.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.04-8855
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Digital Array Gas Radiometer (DAGR)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
GATS, Inc.
11864 Canon Blvd., Suite 101
Newport News, VA 23606-4253
(757) 873-5920

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Larry Gordley
l.l.gordley@gats-inc.com
11864 Canon Blvd., Suite 101
Newport News,  VA 23606-4253
(757) 873-5920

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovation proposed here is a digital array gas radiometer (DAGR), a new design for a gas filter correlation radiometer (GFCR) to accurately measure and monitor CO2, CO, CH4, N2O and other key trace gases in the boundary layer from space, aircraft or ground-based platforms. GFCR is a well-known and proven technology for trace gas detection and monitoring. However, its effectiveness in downlooking applications has been limited, primarily because variations in surface albedo degrade the performance. Our DAGR approach builds on traditional GFCR concepts and combines several new key elements: two-dimensional detector arrays, pupil imaging (imaging the aperture), and a novel calibration approach. With these enhancements and appropriate signal processing, the DAGR design overcomes the historical limitations of GFCR in downlooking applications. In addition, this design significantly boosts the sensitivity and expands the dynamic range traditionally available to these sensors. Finally, the innovation provides a calibration technique that nearly eliminates errors due to detector drift effects. The result will be a compact, static, robust system that can accurately measure important boundary layer species from a variety of platforms.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Being insensitive to varying background albedo, DAGR sensors are well suited for sensing boundary layer gases such as CO, CH4, and N2O in downlooking solar scatter applications. The interest in these particular species stems mainly from their role in global climate change. Measurements of CO are essential to separate biomass burning fluxes from fossil fuel emissions. Tracers such as CH4 and N2O reveal the extent of horizontal mixing and spatial patterns of the age of the air. Future NASA missions called for by the NRC Decadal Survey are likely to include such measurements, and would benefit from the DAGR innovation proposed here. DAGR sensors could be configured for aircraft, low-Earth orbit or geostationary platforms. The DAGR design makes it impervious to misalignment and therefore vibration, resulting in a rugged instrument. Candidate NASA missions include ASCENDS, (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons), GACM (Global Atmospheric Composition Mission), and Geo-CAPE (Geostationary Coastal Air Pollution Events). Additionally, a DAGR sensor could be used aboard planetary missions, for example to measure the spatial distribution of CH4 in the Martian atmosphere, thought to be an indicator of biological activity.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Pollutant and Agricultural Monitoring Aircraft and UAV measurements with a DAGR could be used to monitor effects of agricultural and industrial activities for specific emissions in geographical areas of interest. Agricultural operations produce a variety of particulates and gases that influence air quality, including NH3, H2S, CH4, N2O and airborne pathogens. These impact human health, the environment and climate. The Space Dynamics Lab (SDL), teamed with the Department of Agriculture, is developing systems to measure pollutant and greenhouse gases. DAGR would be an excellent compliment to these efforts. With innovative methods for combining gas cells and fiber optics, extremely small (the size of digital cameras) and sensitive DAGR instruments are possible. Climate Monitoring Greenhouse gas credit trading is becoming a sensitive issue, but a major obstacle is the inability to accurately measure baseline emissions. A DAGR system could provide such measurements. SDL is a participant in the Utah Science Technology and Research (USTAR) initiative, designed to bring new products to market. If successful through Phase II, GATS and SDL plan to work with USTAR to develop and market DAGR as a commercial climate-monitoring sensor. Two implementations are envisioned: 1) a ground based open-path system for local source monitoring, and 2) a light aircraft/UAV version for regional monitoring.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.04-8859
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Spatial Filter Array

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luminit, LLC
20600 Gramercy Place, Suite 203
Torrance, CA 90501-1821
(310) 320-1066

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jun Ai
kyu@luminitco.com
20600 Gramercy Place, Suite 203
Torrance,  CA 90501-1821
(310) 320-1066

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To address the NASA Earth Science Division need for spatial filter arrays for amplitude and wavefront control, Luminit proposes to develop a novel polarization-preserving Integrated Spatial Filter Array (iSFA) comprising 36 x 36 waveguides and two microlens arrays in a hexagonal configuration. Each waveguide acts as a polarization maintaining single-mode fiber and is precisely mapped to a pair of input/output lenslets. The 36 x 36 waveguides have identical fast and slow polarization axes and can be mass-fabricated to reduce cost and enhance placement accuracy, uniformity, throughput and reliability. The iSFA will be hermetically packaged in a 1 cubic inch box to withstand high radiation and temperature extremes in space. In Phase I, we will demonstrate the feasibility of iSFA, which will reduce the development risk of a Phase II 36 x 36 prototype iSFA. The demonstrated results will offer NASA enhanced nulling coronagraph imaging for detection of planets beyond our solar system with the Terrestrial Planet Finder.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed iSFA will enable deep null with enhanced placement accuracy, uniformity, throughput and reliability. Monolithic integration and hermetically sealed packaging will make the device suitable for NASA applications including amplitude and wavefront control for Terrestrial Planet Finder and Stellar Imager.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Since it can provide precise amplitude and wavefront control, the iSFA has wide potential non-NASA applications in areas such as free-space optical communications, laser satellite communications, remote sensing, environmental monitoring, and LADAR imager sensors.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Laser
Optical
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.04-8873
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: The Development of Polarimetric and Nonpolarimetric Multiwavelength Focal Plane Arrays

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Phoebus Optoelectronics, LLC
760 Parkside Ave, Room 313
Brooklyn, NY 11226-1508
(718) 484-7033

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Thomas James
thomas.l.james@gmail.com
760 Parkside Ave, Room 313
Brooklyn,  NY 11226-1508
(718) 484-7033

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
High-performance polarimetric and nonpolarimetric sensing is crucial to upcoming NASA missions, including ACE and CLARREO and the multi-agency VIIRS NPP project. The objective of the proposed project is to use plasmonic/photonic hybrid crystals to develop multiwavelength polarimetric focal plane arrays (FPAs) that exceed performance requirements for ACE and CLARREO, while reducing costs through component integration. Plasmonic/photonic hybrid crystal films are an enabling technology and can be used to develop high spectral resolution, low crosstalk components for other NASA missions, such as GEO-CAPE, as well as transparent metal contacts for high-efficiency sensors and solar cells, Additionally, hybrid crystals eliminate several problems, such as diffraction, light scattering, moving parts, and the need to dice/bond components. This project will use recent discoveries in Plasmonic and Photonic Crystals research that allow for polarimetric control of the flow and super focusing/beaming of light, concepts that have been analytically and experimentally verified. The polarimetric control of the flow of light allows the development of devices that separate polarization components of an incident beam and detect the separate components in the same or different pixels of a FPA. The hybrid crystals can play several roles, including polarization splitter/filters, antireflection coatings, superfocusing elements and electrical contacts.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed project will lead directly to commercialization of polarimetric sensors ideally suited to NASA's upcoming ACE and CLARREO missions and VIIRS NPP project. Through knowledge gained about theoretical modeling and fabrication methodologies, the project may also lead to other photonic devices of use to NASA. For example, the light-concentrating abilities of Phoebus's recently designed plasmonic Fresnel zone plates are well-suited to creation of pixel-sized microlenses, to be fabricated atop IR focal plane arrays. Such devices improve sensitivity of space-based imaging and remote sensing systems by enabling smaller, lower-noise detector elements without loss of light-gathering power while simultaneously reducing system mass. Fabry-Perot interferometers are currently used as narrowband wavelength filters for select remote sensing and astronomy applications. By tapping into very narrow bandwidth light-circulating modes, Phoebus's could also improve on current devices by providing even narrower bandwidths with a simpler, lighter and lower-cost device.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Phoebus's plasmonic/photonic hybrid crystals are an enabling technology with a variety of potential applications spanning multiple device types and industries. With relatively minor adjustments to their dimensions, geometries and material composition, Phoebus's hybrid crystals can elicit extremely diverse light-management phenomena, ranging from wavelength filtering, polarization filtering and polarization beam splitting to light localization, focusing, circulation, weaving and trapping. Phoebus has developed a disciplined device development pipeline, which includes i) polarimetric infrared sensors for improvised explosive device (IED) detection, ii) high-efficiency multi-junction solar cells, iii) chemical/biological photonic sensors and iv) all-optical memory arrays. The total combined annual value of the targeted markets exceeds $10 billion. Phoebus is adopting an intellectual property (IP) licensing business model in which it will develop devices to their prototype stage prior to licensing the technology to device manufacturers. We have already established relationships with leading infrared sensor manufacturers and have begun preliminary collaborations around the commercialization of our polarimetric sensors for military imaging. Our collaborators estimate that our device designs will lead to at least 50x performance improvements, while simultaneously and dramatically reducing prices through component integration.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Microwave/Submillimeter
Optical
Photonics
Composites
Optical & Photonic Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.04-9253
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multi-layer Far-Infrared Component Technology

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zyberwear, Inc.
2114 New Victor Road
Ocoee, FL 34761-9115
(407) 295-5955

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Oliver Edwards
oliver@zyberwear.com
2114 New Victor Road
Ocoee,  FL 34761-9115
(407) 295-5955

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase I SBIR will demonstrate the feasibility of a process to create multi-layer thin-film optics for the far-infrared/sub-millimeter wave spectral region. The process will create alternating sub-wavelength layers of window and air with high index contrast. The process proven in Phase I will be applied to Phase II commercial prototypes including mirrors with reflectivity exceeding 99.99%, design tunable band-pass and band-blocking filters, anti-reflection optics, and scanning Fabry-Perot spectrometers with simultaneous unprecedented high resolution and broad free spectral range at 100 micron wavelengths. Such spectroscopic component technology can be immediately integrated into a number of future NASA missions in Earth and planetary science, astronomy, and astrophysics, as well as having dual use and large potential markets in defense, security, and biomedicine.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Sensor improvements to meet the sensing needs of future Earth science, planetary science, and astronomy & astrophysics missions. The far-infrared spectra of galactic sources are used to determine atomic and molecular abundances, temperatures and electron densities [7], and high resolution is needed in the study of molecular line shapes, which are important for kinematic studies Far-infrared spectra are useful to measure abundance of atmospheric gases such as H20, O3, CO, and N2O [4, 8]. Even non-polar atmospheric molecules such as N2, O2, and CO2 can be detected at submillimeter wavelengths due to weak transient dipole moments induced by collisions [4]. Other minor atmospheric constituents such as HNO3, NO2, HCl, HF, and OH may be detected also [4]. The array of market opportunities within NASA for these components, and more broadly in the defense and biomedical communities, make the subject technology a very attractive business opportunity.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
SECURITY: The ability of THz imaging to see through luggage walls, envelopes, and clothing and simultaneously to run a "fingerprint" spectrum on complex molecules (drugs, explosives, weaponry) it senses makes rapid development of the proposed THz optical technology very desirable. MEDICINE: THz can image skin cancer clearly, when ordinary photography reveals nothing, and can replace dental -rays... while delivering a spectral analysis of the image. MILITARY APPLICATIONS: The military obviously has all the security-control problems of the commercial market. Two additional problems are of military importance: mine clearing and remote detection of improvised explosive devices. THz imaging can penetrate through dry soil and show buried metallic and nonmetallic objects

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Biomolecular Sensors
Optical
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.04-9340
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: FIR Detectors/Cameras Based on GaN and Si Field-Effect Devices

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sensor Electronic Technology, Inc.
1195 Atlas Road
Columbia, SC 29209-2531
(803) 647-9757

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jianyu Deng
deng@s-et.com
1195 Atlas Road
Columbia,  SC 29209-2531
(803) 647-9757

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SETI proposes to develop GaN and Si based multicolor FIR/THz cameras with detector elements and readout, signal processing electronics integrated on a single chip. The active detector elements will be submicron gated channels with 2 dimensional electron gas (2DEG). The devices with gated 2DEG (commonly known as field-effect transistors) respond to the incoming FIR radiation due to the rectification of radiation induced oscillations of electron density (electron plasma). Phase I of the project will be devoted to the development, design, and characterization of the single pixel, consisting of an array of field-effect transistors, targeting at responsivity increase of 100 times, and demonstrating the technical feasibility of 10^10 cm Hz^0.5/W detectivity.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We develop detectors for far infrared (FIR) range which provides information on emissions from cold dust, molecular clouds, and contains the cold space background, usually referred to as the relict radiation (2.783 ± 0.025 K). The specific signatures in the FIR spectral range provide the information on temperature, pressure and velocities of the gases involved; in other word, the essential information, valuable for modern theories of star and galaxies formation and evolution. Our plasma wave approach will provide superior advantages over commercial FIR/THz cameras on cost, speed, resolution, and sensitivity performance.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our proposed FIR camera is also suitable for study of upper Earth atmosphere, such as mapping the famous ozone holes. The potential applications of the THz waves (radiation with the wave lengths from 1 mm to 10 &#956;m) also include detection and identification of harmful biological and chemical agents, explosives, biomedical imaging, defectoscopy, and Earth atmosphere exploration.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Biomolecular Sensors
Biochemical
Microwave/Submillimeter
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.04-9429
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: A 64x64 Low Noise Cryogenic Readout Multiplexer for Far IR Focal-Plane Arrays

