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NASA 2007 SBIR Phase 1 Solicitation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A1.01-8922
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mitigation of Aircraft Aging and Durability-related Hazards
PROPOSAL TITLE: Moisture Resistant Primer for Composite Bonded Repairs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Adherent Technologies, Inc.
9621 Camino del Sol NE
Albuquerque, NM 87111-1522

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrea Hoyt Haight
adherent@earthlink.net
9621 Camino del Sol NE
Albuquerque,  NM 87111-1522

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aging and durability of aircraft in both the military and civilian sectors are becoming major issues as the existing fleet continues to age. Additionally, the increased use of composite structures in the civilian fleet, such as in the Boeing 787 Dreamliner and the Airbus A380, make the understanding and/or improvement of composite durability, particularly durability of repairs, even more critical. Several areas have been identified as targets for improvement in composite aircraft repair. These include the development of rapid, low temperature repair methods and associated materials as well as development of the quality of repairs when they are made. Adhesion of bonded repairs is one area that needs to be addressed. Adherent Technologies, Inc. is proposing a novel moisture-resistant primer system for use in repairs of standard carbon/epoxy composites used in many subsonic aircraft. Our proprietary chemistry comprised of a reactive coupling agent and a carrier resin compatible with standard aerospace epoxy resins bonds directly to the prepared aircraft composite surface while retaining residual functionality that can be cured directly into the matrix of the repair leading to a covalently bound repair, thereby strengthening the repair interface. Proper selection of the coupling agent structure and carrier resin can serve to further enhance the moisture resistance and thereby durability of the composite repair.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This system is being designed to support the need for improvements in durability of repairs for subsonic aircraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed primer technology, which will improve the quality of composite bonded repairs as well as composite bonding in general, will used throughout the aerospace composite materials market as well as having potential applications in civilian infrastructure (e.g. CFRP bridge decks and the like). The civilian aircraft market is projected to be a particularly significant consumer.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A1.02-9543
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Systems Technologies for Improved Aviation Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: H/OZ: PFD and Collaborative Flight Control System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Emerald Sky Technologies, LLC
6106 Hour Hand Court
Columbia, MD 21044-4702

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steven Fritz
steven.fritz@comcast.net
6106 Hour Hand Court
Columbia,  MD 21044-4702

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
With aircraft automation increasingly able to control flight autonomously, situational awareness and engagement of the crew can suffer. To improve aviation safety further we need new paradigms to balance between exploiting increasingly powerful technologies and retaining and promoting aeronautical decision making (ADM) by the crew. This proposal explores integrating H-mode, a flight control system developed by researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) that shares workload with pilots to leverage the unique capabilities of human pilots and automated control systems, with OZ, a primary flight display system under development at eSky. OZ provides a single-screen display for IMC flight, mapping external objects such as airports, waypoints, air traffic, weather etc. onto the primary flight display. The hybrid system (H/OZ) will allow the pilot both to retain situational awareness and to monitor the flight and select alternative actions at critical points. H/OZ will marry the superior situational awareness capability of OZ with the superior cooperative flight control of H-mode. In phase 1, eSky will develop a design for H/OZ and explore the feasibility of key new design elements. eSky will map the user interface of H-mode into the OZ display and add functionality to both. In collaboration with LaRC, the Florida Institute for Human & Machine Cognition and the University of Maryland, eSky will identify specific areas critical to the performance of H/OZ and use rapid prototyping to evaluate the usability of the new design elements. New OZ functionality will be evaluated using an eSky OZ laptop simulator. H-mode prototyping will be done in the NASA LaRC H-mode simulator. Feasibility will be tested by demonstrating that the OZ display metaphor supports full H-mode functionality without compromising the usability of the H-mode user interface. Phase 2 will focus on creating an H/OZ simulator and on usability and performance testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
H/OZ will be suitable as an integrated avionics suite for any aircraft or winged spacecraft. All aircraft operated by NASA will find the innovative OZ display and the cooperative flight control of H-mode useful in flight in both Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) and Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
H/OZ is being developed as an integrated avionics suite primarily general aviation. OZ has already been demonstrated to be superior to conventional instrumentation and the new "glass cockpit" technology such as the Garmin G1000 currently being supplied with general aviation aircraft. The hybrid H/OZ system will add cooperative flight control to maintain superior situational awareness on the part of pilots. This will be of primary importance during single pilot IFR flight when high workload and stress induced by external factors can compromise situational awareness and thus flight safety. H/OZ can also be successfully applied to air transport and military aircraft. In these aircraft types electronic displays are well-established but continue to rely on images of 1920's aircraft instruments and high levels of conventional flight control automation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Intelligence
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Pilot Support Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A1.03-8543
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation External Hazard Sensor Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Low Cost, Electronically Scanned Array (ESA) Antenna Technology for Aviation Hazard Detection and Avoidance

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ThinKom Solutions, Inc.
3825 Del Amo Blvd., Suite 200
Torrance, CA 90503-2168

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Henderson
billh@thin-kom.com
3825 Del Amo Blvd., Suite 200
Torrance,  CA 90503-2168

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed project will investigate the feasibility of utilizing ThinKom's low cost electronically scanned array (ESA) antenna concepts to enable affordable airborne hazard detection and avoidance radar systems with greatly enhanced performance relative to those currently deployed. This technology is comprised of a unique integrated feed/phase shifter/radiator topology that can be realized using very low cost manufacturing techniques and COTS electronics. Although it utilizes a densely spaced array of discrete radiators that allows the "grating lobe free" operation of traditional high cost phased arrays, the architecture is amenable to "quasi-monolithic" construction from a small number of inexpensive parts. It also enables the use of a highly reliable, low cost, low power consumption beam steering controller. The estimated total loss through the feed, phase shifter, and radiator is less than 1 dB at X-Band. The Phase I program will focus on creating a design for a small proof-of-concept (POC) ESA, and on doing a hardware demonstration of the phase shifter architecture. When fabricated under a Phase II program the POC unit will demonstrate the revolutionary cost reduction potential of this technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology is useful for a broad variety of radar and communication applications that are of interest to NASA. In addition to aviation hazard detection, other relevant radar applications include ground mapping, atmospheric studies, and launch range surveillance. Regarding RF communication, it is potentially useful whenever a highly directional steerable beam is required. This includes many distinct "on-the-move" communication systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Some of the potential Non-NASA applications include: 1. Radar systems for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). 2. Active protection radar for military ground vehicles. 3. Landing aid radar for commercial and general aviation 4. Weather/collision avoidance radar for commercial and general aviation. 5. Automotive collision avoidance. 6. Point-to-Multipoint data links for LANs and MANs. 7. Self-aligning point-to-point data links and SatCom antennas. 8. Air-to-Air and Air-to-ground communication links. 9. SatCom on-the-move for both ground and airborne vehicles. 10. Perimeter surveillance radar (e.g. for homeland security or border control). 11. Long Range surveillance radar (e.g. for ballistic missile defense).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Pilot Support Systems
Microwave/Submillimeter


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A1.04-8554
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Adaptive Flight Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rapid Estimation of Aircraft Performance Models using Differential Vortex Panel Method and Extended Kalman Filter

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimal Synthesis, Inc.
868 San Antonio Road
Palo Alto, CA 94303-4622

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
P. K. Menon
menon@optisyn.com
868 San Antonio Road
Palo Alto,  CA 94303-4622

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Estimation of aerodynamic models for the control of damaged aircraft using an innovative differential vortex lattice method tightly coupled with an extended Kalman filter is proposed. The approach exploits prior knowledge about the undamaged aircraft to reduce the order of the estimation problem. Test maneuvers will be designed to improve the observability of the system dynamics. The derived performance model will then be used to determine the aircraft flight envelope, performance parameters and the maneuver limits. The objective is to develop an aircraft performance model online to permit the derivation of viable landing guidance laws for damaged aircraft. Phase I research will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed concept using a NASA-supplied aircraft simulation. Complete aircraft performance estimation system will be developed during the Phase II research and evaluated in real-time, high-fidelity simulations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed research will contribute towards NASA's Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control program.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed research will provide a systematic methodology for the guidance and control of damaged aircraft. Algorithms and software developed under the proposed SBIR work will contribute towards improving the safety of military, commercial and general aviation aircraft operations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Guidance, Navigation, and Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A1.04-9462
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Adaptive Flight Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Reconfigurable Aero and Propulsion Control for Improved Flight Safety of Commercial Aircraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scientific Systems Company, Inc.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801-6503

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jovan Boskovic
jovan@ssci.com
500 W. Cummings Park
Woburn,  MA 01801-6503

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The main objective of this project is to develop and test a novel innovative Integrated Reconfigurable Aero & Propulsion Control (IRAP) system that achieves flight safety improvement in commercial aircraft. The main feature of the proposed IRAP system is that it is well suited for uncertain plants containing actuators operating on different time scales. The focus under this project is on the flight control system design for aircraft with fast actuators moving the flight control surfaces, and engines characterized by a slower response. The IRAP system will be developed for operation under faults, failures, damage and other upsets. The technique that will be used to achieve the related reconfigurable control objectives is referred to as the Sequential Signal Filtering for Certainty-Equivalence Adaptive Control (SSF-CEAC). Specific Phase I tasks include: (i) Problem formulation; (i) Adaptive control design for the case of aero-only control; (ii) Adaptive control design for the case of propulsion-only control; (iii) Integrated reconfigurable aero & propulsion control design; and (iv) Performance evaluation of the IRAP system. In collaboration with Boeing Phantom Works, in Phase II we plan to pursue extensions of the proposed approach to MIMO nonlinear models, further development of control allocation strategies, pilot interface design, integrated adaptive control design for safe landing under severe failures and damage using engines only, and IRAP software toolbox development.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
One of the important problems under the NASA Flight Safety Program and one of the main goals of Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) component is to provide aircraft stability, maneuverability, and safe landing in the presence of adverse conditions. The proposed IRAP system addresses all three features by assuring aircraft stability under severe flight-critical faults, failures and damage, minimizing the effect of the failures on the flight control system, and assuring safe landing under upsets and external hazards. Hence the proposed work is expected to have important impact on safety improvements for aerospace vehicles arising within the framework of the NGATS and Space Exploration systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications include Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) that are also characterized by fast flight control actuators and slow engines, commercial space vehicles, and other vehicle systems whose actuators operate on different time scales.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Guidance, Navigation, and Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A1.05-9321
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Data Mining for Integrated Vehicle Health Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Low Cost, Hybrid Approach to Data Mining

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scientific Monitoring, Inc.
8777 E. Via de Ventura Drive, Suite 120
Scottsdale, AZ 85258-3345

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Asif Khalak
asif@scientificmonitoring.com
8777 E. Via de Ventura Dr., Suite 120
Scottsdale,  AZ 85258-3345

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed effort will combine a low cost physical modeling approach with inductive, data-centered modeling in an aerosopace relevant context to demonstrate effective, low cost data mining. In particular Phase I will evaluate various hybrid architecture concepts on the basis of false positive and fasle negative rates. The approach will use domain decompostiition to partition the physical platform under consideration into regimes appropriate for either model based or inductive based apoproaches.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Scientific Monitoring, Inc already offers a physical model driven, proprietary product called i-Trend. The i-Trend product provides sophisticated diagnostic and trending analysis to high value physical systems. Specific application areas include aerospace vehicles of all types, gas turbine and rocket engines, and aerospace subsystems. Combining an Inductive Monitoring System with i-Trend will provide enhanced features that will enable the hybrid system to address high value physical systems that are not easily modeled using conventional, physics based models. Such systems will include advanced aerospace structures and systems with substantial human interaction, as well as human physical performance and health monitoring of astronauts and pilots.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Scientific Monitoring, Inc already offers a physical model driven, proprietary product called i-Trend. The i-Trend product provides sophisticated diagnostic and trending analysis to high value physical systems. The i-Trend product, originally developed under a USAF SBIR, has already found commercial application as it is used by a leading aerospace firm to provide diagnostic and maintenance support to major airframe subsystems. Specific Non-NASA application areas include various land based transportation vehicles of all types, power generating systems and industrial manufacturing systems. Combining an Inductive Monitoring System with i-Trend will provide enhanced features that will enable the hybrid system to address high value physical systems that are not easily modeled using conventional, physics based models. Such systems will include advanced manufacturing systems or new structures and systems with substantial human interaction, as well as human physical performance and health monitoring.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Pilot Support Systems
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Expert Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A1.05-9348
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Data Mining for Integrated Vehicle Health Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Data Mining for IVHM using Sparse Binary Ensembles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michigan Aerospace Corporation
1777 Highland Drive, Suite B
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-2285

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Trenkle
jtrenkle@michiganaerospace.com
1777 Highland Dr., Suite B
Ann Arbor ,  MI 48108-2285

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In response to NASA SBIR topic A1.05, "Data Mining for Integrated Vehicle Health Management", Michigan Aerospace Corporation (MAC) asserts that our unique SPADE (Sparse Processing Applied to Data Exploitation) technology meets a significant fraction of the stated criteria and has functionality that enables it to handle many applications within the aircraft lifecycle. SPADE distills input data into highly quantized features and uses MAC's novel techniques for constructing Ensembles of Decision Trees to develop extremely accurate diagnostic/prognostic models for classification, regression, clustering, anomaly detection and semi-supervised learning tasks. These techniques are currently being employed to do Threat Assessment for satellites in conjunction with researchers at the Air Force Research Lab. Significant advantages to this approach include: 1) completely data driven; 2) training and evaluation are faster than conventional methods; 3) operates effectively on huge datasets (> billion samples X > million features), 4) proven to be as accurate as state-of-the-art techniques in many significant real-world applications. The specific goals for Phase 1 will be to work with domain experts at NASA and with our partners Boeing, SpaceX and GMV Space Systems to delineate a subset of problems that are particularly well-suited to this approach and to determine requirements for deploying algorithms on platforms of opportunity.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
MAC's SPADE data mining system has a large potential market in both government and civil aviation as well as for other arenas with costly and complex vehicles such as marine craft. The need for next-generation data mining tools for aid in lifecycle issues for aircraft/spacecraft/satellites/ships is now widely recognized by both the private and public sectors, as exemplified by the scope of the solicitation for this program. The techniques used by MAC are amenable to deployment on any platform of opportunity including Clusters, airborne platforms, Laptops, FPGAs, Graphical Processing Units (GPUs), and others depending on the needs of the application.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The data mining techniques embodied in MAC's SPADE system have a broad commercial market. Potential arenas include: data fusion approaches to computer network security, intelligence, and public health monitoring; real-time quality control and damage detection for continuous physical processes (chemical & pharmaceutical plants, manufacturing facilities); text stream monitoring for news, email, IMs; financial event detection – monitor accounting or investment portfolio management systems to detect unexpected classes of price or cost changes which may signify problems; sales opportunity/threat identification – detect inter-product sales relationships, fad identification, competitor's pricing changes, seasonal and geographic changes; insurance claim monitoring for fraud; micro-climate change monitoring using digital imagery; gene expression profiling for medical diagnosis and understanding of diseases; proteomic data analysis and pattern recognition for medical diagnosis and biomarker discovery, and numerous other high-profile segments in which this system could be invaluable.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A1.06-8474
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensing and Diagnostic Capability
PROPOSAL TITLE: Autonomous Composite Fan Containment Integrity Monitoring (AUTOCONFIRM) System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Acellent Technologies, Inc.
835 Stewart Drive
Sunnyvale, CA 94085-4514

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Amrita Kumar
akumar@acellent.com
835 Stewart Drive
Sunnyvale,  CA 94085-4514

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
New engine fan blade containment structures are being manufactured with advanced composite structures such that they can withstand blade-out events. The use of advance composites requires the understanding of the possible effects of aging degradation on the performance of "hard wall" or "soft wall" composite fan containment structures to ensure durability in their use in jet engine applications. Acellent Technologies, Inc. proposes to develop an innovative, low-cost and reliable system for assessment of the integrity of composite fan containment structures that will automatically monitor in real-time the location and extent of damage in the containment structure. The system will utilize a network of miniature sensors integrated with the structure to scan the entire structural area for any impact events, resulting structural damage and monitor degradation due to usage. Phase I will focus on developing a prototype of the system and demonstrating functionality to detect damage both on the inner and exterior surface of the fan containment structure.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed system directly the need for inspection of fan containment composite structures and it is expected that once developed, the proposed system will provide the following advantages over current inspection techniques: · Low-cost built-in reliable damage detection system for monitoring of containment structure integrity · Improved personnel safety · Improvement of fan containment structure reliability · Ease of installation · Reduction of labor time · Real-time convenience and automation of inspection during service

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Since nearly all in-service composite structures require some form of inspection and maintenance procedures to monitor their integrity and health condition to prolong life span or to prevent catastrophic failures, the potential applications of the proposed system are very broad. In the future, this system can potentially be used to monitor all types of composite structures on aircraft and spacecraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Perception/Sensing
Airframe
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Thermal Insulating Materials
Structural Modeling and Tools
Tankage
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Ceramics
Composites
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A1.06-9274
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensing and Diagnostic Capability
PROPOSAL TITLE: Time Domain Terahertz Axial Computed Tomography Non Destructive Evaluation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Picometrix, LLC
2925 Boardwalk Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-6765

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Zimdars
dzimdars@picometrix.com
2925 Boardwalk
Ann Arbor,  MI 48104-6765

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to demonstrate key elements of feasibility for a high speed automated time domain terahertz computed axial tomography (TD-THz CT) non destructive evaluation (NDE) system which would provide true three dimensional images of aerospace composite structures. Traditional time domain terahertz reflection tomographic imaging captures only a single view of an object, generating images of laminar structure similar to an ultrasound "B-Scan". This reflection tomographic imaging is limited, however, in revealing only the laminar structure which presents a clear specular reflection from each interface. Furthermore, traditional time domain terahertz reflection tomographic imaging has substantial difficulty in determining the layer index of refraction an absorption properties without ambiguity. We propose to overcome these limitations by utilizing true computed axial tomographic reconstruction of the images. This method acquires not one view, but many radial axial views, generating a sinogram which can be used to reconstruct images using a derivative of standard X-Ray CT filtered back-projection. The sinogram can be generated by the transmission absorbance, transmission time of flight, and, in principle, reflection measurements. The reconstructed TD-THz CT images are 3D maps of the absorption coefficients and/or the index of refraction of the subsurface material.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed TD-THz CT NDE imager will be valuable in characterizing the aging and durability of aircraft and spacecraft materials and components. Material examples include Kevlar, Zylon, and other non-conductive polymer matrix composites. Example NDE applications where these materials are used include inspection of soft shell fan containment, thermal protection systems, and composite overwrap pressure vessels. These materials are in systems in which the 3D internal examination of new construction for flaws (voids, disbonds, inclusions, improper geometry and dimensions, and incomplete curing) may be critical. It will be critical to periodically inspect systems for damage, fatigue and chemical degradation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Polymer matrix composites are used in automobile and ships and many other consumer and industrial products. TD-THz CT 3D imaging applications can include inspection of automobile dashboards, imaging inspection for delamination of printed circuit boards, inspection of pipe insulation, as well as with manufactured parts such as pure plastic and paper products. TD-THz CT imaging benefits homeland security applications under development such as personnel and luggage inspection for concealed weapons and explosives (in luggage, shoes, etc.). TD-THz CT imaging and spectroscopy can inspect items in shipment such as mail, cardboards packages, and plastic and wood crates.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ablatives
Airframe
Airlocks/Environmental Interfaces
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Erectable
Inflatable
Kinematic-Deployable
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Thermal Insulating Materials
Modular Interconnects
Structural Modeling and Tools
Tankage
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Microwave/Submillimeter
Optical
Suits
Photonics
Ceramics
Composites
Optical & Photonic Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A1.06-9979
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensing and Diagnostic Capability
PROPOSAL TITLE: Three-Dimensional Health Monitoring of Sandwich Composites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Extreme Diagnostics, Inc.
2525 Arapahoe Avenue, Bldg. E4, #262
Boulder, CO 80302-6746

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Robert Owen
rowen@extremediagnostics.com
2525 Arapahoe Avenue / Bldg. E4 #262
Boulder,  CO 80302-6746

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR project delivers a single-chip structural health-monitoring (SHM) system that uses the impedance method to monitor bulk interiors and wave propagation methods to assess surfaces. This Three-Dimensional Health Monitoring (3DHM) unit supports nondestructive evaluation (NDE) systems and evaluates hard shell composites that include sandwich structures. Implications of the innovation Increasingly demanding weight and performance needs move manufacturers to the use of composite materials. New systems are needed to detect incipient damage in composites and identify aging-related hazards before they become critical. Three-dimensional health analyzers that actively examine both bulk interiors and large-scale surface areas address a major problem domain; however, no practical system exists. We address this deficiency by building on our existing SHM system. Technical objectives 3DHM leverages our previous NASA research in SHM. Our current prototype takes the form of a single custom printed circuit board, and is a TRL 5 unit. We have demonstrated bulk interior and limited surface area coverage in Boeing thermal protection system (TPS) tests and on wind turbine blades—both feature composite materials. We extend our surface coverage by adding wave propagation SHM. Our sensor validation includes computer modeling that generates virtual (simulated) data. Research description Phase 1 establishes feasibility for a single-chip approach that combines the impedance method and wave propagation, and demonstrates damage detection on a model composite. Phase 2 completes, validates and demonstrates single chip operation, and delivers an operational unit. Anticipated results Phase 1 establishes 3DHM feasibility by developing a detailed chip development and verification roadmap. Phase 2 delivers an operational unit that monitors and assesses bulk interiors and surfaces of hard shell composites that include sandwich structures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
3DHM directly supports NDE systems for safety assurance of future vehicles—specifically those making heavy use of composite materials and sandwich structures. There is a major effort within NASA, the FAA, and the military to develop integrated vehicle health management technology that utilizes SHM information for computer controlled recovery actions aimed at avoiding catastrophe. 3DHM provides enabling technology for this effort. 3DHM supports the NASA Engineering and Safety Center by providing tools for independent testing, analysis, and assessment of high-risk projects. 3DHM applications include on-wing SHM of various aircraft components including static structures (e.g., containment components, ducts, vanes, nozzles, etc.) as well as rotating components (e.g., disks, blades, and shafts). 3DHM in situ SHM technology is needed to improve aircraft safety and reliability by verifying structural integrity and nondestructively inspecting, monitoring, and assessing aircraft and aerospace propulsion systems for damage. 3DHM is applicable to the next generation of turbine engines. These advanced propulsion systems will use revolutionary materials and structures. Structures based on such materials must withstand severe stresses and hostile aero-thermo-chemical environments, while weighing less and operating at higher temperatures than current engines.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications include Homeland Security structural analysis to mitigate threats (preparedness) and assess damage (response), smart structures, and SHM of civil infrastructures, land/marine structures, medical devices, and military structures. Civil infrastructure includes bridges, highway systems, buildings, power plants, underground structures, and windmills. Land/marine structures include automobiles, trains, submarines, ships, and offshore structures. Medical devices include implants and health monitoring devices. Military structures include helicopters, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and others. SHM is an emerging industry driven by an aging infrastructure, malicious humans, and the introduction of advanced materials and structures. SHM applications are also driven by a desire to lower costs by moving from schedule-based to condition-based maintenance. Government customers include NASA and the Departments of Defense, Transportation, and Energy. Non-government customers include energy companies, and other crucial-structure custodians. Westinghouse Electric Company (Nuclear Services Division) is our civilian commercialization partner. WEC sees 3DHM applications in nuclear power plant SHM, and provides engineering and marketing support at no cost.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Structural Modeling and Tools
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Pilot Support Systems
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Composites
Power Management and Distribution
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A1.07-9427
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Health Management for Aircraft Subsystems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Digital System e-Prognostics for Critical Aircraft Computer Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Impact Technologies, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd.
Rochester, NY 14623-2893

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Roemer
mike.roemer@impact-tek.com
200 Canal View Boulevard
Rochester,  NY 14623-2893

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Impact Technologies, in cooperation with Raytheon, proposes to develop and demonstrate an innovative prognostics approach for aircraft digital electronics. The proposed non-invasive prognostic approach consists of advanced software and a minimal sensing, focused on incipient fault detection, isolating failure modes and predicting remaining useful life using improved prognostic models. The innovations will include development and validation of physics of failure models, applicable to a broad range of CMOS digital systems; associated damage accumulation models; and a signal processing and feature extraction approach for detecting and isolating VLSI failure modes. In this approach, cradle-to-grave health state awareness is achieved through the use of model-based assessments in the absence of fault indications, and by updating these model-based assessments with sensed information. The PowerPC MPC7447 microprocessor will be used for validation testing during this program based on its use in such systems as the F-35 fighter Integrated Core Processor (ICP) and the fact that it is representative of the wide spread CMOS technology found in modern digital devices. Finally, a commercialization path beginning with testing of the technologies within Raytheon's Labs will be presented along with the team's vision of how e-Prognostic technologies can be transitioned into safety critical commercial and military digital.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA systems, ranging from flight controls to data and signal processing systems will benefit from these technological advancements. Any digital system incorporating Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) and Large Scale Integrated (LSI) CMOS technology can benefit from the developed technologies. These digital systems are used in computing, communications, data transport, and digital control systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of e-Prognostics for aircraft digital electronic boards will provide multiple benefits including: improved safety associated with system operations, reduced life cycle or total ownership costs, and increased availability of commercial and military systems. Furthermore, the work will contain many generic elements that are readily applicable to a wide range of related applications. The integrated e-Prognostic approaches, techniques, and specific algorithms could also be implemented in a wide range of ground-based and naval military applications, as well as in civilian commercial aviation applications (passenger aircraft, cargo transports, business jets, private aircraft, etc.).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Computer System Architectures
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A1.07-9927
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Health Management for Aircraft Subsystems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Crucial Component Damage Detection, Monitoring and Mitigation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Extreme Diagnostics, Inc.
2525 Arapahoe Avenue, Bldg. E4, #262
Boulder, CO 80302-6746

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Robert Owen
rowen@extremediagnostics.com
2525 Arapahoe Avenue / Bldg. E4 #262
Boulder,  CO 80302-6746

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR project delivers an on-board structural health-monitoring (SHM) system with embedded sensors that sense mechanical impedance deviations to flag incipient damage in time to recover from or prevent in-flight failures. This Component Damage Mitigation (CDM) system integrates early damage detection with failure recovery measures such as self-healing fasteners. Implications of the innovation Next Generation Air Transport Systems bring increasingly demanding weight and performance needs that encourage aircraft to operate relatively close to their design limits—minor structural failure can mean rapid catastrophe. On-board sensing, diagnostic, and damage mitigation capabilities are needed for early correction of incipient damage. However, no practical system exists. We address this deficiency by building on our existing SHM unit and incorporating damage mitigation. Technical objectives CDM leverages our work in impedance-based SHM. Our current prototype consists of a single custom electronics board, and is a TRL 5 unit. We have demonstrated field operation in Boeing launch simulation tests and on full-scale wind turbine blades. We propose to integrate our current approach with damage mitigation measures and to create a practical single-chip solution. We include computer modeling that generates virtual data in our sensor validation. Research description Phase 1 establishes feasibility for a single-chip approach based on the impedance method, and demonstrates damage mitigation on a model self-healing fastener. Phase 2 completes and validates single chip development, integrates damage detection and mitigation, and delivers an operational unit. Anticipated results Phase 1 demonstrates damage detection/mitigation integration and provides a detailed chip roadmap. Phase 2 delivers an operational unit that performs integrated damage detection, monitoring, and mitigation in crucial propulsion system and airframe components.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is a major effort within NASA, the FAA, and the military to develop Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) technology that utilizes SHM information for computer controlled recovery actions aimed at avoiding catastrophe. CDM provides enabling technology for this effort. CDM supports the NASA Engineering and Safety Center by providing tools for independent testing, analysis, and assessment of high-risk projects. CDM applications include on-wing SHM and damage mitigation of various aircraft components including static structures (e.g., containment components, ducts, vanes, nozzles, etc.) as well as rotating components (e.g., disks, blades, and shafts). CDM in situ SHM technology is needed to improve aircraft safety and reliability by verifying structural integrity and nondestructively inspecting, monitoring, and assessing airframes, aircraft systems, and propulsion elements for damage and health. CDM is integrated with damage mitigation and is applicable to the next generation of turbine engines. These advanced propulsion systems will use revolutionary materials and structures. Structures based on such materials must withstand severe stresses and hostile aero-thermo-chemical environments, while weighing less and operating at higher temperatures than current engines.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications include Homeland Security structural analysis to mitigate threats (preparedness) and assess damage (response), smart structures, and SHM of civil infrastructures, land/marine structures, medical devices, and military structures. Civil infrastructure includes bridges, highway systems, buildings, power plants, underground structures, and windmills. Land/marine structures include automobiles, trains, submarines, ships, and offshore structures. Medical devices include implants and health monitoring devices. Military structures include helicopters, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and others. SHM is an emerging industry driven by an aging infrastructure, malicious humans, and the introduction of advanced materials and structures. SHM applications are also driven by a desire to lower costs by moving from schedule-based to condition-based maintenance. Government customers include NASA and the Departments of Defense, Transportation, and Energy. Non-government customers include energy companies, and other crucial-structure custodians. Westinghouse Electric Company (Nuclear Services Division) is our non-government commercialization partner. WEC sees CDM applications in nuclear power plant SHM, and provides engineering and marketing support at no cost. We are also working with Boeing and the United Space Alliance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Tankage
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Composites
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A1.09-8752
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Integrated Avionics Systems for Small Scale Remotely Operated Vechicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Serial In-Line Instrumentation Bus for ROV Engineering Research

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618-2302

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert McKillip, Jr.
bob@continuum-dynamics.com
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing,  NJ 08618-2302

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced microcontrollers having digital signal processing features have enabled the capability to distribute on-board computation for remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). Distributed processing can result in a lighter weight avionics suite with improved performance, by locating data conversion units adjacent to the sensors and control actuators, and reducing EMI through minimization of the amount of interconnection wiring. The proposed work will leverage CDI's and AMDI's substantial prior experience in the development and operation of flight control avionics for ROVs in the design of a new system for supporting advanced research using these systems. The avionics suite to be developed consists of serially interconnected distributed nodes that may be programmed through a Matlab graphical interface to perform control and sensing functions in support of custom requirements from the research community. The flexibility of custom-configured distributed computing nodes for use in a research context ensures that "just enough" instrumentation and control is provided for the specific test requirements at hand. Phase I will provide risk reduction by demonstrating the operation of the subcomponent technologies, culminating in a simplified flight test of the avionics system. Phase II continuation will develop the complete system to support testing activities at a NASA research center of interest.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's use of small remotely operated vehicles, particularly unmanned aircraft, in research applications would benefit from the use of a lightweight, low-power avionics system for vehicle control and data collection. Use of the proposed distributed sensing and control network would reduce overall avionics system weight, permitting the use of additional sensors, alternate control features, or better performance of the vehicle from reduced weight operation. Having a convenient, user-friendly interface for system configuration control would expedite the planning and execution of experiments using the avionics suite installed in these vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed system to be developed here could support a variety of instrumentation and control needs for both commercial industry and defense applications. The ability to custom tailor the required control and instrumentation components would allow the system to optimize weight and power requirements to permit its use on a host of lightweight robotic systems and devices.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Teleoperation
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Highly-Reconfigurable


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A1.09-9909
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Integrated Avionics Systems for Small Scale Remotely Operated Vechicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Avionics for Scaled Remotely Operated Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Coherent Technical Services, Inc.
46655 Expedition Drive, Suite 101
Lexington Park, MD 20653-5120

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ian Gallimore
Ian.Gallimore@goCTSi.com
46655 Expedition Drive, Suite 101
Lexington Park,  MD 20653-5120

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The use of UAVs has increased exponentially since 1995, and this growth is expected to continue. Many of these applications require extensive Research and Development; however, the need to fund development of the UAV often competes with funding intended for the end-user application. Therefore, off the shelf, low cost, easily configurable integrated avionics systems will significantly reduce the budget impact for UAVs yet will support the wide range of applications for their use. CTSi and Virginia Commonwealth University are proposing the use of an integrated VCU developed avionics package with a user configurable autopilot system that will meet the needs of a wide range of experimental test bed UAVs. The system will include: 1. The ability for the safety pilot to take direct control of the aircraft using an on-board fail-safe control switch 2. A built-in autopilot to provide return-to-home capability upon failure of the RF links, safety/ground pilot assistance in performing research maneuvers, and limited upset recovery 3. An open-architecture hardware design enabling customer upgrade of sensors, actuators, and data links 4. An open-architecture software design enabling push-button auto-coding of control algorithms direct from Simulink 5. A flexible architecture allowing customer-developed control laws to be executed on ground-based computers via uplink and downlink telemetry or onboard the aircraft using an optional Advanced Adaptive Flight Control Processor.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has many applications for Unmanned Vehicles as Research and Development tools. Our proposal describes one use as part of the NASA AirStar System. In this application our ASROV system provides NASA with an integrated avionics system that allows NASA to focus on their experimental research in flight dynamics, vehicle state assessment and automatic flight control. ASROV will allow NASA to quickly and easily update control laws, without tedious hand coding of the new software. The CTSi/VCU ASROV system is a modular, open-architecture hardware and software design that allows the customer to change or upgrade the avionics as needed depending on the specific application. This architecture can be used throughout NASA as an avionics/auto-pilot system that allows maximum flexibility for the user quickly and easily update components of the system, to meet the data quality requirements for their specific application.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Government agencies such as DoD, DoT, NSA, and civil research and development entities such as Universities and defense contractors are all heavily invested in using UAVs for Research and Development. Companies such as Northrop Grumman, and Universities such as Virginia Commonwealth University and the University of Texas at Arlington have expressed interest in a low cost, reconfigurable open architecture UAV avionics system. Each of these entities have specific interest in the ability to rapidly change the platform control laws to meet the requirements of their specific application without having to request changes from the autopilot manufacturer. ASROV provides the ability to go from SIMULINK models to C/C++ code on an ASROV platform without ever having to go back to the autopilot manufacturer. This capability allows UAV operators to focus their funding and their development efforts on their application, instead of on developing a UAV Testbed.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Highly-Reconfigurable


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A1.10-8772
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Adaptive Structural Mode Suppression
PROPOSAL TITLE: Adaptive Feedfoward Feedback Control Framework

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ZONA Technology, Inc.
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale, AZ 85258-4578

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dario Baldelli
dario@zonatech.com
9489 E. Ironwood Square Dr.
Scottsdale,  AZ 85258-4578

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A novel approach is proposed for the suppression of the aircraft's structural vibration to increase the resilience of the flight control law in the presence of the aeroelastic/aeroservoelastic (AE/ASE) interactions. Currently aircrafts with non-adaptive control laws usually include roll-off or notch filters to avoid AE/ASE interactions. However, if changes in the aircraft configuration are significant, the frequencies of the flexible modes of the aircraft may be shifted and the notch filters could become totally ineffective. With the proposed approach, the flexible modes can be consistently estimated in real-time via system identification algorithm. The identified flexible modes information is sought to be injected to the adaptive control algorithm to update a set of pre-chosen basis functions, These are the key elements for the effectiveness of the proposed method. As a result, undesirable effects of elastic modes will be suppressed while the whole system stability being maintained. Two case/analysis scenarios will be considered. First, the feedforward filter topology will be mainly used to reduce any atmospheric induced structural vibration of the aircraft. Second, the adaptive feedback control is triggered to suppress any AE/ASE interactions, and prevent any possible Flutter/Limit Cycle Oscillation (LCO) of the actual flexible aircraft.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Being capable of on-line estimation/monitoring of the elastic modes of the aircraft, the proposed adaptive control technology can be automatically adjusted to attenuate any potential adverse aeroelastic/aeroseroelastic effects of an aircraft before a sustained limit cycle and vehicle damage are encountered. Hence, the proposed project will assist NASA in its goal to achieve an integrated flight control system resilient to failures, damage, and upset conditions unforeseen during the development of the aircraft's original control law.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed adaptive feedforward/feedback control framework will have extensive application in non-NASA commercial applications. Firstly, due to the potential Flight Control System (FCS) benefits from avoiding notch filters, the proposed methodology can be used by military and commercial aircraft manufacturers for new aircraft designs, modifications and upgrades. Secondly, it brings a variety of applications in other industries. Among others it can be mentioned: (1) Acoustic noise cancellation in headphone devices; (2) Reduction of the noise level for rotating fans in computer servers; (3) Suppression and/or attenuation of vibrations in large satellite structures; (4) Cabin noise reduction for the next generation executive transport aircraft, such as the Marcel Dassualt's Falcon 7X. The noise source can be associated with engine or gust noise; (5) Vibration suppression across the automotive industry, such as vehicle's engine vibration, adaptively tuning of the suspension in formula 1 racing cars, and so on.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Structural Modeling and Tools
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A1.10-9435
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Adaptive Structural Mode Suppression
PROPOSAL TITLE: Adaptive Filtering for Aeroservoelastic Response Suppression

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CSA Engineering, Inc.
2565 Leghorn Street
Mountain View, CA 94043-1613

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Keas
paul.keas@csaengineering.com
2565 Leghorn Street
Mountain View,  CA 94043-1613

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CSA Engineering proposes the design of an adaptive aeroelastic mode suppression for advanced fly-by-wire aircraft, which will partition the modal suppression function from the rigid-body Flight Control System (FCS). CSA is recognized as having world-class expertise in the areas structural dynamics, vibration control, and control-structure interaction. Phase 1 will leverage expertise in structural dynamics and system-identification to develop adaptive filtering algorithms which operate in both the spatial and time domains to identify/estimate key aeroelastic generalized (modal) DOF and suppress aeroservoelastic interactions while minimizing the degradation of phase margin with respect to the FCS. During Phase 1, CSA will develop an end-to-end aeroelastic aircraft dynamic model of appropriate complexity as well as related sensors and measurement systems which will support the adaptive mode suppression effort. Sensors and measurement systems will be evaluated concurrently with adaptive filtering algorithms with regard to convergence, stability, and robustness. Filter architecture parameterization and constraints will be investigated. The goal of this development is to partition the suppression of aeroservoelastic interactions separate from the rigid body FCS, enabling FCS design and configuration/adaptation to be independent of aeroservoelastic considerations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology will be applicable to manned and unmanned vehicles and will enable safe operation in the presence of large uncertainties, component failures and system changes. This research will enable the R&D of others who are working with NASA on adaptive flight control by addressing the area of aeroservoelasticity and allowing others to focus on other core flight control aspects.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ability to field adaptive fault-tolerant flight control systems will undoubtedly be of interest to developers of civil transport aircraft from the standpoint of improved ride quality and safety, especially if such technologies can readily be certified for such applications. Advances in adaptive flight control will serve future growth in air traffic in the US, continuing to reduce the fatal accident rate over time. Potential customers for CSA's algorithms, sensor subsystems and control systems are aerospace and defense companies with government often being the upstream customer.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Expert Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A1.11-9128
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Universal Enabling IVHM Technologies in Architecture, System Integration, Databases, and Verification and Validation
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Verification and Validation Tool for Diagnostic Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Barron Associates, Inc.
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901-2559

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alec Bateman
barron@bainet.com
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville,  VA 22901-2559

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced diagnostic systems have the potential to improve safety, increase availability, and reduce maintenance costs in aerospace vehicle and a variety of other mechanical system. Numerous recent research efforts have produced a variety of diagnostic algorithms that show significant promise, but to date advanced diagnostic approaches have seen rather limited use in operational air vehicle systems. One of the major hurdles to transitioning such systems to fleet vehicles is the lack of adequate verification and validation (V&V) approaches. Barron Associates and MUSYN propose a Phase I research effort to develop a V&V framework for diagnostic systems that combines novel analysis approaches with experimental techniques to provide high confidence in the performance of diagnostic techniques. Performance evaluation of diagnostic systems is currently based primarily on numerical testing approaches, which may be applied to both simulation results and actual experimental data. While such testing is extremely important and should form a key component of the overall V&V strategy, it is not adequate alone. This is because it is impossible to collect sufficient test data or even sufficient Monte Carlo simulation data to exhaustively cover the space of potential test conditions. To achieve reasonable confidence in the coverage of the V&V procedures, it is necessary to intelligently select Monte Carlo or experimental test points to target the regions of the test space that are most likely to reveal problems. The team will work to develop analysis approaches that can help to identify combinations of conditions (flight conditions, uncertainties, external disturbances, vehicle configuration, etc.) that are most likely to lead to inadequate performance of diagnostic algorithms. The team will also extend the existing CAESAR software tool for control law V&V to automate V&V of diagnostic systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed V&V approaches will be applicable to diagnostic algorithms applied to a wide variety of systems developed and operated by NASA. Many future air vehicles can be expected to employ diagnostic algorithms to monitor systems including actuators, sensors, engines, gearboxes, and structural components. Examples of such vehicles include commercial transports, unmanned observation and communications platforms, and research aircraft. Diagnostic algorithms will be particularly important in commercial transport aircraft, where safety is of the utmost importance, and in long endurance unmanned vehicles, which lack human operators to recognize and respond to failure conditions. In the unforgiving environment of space travel, diagnostic algorithms will also offer significant benefits. Even in orbital flight, providing assistance to a damaged vehicle is extremely difficult and the problem will only be compounded on journeys to the moon and mars. Diagnostic algorithms will be critical to timely identification and isolation of fault conditions so the appropriate corrective actions can be initiated promptly.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed V&V approaches will be applicable to diagnostic algorithms applied to a wide variety of systems developed and operated by NASA. Many future air vehicles can be expected to employ diagnostic algorithms to monitor systems including actuators, sensors, engines, gearboxes, and structural components. Examples of such vehicles include commercial transports, unmanned observation and communications platforms, and research aircraft. Diagnostic algorithms will be particularly important in commercial transport aircraft, where safety is of the utmost importance, and in long endurance unmanned vehicles, which lack human operators to recognize and respond to failure conditions. In the unforgiving environment of space travel, diagnostic algorithms will also offer significant benefits. Even in orbital flight, providing assistance to a damaged vehicle is extremely difficult and the problem will only be compounded on journeys to the moon and mars. Diagnostic algorithms will be critical to timely identification and isolation of fault conditions so the appropriate corrective actions can be initiated promptly.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
On-Board Computing and Data Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A1.12-9786
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Improvement Design and Analysis of Flight Deck Automation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Computational Model and Measurement Tool for Evaluating the Design of Flight Deck Technologies

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aptima, Inc.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801-1753

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jamie Estock
jestock@aptima.com
1726 M Street, N.W., Suite 900
Washington,  DC 20036-4526

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The runway safety issue has been on the Most Wanted list of the National Transportation Safety Board since the list's inception in 1990. The FAA has responded by implementing two ground surveillance technologies at major U.S. airports to reduce the risk of runway incursions. However, both technologies route information through air traffic control (rather than directly to pilots), which significantly delays safe responses. Several flight deck technologies that communicate information directly to pilots are currently in development. However, there is a need for tools to rapidly test the technologies early in the design process and measure their impact on pilot performance prior to implementation. The Aptima/George Mason University team proposes to develop two technologies that can be used together or independently to evaluate performance of flight deck technologies aimed at improving runway safety. We will deliver a computational cognitive model (Adaptive Control of Thought-Runway Safety; ACT-RS) that realistically emulates pilot performance, thus reducing the need for human pilots early in the design process. In addition, we will deliver a measurement tool (Performance Measurement Engine) that can measure the impact of the flight deck technology on the performance of ACT-RS and human pilots, making it useful across the technology lifecycle.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ACT-RS and the PM Engine will be useful to NASA researchers within the Aviation Safety Program as tools that will allow them to: (1) assess the impact of flight deck technologies aimed at improving runway safety throughout the design lifecycle, (2) identify the underlying factors driving experience-based effects of technology implementation on pilot performance, and (3) assess performance in different conditions and scenarios by providing flexible modeling and software frameworks.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ACT-RS and the PM Engine will appeal to customers who are developing flight deck technologies aimed at improving runway safety and those who develop and conduct training for pilots on new flight deck technologies. Avionics developers can benefit by using the proposed tools to collect and provide objective data that is evaluative in terms of FAA regulations, policies, and standards. Airline Training Directors can also benefit by using ACT-RS and the PM Engine to understand the effects of new runway safety technologies and to develop training curriculum that prepares pilots for these changes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Human-Computer Interfaces
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.01-8385
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Optimization of Weight Including Damage Scenarios

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
M4 Engineering, Inc.
2161 Gundry Avenue
Signal Hill, CA 90755-3517

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Myles Baker
myles.baker@m4-engineering.com
2161 Gundry Ave
Signal Hill,  CA 90755-3517

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
M4 Engineering proposes to develop a method of incorporating several analyses into one process and then optimizing the structure. This method will allow for significant weight savings of structural compoents by incorporating analyses for damage tolerance, and durability in the design phase. Damage tolerance analyses, especially, have been difficult to iterate on since it has been time consuming to create models of each damage condition. The proposed method will be a highly efficient and useful method in reducing weight of structures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA will find great use for this method as they deal with applications that are highly sensative to weight. This method is suitable for both aviation and spacecraft applications of which is NASAs buisness.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This proposed method is suitable for application outside of the NASA network. Aircraft manufacturers such as Boeing, Lockheed-Martin, and Airbus will find great use for this tool in applying weight savings techniques to their structures. In addition, the automotive industry will find significant use for this tool since structures with weight concern are also developed.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Composites
Metallics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.01-8811
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multi-Axial Damage Index and Accumulation Model for Predicting Fatigue Life of CMC Materials

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Research and Design
300 E. Swedesford Road
Wayne, PA 19087-1858

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Sullivan
brian.sullivan@m-r-d.com
300 E. Swedesford Road
Wayne,  PA 19087-1858

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The fatigue life of CMCs must be well characterized for the safe and reliable use of these materials as integrated TPS components. Existing fatigue life prediction models for composite materials may be classified into three different categories: a) fatigue life model (S–N curves), b) residual strength or residual stiffness model, and c) progressive damage model. Recently, a damage index and accumulation model has been developed by Liu and Mahadevan based on Tsai-Hill static strength failure criterion. Using this approach as a framework, MR&D is proposing to develop and verify a relatively simple and computationally manageable approach to the fatigue life prediction of fabric reinforced C/SiC composites for hypersonic vehicle load bearing thermal protection system designs. A combined experimental and analytical program is proposed to achieve the objective of the proposed Phase I effort. At the conclusion of Phase I, a TRL of 2 will have been achieved and progress towards achieving a TRL of 3 will have been made.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology developed here will directly support the design of existing and future NASA space exploration vehicles. A working model which successfully predicts the thermal and mechanical fatigue life of coated C/SiC components will enable confident predictions of the structural life of CMC TPS components. Such a tool would also enable inspection and maintenance schedules to be generated for C/SiC materials, using actual data from flown mission environments collected from integral health monitoring sensor systems. Thermal protection system (TPS) elements, ranging from thick leading edges to doubly-curved acreage TPS panels, to hot structure control surfaces, will all benefit from the proposed program, if successful. Additionally, the fatigue life prediction tools developed in the Phase I program, if successful, may support the development of any hot structure materials used on the Crew Exploration Vehicle and subsequent airframes required for the Mission to Mars.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Phase I program will result in enhanced design expertise that ultimately can be used by Government agencies and other companies to design and manufacture high temperature composite thermal protection system (TPS) components. Additionally the high temperature composite TPS design knowledge gained by MR&D from the Phase I program will open new opportunities to provide design and analysis services. An example of this growth path is provided by a Naval Air Warfare Center CMC Repair Phase I SBIR that grew into a Phase III SBIR, which was responsible for $1,288,521 of MR&D sales for CMC design and development services as of January 2006.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Structural Modeling and Tools
Ceramics
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.01-9010
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy Technology for Inlet Flow Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618-2302

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Todd Quackenbush
todd@continuum-dynamics.com
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing,  NJ 08618-2302

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Recent advances have strengthened interest in supersonic cruise aircraft, though achieving economic viability for these vehicles will require dramatic improvements in cruise efficiency without excessively penalizing off-design performance. Optimization of inlet design offers a potent method for achieving these goals, and a range of flow control concepts are available that can provide an adaptive ability to minimize blockage, reduce boundary layer bleed, and mitigate adverse effects of flow distortion on inlet/engine stability. By exploiting high temperature smart materials technology, these concepts can be mechanized in robust, compact, and lightweight devices, enabling actuators suitable for the environment of supersonic powerplants. This effort will demonstrate the feasibility of applying High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy (HTSMA) technology to this problem, focusing initially on design and demonstration of variable geometry flow control devices for use in supersonic mixed compression inlets. The project will build on prior successful development of smart materials actuators, and will extend earlier work by incorporating new HTSMA materials as well as by exploiting recent insights into microramp and vortex generation devices. The project will include refinement and characterization of actuator-ready HTSMAs, development of design tools for aero/thermo/structural analysis of flow control concepts, and experiments on demonstrator-level implementations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
By providing foundational research on innovative concepts for propulsion system components for supersonic transport aircraft, the proposed effort will directly support a wide range of fundamental NASA goals in aeronautics. One key result of the effort will be extended development and characterization of highly promising HTSMA materials, a resource of great potential for high speed and/or high temperature applications in subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic aircraft. In addition, the Phase I effort will lay the groundwork for enabling technology to provide integrated inlet/engine control to ensure safe, stable, and efficient operation for continuous flight above Mach 2. Also, the projected integrated aero/thermo/elastic models of actuator performance to be assembled and validated will assist the development of concurrent engineering tools for analysis and design of smart-materials-based propulsion flow control systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A successful Phase I/Phase II effort will open the door to prototype testing and eventual implementation of a HTSMA-driven adaptive flow control system. The most direct beneficiary would be next generation supersonic aircraft that could incorporate these robust, low-profile, low-power flow control devices to permit an optimal balance of improved engine/inlet performance and enhanced engine safety. Successful implementation in this application would also lead to spinoff developments in a number of actuation tasks, including follow-on control concepts for compressor and turbine stages in subsonic or supersonic engines that would directly benefit both civil and military systems. Supersonic cruise technology is also of interest to the U.S. Department of Defense agencies and the developments projected here would directly benefit numerous missile designs as well as both manned and unmanned aircraft systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Kinematic-Deployable
Structural Modeling and Tools
Metallics
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.01-9382
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multifunctional Aerogel Thermal Protection Systems for Hypersonic Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aspen Aerogels, Inc.
30 Forbes Road
Northborough, MA 01532-2501

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Wendell Rhine
wrhine@aerogel.com
30 Forbes Road, Building B
Northborough,  MA 01532-2501

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The push to hypersonic flight regimes requires novel materials that are lightweight as well as thermally and structurally efficient for airframes and thermal protection systems to increase safety and decrease system weight. The materials required must maintain their performance throughout the lifetime of the system, without degrading over time or with use. A critical component of the system is the thermal protection system required to maintain internal temperatures compatible with the airframe. Currently available thermal protection system (TPS) designs and materials are not capable of providing the level of protection required by NASA without a significant increase in TPS weight and volume. In addition, current concepts for insulation utilize approaches that add nothing to the structural efficiency of the vehicle, or are made from materials that add unnecessary weight to achieve the required thermal performance. Therefore, NASA needs new TPS concepts for hypersonic vehicles that will provide the highest level of thermal performance and can also be structurally integrated with the airframe rather than just add parasitic weight. For this SBIR effort, Aspen proposes to develop a multifunctional aerogel that could be used in structurally integrated thermal protection systems to improve vehicle safety and decrease system weight.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The multifunctional aerogel-based materials developed during this project will have applications as high temperature insulation and as lightweight structural components for integrated thermal protection systems for hypersonic aircraft and reusable launch vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The aerogels developed in this project would find applications for military hypersonic vehicles and as the insulation used for high temperature industrial processes. Lightweight structural aerogels would find applications as a component of composite sandwich panels that are both lightweight and insulating. Such panels could find many applications including uses in as fire barriers in buildings. Carbon aerogel also have applications such as catalyst supports and fuel cell electrodes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Thermal Insulating Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.01-9570
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight High Temperature Beta Gamma Alloy/Process Development for Disk and Blade Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
UES, Inc.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432-1894

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Young-Won Kim
ywkim@ues.com
4401 Dayton-Xenia Rd
Dayton,  OH 45432-1894

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The primary material and manufacturing limitations of gamma TiAl alloys include processing difficulties, requiring costly non-conventional processing requirements, and large lamellar grains, which reduces damage tolerance. We have developed a new class of TiAl-based alloys, called beta gamma, which would remove such barriers. Unlike existing gamma alloys, beta gamma alloys are designed such that the ductile â phase is adequate at elevated temperatures (for processing) but negligible at the anticipated use temperatures (for performance). The alloys also feature significant grain refinement and compositional homogeneity. This program is aimed to utilize such beneficial beta-phase distribution and microstructure features observed in small (0.7kg) samples into forged disks from medium size (25kg) ingots. The process-ability will be validated by employing a conventional forging process, and refined lamellar microstructures will be generated through usual alpha treatments. The significance of this innovation is that beta gamma alloy disks can not only be produced by conventional forging, but also show improvements in RT strength and ductility and may retain other attributes (density, creep and oxidation) of conventional gamma alloys.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Due to their low density (only 50% of those of superalloys), high temperature capability (up to 800<SUP>o</SUP>C for long-term use), and expected damage tolerance improvements, once the premised process-ability and engineering microstructures achieved, beta gamma alloys will eventually find their potential applications for rotational components, such as compressor rotors and disks, and other hot structures in future NASA advanced engines. With some adjustments of processing parameters and conditions, these alloys can be rolled into thin sheets relatively readily, which then can be used for thin-section hot structures such TPS and nozzle components.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For the same reasons described above, there exist near future application opportunities for beta gamma in LPT components (blades and others) in future commercial aero engines and for high-pressure compressor (HPC) blades and vanes in advanced engines. These blades made of conventional gamma alloys are on the verge of being implemented in spite of their inferiority in processing and microstructure to those of beta gamma alloys. The rotors in future missile engines are a viable application area for beta gamma alloys. Some commercial automotive engines have used turbochargers made of conventional gamma alloys and a cost reduction is the only issue for exhaust valve applications. These are the ideal application areas for beta gamma alloys.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Metallics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.01-9728
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Durable, High Thermal Conductivity Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Composites for Turbine Engine Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hyper-Therm High-Temperature Composites
18411 Gothard Street, Units B&C
Huntington Beach, CA 92648-1208

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Shinavski
robert.shinavski@htcomposites.com
18411 Gothard Street, Units B&C
Huntington Beach,  CA 92648-1208

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Durable, creep-resistant ceramic composites are necessary to meet the increased operating temperatures targeted for advanced turbine engines. Higher operating temperatures result in improved performance, fuel savings (higher efficiency) and reduced pollution. Silicon melt infiltrated ceramic composites have been identified as having a 2400F maximum use temperature, which does not take advantage of the highest temperature capability of the newest generation of near stoichiometric SiC fibers. Conversely ceramic composites containing a SiC matrix derived from chemical vapor infiltration have sufficient stability to take full advantage of the creep resistance of the fibers. For many applications, no existing matrix system for SiC-reinforced composites has sufficient through-thickness thermal conductivity at elevated temperatures to result in low thermally induced stresses; such that longer service life at higher temperatures can be achieved. This Phase I work will demonstrate a higher temperature melt infiltrated matrix that is stable to 2950F, and thus allows the full temperature capability of the latest generation SiC fiber reinforcements to be used. This higher temperature capability is combined with a significantly higher predicted elevated temperature thermal conductivity for the ceramic composite, which will reduce the thermally induced stresses on the material that often dominate the stress state on the material. The Phase I effort will produce ceramic composites with this higher temperature melt infiltrated matrix and perform both thermal and mechanical property evaluations at ambient and elevated temperatures to demonstrate the benefits of the system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications for NASA include application in the hot gas path of turbine engines for supersonic aircraft. Specific components include turbine shrouds, combustor liners, and turbine vanes. Other applications for silicon carbide fiber reinforced composites include applications for advanced air-breathing propulsion systems for hypervelocity vehicles, hot structure, and actively cooled hot structures, as well as high temperature heat exchangers that can benefit from the higher operating temperatures and high temperature thermal conductivity.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications include application in military and potentially commercial turbine engines for aircraft, and land-based turbine components for power generation. Other applications that can benefit from the higher operating temperatures and high temperature thermal conductivity are catathermal combustion devices, heat exchangers, and radiant burners.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Ceramics
Composites
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.02-8933
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Species Source Term Mapping for Reacting Flow CFD

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Reaction Systems, LLC
1814 19th Street
Golden, CO 80401-1710

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bradley Hitch
rxnsys@comcast.net
1814 19th Street
Golden,  CO 80401-1710

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Simulations of reacting flow in applications such as scramjet engines are currently limited in their utility or accuracy by the chemistry sub-models employed. Accurate chemistry models for hydrocarbon fuels are particularly problematic since the detailed kinetic mechanisms can be highly complex, essentially prohibiting obtaining a timely solution. Simpler global chemistry models, while tractable, are notoriously inaccurate except over narrow ranges of conditions. Reactions Systems therefore proposes to explore a new approach to capturing the detailed chemistry in a reduced multi-dimensional format that could combine the advantages of ISAT with recent RSLLC proprietary innovations in species reduction.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Increased accuracy and productivity of reacting flow CFD codes using realistic RP-1 type fuels would materially enhance the efficiency of the design process and ultimate performance of new hydrocarbon-fueled airbreathing engines and rocket engines for space access. If successful, the proposed innovation could also be applicable to modeling many other reacting flow situations such as rocket plumes or chemically-reacting endothermic fuels used for cooling of hypersonic vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Detailed chemical kinetic models are applicable to a wide range of gas phase chemical processes such as fuel autoignition, formation of toxics and air pollutants in combustion processes, modeling of catalytic processes, tailoring of industrial chemical processes, and in jet and rocket propulsion systems. Furthermore, these chemistry models are often run as subsets of models that describe flow and/or time dependent processes. While a number of problems in chemical kinetic modeling can be solved using global kinetics and simple thermodynamics, many require the use of detailed chemical kinetic models involving a large network of elementary reaction steps. These large networks of simultaneous elementary reactions are computationally expensive, and follow-on codes such as CFD codes are even more burdened by having large numbers of species to consider. Dramatically reducing the time and cost required to obtain accurate reacting flow simulations could allow much better optimization of the design and operation of many types of commercial equipment.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
High Energy Propellents (Recombinant Energy & Metallic Hydrogen)
Monopropellants
Database Development and Interfacing
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Combustion
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.02-9405
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Turbulent Scalar Transport Model Validation for High Speed Propulsive Flows

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Combustion Research and Flow Technology
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947-2010

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Calhoon
calhoon@craft-tech.com
3313 Memorial Parkway S, Suite 108
Huntsville,  AL 35801-5375

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This effort entails the validation of a RANS turbulent scalar transport model (SFM) for high speed propulsive flows, using new experimental data sets and accompanying large-eddy simulation (LES) solutions. The SFM has been used to predict local values of the turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers and also provides the rms scalar fluctuation values that are used with assumed PDF models for turbulent combustion. Performing the experimental work in unison with LES studies ensures that the two sets of data will be fully compatible, and may be used to support SFM model validation. Work to date indicates some deficiencies in the present SFM model for high speed mixing problems where the two streams have very different densities, which we will attempt to resolve in this program. PIV data for the transverse injection of hot air and helium/nitrogen mixtures into a Mach 3.5 stream will be obtained in unison with LES studies to yield scalar fluctuation data not readily obtained in experiments. SFM upgrades will be performed using this unified data. Experiments will be performed by Dr. Seiner and coworkers at U. Miss using a new 12"x12" trisonic tunnel and existing slot/round jet injector models.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A validated scalar fluctuation model (SFM) has potential post applications to support design optimization and concept evaluation for scramjet fuel injection systems, where use of current models does not provide the accuracy required, typically underestimating fuel/air mixing. Use of the SFM alleviates the need to somewhat arbitrarily specify values of Prandtl and Schmidt number, whose values have a first-order effect on predicted performance and hence on optimizing designs, and also provides the fluctuations needed to include in assumed PDF turbulent combustion models. Other NASA applications entail use of the SFM in improving the design of launch vehicles for thermal protection where plume heating effects in the base region are a major design issue, as well as many other applications involving fuel/air mixing and plume effects.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
From a DoD perspective, we are involved in Army and Air Force sponsored scramjet propulsive system design programs focusing on fuel injector optimization. Having a more reliable SFM will lead to better designs since the fuel/air mixing will be predicted more accurately. We are also involved in interceptor missile design activities supported by the Missile Defense Agency, where plume heating effects are problematic and are requiring the use of ablative shields. We require accurate estimates of plume afterburning which is directly related to plume/air entrainment rates and thus to turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers. This work will provide us with a more accurate tool to support DoD, and, it will enhance our code licensing and prime contractor support activities since a validated SFM provides improvements in predictive capabilities for a broad variety of high speed mixing problems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Facilities


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.02-9654
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Adaptive Chemistry Approach to Modeling Emissions Performance of Gas Turbine Combustors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerodyne Research, Inc.
45 Manning Road
Billerica, MA 01821-3976

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hsi-Wu Wong
hwwong@aerodyne.com
45 Manning Rd
Billerica,  MA 01821-3976

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this proposed SBIR project, we seek to implement the Adaptive Chemistry methodology in existing CFD codes used to investigate the emissions performance of gas turbine engine combustors. We will demonstrate the feasibility of integrating Adaptive Chemistry algorithms to current CFD codes. We will also further develop the Adaptive Chemistry method to take advantage of species reduction enabling even larger CPU speedups. The value of the technique is enhanced predictive capability and computational efficiency of existing CFD codes for reacting flows such as gas turbine engine combustion systems. The successful completion of this project will produce the first CFD numerical code that is able to model detailed chemical kinetics as well as fluid dynamics. The end results allow the user to easily and transparently control the balance between computational efficiency and solution accuracy.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As a result of this project, an interface of Adaptive Chemistry to any generic reacting flow solver will be constructed. The techniques developed in this project offer a combination of high efficiency, low computational cost, and enhanced accuracy on the reacting flow simulation. The interface developed in this work will complement NASA's combustion research, and NASA's in-house combustion codes can be integrated with the techniques developed to enhance its efficiency and simulation capability.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA application includes implementing Adaptive Chemistry into other commercial CFD codes. The technique developed in this project will potentially provide significant CPU speedups to current CFD codes. The predictive capability of existing CFD software will also be greatly improved to facilitate flow field simulations with more detailed chemistry included.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Combustion
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.02-9839
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Automated Analysis of Imaging Based Experiments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Energy Plus Ltd.
23342 South Pointe Drive, Suite E
Laguna Hills, CA 92653-1422

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vincent McDonell
mcdonell@erc-ltd.com
23342 South Pointe Drive, Suite E
Laguna Hills,  CA 92653-1422

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
For many applications involving liquid injection, the ability to predict the details of the breakup process is often limited due to the complexity of the two-phase phenomena. Likewise, the ability to experimentally characterize these phenomena is also limited due in part to the need to rely upon visualization tools which are inherently qualitative. As a result, the ability to validate predictions using these diagnostic tools is also limited. In recent years, visualization diagnostics have evolved substantially in terms of spatial and temporal resolution. The advancements, coupled with a tool to conveniently quantify the results obtained relative to the breakup process offer the potential for a marked increase in understanding of this phenomenon. The proposed effort will develop such a tool that will be applied initially to the problem of liquid injection into a crossflow. The typical characteristics associated with this type of liquid breakup, such as column flattening, bending, fracture point, dynamics, etc. will be automatically quantified using the tool proposed. The project will utilize existing results obtained with state-of-the-art high speed imaging.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The project will result in a novel experimental technique that can be applied to existing and new imaging based diagnostic available at NASA. As applied to various two-phase flow problems, the tool developed will facilitate CFD validation as well as increased understanding of the breakup of liquids for a variety of applications. The tool is particularly well suited for quantitative comparison of experimental results with predictions from advanced simulation techniques such as LES and/or VOF or other high fidelity phase interface tracking methods. ERC will work closely with NASA to focus the Phase I efforts on areas/imaging problems of immediate interest to NASA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The product produced by the proposed project will be of interest to end users of advanced high speed imaging systems that are currently being applied to liquid injection problems. It will also be of interest to those using CFD calculations coupled with experiments. As a result, the potential for deployment of the product within software provided by vendors of advanced imaging systems as well as CFD vendors is significant. The understanding provided through this efficient analysis tools can potentially lead to breakthroughs in models for liquid breakup phenomena which can then be applied in a wide variety of applications involving liquid injection/application.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Simulation Modeling Environment
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Combustion
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.02-9840
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Mechanistic Model for Atomization of Superheated Liquid Jet Fuel

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Energy Plus Ltd.
23342 South Pointe Drive, Suite E
Laguna Hills, CA 92653-1422

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vincent McDonell
mcdonell@erc-ltd.com
23342 South Pointe Drive, Suite E
Laguna Hills,  CA 92653-1422

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As air-breathing combustion applications advance, increased use of fuel for cooling, combined with cycle advancements, leads to a situation where the fuel can become superheated. While this can lead to potential benefit in terms of the eventual fuel injection process, with enhanced atomization and evaporation, it creates a significant challenge relative to any computational design tools that might be used in these systems. Dealing with the superheat behavior in the injection of a liquid fuel requires substantially more physical phenomena to be accounted for compared to a subcooled system. As a result, detailed data and models for this behavior as encountered in practical fuels are needed in order to validate and evolve the models needed. In the work proposed, emphasis will be given to the injection of a plain liquid jet under superheated conditions. In Phase I the behavior of the liquid internal to the injector will be addressed, with both models and experiments carried out. The models evolved will be incorporated into an existing simulation environment developed by ERC for atomization of liquid jets. In addition, data will be available for CFD validation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For Aerospace applications, development of fuel injection schemes that involve fuel superheat will be enhanced by model construction and validation resulting from the proposed project. Both standalone modeling tools and models for incorporation into a CFD environment will result from the project. NASA design tools will be enhanced in general and any simulation platforms needing to incorporate superheated fuel behavior will benefit in particular.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The project outcomes will be applicable to any application in which superheated fuels are involved. The main products in this regard are data and models which can be incorporated into larger design tools for these liquid injection systems. The standalone design tool can be used for assisting design of liquid injection systems using superheated fuels.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Facilities
Feed System Components
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Combustion
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.02-9886
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Catalyst Development for Synthetic Endothermic Fuels

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Sciences, Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bryan Bergeron
bergeron@psicorp.com
20 New England Business Center
Andover,  MA 01810-1077

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Physical Sciences Incorporated (PSI) and United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) propose to develop, characterize, and evaluate the performance of innovative nanocatalysts that are homogeneously dispersed (0.01 % - 0.1 % by wt.) within a synthetic endothermic hydrocarbon fuel for ramjet, scramjet, and Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC) applications. Coke build-up will be significantly reduced since the catalyst will be expelled with the product gases and liquids from the cracking system into the combustion zone. Increased cracking efficiencies will result using the nanocatalyst due to the higher surface area/volume and dramatically enhanced settling times compared to conventional microcatalysts. As a result, higher heat sinks due to endothermic cracking will be obtained. The reaction product distribution and efficiencies of the nanocatalytic hydrocarbon cracking reaction will be measured using standard chromatography methods. Use of the alternative synthetic fuel is advantageous due to its low sulfur content, high thermal stability, high endotherm, and production through a non-petroleum based reaction. In Phase II, new nanocatalysts will be synthesized, characterized, and tested. Catalytic efficiency will be optimized. The implications of the nanocatalyst on combustion performance will be evaluated. This program comprises TRLs 1 through 3 within Phase 1.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We believe that the proposed nanocatalysts will lead to significant improvement for propulsion systems that rely upon cracking of synthetic endothermic fuels. The novel catalyst may also act as a reaction site for liquid propellant combustion in air-breathing and conventional systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
DoD and DoE could benefit significantly from advances in hydrocarbon cracking. For example, AF has complementary ongoing programs using synthetic endothermic fuels, and is currently positioned to test the new X-51 WaveRider. Homogeneously dispersed catalysts in crude and processed bio-oil could yield new approaches to produce alternative energy for DoE/DoD, particularly in commercial markets such as the automotive and heating industry.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Renewable Energy
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.03-8606
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aero-Acoustics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development of an Engine Air-Brake for Quiet Drag Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ATA Engineering, Inc.
11995 El Camino Real
San Diego, CA 92130-2566

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Parthiv Shah
parthiv.shah@ata-e.com
11995 El Camino Real, Suite 200
San Diego,  CA 92130-2566

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A novel quiet engine air-brake is proposed in response to NASA's solicitation for concepts for active and passive control of noise sources for conventional and advanced aircraft. The air-brake concept is applicable to 1) next-generation, conventional tube and wing aircraft (current generation +1) and 2) advanced integrated airframe/propulsion system configurations (current generation +2), and could enable system level noise reductions of several decibels at the ground observer during approach by quietly generating drag equivalent to up to three turbofan-sized bluff bodies per powerplant. Such drag generation could enable slower, steeper approach trajectories with reduced need for drag generators such as flaps, slats and undercarriage. Proposed research tasks build upon a rigorous understanding developed by the investigating team on the aero-acoustics of drag generating, swirling exhaust flows. The objectives are to 1) create an engine air-brake design specification to constrain the design and identify and address issues and challenges associated with implementation, 2) perform trade studies on two aircraft/powerplant combinations in current generation +1 and +2 configurations to identify the attributes of suitable devices installed on such aircraft and 3) develop a candidate design for model scale aerodynamic and aeroacoustic validation in an experimental facility. The deliverable will be a written report presenting a conceptual design of a model-scale engine air-brake and proposed test plan for Phase II validation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most immediate opportunity for this system is to assist NASA in the development of next generation quiet aircraft, including tube and wing (current generation +1) and integrated airframe propulsion system configuration (current generation +2). These aircraft are likely to have noise sources from the engine and airframe that have comparable levels at approach. A quiet air-brake device will allow noise reduction by creating drag without the associated unsteady flow structures of devices such as flaps, slats, and undercarriage. In addition these devices will enable steep approaches, thereby locating the noise source further from the affected communities. An additional application for swirling exhaust flows is in the area of wake vortex avoidance and induced drag management. For example, swirling outflow devices placed on wing tips could be used to swirl in the opposite or same direction to the bound vortex that is shed by a finite wing, resulting in potential induced drag reduction or increase (possibly of value in a quiet drag sense).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial potential for this system extends beyond NASA's development programs related to next-generation quiet aircraft. The larger, shorter term market potential relates to engines which are currently being developed for commercial deployment in the next five to ten years by large-engine manufacturers where there is potentially still an opportunity to incorporate features of this concept into the final design. Another significant commercial opportunity is the development of a version or versions of the concept proposed here which can be retrofitted to existing or legacy engines to allow them to continue to operate under the more stringent future noise requirements.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Kinematic-Deployable
Aircraft Engines
Aerobrake


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.04-8395
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeroelasticity
PROPOSAL TITLE: Blade Vibration Measurement System for Characterization of Closely Spaced Modes and Mistuning

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mechanical Solutions, Inc.
11 Apollo Drive
Whippany, NJ 07981-1423

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Platt
mjp@mechsol.com
11 Apollo Drive
Whippany,  NJ 07981-1423

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There are several ongoing challenges in non-contacting blade vibration and stress measurement systems that can address closely spaced modes and blade-to-blade variations (mistuning). Traditional NSMS systems are applicable but have limitations due to the undersampling that is inherent in time-of-arrival data processing and the uncertainty that is introduced by inferring, as opposed to calculating, the mode of vibration. Based on Navy SBIR research, MSI is developing a radar-based blade vibration measurement system with the following capabilities: •Provides a continuous time series of blade displacement data over a portion of a revolution (solving the undersampling problem). •Includes data reduction algorithms to directly calculate the blade vibration frequency, modal displacement, and vibratory stress (solving the mode inference problem). •Uses a single sensor per stage to monitor all of the blades on the stage. The goals for the proposed project are to design and construct an innovative blade vibration measurement system with resolution capable of characterizing mistuning parameters and closely spaced modes of vibration. Development and demonstration of such a system will provide substantially superior capabilities to current blade vibration technology. Phase I demonstration testing will be conducted in MSI's laboratory with an existing instrumented compressor rig.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Improvements in blade vibration measurement capability will significantly reduce the cost and risk of development and operation of gas turbine engines. The potential applications include any turbine engine ranging from gas turbine propulsion engines to industrial steam turbines used for power generation. However, commercialization to existing NSMS users is the most direct and near term path. The costs associated with maintenance, downtime, and readiness are already well established and understood by both military and industrial users, so an improved NSMS would be attractive to many types of customers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful project completion addresses two of the commercialization hurdles that face current NSMS technology especially for new users – physical complexity and technical complexity. By characterizing closely spaced modes and mistuning parameters, and needing only a single sensor per stage, this project will lower the barrier to entry for new NSMS users. This will serve to widen the user base and help insure the successful commercialization of this technology for both civil and military aircraft as well as for industrial turbomachinery.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Facilities
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.04-8573
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeroelasticity
PROPOSAL TITLE: Generalized Reduced Order Model Generation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
M4 Engineering, Inc.
2161 Gundry Avenue
Signal Hill, CA 90755-3517

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kevin Roughen
kroughen@m4-engineering.com
2161 Gundry Avenue
Signal Hill,  CA 90755-3517

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
M4 Engineering proposes to develop a generalized reduced order model generation method. This method will allow for creation of reduced order aeroservoelastic state space models that can be interpolated across a range of flight conditions. This development will be a significant advance to the process of control law development, especially in the design of control systems required to provide flutter suppression, gust load alleviation, and ride quality enhancement. The proposed technique will be an excellent compliment to modern linear and nonlinear aeroservoelastic analysis methods.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The first NASA application is the ASM program, which is currently a subject of ASE control law development at M4 Engineering. It is also expected that this technology will be directly applicable to the research projects planned in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The multidisciplinary nature of the technology makes it an ideal candidate for use any time a very high performance vehicle is designed, where interactions between components, disciplines, and the control system are important. Examples include future high efficiency subsonic aircraft, quiet supersonic aircraft, high-altitude, long-endurance aircraft, hypersonic aircraft, and next-generation launch vehicles (either airbreathing or rocket powered).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
M4 Engineering has active relationships with several prime contractors who are likely users of this technology. These include Boeing Phantom Works, Northrop Grumman, and Raytheon. These provide excellent commercialization opportunities for the technology. Active marketing to prime contractors and other specialty airframers (e.g., Aerovironment, General Atomics, etc.) will follow these applications. The framework software is expected to find wide application to many aerospace and non-aerospace products, as model reduction for control system development is a widely applicable concept. Examples include the medical engineering field, automotive, aerospace/defense, and alternative energy applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Structural Modeling and Tools
Attitude Determination and Control
Autonomous Control and Monitoring