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TechnoScience Corporation
P.O. Box 60658
Palo Alto, CA 94306-0658
(650) 838-9833

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jam Farhoomand
jam.farhoomand@nasa.gov
P.O. Box 60658
Palo Alto,  CA 94306-0658
(650) 838-9833

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to investigate the feasibility of developing a low noise, two-side buttable, 64x64 readout multiplexer with the following key design features: 1- By far the largest readout array developed for far IR detectors to date. Four of these readout can be butted together to form a >16k-pixel mosaic array satisfying the need of the next generation of astronomical instruments. 2- Optimized for use with far infrared detectors requiring low bias levels. The unit-cell design will maintain constant bias across the detector during the integration eliminating non-linearity and detector debiasing. The design will also minimize the pixel-to-pixel DC variation which improves the bias uniformity across all pixels of the array. 3- Capable of operation at cryogenic temperatures at least as low as 1.6K. Advanced monolithic cryo-CMOS technology will guarantee deep cryogenic operation with minimal impact on noise performance. 4- Offers the potential of being directly hybridized to IR detector arrays using indium-bump technology. This technology has been identified by NASA as well as the science and astronomy community as key for future far IR astronomy. It fits well within the scope of the SBIR Subtopic S1.04 and will be a benefit to many large and small NASA missions including SAFIR/CALISTO and SOFIA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Astronomical instruments developed under Program such as SAFIR/CALISTO, science instruments for SOFIA, upcoming projects under Astrobiology Program, balloon-borne instruments for atmospheric research, and laboratory science instruments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aerospace industry: In addition to the aerospace companies that are under contract to NASA and directly participate in the space program, there are those that independently manufacture infrared detector arrays in large formats. Some aerospace companies that would be interested in our product are Raytheon Vision Systems, Boeing, Rockwell, and Ball Aerospace. Science groups at universities and national labs: Astronomical science instruments for observations at ground-based observatories and instruments for basic research.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Instrumentation
Microwave/Submillimeter
Highly-Reconfigurable


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.04-9525
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Photonic RF Spectrometer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Spectrum Magnetics, LLC
5 Innovation Way
Newark, DE 19711-5459
(302) 292-1612

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hao Zhu
hzhu@spectrum-magnetics.com
5 Innovation way
Newark,  DE 19711-5459
(302) 292-1612

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Leveraging on recent breakthroughs in broadband photonic devices and components for RF and microwave applications, SML proposes a new type of broadband microwave spectrometer with performance and affordability that were not attainable before. The photonic microwave spectrometer overcomes the constrains associated with microwave electronics, linearly and simultaneously offering 6-18 GHz (potentially up to 100 GHz) bandwidth, high resolution of sub-hundred MHz, and huge numbers of channels (hundreds to 1024 channels). The devices and components used in the proposed novel spectrometer are commercial off-the-shelf. Our miniature low cost design is well suited for the spectrum monitor and sensor requirement for a wide range of NASA, military and commercial applications. Our unconventional flight qualifiable approach eliminates the need for frequency down-converter, moving components, local oscillator, and has intrinsically temperature independent operation. In Phase I, SML will test an evaluation prototype to demonstrate the proposed novel RF/microwave spectrometer based on high performance components and build a system model to simulate and verify spectrometer's design and performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications: Microwave remote sensing is a powerful tool to monitor ocean water, snow and ice cover, soil moisture and atmospheric trace constituents such as ozone, CO, HCN, NO, SO2, etc. The proposed microwave spectrometer is a key component in microwave remote sensing. With proposed microwave spectrometer provides enough resolution in a broad spectrum for astronomers to accurately measure Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
DoD Applications: A true real-time broadband spectrometer is a powerful tool to monitor the communication channel, which will greatly improve military communication quality. Meanwhile, the proposed spectrometer can be applied in reconnaissance of military communication and radar signal in the battlefield. Commercial Applications: This spectrometer can also be applied in commercial wireless communication and satellite communication to realize dynamic management and distribution of communication channel. Meanwhile, the spectrometer is a popular instrument in microwave electronics, astronomy, biology, physics and remote sensing of the earth and ocean. The largest market application for next-generation of the spectrometer is in the wireless communication industry and advanced Internet system. The proposed spectrometer makes it possible for real-time monitor of communication and dynamic distribution of signal channel frequency. The communication pipes, which will serve as the foundation for the new economy, must be in place and maintained to handle the tremendous and increasing data flow that is being generated. We are in the early stages of the largest transformation of the communication infrastructure in history - the shift to fiber and photonics from copper and electronics.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Microwave/Submillimeter
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.05-8508
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detector Technologies for UV, X-Ray, Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Single Photon Counting Readout Circuits and APD Arrays with Capability from UV to IR

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Epitaxial Technologies, LLC
1450 South Rolling Road
Baltimore, MD 21045-3863
(410) 455-5594

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Leye Aina
oaina@epitaxialtechnologies.com
1450 South Rolling Road
Baltimore,  MD 21045-3863
(410) 455-5594

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The overall goal of the proposed Phase I SBIR project is to develop and demonstrate 256x256 segmented readout integrated circuits (ROICs) that can read, digitize and count the response of linear-mode single photon counting avalanche photodiode (APD) pixels with picosecond readout capability and bandwidth at least an order of magnitude better than currently available ROICs. We will accomplish this by designing an ultrahigh speed front-end amplifier for an existing ROIC architecture that will be capable of low noise, wideband amplification of picosecond photocurrent pulses induced by single photons in the APD. In Phase I of this project, we will design, model and simulate the performance of higher speed ROIC analog front ends that will enable readout speed enhancement by as much as a factor of 10 compared to the performance of existing ROICs. In Phase II, we will design, fabricate and test 256 x 256 ultra-high speed ROICs and 256 x 256 linear-mode APD arrays.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology will advance the space science technology development program of NASA and make available new space technologies to enable and enhance exploration and expand our knowledge of the universe. Further, the innovative technology will have numerous important NASA applications, such as: · Lidar for NASA robotic landing systems (lunar & Mars) · Astrophysics and molecular spectroscopy of astronomical objects · Picosecond spectroscopy of weak fluorescence from biomaterials (molecular imaging, etc) · Laser radar of distant targets · Inter-satellite communications and free space laser communication · Earth remote sensing to survey crops, forest foliage, and natural resources etc. · Measurement of the spatial and temporal variation of water and clouds for atmospheric research;

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA and commercial applications for the proposed ROIC and APD arrays include: · Airborne 3-D imaging LADAR transmitter/sensor (and sophisticated image processing) to penetrate dense trees and camouflage in order to detect, identify, and characterize targets on the battlefield such as tanks and armored personnel carriers. · Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV) seekers: uses three passive sensors (one visible and two infrared (IR)) for acquisition, tracking, limited discrimination, and aim point selection in the terminal homing phase. · Passive imaging camera with the capability of generating real-time displays of imaging scene. The FPAs of such cameras can be fabricated in high volume and at low cost; · Commercial detectors operating in the 1.1mm-1.5mm wavelength range are widely used for fiber optic communications. · Ultra-sensitive detectors and receivers for free space communication;

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Perception/Sensing
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Laser
Optical
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.05-8779
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detector Technologies for UV, X-Ray, Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: GaN-Based, Low-Voltage Avalanche Photodiodes for Robust and Compact UV Imagers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SVT Associates
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344-3677
(952) 934-2100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Amir Dabiran
dabiran@svta.com
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie,  MN 55344-3677
(952) 934-2100

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase I SBIR program is directed toward the development of a novel low-voltage (~10V) AlGaN-based multi-quantum well (MQW) avalanche photodiode (APD) on low-cost substrates. The high-gain, high-speed and low-noise operation of the proposed device allow the replacement of bulkier and more fragile photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) for many UV photon-counting and imaging applications. In particular, reduction in size and weight in addition to improvements in reliability and ruggedness compared to PMTs, make this technology very suitable for some of the NASA's planned space missions as well as other civilian and defense applications that require high-sensitivity, solar-blind UV detection.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High performance optical sensors are essentials part of the enabling technology for future space-borne astronomy and planetary missions. The proposed low-voltage, high-gain and low-noise APDs can be a rugged and compact replacement for PMT tubes in many of these applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Fabrication of low-cost UV detectors and imaging arrays is very important for many applications including optical communications, medical imaging, polymer curing, air and water purification, and chemical/biological hazard detection.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomolecular Sensors
Sterilization/Pathogen and Microbial Control
Biochemical
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.05-9008
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detector Technologies for UV, X-Ray, Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Longwave Imaging for Astronomical Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
QmagiQ
22 Cotton Road, Unit H, Suite 180
Nashua, NH 03063-4219
(603) 821-3092

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mani Sundaram
msundaram@qmagiq.com
22 Cotton Road, Unit H, Suite 180
Nashua,  NH 03063-4219
(603) 821-3092

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a compact portable longwave camera for astronomical applications. In Phase 1, we will develop and deliver the focal plane array (FPA) - a crucial camera component. In Phase 2, we will integrate the FPA with electronics and optics into a compact package and deliver the resulting camera to NASA for field testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) Ground- and space-based astronomy and astrophysics. 2) Chemical/spectral mapping of forests, vegetation, crops, and landmasses. 3) Temperature mapping of oceans and landmasses. 4) Atmospheric mapping. 5) Pollution monitoring.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) Gas sensing (e.g. for the petrochemical industry). 2) Security and surveillance. 3) Thermography. 4) Medical imaging.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.05-9434
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detector Technologies for UV, X-Ray, Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultra-Low Noise Quad Photoreceiver for Space Based Laser Interferometric Gravity Wave Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Discovery Semiconductors, Inc.
119 Silvia Street
Ewing, NJ 08628-3200
(609) 434-1311

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shubhashish Datta
sdatta@chipsat.com
119 Silvia Street
Ewing,  NJ 08628-3200
(609) 434-1311

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Gravity wave detection using space-based long-baseline laser interferometric sensors imposes stringent noise requirements on the system components, including the large area photoreceiver front ends. The proposed innovation utilizes dual depletion region technology to produce a large area (1mm diameter) 2x2 quad p-i-n InGaAs photodiode array having ~2.1pF capacitance per quadrant. The small capacitance of the quad photodiode array is leveraged in combination with a low-noise JFET-input operational amplifier to manufacture ultra-low noise quad photoreceiver array. Each element (quadrant) of the photoreceiver array will have an input equivalent current noise <2pA/sq.rt. Hz in a frequency range of 2 to 20MHz. This will enable shot noise dominated performance at an optical local oscillator power of ~100mW per quadrant.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The low-noise large area photoreceivers are suitable for numerous space-based optical systems, such as: 1) Long baseline laser interferometry; 2) Global 3D profiling of wind velocity; 3) River flow, height, and width monitoring for improved water resource management; and 4) Remote sensing missions to other planets. These devices can also to be used for ground-based free-space NASA applications, such as wind mapping for rocket launches.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The dual-depletion region technology allows high speed photodiode operation in conjunction with good noise performance. Consequently, the low-noise large area photoreceivers can be used for following free-space (ground-based, airborne, and space-based) commercial applications, such as: 1) Free space communication links; 2) Airport wind monitoring; 3) Airline clear air turbulence sensing for improved passenger safety and route optimization for improved fuel efficiency; and 4) Wind profiling for potential wind farm sites.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Laser
Gravitational
Optical
Photonics
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Optical & Photonic Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.05-9717
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detector Technologies for UV, X-Ray, Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Highly Efficient FUV Photodetector with AlGaN Nanowire Photocathode

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821
(310) 320-3088

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Shnitser
psproposals@poc.com
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance,  CA 90501-1821
(310) 320-3088

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To address the NASA GSFC need for significant improvements in wide bandgap materials and detectors for UV applications, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Silicon Microchannel Plate solar-blind photodetector with an AlGaN nanowire photocathode fabricated directly on the MCP entrance plane (NW-Si-MCP). This innovative photocathode and the technology of its growth on the Si microchannel plate enables us to meet NASA requirements for high quantum efficiency, low noise, radiation-hard, reliable, and potentially low cost solar-blind photodetectors. The large size and high number of microchannels offers superior spectral and spatial resolution for future NASA space instruments involved in the investigation of the origin of Universe, planet finding, and understanding Sun-Earth interactions while simultaneously improving the sensitivity of new instruments and avoiding an expensive increase of their cost due to optical system size. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of fabrication of AlGaN nanowire photocathodes for NW-Si-MCP detectors by fabricating the photocathode samples and demonstrating their quantum efficiency in the spectral range from 100 nm to 200 nm (TRL level 4). In Phase II, POC plans to develop a fully functional NW-Si-MCP prototype and demonstrate its long-term operation in harsh conditions (TRL level 6).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed highly efficient, large area UV photodetector will directly contribute to the success of future NASA missions planned within several research programs, such as the Explorers, Discovery, Origins, Beyond Einstein, and Vision Missions. Current and future missions that will rely on this technology include HST-STIS, GALEX, COS, EUVE, XMM-OM, CHIPS, and FAUST.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed nanowire photocathode technology will find a variety of commercial and military applications. We expect that besides missile plume detection, our NW-Si-MCPs will be used in scientific instrumentation for the investigation of fluorescence in organic and inorganic substances. We also expect that with other types of photocathodes deposited directly on the front surface of POC's MCP, the photodetectors developed will be successfully used in a broad range of applications, such as night vision, underwater vision and communications, and atmospheric research.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Optical
High-Energy
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.06-8783
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Particles and Field Sensors and Instrument Enabling Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Laser Femto-Tesla Magnetic Gradiometer (LFMG)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Polatomic, Inc.
1810 N. Glenville Drive, #116
Richardson, TX 75081-1954
(972) 690-0099

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Slocum
bob_slocum@polatomic.com
1810 N. Glenville Dr., #116
Richardson,  TX 75081-1954
(972) 690-0099

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase 1 SBIR proposal describes development of a conceptual design for a Laser Femto-Tesla Magnetic Gradiometer (LFMG). The LFMG innovations include the ability to make both extremely high-resolution scalar field measurements (10 fT/rtHz) as well as stable and accurate scalar gradiometer measurements. The high stability of the gradiometer measurements makes possible exploratory investigations of temporal variations and gradients in the magnetic field at the Earth's surface due to crustal field changes, core changes, ELF and ULF magnetospheric disturbances, and surface electromagnetic effects associated with earthquakes and volcanic activity. LFMG instruments can be deployed as station magnetometers in gradiometer arrays to monitor geopotential gradient variations over ranges from meters to kilometers. Recently, an extremely high-resolution scalar measurement technique achieving 39 pT/rtHz sensitivity was demonstrated under Navy sponsorship. High-accuracy data linking for vector gradient measurement was demonstrated under the ONR 3MDS Program. The LFMG combines these key innovations to develop an instrument for exploratory research in geomagnetism. The Phase 1 effort will result in an LFMG conceptual design and establish the feasibility of designing and fabricating a brass-board in Phase 2. A plan for the LFMG brass-board installation, calibration, and performance evaluation will be developed for demonstration in Phase 2. The TRL is expected to be 4 at the end of the Phase 1 contract.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The accurate measurement of the magnetic field components and their orientation in space is recognized as a basic requirement for space research. The LFMG will be used to observe magnetic fields at the Earth's surface with extremely high resolution. The major features of the LFMG that set it apart from other magnetic measurement systems are its outstanding accuracy and its ability to difference scalar measurements at many kilometers separation. LFMG magnetic field measurements provide means for studying the structure and dynamics of Earth's interior. On the Earth and other planets, the magnetic field provides unique information on the structure and dynamics of the planetary interior, fluid flow within and upon its surface, and the influence of the solar environment. The LFMG can be used for extremely high resolution investigations of geopotential changes in the Earth's crust associated with earthquakes and volcanic activity and eruptions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The LFMG with its extremely high sensitivity and stability will have a variety of commercial and military applications. including measurement of the magnetic fields at the Earth's surface for geophysical airborne and marine prospecting. The LFMG can serve as the new standard for geomagnetic observatories. The LFMG instruments can be used to investigate surface and magnetospheric effects before and after earthquakes and volcanic activity. The LFMG can technology can be used in the next generation high-sensitivity magnetometers to be used by the US Navy for submarine detection and mine countermeasures applications. The LFMG instruments will add high resolution ELF capability for solving DoD magnetic detection problems. The miniaturized LFMG sensor will have applications in UAVs used for sea and land surveillance for submarines, tanks under trees, tunnels, and underground facilities. The LFMG characteristics of outstanding accuracy and high-frequency signal response will open up a variety of applications in commercial security and surveillance applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Particle and Fields


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.07-9309
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Systems for Sensors and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Circulator for Regenerative Cryocoolers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Atlas Scientific
1367 Camino Robles Way
San Jose, CA 95120-4925
(408) 507-0906

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Maddocks
jmaddocks@atlasscientific.com
1415 Engineering Drive, Rm 1339A
Madison,  WI 53706-1607
(608) 265-4246

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future instruments and platforms for NASA space applications will require increasingly sophisticated thermal control technology, and cryogenic applications will become increasingly more common. For example, the Single Aperture Far-IR (SAFIR) telescope and other cryogenic telescope missions must provide distributed cooling and multiple heat lift. Also, the management of cryogenic propellants requires distributed cooling through integrated heat exchangers for zero boil-off, densification and cooling of structural members. To address these requirements, we propose to develop a lightweight, continuous-flow cooling loop that can provide cooling and temperature control to multiple, distributed loads. This approach allows relatively simple mechanical and electrical integration and maintains high refrigeration system efficiency. The basis of the loop is a rectifying interface that converts the oscillating pressure that characterizes the operation of a regenerative cryocooler into a quasi-steady pressure difference that can be used to drive a continuous flow of cold gas over distances of several meters. The rectifying interface has the potential secondary benefit of rapid and therefore precise load temperature regulation of multiple sensors or structures using actively controlled throttle valves to regulate the local gas flow.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many potential NASA applications for the rectified cooling loop, including cooling large deployable telescopes and multiple distributed loads such as CCD cameras. A prime example is the use of the PT/RCL to provide active shielding and re-liquefaction for zero-boil-off (ZBO) dewars. For example, the manned Mars mission, which requires the in-situ manufacture of propellant, will require the capability to store seed hydrogen, as well as, liquid oxygen and liquid methane for substantial periods of time. NASA also has terrestrial applications for zero-boil-off technology, including cryogenic propellant preservation for Space Shuttle power systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are numerous potential commercial applications for zero-boil-off technology. It has been pointed out, that ZBO would be advantageous for systems used to cool superconducting power lines, superconducting magnets for power generation and energy storage, high temperature superconducting filters for cellular telephone base stations, and MRI magnets and SQUID magnetometers for heart and brain studies. In each of these applications, cryocooler reliability is an issue. Using a system cooled by a ZBO dewar addresses the reliability issue by ensuring that cooling liquid is always present. In the event of a cooler failure, the stored liquid provides a buffer i.e., a period of time during which the cooler may be repaired, or at worst the dewar refilled. It seems, then, that there exists a large potential market for ZBO technology and hence the PT/RCL proposed here

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Propellant Storage
Cooling
Fluid Storage and Handling
Instrumentation
Production


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.07-9379
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Systems for Sensors and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid High-Temperature Superconductor Current Leads for Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tai-Yang Research Company
9112 Farrell Park Lane
Knoxville, TN 37922-8525
(865) 805-7261

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Hilton
dkhilton@tai-yang.com
2031 East Paul Dirac Drive
Tallahassee,  FL 32310-3711
(865) 805-0220

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Tai-Yang Research Company (TYRC) of Tallahassee, Florida proposes to build hybrid high-temperature superconducting current leads for space applications, including compact adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration (ADR) systems for sensor cooling. The current leads will be configured to meet NASA mission requirements for a low heat leak in a package optimized for electrical currents up to 10 A. The novel, proprietary construction by TYRC consists of a tough, flexible cold end section and a high critical temperature warm end section.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential commercial application for NASA is for compact, space-based cryogenics, including sensor-cooling adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration (ADR) systems. NASA systems requiring low-temperature electrical current feeds with a low heat leak will be enhanced by incorporating the hybrid high-temperature superconducting current leads proposed.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential commercial applications outside of NASA may be for compact cryogenic systems for magneto-optical imaging (MOI), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mossbauer spectroscopy, and gyrotron amplifiers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Cooling
Instrumentation
Superconductors and Magnetic
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.08-8497
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact, Ultrasensitive SO2 Monitor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Novawave Technologies
900 Island Drive, Suite 101
Redwood City, CA 94065-5176
(650) 610-0956

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joshua Paul
jbpaul@novawavetech.com
900 Island Drive, Suite 101
Redwood City,  CA 94065-5176
(650) 610-0956

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I proposal seeks to develop an ultrasensitive, laser-based sulfur dioxide gas sensor system for airborne and ground-based atmospheric monitoring. The proposed instrument will be capable of accurately determining sub-parts-per-billion SO2 concentrations in seconds. This compact, instrument will be capable of long-term autonomous operation and have modest power requirements. The Phase I research will demonstrate the feasibility of the technology by performing measurements on SO2 samples using a bench-scale laboratory instrument that employs a novel, frequency agile UV laser source. The results of these tests will be used to quantify detection limits for a Phase II instrument. Commercial systems based on the Phase II prototype will be developed and marketed during Phase III.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications for the technology include monitoring SO2 in the Earth's atmosphere, which is a crucial aerosol precursor and central to our understanding of global warming and climate change.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications based on the sensor technology described in this proposal include industrial monitoring, environmental monitoring, and general chemical analysis. The ability to determine absolute concentrations of gaseous species can also be used for semiconductor gas purity analysis, medical diagnostics, and potentially homeland security applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.08-8703
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultrasensitive Atmospheric Analyzer for Miniature UAVs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Los Gatos Research
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041-1518
(650) 965-7772

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Manish Gupta
m.gupta@lgrinc.com
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View,  CA 94041-1518
(650) 965-7772

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this SBIR Phase I effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop a highly-accurate, lightweight, low-power gas analyzer for quantification of water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) aboard miniature unmanned aerial vehicles (mini-UAVs). This analyzer, which will exploit LGR's patented Off-Axis ICOS technology, will be the first sensor capable of meeting the stringent weight, power, and environmental requirements for miniature UAV deployments. Such deployments are critically important to NASA's Earth Science Division, because they enable more efficient and cost effective Earth observation measurements. These measurements complement current satellite observations by providing higher horizontal resolution and vertical profiling, enabling better quantification of carbon sources and sinks.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA Earth Science Division is primarily concerned with studying how the global environment is changing and how such changes effect human civilization. The majority of these observations involve using satellite data to make measurements of key atmospheric species on the planetary scale. In order to verify and complement this data with better accuracy, temporal resolution, and spatial profiles, NASA seeks to develop innovative in situ sensors for these important gases. Moreover, in an effort to make such deployments more numerous, efficient, and cost-effective, these analyzers need to be highly-accurate and deployable on miniature unmanned aerial vehicles (mini-UAVs) and other small aircraft. The objective of this SBIR program is to develop and deliver a atmospheric gas analyzer that is suitable for such platforms.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Besides its application to NASA, a compact, ultrasensitive gas analyzer also has significant commercial application. Through a series of strategic partnerships, LGR is developing a suite of analytical sensors to measure trace gases for industrial process control monitoring and petrochemical applications. The proposed work is essential in making these instruments more compact, rugged, and cost competitive, and will thus enlarge the potential market size significantly.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.08-8917
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reusable In Situ AirCore System for CO2 and Trace Gas Measurements

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
KALSCOTT Engineering, Inc.
PO Box 3426
Lawrence, KS 66046-4921
(785) 979-1113

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tom Sherwood
tom.sherwood@kalscott.com
PO Box 3426
Lawrence,  KS 66046-4921
(785) 979-1113

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6 to 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A novel design for an in situ atmospheric sensor for CO2 and trace gases is proposed. The sensor, named AirCore, provides the advantages of existing in situ sensors (e.g. high resolution) but eliminates possible biases in analysis that often originate from imperfect measurement condition. The AirCore provides a significant savings in cost and weight while increasing the capabilities of existing in situ sensors. The AirCore system consists of the AirCore gas sampler and the support system to accomplish its high altitude (nominally 70,000 ft.) mission. This support system includes the sensor launch and recovery components. The AirCore can be launched and recovered by a crew of two which reduces the operational cost of the system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology can be used for validating satellite data and providing data for weighting functions used for satellite-based remote sensors. It can also be used to provide an inexpensive alternative for atmospheric sampling when high altitude data is required (nominally 70,000 ft).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology can be used to support federal, state, and academic projects in airborne measurements, including climate modeling and earth/environmental science. The system can also be used for pollution monitoring and as ground truth/verification for carbon credt trading, which is an emerging enterprise.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Biochemical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.08-9059
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact Monitor for Airborne Carbon Dioxide Measurements

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eltron Research & Development, Inc.
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder, CO 80301-3241
(303) 530-0263

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Faull
eltron@eltronresearch.com
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder,  CO 80301-3241
(303) 530-0263