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.04-8684
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeroelasticity
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aeroelastic Uncertainty Analysis Toolbox

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Systems Technology, Inc.
13766 South Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne, CA 90250-7083

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David H. Klyde Systems Technology, Inc.
dklyde@systemstech.com
13766 S. Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne,  CA 90250-7083

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Flutter is a potentially explosive phenomenon that is the result of the simultaneous interaction of aerodynamic, structural, and inertial forces. The analytical prediction of flutter in the transonic regime requires high fidelity simulation models that are computationally expensive. Due to the computational demands, traditional uncertainty analysis is not often applied to flutter prediction, resulting in reduced confidence in the results. This Phase I research is aimed at exploring methods to reduce the previous computational time limitations of traditional uncertainty analysis. To dramatically reduce the computational burden of uncertainty analysis, Systems Technology, Inc. proposes to investigate both the coupling of Design of Experiment (DOE) and Response Surface Methods (RSM), and the application of robust stability techniques, namely ƒÝ-analysis. Using Reduced Order Models (ROM), the DOE/RSM and ƒÝ-analysis approaches will be compared to traditional Monte Carlo based stochastic simulation. The result of the Phase I program will be to demonstrate the utility of the core elements of the Aeroelastic Uncertainty Analysis Toolbox (AUAT). AUAT will contain multiple methods for addressing flutter uncertainty analysis, coupled with a state-of-the-art nonlinear aeroelastic code.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Enhanced predictive flutter boundaries using the Aeroelastic Uncertainty Analysis Toolbox will decrease the likelihood to test beyond the flutter boundary, thus decreasing the risk of unexpected flutter that may lead to catastrophic failure and thereby increasing flight safety. The software will be developed with the intent of being used for flight test planning. Rapid uncertainty analysis capability will be highly beneficial during aeroservoelastic flight tests to more accurately predict the flight envelope prior to testing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applying the uncertainty analysis early in the design process will enable manufacturers to design high performance aircraft with expanded flight envelopes that are robust to uncertainties pertaining to aeroelastic phenomena such as flutter. Rapid uncertainty analysis capability will enable designers to evaluate a larger design space in less time, decreasing the amount of incremental flight testing, thereby reducing the cost of development.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Simulation Modeling Environment
Structural Modeling and Tools
Expert Systems
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.04-9327
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeroelasticity
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nonlinear Aerodynamic ROM-Structural ROM Methodology for Inflatable Aeroelasticity in Hypersonic Atmospheric Entry

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ZONA Technology, Inc.
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale, AZ 85258-4578

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Danny Liu
danny@zonatech.com
9489 E. Ironwood Square Dr.
Scottsdale,  AZ 85258-4578

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ZONA Technology proposes to develop an innovative nonlinear structural reduced order model (ROM) - nonlinear aerodynamic ROM methodology for the inflatable aeroelasticity of a clamped modeled ballute system. The proposed ROM-ROM methodology tightly couples a nonlinear-FEM based structural ROM with CFD based neural-net aerodynamic ROM to achieve a high computational efficiency. Indeed, the computing time for a typical wing flutter/LCO analysis is reduced from hours (direct) to minutes (ROM-ROM). The structural ROM enables a seamless time-integration of the ROM-ROM and could be coupled with other aerodynamic ROM methods like Volterra or POD. A time-accurate GasKinetic BGK method (BGKX) is adopted to generate the aerodynamic ROM for rarefied hypersonic unsteady aerodynamics/aeroelasticity applications to a ballute in atmospheric entry. With a natural boundary condition, BGKX is superior to continuum methods for unsteady flow simulations, and unified in transition to continuum flow regimes covering the peak dynamic pressure range in Earth/Martian entries. It can provide flow pressures and heat flux in one step. In Phase I, we will consider both a 2D membrane-on-wedge system and a modeled ballute system and investigate their static aeroelasticity as well as the feasibility/efficiency of the ROM-ROM approach for their dynamic aeroelastic responses (flutter/LCO). These capabilities are necessary for the development of inflatable aeroelasticity in NASA space program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
With the ROM-ROM methodology fully developed in Phases I/II, ZONA will have in place an efficient nonlinear aeroelastic tool (called NANSI) that could support NASA for its space program in entry Ballute design among the following - NASA could direct aeroelastic applications to the aeroassist/aerocapture inflatable space vehicles such as various Ballute designs, and many innovative inflatable vehicle design concepts for civilian aerospace and aeronautical purposes. - NASA could use ROM-ROM/NANSI technology to support its nonlinear aeroelastic programs for: i) transonic transport, morphing wing and high altitude airship/airframe designs; ii) launch vehicles for aerothermoelasticity of reusable TPS; iii) compliment various flight testing programs at Dryden; iv) extend it to turbomachinery aeroelasticity methodology at Glenn. - NASA could adopt its aerodynamic ROM methodology or the proposed one-step BKGX-based ROM for rapid ROM-ROM aerothermodynamic/aerothermoelastic applications. - Potential NASA customers include LaRC, ARC, Dryden and Glenn.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ZAERO is the flagship software of ZONA supporting aeroelasticity/aeroservoelasticity technology of the aerospace industry worldwide. The developed nonlinear NANSI module will be merged into ZAERO, and it should share ZAERO existing market. Potential applications of NANSI falls into the following: - Rapid flutter/LCO analysis by ROM-ROM can support many ongoing ZONA projects with industry including HALE (Boeing), Sensorcraft /OFW (Northrop Grumman), and the Streamline Store Configurations program (LM Aero/ AFRL/ Eglin AFB). - Support many current new designs in civil transports, inflatable airships, sensorcraft, morphing aircraft, micro aerial vehicles (MAV), etc. The unique feature of the structural ROM and ROM-ROM methodology can render NANSI a popular software for its preferred expediency in nonlinear aeroelasticity analysis. - Aerodynamic ROM is a computationally efficient tool for CFD-based (e.g., FUN3D, BGKX) aerodynamic/aerothermodynamic simulation. - Potential customers/users of ROM-ROM/NANSI should include engineering, design/analysis and R&D arms of AF/DoD, defense/civilian aerospace industries.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Inflatable
Kinematic-Deployable
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Simulation Modeling Environment
Reuseable
Structural Modeling and Tools
Aerobrake


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.04-9818
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeroelasticity
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aeroservoelastic Modeling

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805-1926

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Essam Sheta
sxh@cfdrc.com
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville,  AL 35805-1926

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CFDRC proposes to develop, validate and demonstrate a comprehensive aeroservoelastic analysis framework for aerospace vehicles by enabling coupled interactions between multi-physics simulation modules with variable fidelity for flexible structures, aerodynamics, flight dynamics, and embedded smart materials. In Phase I, a nonlinear electrodynamics finite-element model for smart materials, capable of handling different materials and FEM mesh elements, will be developed. An interface model capable of handling different mesh densities and types for the smart materials FEM model and the structural dynamics (CSD) model will also be developed. A novel grid deformation technology, developed by CFDRC, using Solid Brick Analogy will be enhanced by nonlinear strain theory for large deformations and generalized for mixed elements computational grid systems. The feasibility of the proposed technology will be demonstrated for a fighter aircraft model in buffet mode. In Phase II, the modeling technologies identified in Phase I will be developed and implemented into the framework, with emphasis on developing an advanced data management procedures to increase the efficiency of the simulation framework. Additionally, an interface model between the aeroservoelastic framework and a general control design toolbox will be implemented to facilitate designs of complex control systems to command the smart materials. The developed technologies will then be extensively validated and demonstrated for typical aeroservoelastic simulations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology will provide accurate and comprehensive analysis tool for truly coupled aeroservoelastic simulations of aerospace vehicles. Aerospace engineers will be able to utilize the proposed predictive analysis framework to predict aeroelastic instabilities, aerodynamic characteristics, performance of controlled flying vehicles, and analyze early designs of aerospace systems. Direct NASA applications of the technology are in prediction and control of aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic phenomena, such as buffet, flutter, buzz, limit cycle oscillations, gust response, and control reversal. Programs like active aeroelastic wing, active twist rotors, and controlled micro air vehicles will also benefit from the technology. Ultimately, the framework will significantly reduce the dependence on flight tests and wind tunnels, and hereby reduce the time required to certify new military and commercial aircraft, and improved safety of aerospace vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
General applications of the technology include general fluid-structure interaction problems such as vortex-blade interaction of rotorcraft, trailing vortices dynamics of commercial aircraft, heat exchanger vibration, strumming of cables and offshore pipelines, galloping of towers and masts, and fatigue of panels.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Structural Modeling and Tools
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Ceramics
Computational Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.05-8326
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Turbulence Modeling for Unsteady and Stalled Flows

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intech Software Solutions, Inc.
5655 Peachtree Parkway, Suite 202
Norcross, GA 30092-2828

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Salil Gulve
salil@intechsw.com
5655, Peachtree Pkwy, Suite 202
Norcross,  GA 30092-2828

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The NASA code OVERFLOW is used extensively by academia, government institutions, and industry for a wide range of applications. Successful completion of Phase 1 and 2 efforts will enhance the solver and provide more accurate computations. These computations can be used to better understand the underlying physics of stalled and unsteady flow. Specifically, the advanced model can be used to test a variety of configurations that can reduce the drag of commercial transport aircraft. It can also increase the understanding of dynamic stall in rotor blades and other highly unsteady complex flows. This model has shown improved Turbulence modeling for stall prediction for UH-60 Blackhawk in the NASA solver OVERFLOW. More validation will allow inclusion into official OVERFLOW code released to industry and government partners. Industry can use this advancement to current and future advanced aerospace designs. Improved stall prediction and more accurate drag calculations increase the use of CFD, improve designs, and reduce the need for expensive experiments

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The improved turbulence modeling can be used for future aerospace designs for a variety of NASA commercial applications. It is applicable for both aviation and space applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The improved turbulence modeling is equally applicable for non NASA Commercial Applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Training Concepts and Architectures
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.05-9161
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact Fluidic Actuator Arrays For Flow Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Fluidics, LLC
4217 Red Bandana Way
Ellicott City, MD 21042-5928

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SURYA RAGHU
sraghu@advancedfluidics.com
4217 RED BANDANA WAY
ELLICOTT CITY,  MD 21042-5928

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The overall objective of the proposed research is to design, develop and demonstrate fluidic actuator arrays for aerodynamic separation control and drag reduction. These actuators are based on a compact design of low mass-flow fluidic oscillators that produce high frequency (1-5 kHz) oscillating or pulsing jets. Our preliminary experiments on separation control over trailing edge flaps, cavity tones and jet thrust vectoring show great promise for these actuators, the main advantage being that these have no moving parts and hence mechanically robust with a high degree of reliability. The control authority of these actuators is also high as measured from the velocity amplitude of the exiting jets. In Phase I of the proposal, we will determine the geometric and dynamic scaling parameters of the fluidic actuators and explore the system integration issues for embedding them into airfoil shapes. Based on the results from this phase, in Phase II, we will design and develop integrated fluidic actuator systems for 1/10 scale to full-scale testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed work on flow control can be implemented in the next generation of the Crew Exploration Vehicle designs being developed by NASA. Such arrays can also be used for de-icing systems using either hot air or de-icing liquids since the fluidic jets work with both liquids and gases.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aerodynamic flow control has a large number of applications in the commercial and military aerospace industry. We foresee applications of our technology to separation control over leading and trailing edge of airfoils for high lift and minimum drag configurations for aircraft wings, control of jet exhaust noise in aircraft engines, intake flow control, and internal flows in gas turbines. One other area of application we are exploring is the flow control and de-icing over wind turbine blades.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling
Renewable Energy
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.05-9985
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Grid-Free LES 3D Vortex Method for the Simulation of Tubulent Flows Over Advanced Lifting Surfaces

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
VorCat, Inc.
1370 Piccard Drive, Suite 210
Rockville, MD 20850-4333

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jacob Krispin
jacob@vorcat.com
1370 Piccard Drive, Suite 210
Rockville,  MD 20850-4333

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Turbulent flows associated with advanced aerodynamic designs represent a considerable challenge for accurate prediction. For example, the flow past low-speed wings requires the representation of complex physics involving separation onset/progression (both leading-and trailing-edge), vortex/viscous interactions, merging shear layers with strong curvature, juncture flows and jet-exhaust flows – all phenomena that are not amenable to robust modeling and simulation by traditional grid-based techniques. Recent advances in the technology of gridfree turbulent flow simulation via vortex methods, most notably as manifested in the VorCat code, has raised the possibility of efficiently and accurately capturing the behavior of aerodynamic flows for use in design and performance analysis. The goal of this SBIR phase I proposal is to demonstrate the effectiveness of VorCat in simulating high lift airfoil flows – both in regards to computational speed and accuracy. This will form the basis for developing a tool able to well model arbitrary aerodynamic flows past finite wings including complicating features such as flow control devices in the Phase II study. Upon completion of Phase II, a validated technology will be ready for use by industrial and governmental users.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project brings to NASA a means for circumventing the persistent limitations of traditional turbulence modeling and simulation techniques that have delayed or prevented progress across a spectrum of innovative flow technologies. With this project NASA will be able to more freely and effectively pursue true design innovations and make better use of corroborating physical experiments. Some particular examples where VorCat can have high impact for NASA include supplying transient pressure data for evaluating noise generation, vehicle design optimization, and safety.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The tools derived from this research are of direct benefit to airplane manufacturers faced with difficult design problems as well as numerous companies engaged in fluids engineering in the automotive and shipbuilding industries, among many others. The VorCat technology that will be perfected in this project can also form the basis for studies including heat and mass transfer and thus have an impact on countless more companies in such fields as electronic cooling, chemical process industry, pharmaceuticals and so forth.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Expert Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.06-8756
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerothermodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Efficient Radiation Simulation in Complex Geometries with Applications to Planetary Entry

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jabiru Software and Services
3819 Sunnycroft Place
West Lafayette, IN 47906-8815

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sanjay Mathur
srmathur@gmail.com
3819 Sunnycroft Place
West Lafayette,  IN 47906-8815

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA aerocapture missions require an accurate evaluation of radiative thermal transport in order to simulate the aerothermal environment around space vehicles. However, present day computation of radiative transport in this complex multi-dimensional environment is frequently done using simple one-dimensional tangent-slab approximations or optically-thick approximations which compromise the accuracy of predictions and which cannot be generalized to new vehicle configurations. In this Phase I proposal, we seek to develop an efficient and accurate unstructured solution-adaptive finite volume solver for participating radiation in complex geometries to address the aerothermodynamics of realistic space vehicles. A number of innovations are proposed to significantly accelerate solver performance over conventional implementations: (i) a spectral line weighted sum of gray gases model for property computation which is significantly faster than conventional line-by-line techniques, (ii) algorithmic improvements based on coupled algebraic multigrid and multiplicative correction techniques, and (iii) parallel implementations on both distributed and shared memory platforms, including new multicore architectures. The proposed framework is fully compatible with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods for flow, heat transfer, turbulence and chemistry, and coupling to these is proposed for Phase II. The project team consists of Drs. Sanjay Mathur of Jabiru Software and Services, and Prof. Jayathi Murthy of Purdue's School of Mechanical Engineering. The team is highly experienced in the development of large-scale commercial finite volume solvers, radiative heat transfer, and algorithm development, and has over two decades each of experience in the development and commercialization of large-scale CFD codes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The solver developed during Phases I and II of this project will find wide applicability in NASA. Efficient and accurate flow solvers based on unstructured meshes addressing compressible and incompressible flows will find use in NASA's aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, space entry, internal fluid mechanics, turbomachinery, microgravity, propulsion and materials processing programs. Efficient solvers for thermal radiation will find application in NASA's National Combustor Code, as well as other applications in propulsion and power-generation, and in materials processing applications such as chemical and plasma vapor deposition.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Thermal radiation plays a central role in a variety of applications in the automotive, aerospace, power generation and materials processing sectors. In the automotive arena, in-cylinder combustion requires the computation of participating radiation. Propulsion applications similarly require the computation of thermal radiation combined with models for hydrocarbon combustion, as do applications in the commercial power generation arena, where coal/oil/natural gas combustion burners and furnaces form the mainstay. In the materials processing area, our opportunity would lie in the area of glass and ceramics processing, where band-radiation in semitransparent media govern the physics. Applications include the manufacture of plate glass, automotive wind shields, fiber-glass for home insulation and ceramics processing for semi-conductor applications. The Phase II extensions, including the coupling of fast solvers for non-equilibrium chemistry, will find application in a variety of combustion applications, and also in emerging materials processing applications such as plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Simulation Modeling Environment


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.06-9041
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerothermodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Multi-Physics CFD Toolkit for Reentry Flows

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AeroSoft, Inc.
1872 Pratt Drive, Suite 1275
Blacksburg, VA 24060-6141

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Applebaum
applebau@aerosft.com
1872 Pratt Drive, Suite 1275
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-6141

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
AeroSoft proposes to develop a full featured CFD toolkit for analysis of the aerothermal environment and its effect on space vehicles. In Phase I, AeroSoft proposes to implement multi-component ablation along with material response into AeroSoft's structured and unstructured CFD solver GASP. In Phase I, GASP's internal thermal solver will be augmented to include the effects of ablation. In Phase II, AeroSoft proposes to implement radiation heat flux and radiation transport into GASP.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The direct benefits to NASA are the ability to analyze the interaction of ablating materials with the gases in the shock layer, and the ability to analyze radiation heat transfer and radiation transport that occurs in shock layers for reentry applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The work performed under Phase I and Phase II will have significant application to directed energy research. AeroSoft's GASP is currently being used to perform laser-target interaction. Much of the physics that occur during reentry also occur during laser-target interaction. Potential customers include NASA, Lawrence Livermore National Labs, Sandia National Labs, and their subcontractors performing reentry design and analysis or COIL related research.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ablatives


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.06-9211
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerothermodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Gas-Kinetic Computational Algorithms for Hypersonic Flows in Continuum and Transitional Regimes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
D&P, LLC
3409 N. 42nd Place
Phoenix, AZ 85018-5961

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lei Tang
tanglei@d-p-llc.com
3409 N. 42nd Place
Phoenix,  AZ 85018-5961

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase I project explores two gas-kinetic computational algorithms for simulation of hypersonic flows in both continuum and transitional regimes. One is the gas-kinetic BGK-Burnett solver and the other is the gas-kinetic BGK solver with the regulated particle collision time. Different from the macroscopic Burnett approach, the proposed gas-kinetic BGK-Burnett solver is unconditionally stable for all Knudsen numbers. Whereas it is almost impossible to correctly set up boundary condition for the Burnett equations, this can be easily done in the proposed BGK-Burnett solver with the Maxwell boundary condition, re-emitting the particles from the boundary according to the accommodation coefficient. More importantly, this BGK-Burnett solver not only allows a single algorithm for both continuum and transitional flow regimes but also is more suitable for integration with either DSMC or direct Boltzmann solver in the rarefied flow regime. The gas-kinetic BGK solver with the regulated particle collision time can further reduce the computational costs over the BGK-Burnett solver. The focus of Phase I work is to determine the validity Knudsen number range of these two algorithms.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA current mission focuses on human lunar and martian exploration. The design of crew exploration vehicles requires the proposed computational tool, which is able to handle the flows beyond the continuum regime and thereby accurately predict shock stand-off distances, peaks in thermal loads, skin friction drag, forces and moments on the vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed gas-kinetic computational algorithms can significantly enhance the capability of aerospace industry to predict the aerothermal loads on a space vehicle. It can also be used to MEMS and nanotechnology applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.06-9510
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerothermodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: New Chemical Kinetics Approach for DSMC Applications to Nonequilibrium Flows

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Combustion Research and Flow Technology
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947-2010

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Wilmoth
wilmoth@craft-tech.com
124 Burnham Place
Newport News,  VA 23606-2611

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A new chemical kinetics model and database will be developed for aerothermodynamic analyses on entry vehicles. Unique features of this model include (1) the ability to model chemical kinetics in highly nonequilibrium flows at high altitudes, (2) the ability to predict nonequilibrium dissociation without reliance on traditional continuum kinetic rate equations, and (3) the ability to model complex reactions from fundamental molecular quantum models. The model will permit analyzing high-speed, nonequilibrium flows about entry and aeroassist vehicles based on extensions to Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) codes, and a new database will be developed for these extensions. The new approach offers potential for treating other complex nonequilibrium flow physics including ionization and radiation in a more direct manner than has been previously use and therefore offers potential improvements in accuracy. These tools will provide essential data for assessing the aerothermodynamic performance of a broad variety of vehicle designs over a wide range of vehicle attitudes and flight conditions. The improved accuracy offered by our proposed chemical kinetic modeling approach provides significant benefits in the design of vehicles for both unmanned planetary missions and manned missions to the Moon and Mars.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed chemical kinetics model has potential application to the design and analysis of a broad class of NASA vehicles that experience flight through Earth or other planetary atmospheres under extreme heating conditions. Examples of these vehicles include those being designed to use aerocapture to achieve a low-cost orbit around Neptune and Titan. The model has particular relevance to the design of manned vehicles for return to Earth from lunar and Mars missions that will likely experience extremely high-velocity, nonequilibrium environments such as the proposed Crew Exploration Vehicle.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed chemical kinetics model has potential application to design and analysis in a variety of fields concerned with nano-processes, with DOD interest in missile detection and tracking and RV discrimination, and, with various processes that occur in an gaseous environment including (1) solid state materials processing involving low-density deposition, (2) environmental sampling analysis through plasma spectrochemistry, and (3) nonequilibrium chemical kinetics occurring in higher altitude plumes and divert/control jets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Simulation Modeling Environment
Cooling
Aerobrake


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.07-8610
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight and Propulsion Control and Dynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Control System Design for Hypersonic Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimal Synthesis, Inc.
868 San Antonio Road
Palo Alto, CA 94303-4622

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
V. V. S. Vaddi
vaddi@optisyn.com
868 San Antonio Road
Palo Alto,  CA 94303-4622

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Guidance and control system design for hypersonic vehicles is more challenging than their subsonic and supersonic counterparts. Some of these challenges are (i) coupling between the aerodynamic, structural and propulsion sub-systems (ii) uncertainty involved in modeling these couplings and (iii) state-space constraints. Proposed research seeks to address these challenges using advanced robust control system design techniques. Key components of the proposed research are (i) hypersonic vehicle modeling, (ii) uncertainty representation, (iii) robust controller designs, and, (iv) robustness evaluation tools. Personnel at OSI have extensive experience in the area of flight control system design and flight vehicle modeling. Phase I research will demonstrate the feasibility by using existing longitudinal hypersonic vehicle models. Phase II research will pursue three dimensional modeling of the hypersonic vehicle alongside advancing the control system design. A complete version of the control system design software will be developed and provided to NASA by the end of Phase II work.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed control system design is directly applicable to reusable launch vehicles and can also be used for the Mars reentry vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Hypersonic vehicle development is being actively pursued by NASA and the DoD for several missions. The control system architecture developed in this research will be applicable to global strike missions involving hypersonic missiles and different space access vehicle designs being pursued by space tourism companies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Guidance, Navigation, and Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.08-8599
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Experimental Capabilities and Flight Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Innovative Self-Powered and Self-Contained Sensor Array for Separation Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rolling Hills Research Corporation
420 N. Nash Street
El Segundo, CA 90245-2822

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Kerho
Mike.Kerho@RollingHillsResearch.com
420 N. Nash Street
El Segundo,  CA 90245-2822

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovation is a self-contained, self-powered, robust flight test sensor array for the determination of separation. The proposed system uses off the shelf, currently available technology to create a reusable distributed sensor array, which requires no external wiring or power source. The system is based on a novel instrumented tuft technology. A distributed array of tuft sensors are embedded in a flexible, self-adhesive backed sheet of polymide substrate. The proposed separation sensor array will provide real-time, accurate determination of separation across a wide range of flight conditions. The self-contained blanket array can be quickly and easily applied to aircraft surfaces in question. No wiring, external power, or remote viewing is required for acquisition. After testing is complete, the system can be quickly removed and reused. Additionally, the system could be miniaturized for use in ground test facilities or applied to other types of vehicles. The proposed separation sensor array promises to provide a realizable, accurate, efficient, and cost effective measurement system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Advanced sensing technology in the form of a robust separation detection system for both flight and ground test facilities has significant potential application at several NASA centers and across a wide range of NASA facilities. With the current high costs of flight and ground testing, coupled with reduced design and test schedules, the proposed technology will be highly desirable. The technology developed by RHRC under this program will allow the accurate, efficient, and cost effective detection of separation on aerodynamic/hydrodynamic surfaces across a wide range of conditions. NASA centers and facilities will be eager to exploit the proposed technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed separation detection technology will be highly desirable in military, government, and civilian testing markets. The technology developed by RHRC under this program will allow the efficient and cost effective detection of separation on vehicles across a wide range of applications other than aircraft. These include automobiles, hydrodynamic, and civil engineering applications. Any external surface where aerodynamic separation is a concern is a potential application of the technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Facilities
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.08-9140
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Experimental Capabilities and Flight Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel MAV Air Data System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rolling Hills Research Corporation
420 N. Nash Street
El Segundo, CA 90245-2822

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Kerho
Mike.Kerho@RollingHillsResearch.com
420 N. Nash Street
El Segundo,  CA 90245-2822

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The development of Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) has received considerable attention in recent years for both military and civilian uses. MAVs typically suffer from operation in an extremely low Reynolds number flight regime. At these very low Reynolds numbers, the aerodynamic flow features can be nonlinear and are dominated by laminar separation and separation bubble effects, which can be a source of poor performance from both an aerodynamic and stability and control standpoint. If a stable platform is required for sensor effectiveness, or the vehicle is to be controlled by a relatively inexperienced operator, controllability of a vehicle operating in this very low Reynolds number regime can be a critical factor in determining the success or failure of a design. Flight control systems implemented on this class of vehicles are severely constrained in size and available power. They suffer from inadequate knowledge of the vehicle state, both statically and dynamically. Rolling Hills Research Corporation proposes to use a simple and robust biologically inspired air data system capable of providing instantaneous vehicle state information, including rates, to provide revolutionary stability, control, and performance for these ultra low Reynolds number vehicles.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed MAV air data system has significant potential application in several NASA programs. The robust and simple sensing technology could be fielded in several NASA aircraft unmanned systems, from MAVs to Mars exploratory aircraft. NASA designers will be eager to exploit the advantages of the proposed air data system on vehicles requiring augmented control and stability in space constrained, low power environment. The technology will allow controllability and performance levels for this class of aircraft previously unobtainable.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Advanced sensing technology in the form of a robust MAV air data sensor and flight control will provide RHRC with a unique and highly marketable product. The market for MAVs is expected to grow substantially in the coming years. The technology developed by RHRC under this program will allow controllability and performance levels for this class of aircraft previously unobtainable. A robust, cost effective, and low power system would be highly desirable in all classes of MAV vehicles. Considering the recent proliferation of small UAVs and MAV designs, the commercialization potential for the technology is excellent. RHRC will be able to provide complete MAV air data/flight control systems. The technology can also be easily licensed.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.08-9753
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Experimental Capabilities and Flight Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: An All Electronic, Adaptive, Focusing Schlieren System for Flight Research

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MetroLaser, Inc.
2572 White Road
Irvine, CA 92614-6236

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Drew L'Esperance, Ph.D.
dlesperance@metrolaserinc.com
2572 White Road
Irvine,  CA 92614-6236

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This is a proposal to develop an electronic, focusing schlieren system for flight research based on electronic cameras and spatial light modulators as dynamic programmable masks. Schlieren methods are widely used to visualize turbulence and shock phenomena. Focusing schlieren systems are ideal for applications requiring a large field of view, and are the preferred methods for outdoor schlieren systems. One schlieren technique for large field studies is the use of focusing schlieren with background grids. Recently, schlieren systems that use the sun as a background source have been developed for studying shock waves for aircraft in flight. The application of both schlieren techniques is restricted by the capabilities of fixed schlieren cut-off masks. Liquid crystal spatial light modulators afford greater flexibility, as the correct cut-off mask can be programmed and updated electronically. Since the spatial light modulators can be updated at video rates or faster, there is also the possibility of using the SLMs to correct for changes in the background. In addition, we will incorporate state of the art electronic cameras.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Flight testing is often used as a final critical check of the aerodynamic designs developed by computational and wind tunnel methods because the amount of reliable information obtainable in wind tunnels is somewhat limited and subject to interference. Outdoor schlieren systems using naturally available or dynamically changing backgrounds make it possible to examine shock waves and other phenomena from aircraft in flight. Applications exist in all forms of research and development associated with turbulent flow fields, including aero optics, flow control, drag, boundary layer transition, and flow separation. The proposed developments could be extremely important in flight testing, where few such instruments can perform in a flight environment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential commercial applications include aero-optics, flow diagnostics, flow control, free-space laser communication, active laser imaging, high bandwidth video transmission, spectroscopy, and high-resolution imaging.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Facilities
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.09-8400
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aircraft Systems Analysis, Design and Optimization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Adaptive Structural Mode Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
M4 Engineering, Inc.
2161 Gundry Avenue
Signal Hill, CA 90755-3517

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Myles Baker
myles.baker@m4-engineering.com
2161 Gundry Avenue
Signal Hill,  CA 90755-3517

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
M4 Engineering proposes the development of an adaptive structural mode control system. The adaptive control system will begin from a "baseline" dynamic model of the system, which will be updated as the system is operated. This allows the control inputs to be tailored to the observed behavior of the system across a range of flight conditions, weight conditions, and failure conditions, while accounting for uncertainty in structural dynamics and aerodynamics. The development of the adaptive control system involves a selection of a set of adaptive control algorithms, which will then be implemented and tested on a set of example problems. The performance of the algorithms will be evaluated and additional development and enhancements will be subsequently recommended.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are numerous potential NASA applications. The first is the ASM wind tunnel test being funded under the supersonics task of the ARMD program. This provides a unique opportunity to validate the SBIR technology on a realistic configuration, and also provides a much-needed control law design to the ASM test program. Applications of this technology to future flight test programs and future vehicle development efforts are also anticipated.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Development of ASE control laws for flight vehicles using conventional methods is frightfully expensive. If adaptive methods can be shown to be robust, reliable, and to offer good performance without the extensive aerodynamic/ASE database development and the complex gain scheduling required of conventional flight control systems, this offers a dramatic reduction in development costs. As such, if successful, this technology will result in extensive application to commercial vehicles ranging from small UAV's to commercial airliners to military weapon systems. M4 Engineering has active relationships with several prime contractors who are likely users of this technology. These include Boeing Phantom Works, Northrop Grumman, and Raytheon. These provide excellent commercialization opportunities for the technology. Active marketing to prime contractors and other specialty airframers (e.g., Aerovironment, General Atomics, etc.) will follow these applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Structural Modeling and Tools
Attitude Determination and Control
Autonomous Control and Monitoring


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.09-8604
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aircraft Systems Analysis, Design and Optimization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Utilizing High Fidelity Simulations in Multidisciplinary Optimization of Aircraft Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michigan Engineering Services, LLC
2890 Carpenter Road, Suite 1900
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-1100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jim He
jim_he@miengsrv.com
2890 Carpenter Road, suite 1900
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-1100

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aircraft design is a complex process requiring interactions and exchange of information among multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, strength, fatigue, controls, propulsion, corrosion, maintenance, and manufacturing. A lot of attention has been paid during the past fifteen years in the Multi-disciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) nature of the aircraft design process. However, a consistent void in aircraft design is the ability to integrate high-fidelity computational capabilities from multiple disciplines within an organized MDO environment. Integrating high fidelity simulation technology (that has been developed over the years though significant investments) within a MDO environment will constitute a disruptive technological development in aircraft design. Currently, each high fidelity simulation is rather compartmentalized, and at best a sequential interaction process is exercised. Integrating the high-fidelity computational capabilities from multiple disciplines within an organized MDO environment will provide the ability to capture the implications that design changes in a particular discipline have to all other disciplines. It will also be possible to share design variables among disciplines and thus identify the direction that design variables should follow based on objectives and constraints from multiple disciplines. During the Phase I effort the feasibility of utilizing high fidelity CFD simulations for shape optimization and combining them with a structural finite element simulation for strength considerations within a multi-discipline design optimization environment will be demonstrated. A wing configuration will be analyzed for showcasing the different steps of this development and the benefits.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aerodynamics, strength, fatigue, controls, propulsion, corrosion, maintenance, and manufacturing concerns are present in aircraft structures, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. In all of these areas simulations are utilized during design. High fidelity simulation methods have been developed under significant investment in the different disciplines. However they remain rather compartmentalized, and at best only a sequential interaction process is exercised. Therefore engaging available high fidelity simulations within a multi-disciplinary design optimization environment will bring new technology to all NASA groups interested in reducing weight and cost when designing aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The marketing effort will target companies and organizations within the aerospace field (NASA, space vehicles, aircraft manufacturers, rotorcraft applications, launch vehicle industries), the shipbuilding, the automotive, the military ground vehicle, and the heavy construction equipment. In all of these industries CFD simulations are heavily utilized either for simulating aerodynamic or hydrodynamic performance, or for cooling and pipe flow calculations; all use multi-physics simulation models for assessing the performance of their products during design; and they all have needs for designing products based on economic viability and making the complex design optimization process easy to use. Thus, there is a great market potential for the outcome of this SBIR project.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Simulation Modeling Environment
Structural Modeling and Tools
Composites
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.10-8315
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Gradient Transport Correction (GTC): A General Confinement Method for Better Simulation of Rotor Wake and Vortex-Dominated Flows

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Dynamics, Inc.
1500 Bull Lea Road, Suite 203
Lexington, KY 40511-1268

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Patrick Hu
patrick.g.hu@advanceddynamics-usa.com
1500 Bull Lea Road ,Suite 203
Lexington,  KY 40511-1268

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CFD modeling and simulation has been heavily invested in decades of manpower by a large community of researchers. However, the excessive numerical diffusion inherently caused by discretization errors plus the possibly largest/finest grid requirement for rotor wake modeling prevents CFD to be routinely used in practical engineering calculations. The proposed Gradient Transport Correction (GTC) method provides an innovative artificial compression that can serves as a general confinement for greatly enhancing the resolution of rotor wake capturing while significantly reducing the grid requirement. In this proposal, we have demonstrated the great potential of GTC method to counteract the numerical dissipation and absolutely preserve the wake vortical structure with a small number of grid cells. Phase I will develop an initial capability, and the capability to be established in Phase I will be developed into a general engineering tool that has engineering analysis accuracy as well as transparent set-up for a broad range of important engineering calculations, such as computing hover performance, high-lift and separation flows, as well as various types of multiple rotors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The major beneficiary of the proposed research program will be NASA centers. It has been demonstrated that the proposed Gradient Transport Correction (GTC) method has the great potential for enhancing the resolution of a wide range of engineering calculations with significant grid reduction, particularly for rotor wake capturing that affects almost every aspect of rotorcraft analyses and evaluation. The resulting performance improvement is, therefore, an important asset for various types of rotorcraft development and upgrades in NASA centers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The resulting methods and software ability will, of course, benefit other DoD components, such as Army, Navy and Air Force. The US aviation and rotorcraft industries, including Boeing, Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, General Dynamics, Lockheed Martin, Textron, and others, will be the major non-military potential customers. Moreover, improvement of computational accuracy and efficiency is common interest in CFD community, thus is highly demanded. The aviation and rotorcraft industries in Europe, China and Japan represent another large potential marketing of the resulting methods and software. Advanced Dynamics will promote the international sales through resale partners of local companies abroad. Therefore, the methods and software abilities gained from this SBIR project will be additional to Advanced Dynamics' existing commercial offerings.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.10-8476
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Elastomeric Dampers Derived From First-Principles-Based Analytical Simulation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Technologies Corporation
57 Maryanne Drive
Monroe, CT 06468-3209

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Serkan Ozbay
sozbay@aboutmtc.com
57 Maryanne Drive
Monroe,  CT 06468-3209

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The lead-lag motions of rotor blades in a helicopter require damping to stabilize them. In practice, this has necessitated the use of external hydraulic dampers which suffer from a high maintenance cost. This high operational cost has prompted the rotorcraft industry to use elastomeric lead-lag dampers that result in ``dry'' rotors. However, complex behavior of elastomers provides challenges for the modeling of such devices, as has been noted by rotorcraft airframers. Analytical models have tended to oversimplify the complexity of the operational environment and make radical assumptions about operating parameters that, at best, lead to simple, and often unreal, device models. In spite of costly and time consuming experiments to construct them, these first order device models do not directly relate to neither material characteristics nor geometric configuration. Example: the device model approach leads to the erroneous identification of "physical phenomena" such as dual frequency effect. We propose a fundamentally radical approach wherein elastomeric dampers are derived from first-principle-based modeling rather than device model based analysis. First we propose to develop a finite element based simulation tool for modeling the response of complex components made of elastomeric materials. When integrated with a finite element based, multibody dynamics analysis code, this innovative tool will accurately simulate the dynamic response of vehicles such as rotorcraft using elastomeric components using true material properties and damper geometry. This tool will be unique because it will capture both dissipative and geometric nonlinearities causing damping loss at dual frequency excitations typically observed in elastomeric devices. When fully developed and validated, our first principles based formulation for the modeling of elastomeric devices will be available for robust component design.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Elastomers are used in many vehicles for applications from vibration isolation to stability augmentation. For NASA, the immediate application would be in integration of the process into a robust rotorcraft design environment. Moreover, the generic nature of the formulation would make it amenable to modeling any electrometric material application