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Eltron Research & Development proposes the development of a lightweight, battery-powered instrument for accurately and rapidly monitoring the local concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. In our Phase I program, an advanced CO2 analyzer will be developed with a novel optical sensor employing a sample concentrator in conjunction with single-beam, dual-wavelength infrared measurements. The proposed monitor will utilize a thin, IR transparent film to selectively and reversibly concentrate CO2 for enhanced detection. The film's high partitioning coefficient will enable a short pathlength and low power requirements while achieving the accuracy, response time, and detection limits necessary for airborne atmospheric monitoring. Phase I of this project will accomplish evaluation of a breadboard system in the laboratory; we anticipate a TRL of 4 by the end of Phase I. By the end of the Phase II program, a prototype instrument will be built with ±0.1 ppm resolution in a background of ca. 385 ppm, <10 s response time, 800 mW power requirements, and 250 g total weight. The CO2 analyzer, which will be of reduced size and significantly more cost-effeective than the current state-of-the-art, will be suitable for use on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and balloon platforms.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Eltron's airborne CO2 monitor will provide NASA climatologists with a powerful tool for studying the effects of human activity on the carbon cycle and its impact on global climate change. The monitor is specifically aimed at meeting the needs of NASA's Airborne Science program. Data collected with Eltron's monitor could provide direction for future technology development driven by NASA and other government organizations tracking CO2, for example NOAA, DOE and US EPA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Ever increasing awareness of the effects of global warming is compelling national, regional and metropolitan monitoring of CO2 levels. Eltron's technology would provide a cost effective, sensitive and accurate monitoring tool. Low-cost and accurate CO2 monitoring could find widespread use in medical, industrial, agricultural, and security applications. Precise regional CO2 measurements also could help chart the accuracy of carbon trading systems involving "credits" and "offsets" now in use in various countries around the world. Monitoring CO2 sequestration sites will be a necessity in the future, and this device would be ideal for such use. A network of low-cost sensors could be arranged over and around sequestration sites to enable real-time leak detection.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.08-9098
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Technology Cloud Particle Probe for UAS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SPEC Incorporated
3022 Sterling Circle, Suite 200
Boulder, CO 80301-2377
(303) 449-1105

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Lawson
plawson@specinc.com
3022 Sterling Circle, Suite 200
Boulder,  CO 80301-2377
(303) 449-1105

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has initiated a program to explore the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) using the Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial System (UAS), which has a payload of over 1500 lb (680 kg), max ceiling of 65,000 ft (20 km) at a cruising speed of 335 kts and mission endurance of over 31 hours. These attributes make the Global Hawk UAS especially valuable as a tool for investigating subvisible cirrus (SVC) clouds, which are commonly found in the Tropical Tropospheric Layer (TTL) and are considered to have a significant potential impact on global climate change. The first of a series of NASA field programs, the UAS Aura Validation Experiment (UAS-AVE), is scheduled to take place in 2009 with the Global Hawk investigating aerosols and gas phase chemistry in the UT/LS. In ensuing years it is anticipated that follow-on field projects will utilize the Global Hawk to investigate properties of SVC clouds. Currently, there is no instrument available for installation on the Global Hawk that is capable of measuring particle size distributions and capturing high-resolution images of cloud particles in SVC. These measurements are essential for understanding the radiative effects that SVC has on the earth energy balance. In Phase I we propose to design and perform proof-of-concept laboratory tests of a state-of-the-art integrated instrument that measures cloud particle size distributions from 1 micron to about 3 mm, and provides three simultaneous digital images of cloud particles. The new probe will combine three instruments that SPEC sells commercially into a compact, aerodynamic package that runs autonomously. In addition, it will be totally compatible with the NASA Research Environment for Vehicle-Embedded Analysis on Linux (REVEAL) system, so that investigators on the ground can view data and control probe functions. In Phase II we propose to build a working prototype and fly it on the Global Hawk (or a Learjet research aircraft if the Global Hawk is not available).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
It is anticipated that NASA will install and operate the new cloud particle probe on the Global Hawk for investigation of subvisible cirrus clouds in upcoming Aura Validation Experiment (AVE) field campaigns. It is also expected that the new integrated cloud particle probe will be installed on piloted NASA aircraft, including the DC-8 and WB-57F, for flight in all types of cloud systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The new integrated cloud particle probe will replace existing technology and be installed on aircraft for research applications, cloud seeding, airframe icing certification and in icing wind tunnels.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Particle and Fields
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Data Input/Output Devices
Expert Systems
Human-Computer Interfaces
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Optical
Highly-Reconfigurable
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.08-9310
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Fast-Response Atmospheric Turbulence (FRAT) Probe with Gas-Sampling Ducts

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AEROPROBE
1700 Kraft Drive, Suite 2350
Blacksburg, VA 24060-6150
(540) 951-3858

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Demetri Telionis
demetri.telionis@aeroprobe.com
1700 Kraft Drive, Suite 2350
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-6150
(540) 951-3858

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of this proposal is to design, construct and test a high-frequency-response air-data probe, the Fast Response Atmospheric Turbulence probe (FRAT probe) that will be able to operate in harsh and humid atmospheric environments. Both requirements, high-frequency response and resistance to water spray can be accommodated by mounting the pressure sensors flush with the probe surface. We will also conduct research on how gas-ingesting ducts can be incorporated in the design without interference with the measuring capabilities of the probe, and we will provide for the incorporation of Anasphere's CO2 sensor. In the first phase of this effort, we will also explore the market for sensors to measure humidity and other physical quantities recommended by NASA and NOAA that can be incorporated in the base of the air-data probe. Accelerometers, magnetometers, GPS, a computer and other electronic equipment will be included to estimate the rigid-body motion of the platform carrying the probe, and then calculate velocity components with respect to an inertial frame. The final product will be the preliminary design of a stand-alone piece of instrumentation, available for mounting on a platform to measure atmospheric turbulence and the fluxes of different species and thermodynamic quantities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This product will be readily available for mounting on any flying platform to measure atmospheric turbulence as part of environmental research or as it relates to aviation safety. Such measurements can improve our understanding of the high-wind boundary layer and the exchange of heat, moisture and momentum across the oceanic or terrestrial surface. Interest has been expressed by NOAA researchers to fly such probes into developing tropical storms. This equipment may also prove valuable in disclosing the fluxes of man-made or natural species, which are key elements of micrometeorology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This instrument may appear useful in commercial micrometeorological applications that require the measurement of sensible heat, water vapor and trace gas fluxes, as they relate to air quality.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.08-9311
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Next Generation, UAV-Class Ozone Photometer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Sciences, Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Sonnenfroh
sonnenfroh@psicorp.com
20 New England Business Center
Andover,  MA 01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Physical Sciences Inc. proposes to develop a compact, rugged, rapid-response, autonomous sensor for in-situ monitoring of ambient O3 from UAVs. Our innovation is to combine newly available UV light emitting diodes (LEDs) with miniaturized, low power, high sensitivity signal detection electronics to create a next generation, UAV-class, photometer for O3. The advent of UV LEDs enables the development of a very compact and highly sensitive monitor for ambient O3. An LED-based sensor has many advantages over currently available technologies and is highly suitable for deployment in UAVs. The Phase I program will demonstrate the feasibility of a breadboard sensor and create a detailed conceptual plan for a fieldable prototype. The TRL at the end of Phase I will be level 4. The Phase II program will fabricate a prototype that can be field demonstrated on an aircraft. The TRL at the end of Phase II will be level 6. Successful completion of Phases I and II will result in a rigorously validated prototype sensor that can monitor ambient O3 with high speed and precision. The sensor architecture can be easily modified to measure other species. Using new mid-IR LEDs, the photometer can monitor trace gases such as CO2 and CO.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The miniature (UV and mid-IR) LED-based sensor will serve as a platform for a suite of compact and low cost gas sensors that can measure a variety of species ranging from ozone, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide that are important for many atmospheric science missions. This sensor platform will provide a compact, low power consumption, low cost tool that is particularly suited for deployment on small aircraft such as UAVs, balloons, or even kites. As an example, a miniature payload consisting of a carbon dioxide photometer and an ozone photometer would be well suited to measuring profiles of CO2 from a UAV for satellite measurement calibration and validation, such as the upcoming Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The miniature (UV and mid-IR) LED-based sensor will serve as a platform for a suite of compact and low cost gas sensors that can address a variety of applications ranging from atmospheric research tools to carbon sequestration monitoring and verification, biomedical diagnostics (specifically breath analysis and operating room health monitoring), home or mobile toxic gas alarms, smart HVAC control, and as a total hydrocarbon sensor for environmental and process control applications. PSI anticipates working with several strategic marketing partners to address the range of potential commercial applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.08-9542
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Self-Calibrating Greenhouse Gas Balloon-Borne Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Southwest Sciences, Inc.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505-3993
(505) 984-1322

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joel Silver
jsilver@swsciences.com
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe,  NM 87505-3993
(505) 984-1322

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Over the past decade, the importance of understanding the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases has been recognized. In particular, airborne measurements of CO2 profiles throughout the troposphere and lower stratosphere have provided a great deal of useful information, but the instrumentation used has been restricted to airplane or large stratospheric-type balloon gondola platforms due to the size, weight and power requirements of these instruments. While a more widespread measurement campaign using smaller, less expensive balloon sondes could provide very important data, such an approach has been limited by the lack of suitable instrumentation. In this SBIR program, Southwest Sciences proposes to developed a lightweight, inexpensive greenhouse gas sensor suitable for balloon sonde measurements, yet exhibiting specifications that approach those of the much larger and expensive research instruments used on current airborne platforms. Using a novel ratiometric measurement technique, this sensor will provide dry air mixing ratios of CO2 without the need for concurrent measurements of temperature, pressure or moisture.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed self-calibrating greenhouse gas sensor will be designed for NASA for use on UAV, balloon, and aircraft platforms. One of the goals of NASA's Office of Science is to use satellite data and suborbital platforms to understand weather and climate of the Earth, both in the present and in the future. Suborbital field campaigns composed of balloons, aircraft, and unmanned aerial vehicles are used to identify processes, validate satellite data, and eventually create parameterizations that allow full use of satellite data. Measurements of the precise variations of carbon dioxide as a function of altitude have been tremendously difficult in the atmosphere, and this sensor will more widespread measurements than currently possible using only large expensive airplane or gondola platforms.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The initial market for the self-calibrating greenhouse gas sensor would be the international atmospheric research community. Research groups that are involved in field campaigns from university, government, and private laboratories would be the customers. Beyond the atmospheric science community, high precision gas measurements are needed in industrial applications. The proposed method will allow for non-intrusive measurements of fluids in fast flows of pipelines, chambers, and smokestacks. Non-intrusive measurements are critically needed when caustic gases are used or when an integrated measurement is needed without disturbing laminar flow. Applications include the petrochemical, semiconductor, and aviation sectors.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.08-9765
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: In Situ Aerosol Detector

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vista Photonics, Inc.
67 Condesa Road
Santa Fe, NM 87508-8136
(505) 466-3830

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrei Vakhtin
vakhtin@vistaphotonics.com
67 Condesa Road
Santa Fe,  NM 87508-8136
(505) 466-3830

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is developing new platform systems that have the potential to benefit Earth science research activities, which include in situ instruments for atmospheric measurements for use on radiosondes, dropsondes, tethered balloons, kites, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Aerosols influence global climate and human health and can affect local and regional weather processes. Despite of their importance, aerosols are the least-understood components of the climate system. There is a need in instrumentation capable of measuring the size distributions of aerosol particles and vertical distributions of aerosols in the atmosphere. Vista Photonics in collaboration with New Jersey Institute of Technology proposes an innovative and inexpensive, although rugged, self-contained, and intelligent optical aerosol measurement technology. The Phase I study will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed technology and outline the design of the Phase II prototype instrument. The successful completion of this program will lead to a compact aerosol measurement instrument that can be used for UAV-, balloon-, radiosonde-, and dropsonde-based in situ measurements of aerosol size distribution, concentration, and aerosol vertical distribution in the atmosphere.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology meets the needs of the "In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science" subtopic of the NASA SBIR Science Program. The technology developed under this research program will provide a new tool for in-situ atmospheric aerosol monitoring. The envisioned target instrument will be compact, low weight and really inexpensive to meet the strict requirements to qualify for use on tethered balloon- and UAV-based platforms, and even on disposable devices such as radiosondes and dropsondes.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Project will lead to development of a new technology of aerosol particle sizing and measurement of aerosol concentration and aerosol vertical distributions in the atmosphere. The instrumentation based on the proposed approach can also be used for drop sizing in clouds, measurements of industrial and agricultural sprays, and environmental monitoring.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.08-9915
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: The Photo-Pneumatic CO2 Analyzer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Atmospheric Observing Systems, Inc.
1930 Central Avenue, Suite A
Boulder, CO 80301-2895
(303) 443-3389

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Smith
jim@aosinc.net
1930 Central Avenue, Suite A
Boulder,  CO 80301-2895
(303) 443-3389