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
First, Commercial rotorcraft industry - provide considerable cost reductions in the design process. Secondly since any device based on elastomers can be modeled. Final product would find quite large range of application in the automotive as well as tracked vehicle industry.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Kinematic-Deployable
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Structural Modeling and Tools
Composites
Computational Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.10-8515
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: 3D Warping Actuation Driven Dynamic Camber Control Concept for Helicopter Rotor Blades

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Technologies Corporation
57 Maryanne Drive
Monroe, CT 06468-3209

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Serkan Ozbay
sozbay@aboutmtc.com
57 Maryanne Drive
Monroe,  CT 06468-3209

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In a rotorcraft, optimized camber change not only reduces vibratory hub loads and noise but also increases available thrust and improved flight control augmentation. Therefore, the ability to dynamically change airfoil camber is a significant technology advancement leading to improved overall rotorcraft performance. Research efforts in recent years have led to the application of active material actuation for rotorcraft blades in order to dynamically change blade camber. Small-scale bench top system validations have been successful. However, when scaled-up to full-scale aircraft, the performance of current actuation systems in a demanding rotor blade environment gets significantly degraded by operational factors including friction, free play, and, aerodynamic and inertial loads. We propose a unique three dimensional concept wherein the typically closed section blade is cut open to create a torsionally compliant mechanism that acts as its own amplification device; the deformation of the blade is dynamically controlled by out-of-plane warping. Our innovative approach for camber control is a radical departure from the current techniques. The proposed development and engineering effort will lead to a new camber control technology suitable for full-scale aircraft that would result in improved operational efficiencies at lower costs. Concept feasibility will be demonstrated both analytically and through experiments on blade sections of a Sikorsky Blackhawk. A Phase II program will follow for technology scale-up and optimized full blade testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NA

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
- All commercial rotorcraft manufacturers. Improving overall rotorcraft performance as well as safety at a lower operational cost would be a major motivation for the rotorcraft industry to implement this technology. - Worldwide Wind Turbine industry for power generation. An effective camber change is needed to benefit most from the dynamic airflow through wind turbines. The potential for this rapidly growing "green" power generation industry is enormous.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Structural Modeling and Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.10-8873
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Computational Wind Tunnel: A Design Tool for Rotorcraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sukra Helitek, Inc.
3146 Greenwood Road
Ames, IA 50014-4504

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Angela Lestari
nappi@sukra-helitek.com
3146, Greenwood Road
Ames,  IA 50014-4504

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Rotorcraft engineers traditionally use the wind tunnel to evaluate and finalize designs. Insufficient correlation between wind tunnel results and flight tests, have been often attributed in part to uncertainty in blockage corrections. Estimation of rotor blockage is significantly more complex than bluff body blockage as the correction depends on operational characteristics such as rotor RPM and thrust produced. This proposal offers to develop a design tool, which can simulate a complete rotorcraft inside a wind tunnel including all the facility effects. At the heart of the innovation are: 1. An automated hybrid grid generator. 2. A robust and economical incompressible flow solver for the grid system. 3. Momentum source based rotor model that is suitable and economical for simulating multiple rotors including the drive fans of the wind tunnel. Phase I will develop the proof-of-concept and will use unstructured Cartesian grid for the model and wind tunnel. The wind tunnel will be modeled with the diffuser, test section and nozzle. In phase II, the tool will be extended to hybrid grid with viscous grid near solid surfaces and will include drive fans of the tunnel.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The design tool to be developed under this initiative will find wide usage throughout NASA where wind tunnel testing is integral to any design study. The tool can be effectively used for rotorcrafts and V/STOL aircrafts where quantification of blockage effects is complex.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The computational wind tunnel to be developed will be an asset to other government agencies including ARMY, NASA and AIR FORCE and industry where wind tunnel testing of rotorcraft and V/STOL aircrafts is routine. In short, the tool is a compliment to all wind tunnel testing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.10-8919
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fully Integral, Flexible Composite Driveshaft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lawrie Technology, Inc.
227 Hathaway E
Girard, PA 16417-1552

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Duncan Lawrie
duncan@lawrietechnology.com
227 Hathaway E.
Girard,  PA 16417-1552

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An all-composite driveshaft incorporating integral flexible diaphragms is described and proposed for further refinement. An approach is explored which obsoletes the split lines and associated fasteners required to attach metallic flex elements and either metallic or composite spacing tubes in current solutions. Sub-critical driveshaft weights half that of incumbent technology are projected for typical rotary wing shaft lengths. Spacing tubes are described, which comprise an integral part of the initial tooling but which remain part of the finished shaft and control natural frequencies and torsional stability. A concurrently engineered manufacturing process and design for performance is proposed which competes with incumbent solutions at significantly lower weight and with the probability of improved damage tolerance and fatigue life. This phase I proposal seeks to further remove manufacturing cost and to produce test articles suitable for concept verification and, subsequently, flight qualification during phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The rotary wing subtopic 2.10 includes both materials & structures and propulsion components requiring lower weight and higher performance in power transmission components. These include tail rotor drives, tilt-rotor cross-over drives, and tandem rotor connection shafts. Current technology has not changed in decades as it concerns motion accomodating, high torque density driveshafts. Enhanced mission availability and cost reduction can be obtained via the reduced part count and improved fatigue performance already established by this fully integral, all-composite driveshaft technology. Further refinement and preparation of flight qualification test articles is proposed and, once fielded, NASA and NASA partners will also benefit from increased payload.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial benefits are similar to NASA benefits in improving rotary wing performance across government agencies and the commercial helicopter market.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Composites
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.10-9334
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Optical Method for Real-Time Turbine Blade Tip Clearance Measurement

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Southwest Sciences, Inc.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505-3993

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrei Vakhtin
avakhtin@swsciences.com
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe,  NM 87505-3993

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Monitoring and controlling blade tip clearance of high pressure turbines are important for maintaining the integrity of the engine during its operating points and life cycle. Operating the engine with minimum tip clearance provides several benefits, such as increased turbine efficiency, reduced emissions, and extended service life. Southwest Sciences proposes an innovative technology based on optical Fourier domain reflectometry for near real-time tip-clearance measurement with an accuracy of 10 micrometers or better. A simple and robust optical sensor will withstand temperatures of up to 2000 F; therefore, the method can be applied for tip-clearance measurements in turbine hot sections. The system will allow controlling multiple sensors acquiring data from different locations in the turbine with a single main unit. The Phase I effort will provide experimental evidence of the feasibility of this approach and outline the design of the Phase II prototype instrument.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed turbine blade tip clearance sensor meets the needs of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program in the areas of experimental capabilities for a broad range of air vehicles covering subsonic through supersonic flight regime. In particular, this sensor specifically addresses the need for a turbine tip clearance system for applications to rotary-wing aircraft engines. The sensor system developed under this research program will provide a new tool for engine manufacturers to study and optimize blade tip clearance with high accuracy without the need for repetitive and cumbersome calibration procedures. Moreover, engine health monitoring and control systems will benefit from this sensor system for real-time implementation of active tip clearance control mechanisms in gas turbine engines. The envisioned compact, low weight, low-cost, high-temperature capable, self-calibrating sensor heads can be easily integrated into engine casings at several physical locations with minimal or no disturbance to the engine internal flow paths; thus, a flight-version of this sensor system is certainly within reach as well.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For optical turbine tip clearance monitoring, customers include Air Force, Navy, Army, and also aircraft manufacturers, jet engine manufacturers, and military groups that inspect and maintain the aircraft engines. The new optical monitoring technology will also be useful for maintenance of commercial aircraft engines and industrial turbines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.10-9479
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multifunctional Erosion Resistant Icephobic Appliqu¿s for Rotorblades

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanosonic, Inc.
1485 South Main Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060-5556

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mike Bortner
mbortner@nanosonic.com
1485 South Main Street
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-5556

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The purpose of this Phase I NASA SBIR program is to develop high performance multifunctional nanostructured materials that can be used to fabricate icephobic multifunctional appliqués with enhanced erosion resistance for rotorcraft leading edges. The proposed technology offers integrated multifunctionality that results in reduction of weight, system complexity, maintenance, and cost over current systems. Prevention of ice buildup will facilitate mission critical operations in icing conditions, as well as mitigate concerns of vibration transmission and shudder that are associated with ice buildup. Integration of additional erosion resistant composites may also result in reduced maintenance costs. Electrothermal systems are currently used for anti-icing systems in rotorcraft, but are prone to failure due to system complexity. To mitigate the problems associated with current anti-icing systems, NanoSonic proposes to develop multifunctional adhesive backed appliqués with integrated hydrophobicity and enhanced erosion resistance. High performance tapes are currently applied to rotorcraft leading edges to help improve erosion resistance. Integrating multiple functionalities into a high performance nanocomposite appliqué would result in reduction of weight and system complexity, facilitate operation in icing conditions, and reduce maintenance on the rotorblades. For minimal maintenance and application cost, a new appliqué can be readily placed on the rotorblade leading edge when the existing appliqué has exhausted its functionality.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications include any application where water repellency, minimization of water ingress, or reduced frictional drag is desired. Water repellency provides anti-icing functionality useful in nearly any vehicle or structure for missions where icing or the risk of ice formation inhibits progress. Water repellency also suggests minimized water ingress. The proposed hydrophobic materials may be transitioned to coating application suitable for corrosion resistance. Minimization of corrosion on metallic surfaces would minimize maintenance and reduce concerns of potential structural integrity damage resulting from corrosion. Hydrophobic materials can also significantly reduce frictional drag, which may be particularly useful for operation of small exploratory vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed nanocomposites will significantly benefit both military and civilian applications. For the military, commercial applications include any application where water repellency, minimization of water ingress, or reduced frictional drag is desired. Examples include corrosion protection on military vehicles, frictional drag reduction on underwater vehicles, and water repellant materials for nearly any military platform metallic surface. Commercial applications are also nearly limitless, including corrosion protection and frictional drag reduction for higher performance, cost and energy saving commercial aircraft and automobiles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Composites
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A2.10-9788
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Variable Speed Rotor System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Peregrine Power, LLC
27350 SW 95th Avenue, Suite 3030
Wilsonville, OR 97070-7709

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dallas Marckx
dmarckx@peregrinepower.com
27350 SW 95th Avenue, Suite 3030
Wilsonville,  OR 97070-7709

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Variable speed rotors will give helicopters several advantages: higher top speed, greater fuel efficiency, momentary emergency over-power, resonance detuning capability and a reduction in noise. The applicant proposes to develop such a system using a doubly-fed planetary gear box with advanced SiC-based power electronics and motors. The new components enabling variable speed will be rated at a fraction of the total helicopter power rating, thus reducing weight dramatically. The resulting hybrid mechanical/electrical power system also gives, in addition to greater fuel efficiency, smooth continuous speed variations with electronics, inherent starting capability (e.g., elimination of the existing starter motor), simplification of the tail rotor system, and the ability to enhance power to the main rotor with batteries and the APU. Feasibility will be determined in Phase I by the applicant with the assistance of a major helicopter manufacturer.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The specific variable speed rotor system proposed would improve helicopters, which are not directly supplied by NASA. Although some helicopters are used by NASA, far and away the majority are used by others. However, the improvement of helicopters is part of the NASA mission to improve flight craft which operate within the atmosphere.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The specific variable speed rotor system proposed is unique to helicopters, but it can be scaled for use in all civilian and military helicopters from small unmanned versions to the largest heavy lift versions. Variations of the approach and technologies can also be used in many other types of hybrid electric vehicles, such as ships, autos, trucks, tanks and other armored vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Simulation Modeling Environment
Cooling
Highly-Reconfigurable
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Energy Storage
Power Management and Distribution
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A3.01-8982
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Next Generation Air Transportation System - Airspace
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robust Traffic Flow Management: Coevolutionary Approach

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Metron Aviation, Inc.
131 Elden Street, Suite 200
Herndon, VA 20170-4758

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rafal Kicinger
Kicinger@MetronAviation.com
131 Elden St., Ste 200
Herndon,  VA 20170-4758

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We will develop a Coevolutionary Decision Support Tool (CDST) that explicitly incorporates weather uncertainty (non-probabilistically) into strategic Traffic Flow Management (TFM) and automatically generates robust rerouting strategies for the National Airspace System (NAS) operating in inclement weather. The CDST will utilize coevolutionary algorithms (CEAs) (an emerging class of algorithms extending traditional genetic algorithms) to concurrently search the solution spaces of aircraft routing strategies and hazardous weather scenarios. By using the tool, Airline Operations Control (AOC) and Air Traffic Control System Command Center (ATCSCC) Traffic Management Unit (TMU) personnel can achieve two key strategic TFM objectives: 1. Identification of robust aircraft rerouting strategies, i.e., strategies which perform well against a large spectrum of hazardous weather scenarios, and 2. Discovery of vulnerabilities of the NAS with respect to certain weather conditions. The CDST will employ new theoretical and conceptual (non-probabilistic) methods of incorporating weather information into strategic TFM planning, also developed a part of this project. These methods will be subsequently utilized to create efficient computational representations of weather scenarios and aircraft rerouting strategies which can be manipulated by CEAs. In addition, a set of metrics for assessing the quality, or fitness, of produced solutions (both weather scenarios and rerouting strategies) will be developed as well as a metric for measuring the improvement of achieved TFM robustness. The CDST will be implemented in a prototype system which will be subsequently used to demonstrate feasibility of the proposed approach. This technology will be developed to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 2 by the end of Phase I, and TRL 4 prototype system by the end of Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed tool offers a R&D capability that enables NASA researchers to investigate new techniques for TFM for the future. When used in conjunction with the Future ATM Concept Evaluation Tool (FACET), the CDST can be utilized to study new TFM procedures that create robust strategies in weather constrained airspaces. It can also be combined with the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES) simulation tool, to study future policies and procedures for TFM and to investigate the benefits of robust TFM strategies in severe weather type days.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed tool has application to other Government agencies which involved with the development of NGATS, i.e., FAA, and the Departments of Defense, Commerce, and Transportation. Each of these agencies faces the need to properly address weather uncertainties in their strategic planning phase and use advanced decision support tools to discover robust strategies to improve the efficiency and predictability of TFM. It should also be useful to aviation-related commercial firms of all types (airlines, airports, aerospace companies, consultants, etc.) that need access to a methodology and algorithms that will help them identify and mitigate the effects of hazardous weather.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Guidance, Navigation, and Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A3.01-9057
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Next Generation Air Transportation System - Airspace
PROPOSAL TITLE: On-Demand Special Use Airspace

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Metron Aviation, Inc.
131 Elden Street, Suite 200
Herndon, VA 20170-4758

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jimmy Krozel
Krozel@MetronAviation.com
131 Elden St., Ste 200
Herndon,  VA 20120-4758

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We design and develope a Decision Support Tool (DST) that supports On-Demand Special Use Airspace (SUA) scheduling and flight plan optimization around SUA between Airline Operations Control (AOC), Military, Air Traffic Control System Command Center (ATCSCC), and Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC) personnel. The tool allows AOC and ARTCC Traffic Management Unit (TMU) personnel to coordinate strategic and tactical plans, with a strategic look ahead time from days to less than 2 hours, and tactical plans up to the minute centered locally around an ARTCC airspace. The tool coordinates aircraft movement though vs around SUA. The tool allows for asynchronous communication of priorities associated with flight plans and flight plan amendments (contingency plans) between the AOC and ARTCC TMU specialist, allowing the ATCSCC and Military to view these priorities and TMU responses to them at any time. This technology will be developed to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 2 by the end of Phase I, and TRL 4 prototype system by the end of Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed tool has application in Air Traffic Management Research to study Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) changes due to SUA usage, and automated Traffic Flow Management (TFM) solutions. The tool may be included into NASA's FACET or ACES simulation environment for benefits studies, or in real-time simulations to study how the Military and Air Traffic Control may collaborate in the future.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed tool has application to military operations for wartime and non-wartime activity. In wartime, the competition for airspace resources can be controlled in a collaborative solution by our tool. In non-wartime civilian airspace, the proposed tool has an application in the management of SUA activity in the NAS, allowing the military to coordinate the activation and de-activation of SUA in collaboration with the FAA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Pilot Support Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A3.01-9215
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Next Generation Air Transportation System - Airspace
PROPOSAL TITLE: Airspace Analyzer for Assessing Airspace Directional Permeability

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Innovation Laboratory, Inc.
2360 SW Chelmsford Avenue
Portland, OR 97201-2265

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joseph Krozel
kreierk@aol.com
12475 Meadowgreen Place
Crevecoeur,  MO 63141-7431

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We build a software tool which enables the user (airline or Air Traffic Service Provider (ATSP)) the ability to analyze the flight-level-by-flight-level permeability of airspaces constrained by weather-hazards (turbulence, icing, and convection). The Airspace Analyzer automatically determines the space-time boundaries where weather hazards constrain capacity. The solution approach is based on an algorithm using computational geometry techniques for estimating the directional permeability of an airspace given the direction of the dominant demand flow on an airspace and the safety requirements of aircraft passing through the airspace. Phase I will result in theory, software, and examples that demonstrate proof of concept, and Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 3. Phase II will produce a prototype that demonstrates benefit to the airline and ATSP customer at TRL 4.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For NASA, the proposed software product enables NASA researchers to investigate future NGATS concepts. Used in conjunction with a NAS-wide simulator like FACET or ACES, our software can be used to study Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) adjustments in the NAS triggered by automated Flow Constrained Area (FCA) algorithms that we provide. DAC can potentially maximize capacity in highly constrained hazardous weather regions given our recommended FCAs and airspace usage results. DAC has a need to study where critical boundaries must transition from relatively unconstrained flight into capacity-constrained FCAs. Super Dense Operations (SDO) research also needs to evaluate the capacity around an airportal, and our Airspace Analyzer can be used to identify how SDO operations may be constrained by severe weather. Human factors investigations may be studied at NASA to evaluate further benefits and tradeoffs of this new approach to DAC and Traffic Flow Management (TFM) planning.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed software has application to military systems as well. In wartime, the constraints are very dynamic and automated airspace usage planning is required to support the pilot and the mission. The airspace may be constrained by weather, but also by hostile threats, both moving and stationary. With minor modifications, our solution approach for estimating the capacity of an airspace can be used to evaluate for a military a risk assessment for the threat level, possible avenues of approach, and estimates of total troop movement.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Pilot Support Systems
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A3.01-9581
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Next Generation Air Transportation System - Airspace
PROPOSAL TITLE: Turbulence Impact Module for ATM Planning and Research

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerotech Research
11836 Fishing Point Drive, Suite 200
Newport News, VA 23606-4507

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Robinson
paulrobinson@atr-usa.com
11836 Fishing Point Drive, Ste 200
Newport News,  VA 23606-4507

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Every day, turbulence has an adverse effect on aircraft operations and capacity of the NAS, costing the airline industry at least $100 million annually in delays, operational inefficiencies, and injuries. There is a need to research and develop traffic flow and ATM methods that mitigate the turbulence impact to NAS operations, but turbulence is poorly represented in current airspace simulation and planning tools. AeroTech proposes to improve these tools and therefore airspace operations by developing and integrating an ATM Turbulence Impact Module (ATM-TIM) into FACET and/or ACES. The module will enable researchers and planners to identify and assess the impact of actual turbulence in the NAS and examine performance capability of new ATM methods with turbulence present. A key enhancement will be the incorporation of a turbulence dimension into the ATM Weather Impact Model that enables the modeling of the impact of convective and clear air turbulence. Phase I will develop the enhanced ATM weather impact model, investigate the integration of ATM-TIM components into the simulation tools, and perform a proof of concept study. By Phase III, the integrated ATM-TIM will improve planners understanding of turbulence's impact on ATM and assist in evaluating new TFM ideas in a turbulent NAS.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
When the goals of the proposed R/R&D are met, the ATM Turbulence Impact Module will be supportive of NASA's NGATS Airspace program's goal to "develop methodologies and techniques to minimize or solve the demand/capacity imbalance problem in the NGATS future." The ATM-TIM will support level 1 and 2 research areas in Traffic Flow Management, Separation Assurance, Performance Based Services, and System-Level Simulation Tools by improving traffic flow simulation tools through integration of turbulence information and ability to assess the impact of convective turbulence and CAT, enabling the assessment of new NGATS technologies and trajectory based operations principles against an ATM Weather Impact Model that incorporates turbulence, enabling the exploration of performance based operations based on aircraft equipped with improved turbulence detection and awareness systems, and enabling the development and testing of new TFM techniques within a NAS that includes turbulence constraints.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
AeroTech's ATM Turbulence Impact Module for FACET and/or ACES will provide the FAA and Joint Planning and Development Office a capability to examine NextGen capacity and throughput issues due to turbulence within the NAS, and assess the requirements for future turbulence detection and forecasting capabilities. Additionally they will be able to investigate and assess performance-based operations in NextGen based on new turbulence detection and awareness systems. The addition of the turbulence dimension to the ATM Weather Impact Model will provide higher educational institutions and research organizations the opportunity to revise and develop new TFM techniques and research convective and clear air turbulence impacts on NAS operations. Real-time application of the ATM-TIM in FACET could assist ATCSCC and airline operations centers in optimal flight planning and routing through improved turbulence awareness. The improved routing could result in reductions in delays and fuel savings, improved safety, and overall smoother NAS operations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A3.02-8812
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Next Generation Air Transportation - Airportal
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Optical Wake Vortex Detection System for Super-Density Airport Operation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optical Scientific, Inc.
2 Metropolitan Court, Suite 6
Gaithersburg, MD 20878-4003

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ting-i Wang
tingwang@opticalscientific.com
2 Metropolitan Ct, Ste 6
Gaithersburg,  MD 20878-4003

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
OSI proposes to develop a wake vortex detection system including a group of double-ended and single-ended optical scintillometers properly deployed in the airfield to measure ground and near ground crosswind, turbulence, and wake vortex using atmospheric turbulence-induced optical scintillations. As part of efforts, OSI also proposes to develop a single-ended optical scintillometer, together with a retro-reflector, for the measurement of near ground real-time crosswind and wake vortex. OSI will perform system analysis and design of the proposed system to detect occurrences, location, magnitude, and persistence of wake turbulence. With the simultaneous measurements of crosswind and turbulence, the sensor system is also able to forecast the arrival time of the airplane generated wake vortex drifting to a nearby runway. In the Phase I effort, OSI will determine the optimum siting criteria of deploying the double-ended and single-ended sensors on the airport. This includes combinations of parallel to runway, cross the runway, and retro-reflector on high towers installations. The goal is to form a network of sensors to cover essential areas of airport field to provide wake vortex data for the predictive modeling of wake vortex hazard. As a side benefit, the vortex detection system could measure downdraft by deploying two sets of scintillometers on both sides of the runway. The line-averaged crosswind measured by the two sets will provide real-time continuous measurements of convergence and divergence of the wind field between the two optical paths. Vertical winds, and hence the downdraft, can be derived from the measured divergence. The proposed vortex detection system will also be able to provide critical large area wind information. By incorporating this valuable information into the low-level wind shear modeling, it will greatly enhance the performance of the present airport low-level wind shear systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA Airspace Systems (AS) Program has identified that advanced technologies to detect and avoid wake vortex hazards is critical for performing safe, closely spaced and converging approaches at closer distances than are currently allowed. One of the primary interests is Wake Vortex Hazard Solutions that include wake avoidance procedures for airports with closely spaced runways; characterization of wake vortex and atmospheric hazards to flight; and wake vortex alleviation/mitigation technologies. The proposed optical scintillometer and wake vortex detection system will provide critical real-time information that will increase throughput of an airport runway complex and achieve the highest possible efficiencies in the use of airportal resources. Super-density operations will entail reduced aircraft wake vortex separation standards. The proposed effort will lead to the development of wake vortex detection system that provides critical information relevant to NASA's NGATS-Airportal effort.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The FAA may require the vortex detection system successfully developed in this SBIR to be incorporated in the NGATS. The vortex detection and avoidance system will improve airport throughput and efficiency. More tests may be required and system may further improved in Phase 3 with FAA that will lead the system to TRL level 9 -the Actual system (flight) proven through successful mission operations. A TRL-9 system certainly has many market opportunities in domestic and international airports. To further expose OSI's products, OSI may team up with a large airport equipments vendor, such as the one with Airport Surface Traffic Configuration Management System. The team-up will lead to the large scale deployment of wake vortex detection systems at airports around the globe.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A3.02-8835
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Next Generation Air Transportation - Airportal
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microscopic Analysis and Modeling of Airport Surface Sequencing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
1190 Hawling Place
Leesburg, VA 20175-5084

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bryan Wood
wood@mosaicatm.com
801 Sycolin Road, Suite 212
Leesburg,  VA 20175-5686

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The complexity and interdependence of operations on the airport surface motivate the need for a comprehensive and detailed, yet flexible and validated analysis and modeling capability. This modeling and analysis can be used to identify the most beneficial areas of research for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) -ATM Airportal Project. It is essential, therefore, that the modeling approach properly considers all operational activities and possible capacity constraints in the entire airport surface and terminal operation as a complete system. To accurately model airport surface operations with detail and accuracy, we propose that it is necessary to consider techniques and strategies used to determine the flight's taxi route, and to determine the sequence to be used whenever two or more flights have contention for a taxiway or runway resource. This proposed effort will produce tools to support fundamental research of the concept and requirements for airportal operations in the NGATS by providing microscopic airportal surface modeling components that provide higher fidelity and greater validity of modeling than previously available. Through this effort we will also enhance the Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation tool to provide the analysis capabilities required to support this microscopic airport surface model.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed work will support NASA's Airportal research and is highly relevant to NASA's Strategic Goals and Outcomes, as described in the 2006 NASA Strategic Plan. The project will produce tools to support fundamental research of the concept and requirements for airportal operations in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) by providing microscopic airportal surface modeling components that provide higher fidelity and greater validity of modeling than previously available. In this way, the work supports NASA Strategic Goal 3E, "Advance knowledge in the fundamental disciplines of aeronautics and develop technologies for safer aircraft and higher capacity airspace systems."

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aviation delays and the associated costs will continue to motivate research and development to improve air transportation efficiency and the airport surface domain has been largely neglected in the past, leaving substantial opportunities. The availability of advanced surface surveillance data is a new, enabling many novel applications for the data. In fact, this data is currently only available at a few airports. Much of the industry has not yet had access to this data and, therefore, has not started planning how it can be used. Still, the data will revolutionize the airport surface in ways not yet imagined. The enhancements to the SODAA technology provides a tool that can be used by airlines or airports for detailed analysis or standard reporting capabilities to analyze the efficiency of their airport's operations

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Expert Systems
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A3.02-8836
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Next Generation Air Transportation - Airportal
PROPOSAL TITLE: Collaborative Outbound Taxi Metering for Environmental Benefits

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
1190 Hawling Place
Leesburg, VA 20175-5084

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bryan Wood
wood@mosaicatm.com
801 Sycolin Road, Suite 212
Leesburg,  VA 20175-5686

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal addresses the concept of Collaborative Outbound Taxi Metering (COTM), which provides environmental benefits without sacrificing throughput. In current operations, departure flights must block out of their parking gates to claim their first-come, first-served departure slot. When departure demand exceeds capacity, flights experience delay in departure queues near the runway. The need for flights to make incremental steps in the queue significantly increases the engine emissions produced because of the number of times aircraft must apply 'break-away' power, only to stop again after moving just a short distance. Under the COTM concept, metering techniques assign and maintain departure slots for all departure flights even if aircraft remain at their parking gates. Mosaic ATM has conducted initial analysis using historical operational data demonstrating the potential environmental benefits even in the presence of arrival flights requiring parking gates. This concept has already been applied and shown significant benefits during over-night operations of air cargo carriers. Implementing the concept across the entire NAS has not been possible due to the requirement to coordinate departure metering amongst multiple airport users. We propose to further demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of the COTM concept at large hub airports.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential applications for the research results beyond Phase 2 include uses by NASA for continued research and by the FAA and airports/air carriers. Moreover, research results may guide other airportal management projects by providing valuable understanding of environmental issues and how surface management decisions effects them. The proposed SBIR is focused primarily towards answering a research question of interest to NASA. The problem being studied is an example of the basic research needed into the interaction of airportal management and environmental metrics. The project will leave NASA with a new capability to study airportal environmental issues within the SODAA tool which NASA already uses for other airportal research. With environmental considerations becoming increasingly important to the FAA, airports, air carriers, and internationally, this capability will allow NASA to remain at the forefront of airportal research and provide relevant and valuable research results to guide NextGen development.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
FAA, university, and airport authorities may be equally interested in the developed airportal environmental analysis capability. Other potential Non-NASA applications are centered on the evolution of the research into a NAS-wide (or NextGen) system. The FAA is the most likely customer to continue this work beyond Phase 2. Commercialization and Phase 3 activities involve further development of the COTM implementation begun in Phases 1 and 2 and the conduct of field trials at one or more airports where the operational concept and procedures may be refined and actual benefits may be measured. Mosaic ATM has conducted field trials of this type previously with other automation tools and concepts. Airport authorities are expected to be interested in this technology, both domestically and internationally.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Expert Systems
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A3.02-8971
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Next Generation Air Transportation - Airportal
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Simulation Testbed for Dynamic Air Corridors within the Next Generation Air Transportation System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2737

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michel Santos
msantos@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville,  MD 20855-2737

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The key innovation in this effort is the development of a simulation testbed for identifying dynamic air corridors that can increase aircraft throughput in and around the terminal airspace. In this proposal, an air corridor is a three-dimensional region of space that is intended to safely isolate a stream of aircraft from other aircraft outside the corridor. Air corridors/routes effectively exist today in two forms: static and dynamic. Static air corridors exist in the form of published standard arrival routes (STAR) and standard instrument departures (SID). Dynamic air corridors are effectively created when air traffic control (ATC) issues vector and speed instructions to aircraft. The proposed testbed would identify dynamic air corridors that provide ATC with more options that are optimized to provide greater throughput than is currently available with today's static air corridors. The testbed would continuously identify dynamic air corridors in order to adapt to changing hazards, changing queues of arriving and departing aircraft, and changing runway configurations. We further propose integrating the simulation testbed with NASA's Airspace Concept Evaluation Software (ACES) in order to assess the impact of dynamic air corridors on the entire U.S. national airspace.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our initial target for the product developed in this effort is the modeling and simulation community within NASA that is focusing on the Joint Planning and Development Office's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). IAI is currently involved in developing and extending both ACES and CybelePro, which is currently used as the core modeling and simulation infrastructure for ACES. Given our intimate knowledge of our customer requirements, our partnership with the industry leaders such as ACSS Raytheon and SAIC, and fact that the need for a simulation environment for NGATS concepts have been identified by the JPDO, we are extremely confident of transitioning this technology into these markets.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Another target for the product developed in this effort is the modeling and simulation community within FAA that is focusing on NextGen concepts and operations. Another target is the modeling and simulation community within the Department of Defense that is focusing on crisis operations/First Responders. IAI is currently actively involved in each of these markets, and CybelePro is currently being used as the core modeling and simulation infrastructure in several of these efforts. Given our intimate knowledge of our customer requirements, our partnership with the industry leaders such as ACSS Raytheon and SAIC, and fact that the need for a simulation environment for NGATS concepts have been identified by the JPDO, we are extremely confident of transitioning this technology into these markets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Airport Infrastructure and Safety


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A4.01-8341
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Test Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Waddan Systems
8801 Encino Avenue
Northridge, CA 91325-3228

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mahendra Singh
mahendra@waddansystems.com
8801 Encino Ave
Northridge,  CA 91325-3228

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Development of an Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) is proposed. The proposed methodology employs the development of a very thin (135&#61549;m) hybrid microminiature sensor assembly (MSA) incorporating a micro-electro-mechanical-sensor (MEMS) array, a short-haul radio transceiver, a data mux, memory, power management module, a replaceable battery cartridge, and an antenna. Various MSA packaging concepts will be evaluated using modified MEMS and commercially available ICs (in die form). A final packaging design for batch fabrication in Phase II will be developed. The MSA would be designed as a cement-and-forget-device (except for the battery). A cpomactPCI modular host would manage the MSA nodes as a part of a scatternet/piconet arrangement. The host will be almost entirely made up of COTS hardware and software. Cost estimates for MSA and the host system will be provided.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
By adding real time aircraft dynamic modal assessment, real-time correlation and control algorithms, the MSA could be utilized in controlling light weight, flexible and even unstable flight subsystems. It can also be used in hard to access or remotely located nodes.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The MSA can be employed for monitoring of power plants, vehicle engines, or any other hard to access structural components. The monitoring concept can be employed for monitoring medically implanted devices in human body.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Electromagnetic Thrusters
Launch Assist (Electromagnetic, Hot Gas and Pneumatic)
MHD
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Manipulation
Perception/Sensing
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Testing Facilities
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Modular Interconnects
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Biomolecular Sensors
Waste Processing and Reclamation
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
RF
Instrumentation
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Expert Systems
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Manned-Manuvering Units
Highly-Reconfigurable
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
MHD and Related Conversion
Nuclear Conversion
Aircraft Engines
Aerobrake


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I A4.01-8824
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Test Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Friction-Sensing Retroreflector Array Patches (FRAP)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Research Support Instruments, Inc.
4325-B Forbes Blvd.
Lanham, MD 20706-4854

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Kline
kline@researchsupport.com
4325-B Forbes Blvd.
Lanham,  MD 20706-4854

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Research Support Instruments, Inc. (RSI) proposes to develop the Friction-Sensing Retroreflector Array Patches (FRAP), a technology that will measure the shear stress distribution on aerodynamic surfaces in ground test facilities with high resolution, sensitivity, and bandwidth. Unlike the oil-film interference method, FRAP patches will not be thinned as a function of time during a test. No knowledge of the streamlines of the flow will be needed in order to calculate the local stress distribution; this will avoid the tracers needed with the oil-film interference approach. Flexible patches of FRAP arrays, inexpensive due to simple, mass-production-compatible microfabrication techniques, will be interrogated using a light source and camera. FRAP will be independent of the flow species and applied as a very thin, flexible, adhesive material. The Phase I goals will be to design sensors, develop a microfabrication technique and use it to fabricate prototype units, demonstrate feasibility, and select the most promising design for Phase II development. In Phase II, the prototype units will be field-demonstrated at NASA facilities, with manufacturing issues and realistic operating conditions addressed. The result will be a product that will address a critical NASA instrumentation need.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
RSI will use its experience in microfabricated structures and sensors to employ a highly innovative technology – a sheer-stress-sensing retroreflector array – in order to non-intrusively measure skin friction in NASA ground test facilities. The concept can even be extended to flight tests: the arrays could be interrogated by the airdrop craft or a chase plane, with all the benefits of a retroreflected signal. The FRAP technology will avoid the use of a depleted fluid and tracer elements that are inherent to the existing oil film interferometry method, and will address a key NASA need for non-instrusive diagnostics as well as flight test diagnostics and vehicle monitoring.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Several non-Government applications are possible. Flow sensors have a lucrative commercial market in manufacturing (for process monitoring) and medical diagnostics, as well a healthy market in scientific applications. Commercialized flow sensors are used in applications ranging from industrial processing and medical diagnostics to high-speed shock testing in chemical explosions. It is expected that the newly developed FRAP arrays will compete aggressively in these existing markets. In addition to NASA, target U.S. government customers will be the Air Force (for ground testing, flight tests, and vehicle monitoring) and the Navy (for similar applications).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Control Instrumentation
Testing Facilities
Optical
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X1.01-9152
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automation for Vehicle and Habitat Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Enhancing NASA's Procedure Representation Language to Support Planning Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Traclabs, Inc.
8610 N. New Braunfels, Suite 110
San Antonio, TX 78217-4486

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Russell Bonasso
r.p.bonasso@nasa.gov
8610 N. New Braunfels, Suite 110
San Antonio,  TX 78217-4486

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Automation and autonomy are key elements in realizing the vision for space exploration. The NASA Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) has been developing a procedure representation language (PRL) that both captures the form of traditional procedures and allows for automatic translation into code that can be executed by NASA-developed autonomous executives. However, PRL is in a relative infancy with regard to supporting many of the autonomous software components being developed by NASA, specifically automated planners and schedulers. In this proposal we will design and test additional representations to PRL for resources, inter-procedure constraints and subprocedures so that automated planners can take better advantage of the PRL-generated procedures. The work plan includes developing scenarios and use cases, developing requirements for planning -- both manual and automated -- from the scenarios, developing XML tags for the PRL changes, testing the PRL enhancements in the use cases with robotic and life support simulations, and translating the changes into planning languages with proven semantics.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Procedures are at the core of all NASA missions. Mission planning is also at the core of all space missions due to the high cost of space assets such as astronauts, equipment and communication links. Our technologies will have applications from Mission Control to on-board NASA vehicles and outposts. We expect applications of our technology to immediately impact NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP). Two areas of ETDP will be immediate beneficiaries of this technology. First, the Centaur robot at NASA JSC is already using a preliminary version of PRL and a simple user interface to allow a remote supervisor to command the Centaur over a communication link. Our work will provide connection to automated planning technologies. Second, the Automation for Operations (A4O) project run out of NASA ARC is using PRL to enhance spacecraft operations. Our PRL extensions and planning technology would also be immediately applicable to spacecraft operations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The military is currently a large customer for unmanned vehicle operations. Unmanned vehicles, both air and ground, are becoming more and more common in battlefield situations. Future Combat Systems (FCS) envision manned and unmanned vehicles of all sizes working side-by-side. In addition, Congress has mandated that one-third of all military vehicles must be unmanned by 2015. As these unmanned vehicles are increasingly deployed in tandem with dismounted forces coordinating software will be necessary to ensure successful operations. Procedures and mission planning play a large role in these kinds of operations. TRACLabs Inc. has an existing relationship with the Army's unmanned ground vehicle center at the TARDEC (Tank-Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center) facility in Warren Michigan. The Army has established a new Joint Center for Unmanned Ground Vehicles (JC-UGV) at TARDEC with a new Systems Integration Laboratory (SIL).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Intelligence
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X1.01-9651
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automation for Vehicle and Habitat Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Procedure Integrated Development Environment (PRIDE)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
S&K Aerospace
63066 Old Hwy 93
St Ignatius, MT 59865-9008

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arthur Molin
amolin@ska-corp.com
201 Flint Ridge Plaza
Webster,  TX 77598-4363

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA captures and distributes operational knowledge in the form of procedures. These procedures are created and accessed by a range of people performing many different jobs. These people have different needs for procedure data and different ways of interacting with procedures. We propose an Procedure Integrated Development Environment which will present different editing modes and different views depending on the users and tasks, but will use a consistent data representation for all users. We propose to explore alternate editing paradigms and discover which are the most valuable for NASA operations. We propose to build this environment on the basis of an existing prototype, PRIDE, which was developed for the Engineering Directorate of Johnson Space Center.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
An integrated development environment for procedures would improve the efficiency of the procedure authors by allowing them to concentrate on the fields in which they are expert, without worrying about details of editing and formatting. It would present each user with a procedure view that is most useful for the job at hand. It would connect up to the needed data sources and other related tools, such as workflow tools. It would provide a direct interface to simulation tools, which allow users to work out problems with procedures at the desktop, instead of requiring expensive high-fidelity simulations to be run to find minor problems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A procedure development environment would be potentially useful to a wide range of commercial and industrial interests that use a large number of procedures in their business. The electronic procedures that are proposed here would be of considerable interest to those industries that rely on procedures that could be automated, due to the availability of data sources. These industries include oil and chemical processing, power plants, and robotic assembly plants.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Human-Robotic Interfaces
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Computer System Architectures
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Database Development and Interfacing
Human-Computer Interfaces
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X1.02-8523
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Reliable Software for Exploration Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Efficient Techniques for Formal Verification of PowerPC 750 Executables

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aries Design Automation, LLC
6157 N Sheridan Road, Suite 16M
Chicago, IL 60660-5818

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Miroslav Velev
miroslav.velev@aries-da.com
6157 N Sheridan Rd, Suite 16M
Chicago,  IL 60660-5818

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We will develop an efficient tool for formal verification of PowerPC 750 executables. The PowerPC 750 architecture is used in the radiation-hardened RAD750 flight-control computers that are utilized in many space missions. The resulting tool will be capable of formally checking: 1) the equivalence of two instruction sequences; and 2) properties of a given instruction sequence. The tool will automatically introduce symbolic state for state variables that are not initialized and for external inputs. We bring a tremendous expertise in formal verification of complex microprocessors, formal definition of instruction semantics, and efficient translation of formulas from formal verification to Boolean Satisfiability (SAT). We will also provide formally verified definitions of the PowerPC 750 instructions used in the project, expressed in synthesizable Verilog; these definitions could be utilized for formal verification and testing of PowerPC 750 compatible processors, for FPGA-based emulation of PowerPC 750 executables, as well as in other formal verification tools to be implemented in the future.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The benefits to NASA will include state-of-the-art SAT-based technology for formal verification of PowerPC 750 executables. The PowerPC 750 architecture is used in the radiation-hardened RAD750 flight-control computers that are utilized in many space missions, including Deep Impact and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. NASA will benefit from such a tool by being able to: 1) ensure that compiler optimizations have not introduced bugs in an executable, e.g., by checking for equivalence two versions of the code produced by different compilers or by the same compiler but with different optimizations, such that one of the sequences could be compiled without optimizations; 2) formally verify properties of code sequences that are written directly in assembly language for performance reasons; and 3) formally verify properties of executables provided by other organizations that do not supply the source code in order to protect their IP. As a secondary deliverable, NASA will get synthesizable Verilog definitions of the PowerPC 750 instructions used in the project; these definitions could be utilized for formal verification and testing of PowerPC 750 compatible processors, for FPGA-based emulation of PowerPC 750 executables, and for implementation of internal formal verification tools in the future.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercialization will target the members of Power.org, an organization whose purpose is to develop, enable, and promote PowerPC Architecture technology. Power.org has over 40 member companies. The PowerPC architecture is used in many safety-critical embedded systems. Non-NASA customers of this technology will similarly be able to use the tool to formally verify the equivalence of two instruction sequences, and to formally check properties for a given executable. Furthermore, non-NASA customers will be able to use the tool to detect security vulnerabilities in programs, thus ensuring their robustness to security attacks, as well as to detect malicious intent in executables. The last application will allow the technology to be used in sophisticated virus scanners for the PowerPC architecture, utilizing formal reasoning to ensure robustness to software obfuscations of malicious intent.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Facilities
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Architectures and Networks
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Computer System Architectures
Expert Systems
Software Development Environments
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X1.02-9216
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Reliable Software for Exploration Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Automated Test Case Generation from Highly Reliable System Requirements Models

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Safeware Engineering Corporation
1500 Fairview Avenue E, Suite 205
Seattle, WA 98102-3727

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Grady Lee
lee@safeware-eng.com
1500 Fairview Ave. E., Ste. 205
Seattle,  WA 98102-3727

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Software testing is a complex and expensive phase of the software development cycle. Effective software testing is especially important in mission-critical software, where erroneous behavior poses a risk to safety or mission success. Automated test case generation can make testing more efficient and effective, saving resources and reducing risk. Safeware Engineering Corporation proposes to develop the algorithms necessary to streamline software testing by automatically generating test cases directly from SpecTRM-RL models. SpecTRM-RL (Specification Tools and Requirements Methodology - Requirements Language) is a requirements language that was designed to be highly readable, allowing even non-specialists to understand them, but also completely formal. A SpecTRM-RL model specifies the black-box behavior of the system; test cases based on these requirements will focus on the intended behavior of the system. A smaller set of test cases will allow for more rapid error identification, while a larger set will provide more comprehensive coverage. The algorithms will have varying levels of completeness, allowing for a trade-off between test coverage and testing resources. Safeware provides a tool, SpecTRM, which assists analysts with editing, analyzing, and executing formal requirements models. A phase II effort would implement these algorithms, adding test-case generation to SpecTRM.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is involved in the development of complex systems that are highly reliant on software, such as human-rated space vehicles. These systems must be reliable and safe, but also affordable to develop and maintain. NASA has recognized the need for innovative requirements analysis methods and automated tools; the basic SpecTRM toolset was developed under a NASA SBIR. The addition of automated test case generation to the SpecTRM toolset will provide testers with valuable assistance, streamlining software testing. The algorithms developed by the proposed research, as well as the tool to be developed in Phase II could potentially apply to any NASA project with a need for reliable, safe and cost-effective mission-critical software.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The need for innovative requirements analysis methods and automated tools has been recognized across industries as varied as aerospace, automotive, defense, and medical device, providing an ample market for such a tool. In fact, the basic SpecTRM toolset, which was developed under a NASA SBIR, is now used in the aerospace industry, for example, the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA and JAMSS) have used it extensively on their space projects and in the defense industry. JPL completed a successful Technology Infusion project to evaluate the use of SpecTRM for TeamX. Lockheed Martin Space Systems has expressed interest in using SpecTRM on the Orion space vehicle. The addition of automatic test-case generation to the SpecTRM toolset will be applicable to these projects and others throughout the industry.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Testing Facilities
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Software Development Environments


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X1.03-8300
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Hardened/Tolerant and Low temperature Electronics and Processors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Radiation-Tolerant Reprogrammable FPGA for Digital Signal Processing Circuits

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Structured Materials Industries, Inc.
201 Circle Drive No., Suite 102-103
Piscataway, NJ 08854-3723

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gary Tompa
gstompa@structuredmaterials.com
201 Circle Drive No., Ste. 102-103
Piscataway,  NJ 08854-3723

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Field Programmable Gate Arrays are a widely used technology; however, they are generally limited in reprogrammability. Radiation hard, low power and high density ReProgramable FPGAs (RP-FPGAs) would be a tremendous asset in long duration missions. The ability to adapt to changeing mission profiles and on board capabilities is highly desirable. We herein propose to develop a RP-FPGA for flight use. In Phase I we will prove basic device concepts working with a leading FPGA manufacturer. In Phase II we will develop a viable demonstration prototype that will enable routine Phase III device manufacture.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Long duration missions often must adapt to changes in mission capabilities and mission profiles. This project will provide NASA mission planners (and prime contractor builders) with a significant enhancement in device programming capability

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
FPGAs serve a wide range of applications as an alternative to ASICs. Highly desirable is a FPGA that could be reprogrammed. Product revisions are often constrained by past programmed logic or suffer from extra cost as programmed arrays must be replaced. A reprogrammable gate array would be a significant benefit to product designers and enable a new form of product upgrade to be easily carried out - hence offering opportunity to gain a significant market share.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Highly-Reconfigurable
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X1.03-8784
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Hardened/Tolerant and Low temperature Electronics and Processors
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Reliable Electronic Package for Space Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sienna Technologies, Inc.
19501 144th Avenue NE, Suite F-500
Woodinville, WA 98072-4423

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ender Savrun
ender.savrun@siennatech.com
19501 144th Avenue NE-Suite F-500
Woodinville,  WA 98072-4423

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed program will develop an hermetic, CTE matched, thermal shock resistant ceramic packaging technology that will facilitate the operation of Si and SiGe devices at extreme temperatures (-230ºC to 130ºC) encountered on the Moon and Mars. Processes to assemble the components into a hermetically sealed package will be identified and developed. Process and materials capability will be demonstrated by fabricating and testing a 12 or 28 pin single chip module test vehicle.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Si3N4 ceramic package capable of operating at extreme temperatures will provide an enabling technology for space exploration efforts including Moon and Mars missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are several terrestrial applications that stand to benefit from the development of extreme environment microelectronic devices and associated packaging by achieving performance improvements and competitive advantages. These applications include low temperature radiation environments, magnetic levitation transportation systems, medical diagnostics, cryogenic instrumentation, and super conducting magnetic energy storage systems. The use of power electronics designed for and operated at low temperature is expected to result in more efficient systems than room temperature systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Ceramics
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X1.04-8403
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Integrated System Health Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Quantifiable and Reliable Structural Health Management Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Acellent Technologies, Inc.
835 Stewart Drive
Sunnyvale, CA 94085-4514

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shawn Beard
sjb@acellent.com
835 Stewart Drive
Sunnyvale,  CA 94085-4514

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Major concerns for implementing a practical built-in structural health monitoring system are prediction accuracy and data reliability. It is proposed to develop robust state-of-the-art structural health management (SHM) technologies to overcome these concerns. The proposed solution will be capable of detecting and quantifying damage with a high probability of detection (POD), accurately predicting the residual strength and remaining life of the structures with confidence, and providing information which will allow appropriate preventative actions on the monitored structure. To achieve the objectives the proposed technology will first optimize the sensor network configuration for the SHM system to achieve the highest probability of detection. Next, robust diagnostic techniques will be developed to achieve quantifiable damage location and size estimation that account for the uncertainties induced by the environments or the system itself continuously during flight or at scheduled maintenance intervals. Finally, efficient probabilistic prognostic methods will be integrated with diagnostic outputs to provide real time estimation of residual strength and remaining life of the damaged structure. Both metallic and composite stiffened aircraft panels will be instrumented and tested under simulated flight conditions to validate the proposed technology. The work will be performed collaboratively between Acellent and Stanford University.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SHM system can be used in all types of NASA aircraft, reusable space transportation vehicles such as boosters, shuttles, and CEVs, space habitation facilities such as space stations and outposts on the moon and Mars, and for the inspection and maintenance of any other mission critical space structures. The system developed can be used in the near-term for reusable space transportation systems and will be scalable for future missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Since nearly all in-service spacecraft and aircraft structures require some form of inspection and maintenance procedures to monitor their integrity and health condition to prolong life span or to prevent catastrophic failures, the potential applications of the proposed system are very broad and extend well beyond space structures. The system can potentially be used to monitor damage in all military and commercial aging aircraft and rotorcraft structures, and civil structures such as bridges, buildings, oil platforms, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Airframe
Airlocks/Environmental Interfaces
Erectable
Inflatable
Kinematic-Deployable
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Thermal Insulating Materials
Modular Interconnects
Structural Modeling and Tools
Tankage
Instrumentation
Production
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Tools
Ceramics
Composites
Metallics
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X1.04-9851
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Integrated System Health Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: HyDE Enhancements for IVHM System Deployment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Impact Technologies, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd.
Rochester, NY 14623-2893

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gregory Kacprzynski
greg.kacprzynski@impact-tek.com
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester,  NY 14623-2893

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Impact Technologies LLC, with support of the University of California Santa Cruz, proposes to develop and demonstrate a set of enhancements to NASA's Hybrid Diagnostic Engine (HyDE) that represent valuable and, in some cases, critical features for IVHM system developers in NASA and non-NASA application domains. Specifically, the Impact team believes that in order for HyDE to transition to a broad customer base, HyDE must meet commercial-grade software standards as well as provide 1) an innovative and powerful software-based model validation and verification environment must be integrate with Matlab/Simulink, 2) sophisticated third party plug-ins to translate from a Bayesian Network modeling paradigm and integrate generic signal validation tools and 3) the capability to generate and deploy models for common embedded targets in an efficient and user friendly package. The project team intends to define, develop and demonstrate the feasibility of these innovative and significant enhancements to HyDE with NASA's Advanced Diagnostic and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) as a realistic and sufficiently complex case study.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has already utilized HyDE for some of its IVHM applications as well as its predecessor, Livingstone 2. However, the proposed HyDE enhancements will make major strides towards a comprehensive and commercial-grade IVHM design tool that will provide greater overall benefit to NASA IVHM application developers and most likely greater exposure of the software product.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The need for improved IVHM design tools and reasoning capability within the DoD is very significant given aggressive diagnostic and prognostic requirements for major new acquisition programs like JSF and FCS. Impact Technologies is directly involved in these and other DoD programs and views HyDE, with the proposed enhancements, as a powerful tool that can address this need.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Software Development Environments


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X2.01-8759
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking Sensors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flash 3D Rendezvous and Docking Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc.
305 E. Haley Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101-1723

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bardley Short
bshort@asc3d.com
305 E. Haley Street
Santa Barbara ,  CA 93101-1723

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
3D Flash Ladar is a breakthrough technology for many emerging and existing 3D vision areas, and sensor improvements will have an impact on nearly all these fields. In addition ASC is partnering with many strategic large companies who have the experience and the history of commercialization. The compact, low power 3D Flash Ladar sensor developed on this project will have application in areas such as: 1. Collision avoidance 2. Pedestrian Safety 3. Surveillance 4. Terrain Mapping 5. Autonomous Navigation 6. Smart intersection 7. Radar brakes 8. Robotics 9. Machine Vision 10. Hazard Material Detection and Handling 11. Underwater 3D Imaging 12. Sub Nanosecond Dynamic Imaging.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The 3D Flash Ladar (3DFL) technology improvements developed on this project can support future Rendezvous, Proximity Operations, and Docking as well as EDL missions for lunar or planetary exploration. Not only will the sensor be able to generate 6 Degree-Of-Freedom data but it can also support hazard mapping and navigation as well as other terrain mapping requirements. The camera includes a fog, dust and liquid penetration mode, which will allow landing and navigation in hazardous conditions. This sensor will increase the success of NASA operations such as: 1. Rendezvous and Docking 2. Situational awareness 3. Mars Landed Exploration 4. Exploration of Moons (ALHAT, Jupiter Icy Moons) 5. Asteroid and comet rendezvous and sample return 6. Rock abundance and distribution maps 7. Topographical mapping 8. Rover mobility and navigation

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
3D Flash Ladar is a breakthrough technology for many emerging and existing 3D vision areas, and sensor improvements will have an impact on nearly all these fields. In addition ASC is partnering with many strategic large companies who have the experience and the history of commercialization. The compact, low power 3D Flash Ladar sensor developed on this project will have application in areas such as: 6. Collision avoidance 7. Pedestrian Safety 8. Surveillance 9. Terrain Mapping 10. Autonomous Navigation 11. Smart intersection 12. Radar brakes 13. Robotics 14. Machine Vision 15. Hazard Material Detection and Handling 16. Underwater 3D Imaging 17. Sub Nanosecond Dynamic Imaging.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Perception/Sensing
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X2.01-9384
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking Sensors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Using a Bore Sight Camera as an AR&D Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Optical Systems, Inc.
6767 Old Madison Pike, Suite 410
Huntsville, AL 35806-2181

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fred Roe
roe@aos-inc.com
6767 Old Madison Pike Suite 410
Huntsville,  AL 35806-2181

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Orion requires a rendezvous and docking sensor to provide relative navigation information during proximity operations and docking. In order to dock, the sensor must provide full six degree of freedom (6 DOF) relative position and relative attitude information at a rate sufficient for the rendezvous spacecraft guidance system to robustly control the docking maneuver. Orion faces critical weight issues that make inclusion of multiple sensors for AR&D unlikely in its baseline configuration. Locations for mounting the sensors external to the spacecraft are also critical issues. A bore sight camera however will be included in the design to furnish crew video data for the final docking maneuvers. Clever utilization of this existing Orion bore sight camera can provide a robust 6DoF capability with only the addition of vision processing software.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are numerous potential applications for AR&D within the NASA. The Orion crew will require a relative navigation sensor to successfully dock with the ISS. The COTS program seeks to provide commercial resupply to the ISS. A prox ops sensor and automated control system is required to hold the rendezvous vehicle in a control box such that the SSRMS can grapple the payload and berth it to the ISS. The Exploration initiative requires an automated docking in lunar orbit in order to safely return the crew to earth. Space construction in lunar orbit will be required to support the colonization of the lunar surface and an expedition to Mars. AR&D sensors are required to support these and future efforts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Formation flying is important for the Department of Defense (DoD) as well as NASA. Relative position and attitude measurements would enable next-generation surveillance missions involving formation flying with tight tolerances. These AR&D sensor technologies can enable advances in in-flight aerial refueling for DoD aircraft, particularly unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Enhancing UAV capabilities is one of the major focus areas of DoD research and development funding. Finally, the commercial space market, fueled by prizes similar to the 2004 Ansari X-prize, has made orbital vehicles with AR&D capabilities the next great priority for privately-funded spacecraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Perception/Sensing
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X2.02-8558
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flash 3D Enhancements for Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc.
305 E. Haley Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101-1723

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steve Silverman
ssilverman@asc3d.com
305 E. Haley Street
Santa Barbara,  CA 93101-1723

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) has developed a 128 x 128 frame, 3D Flash LADAR video camera which produces 3-D point clouds at 30 Hz. Flash Ladar Video Cameras are 3D vision systems that return range and intensity information for each pixel in real time. The ASC camera is the equivalent of 16000 range finders on a single chip. This allows the sensor to act as a 3D video camera with functionality well beyond just range finding. A previous Phase I EDL project used an ASC camera at the JPL mars yard to gather test data. Hazard Identification, and Entry Decent and Landing applications were investigated and the data demonstrated that a Flash LADAR system can resolve landing hazards and is suitable as an EDL sensor. In response to this solicitation ASC will study unit cell designs that will increase sensitivity and dynamic range and allow for more compact unit cells that will yield higher density arrays. The Phase two effort will yield a ROIC design and fabrication of a unit cell. The end result will be a ROIC design ready for Phase 3 production of a large area array. These improvements will increase the TRL level of this sensor.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The 3D Flash Ladar (3DFL) technology improvements developed on this project can support future Rendezvous, Proximity Operations, and Docking as well as EDL missions for lunar or planetary exploration. Not only will the sensor be able to generate 6 Degree-Of-Freedom data but it can also support hazard mapping and navigation as well as other terrain mapping requirements. The camera includes a fog, dust and liquid penetration mode, which will allow landing and navigation in hazardous conditions. This sensor will increase the success of NASA operations such as: 1. Rendezvous and Docking 2. Situational awareness 3. Mars Landed Exploration 4. Exploration of Moons (ALHAT, Jupiter Icy Moons) 5. Asteroid and comet rendezvous and sample return 6. Rock abundance and distribution maps 7. Topographical mapping 8. Rover mobility and navigation

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
3D Flash Ladar is a breakthrough technology for many emerging and existing 3D vision areas, and sensor improvements will have an impact on nearly all these fields. In addition ASC is partnering with many strategic large companies who have the experience and the history of commercialization. The compact, low power 3D Flash Ladar sensor developed on this project will have application in areas such as: 1. Collision avoidance 2. Pedestrian Safety 3. Surveillance 4. Terrain Mapping 5. Autonomous Navigation 6. Smart intersection 7. Radar brakes 8. Robotics 9. Machine Vision 10. Hazard Material Detection and Handling 11. Underwater 3D Imaging 12. Sub Nanosecond Dynamic Imaging.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Perception/Sensing
Photonics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X2.02-8926
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Sensitivity Indium Phosphide Based Avalanche Photodiode Focal Plane Arrays

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
nLight Photonics
5408 NE 88th Street, Building E
Vancouver, WA 98665-0990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shabbir Bashar
shabbir.bashar@nlight.net
5408 NE 88th Street, Building E
Vancouver,  WA 98665-0990

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to build a monolithically integrated FPA of densely packed APDs (70-um pitch) operating at or around 1500 nm wavelength that is suitable for the solicited autonomous precision landing and hazard detection and avoidance system. These would be capable of 3D imaging an area of 150m x 150m from a distance of 1 – 2km. By using highly efficient detector material (InGaAs/InP) a number of significant advantages can be leveraged. These include compactness, low mass, low cost and most importantly low power consumption and low thermal dissipation which are of primary concern in a remote environment such as the un-manned Lunar or Mars landing vehicles. It is expected that each pixel will have modest speeds (1 nano-second response time), high gain (>30) and ultra low-noise (k < 0.2) and that the FPA is easily manufactured using established growth, fabrication and packaging technologies. These FPAs would be bump-bondable to an appropriate Read Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC) that can reliably sustain a frame fresh rate of at least 20Hz and be capable of resolving depths of a few centimeters.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
3D Flash LADAR for Mars/Lunar Landing autonomous vehicle Remote sensing

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
3D Flash LADAR for automotive collision avoidance systems Medical Imaging Strategic military imaging Remote sensing

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Photonics
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X2.02-8931
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance
PROPOSAL TITLE: Efficient 3-D Ladar Source

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Q-Peak, Inc.
135 South Road
Bedford, MA 01730-2307

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Glen Rines
grines@qpeak.com
135 South Road
Bedford,  MA 01730-2307

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a significant improvement in the performance of diode-pumped, Nd:YLF lasers by employing direct optical pumping of the upper level of the 1-micron laser transition. This novel pumping technique has been applied to other Nd laser systems, notably Nd:YAG and Nd:vanadate, but to our knowledge this has not been successfully applied to Nd:YLF laser systems. Q-Peak is in a unique position to develop this technique specifically for Nd:YLF owing to the extensive work that we have done over the past decade in developing our patented MPS systems, which employ Nd:YLF as the gain medium. Researchers who have applied this pumping technique to Nd:YAG have shown an increase in slope efficiency of about 20% and a reduction in thermal load of about 30%. We expect to see similar levels of improvement in Nd:YLF performance in this project.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed work has direct application to NASA programs for entry, descent and landing (EDL) systems in future lunar and planetary exploration missions. In particular, flash ladar systems that can provide real-time, three-dimensional terrain mapping capability would be useful for automation of terminal descent of unmanned vehicles. For this application the emphasis must be placed on compactness, reliability, efficiency, low weight, and high performance. The system concept we propose provides improved performance, due to higher efficiency, scalability, and modularity and the potential for improvement in overall system efficiency and the reduction in the required number of diode pump lasers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed high-efficiency, high-energy MPS technology would be an extension of our existing diode-pumped product line and would offer a step-up in efficiency and energy from our existing products. A MPS Nd:YLF laser with 10 to 100 mJ/pulse fundamental energy, and high beam quality, with the addition of harmonic generation for some systems, could provide a relatively low-cost solution for precision machining applications such as marking, cutting, welding and drilling, of interest to the electronics, automotive and medical-device industry. Q-Peak, as it is now doing with the MPS product line, would strive to establish OEM relationships with systems integrators who supply machining and processing tools to end customers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X3.01-8838
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Cabin Atmospheric Resource Management and Particulate Matter Removal
PROPOSAL TITLE: Application of a Fused Carbon Nanomaterial Filter for Lunar Dust Abatement

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Seldon Laboratories, LLC
7 Everett Lane, Suite One
Windsor, VT 05089-0710

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffrey Proehl
jproehl@seldontech.com
PO Box 710
Windsor,  VT 05089-0710

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Seldon Laboratories, LLC, will apply its patented carbon nanotube filtration technology for air and nanoscale particulate engine exhaust filtration to NASA's Lunar Exploration challenges. This project focuses on the problem of efficient removal of nanoscale (10-100nm) and larger lunar dust particulates from air using a nanostructured fiber media containing carbon nanotubes. Lunar dust presents an important challenge to Lunar exploration and habitation, nonetheless it has some unique properties that can be taken advantage of in designing specialized filtration media capable of achieving efficient removal from air. The rough surface shape combined with the electrically and magnetically charged nature of the dust means that rough, electrically activated filtration media will be effective tools for filtration. Seldon's work with its proprietary fused carbon nanotube media offers a unique path to significant new purification applications that meet important needs for NASA's Lunar Exploratory Initiatives. The unique physical properties of the carbon nanotubes will be capitalized upon to create a filtration media with high efficiency and low pressure drop that can be electrically powered to enhance filtration of charged lunar dust particles.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are important applications for this product throughout NASA's operations from protecting human life on lunar explorations, to cleaning the air of clean rooms, to reducing emissions from its vehicle fleet. The potential health and environmental impacts of airborne ultrafine particles are now known to be significant. Typical filtration solutions struggle to remove these very small contaminants. As a result, energy is wasted and, because of cost, some filtration applications are just not pursued. Products based on this technology will protect astronauts and sensitive equipment from lunar dust in the air handling systems of spacecraft and even in personal breathing apparatus. They will efficiently remove very small particulates from the air in NASA's clean rooms. Finally, filters will help to clean the emissions from the many earthbound diesel and other engines NASA operates to help reduce NASA's carbon footprint and improve the health of its employees and communities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The estimated global market size for air purification equipment is estimated by some observers to be about $2.5 billion. As the public awareness of the health and environmental consequences of very fine particles increases, the demand for improved filtration will continue to increase. Protecting humans, animals, and delicate machinery from these tiny contaminants will continue to be a growing opportunity. The care that has been given to filtration in clean rooms will likely be more common in other spaces such as offices and vehicles. Through careful strategic partnerships, products based on this technology will be sold to fit into the many air handling systems (e.g., vehicles, emission systems, and HVAC systems) that are already in wide use. Seldon has successfully produced thousands of linear feet of a related carbon nanotube media – proving that the media can b easily manufactured.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Sterilization/Pathogen and Microbial Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X3.01-9876
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Cabin Atmospheric Resource Management and Particulate Matter Removal
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Pressure Oxygen Concentrator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Reactive Innovations, LLC
410 Great Road, Suite C-2
Littleton, MA 01460-1273

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Kimble
mkimble@reactive-innovations.com
410 Great Road, Suite C-2
Littleton,  MA 01460-1273

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA desires to generate and store gases including oxygen and nitrogen at sub-critical conditions as a part of its lunar and spacecraft atmospheric systems. Oxygen at pressures up to 3000 psia is particularly desired for refilling storage tanks for lunar and in-flight applications including recharging high-pressure gas bottles for EVA/EMU, lunar rovers and surface hoppers, and lunar chemical process reactors requiring oxygen as a reactant. To address these needs, Reactive Innovations, LLC proposes to develop a compact high-pressure oxygen concentrator that can take low-pressure atmospheric gas and generate a separate stream of high-pressure pure oxygen. During the Phase I program, we will modify and adapt our high-pressure reactor hardware to compress and separate an oxygen stream up to 3000 psia from an ambient air source containing nitrogen and oxygen. A predictive performance model will be developed for the oxygen concentrator allowing NASA mission planners to conduct trade studies on metrics including the generated oxygen rate per compressor mass and power requirements. By the end of the Phase I effort, this concentrator will be at a Technology Readiness Level of 3 with a Phase II program delivering a 3000 psia operational oxygen generator and compressor at a TRL of 4-5.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applications of this technology to NASA include generating oxygen for sub-critical storage on lunar habitats and within spacecraft environments. This technology will enable pressurized oxygen up to 3000 psia to be used for applications where cryogenic storage is not feasible or desired. Furthermore, NASA desires to use re-configurable modules that can function in dual-use or multi-use systems in these habitation environments. With our modular reactor technology, this process unit can be used for other atmospheric gas processing applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications of the proposed technology could find use in portable oxygen generators and concentrators for medical usage. This could be used in hospital and home therapy applications. Other applications of the oxygen compressor include on-site oxygen production for industrial and manufacturing needs, and on-board oxygen generation on aircraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Portable Life Support
Energy Storage
Renewable Energy


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X3.02-8845
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Water Processing and Waste Management Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Water Reclamation using Spray Drying

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanomaterials Company
15 North Bacton Hill Road
Malvern, PA 19355-1005

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nicholas V. Coppa
ncoppa@nanomaterialscompany.com
15 North Bacton Hill Road
Malvern,  PA 19355-1005

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose a new spray drying technology for the recovery and recycle of water while stabilizing the solid wastes or residues as found in advanced life support systems. The proposed effort is focused on the recovery of water from concentrated waste water recovery system brine and other concentrates. Hypogravity and microgravity environments will make space based systems compact thus reducing its equivalent system mass. The application of spray drying to brine is a first step in the development of a space-based system but spray drying is likely to be applicable to the dewatering and stabilization of solid wastes. Spray drying is a one step continuous process where a solution, slurry, sludge or paste is transformed from a fluid state to dried masses by spraying the feed into a hot drying medium. The resulting dry products are granules or agglomerates and the drying medium bearing the removed moisture. Using one of several methods the drying medium yields the recovered water. The exact nature of the dried solid and recovered moisture depends on the physical and chemical properties of the feed and the design and operation of the drier. At the end of Phase II the technology will be at a TRL = 6.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Hypo and microgravity spray drying technology will largely close the water recycle loop for long interplanetary missions, and lunar and mars surface missions. Spray drying can be applied to several points in the advanced life support water recycle system including water recovery from solid wastes and the stabilization of the solid residues with low ESM. The proposed Phase I work will provide NASA with bench testing performance data and a design for a system capable of rendering concentrated aqueous solutions with viscosities and heat capacities similar to those relevant to life support systems. Component interchangeability allows a wide variety of input streams while avoiding cross contamination and other real or perceived problems associated with the processing of potable and non-potable streams. Advanced controls allow for process optimization of any waste stream without bench tests or prior characterization of the waste stream. The proposed work will serve as a foundation for more advanced space manufacturing operations, including resource recovery, space manufacturing and any other area where efficient, safe physical separation of solids and liquids is required. The work proposed here will lay the foundation for future hypo and microgravity spray drying resource recovery system designs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Nanomaterials seeks the opportunity to provide NASA with new life support tools, but as important to this goal is the opportunity to explore new production tools so that we can reach a wider customer base. We believe the proposed work will be directly applicable to our in-house materials processing needs. This often involves the recovery of valuable solvents during the processing of our materials. Spray drying is a process with applications throughout industry and products touching every aspect of nearly every American. The application of spray drying to space water recovery problems will spawn new development. Because its use is so wide spread, it will have great economic impact. One innovative aspect of our proposal will likely lead to its application to materials not currently processed via spray drying and may lead to less expensive proprietary pharmaceutical compounds.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Biomass Production and Storage
Sterilization/Pathogen and Microbial Control
Waste Processing and Reclamation
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
In-situ Resource Utilization
Microgravity


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X3.02-9715
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Water Processing and Waste Management Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method for Future Exploration Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
UMPQUA Research Company
PO Box 609
Myrtle Creek, OR 97457-0102

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Akse, Ph.D.
akse@urcmail.net
PO Box 609
Myrtle Creek,  OR 97457-0102

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A novel urine pretreatment that will prevent biological growth or chemical instabilities in urine without using hazardous chemicals is proposed. Untreated urine fosters biological growth, ammonia generation, creation of bio-solids, and inorganic precipitates, which foul water and air reclamation hardware. The current Russian system employs hexavalent chromium, a strong oxidant and carcinogen, and sulfuric acid to stabilize urine, while the American system utilizes potassium monopersulfate, another strong oxidant, sulfuric acid, and potassium benzoate. Urine stabilized in these respective manners requires triple and double containment, and chemical storage and handling become problematic due to the hazardous nature and low pH (1.3 –2.6) of these chemicals. These requirements significantly increase urine pretreatment ESM. The proposed pretreatment system consists of a simple flow-through Solid Phase Acid (SPA) bed containing sparingly soluble transition metal oxide particles for pH control, which combined with a soluble non-oxidizing biocide will provide long-term urine stabilization. This innovative system fulfills an unmet need for safe, efficient and automated urine pretreatment for current and future NASA missions. The Phase I effort will demonstrate the feasibility of this novel approach. The Phase II project will fully develop the process, including the design and testing of deliverable hardware for urine pretreatment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA application of this innovative, safe, efficient and automated urine pretreatment hardware will be as Flight Hardware for deployment in support of future long duration exploration objectives such as a lunar mission, lunar base, Mars transit or Mars base. The primary application will be as a replacement for current urine pretreatment systems aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and on the Lunar Outpost (LO). Secondarily, this device can be utilized to stabilize other waste streams, which are prone to microbial instability. It is anticipated that numerous other uses will be found for this system within NASA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This urine pretreatment technology may be employed in a variety of applications to provide a means for safe and stable urine storage. In the near term, this technology can be applied to storage onboard recreational vehicles, ships, or in conjunction with portable restroom facilities. The capability to effectively store urine can be the basis for a new technology, in which, urine is collected in bulk, stored, and treated to reduce the environmental impact of treatment facilities and improve treatment efficiency. The development of SPA units and biocides with well-characterized performance will facilitate this development. In addition, SPA beds may be used for control of pH in a variety of circumstances including analytical instrumentation and industrial processes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Sterilization/Pathogen and Microbial Control
Waste Processing and Reclamation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X3.03-9656
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Cabin Environmental Monitoring and Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerodyne Research, Inc.
45 Manning Road
Billerica, MA 01821-3976

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrew Freedman
af@aerodyne.com
45 Manning Rd
Billerica,  MA 01821-3976

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to design, build and test an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This monitor will be sensitive to particle sizes ranging from a few nanometer to tens of micrometers in diameter. Designed to utilize commercial off-the-shelf components, the monitor, once calibrated, will require no recalibration and only periodic baseline determinations, a process which can be automated as part of the operation of the instrument. It employs no consumables. This monitor employs cavity attenuation phase shift technology and involves the use a light emitting diode coupled to a low-loss optical cavity. The Phase I project will involve a proof-of-principle demonstration followed by the monitoring of ambient particulates in an urban area.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This sensor can be deployed on board spacecraft cabins for the purpose of monitoring the presence of airborne particulates. It can also be used for the same purpose in climate change studies where particulate concentrations and their optical extinction are key parameters in determining the amount of radiation forcing attributable to the presence of particles in the atmosphere. The low cost of this sensor will allow the deployment of far more sensors of this type than are currently used.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are two large commercial markets for this technology. The first is as a direct competitor to 'smoke nunber' measurement devices which are used to measure the opacity of combustion plumes from aircraft engines and smokestacks. The other involves in situ monitoring of diesel engine exhaust emissions with respect to the presence of PM2.5, a newly designated criteria pollutant.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X3.04-9258
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Fire Protection
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Fire Detector for Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vista Photonics, Inc.
67 Condesa Road
Santa Fe, NM 87508-8136

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joerg Kutzner
jkutzner@vistaphotonics.com
67 Condesa Road
Santa Fe,  NM 87508-8136