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We are proposing to build a new technology, the photo-pneumatic analyzer. It is small, solid-state, inexpensive, and appropriate for observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) from six of the seven robotic platforms being targeted by NASA in its solicitation. An inexpensive MEMS transducer is integrated into a miniature pair of gas cells to serve as the radiation sensitive element of the analyzer. Absorption by individual vibration-rotation transitions serves as the measure of CO2 Dry Mole Fraction of the sample. The analyzer has significant sensitivity, bandwidth and specificity to 12CO2 or 13CO2. Target sensitivity is 0.1 ppmv at 1 Hz for both isotopes. The analyzer may be modified to detect additional molecular species. The immediate objective is to develop an expendable CO2 analyzer that can be manufactured by machine and can be used to validate observations of CO2 column from spacecraft and can further serve as the basis of a new global monitoring network of climate change. The products targeted for Phase II are: (i) a substantial series of vertical profiles of CO2 that serve to prove the utility of the new technology as payload of the expendable balloon platform and (ii) the manufacturing plan for a commercially viable photo-pneumatic analyzer.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
(i) The photo-pneumatic analyzer technology integrated directly into payloads for six of the seven robotic platforms being targeted by NASA in the airborne monitoring program and the IOOS. (ii) Development of the expendable balloon as a means to provide high precision vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2 in support of NASA suborbital missions. (iii) Calibration/validation of observations of CO2 column made by OCO and ASCENDS, two NASA satellites that are scheduled for launch in Jan. 2009 and 2014 respectively.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
(i) A new photonic detector having large optical throughput and inherent specificity to spectroscopic signatures of sources or of transmitting media. (ii) The capability of monitoring pollution of cities and quantifying efforts of remediation. (iii) A global, ongoing expendable balloon program designed to observe high precision vertical profiles of CO2 that can supplement the great horizontal detail to be provided by satellites. (iv) Global networks of drifter buoys and communication towers equipped with the photo-pneumatic analyzer and able to contribute to data needed by models to predict climate change caused by anthropogenic and natural sources of carbon dioxide. (v) Consumer products, including novelties, able to detect CO2 and other species at a level that is sensitive enough to monitor changes in the environment or breath of the individual person to substantial precision.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Facilities
Expert Systems
Biochemical
Optical
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.08-9921
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniature Mass Spectrometer for Earth Science Research

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ceramitron, LLC
9286 Old Bonhomme Road
St Louis, MO 63132-4323
(314) 341-3085

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Philip Berger
phil@ceramitron.com
9286 Old Bonhomme Rd
St Louis,  MO 63132-4323
(314) 341-3085

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
By drastically reducing the physical footprint of a mass spectrometer to the size of a beverage can, Ceramitron could set a new performance/price standard in the miniaturized MS market. To do this, we propose eliminating the turbomolecular and roughing pumps in favor two chemical sorption pumps (a non-evaporable getter (NEG) and an ion pump), both integrated into the spectrometer's self-contained vacuum enclosure. Ceramitron's patented double-focusing 90<SUP>o</SUP> magnetic-sector unit comprises three printed circuit boards, sandwiched together to form a vacuum-tight enclosure containing a dual-filament EI source, ion slits, a photo- lithographically-deposited energy analyzer, lenses and I/O pins, continuous-dynode electron multiplier and the sorption pumps. Target parameters: 200 daltons mass range, 200 resolving power, 5x10-5 Amps/Torr sensitivity, <2kg total weight, <10 watts power consumption. Sample pressure through a pulsed-gas inlet, with flow restrictor, is ~1E-5 Torr. Internal pumps maintain ~1E-6 Torr with no in-flow. Units will be optimized for harsh operating environments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A lightweight, low-cost universal chemical/gas analyzer based on Ceramitron's novel MS sensor technology deployed in unmanned aerial, surface and underwater platforms could significantly enhance NASA's Earth Science research capabilities. With a mass range of 200 daltons, Ceramitron's MS microsensor can characterize complex gas mixtures and may be especially useful for spatial/temporal mapping of the atmosphere by detecting greenhouse gases, industrial chemicals and aerosols that impact climate and weather conditions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to target applications in NASA's Earth science research, a successful Phase II implementation could address a host of commercial, military and medical applications for such a universal, multigas sensor of essentially the same design. These include early fire detection in public buildings, battlefield standoff detectors, breath analyzers, chemical process control and monitoring, atmospheric GHG characterization, and others.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Biochemical
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Ceramics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.09-8507
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Grasp Algorithms For Optotactile Robotic Sample Acquisition

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cybernet Systems Corporation
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-1639
(734) 668-2567

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Katherine Jordan
proposals@cybernet.com
727 Airport Blvd
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-1639
(734) 668-2567

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Robotic sample acquisition is basically grasping. Multi-finger robot sample grasping devices are controlled to securely pick up samples. While optimal grasps for perfectly modeled objects are known, grasping unmodeled objects, like a surface sample, is an open research problem. A major source of difficulty in robotic grasping, therefore, is the sensing of object parameters and grasp quality. Humans combine the high information content of vision, several types of haptic/tactile sensors in the fingers, and a sophisticated learning process to grasp unknown objects. In comparison, current robotic graspers rely on a much more limited set of sensors, particularly for measuring tactile properties. We propose to develop an algorithm for robust robotic grasping of samples using measurements of object stiffness, incipient slip, and the shape of the contact area between grasper and sample. All three measurements will be performed through a novel robotic grasper containing multiple cameras embedded within its soft silicone "flesh". The proposed control algorithm will use these three measurements to improve a grasp by adjusting both contact point locations and grasp forces.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology will be directly applicable to planetary surface sample acquisition robotics.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
-Robust grasping algorithms useful in unmodeled environments and situations -Novel vision based tactile sensing, able to extract numerous grasp properties (force, contact position, slip, external object localization) from a single sensor. Commercial applications: -Robust grasping algorithms for industrial manipulation -Algorithms successful at handling fragile materials Algorithms useful for unstructured environments, such as assistive robotics in the home

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Manipulation
Perception/Sensing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.09-8929
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Laser Ablation - Optical Cavity Isotopic Spectrometer (LAOCIS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied Spectra, Inc.
46661 Fremont Blvd.
Fremont, CA 94538-6410
(510) 657-7679

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alexander Bolshakov
alexandb@appliedspectra.com
46661 Fremont Blvd.
Fremont,  CA 94538-6410
(510) 657-7679

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal addresses NASA astrobiology objectives, particularly the need for a compact instrument capable of in situ isotopic measurements. We propose the detailed conceptual development of a device for analyzing key isotopic composition in surface materials without sample preparation. We will combine absorption spectroscopy with laser induced vaporization of solid samples for high-resolution isotopic measurements. An immediate focus is on Mars but our concept is also highly germane to other applications relevant to bio- and geochemical objectives. We will evaluate accuracy, sensitivity, and resolution of our technology for isotopic detection of the key elements associated with signs of life (C, S, H, O) in solid materials. All essential design components of the proposed analyzer have been separately developed and demonstrated in very compact form for other applications. In the Phase I, we will develop technology for measuring sulfur isotope ratios in condensed samples. In the Phase II, we will demonstrate the overall performance of the proposed technique and deliver a breadboard prototype instrument. Commercial systems based on the Phase II prototype will be developed and marketed during Phase III.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Laser Ablation Optical Cavity Isotopic Spectrometer (LAOCIS) establishes a new class of instruments for planetary surface exploration. This novel high-resolution sensitive analytical system will provide measurements of selected key isotopes associated with signs of life and can be further extended to many other chemical species and tasks. In future, LAOCIS can be applied to age dating of materials by measuring the isotopic ratios of Rb-Sr and/or U-Pb radiometric pairs. In situ geochronology was specified as "overarching" priority in the recent NRC survey. It will provide a rich field of LAOCIS applications. Because this technology combines physical principles of laser induced breakdown plasma and tunable laser absorption, the future integrated instrument will measure elemental composition (~30 elements simultaneously) and key isotopic abundances in condensed samples. This proposal is particularly focused on Mars but highly relevant to applications on the Moon, other planets, their moons (e.g., Titan, Europa, Io, etc.) and comets. In addition, the measurement system can be utilized for rapid, mobile isotopic measurements on Earth to study biogeochemistry, element cycle studies, human health and ecosystems. The most probable application is the analysis of bulk light element isotope systems, which are relatively abundant allowing minor isotopes to be seen with high signal/noise ratios.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential commercial applications for the LAOCIS will be varied throughout forensic and homeland security applications; government nuclear maintenance and non-proliferation activities; hydrological, petrochemical and geological exploration and relevant field applications; measurement of isotopic tracers/markers for medical practice and drinking water control, and in academic institutions (particularly environmental, medical, nutrient and biogeochemical research). A modification of LAOCIS may be used to increase sensitivity in halogen detection, an important requirement of analytical instruments for semiconductor package materials and RoHS substances. Due to worldwide concerns with terrorism, force protection, nuclear forensics and homeland security, we anticipate that a significant number of the government and private agencies will require compact analytical isotopic instrumentation for real-time field measurements and characterization. Our intention is to deliver our revolutionary technology to the broadest range of users.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biochemical
Optical
Photonics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.09-8964
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lab on a Chip LCVR Polarimeter for Exploration of Life Signatures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505-5217
(424) 263-6300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Srivatsa Venkatasubbarao
sbirproposals@intopsys.com
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance,  CA 90505-5217
(424) 263-6344

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Life on Earth is unique in many ways; one of its great mysteries is that all the biomolecules of Earth's life are chiral and one optical isomer of each amino acid or nucleic acid "building block" was selected by evolution. In our pursuit of finding life on Mars and beyond, it is likely that one of the clues to extant or extinct life could be the detection of non-racemic chiral molecules. This proposal describes the development of a highly miniaturized and ultrasensitive lab-on-a-chip polarimeter to measure the optical rotation of biomolecules such as amino acids, sugars, DNA, RNA in samples extracted from other planets or moons. The proposed polarimeter will be based on liquid crystal variable retarder (LCVR) technology. This technology offers a highly sensitive optical rotation measurement, from extremely small sample volumes, in a highly miniaturized format. This work is a joint collaboration between Intelligent Optical Systems, Professor Axel Scherer of the California Institute of Technology, and Meadowlark Optics. In Phase I, we propose to fabricate an LCVR polarimeter and demonstrate its ability to measure small angles of optical rotation. High sensitivity, low-power consumption, no moving parts, and potential for integration into future exploration missions are the attractive attributes of the proposed technology. In Phase II, we will optimize the performance, develop prototypes, and conduct extensive testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed device will assist NASA in its search for extinct/extant life in the exploration of our solar system. The detection of chirality in Martian and other samples could provide insights into the existence of previous or current life. The miniaturized size and light weight of the proposed polarimeter, in combination with its high sensitivity, will make it well suited for monitoring extraterrestrial samples for chirality.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology has many potential spinoff applications. The device will be valuable to the pharmaceutical industry, where the trend is to develop drug molecules that are chirally pure. Research institutions can use this device in studying the efficacy of drugs in clinical applications. The device can also be very useful to educational institutions for research and training. Other applications for this polarimeter include bioprocessing and food monitoring, and chemical and fragrance quality testing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Biomolecular Sensors
Biochemical
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.09-9227
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Deep UV Semiconductor Sourcess for Advanced Planetary Science Instruments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Photon Systems
15112 Industrial Park Street
Covina, CA 91722-3417
(626) 967-6431

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Hug
w.hug@photonsystems.com
15112 Industrial Park St.
Covina,  CA 91722-3417
(626) 967-6431

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal addresses the need for miniature deep UV light sources that operate at very low ambient temperatures without heating or temperature regulation for use in advanced in situ planetary science instruments involved in the reagent-less detection and identification of trace amounts of organic, inorganic, and biogenic materials. The proposed sources are aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) semiconductor lasers and light emitting devices emitting between 210 nm to 250 nm, a spectral range which has been demonstrated to provide higher detection sensitivity and chemical differentiability than sources emitting at longer wavelengths. Instrument applications include non-contact, robot-arm or body mounted, reagentless chemical imaging instruments and detectors for analysis of chemical extractions from soil, rock, or ice employing non-contact, non-destructive native fluorescence and/or resonance Raman spectroscopic methods. The proposed semiconductor source approach avoids the problems that continue to limit emission wavelengths of semiconductor lasers to wavelengths above 340 nm. Using free electron injection we have demonstrated internal quantum efficiencies over 100 times higher than reported elsewhere. It is the goal of this program to demonstrate deep UV laser emission from a semiconductor device less than 250 nm using the proposed approach. This will lead to miniature, high efficiency, TRL 4 devices.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The new UV sources developed here can be used for local chemical mapping and water detection on a variety of planetary bodies of interest to NASA including Europa, Titan, Enceladus, the lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin, and cometary and asteroid landers. Furthermore, the Mars Exploration Program is currently planning for a mid-size (MER-like) Mars rover in ~2016. This development is strongly aligned with the goals of the Decadal Survey and MEPAG goals for Mars . NASA mission applications include NASA lander missions such as New Frontiers, Mars exploration, Europa, Titan, etc. The development of these deep UV sources will enable limits of detection for trace levels of organic, inorganic, and bioigenic chemicals on soil, rock, or ice substrates that are many orders of magnitude lower than with present visible and near IR methods of detection.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The deep UV semiconductor laser being developed here will enable a revolutionary reduction in size, weight and power consumption for UV resonance Raman and laser induced native fluorescence instruments for the detection and classification of biological, organic, and inorganic materials on surfaces and in liquids. There is a broad existing market need for deep UV sources that are small and efficient. The largest of these markets is likely in optical memory systems where the aerial data density is inversely proportional to the square of the source emission wavelength. However, other markets, while potentially smaller in quantity of demand, may have greater overall commercial impact, being the enabling technology for a wide array of analytical instruments. These instruments include biotechnology instruments used in clinical diagnostics, pharmaceutical research and product testing; environmental monitoring such as water, air and food quality; in semiconductor development and processing, and a myriad of other applications where small spot sizes or photon-energy-specific excitation is needed or enabling.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Biomedical and Life Support
Biomolecular Sensors
Sterilization/Pathogen and Microbial Control
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.09-9383
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Polymer Microfluidics Technology for In Situ Planetary Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Los Gatos Research
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041-1518
(650) 965-7772

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hong Jiao
h.jiao@lgrinc.com
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View,  CA 94041-1518
(650) 965-7772

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Los Gatos Research proposes to develop a new polymer based microfluidics technology for NASA planetary science applications. In particular, we will design, build and demonstrate a micro-capillary electrochromatography instrument based on a rigid monolithic porous polymer structure as the stationary phase to analyze complex organic molecules on Mars, Titan and elsewhere in the solar system. Such high performance, small mass and volume, and low power consumption microfluidic sample separation devices are amenable for implementation at wafer level such as miniaturized "lab-on-a-chip" devices. For the Phase I effort, we will design, construct, and testing the micro-chips. The Phase I research will address issues related to performance as well as production methods that can be used for the technology, as well as designing and determining the integrated micro-device and the Phase II prototype. In the Phase II effort, we will construct and test the final prototypes capable of separating all relevant organic molecules for in-situ planetary explorations, thus provide new capabilities for NASA sample separation instrumentation development.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed polymer microfluidics technology can be readily adapted to NASA's miniature "Micro Laboratories" scientific instrumentations for in-situ exploration of bodies in the solar system. In particular, it is directly applicable to analyze organic molecules on Mars surface to find signature of life as well as to analyze Titan surface to study prebiotic chemistry on Titan. The proposed technology has other broad NASA applications including on-chip biosensors, electrochemical sensors, wet-chemistry systems, as well as high pressure micropumps for fluid positioning, mixing, metering, storage, and filtering systems. In addition, our novel technology is naturally suited to such applications as clinical diagnostics, spacecraft and biosphere environmental monitoring, and toxicology studies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The polymer microfluidics technology described in this proposal possesses significant commercial potential for a wide range of technologies and applications in markets ranging from specialty medical and aerospace industries to consumer electronics. Commercial devices based on such microfluidics technology envisioned include components for DNA, protein and drug separation and analysis, chemical analysis systems, drug delivery systems, and embedded health monitoring systems. Our proprietary technology vastly improves robustness and reliability, thus clearing one of the last hurdles of a wider acceptance of CEC in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Biomolecular Sensors
Biochemical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.11-8488
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar Science Instruments and Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Heat Flow Probe Design and Deployment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics Ltd.
460 W 34th Street
New York, NY 10001-2320
(212) 966-0661

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kris Zacny
zacny@honeybeerobotics.com
460 West 34th Street
New York,  NY 10001-2320
(510) 207-4555

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a novel method for deploying heat flow sensors/heaters in a hole and also a novel approach to subsurface access using a percussive method. The sensor deployment concept consists of a deployable string of thermal sensors/heaters initially housed inside a hollow probe. As envisioned, the deployable sensor string would consist of thermal sensors/heaters mounted to small spring-like structures of low thermal inertia fastened to a tether at appropriate intervals. The probe assembly is driven into the subsurface using a percussive (high frequency low impact) actuator. Upon reaching depth, the cone mounted at the end of the tube would separate from penetrometer and left behind as an anchor for the sensor string. The sensor string would then be deployed from the tube as the tube is retracted from the hole. The proposed method offers many advantages including: • Optimum thermal isolation between consecutive heat flow sensors (RTD`s) • Thermal isolation between sensors and a lander platform/deployment system, • Direct contact between the sensors and regolith, • Percussive deployment method that does not rely extensively on lander mass • All the electrical connectors will be established prior to the launch

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The heat flow probe deployment system directly answers the need for the International Lunar Network science requirements. Thus, once developed, the probe can be part of the ILN payload. In addition to measuring heat flow on the Moon, the probe can be deployed on the future Discovery- and New Frontier-class robotic missions to the moon, Mars, and other planetary bodies. In addition, the instrument may be used by astronauts on Sortie human lunar missions. The percussive penetrometer can be used to deploy other sensors, such as Neutron and Gamma spectrometers, Electrical Properties probe etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications include measuring of heat flow in areas on earth, where optimal thermal isolation of heaters/temperature sensors is of paramount importance. These for example include areas with hydrocarbon potential. Therefore exploration companies, such as Shell or Chevron, would in particular be interested in this technology. Since these heat probes are small and can be made relatively cheaply, they can be left in earth forever. Thus, the heat flow data can be accumulated all the time. This in particular would be important for tracking global climate change and to understand the nature and causes of climate change. Thus, proposed heat flow deployment method, because of potential cost savings, may allow more heat flow probes being deployed around the earth. The possible 'customer' may for example be the International Heat Flow Commission of IASPEI, who initiated the project "Global Database of Borehole Temperatures and Climate Reconstructions".

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.11-8851
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar Science Instruments and Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electro-Optic Tunable Laser Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ADVR, Inc.
2310 University Way, Building 1
Bozeman, MT 59715-6504
(406) 522-0388

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tony Roberts
roberts@advr-inc.com
2310 University Way, Building #1-1
Bozeman,  MT 59715-6504
(406) 522-0388

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop a compact, rugged, rapidly and widely tunable laser based on a quantum cascade diode laser at mid-infrared wavelengths. The key innovation in this effort is the use of an engineered electro-optic tuning element in an external cavity laser to provide control of the laser wavelength through an applied voltage. AdvR has previously demonstrated the feasibility of large tuning range matching that of mechanically tuned lasers, yet also offering low cost, smaller size, robustness, portability, and tuning speed that is faster by six orders of magnitude. The Phase I effort will investigate adapting the external cavity tuning techniques to quantum cascade lasers to generate tunable wavelengths for mid-infrared spectroscopy.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Current external cavity lasers with large wavelength range use mechanical tuning methods that are highly sensitive to shock, vibration, and temperature. The proposed innovation will enable a tunable external cavity laser that is compact and rugged enough for reliable deployment and remote operation on the lunar surface. A quantum cascade laser used as the gain medium will provide output wavelengths in the mid-infrared. Wide wavelength tunability in the 34 µm (and ultimately 310 µm) range will enable mid-IR spectroscopy with part-per-billion sensitivity for identification of elements and isotopes in evolved gases.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Tunable lasers are essential to spectroscopy, biomedical imaging, sensing, communications, and research. Making the proposed device commercially available will advance the state of the art in these areas by providing a smaller, cheaper laser with faster tuning that can be used in extreme environments. Microimaging systems for biology, medical, and clinical applications will improve when size and cost reductions allow replacement of fixed wavelength sources with widely tunable lasers. High speed tunability will enable new and expanded microwave and millimeter-wave applications in antenna remoting, beamforming networks for array antennas, feed networks for wireless communications, photonic processing of microwave signals, cable television signal distribution, sensor systems, and instrumentation. A lightweight, rugged laser scanning absorption peaks will enable transportable sensors for identification of chemicals such as airborne pollutants, pipeline leaks, and contraband.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomolecular Sensors
Biochemical
Optical
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.11-9078
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar Science Instruments and Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: In Situ Water Isotope Analyzer for Moon Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vista Photonics, Inc.
67 Condesa Road
Santa Fe, NM 87508-8136
(505) 466-3830

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joerg Kutzner
jkutzner@vistaphotonics.com
67 Condesa Road
Santa Fe,  NM 87508-8136
(505) 466-3830

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Studying the isotopic composition of materials is an established method to obtain detailed insight into formation and evolution processes in our Universe. Water may play a dominant role in unraveling these processes. Isotope hydrology applied in situ on the Moon and other planets might develop into the key method to understand the history of our Solar system. The Moon provides unique opportunities to study trapped volatile compounds, like water, due to the special conditions at its poles. These conditions enable the long term storage of volatiles and preservation of their isotopic composition. A compact, precise isotope hygrometer operated on the Moon will be an invaluable tool if abundant water sources are found on the Moon in upcoming missions. This project seeks to develop a highly sensitive, portable water isotope ratiometer for precisely measuring water samples in situ on the Moon. The optical sensors developed on this project will have unique features including fast response, high precision and strong species selectivity. Design criteria such as a small footprint, low weight, low power consumption and continuous sensor health monitoring will be implemented to optimize the sensors for application to the Moon. An absorption approach using modulation techniques will be implemented on a lunar mission suitable platform.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The targeted NASA applications are analyzing water samples on the Moon as well as on other planets. The emerging technology is adaptable to changing pressure conditions and suitable to operate in diverse environments, including corrosive atmospheres. The developed technology can be extended to selectively detect trace gas species for NASA relevant applications such as contaminant sensing in air revitalization and water recovery processes, and atmospheric composition monitoring.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project will lead to a small portable sensor for use in isotope hydrology. Water isotope data provide information about past and present global climate and the global water cycle on Earth. They allow mapping of aquifers, conserving water supplies and trace transport and dispersion of contaminants in the subsurface. The fully-developed prototype instruments shall offer a compelling and desirable blend of compactness, performance, affordability, simplicity and ease-of-use relative to present commercial product offerings in these applications. Beyond these applications, the developed sensor platform will be broadly deployable for trace gas detection of a variety of molecules with a cost-effective, small device. Examples include contaminant monitoring in process gas streams in the chemical and microelectronics industries, medical diagnosis through detection of biogenic gases in human breath that correlate to specific pathologies, and environmental monitoring and regulatory compliance in agriculture, power production, and occupational safety.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.11-9152
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar Science Instruments and Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Deep UV Raman/Fluorescence (DUV-RF) Stand-Off Sensor for Lunar Science

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Photon Systems
15112 Industrial Park Street
Covina, CA 91722-3417
(626) 967-6431

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Hug
w.hug@photonsystems.com
15112 Industrial Park St.
Covina,  CA 91722-3417
(626) 967-6431

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal enables development a miniature, low power consumption, fused deep UV Raman and native fluorescence (DUV-RF) stand-off sensor. The proposed fused instrument has the ability to measure the spatial distribution of chemical species containing C, N, H, O, S, Cl, and/or water, ice, and hydrated minerals on a 1-5 mm spatial scale enabled by a novel set of wide aperture, high sensitivity ultraminiature deep UV Raman spectrometers. Raman spectroscopy is a non-contact, non-destructive, method of identifying unknown materials without the need for sample acquisition and processing. This technique is ideal for in situ exploration from extraterrestrial Rovers or landers. There are three main advantages of deep UV Raman methods over near-UV, visible or near-IR counterparts. 1) Rayleigh-law: signal enhancement of 20x at 248nm compared to excitation at 532nm. 2) Resonance: much higher signal enhancements; for water 5 times greater than Rayleigh-law enhancement alone, for a combined effect over 120x between 248 nm and 532 nm. 3) With excitation below 250nm, Raman scattering bands occur in a fluorescence-free region of the spectrum. At longer excitation wavelengths fluorescence from target or surrounding materials overwhelm Raman emissions and require gating with high power lasers with narrow pulse widths leading to sample alteration/damage. When deep UV Raman is combined with native fluorescence, it becomes possible to characterize mineral alterations and detect trapped chemicals with exquisite sensitivity and differentiability. The New Frontiers has placed a South pole-Aitken Basin sample return as a future mission scenario. Using the enhanced detection capabilities of DUV-RF, water, ice and chemical species can be detected and mapped to provide an understanding of their distribution in the lunar regolith.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology is useful for a broad range of in situ measurements for: space science and terrestrial geochemical, geophysical and geobiological studies; planetary protection applications such as measuring/characterizing organic or biogenic contamination on outbound and inbound spacecraft; and for general application to high quality non-invasive, non-destructive measurement of trace levels of contamination on surfaces, in liquids and in the air, such as aboard the International Space Station. The proposed instrument will provide the ability to measure trace levels of organic material at working distances up to 1 meter or more. For space science applications, this would enable a Rover-body mounted instrument that could interrogate the vicinity of the Rover. For terrestrial applications the stand-off measurements could be made in full sun-light conditions at least for Raman and potentially for the deep UV native fluorescence emissions. For planetary protection applications it would enable direct measurement of bioloads on spacecraft surfaces without the need for sample collection using traditional methods.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology being addressed by this proposal is immediately useful for Department of Defense (DOD) and Homeland Security (HS) applications as well as non-government commercial and industrial applications. DOD and HS applications include in situ biological and chemical warfare sensors to detect trace levels of biological, nerve, and blister agents as well as low-volatility toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). The ability of the sensor to measure hazardous materials a meters of working distance vastly improves their use by first responders. In addition, a broad range of non-government commercial and industrial applications are addressed by the proposed sensor including: environmental testing of water, soil and air; municipal and industrial water and waste-water quality testing; commercial product quality control testing of manufactured food, chemical, semiconductor, and other commercial products; and a wide range of research applications enabled by the core technologies developed on this program.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Biomolecular Sensors
Waste Processing and Reclamation
Biochemical
Optical
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S1.11-9560
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar Science Instruments and Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: X-Ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Instrument for Mineralogical Analysis at the Lunar Surface

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
inXitu, Inc.
2551 Casey Avenue, Suite A
Mountain View, CA 94043-1135
(650) 567-0081

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Philippe Sarrazin
psarrazin@inxitu.com
2551 Casey Avenue, Suite A
Mountain View,  CA 94043-1135
(650) 799-2118