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Reliable and efficient fire detection is a precondition for safe spaceflight. The threat of onboard fire is constant and requires early, fast and unfailing detection. Current fire detectors are prone to fatigue and have insufficient sensitivity, selectivity and time-response. Smoke detectors cannot detect early stages of combustion and become unreliable if exposed to dust particulates. New sensor technology is required to face the challenging tasks associated with future space exploration involving missions to the Moon and Mars. Carbon monoxide formation is a reliable indicator of evolving fire threats onboard spacecraft and this gaseous combustion product allows rapid early detection. Vista Photonics proposes to evaluate and implement emerging infrared light sources for high-performance optical CO detection. Optical sensors are particularly favorable due to unique features like fast response, high precision and strong species selectivity. Design criteria such as small footprint, low weight, low power consumption as well as internal calibration and continuous sensor health monitoring will be implemented to provide a spaceflight optimized sensor. The proposed optical absorption approach uses modulation techniques together with a compact path length enhancing cell with a small sample volume.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The targeted NASA application is early detection of fire threats onboard spacecraft. The emerging technology is adaptable to changing pressure conditions and suitable to operate in diverse environments, including corrosive atmospheres. The developed technology can be extended to selectively detect trace gas species for NASA relevant applications such as contaminant sensing in air revitalization and water recovery processes, and atmospheric composition monitoring.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The developed sensor will be a general device for highly reliable, sensitive fire detection and might find applications in protecting high value buildings and fire prevention in aviation. Beyond these applications, the developed sensor platform will be broadly deployable for trace gas detection of a variety of molecules with a cost-effective, small device. Applications include environmental monitoring and protection, occupational safety, modern manufacturing, and biomedical applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X3.04-9437
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Fire Protection
PROPOSAL TITLE: Mirage Fire Sensor for Spacecraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Southwest Sciences, Inc.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505-3993

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Bomse
dbomse@swsciences.com
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe,  NM 87505-3993

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Spacecraft fires create exception risks to crew members. There is usually no place to escape. Even small amounts of hardware damage can compromise a mission. The most effective fire extinguishing agents, Halons, are prohibited because of the toxicity and corrosiveness of combustion byproducts. Early warning fire sensors are needed that can operate effectively in zero gravity; that means no convection to transport smoke or fire-generated gases to point sensors. Avionics compartments are often densely packed and filled with dead spaces that do not exchange air well with circulating air streams. Southwest Sciences proposes the development of a thermal mirage sensor for detecting incipient spacecraft fires. The sensor will use highly miniaturized, low power cameras to image a simple geometric pattern projected onto a flat surface. Thermally induced image distortions will provide early fire warning. The sensor will operate autonomously; we anticipate a networked set of such sensors, each having sufficient signal processing capability to determine sensor health and alarm conditions. Our innovation includes the use of highly miniaturized, low cost components. The cross line projector is a laser pointer combined with a small (4 mm × 4 mm) piece of etched clear plastic; diffraction forms the line pattern. There are no moving parts.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed thermal mirage sensor has obvious fire detection applications in nearly all types of NASA spacecraft, habitats, and large-scale, high loss, ground electronics and mechanical installations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed thermal mirage sensor has obvious fire detection applications in commercial and military aircraft as well as in extensive electronics systems such as large commercial internet server installations. The commercial applications – particularly for aircraft – will benefit from our emphasis on low cost, small size, low power, and autonomous operation. Our goal is to keep sensor component costs below $200 in quantity, so that a fully deployed sensor network remains reasonably priced. We are already close to that price point.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Facilities
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Photonics
Combustion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X4.01-9834
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Suit Pressure Garment and Airlock Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hard Upper Torso Shoulder Joint Design for Crew Member Sizing Adjustment and Enhanced Mobility

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Air-Lock, Inc.
Wampus Lane
Milford, CT 06460-4845

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ralph Toscano
toscanor@airlockinc.com
108 Gulf Street
Milford,  CT 06460-4845

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Air-Lock, Incorporated proposes to design an Enhanced Shoulder Mobility Joint Assembly (ESMJA) that increases dynamic mobility and static sizing capabilities for spacesuited crewmembers (CM) employing a Hard Upper Torso (HUT). The proposed shoulder joint will allow historically fixed Hard Upper Torsos to be sized in-situ by crewmembers of varying anthropometries. The Shoulders will also increase CM range of motion in a pressurized spacesuit and incorporate must mitigating strategies geared towards lunar exploration. Throughout Phase One, Air-Lock will exhibit the following innovations: • Design pressure sealed ESMJA that optimizes mobility and sizing characteristics of Hard Upper Torso Advanced Planetary Spacesuits. • Utilize 3D CAD software to design, develop and integrate the ESMJA with the MK-III HUT. • Perform a materials evaluation in order to determine the lightest, most robust material to be use in the manufacture of the ESMJA. • Create a matrix highlighting sizing potential and added mobility (i.e., range of motion). • Perform a comparative analysis of the sizing and mobility matrix to historic NASA anthropometry data to determine the optimum HUT sizes required to outfit current NASA astronaut corp.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Due to the highly specialized nature of the proposed design effort, extending the application of the Enhanced Shoulder Mobility Joint Assembly outside of pressure suits is unlikely. More feasible applications can be realized through the improved manufacturing techniques developed during Phase II. Reducing mass of historically metallic structures via composite, structural plastics or urethanes have been achieved in the past but proved to be very costly. Air-Lock plans to develop manufacturing techniques that would allow the molding of complicated geometries to "near net shape" to realize cost reduction of lightweight, robust structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The recent increase in commercial space business ventures (Virgin Galactic, Commercial Orbital Transportation Services, (i.e., COTS), Bigelow Aerospace, etc.) would present excellent opportunities to implement the ESMJA with any suit design that requires enhanced mobility and/or suit sizing. Additionally, and of equal importance are the manufacturing techniques to be developed throughout the proposed effort that can be utilized for any pressure suit hard mobility joints.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Suits


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X4.02-8991
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Suit Life Support Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact, Lightweight, Efficient Cooling Pump for Space Suit Life Support Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840-4023

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Roger van Boeyen
roger.vanboeyen@lynntech.com
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station,  TX 77840-4023

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
With the increasing demands placed on extravehicular activity (EVA) for the International Space Station assembly and maintenance, along with planned lunar and Martian missions, the need for increased human productivity and capability becomes ever more critical. This is most readily achieved by reduction in space suit weight and volume, and increased hardware reliability, durability, and operating lifetime. Considerable progress has been made with each successive generation of space suit design; from the Apollo A7L suit, to the current Shuttle Extravehicular Mobile Unit (EMU) suit, and the developmental I-Suit and Mark III suits. However, one area of space suit design which has continued to lag is the fluid pump used to drive the water cooling loop of the Primary Life Support System (PLSS). Conventional electric motor-driven fluid pumps are heavy, bulky, inefficient, and prone to wear. A new pump type is needed. Lynntech proposes to further reduce the size, weight and power consumption of its long-life, low-power, compact, lightweight, efficient electrochemically-driven pumps, which will allow their use in the next generation space suit.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A rugged, long life, compact, light weight, efficient pump will have applications in the next generation of advanced Primary Life Support Systems (PLSS) for NASA's space suits. By replacing the existing electric motor-driven pump in the water cooling loop of the PLSS with Lynntech's electrochemically-driven pump, the size, weight and reliability of the PLSS will be significantly improved.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
With the increasing power density of electronics, there is a growing market for miniature, low-power pumps for use in the thermal management of consumer electronics. Some of the many other commercial applications that require reliable, efficient fluid pumps include environment water treatment, filtration, sterilizers, washing machines, fuel cells, and hydrogen generators.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling
Portable Life Support


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X4.02-9353
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Suit Life Support Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Super Cooled, Non-toxic, Non-flammable Phase Change Material Thermal Pack for Portable Life Support Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paragon Space Development Corporation
3481 E. Michigan Street
Tucson, AZ 85714-2221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Grant Anderson
ganderson@paragonsdc.com
3481 E. Michigan Street
Tucson,  AZ 85714-2221

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The concept development and test of a water-based, advanced Phase Change Material (PCM) heat sink is proposed. Utilizing a novel material choice for both an expansion diaphragm and the PCM case itself, the PCM can accommodate both the expansion of the freezing water-based material and very low temperature of approximately -250F. The water-based PCM itself would be non-toxic and non-flammable, but additives will be included to preclude deterioration of wither the PCM container or the diaphragm material. The use of a water-based PCM gives the highest heat capacity for the mass. This is highly limited due to the needs for portability as required for an Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). The total heat capacity of an operational unit would be for full duration EVA use. Through a logical progression of tasks including concept of operation formulation, requirements formulation, concept design reviews and detail design reviews that include design and thermal analysis using Thermal Desktop<SUP>TM</SUP> models, this effort can progress from TRL 2 to TRL 3. The team will confirm the robust choice of diaphragm materials, the choice of casing material and the choice of the additives to the water used for the PCM. The PCM will be tested to confirm heat input/temperature performance and cycling capability. The test bed will allow for accurate heat input knowledge, temperature monitoring and cycling capability. The results will be compared to the thermal model to ensure accurate prediction capability for the next phase full-scale unit. The design description and test results would form the basis of the final report.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The purpose of this SBIR is to address the need as identified within the NASA SBIR solicitation under X4.02 "Space Suite Life Support Systems" and, to wit, "..a non-toxic, non-flammable, super cooled below 32<SUP>o</SUP>F phase change material that can absorb metabolic heat for an 8 hour duration. Hence, the primary application will be for the purpose of providing this heat rejecton capability in a compact, reliable form for the utlizaton within a PLSS. However, the application of this technology may go well beyond this to: 1) PCM utilization within the emerging Orion vehicle design. 2) PCM utilization within the future Lunar Surface Access Module design 3) PCM ulitization within any lunar surface habitat Each of these potential NASA applications could be augmented, and perhaps greatly enhanced via the use of the high heat capacity and heat of fusion of water. In the case of the lunar vehicles or habitats, the access to a thermal environment that is very low (Shakelton crater region on the moon) will allow for quick regeneration.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are multiple industries within the commercial sector that could use a cooling system that is portable and robust. In Paragon's experience, our Navy work has exposed us to the critical needs of Navy Seals for underwater cooling during vigorous littoral operations. Other commercial sectors that may be interested in this technology would be the mining industry, the firefighting equipment industry, the commercial warm-water diving industry, and the chemical/biological hazard suit industry. Each of these have a similar theme of an enclosed person generating substantial metabolic load as well as experiencing environments where the rejection of heat through passive convection and radiation is not possible.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling
Reuseable
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Portable Life Support


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X4.02-9360
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Suit Life Support Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption for CO2, Thermal and Humidity Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paragon Space Development Corporation
3481 E. Michigan Street
Tucson, AZ 85714-2221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christine Iacomini
ciacomini@paragonsdc.com
3481 E. Michigan Street
Tucson,  AZ 85714-2221

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is proposed for a Portable Life Support System to remove and reject heat and carbon dioxide (CO2) regardless of the environment (lunar or Mars, vacuum or CO2), as well as to help control humidity in the ventilation loop. The basic principal is removal of metabolically-produced CO2 by an adsorbent with regeneration using a temperature swing. The lower temperature is achieved via expansion of liquid CO2 (LCO2). The higher temperature is achieved with metabolic heat from the moist ventilation loop gas through a condensing ice heat exchanger. The condensed water is saved and recycled at the habitat. Both the LCO2 exhaust and the metabolically-produced CO2 are rejected to the surrounding environment. The effective temperature swing is between the CO2 sublimation temperature (~195 K) and the ventilation loop gas temperature (~300 K). MTSA has reasonable mass, volume and power with minimal impact on infrastructure and operations. The basic principles of MTSA technology are well-proven, safe, do not rely on cryogenics, do not consume water but conserve it, are regenerable and will not compromise scientific investigations by sublimating water for heat rejection onto the premises. An added benefit of MTSA technology is that the LCO2 coolant can be produced and stored on the surface of Mars, saving launch costs and providing easy emergency access and replenishment. As Paragon has demonstrated adsorbent and LCO2 cooling performance relevant to MTSA operating conditions, Phase 1 will emphasize understanding the condensing ice heat exchanger design through analytical formulations and validation through testing. Paragon's unique experience will ensure that this Phase 1 effort will be successful, resulting in a strong Phase 2 MTSA development plan to design, build and test in a relevant environment a full-scale MTSA subsystem prototype.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
MTSA technology specifically addresses the challenges faced by a Martian PLSS. These include rejecting metabolically-produced CO2 to a CO2 environment and thermal control without wasting resources and contaminating the Martian surface. MTSA has the potential added benefit in that it recycles water easily with no added mass or infrastructure back at the habitat. Further, the coolant can be made from Martian resources, reducing the reliance on Earth launches. The coolant can also be stored on the Martian surface without boil-off, readily accessible during an EVA to enable extended operations or provide extra cooling in emergencies. Another potential NASA application includes using MTSA on the moon. Liquid oxygen (LOX) could be used as the coolant rather than LCO2. Warmed LOX exhaust would provide the user with breathing gas rather than be expelled. If LOX is available, this would be a means for using the moon to test Martian technologies. Regardless of LOX availability, the LCO2 cooling capacity on the moon could be desirable, particularly in the event of an emergency where an astronaut will require significant heat rejection.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications include a wide variety of portable life support systems for the Department of Defense and Home Land defense in chemical warfare agent shelters. We also anticipate interest from the fire fighter community as LCO2 is a powerful means for safe thermal control that exhausts non-flammable, spent coolant. Developments made during this research will contribute to making personal LCO2 thermal control systems more affordable and reliable.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Portable Life Support


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X4.03-9275
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Suit Displays, Cameras, Controls, and Integrated Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Spacesuit Sensing Data Display and Management System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ZIN Technologies, Inc.
6745 Engle Road
Middleburg Hts, OH 44130-7994

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Hall
David.Hall@zin-tech.com
6745 Engle Road
Middleburg Hts,  OH 44130-7994

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ZIN Technologies, Inc will breadboard an integrated electronic system for space suit application to acquire images, biomedical sensor signals and suit health & status data. The system will then process, display, store, transmit and manage the results under control of embedded firmware. A commercial off-the-shelf heads-up display which is applicable to space suit helmets will be the primary display device. The system will include a breadboard version of a lightweight, low power, general purpose computing platform based on commercial-grade components with available, upgraded versions that can tolerate the EVA thermal/vacuum/radiation environment. Initial development of a camera interface will be included. A breadboard of the proposed system will be built, programmed and demonstrated. ZIN will leverage our past experience in NASA spaceflight hardware/software development and existing biomedical monitoring technology to deliver a mature concept demonstration at minimal cost and risk. The system will be compatible with medical industry standard sensors to measure CO2, core temperature and other biomedical parameters. The proposed Phase 1 effort will be geared toward future development of a Phase 2 version that could be integrated into a functional EVA system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed system is an innovative, reliable candidate for the CAI (Communications, Avionics and Informatics) element of the Constellation Space Suit System (CSSS) for use in Lunar Sortie and Outpost missions (Block II) as described in CxP 72002 (Constellation EVA System Requirements Document). The proposed Space Suit Sensing, Display and Data Management System will be based on the existing vMetrics biomedical monitoring device which was developed by the ZIN Medical division. The vMetrics-based system will meet NASA requirement EVA1084 for monitoring heart rhythm data as well as other medical parameters for the non-tethered (Block II) EVA Space Suit.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed system could be applied to a wide range of civilian and military applications. It meets the needs of workers in numerous occupations who have task- or mission-critical data requirements and who currently have to access that data using their hands or by moving their eyes away from their primary task. The embedded firmware could be easily reprogrammed to allow the device to serve the needs of aviators, heavy equipment operators, maintenance and healthcare workers, emergency response personnel and others who need a hands-free data acquisition and display device. The same ruggedization needed for the space environment would also serve well in undersea and harsh-environment industrial applications such as steel mills, refineries and nuclear power plants.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Data Input/Output Devices
Human-Computer Interfaces
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Suits
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X4.03-9536
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Suit Displays, Cameras, Controls, and Integrated Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Holographic Waveguided See-Through Display

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luminit, LLC
20600 Gramercy Place, Suite 203
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dmitry Voloschenko
kyu@luminitco.com
20600 Gramercy Place, suite 203
Torrance,  CA 90501-1821

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To address the NASA need for lightweight, space suit-mounted displays, Luminit proposes a novel Holographic Waveguided See-Through Display. Our proposed Holographic Waveguided See-Through Display (HoWSD) will integrate highly selective waveguiding Bragg holograms, Luminit diffuser technology, a unique LCD backlight into a helmet-mounted display (HMD) that will provide easy- to-access clearly visible information to astronauts during extravehicular activity (EVA). The proposed HoWSD incorporates a unique design and Luminit novel diffusers into a functional HMD, which enables us to meet NASA goals for a functional, unobtrusive display device that provides information to astronauts during EVA. HoWSD offers a compact, low-profile display with high brightness and contrast, which is fully see-through and high resolution. In Phase I Luminit will demonstrate the feasibility of a see-through helmet-mounted display that can operate under various illumination levels, and which will prepare us for Phase II. In Phase II, Luminit plans to develop a fully-functional rugged prototype and demonstrate HoWSD functionality. The demonstrated results will offer NASA the capability of incorporating a non-obtrusive, rugged, wide field-of-view display into a space suit helmet designed for EVAs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
If successful in Phase I and in Phase II, the HoWSD system, integrated into a space suit helmet, will enable astronauts to see important mission information, such as updates from the Primary Life Support System (PLSS), warnings and checklists, during EVA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The HoWSD system will find applications in avionics, combat vehicle crew, soldier's integrated protective ensemble, logistics and training, fire fighting, and in other areas where rugged helmet-mounted displays are needed. HMD technology advances made possible by successful development of the proposed HoWSD visor optics system will lead to cost-effective commercialization. In particular, the new HMD system will find numerous real-time 3D virtual reality applications. Medicine, avionics, education, CAD, portable computing and communication, law-enforcement, fire fighting, space exploration, and video games represent major markets for compact, low-cost lightweight HMDs in the private sector.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Data Input/Output Devices
Human-Computer Interfaces
Suits
Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X4.03-9910
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Suit Displays, Cameras, Controls, and Integrated Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact Optical Carbon Dioxide Monitor for EVA

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vista Photonics, Inc.
67 Condesa Road
Santa Fe, NM 87508-8136

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffrey Pilgrim
jpilgrim@vistaphotonics.com
67 Condesa Road
Santa Fe,  NM 87508-8136

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Breath respiratory species measurement during extravehicular activity (EVA) or intravehicular activity (IVA) is a demanding application for optical sensing techniques. Yet optical techniques offer many advantages including high-precision, fast response, and strong species selectivity. Accommodation within spacesuits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight and power requirements. Vista Photonics proposes to develop rugged, compact, low-power optical sensor technology capable of selectively determining carbon dioxide at EVA-relevant concentrations. The enabling technology for meeting stringent NASA mission requirements is a new low power infrared optical source that provides the high-sensitivity of established optical absorption detection techniques.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The immediate targeted application for NASA is respiratory species monitoring during EVA and IVA. Phase II prototypes will be capable of selectively detecting carbon dioxide and water vapor. Other species can be included as required. The integrated sensors will be suitable for variable pressure EVA operation in diverse environments like the Moon, Mars and ISS. Unmanned planetary exploration missions in substantial atmospheres like Titan's are likewise contemplated. The emerging technology will also be suitable for use on both manned and unmanned terrestrial atmospheric research craft. Other applications include fire detection on aircraft and high-value installations, gas sensing in air revitalization and water recovery processes on spacecraft, and leak detection during spacecraft launch operations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Phase III commercial applications abound for sensors whose performance and physical characteristics are suitable for spaceflight. Examples include contaminant monitoring in process gas streams in the chemical and microelectronics industries, medical diagnosis through detection of biogenic gases in human breath that correlate to specific pathologies, and environmental monitoring and regulatory compliance in agriculture, power production, and occupational safety. The fully-developed Phase II instruments shall offer a compelling and desirable blend of performance, affordability, compactness, simplicity and ease-of-use relative to present commercial product offerings in these applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Biomolecular Sensors
Optical
Portable Life Support
Photonics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X5.01-8867
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith
PROPOSAL TITLE: Heat Pipe Solar Receiver for Oxygen Production of Lunar Regolith

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc.
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster, PA 17601-5688

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Hartenstine
john.hartenstine@1-ACT.com
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster,  PA 17601-5688

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Small Business Innovative Research project by Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) will develop an advanced high temperature heat pipe solar receiver that can be used for the production of oxygen from lunar regolith. ACT proposes a high temperature heat pipe solar receiver that can accept and and transfer the solar thermal energy to the lunar soil, thereby extracting oxygen. The heat pipe design will also be able to isothermalize the reactors, increasing the available area for soil evaporation, and consequently increasing the throughput and efficiency. The overall objective of the Phase I and II programs is to develop a heat pipe solar receiver for the production of oxygen from regolith. In Phase I, the principal objectives are to design the receiver, and fabricate and test a representative heat pipe under simulated conditions. The Phase II program will fabricate and test the full scale heat pipe solar receiver.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary application is the development of a heat pipe solar receiver for oxygen production. A lunar oxygen production plant is projected to provide breathable oxygen for astronauts a well as oxygen for rocket propulsion. The heat pipe solar receiver could also be used for materials processing. There is a vast amount of resources on the moon that could be processed into materials such as concrete, cast and sintered basalt, fiberglass and metals such as aluminum. Anorthite, available on the moon, could be processed using the furnace to produce aluminum, calcium and silica materials.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Remote materials processing is a second application for both NASA and commercial industries. The heat pipe solar receiver could be used for remote materials processing where there is insufficient electricity or funding to operate expensive furnaces.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X5.01-9824
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lunar Sulfur Capture System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pioneer Astronautics
11111 W. 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood, CO 80215-5516

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Berggren
mberggren@pioneerastro.com
Pioneer Astronautics 11111 W. 8th Ave; Unit A
Lakewood,  CO 80215-5516

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to recover sulfur compounds from lunar soil using sorbents derived primarily from in-situ resources. Most of the sulfur released from lunar soil during higher-temperature thermal treatment is trapped by the LSCS at lower temperatures on iron oxides present in lunar soil. As needed, small amounts of polishing sorbents are used to reduce equilibrium sulfur concentrations to the low ppm level. After sorbents become saturated, sulfur compounds are desorbed and converted to useful sulfur products. Sulfur is present in concentrations of about 0.1 percent in lunar soils and can be recovered by the LSCS as a useful product from in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LSCS can capture and recover sulfur from lunar soil as a primary product during thermal desorption of volatile compounds or during thermal reduction ISRU processes used for oxygen production. Removal of sulfur compounds is required during ISRU to prevent electrolyzer damage, catalyst poisoning, and equipment corrosion. The LSCS is applicable to thermal ISRU reduction processes in which sulfur is released in forms such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), or carbon disulfide (CS2).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary initial application of the LSCS is for lunar sulfur capture and recovery. The LSCS has direct use to both protect ISRU hardware and catalysts while producing useful amounts of sulfur for other lunar ISRU applications. Implementation of the LSCS will proceed through the SBIR Phase 1, 2, and 3 programs, with increasing levels of development achieved through each step. During each phase, Pioneer will identify the LSCS requirements and will establish the commercial relationships needed to provide materials, fabrication, and implementation strategies for NASA lunar application.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
One non-NASA commercial application of LSCS is the large-market target of integrated gasification combined cycle power generation from coal. Other smaller-market opportunities are at least as likely to benefit from the LSCS applied to reduce emissions and waste disposal requirements from a variety of industrial applications. These opportunities are likely to grow as de-centralized fuel preparation technologies are advanced for conversion of biomass and other potentially contaminated feeds to alcohol and other fuels. Pioneer will be actively monitoring these activities and the potential applications and the use of the LSCS technologies. As appropriate, Pioneer will make contact with those involved in these markets to establish the business feasibility of the LSCS to terrestrial applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X5.01-9825
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multi-Cell Thermal Battery

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pioneer Astronautics
11111 W. 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood, CO 80215-5516

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Douwe Bruinsma
zubrin@aol.com
11111 W. 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood,  CO 80215-5516

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The multi-cell thermal battery (MCTB) is a device that can recover a large fraction of the thermal energy from heated regolith and subsequently apply this energy to heat up cool regolith. The individual cells of the MCTB contain a thermal storage media that is specifically designed for optimal performance at a given temperature range. Each of these cells is charged with thermal energy from hot regolith that has been used in a lunar ISRU application. Once the MCTB is charged, the heat is transferred from the battery to newly harvested regolith. In this manner over 85% of the heat can be transferred from the expended to the new regolith. This is a large improvement especially considering that this reduces the heating requirement to produce 1000 kg of O2 from lunar regolith from an average of 1 kW to only 0.15 kW (assuming 3% O2 recovery by weight). The other irreducible power consumption of lunar ISRU O2 production is electrolysis which consumes at least 0.3 kW. Hence, using the MCTB decreases the irreducible power consumption of lunar ISRU by 65 %.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary initial application of the multi-cell thermal battery is for heat recovery from expended lunar regolith to new regolith during O¬2 production via hydrogen reduction. The MCTB reduces the heating requirement for lunar O2 production by 85% and reduces the overall power requirement by 65% given an O2 production rate of 1000 kg/year and 3% O2 recovery by weight. During the phase I the superior performance of the MCTB will be demonstrated by transferring over 60% of the heat from hot regolith at 800 oC to cold regolith initially at 25 oC. During the subsequent Phase II and Phase III programs, the MCTB will be further optimized and refined to integrate seamlessly with state-of-the-art lunar regolith reduction systems. The MCTB will be light-weight and provide significant energy savings for lunar ISRU applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The multi-cell thermal battery will be a valuable tool wherever heat needs to be stored or transferred from one solid substance to the next. Any chemical process that requires high temperatures and operates in batch mode would greatly benefit from using the MCTB to conserve energy. Batch furnaces for hardening and annealing metals, for example, require high temperatures and operate in batch mode. Using the MCTB in this application could greatly reduce the operational cost of such facilities. In such a process the expended product can be used to fill the thermal battery with heat and this heat can then be used to pre-heat the following batch. As shown before, this can lead an energy savings of over 85%.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In-situ Resource Utilization
Energy Storage
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X5.02-8417
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar Regolith Excavation and Material Handling
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Fidelity Regolith Simulation Tool for ISRU Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Grainflow Dynamics, Inc.
1141 Catalina Drive, PMB #270
Livermore, CA 94550-5928

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Otis Walton
walton@grainflow.com
1141 Catalina Dr., PMB #270
Livermore,  CA 94550-5928

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has serious unmet needs for simulation tools capable of predicting the behavior of lunar regolith in proposed excavation, transport and handling systems. Current simulation tools do not include the effects of triboelectric and photo-ionization induced charges on regolith particles. Existing DEM or FE models largely focus on coarse smooth non-brittle particles and lack adequate fidelity for fine cohesive powders comprised of friable particles with irregular shapes. As such, they are inadequate for assessing the reliability of regolith excavation and handling systems, and even less so for evaluation of engineering trade offs between total system mass, power and energy consumption. Grainflow Dynamics proposes to develop a high-fidelity DEM model incorporating a new charge-spot model for electrostatic forces arising from localized charge patches on the surfaces and in the interiors of individual particles, and also including an innovative new comprehensive cohesive-contact model. Grainflow Dynamics further proposes to demonstrate the ability of the new cohesive-contact model to mimic the compaction and dispersion behavior of lunar regolith simulants JSC-1A and JSC-1AF. This work will lead to an improved engineering design tool that can be used by NASA engineers and contractors developing designs for ISRU equipment, to evaluate reliability of various configurations, and the trade-offs of system designs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
New high-fidelity simulation tools for charged cohesive powders would be applicable to a wide range of ISRU situations including excavation, transport, handling, platform mobility, slope stability and wheeled vehicle traction analysis. New designs in all of these areas would benefit from improved fidelity of simulation models. The ability to include the effects of charged particles and reduced gravity, and to test sensitivity of equipment designs to regolith model parameters and equipment designs can greatly assist in prioritizing regolith characterization measurements and optimizing equipment designs, once the properties of the regolith have been more accurately characterized. In addition the new charged-particle capability will greatly facilitate evaluation of various dust mitigation strategies, a critical need for manned exploration missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The pharmaceutical industry, has a large number of applications which would benefit from significantly-improved simulation capabilities for cohesive powders in a variety of pharmaceutical material manufacturing, transport and handling operations, including micronization, granulation, coating, blending, tableting, dosating and capsule or blister-pack filling – especially powders designed for pulmonary delivery. The FDA's Process Analytical Technology (PAT) initiative emphasizes the need for pharmaceutical makers to understand the processes they use and to design the processes for quality, reliability, robustness and consistency. Reliable tools to predict powder deformation and flow behavior would greatly facilitate the attainment of such goals. In addition, the xerographic industry (e.g., laser printers and copiers ) could benefit from a predictive tool that could assist in design improvements for powdered toner tribocharging, transfer, and fusing. Despite 50 years of R&D, many details of the overall xerographic process are only poorly understood, and fierce competition provides motivation to seek design improvements.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Manned-Manuvering Units
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X5.02-8801
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar Regolith Excavation and Material Handling
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lunar Regolith Stabilization for Excavation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Adherent Technologies, Inc.
9621 Camino del Sol NE
Albuquerque, NM 87111-1522

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jan-Michael Gosau
adherent@earthlink.net
9621 Camino del Sol NE
Albuquerque,  NM 87111-1522

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Establishing human presence outside the protective cover of earth's atmosphere is a challenge. On earth, the atmosphere does not only present breathing gas, it also acts as a thermal buffer and protects the biosphere from harmful radiation. Shielding of humans from harmful radiation during long-term stays on an extraterrestrial body like the moon is a difficult task. Lunar regolith provides an excellent source of readily available insulation and shielding material. About 2 m of packed regolith would provide an excellent cover for a permanent installation.. In order to either bury shelters or to surround habitats with berms of protective material, it is necessary to excavate regolith on a large scale, a difficult undertaking due to the dustlike consistency of the material. To stabilize the regolith, it is necessary to either consolidate the surface material of the slopes or to convert the regolith into a solid building material. Adherent Technologies, Inc. has developed several specialty resins for material stabilization. This includes penetrating urethane foam for asbestos remediation and epoxy resins for borehole casings in dry-drilling applications. ATI now proposes to develop a stabilization system for lunar surface dusts using a polyurethane foam binder.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Being able to shape the environment during the establishment of a permanent outpost on the moon is a mission-critical task. As such, the proposed technology enables the long term occupation of lunar surface bases without the use of cost-prohibitive terrestrial resource use. The concept is based on established technology and offers a solid, low risk approach to the use of extraterrestrial resources.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology for the fabrication of habitat structures from locally available materials using a polymer binder can be extended to terrestrial use in environments where normal building means are not readily available and the delivery of standard components like cement, and of course water, is cost prohibitive. This includes desert environments, mountainous regions, or the Antarctic. Since the environment on earth is usually much less severe than the environment described in the project, the binder material could be optimized for performance instead of application. This includes strength, for example as a protective material in military applications where sandbags are used today or heat retention in mountainous or arctic regions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Erectable
Thermal Insulating Materials
In-situ Resource Utilization
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X5.03-9447
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar Volatile Resource Prospecting and Collection
PROPOSAL TITLE: Sealing Technologies for Repetitive Use in Abrasive, Electrostatic, High Vacuum Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Starsys, Inc.
1722 Boxelder Street
Louisville, CO 80027-3008

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scott Christiansen
scottc@starsys.com
1722 Boxelder Street
Louisville,  CO 80027-3008

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Clearly, the presence of lunar dust has the propensity for major adverse impacts on dynamic mechanical systems required for future lunar operations such as Rovers, Robotic Systems, In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) and science experiments. As such, the development of innovative techniques for mitigating dust affects is warranted. In abrasive environments such as the presence of regolith dust on the moon, mechanism seals must be either designed for robustness to avoid premature damage and leakage, or, the dust particles must be removed. For this SBIR, Starsys proposes an enabling all-metal, knife-edge seal capable of maintaining seal integrity even in the presence of the abrasive, lunar dust. The proposed Knife Edge Seal concept provides for an innovative mechanism by which to seal critical ISRU mechanisms even in the presence of lunar dust contamination. Starsys' knife edge seal approach will utilize a hard metal knife edge and seal gland filled with an Indium alloy. The knife edge geometry is sized to allow for low forces required to penetrate the Indium, while the gland geometry is sized to properly and reliably capture the Indium. The Indium is a phase change material available in a variety of alloys to target specific melting points. The Knife Edge Seal offers two distinct advantages when attempting to mitigate the affects of lunar dust; 1) the knife edge will penetrate any dust layer developed on the seal gland surface and embed itself into the gland material, and 2) the Indium can be heated and re-flowed in between mate and de-mate cycles, allowing the dust particles to mix in with the soft Indium material and most likely eliminating sufficient barrier between the knife edge and Indium to allow for sufficient sealing to occur.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA commercial applications include manned and unmanned lunar operations, operations on MARS, and other exploratory missions involving operations in abrasive environments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential Non-NASA commercial applications include commercial space flight tourism, commercial space satellites and instrument/sensor cover systems, and terrestrial applications requiring operation of sealed mechanical systems in abrasive environments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airlocks/Environmental Interfaces
Fluid Storage and Handling
Portable Life Support
Suits
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X6.01-8728
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lightweight Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multifunctional Flexible Aerogels for Inflatable Habitats

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aspen Aerogels, Inc.
30 Forbes Road
Northborough, MA 01532-2501

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Owen Evans
oevans@aerogel.com
30 Forbes Road, Building B
Northborough,  MA 01532-2501

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In 2005, President George W. Bush issued a Vision for Space Exploration that included a return to the lunar surface by as early as 2015. This mission is expected to undertake far more ambitious activities than those of the previous Apollo mission, possibly involving medium to long term lunar habitation. The use of inflatable structures for large-volume crew habitation on the lunar surface has proven to be an effective technology to maximize payload volumes and reduce overall launch costs. NASA is currently seeking cutting edge material technologies that can simplify the construction of these habitats and provide for enhanced performance. Aspen Aerogels proposes to develop novel hybrid aerogel materials that are able to simultaneously provide for thermal, micrometeoroid and radiation protection in one single layer. Chemical modifications in the sol-gel preparation of aerogel materials are expected to afford hybrids materials that will combine the durability and thermal performance of a standard silica aerogel with the flexibility, resilience and radiation protection properties of a polymeric material.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The nanostructured, lightweight, flexible aerogel composites will improve thermal, radiation and MMOD impact shielding for inflatable habitat structures. Multi-layer insulation (MLI) layers in habitats would be replaced with the developed technology. EVA suits including gloves and footwear, and helmets could also potentially utilize the new insulation materials. The flexible aerogels are air, water, and vacuum capable and thus could be incorporated into new single suit designs for a broad spectrum of astronaut mission. The excellent durability and toughness of the flexible aerogel might facilitate use in cryogenic insulation in difficult vibration and acoustic environments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other potential applications include use as insulation in commercial and military aircraft, cryogenic tanks, liquefied gas transport, gloves, footwear, systems for warming, storing, and/or transporting food and medicine, sleeping bags and pads, military and recreational tents, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Inflatable
Thermal Insulating Materials
Radiation Shielding Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X6.01-9530
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lightweight Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Self-Healing Inflatable, Rigidizable Shelter for the Lunar Environment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Adherent Technologies, Inc.
9621 Camino del Sol NE
Albuquerque, NM 87111-1522

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrea Hoyt Haight
adherent@earthlink.net
9621 Camino del Sol NE
Albuquerque,  NM 87111-1522

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Any manned missions to extraterrestrial locations will require shelter structures for a variety of purposes ranging from habitat usage to biomass production. Such shelters need to be constructed in such a way to minimize stowed volume and payload weight. The structures must also be very durable and have the ability to survive punctures without collapsing. Ways of increasing available crew-load volume without greatly increasing launch weight or volume are also sought. Inflatable structures are ideal candidates for habitat structures for several reasons: (1) they feature the low stowage volume and payload weight required, (2) deployed volume can be easily increased without large increases in launch weight or volume, (3) they offer unique opportunities for incorporating intelligent and/or multifunctional systems such as self-healing capability, power generation and storage, sensor systems, and radiation protection. Adherent Technologies, Inc. is proposing an inflatable, rigidizable shelter system based on our Rigidization on Command<SUP>TM</SUP> (ROC) technology. The proposed shelter system would feature not only the required low stowage volume and lightweight character, but would also feature a self-healing foam system incorporated into the final structure to minimize the damage caused by any potential punctures to the structure. Additional features will be incorporated in the Phase II follow-on, including thin film photovoltaics to provide power for the lighting system and later habitat function, sensor systems for monitoring both structural and crew health, and radiation protection systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This system is being designed to support the need for structures on future manned space missions to the moon and Mars. Applications are seen as shelters for equipment with the potential for expansion into habitats and airlock structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The rigidizable shelter that is the focus of this Phase I program is very similar in concept to air beam structures currently being pursued by the military. Inflatable air beam technology is enabling rapid deployment of various shelters for military applications. Our rigidizable, self-healing system should find easy application in military applications, where light weight, low storage volume, and limited manpower required to construct shelters are of interest.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Inflatable
Kinematic-Deployable
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X6.02-8294
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Temperature Mechanisms
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cryogenic Rotary Piezoelectric Motor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dynamic Structures and Materials, LLC
205 Williamson Square
Franklin, TN 37064-1321