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6 to 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a compact and lightweight X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) / X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) instrument for analysis of mineralogical composition of regolith, rock samples and dust, in lunar surface exploration. The instrument inherits from the general concept of CheMin, the XRD/XRF instrument of MSL, but is entirely redesigned to provide a more compact and lightweight unit, and reduced costs. Many implementation details of the proposed instrument will inherit from the design of a small portable XRD/XRF instruments developed and marketed by inXitu, Inc. and a robotic instrument derived from this design. The objective of this proposal is to bring this development to a high TRL of 6 to 7, to enable fast and cost effective development of subsequent flight systems. A high TRL target is possible within the scope of an SBIR Phase I + II because several key technological developments required for this objective have been –or are being- addressed by the company through separate sources of funding. Furthermore, the proposed work leverages the extensive experience of the PI and the company with this type of instrumentation, in both terrestrial and planetary applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed instrument would be fitted to a landed platform, rover or lander, to perform mineralogical analysis of the regolith, rocks, ices, and dust at the lunar surface. The flight instrument will weight about half that of the MSL CheMin instrument and require about ten times less energy to perform an analysis at identical or improved XRD performance. These improvements will enable small missions with limited payload to be fitted with XRD/XRF capabilities. Although this development is focused on lunar applications, the technology would equally benefit landed planetary missions requiring definitive mineralogy capabilities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This development will enable next generation portable field XRD/XRF instruments for geological analysis in the field, mining, oil, forensic, art, and also dedicated applications such as in-vacuum process monitoring tools for thin film deposition, robotic systems for quality control, or low cost benchtop instrument for routine analysis in the laboratory or education.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Perception/Sensing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S2.01-8499
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Precision Spacecraft Formations for Telescope Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Topology Control Algorithms for Spacecraft Formation Flying Networks Under Connectivity and Time-Delay Constraints

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scientific Systems Company, Inc.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801-6562
(781) 933-5355

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jovan Boskovic
Jovan.Boskovic@ssci.com
500 West Cummings Park Suite 3000
Woburn,  MA 01801-6562
(781) 933-5355

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SSCI is proposing to develop a set of topology control algorithms for a formation flying spacecraft that can be used to design and evaluate candidate formation architectures. Properties of these topology control algorithms include: (a) Preserving the connectivity of the underlying state-dependent sensing graph during reconfiguration and re-targeting of the formation; (b) Achieving a balanced interplay between performance and robustness to communication delays; and (c) Using only local information to make local decisions that collectively guarantee the global properties such as the network connectivity. Phase I effort will deliver a preliminary software analysis tool to help the NASA TPFI team evaluate these trade-offs for candidate TPFI architectures. In order to achieve these objectives we plan to carry out the following tasks: (i) Develop algorithms to maximize the connectivity under limited FOV constraints. (ii) Analyze the trade-off between network connectivity and robustness to communication delays. (iii) Design algorithms to maintain connectivity during a pre-specified reconfiguration with energy optimal trajectories. (iv) Demonstrate the application of the developed methods to TPF-I baseline mission. In Phase II the goal is to deliver to NASA a complete set of algorithms and software tools to perform distributed communication design for TPF-I as well as other formation flying missions that may involve a larger number of spacecraft. These algorithms and software will be tested on high fidelity formation flying testbeds at JPL such as FAST or FCT.Professor Mehran Mesabhi of University of Washington will provide technical support under the project.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Formation flying is a critical element in NASA's search for Earthlike planets. Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF), NASA's first space-based mission to directly observe planets outside our own solar system, will rely on formation flying to achieve the functionality and benefits of a large instrument using multiple lower cost smaller spacecraft. Aqua mission of the Goddard Space Flight Center will use formation flying concepts (``A-Train'') to collaborate with multiple Earth observing spacecraft. The proposed techniques are directly applicable to those missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Among non-NASA applications are several current ongoing projects by the military. Department of Defense agencies, including DARPA, are focused on developing the next generation of collaborating and formation flying Unmanned Vehicles (UAVs, USVs, UUVs etc.) which can use the analysis methods and tools developed under this effort for performing trade-off studies for designing distributed multi-agent networks.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Guidance, Navigation, and Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S2.01-8602
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Precision Spacecraft Formations for Telescope Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fault-Tolerant Relative Navigation System (RNS) for Docking

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SySense, Inc.
300 East Magnolia Suite 300
Burbank, CA 91502-1156
(818) 238-2330

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Walton Williamson
walton@sysense.com
300 East Magnolia Suite 300
Burbank,  CA 91502-1156
(818) 238-2330

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A method is propsed to develop a sensor fusion process for blending GPS/IMU/EO data for fault tolerant rendezvous and docking of spacecraft. The methodology takes advantage of analytic redundancy between the GPS and EO sensor technology. Using advanced fault detection, identification, and reconfiguration (FDIR) technology, the method will guarantee navigation functionality in the presence of failures in either the GPS or the EO sytsem guaranteeing safety of operations in the safety critical docking operation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This system has applications to a variety of formation flight technologies including providing high precision relative position, velocity, and attitude information between multiple vehicles reliably and with high integrity. The system is most applicable to any situation in which two vehicles are attempting to dock while in space.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This system has applications to space craft, communication satellites, and military applications requiring precision formation flight. It is also applicable to other precision and high integrity applications such as automated aerial refueling and automated landing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S2.01-8791
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Precision Spacecraft Formations for Telescope Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Micro Pulsed Inductive Thruster with Solid Fuel Option (uPIT_SF)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eagle Harbor Technologies, Inc.
321 High School Road NE, Suite D3, #179
Bainbridge Island, WA 98110-2648
(206) 780-3667

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Timothy Ziemba
ziemba@eagleharbortech.com
321 High School Rd NE, STE D3, #179
Bainbridge Island,  WA 98110-2648
(206) 780-3667

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Micro Pulsed Inductive Thruster with Solid Fuel Option (µPIT_SF) is a high-precision impulse bit electromagnetic plasma micro-thruster. The µPIT prototype is a small (< 230 g) thruster that produces and accelerates plasma. In the solid fuel mode, µPIT_SF is able to substantially extend the performance of standard PPT systems by ionization and heating of the high density neutral gas produced after the arc. A small power-processing unit (PPU) is attached directly to the thruster which isolates the high voltage igniter section from the main spacecraft bus. Further development of the µPIT has implications that could include dramatic weight reductions of onboard station keeping and attitude control systems for miniature spacecraft and increased thruster efficiencies. Anticipated development of the µPIT in Phase 1 of the proposed work would lead to a 2nd generation prototype at or near the NASA TRL 5. Anticipated results from a Phase 2 program would be to produce a prototype at NASA TRL 6 with a corresponding experimental determination of the thruster's Isp levels and operational characteristics including a thrust measurement.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The µPIT has many NASA applications in the areas requiring the use of micro- propulsion systems, attitude control and station keeping. Specifically, the µPIT system could function as the primary propulsion unit for micro-spacecraft weighing less than 5 kg. The µPIT system has a high precision (< 10 µs) controllable plasma pulse length. This allows for high-resolution impulse bit control, which can be modified with each pulse. Integration of a µPIT system onto constellation spacecrafts could allow for real time precision attitude control. This could be especially useful for NASA science missions similar to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) gravitational wave detection experiment where extremely precise spacecraft attitude control will be required over long periods.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As miniature spacecraft technology progresses, the µPIT has many potential applications for both civilian and military commercialization. These include station keeping and attitude control systems for small communication satellites and precision pointing systems. Other non-NASA applications could include materials coating applications where the precise plasma control available with the µPIT system could lead to more uniform thin film deposition. Additionally, the µPIT system can generate the initial Teflon arc at atmospheric pressure. A modified system could potentially be designed as a low weight, low power surface decontamination unit, which has several applications in areas from homeland security to medical instrument sterilization.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Electromagnetic Thrusters
Micro Thrusters


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S2.01-8869
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Precision Spacecraft Formations for Telescope Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Precise Thrust Actuation by a Micro RF Ion Engine

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Busek Co., Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kurt Hohman
kurt@busek.com
11 Tech Circle
Natick,  MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Busek proposes to develop a radio-frequency discharge, gridded micro ion engine that produces µN level of thrust precisely adjustable over a wide dynamic thrust range. Rf discharge was chosen to eliminate the life-limiting internal cathode of a dc discharge ion engine. Thrust actuation on the order of 0.03µN resolution is proposed with a closed-loop control system. This controlling scheme can be achieved by varying only one parameter: the rf power with a feedback from the beam current. Uniquely, the rf ion engine can also produce enough thrust for coarse constellation corrections or reconfigurations. Argon will be the base-lined propellant to ease concerns of propellant condensing on optics or other cryogenic surfaces. This feature can be critical for close formation flying as micro-thrusters such as field emission electric propulsion (FEEP) and colloids could potentially coat neighboring spacecraft. The proposed rf ion engine, combined with Busek's space-qualified carbon nanotube field emission cathode (developed for the ST7 DRS mission) as a neutralizer, will create a new opportunity in precise thrust actuation. Further implementation of a simple propellant feed system and power electronics will create a compact, low power, high performance spacecraft propulsion system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Missions such as LISA, TPF, DARWIN, and the follow on to the GRACE mission, require extremely precise propulsion. Thrust noise will be the largest hurdle in these missions and our proposed thruster can achieve extremely low thrust noise. In addition to precision thrust for optic alignment or similar applications, larger thrust may be required for counteracting solar pressure or reconfiguring the constellation. Precisely varying thrust in a closed loop by the actuation of just one parameter can be a simple implementation with powerful attributes. Because of cryogenic sensors, the propulsion effluent should not thermally radiate or condense on cryogenic surfaces. These considerations lead to the proposed thruster.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Precision propulsion is required by DoD and NRO constellation missions such as the Space Based Radar. Constellations of multiple micro-spacecraft are envisioned to form sparse aperture optics and similar applications. Micro spacecraft have limited power and mass available, thus the thrust actuators must be low power and low mass. The micro rf ion engine can fulfill the requirements. Commercial earth observation missions could achieve greater accuracy and resolution by using the proposed propulsion capable to maintain extremely precise and jitter-free pointing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Micro Thrusters
Electrostatic Thrusters


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S2.02-9032
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Proximity Glare Suppression for Astronomical Coronagraphy
PROPOSAL TITLE: 10^3 Segment MEMS Deformable-Mirror Process Development

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Iris AO, Inc.
2680 Bancroft Way
Berkeley, CA 94704-1717
(510) 849-2375

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Helmbrecht
michael.helmbrecht@irisao.com
2680 Bancroft Way
Berkeley,  CA 94704-1717
(510) 849-2375

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Iris AO will extend its proven segmented MEMS deformable mirror architecture to large array sizes required for high-contrast astrophysical imagers. Current implementations consist of arrays of 37 mirror segments (currently available commercially) and 163 segment arrays (first prototypes under test). Existing thin-film based MEMS fabrication techniques used by competitors typically can not achieve an adequate degree of optical flatness and maintain it over a range of temperatures. Even newer thick-film methods suffer from the same problem to some degree. The Iris AO segmented mirror approach, on the other hand, uses a thick and rigid single-crystal-silicon optical surface bonded to an electrostatically driven actuator platform. This results in excellent mirror flatness and insensitivity to temperature even when specialized optical coatings are used. This proposal addresses scaling this technology up to 10^3 segments. Key technical issues to be addressed in accommodating the larger number of segments include: (a) controlling overall bow of the larger chip; (b) developing the electrical interconnect design and fabrication process, and (c) modifying the mirror-wafer bonding process. This Phase I will include one process run in order to test and refine the proposed solutions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High-contrast astrophysical imagers benefit from high-precision deformable mirrors with 10^3 or more segments. NASA missions and instruments benefiting from improved large actuator-count DMs include the single aperture far-infrared observatory (SAFIR), the Visible Nulling Coronagraph (VNC), the Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC), the Eclipse mission, and the deferred Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF-C). Other NASA projects that would benefit from Iris AO deformable mirror technology are the Submillimeter Probe of the Evolutionary Cosmic Structure (SPECS), the Stellar Imager (SI) and the Earth Atmospheric Solar occultation Imager (EASI), among others. Additionally, NASA is involved in the application of AO to many of the world's large terrestrial telescopes such as Palomar Adaptive Optics System (PALAO), built by JPL, the Keck interferometer, and the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Micromachined deformable mirrors (DMs) are particularly useful in correcting atmospheric turbulence. Applications include both ground-based and airborne imaging systems. As in the case of NASA applications, the MEMS approach offers small size, low weight, and low power consumption. Specific applications include: free-space communication optical links, deformable-mirror based optical zoom, and correction of aero-optical aberrations. The small size of MEMS DMs makes then a natural choice for adaptive-optic (AO) correction of the aberrations in the eye and for biological microscopes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Laser
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S2.03-8943
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Precision Deployable Optical Structures and Metrology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Precision Deployable Occulter System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SpaceDev, Inc.
1722 Boxelder Street, Suite 102
Louisville, CO 80027-3137
(303) 530-1925

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Hinkle
jasonh@spacedev.com
1722 Boxelder Street, Suite 102
Louisville,  CO 80027-3137
(720) 407-3184