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffrey Paine
jpaine@dynamic-structures.com
205 Williamson Square
Franklin,  TN 37064-1321

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Piezoelectric motors operate on the principal of high frequency oscillation of high force precision ceramic elements. The high power oscillations are converted to rotary motion through a novel conversion mechanism to produce high torque precision motion when compared with traditional electromagnetic motors. Dynamic Structures and Materials (DSM) proposes to focus the Phase I innovation on the development and design of a precision rotary conversion mechanism that will take the piezoelectric oscillatory power and produce rotary motion for operation at cryogenic and extreme environments. DSM has already demonstrated operation of its high force linear motor actuators for environments as low as 77 K. The proposed rotary motor should operate from approximately 25K to 400 K and should provide very low or no outgassing as well as operational capabilities in hard vacuum. The technology is proposed for applications in the area of rover control, driving operational equipment, instruments, and other such facilities. This proposal addresses DSM's perceived approach to the development of flight-scalable demonstration components for the novel rotary motor technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
An actuator system featuring the proposed capabilities (> 5 Nm torque, 1 to 200 RPM, lightweight, submicron dynamic range, nanometer stability) will help facilitate the success of lunar and Mars missions. Derivatives of this actuator technology could be deployed with many space-based rovers and instruments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed type of rotary motor technology could be readily leveraged to satisfy the requirements of precision terrestrial applications. Piezoelectric rotary motors are used where precision motion and high torque are required in a compact space. Since piezoelectric motors do not require a gear box to provide substantial torque levels, they can be much more compact and precise than electromagnetic motors with gearboxes. In addition, many precision assembly and fabrication processes related to optoelectronics and semiconductor fabrication and metrology could benefit from the general actuation technology proposed herein.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Kinematic-Deployable
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Instrumentation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X6.03-8786
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Radiation Shielding Materials
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hydrogen-Rich, Multifunctional Polymeric Nanocomposites for Radiation Shielding

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
International Scientific Technologies, Inc.
P.O. Box 757
Dublin, VA 24084-0757

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Russell Churchill
intlsci@earthlink.net
P.O. Box 757
Radford,  VA 24084-0757

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has identified the need for the development of lightweight structures technologies to support Lunar Lander and Lunar Habitats programs and for the transfer of relevant technology to Crew Exploration Vehicle and Crew Launch Vehicle programs. NASA further calls for revolutionary advances in radiation shielding materials and structures technologies to protect humans from the hazards of space radiation during NASA missions. To address this need and in response to NASA Subtopic X6.03, International Scientific Technologies, Inc. in conjunction with the College of William and Mary, proposes the development of hydrogen-rich monomers for high performance polymers, such as polyimides, and the incorporation of metallic nanoparticles to form nanocomposite materials having multifunctional properties. The Phase I Technical Objectives include preparation of hydrogen-rich monomers, fabrication of polymeric nanocomposite films, and acquisition of test data to determine key parameters for optimal radiation-shielding materials. The anticipated result of the Phase I and Phase II programs is the development of polymeric nanocomposite materials consisting of hydrogen-rich monomers and metallic nanoparticles. The nanocomposite materials have multifunctional properties of radiation shielding against galactic cosmic radiation, neutrons and electromagnetic radiation, structural integrity to permit use in flexible and rigid structures and habitats, and electrical conductivity for electrostatic control to be used in dust mitigation during lunar missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed multifunctional nanocomposites will find application in the Exploration Systems mission in protecting astronauts and sensitive optical, electronic, thermal and acoustic components from environmental hazards including radiation, dust and thermal transients, while, at the same time, providing lightweight structural functions. It is expected that nanocomposite systems will provide a high-performance-to-weight radiation shield that can be used within human habitats, spacecraft and protective apparel. Other missions supported by NASA could also make use of the nanocomposite materials in low earth orbit or in other orbital paths traversing high radiation regions of space.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lightweight multifunctional radiation shielding will find application in the commercial (e.g., hospitals and nuclear power plants) and defense (e.g., nuclear-powered ships and surveillance satellites) sectors. The shields will provide protection for homeland security first responders employed by law enforcement agencies, fire departments and hospitals. It is also expected that the shielding can be fabricated into temporary shelters used by defense personnel and considered for use in the protection of individuals in case of a nuclear or radiological event. The radiation-shielding material will be suitable for fabrication into protective clothing for healthcare professionals involved in X-ray and nuclear medicine.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Erectable
Inflatable
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Thermal Insulating Materials
Suits
Composites
Radiation Shielding Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X6.03-8797
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Radiation Shielding Materials
PROPOSAL TITLE: Long Duration Space Shelter Shielding

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Sciences, Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Steinbeck
steinbeck@psicorp.com
20 New England Business Center
Andover,  MA 01810-1077

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has developed fiber reinforced ceramic composites for radiation shielding that can be used for external walls in long duration manned space shelters. The wall system comprises a high strength, hollow core composite that can be filled with materials to perform other critical operations such as thermal management. The composite technology enables a modular wall shielding system that exhibits superior radiation resistance to galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), solar particle emission (SPE) and secondary radiation sources produced by the interaction of the primary source with the lunar regolith and shield materials. This Phase I SBIR will develop and demonstrate radiation shielding composite wall architecture that … 1) Can replace aluminum in lunar shelter structural applications. 2) Can act as a ballistic shield enclosing a multifunctional cavity. 3) Can serve as a multifunctional platform for additional shelter functions such as thermal management. We will design and fabricate as well as strength and radiation resistance test prototype multifunctional composite structures. We will demonstrate that the composite system components have superior mechanical properties to and at least 20% greater radiation shielding effectiveness than an aluminum structure of comparable areal density.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA application for the proposed radiation shielding materials is the construction of long duration space habitats for manned missions to the moon and Mars. Habitat modules that can be lifted by the Ares V launch vehicle would provide near term living quarters and laboratories for initial lunar missions. Modular construction will enable a facility to be built using the same principles as those used to build the international space station. The large structure ceramic composite technology to be developed during the effort has additional applications beyond space habitats. Development of large ceramic composite components with application tailored matrices will enable the fabrication of gas turbine, scram jet and rocket engine components. Specific engine components include combustion liners, inlet ducts and nozzles. Tailoring the matrix for high temperature applications will enable engine housings for aircraft engines and power generation systems. Fabrication of large, uncooled, nonablating rocket nozzles will improve thrust to weight and/or engine specific impulse.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Developing large ceramic composite components both with and without boron carbide will also enable the fabrication of large ceramic composite structures for next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) applications including hot ducts, control rod guides and containers. Additional nuclear applications include long term storage and transport containers for radioactive waste. In addition, the development of high strength boron carbide based composites will lead to improved armor systems that can be seamlessly integrated into vehicle systems as structural members to minimize vehicle weight while adding significant ballistic protection. Specific component applications include pilot seats, armored limousines and up-armoring kits for existing vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Radiation Shielding Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X6.04-8594
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Composite Materials
PROPOSAL TITLE: Double Bag VARTM for High Temperature Composites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
San Diego Composites, Inc.
9550 Ridgehaven Court, Suite A
San Diego, CA 92123-5607

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gary Wonacott
gwonacott@sdcomposites.com
9550 Ridgehaven Court, STE A
San Diego,  CA 92123-5607

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Cost and size are limiting factors in efforts to produce high strength, high stiffness, and high temperature composite parts. To address these issues, new processes to lower cost for high temperature composite manufacturing need to be explored. An obstacle for high temperature processing of composites is the creation of by-products or volatiles during cure. An innovative technology, Double Bag Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (DBARTM), has been developed by Dr. Tan Hou at NASA Langley that deals with this obstacle. The technology has only been developed for phenolic resins which is a lower temperature curing resin than is required for many high temperature composite component applications. This process has been shown to reduce the amount of volatiles trapped in the laminates. The key is innovative volatile control during the DBARTM fabrication process. The process results in low-void to void-free quality laminates and fulfils a critically needed technology gap that will enable insertion of an important class of high performance materials into commercial, military and aerospace market places at an accelerated pace. The primary technical objective of the proposed work is to show the feasibility of the use of the NASA DBARTM technology for high temperature polyimides composite manufacturing. In Phase I, work will focus on material selection, process development, and fabrication and test of flat panels of both phenolic and polyimides. At the end of Phase I, the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) is expected to be 2-3. In Phase II, the DBARTM process will be used with a polyimide resin system to fabricate a full-scale prototype of the initial application.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many different applications that may come from the development of low cost high temperature composite processing. Programs such as Mission to Mars could have benefited from such composite processing, and all future deep space explorations programs. Specific components include airframes, large antennas and telescopes, launch and flight vehicle structures, and components that require power management and thermal protection systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA commercial applications include commercial aircraft and Integrated Defense Systems such as advanced UAV's. Specific components that would benefit from this technology includes aircraft engines, control structures, fluid storage and handling containers, fan blades, engine ducts, supersonic engine cowlings, high speed missile bodies and nose tips, and rocket motor cases.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Thermal Insulating Materials
Tankage
Fluid Storage and Handling
Composites
Power Management and Distribution
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X7.02-8660
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human Systems Interaction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Model-Based Resource and Mode Management for Lunar Surface Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tietronix Software, Inc.
1331 Gemini Avenue, Suite 300
Houston, TX 77058-2794

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michel Izygon
mizygon@tietronix.com
1331 Gemini Avenue, Suite 300
Houston,  TX 77058-2794

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed project is aimed at developing a model based resource and mode management system for space robotics systems that will allow real time assessment of resources status and provide required situational awareness to execute efficiently the mission. Traditionally, resource management is being done remotely by the robotics operations team. This approach has numerous disadvantages. For instance, it does not support a more autonomous operation, it takes a longer time to complete than potentially available when the decision has to be made in real time, it has the high costs associated with a large operating team, continuously working for mission support. Ideally, such a function should be part of a full Integrated System Health Management (ISHM), but while a lot of research is being done on the development of ISHM systems, very little effort is made to provide the robot with the capability to use system information to assess the possible strategies with respect to the remaining resources of the vehicle. A model based system can use its understanding of the system state, of its operational modes and of its resource usage to deduce the potential optimum strategies in order to achieve the mission goals.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applications of the resource and mode management toolset are numerous at NASA. In the short term, the tool can be used for existing space robotics system such as the Robonaut, Centaur and Surface Rover. In the longer term, our concept can apply to the different types of advanced robotics systems to be developed to support the Human/Robotic missions to the surface of the Moon and Mars . For instance the initial missions will need the development of telerobotic rovers and aerial vehicles for science, site reconnaissance, and potentially hazardous operations. Then, autonomous and tele-robotic rovers for planetary resource excavation, transport, and processing will follow, to prepare for EVA assistant rovers for site exploration. The tool should allow these programs to significantly reduce the need for costly manual assessment and planning of the system missions before the operations. In the future, the tool could be applicable to the lunar habitats supporting the new exploration vision.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A tool that can be customized to different systems will be useful within DoD organizations using complex autonomous systems such as UAV, UCAV, ULV transport equipment, or logistics support equipment. In the commercial arena, robots are becoming more ubiquitous and used in an ever growing range of disciplines. They are used for carrying hazardous tasks, routine security tasks, and performing a variety of surgical tasks such as hip replacement, cardiac surgery, or supporting laproscopic surgery. These Robotic surgical assistants have potential application in the nearly one million endoscopic surgical procedures performed each year in the U.S. alone. Our concept could provide significant improvements to these commercial robots. Resource and mode management is also being used in a broad range of different domains, such as airplane operations, power plant, refineries, and chemical plants operations. This type of technology can be adapted to these different domains and provide benefits similar to those provided to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Human-Robotic Interfaces
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Teleoperation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X7.02-9718
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human Systems Interaction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rapid Imaging Software, Inc.
1318 Ridgecrest Place SE
Albuquerque, NM 87108-5136

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mike Abernathy
mikea@landform.com
1318 Ridgecrest Place S.E.
Albuquerque,  NM 87108-5136

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies (ASAT) will facilitate exploration of the moon surface, and other planetary bodies. This powerful technology will also find application in the commercial sector, particularly submersible vehicle operation. ASAT will fuse video and other sensor technologies, with geographic databases to maximize vehicle operator situation awareness, and enhance the navigation state of the guidance and control system. During previous research and development activities RIS invented a method to use video camera data to enhance vehicle attitude estimation from gyroscopic inertial navigation systems. In non-earth environments, the absence of a strong reference field increases the problem of INS drift, and decreases operator situation awareness as a consequence. RIS will develope technology which enhances navigation and situation awareness in these challenging environments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Telepresence and teleoperation are vital components of NASA space exploration for the next decades. The return to the moon, and the desire to explore our solar system fuel the need for advanced technlogies like ASAT. ASAT will aid future lunar rover vehicles will facing challenges of navigation and safe operation in a challenging environment. There, the GPS that we now take for granted on earth will not be useful. Earths magnetic field, so useful in navigating our planet, will not be available so problems of INS drift become exagerated. Fortunately, the ASAT technology will be there to provide the situation awareness for vehicle operators so needed for safe exploration.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ASAT will find application in the operation of remotely operated vehicles in the commercial sector. Areas of particular emphasis include submersible ROV operation for mineral explortation and extraction, Unmanned Aerial Systems, and Unmanned Ground Systems used in extractive industries in dangerous environments. Rapid Imaging Software, Inc. is uniquely positioned to commercialize this technology because of our extensive history in successful UAV teleoperation situation awareness technologies, and because of our relationship with large UAV manufacturers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Human-Robotic Interfaces
Perception/Sensing
Teleoperation
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Pilot Support Systems
Human-Computer Interfaces


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X7.03-8844
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface Mobility and Transportation
PROPOSAL TITLE: A 3-D Miniature LIDAR System for Mobile Robot Navigation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics Ltd.
460 W 34th Street
New York, NY 10001-2320

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Rutberg
rutberg@honeybeerobotics.com
460 W 34th Street
New York,  NY 10001-2320

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future lunar initiatives will demand sophisticated operation of mobile robotics platforms. In particular, lunar site operations will benefit from robots, both autonomous and tele-operated, that complement or replace human extravehicular activity (EVA). Three-dimensional sensing technology is at the heart of such functionality, enabling safe and reliable navigation in complex, dynamic environments, and serving as a valuable tool for inspection and site survey. Honeybee Robotics therefore proposes to develop a small-envelope, high-performance scanning LIDAR (LIght Detection and Ranging) system, geared primarily towards mobile robot navigation, and secondarily to site inspection and survey. The proposed device would draw on the results of a design study conducted by Honeybee, under contract to DARPA, to develop a miniature LIDAR for a serpentine robotic platform. The baseline Honeybee 3D Miniature LIDAR (3DML) design uses an innovative scanning mechanism in conjunction with a pulse-time-of-flight optical rangefinding subsystem. The 3DML design, developed with expert input from Sensor Designs, Inc., an Oregon-based electro-optical systems consultancy, achieves a wide field of view and high resolution while maintaining an ultra-compact package size. Phase I of this SBIR effort will focus on proof-of-concept of the opto-mechanical system through prototyping and test. Phase II will include development of a fieldable brassboard system prototype and a full path-to-flight study. Phase III will include commercialization of a 3DML unit for terrestrial research, and incorporation of 3DML into a flight program. As an experienced developer of miniature electromechanical systems for spaceflight, Honeybee is well-positioned to flight-qualify 3DML in Phase III.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Honeybee 3DML is strongly targeted towards mobile robotic platform navigation. The combination of a wide field of view and a high angular resolution make 3DML uniquely suited for this application. The long-term goal is to produce flight units for NASA lunar missions, to facilitate robotic site operations support. In addition to rover navigation, a flight 3DML could be employed as a sensor for lunar vehicle and structure inspection. With some modifications, the system could potentially attain long-range survey capability as well, resulting in an all-in-one navigation/inspection/survey sensor. Rover missions for Mars exploration could also make use of a compact, robust 3D LIDAR system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Honeybee anticipates considerable terrestrial demand for a compact, short-range, high-resolution 3D LIDAR system. Applications include military robotics, automotive automation, construction, and mining. In addition, research units could be marketed to roboticists in defense, industry, and academia.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Human-Robotic Interfaces
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Perception/Sensing
Optical
Manned-Manuvering Units


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X7.03-8868
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface Mobility and Transportation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Foveated 3-D Imaging Rangefinder for Object Tracking

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
New Span Opto-Technology, Inc.
16115 SW 117th Avenue, A-15
Miami, FL 33177-1615

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jame Yang
jyang@new-span.com
16115 SW 117th Ave. A-15
Miami,  FL 33177-1615

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Laser rangefinders have numerous NASA and non-NASA applications, including navigation, landing hazard avoidance, automated rendezvous and docking, air and missile defense, infantry and artillery target designating, tank and infantry fighting vehicle fire controlling, surveillance through foliage, cloud-height measurement, and production monitoring in industries as well as commercial and law enforcement, etc. Existing laser rangefinders cannot meet some of the advanced performance requirements including wide field of view (FOV) for situation awareness, high angular resolution for detailed target shape discrimination, and fast response for transit event or moving objects tracking, as well as low weight, volume and power requirements, etc. For NASA's lunar exploration missions, lunar roving vehicle with features of automated path planning, automated driving, and obstacle avoidance are of interest for making planetary surface missions more reliable, safer, and affordable. New Span Opto-Technology Inc. proposes herein a novel laser rangefinder architecture with non-mechanical scanning foveal aperture providing wide FOV 3-D scene profile for situation awareness and high resolution 3-D profile of region of interest for object tracking. System packaging is rugged, compact and light-weight. Phase I research will establish the model, demonstrate the feasibility, and recognize challenging issues of the proposed concept through model analysis and bench top experiments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications of the proposed foveated 3-D imaging rangefinder include LRV or MER vehicles navigation, landing hazard avoidance, automated rendezvous and docking such as International Space Station re-supply or repair missions. It will also enhance the safety of other proximity operations in space by providing high-speed inputs for collision avoidance and close approach inspection maneuvers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful development of foveated 3-D imaging rangefinder will find extensive applications in military. The man-portable applications include hand-held devices for infantry and artillery observers and dual-mode rangefinder-designators for forward observers and forward air controllers. Land vehicle applications include tank and infantry fighting vehicle fire control and air defense gun-missile fire control, as well as vehicular variants of ground rangefinder-designators. Airborne applications include missile command guidance for attack helicopters and electro-optical targeting for fixed-wing close air support and interdiction aircraft. Laser rangefinders are also used on board naval vessels for conventional fire control and air defense applications. Space-based laser rangefinders for a variety of applications are also being developed. Applications in commercial filed include navigational guidance, surveillance through foliage, cloud-height measurement, and production monitoring in industries as well as commercial and law enforcement applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Laser
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X7.04-9485
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface System Dust Mitigation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Surface System Dust Mitigation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics Ltd.
460 W 34th Street
New York, NY 10001-2320

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Herman
herman@honeybeerobotics.com
460 W 34th Street
New York,  NY 10001-2320

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed effort will perform a detailed examination of dust mitigation and tolerance strategies for connections and mechanisms to be employed on the lunar surface. These strategies will be examined by characterizing the effects of lunar dust simulants on the function of basic mechanical and electrical components, and the effectiveness of tolerance or mitigation strategies in lessening those effects. The project will be led by Honeybee Robotics, with consultation and support from Dr. Masami Nakagawa of the Colorado School of Mines as well as consultation with Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International, Inc.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Dust mitigation strategies will be key components to future exploration missions and would find extensive applications in systems designed to operate in the lunar and other dusty environments. Future mission scenarios involving erectable structures, diverse EVA-compliant tools, EVA-to-rover or EVA-to-robot interfaces, and other in-situ assembly or interconnection activities, will all call for such measures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is a need for dust insensitive electrical and mechanical connectors by several industries as well as the United States military. Dust mitigation strategies developed in this effort will have construction and device interconnection applications in terrestrial harsh environments, such as desserts and dry climates, down-hole geothermal and oil machines, and mining operations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Human-Robotic Interfaces
Manned-Manuvering Units
Portable Life Support
Suits
Tribology


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X7.04-9706
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface System Dust Mitigation
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Fidelity Lunar Dust Simulant

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Orbital Technologies Corporation
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717-1961

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Gustafson
gustafsonr@orbitec.com
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison,  WI 53717-1961

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The severity of the lunar dust problems encountered during the Apollo missions were consistently underestimated by ground tests, illustrating the need to develop significantly better lunar dust simulants and simulation facilities. ORBITEC proposes to develop a family of High-Fidelity Lunar Dust Simulants that will better match the unique properties of lunar dust than existing simulants (such as JSC-1AF). Current lunar dust simulants do not have enough of the very fine particles, and they lack the agglutinitic glass and complex surface textures that dominate lunar dust. The proposed family of High-Fidelity Lunar Dust Simulants will approximate the size, morphology, composition, and other important properties of lunar dust. High-Fidelity Lunar Dust Simulants are required to physically evaluate the effects of lunar dust on the operation of all Exploration Surface Systems and to verify the effectiveness of dust mitigation strategies and technologies. The proposed Phase 1 effort will define requirements, develop, characterize, and deliver a sample of a prototype lunar dust simulant to NASA (TRL 4). The Phase 2 effort will refine the production process to create a large quantity of lunar dust simulant that will be characterized and delivered to NASA (TRL 6).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High-fidelity lunar dust simulants are required to physically evaluate the effects of lunar dust on the operation of all Exploration Surface Systems. Accurate lunar dust simulants will be needed to verify the effectiveness of dust mitigation strategies and technologies for extravehicular mobility suit material composition and cleaning operations, lunar habitat construction design, mechanical performance (radiators, seals, valves), electrical performance (tools and equipment), landing operations (vision systems), and all manners of surface operations. Since this simulant will also contain the critical metallic iron component (including "nanophase" iron) along with the morphology of true lunar dust, it will also be applicable to human health and toxicity studies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of High-fidelity Lunar Dust Simulants is clearly focused on supporting the needs of the NASA lunar exploration program. However, industry and research institutions that are developing any EVA equipment for use on the lunar surface will require the High-Fidelity Lunar Dust Simulant. Much of this work in the near future will be under NASA contracts. Longer term, private industry plans to develop a variety of EVA equipment for use on the lunar surface. High-Fidelity Lunar Dust Simulants are required to physically evaluate the effects of lunar dust on the operation of all Exploration Surface Systems and to verify the effectiveness of dust mitigation strategies and technologies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Facilities
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X8.01-9374
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Fuel Cells for Surface Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Approaches to Greatly Reduce Hydrogen Gas Crossover Losses in PEM Electrolyzers Operating at High Pressures and Low Current Densities

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ElectroChem, Inc.
400 West Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801-6519

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Pien
mpien@fuelcell.com
400 West Cummings Park
Woburn,  MA 01801-6519

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ElectroChem proposes technology advances in its unique PEM IFF water electrolyzer design to meet the NASA requirement for an electrolyzer that will operate very efficiently both at low current densities and at high pressures. This SBIR effort will develop technical solutions to the draw-back of high pressure operation, namely hydrogen gas crossover losses, that is, an increased diffusion of hydrogen across the membrane which effectively decreases the efficiency. Two approaches to reducing gas permeation through the membrane at high pressure will be investigated: 1) The use of palladium thin films embedded in the membrane; and 2) The use of Nafion proton conductive polymer-clay nanocomposite blends. Two different bonding approaches and membrane configurations will be used for the first approach. Determining the best composition is the key for the second approach. Promising candidates will be determined by two tests: 1) hydrogen permeability tests; and 2) proton conduction measurements to assure that the effects of reducing hydrogen permeability will not affect electrochemical proton conduction. Finally, the most promising candidates will undergo their final Ph I proof of concept tests in a PEM IFF electrochemical cell. Phase I will lead to the Ph II development of a complete PEM IFF Electrolyzer System and delivery of a demonstration unit to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The RFC has long been the leading energy storage candidate for supplying stationary power for the fourteen day/night cycle on the Moon. Of the two major subsystems in the RFC, water electrolyzers are at a lower technology readiness level (TRLs) than primary fuel cells. ElectroChem's proposed technology advance in its unique PEM IFF Water Electrolyzer design will meet the NASA requirement for an electrolyzer that will operate very efficiently both at low current densities and at high pressures. This will result in reduced system weight and volume. In addition, incorporating ElectroChem's advanced water electrolyzer in its unique IFF design will produce a more stable and passive RFC for providing power for Exploration missions at remote locations. The characteristics of the proposed RFC, containing its advanced PEM Water Electrolyzer design, are ideal for providing UPS backup power for NASA applications, either in space or on earth, and for providing portable power for landers and rovers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For terrestrial applications ElectroChem's PEM IFF Water Electrolyzer is ideal for future auto refueling stations. Also, IFF PEM RFCs, containing the advanced water electrolyzer design, will be strong candidates for supplying power to remote sites with solar and/or off-peak utility power as sources of electrolyzer input power. Because of difficult maintenance problems, ElectroChem's highly reliable, stable, long life IFF PEM RFC will be an excellent replacement for the lead acid batteries used in Navy Bases. In the Transportation area, advanced RFC systems are being considered for a wide range of vehicles. For the UPS industry, ElectroChem's advanced RFC has many very unique characteristics that are very attractive to hospitals, telecommunications, and other business activities where down time is critical. Unlike battery power storage systems, the RFC's power and cycle duration are independent, which provides the designer much more freedom in meeting the specific needs of the UPS application, including siting.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Energy Storage
Renewable Energy


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X8.01-9737
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Fuel Cells for Surface Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Dimensionally Stable Membrane for High Pressure Electrolyzers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466-1311

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cortney Mittelsteadt, Ph.D.
cmittelsteadt@ginerinc.com
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton,  MA 02466-1311

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Utilizing high strength polymers with controlled pore dimensions as a support, a customized membrane electrode assembly (MEA) can be generated for NASA's electrolyzer stack that has optimized electrochemical performance with greatly improved mechanical properties enabling high pressure (>1000 psi) operation. The overall objective is to generate and test an optimized dimensionally stable membrane (DSM) for a lunar NASA application. This will be accomplished through four tasks; 1. Generation of DSM MEAs of various configurations; 2. Testing of these MEAs; 3. Modeling and fitting of test data to electrolyzer performance; 4. Use model to generate optimum 1000 psi Electrolyzer MEA and test.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lunar and space stations, satellites, high altitude aircraft

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Fuel cell vehicles, hydrogen filling stations, chlor-alkali process

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X8.01-9791
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Fuel Cells for Surface Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electrolyzer for NASA Lunar Regenerative Fuel Cells

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466-1311

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Timothy Norman
tnorman@ginerinc.com
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton,  MA 02466-1311

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Water electrolyzer stacks are a key component of regenerative fuel cells, designed to replace batteries as a means of storing electric energy on the lunar surface. The design and demonstration of an innovative water electrolyzer cell is proposed. The cell design will be significantly smaller and lighter than previous aerospace electrolyzers designed and built by Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC. The new cell will support high-efficiency electrolysis at pressures up to 2,000 psi. Test data will be used to calibrate electrolyzer performance models. These models will, in turn, be used to guide design decisions for regenerative fuel cells relative to the electrolyzer stack and maximum operating/gas-storage pressures of the regenerative fuel cell. A preliminary analysis of an advanced cell frame new thermoplastic material will be conducted to determine its suitability for use in water electrolyzers. Successful completion of the first phase will lead to the development of a demonstration stack in a second phase.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is charged with returning humans to the moon in a permanently occupied lunar station. This station will require electric power during both the daylight hours, and the nighttime. The lunar day/night cycle is twenty-eight (28) earth days long. This necessitates commensurately larger quantities of stored product/reactant gases for the regenerative fuel cell. A very high-pressure water electrolyzer as a component of a closed-loop regenerative fuel cell will permit smaller launch volumes, saving space aboard the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The electrolyzer will also be useful for the production of hydrogen and oxygen for space vehicle propulsion, enabling missions to Mars. Other electrolyzers may be used to produced oxygen for life support systems both during flight and on the lunar and Martian surfaces.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Closed-loop regenerative fuel cells are potential battery substitutes for applications that require high power density. Several agencies of the U.S. Government and several private businesses are engaged in development of long-endurance aircraft and airships. The high-pressure electrolyzer developed under this proposed program would be directly applicable to these vehicles. Large-scale power storage via regenerative fuel cells may have terrestrial applications in telecommunications and other industries that require uninterruptible power supplies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Energy Storage
Photovoltaic Conversion
Thermodynamic Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X8.02-8761
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Space Rated Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Capacity Nano-Composite Cathodes for Human-Rated Lithium-Ion Batteries

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yardney Technical Products, Inc.
82 Mechanic Street
Pawcatuck, CT 06379-2154

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Malgazorta Gulbinska
mgulbinska@lithion.com
82 Mechanic Street
Pawcatuck,  CT 06379-2154

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Non-incremental improvements are necessary in lithium-ion batteries order to meet future space applications demands such as NASA's call for lithium-ion battery cathodes with specific capacity values exceeding 240mAh/g at C/2 discharge rate and 25ºC. Novel concepts for lithium-ion battery chemistry and/or design are therefore desired. Yardney Technical Products, Inc. proposes a development of an advanced nano-composite cathode, based on two crucial components, each performing a different vital function: &#61607; The first component, a layered non-transition oxide material will provide the matrix of the composite and ensure that the cathode voltage falls above ~4.0V. &#61607; The metallic nano-particulate domains, dispersed uniformly within the layered oxide matrix will provide the composite cathode with a potentially high specific capacity. Metallic nanoparticles are expected to form an in-situ oxide phase upon cycling in a lithium ion battery. The composite electrode material may be coated with a thin layer of carbon in order to enhance the electronic conductivity of the as-synthesized composite electrode.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Development of power capabilities is critical in enabling the human exploration beyond Earth orbit pursued by NASA. Lithium ion batteries are required to be human-rated and required to operate over a greater range of temperatures for the lunar environment. Human-rated energy storage devices are required to enable future robotic and human exploration missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of human-rated and inexpensive lithium-ion battery with high energy density is crucial the commercial consumer market and in military applications. Among commercial applications electric vehicle (EV) market and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications would benefit from the safe, reliable and high-performance lithium-ion batteries. YTP will also conduct market studies to identify other niche space, aircraft, military, and commercial markets where the proposed technology would enjoy a unique advantage relative to available battery technologies. Applying a novel power systems solution on these kinds of applications will allow Yardney to establish a growing presence in these markets. Other commercial applications include hybrid electric vehicles, portable instruments (testing and medical), power tools and commercial satellites may soon follow. The developed technology will enhance the desirability of Li-ion technologies for some of these applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X8.02-9077
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Space Rated Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: Inorganic Polymer Nanocomposite Cathode for Long Cycle Life Lithium - Sulfur Batteries

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Sciences, Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aron Newman
newman@psicorp.com
20 New England Business Center
Andover,  MA 01810-1077

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a hybrid composite structure of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) with a class of polysulfide for lithium-sulfur rechargeable batteries on a Phase I program. This cathode provides safety, improved cycle-life, and high capacity at a competitive cost. Crystalline MoS2 is low cost and has a theoretical capacity of 335 mAh/g but it has a low conductivity. The nanocomposite design provides a synergistic improvement in conductivity and electrochemical cycling as a result of the layered MoS2 structure, provided by the intercalation of polysulfide. In the Phase I program, PSI will demonstrate a technology readiness level of 3 with a cathode energy density of greater than 350 mAh/g (800 Wh/kg) using 2 mAh cells. These performance goals will result in an overall battery energy density of 350 Wh/kg. In the Phase II program, PSI will increase cell size to 250 mAh and optimize cell design to further improve cycle life.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Energy storage with improved weight and volume performance are required for various NASA applications which are both orbital and planetary surface. Flight elements of the Exploration Vision initially include the Orion and ARES crew and launch vehicles, respectively. For lunar capability, additional elements include the Lunar Lander or Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM), robotic missions, and surface systems. Surface systems include human habitats, Extravehicular Activities (EVA), science measurements, and the utilization of in situ resources. This lithium-sulfur battery system has the capability to be scaled to the size requirement of 10 kWh in addition to having high-energy density, long-life energy storage systems, and a greater temperature range than lithium ion batteries. The battery system has intrinsic safety and lends itself to being human rated for Exploration missions. These mission applications include portable power for landers, rovers, and astronaut equipment; storage systems for crew exploration vehicles and spacecraft; and stationary energy storage applications such as base power or peaking power applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The portable electronic industry needs improved energy density power sources for longer runtime. The consumer electronics industry is continually driving in the direction of smaller devices that require high specific energy and high specific power batteries. The PSI technology represents a substantial increase in performance over current state of the art and it is anticipated that a battery based on this technology will be lower in lifetime cost to current offerings. Therefore, this low-cost battery is appropriate for many applications, including: mobile telephones, lap-top computers, power tools, personal data assistants, portable entertainment devices.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X8.02-9277
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Space Rated Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Anodes for Rapid Recharge High Energy Density Lithium-ion Batteries

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TIAX, LLC
15 Acorn Park
Cambridge, MA 02140-2301

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Muharrem Kunduraci
Kunduraci.Muharrem@TIAXLLC.com
TIAX LLC, 15 Acorn Park
Cambridge,  MA 02140-2301

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
TIAX proposes to develop as a novel negative electrode active material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. This material will fill the gap between the state-of-the-art high energy density (e.g. graphitic carbon or amorphous tin-carbon composite) and high charging rate capability (e.g. nano-Li4Ti5O12) anode materials. The novel anode material will have specific capacity of 625 mAh/g and electrochemical potential of ~0.9 V vs. Li, making it capable of meeting NASA battery energy target of 180 Wh/kg. The mechanism of its electrochemical cycling will be by zero-strain topotactic lithiation/delithiation, making it capable of meeting NASA's requirements for cycle life and for rapid recharge capability. This novel anode material will provide for lithium-ion batteries having enhanced safety by virtue of its being non-toxic and having low thermal reactivity. Furthermore, the use of this novel anode chemistry will enable the implementation of other lithium-ion battery system enhancements, such as improved electrolytes. The Phase I program will demonstrate synthesis of the targeted material composition in the desired structure, and will demonstrate electrochemical performance of that material. Correlations between physical, structural and electrochemical properties of this novel anode material will be investigated through the course the program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries incorporating the proposed novel anode are expected to become the primary regenerative electrical energy storage technology for a broad spectrum of NASA space exploration platforms including spacecraft, landers, rovers and other vehicles, astronaut equipment and stationary units. Lithium-ion batteries already possess the outstanding high specific energy required for NASA applications, and further improving their charge rate capability and their life charging rate capability will make them even more competitive in NASA applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There will be significant market opportunities for the TIAX rapid recharge, high energy, long life Li-ion battery anode technology beyond those presented by the NASA's needs for advanced batteries in space exploration platforms. The emerging commercial sector HEV and future PHEV applications will place the same demands for rapid recharge, long life and safety on Li-ion technology as do the NASA's space exploration applications, and if the TIAX technology is successful it will be highly valued in HEVs. Enhanced charging rate capability will also make the novel TIAX anode attractive for use in lithium-ion batteries for power tools. Thus the technology's potential for use in the broader commercial sector that will help to drive its development and to facilitate its availability and drive down its cost for use in space applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X8.03-8499
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nuclear Surface Power
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Efficiency, High Temperature Foam Core Heat Exchanger for Fission Surface Power Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ultramet
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331-2210

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Williams
brian.williams@ultramet.com
Ultramet
Pacoima,  CA 91331-2210

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Fission-based power systems are anticipated for various planetary surface human base applications with power levels of 30–100+ kWe. The development of high temperature, high efficiency heat exchangers, turbines, and pumps is critical for next-generation nuclear power and space propulsion systems. High temperature heat exchangers are required for nuclear reactors to operate above 1000 K and take advantage of improved Brayton cycle efficiency at high inlet temperatures. In previous work for the Department of Energy involving fusion reactor components, Ultramet demonstrated the capability of an innovative heat exchanger composed of a highly porous, open-cell refractory metal foam coolant channel enclosed within a solid refractory metal shell of the same material. High heat flux testing with helium coolant was performed at the Sandia National Laboratories Plasma Materials Test Facility. A component survived heat flux levels up to 22.36 MW/m2 (2236 W/cm2). The turbulence created by flowing helium coolant through highly porous open-cell foam dramatically increased heat transfer relative to a conventional open coolant channel. Foam core heat exchanger technology is anticipated to substantially improve power conversion efficiency of liquid metal-to-gas, high temperature heat exchangers for fission surface power systems. Ultramet proposes to team with Sandia to design a component and demonstrate initial feasibility.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lunar bases and colonies would be strategic assets for effective utilization of abundant lunar resources and development and testing of space technologies required for further exploration and colonization of favorable places in the solar system. A reliable power system is required to supply energy demands for life support, science, and operation. The proposed fission power system has the potential to provide the necessary high power conversion to meet surface power requirements.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to compact, high efficiency space reactors, the proposed technology could contribute to a new Department of Energy Generation IV power system that significantly lowers cost, improves passive safety, has no carbon dioxide emissions, uses an advanced, proliferation-resistant fuel cycle, and reduces nuclear waste. The foam core heat exchanger technology could also be used in ground-based power or in portable power systems for military or surveillance applications and remote deployment.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ceramics
Composites
Metallics
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Nuclear Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X8.03-9658
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nuclear Surface Power
PROPOSAL TITLE: Autonomous Control of Space Nuclear Reactors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Payload Systems, Inc.
247 Third Street
Cambridge, MA 02142-1129

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Merk
merk@payload.com
247 Third Street
Cambridge,  MA 02142-1129

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Nuclear reactors to support future lunar and Mars robotic and manned missions impose new and innovative technological requirements for their control and protection instrumentation. Long duration surface missions necessitate reliable autonomous operation, and manned missions impose the added requirement of fail-safe reactor protection systems. There is a need to define an advanced instrumentation and control system for space-nuclear reactors that addresses both aspects of autonomous operation and safety. The constraints and conditions imposed on instrumentation for earth-based reactors are stringent enough to provide an excellent reference for a similar space-based system. However, these systems are typically analog-digital hybrids, and are not optimized for mass, volume, or power consumption. As a result, there is currently no earth-based reactor control system that is practical for use in space. We propose to develop a comprehensive reactor instrumentation and control system based on proven technology used at nuclear research facilities, for operation in the space environment and in particular for nuclear surface power facilities. The heritage established by these terrestrial 'reference' reactors through years of flawless operation on earth make them ideal candidates on which to base a compact, fully-digital space instrument for the control and protection of nuclear surface power systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA foresees numerous applications of nuclear power reactors, with anticipated power needs that might range from a few kilowatts to the megawatt level. Illustrative examples of these applications are: deep-space missions, orbiting power stations, weather stations, habitats, surface mobility for robotic & piloted rovers; excavating and mining equipment, and science payloads in general. All of these applications will require autonomous systems for control, safety and monitoring of the reactor. Space-qualified reactor instrumentation and control systems will be a useful COTS product for manufacturers of space-qualified nuclear reactors. The predicted total demand is subject to the development of space-based nuclear reactors but it is not unthinkable to forecast demand in the order of a dozen a year.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The key likely non-NASA customers for space-based reactors will be the DoD, as part of future space-based surveillance or missile defense systems. At present, we are not aware of a planned system requiring nuclear power. However, given the energy levels, mission durations, and reliability requirements to support the DoD's mission over the next two decades, it is likely that space-nuclear reactors will be needed at some point. With regards to ground-based applications, the concept of a fully-digital, compact, autonomous control system for reactors is very appealing. As part of our WRND effort we contacted several organizations which operate ground facilities. These included the MIT Nuclear Reactor in Cambridge MA and the RA6 nuclear reactor run by the Bariloche Atomic Center in Argentina. These organizations expressed significant interest in the benefits afforded by this type of instrumentation. It is highly likely these same organizations could benefit from the RICS proposed here.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Highly-Reconfigurable
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X9.01-9022
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Distribution for Space Exploration Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Insulation Techniques for Cryogenic Tanks

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sierra Lobo, Inc.
426 Croghan Street
Fremont, OH 43420-2448

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Stochl
rstochl@sierralobo.com
11401 Hoover Road
Milan,  OH 44846-9711

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The ability to store large amounts of cryogenic fluids for long durations has a profound effect on the success of many future space programs using these fluids for propellants, reactants, and life support systems. The high cost of delivering payload mass to orbit will require storage systems capable of limiting cryogenic losses due to boil-off to less than two percent per year for mission durations of up to ten years; or in some cases, completely eliminating boil-off losses. Although Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) Systems have been extensively used to insulate cryogenic vessels in a space environment, it has been for short-duration missions that require from 30 to 50 layers to meet the mission requirements. Conversely, 150 layers or more of MLI will likely be needed to meet the requirements of future long-term missions. Limited data exists on the performance and physical characteristics of these thick MLI systems. A key opportunity relative to the development of advanced MLI insulation systems is identifying and analyzing concepts for minimizing heat-leak through seams and penetrations, which will be the major contributor to cryogenic losses for thick MLI systems. Sierra Lobo proposes to identify the more promising seam and penetration concepts, based upon previous research with the Missile Defense Agency, and to provide an analytical model to evaluate their performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Application of this technology would significantly reduce the losses associated with the storage of cryogenic fluids. The advanced insulation techniques being proposed by Sierra Lobo will directly benefit NASA's Space Exploration Program. Cryogenic fluids such as hydrogen, methane, and oxygen are required for many current and future space missions that will use life-support, propulsion, and power systems. The targeted NASA applications for long term cryogenic propellant storage, in-space as well as on the lunar surface, include space transportation orbit transfer vehicles, space power systems, spaceports, spacesuits, lunar habitation systems, and in situ propellant systems. In addition, NASA spaceport operations and propulsion test facilities are both heavily dependant upon a wide range of cryogenic systems. Improving the efficiency of these systems at these facilities using advanced insulation techniques will directly benefit the programs they support through reduced operating costs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The advanced insulation techniques being proposed by Sierra Lobo can be used in nearly any industrial, commercial, or medical application currently requiring storage of liquid cryogens such as helium, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Such fluids are routinely used in the medical industry, metals processing, semiconductor manufacture and as well as many non-NASA government agencies. The targeted applications for the Department of Defense include Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUV) that carry liquid oxygen and potentially liquid hydrogen, liquid hydrogen powered ground transportation systems, space platforms using electric propulsion (xenon, hydrogen), space-based chemical lasers (hydrogen, helium), orbit transfer vehicles (hydrogen, oxygen), and orbital propellant depots/space stations (hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen). The Department of Energy applications include reducing heat leak into liquid helium cooled superconducting magnets for particle acceleration systems. Commercial market applications include cryogenic storage dewars for medical and process systems and over-the-road dewars for transporting cryogenics, especially the lower temperature cryogens, liquid hydrogen and helium.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Propellant Storage
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Facilities
Thermal Insulating Materials
Fluid Storage and Handling
Production
In-situ Resource Utilization
Radiation Shielding Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X9.01-9829
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Distribution for Space Exploration Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced, Long-Life Cryocooler Technology for Zero-Boil-Off Cryogen Storage

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-3116

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Zagarola
mvz@creare.com
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Long-life, high-capacity cryocoolers are a critical need for future space systems utilizing stored cryogens. The cooling requirements for planetary and extraterrestrial exploration missions, Crew Exploration Vehicles, extended-life orbital transfer vehicles, and space depots will range from 10 to 50 W at temperatures between 20 and 120 K. Turbo-Brayton cryocoolers are ideal for these systems because they are lightweight, compact and very efficient at high cooling loads, in addition to their inherent attributes of high reliability; negligible vibration; long, maintenance-free lifetimes; and flexibility in integrating with spacecraft systems and instruments. To date, space-borne turbo-Brayton technology has been developed for low cooling loads. During the proposed program, Creare will develop an advanced, high efficiency turbine optimized for a high-capacity cryocooler. The advanced turbine will enable a landmark reduction in cryocooler input power and overall cooling system mass. In Phase I, we will define the requirements for a particular mission class, develop the conceptual design of a multistage cryocooler to meet these requirements, develop the preliminary design of the advanced turbine and perform proof-of-concept tests. During Phase II, we will fabricate the turbine and demonstrate its performance at prototypical operating conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Advanced turbines will enable high-capacity turbo-Brayton cryocoolers that are compact, lightweight, and consume minimal power. Space applications include cryogen storage for planetary and extraterrestrial exploration missions, Crew Exploration Vehicles, extended-life orbital transfer vehicles, long-term geosynchronous missions, in-space propellant depots and extraterrestrial bases, and cooling systems for observation platforms requiring large arrays of infrared and X-ray detectors. Terrestrial applications include cooling for spaceport cryogen storage and cryogen transportation systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications include cooling for laboratory- and industrial-scale gas separation; liquefaction; cryogen storage and cryogen transportation systems; high-temperature superconducting magnets in motors and magnetic resonance imaging systems; liquid hydrogen fuel cell storage for the automotive industry; and commercial orbital transfer vehicles and satellites.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fluid Storage and Handling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X9.03-8678
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic and Non-Toxic Storable Propellant Space Engines
PROPOSAL TITLE: Acoustic Igniter

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Orion Propulsion, Inc.
105 A-4 Commerce Circle
Madison, AL 35758-2637

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tim Pickens
tpickens@orionpropulsion.com
105 A-4 Commerce Circle
Madison,  AL 35758-2637

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An acoustic igniter eliminates the need to use electrical energy to drive spark systems to initiate combustion in liquid-propellant rockets. It does not involve the use of catalysts (which have a limited life), it does not exhibit typical wear and tear as seen in spark and catalytic igniters, and it is simple in design with no moving parts. Orion's proposed Acoustic Igniter is expected to offer a long-life, highly reliable ignition system that does not require high-voltage electrical connections. It is less complex to operate and simpler than a traditional ignition system. Orion's primary technical objective is to produce an acoustic igniter design that will ignite combustion of common liquid rocket fuel and oxidizer combinations such as gaseous oxygen and kerosene, and oxygen/methane. During Phase 1, we will analyze the operational issues that inhibit acoustic igniter performance. Based on these results, Orion will build a prototype unit, test it, and evaluate its performance. This work will be sufficiently broad and deep to establish a basis for the follow-on Phase 2 effort to refine the design and upgrade the technology level of the acoustic igniter.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The acoustic igniter can be used in every current and planned liquid propellant rocket engine to cut cost, weight, and complexity. When the technology level of the igniter reaches a sufficient level to be considered on a competitive tradeoff basis, NASA programs, i.e., Ares and Orion, will be obvious candidates for the acoustic igniter benefits. Commercial launch vehicles such as the Space-X Falcon 1 and 5 launchers, Pegasus, and Taurus are also candidates. Orion is developing its own small launch vehicle for commercial applications. Consequently, we will be performing such a trade off study when it is timely.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The acoustic igniter can be used in every current and planned liquid propellant rocket engine to cut cost, weight, and complexity. When the technology level of the igniter reaches a sufficient level to be considered on a competitive trade off basis, Non NASA programs, i.e., Air Force heavy lift launcher vehicles. Delta and Atlas, are likely prospects. Other vehicles, mostly foreign, such as Ariane, Soyuz, Long March, Vega, Proton, Athena and Zenit (Sea Launch) could be candidate users, if ITAR restrictions can be overcome.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Feed System Components


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X9.03-9640
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic and Non-Toxic Storable Propellant Space Engines
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nitrous Oxide Fuel Blend-Continuous Operation Lunar Thruster (NOFB-COLT)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Firestar Engineering, LLC
557 Burbank Street, Unit J
Broomfield, CO 80020-7160

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Fisher
david@firestar-engineering.com
557 Burbank Street, Unit J
Broomfield,  CO 80020-7160

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose conducting further development for a Nitrous Oxide Fuel Blend (NOFB) propulsion system. Phase I activities will concentrate on a revising a previous 5 lbf thruster to facilitate continuous operation with repeated restart. The thruster will utilize a novel new NOFB monopropellant. NOFB series monopropellant formulations have the following characteristics: 1) Non-toxic and readily manufacturable; 2) Vacuum specific impulse of 310+s (compared to monopropellant hydrazine's 235s); 3) Space-storable with wide temperature storage limits from <-77 C to >100 C; 4) High storage density at equivalent to twice as dense as monopropellant hydrazine depending on temperature; 5) Potentially highly throttleable due to very fast reaction kinetics; and 6) Self-pressurizing thereby simplifying the overall feed system architecture and reliability. Due to these desirable characteristics of NOFB monopropellants, Phase I funding is requested from the NASA SBIR program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Increasingly demanding in-space propulsion requirements will benefit from NOFB monopropellants. Lunar launders require high Isp rocket propulsion. By utilizing NOFB monopropellants, the mass associated with bipropellant system hardware can be eliminated without a significant decrease in Isp performance. Additionally, the limiting factor on many satellite's life is their propellant reserves. By increasing the Isp from hydrazine's ~230 s to NOFB3's ~310 s, greater total impulse can be achieved with the same mass as legacy propulsion systems. This will serve to either lengthen the life of a satellite, facilitate greater non-propulsion system payload, or a combination of both.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial spacecraft will also benefit from the increased performance of NOFB monopropellants. Launching satellites is an expensive endeavor. To maximize the cost/benefit ratio, extended satellite life is very attractive. Because our monopropellants have >30% improvements in specific impulse performance, a satellite's life can be extended without requiring larger and more expensive launch vehicles. The private sector can achieve longer satellite life without increased expenditures or decreased payload capabilities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Monopropellants
Propellant Storage
Feed System Components
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X9.04-8618
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Launch Vehicle Propulsion and Pyrotechnic Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Annular Hybrid Rocket Motor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SPACEDEV
13855 Stowe Drive
Poway, CA 92064-6800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffery Hickerson
Jeffery.Hickerson@SpaceDev.com
13855 Stowe Drive
Poway,  CA 92064-6800

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Engineers at SpaceDev have conducted a preliminary design and analysis of a proprietary annular design concept for a hybrid motor. A U.S. Patent application has been submitted and is pending approval. The annular hybrid motor is an improvement to hybrid rocket motor technology that can be used for a wide range of applications. The technology will lead to improvements in hybrid payload mass fraction, increased performance during throttling, and reduced costs associated with casting hybrid fuel grains. The technology is highly scalable and can be used for applications ranging from small thrusters on satellites, to launch vehicle booster applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
SpaceDev believes that the Annular Hybrid Motor has a wide range of possible applications to both government and commercial customers. Efficiency gains realized by decreased O/F shift and increased fuel utilization benefit all applications using the Annular Hybrid Motor. Similarly, cost savings associated with simplified fuel grain design and thermal management are beneficial across the board Applications that are currently being explored for the annular hybrid motor include: Compact motors for satellite applications Sounding Rockets Upper Stage Motors Full Launch Vehicle

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Given that space is at a premium in satellites – particularly in microsatellites and nanosatellites – the Annular Hybrid Motor's increased packing options would be of immediate benefit to satellite designers. Also, many satellite CONOPs call for multiple burns in their nominal missions as well as to be available for additional contingency burns. The improved restart ability of the Annular Hybrid Motor would be helpful in this regard for both satellite motors and upper stages. Finally, the Annular Hybrid Motor has possible applications in the space tourism market.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Propellant Storage
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Tankage


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X9.04-9517
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Launch Vehicle Propulsion and Pyrotechnic Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight Exit Cone for Liquid Rocket Engines

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Plasma Processes, Inc.
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville, AL 35811-1558

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Butts
dbutts@plasmapros.com
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville,  AL 35811-1558

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) J-2X engine will power the upper stage of the Ares I and the earth departure stage (EDS) of the Ares V, which will enable manned travels to the Moon and eventually Mars. Building on Apollo heritage, the J-2X is a derivative of the J 2 engine. One unique feature of the J-2X is its planned carbon/carbon (C/C) composite nozzle extension, which will replace the heavy metallic extension and increase engine performance. Currently, NASA and PWR plan to employ a Noveltex or Naxeco C/C nozzle extension from a foreign supplier on the J-2X. Plasma Processes Inc., with the support from ATK Launch Systems, proposes a program with the primary goal of demonstrating a domestically produced C/C composite nozzle extension for use on the J-2X. The specific objectives include evaluation of higher strength C/C materials and manufacturing methods, investigation of oxygen protective coatings and design of nozzle extension subcomponent. The team of Plasma Processes, Inc. and ATK Launch Systems offers a state of the art skill set that is uniquely suited to the Phase I program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Leading edges and control surfaces for hypersonic aircraft Propulsion components for space access and space return vehicles Propulsion components for Moon/Mars landing vehicles Common Extensible Cryogenic Engine (CECE)

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Nosetips , rocket nozzles and control vanes for strategic and tactical missiles Thermal control components for nuclear power applications. Crucibles

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Micro Thrusters
Monopropellants
Nuclear (Adv Fission, Fusion, Anti-Matter, Exotic Nuclear)
Solar
Ceramics
Composites
Metallics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X10.01-9681
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detachable, Human-rated, Ablative Environmentally Compliant TPS
PROPOSAL TITLE: Infiltration of Carbon Foam for Mid-Density Ablative Thermal Protection Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Touchstone Research Laboratory, Ltd.
The Millenium Centre, RR 1, Box 100B
Triadelphia, WV 26059-9707

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Harry Danford
hed@trl.com
Touchstone Research Laboratory, Ltd.
Triadelphia,  WV 26059-9707

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal addresses NASA's need for improved TPS materials. The incumbent CEV heatshield TPS for Orion's Block II lunar return is PICA, a low-density carbon fiber infiltrated with phenolic resin. Variants of PICA with improved thermomechanical properties would benefit future missions. This effort will create a series of "mid-density" ablative materials to fill the gap between low-density PICA and high-density Carbon-Carbon. Touchstone's carbon foam (CFOAM<SUP>REG</SUP>) has excellent thermomechanical properties, can be tailored to a range of densities (12 to 95 lbs/cu-ft), and has an open-cell structure allowing infiltration of high-temperature materials. Aspen Aerogels recently completed a Phase II subcontract with Touchstone demonstrating the capability of fully infiltrating CFOAM<SUP>REG</SUP> with phloroglucinol-furfuraldehyde carbon aerogels with chemistry similar to PICA's. Phase I will use carbon aerogel infiltration in CFOAM<SUP>REG</SUP> samples of 3 densities from 17 to 35 lb/cu-ft to be calcined at Touchstone to carbonize the aerogel, creating a mass of amorphous carbon within the pore structure. Filling CFOAM<SUP>REG</SUP> pores with pure carbon yields an inherent reduction in the TPS radiant heat transfer. Fully carbonized samples will be re-infiltrated with PICA phenolic resin, and sample characterization will be conducted via SEM to demonstrate the capability of producing small-scale Carbon Foam-Aerogel/Phenolic composites at various densities. At the end of Phase I, the TRL will be 3-4 and then 4-5 by the conclusion of Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Larger vehicle size and entry conditions of future NASA missions demand TPS materials beyond the PICA ablator in use since the 1976 Viking mission. This proposed effort will provide significant benefit to NASA by introducing a new class of TPS materials critical to upcoming explorations. With tailoring capability, the material has potential to create a suite of ablative TPS materials that can be chosen based on aerothermal conditions and density requirements of particular missions. The Astrobiology Mission to Mars is a new robotic sample return initiative where larger vehicles and higher re-entry speeds produce more severe combined environments (turbulent flow, combined convective and radiative heating rates) than previous missions. The ESMD Orion Block III crew exploration vehicle (Mars return) is a future NASA mission with the heatshield's TPS material to be determined. The TPS material challenge is that the heating rates will be five times greater than for lunar return.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The benefits of this effort stand to be of enormous value not only to NASA but also to the Department of Defense. The potential exists to use these (ablative) TPS materials for the U.S. Army Space & Missile Defense Command (SMDC) as thermal protection components of next-generation hypersonic weapon systems such as Kinetic Energy Interceptor (KEI) and the Advanced Hypersonic Glide Vehicle (AHGV). Large aerospace contractors such as Lockheed Martin, Boeing, and Raytheon stand to benefit from the development of these new TPS material solutions by providing new TPS technologies at a manufacturable scale to support key DoD initiatives.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ablatives
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Thermal Insulating Materials
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X11.01-8439
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control for Surface Systems and Spacecraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Efficient Space Hardy Thermoelectric Materials with Broad Temperature Range

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eltron Research & Development, Inc.
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder, CO 80301-3241

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Bley
eltron@eltronresearch.com
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder,  CO 80301-3241

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of this work is developing new thermoelectric materials for use in fabricating solid state cooling devices and electrical power generators, which are 200 to 300% more efficient than current thermoelectric materials and can operate in temperatures ranging from cryogenic to 700 C. These materials will be made from new nano-composites, using fabrication techniques developed at Eltron. The proposed thermoelectric composite's matrix has already demonstrated exceptional ability for functioning in the environment of space. Used in a cooling system, these materials will provide an effective means for controlling the temperature of surfaces subject to the rapidly changing temperatures encountered in space. They can be used to prevent development of large temperature gradients and thereby prevent the mechanical stresses that accompany them. Used for power-generation, these new materials will be very efficient both because of the properties that the nano-phase materials and its matrix bring to the thermoelectric material. Because of the difficulties presented in the harsh environment of space, thermal management and power generation is most easily provided through devices that do not have any moving parts, are very durable, do not require maintenance, and operate efficiently over a wide range of temperatures. The proposed materials meet all these requirements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In the past, NASA's interest in thermoelectric systems has stemmed both from the need for an effective means of temperature control via the Peltier effect for surfaces exposed to the rapidly changing temperatures that occur in space, and for use in generating electrical power via the Seebeck effect for space vehicles too distant from the sun for effective use of solar panels. The new materials being developed here will be capable of withstanding both high and low temperatures and so they can be used to prevent development of large temperature gradients and the mechanical stresses that accompany them on missions such as the upcoming Mars and Venus trips. This is particularly true of the Venus landing, where materials will need to withstand up to 500 C temperatures. The improvement in efficiency possible from these materials could make them competitive with solar cells as a power source for space missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful development of this technology could result in considerable improvement in efficiency over currently used evaporative systems used in consumer and industrial refrigeration. This technology would also be of great value to the electronics industry. Systems incorporating this new technology will run more quietly and will produce much less pollution than current refrigeration and air conditioning systems. They will not be subject to the maintenance problems common in the compressors used today. An efficient, solid state electrical power generator that uses heat as its energy source would also result from successful development of this technology. The Boeing Company is very interested in seeing this Phase I project succeed because of the great potential for reducing fuel in air vehicles. They have asked to be able to participate in this project in an advisory and reviewer capacity, as stated in their letter of support.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling
Composites
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Thermoelectric Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X11.01-8478
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control for Surface Systems and Spacecraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: VCHP Radiators for Lunar and Martian Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc.
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster, PA 17601-5688

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Anderson
bill.anderson@1-ACT.com
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster,  PA 17601-5688

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Long-term Lunar and Martian systems present challenges to thermal control systems, including changes in thermal load, and large changes in the thermal environment between Lunar (or Martian) day and night. The Lunar thermal environment typically includes long periods in extremely cold thermal environments. A variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) radiator will be developed that passively accommodates the changing thermal load and environment. In a VCHP, a non-condensable gas is added that blocks a portion of the condenser. The gas charge blocks more of the condenser as the heat pipe evaporator temperature changes. This allows the heat pipe evaporators (and any attached heat exchanger) to remain at an almost constant temperature. In addition to passively controlling the thermal load, the gas allows the fluid in the heat pipe to freeze in a controlled fashion as the heat pipe is shut down, avoiding damage. In addition, the gas in the VCHP will help with start-up from a frozen condition.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The immediate NASA application is for Lunar and Martian radiators that can passively accommodate the large swings in environmental conditions between Lunar (or Martian) day and night, including long periods at very low temperatures. In addition, the VCHP can passively accommodate large changes in thermal load, and avoid damage during periods of low thermal load. In addition, the non-condensable gas in the VCHP will help with the heat pipe start-up from cold conditions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A commercial application is VCHP heat exchangers in fuel cell reformers. In a fuel cell reformer, diesel fuel and air pass through a series of high temperature reactors to generate hydrogen. The operating temperature of the reactors must be closely controlled to maintain their chemical equilibrium. A typical system must maintain inlet and outlet temperatures within ±30<SUP>o</SUP>C despite a turndown ratio of 5:1 in reactant flow rate. The current scheme uses a bypass valve, which has several drawbacks: it requires active control, requires power, and has a large pressure drop. ACT believes that VCHP heat exchangers can replace the current heat exchanger and control system with a passive system that automatically maintains the output stream from the heat exchanger at a constant temperature.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X11.01-8908
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control for Surface Systems and Spacecraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight Thermal Storage Heat Exchangers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Energy Science Laboratories, Inc.
6888 Nancy Ridge Drive
San Diego, CA 92121-2232

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Timothy Knowles
tknowles@esli.com
6888 Nancy Ridge Drive
San Diego,  CA 92121-2232

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR proposal aims to develop thermal energy storage heat exchangers that are significantly lighter and higher conductance than the present art which involves significant metal weight. We aim to use carbon fiber for conductive and convective heat transfer enhancements and replace metal with novel carbon-polymer composites. The concept materials can be configured to serve a broad range of thermal management applications for NASA, in particular thermal storage heat exchangers. Phase 1 will gather NASA requirements for near term systems involving active cooling with single- and two-phase loops passive cooling with heat pipes. In particular the Constellation program and the Orion vehicle will be considered to assess the potential benefits of the proposed materials approach. Initial fabrication and characterization of the materials concept will be performed. Design options for Phase 2 development units will be prepared.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Reduced size and weight of thermal management hardware in Low earth orbit Lunar orbital and surface missions High power remote sensing Lidar and Radar instruments

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed materials could offer reduced cost of heat exchangers and thermal energy storage for Energy generation Defense Directed Energy programs (mobile high energy laser and high power microwave) Commercial refrigeration, HVAC equipment Computer server and consumer electronics

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X11.01-9722
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control for Surface Systems and Spacecraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Performance Low Mass Nanowire Enabled Heatpipe

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Illuminex Corporation
1064 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster , PA 17601-5606

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Youssef Habib
joe.habib@illuminex.biz
1064 New Holland Ave.
Lancaster ,  PA 17601-5606

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Illuminex Corporation proposes a NASA Phase I SBIR project to develop high performance, lightweight, low-profile heat pipes with enhanced thermal transfer properties enabled by utilizing copper nanowire arrays as the wick material in the heat pipe. Thermal management is a critical issue for advanced electronic and optical systems as current cooling techniques are being rapidly outpaced by the heat load of new technologies. Superior thermal control technologies are needed both for NASA's science spacecraft components and commercial products such as computers and medical lasers. The incorporation of nano-structured materials in heat pipe manufacturing will allow the development of thermal management devices with increased heat dissipation efficiency and a reduced size and weight profile as compared to currently utilized cooling approaches. Illuminex will develop processes to engineer the nanowire wick directly onto the heat pipe package, and using this approach, it s envisioned that heat pipe systems can be manufactured directly into the housings of devices requiring advanced thermal management. This nanotechnology enabled miniaturization can be further size reduced to near the MEMS level for cooling micro-electronics and sensors. Phase II will lead to full commercialization and manufacturing of high performance, low profile, and lightweight heat pipes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Heat pipes are passive, two-phase closed loop systems used for temperature regulation in electronic, power generation/conversion, and optical systems. They require no maintenance and consume no power, making them attractive components for space vehicles, satellites, and astronaut support systems. Illuminex innovation will result in size and weight reductions over current devices. Currently, NASA is developing nuclear electric propulsion systems for long-duration space missions like the Jupiter Icy Moon Orbital mission. Heat pipes are proposed for the transfer of waste heat from the power generation systems and for use in the radiator systems used for the dissipation of the waste heat. Heat pipe thermal control technology has also been proposed for electric power generation for a lunar habitat, for the Space Solar Power Project, and spacecraft thermal control. Improved capillary pumping capabilities in zero gravity and under acceleration in nanowire heat pipes could prove valuable in space applications where gravity assisted systems are not functional.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The thermal characteristics of high-power-density CPUs in today's high-end computing applications are rapidly outpacing the cooling capabilities of commercially available strategies. The primary devices driving the market for nanowire heat pipes are high performance microprocessors. Technological advances in thermal control are needed to accommodate rising power densities in new electronic and optical devices and a steady replacement of traditional heat sinks by hybrid heat sinks with embedded heat pipes. The initial market for the nanowire array wick heat pipes will be the niche market of high end specialty heat pipes designed for military and aerospace applications including laser, radar and antenna systems. The next anticipated specialty market is thermal management in high end servers, followed by portable computers and other electronic consumer goods. Illuminex has partnered with Thermacore Inc., the largest North American manufacturer and distributor of heat pipes to bring the advanced nanowire heat pipe technology to the market.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X12.01-9047
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Health Preservation in the Space Environment
PROPOSAL TITLE: Biomarker Detection using PS2-Thioaptamers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AM Biotechnologies, LLC
6023 Avenue S, #228
Galveston, TX 77551-5419

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Xianbin Yang
xianbin.yang@thioaptamer.com
6023 Ave S, #228
Galveston,  TX 77551-5419

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
AM Biotechnologies (AM) will develop a system to detect and quantify bone demineralization biomarkers as outlined in SBIR Topic "Technologies to Detect Biomarkers". AM will enhance the current clinical gold standard immunoassay methodology by using its proprietary bead-based aptamer selection process to select dithiophosphate backbone-modified (PS2) "thio" aptamers (PS2-thioaptamers) as replacements for antibodies in immunoassays. The PS2-thioaptamers are binding agents with functionality comparable to antibodies but with very long shelf-life under ambient environment storage. The PS2-thioaptamers bind much more tightly to their targets than regular aptamers without sacrificing specificity, and are much more nuclease resistant. AM's bead-based process allows selection and identification of PS2-thioaptamers, which cannot be directly selected using older aptamer technologies such as Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX). AM will also demonstrate PS2-thioaptamer integration into a state-of-the-art microfluidics instrument from Sandia National Laboratory that meets NASA's form factor needs for space flight. The Phase I Project will demonstrate detection and quantification of osteocalcin (OC) using a PS2-thioaptamer in a prototype microfluidics device (TRL-4). Phase II will entail completing the panel of biomarkers for bone demineralization and delivering a prototype of the system to NASA. In Phase III, AM and Sandia will deliver a flight test system to NASA and begin FDA validation of the system for potential use in clinical diagnostics of osteoporosis as well as other conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The combination of AM's proprietary PS2-thioaptamers with the microfluidics technology from Sandia National Laboratory will result in a biomarker detection and quantification system that is compatible with long duration spaceflight. The PS2-thioaptamers offer performance comparable to antibodies but have a very long shelf life and can be stored in ambient conditions. The Sandia microfluidics instrument is small, low mass, easy to operate and draws little power. The combination of these two technologies would result in a flight system that would enable NASA to detect and quantify bone demineralization biomarkers during long duration missions and would also enable NASA to develop other clinical diagnostic assays for many other conditions of interest. The stage of development of these technologies as well as the use of proven clinical diagnostic immunoassay methodologies enables AM to develop and deliver a flight test system quickly for near-term NASA flight research into bone loss as well as other conditions of interest.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A PS2-thioaptamer assay for potentially any condition that has FDA-approved biomarkers could be developed and integrated into the microfluidics instrument, which provides significant clinical diagnostic market commercialization potential. The PS2-thioaptamer binding agents could also be used in almost any detection/quantification technology thus opening the possibility of faster diagnostic market commercialization using current clinical devices. Prior to FDA-approved diagnostic applications, the PS2-thioaptamers could readily be used in a manner similar to antibodies for life science research. Additionally, since the PS2-thioaptamers are very nuclease resistant, it is possible that the same binding agents selected for diagnostic/research use could also be used effectively as therapeutics.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomolecular Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X12.01-9535
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Health Preservation in the Space Environment
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wearable Beat to Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Linea Research Corporation
781 Rosewood Drive
Palo Alto, CA 94303-3638

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yong Jin Lee
lee@linearesearch.com
781 Rosewood Drive
Palo Alto,  CA 94303-3638

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A key component of NASA's human exploration programs is a system that monitors the health of the crew during the space missions. The wearable physiological monitor proposed by Linea Research Corporation can be used to continuously observe the beat to beat blood pressure. The monitor can be used to observe the physiological effect of various countermeasures against prolonged exposures to reduced gravitational environments. The proposed device will allow the monitoring of the pharmacological effect on blood pressure over prolonged periods. Currently, beat to beat monitoring of blood pressure is done primarily in hospital settings through invasive procedures involving percutaneous insertion of catheters into the radial or brachial arteries. While non-invasive beat to beat blood pressures based on either the Penaz method or arterial applanation tonometry are currently available, they each have limitations. In addition, all monitors are based on large stationary equipment that requires the subject to be immobile. Successful implementation of the proposed program will result in an accurate wearable beat to beat blood pressure measurement.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Autonomous medical care for the crew during human exploration missions is critical in preventing degradation in health due to adverse physiological responses to space flight environments. A wearable multi-parameter physiological monitor that includes continuous blood pressure measurements will be crucial in providing proper medical support for both normal activities and medical emergencies. The device can be used to monitor the long term physiological effects of hypogravity and the effects of the countermeasures against hypogravitational environments. The device can also be used to monitor the health status of crew during extravehicular activities (EVA). The system will be developed with the goal of implementing the monitor as a wearable device which necessitates low power consumption and compact and lightweight form factor. The size criterion is a key factor for space applications as launch costs are directly determined by mass and volume.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed device can fundamentally change the way beat to beat blood pressure is measured in clinical settings. Currently, an accurate measurement of the beat to beat blood pressure requires an insertion of a pressure transducer into the blood vessel. While non-invasive methods that use the Panaz method or applanation tonometry exist, they do not provide the accuracy and repeatability provided by the invasive method. The goal of the proposed research is to develop an accurate beat to beat blood pressure monitoring device that will eventually eliminate the need for cannulation. The wearable nature of the device also provides significant market opportunities. There is a strong need for devices that can provide ambulatory monitoring of physiological parameters for the elderly or for individuals with chronic illness. There is also a market need for devices that can track the physiological status of individuals whose health is at risk from environmental hazards in their working environment (e.g. soldiers, first responders, mountain climbers, etc.).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Pilot Support Systems
Biomedical and Life Support
Optical
Portable Life Support
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X12.01-9625
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Health Preservation in the Space Environment
PROPOSAL TITLE: Handheld FRET-Aptamer Sensor for Bone Markers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Operational Technologies Corporation
4100 N.W. Loop 410
San Antonio, TX 78229-4253

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Bruno
john.bruno@otcorp.com
4100 N.W. Loop 410, Suite 230
San Antonio,  TX 78229-4253

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Astronauts lose approximately 1-1.5% of their bone mass per month during space travel due to a lack of physical stress in the microgravity environment. Although, no effective treatments or prophylactic regimens have yet been defined, it is important to monitor the bone loss process in space. As such, the sensor must be compact and facile to operate. Therefore, OpTech proposes to extend its already successful and patent-pending competitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-aptamer assay technology to the detection of bone loss and formation markers such as osteocalcin fragments, hydroxylysine, hydroxyproline, C-terminal and N-terminal telopeptides. In Phase I, OpTech will develop, clone and sequence aptamers to each of these markers. OpTech will also incorporate fluorophore-labeled dUTP into the sequenced aptamers by asymmetric PCR and complex them to their quencher-labeled bone markers for testing in buffer, animal sera, and urine. Finally, in Phase I OpTech will dry and reconstitute the assays that will be tested using a commercially available handheld, battery-operated fluorometer and validated using OpTech's spectrofluorometer. In Phase II, the FRET-aptamer assays will be optimized and packaged in special leak-proof sealed plastic cuvettes and delivered to NASA along with the handheld fluorometer for testing on the ISS or other space missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA would use this technology as a portable means for astronauts to self-monitor their bone loss with one-touch ease from urine or serum samples. Monitoring of other non-bone-related analytes by NASA would also be possible, if appropriate FRET-assays were developed.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Women and the elderly could use this system as a rapid and facile point-of-care diagnostic system to monitor osteoporosis and the efficacy of therapeutic regimens. The system might also be used to monitor bone repair following severe fractures or skeletal procedures related to plastic or reconstructive surgeries. In a broader sense, OpTech is developing FRET-aptamers for a wide array of analytes on Earth including foodborne and other pathogens and clinical analytes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Biomolecular Sensors
Biochemical
Biophysical Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X12.02-9208
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Exercise Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: The Constant Force Resistive Exercise Unit (CFREU) for Multi-Functional Exercise

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Valeo Human Performance, LLC
1235 Clear Lake City Blvd., Suite F
Houston, TX 77062-8105

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Colosky
pcolosky@valeopt.com
1235 Clear Lake City Blvd Ste F
HOUSTON,  TX 77062-8105

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's vision for future exploration-class missions has made countermeasures for muscle atrophy, bone loss and cardiovascular deconditioning areas of major research design and development within the U.S. space program. Due to restricted volume and mass capabilities within the newly-developing Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM), there is a need for a multi-functional, compact exercise machine that can incorporate both resistive and aerobic exercise capabilities during lunar sortie missions. The proposed innovation is an exercise device, the multi-functional Constant Force Resistive Exercise Unit (CFREU), that can provide a whole-body workout for aerobic exercise and resistive exercise. The device provides constant force eccentrically and concentrically during multiple exercise configurations, allows resistance selection in 2.5kg increments, requires no power to operate, requires no on-orbit maintenance, and can be stowed in an area of 1 cubic foot. During the Phase I performance period, we propose to develop a prototype of this device and a feasibility assessment of the design for spaceflight and commercial use.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Valeo's competitive advantage lies within the CFREU design. The unit is compact, easy to use, requires no power to operate, and requires no on-orbit maintenance or calibration. There is an evident need for a gravity-independent exercise unit that can provide a constant force for resistive exercise with integrated aerobic capability fashioned in a compact and lightweight design that offers familiarity, safety, and comfort during exercise.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Rehabilitation institutions would benefit from the multi-functional CFREU design. A portable exercise machine that can provide aerobic and constant force resistive capabilities in such a small volume is essential in clinical settings, and would prove especially beneficial in treating patients confined to bed rest. Physiologically, the constant force resistance provided by the CFREU is comparable to a traditional weight stack machine, but without the bulkiness and mass of weight plates. The personal home exercise equipment industry would also benefit from the multi-functional CFREU device. The compact force packs of the CFREU allow the overall unit to be small