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Precision deployable 50 meter-class occulter elements are an enabling technology for a promising new class of space-based observotory for exoplatentary study. The New Worlds Observer mission currently under development is a prime example of such an application. The development of a reliable deployment architecture which provides an occulter with 10,000:1 dimensional stability is required to reduce the risk of this mission to an acceptable level. SpaceDev proposes the development of an occulter deployment system based on their Jackscrew boom technology. A "hybrid" hoop and petal deployment architecture which leverages the reliability and structural efficiency of the Jackscrew system offers a promising solution to this challenge. The proposed effort would: 1. Determine the feasibility of a proposed Jackscrew boom hoop system which meets the packaging, deployment and deployed performance requirements for the New Worlds Observer mission. 2. Develop integrated petal deployment and support architectures which leverage the structural support and deployment actuation offered by the proposed hoop system. 3. Develop dimensional stability analyses of the integrated occulter system in the flight environment to establish critical design margins. 4. Develop a thorough plan for a subsequent Phase 2 program to build a scale model of the integrated occulter system and demonstrate key functional features in collaboration with the New Worlds Observer team.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Jackscrew hoop structure and integrated occulter system is directly motivated by, and applicable to, NASA's Origins science objectives. The deployable occulter for the New Worlds Observer mission is a critical element of this candidate Flagship mission. Successful development of a reliable and high performance occulter system would substantially reduce the risk of the overall mission.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Jackscrew hoop architecture has been identified as a promising element of other spacecraft payloads including RF antenna reflectors and solar concentrators for large scale power generation. The design knowledge developed in the proposed Phase 1 effort would increase SpaceDev's ability to pursue these commercial opportunities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Kinematic-Deployable
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Structural Modeling and Tools
Optical
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S2.03-9065
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Precision Deployable Optical Structures and Metrology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Affordable, Precision Reflector Mold Technology (PDRT08-029)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
DR Technologies, Inc.
9431 Dowdy Drive
San Diego, CA 92126-4336
(858) 587-4200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eldon Kasl
ekasl@vanguardtechnologies.com
9431 Dowdy Drive
San Diego,  CA 92126-4336
(858) 444-1823

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advances in replication mold technology that reduce material costs, grinding time, and polishing time would enable fabrication of large, precision molds and possibly optics at 50-75% lower cost. Mold cost savings could be applied to other aspects of a telescope mission's technology development and demonstration efforts to reduce large aperture far infrared telescope areal density and improve optical technical performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA: The capabilities proposed in this SBIR would be relevant to a variety of Space and Earth science missions currently in various stages of formulation. The nearest term target is for insertion of the reflector technology in the SMLS, CCAT, and possibly SAFIR missions. Mission study groups at JPL, GSFC, and LaRC are the most likely customers in this area.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other Gov't: DoD interests have indicated a desire to field an ever-growing number of 'long-wavelength' instruments on UAV platforms. Though these are typically no larger than 1m class instruments, the maturing of the core materials, process, and design competencies would position DR Technologies to capture additional DoD work in this area. Key customers in this area are at KAFB in Albuquerque, NM. Commercial: Large, accurate, thermally stable reflectors may be needed for broadband wireless spacecraft. The increasing need to provide internet capabilities to remote locations for commercial applications has lead several service providers and spacecraft manufacturers to consider constellations of spacecraft to meet this need. Lightweight, large-aperture, thermally stable reflectors with sub-micron level tolerances will be needed to meet the ever growing needs for traffic capacity per spacecraft. This program could provide enabling technology for these commercial spacecraft systems. DR Technologies has good contacts within each of the Primes where these opportunities will likely emerge.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Microwave/Submillimeter
Optical
Composites
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S2.04-9652
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optical Devices for Starlight Detection and Wavefront Analysis
PROPOSAL TITLE: Silicon Carbide Lightweight Optics With Hybrid Skins for Large Cryo Telescopes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optical Physics Company
26610 Agoura Road
Calabasas, CA 91302-3857
(818) 880-2907

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Marc Jacoby
mjacoby@opci.com
26610 Agoura Road
Calabasas,  CA 90302-3857
(818) 880-2907

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Optical Physics Company (OPC) proposes to manufacture new silicon carbide (SiC) foam-based optics that are composite, athermal and lightweight (FOCAL) that provide an enabling capability for performing NASA space missions that will require 2 to 3 meter class cryogenic mirrors for large infrared telescopes. Open-cell foam core mirror technology has evolved over the past ten years and has produced somewhat large (0.5 m dia.), lightweight (<10 kg/m2), rapidly and uniformly cryo-cooled and dimensionally stable (tested to 25 K) mirrors configured with monolithic chemical vapor deposited (CVD) skins. Significant problems have arisen as the size has increased that prevent their use on large aperture telescopes. These problems include the inherent stress in the monolithic skins which can result in skin cracking during the substrate manufacturing and finishing processes, the non-uniformity of the .040"-.050" thick monolithic skins that typically require .010"-.015" of material removal before a continuous surface can be achieved for optical finishing, the long schedule of manufacturing the mirror substrate, and the large $2M/m2 cost to produce the polished mirror. OPC proposes an innovation where the monolithic SiC skins are replaced with SiC fiber reinforced/SiC CVD skins. This hybrid design consists of a .020"-.030" thick SiC fiber reinforced layer ground to a smooth finish and near net shape, and then post coated with a .005"-.010" thick CVD SiC polishing layer. This provides increased skin strength and toughness to enable the technology to produce meter class mirrors without skin cracking. The manufacturing time and CVD chamber cost are reduced because premanufactured SiC fibers are used to provide the bulk of the skin mass rather than laying down a monolithic skin atom by atom via CVD. The net effect is to produce a SiC FOCAL mirror substrate that is stronger, tougher, scalable to meter class, and potentially better than 50% faster and cheaper to manufacture.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
With the increase in size capability enabled by the hybrid skins, OPC's SiC FOCAL mirrors can potentially provide discriminating critical capabilities to future NASA missions that require cryogenic mirrors or mirror segments. The planned NASA Universe Mission Roadmap for large aperture IR cryogenic telescopes includes SPIRIT in 2015, TPF-I in 2019, SAFIR in 2020 and SPECS in 2025. The mirror or mirror segments required have apertures of one to two meter and three of the four missions require cooling the telescope to 4 oK. If the cost of manufacturing SiC FOCAL mirrors can be significantly reduced, they may be competitive for NASA missions that require large ambient mirrors such as MTRAP (2014), SCOPE (2015), NHST (2020), and TPF-C (2020).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
OPC's SiC FOCAL mirror technology represents both a cost and performance breakthrough and is expected to have high visibility within the Government (NASA GSFC, NASA MSFC, Missile Defense Agency, Air Force Research Laboratory DE/VS/ML/SN, National Reconnaissance Office, Ground-Based Midcourse Defense Joint Program Office) and commercial industry (Ball Aerospace off-axis telescopes, Raytheon - scan mirrors, ITT scan mirrors, Boeing SVS mirrors for Relay Mirror systems and Advanced Tactical Laser, Boeing Phantom Works antennas for LEO IS&R missions, Brashear LP telescope optics, Lockheed Martin fast steering and beam control optics, and Northrop Grumman transformational communications). Consequently, there will be many active business development efforts going on with all of these organizations if the technology can be successfully developed.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ceramics
Composites
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S2.04-9748
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optical Devices for Starlight Detection and Wavefront Analysis
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Low Cost Light Weight Polymer Derived Ceramic Telescope Mirror

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
United Materials and Systems
13750 Old Dock Road
Orlando, FL 32828-9506
(407) 267-6391

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Weifeng Fei
wfei@ceramicore.com
6000 Oakbend Street, Apt 7311
Orlando,  FL 32835-2844
(407) 733-3076

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The primary purpose of this proposal is to develop and demonstrate a new technology for manufacturing an ultra-low-cost precision optical telescope mirror which can be scaled up for use in very large UV/optical and/or infrared telescopes. The Phase 1 deliverable will be a 0.25 meter precision mirror. Its optical performance assessment and all data on the processing and properties of its substrate material will be determined. The unique manufacturing processes employed allow for integration of mirror and support features, significantly increasing both cost reduction and quality improvement potential.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This proposal will demonstrate prototype manufacturing of a precision mirror in the 0.25 to 0.5 meter class, with a specific scale up roadmap to 1 to 2+ meter class system which can be rated for space flight. Material behavior, processing parameters, optical performance, and mounting techniques will be demonstrated.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology is extensible to commercial telescope optics, as well as telecomm and military optics (eg. lasers). A Phase 2 and Phase 3 outline addresses partnering with key materials suppliers, and key customers in both commercial & miltary market spaces. The size of this market space was determined to be $3.74 B in 2000 [14].

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical
Ceramics
Composites
Optical & Photonic Materials
Photovoltaic Conversion
Renewable Energy


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S2.04-9926
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optical Devices for Starlight Detection and Wavefront Analysis
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Cost Very Large Diamond Turned Metal Mirror

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dallas Optical Systems, Inc.
1790 Connie Lane
Rockwall, TX 75032-6708
(972) 564-1156

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Casstevens
c0029156@netportusa.com
1790 Connie Lane
Rockwall,  TX 75032-9801
(972) 564-1156

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Electrolytic plating of high phosphorus nickel phosphorus alloy will encapsulate a machined mirror substrate master made of fine cell plastic foam such as polystyrene that has been sealed and made electrically conductive with painted-on coatings. After encapsulation with up to one millimeter of NiP metal holes will be drilled and the plastic master will be dissolved with a solvent such as acetone and removed. Prior to encapsulation plating round or other cross section tubes are inserted thru holes in the plastic foam so that they are incorporated into the electroformed mirror structure when the master is encapsulated with more NiP. The tubes which connect the front and back surfaces of the mirror are made by electroforming with the same NiP alloy. The finished mirror substrate will be diamond turned and the very low cutting force diamond turning process will allow fabrication of a very thin mirror face plate without print through since there is only a very low pressure on the mirror from diamond turning. Machining of plastic foam is accomplished very quickly and the foam material is very low cost. In a production mode the expendable foam plastic masters could themselves be molded. The size of the mirrors is only limited by the capacities of the plating bath and the diamond turning machine. The process is applicable to any optical contour and to the manufacture of off-axis segments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This mirror fabrication process will allow low cost telescope and camera optical mirrors to be quickly fabricated for visible and IR optical instruments for NASA missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This method of fabricating lightweight metal mirrors is suitable for use in the manufacture of optical instruments for military and scientific applications requiring any type of aspheric or flat mirror optical components.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Beamed Energy
Solar
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Laser
RF
Microwave/Submillimeter
Optical
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials
Photovoltaic Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S2.05-8681
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optics Manufacturing and Metrology for Telescope Optical Surfaces
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Reflectivity, Broad-Band Silver Coating

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Surface Optics Corporation
11555 Rancho Bernardo Road
San Diego, CA 92127-1441
(858) 675-7404

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Sheikh
dsheikh@surfaceoptics.com
11555 Rancho Bernardo Road
San Diego,  CA 92127-1441
(858) 675-7404

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future space telescopes such as the Super Nova Acceleration Probe (SNAP) require exceptionally reflective coatings applied to mirrors several meters in diameter. In 2007, Surface Optics Corporation (SOC) applied a protected silver coating to the Kepler Space telescope's 1.4-m primary mirror. Although SOC's coating design met the reflectance requirements for Kepler, the protective layers absorb too much energy in the UV and visible spectral regions to meet SNAP's science objectives. In this research, SOC will improve the spectra performance of its current protected silver coating, by modifying the protection chemistry, as well as, the deposition process. SOC's silver coating design is based on a protection recipe patented by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Recent SOC IRAD results showed that significant modifications to the basic LLNL protection scheme are possible, without sacrificing coating durability. In Phase I, a variety of protective compounds will be fabricated by an ion-assisted evaporation process and optimized for their protective properties, adhesion characteristics, and effect on coating reflectivity. In addition, SOC will create a more precise method to deposit protective NiCrNx atomic clusters, which are a critical element of LLNL's silver protection recipe. By modifying SOC's evaporation system and monitoring process, it is expected the necessary volume of these highly absorbing clusters may be reduced by a factor of 2, while still providing adequate engineering margin to insure durability. These modifications will significantly improve coating reflectance in the UV and visible spectral regions. In Phase II, scale-up issues will be addressed and the improved silver coating process will be applied to a 2.2-m mirror substrate in SOC's 3.3-meter vacuum coating chamber.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Coronagraphs, space telescope programs such as TPFand SNAP, and space-based interferometers

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
TMT, LSST, Hobby-Eberly, Keck, BBSO and many other multi-mirror telescope and instrument systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Optical
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:08-1 S2.05-8983
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optics Manufacturing and Metrology for Telescope Optical Surfaces
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Stress Iridium Coatings for Thin-Shell X-Ray Telescopes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Reflective X-ray Optics, LLC
1361 Amsterdam Avenue, Suite 3B
New York, NY 10027-2589
(212) 678-4932

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Windt
davidwindt@gmail.com
1361 Amsterdam Avenue, Suite 3B
New York,  NY 10027-2589
(212) 678-4932

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: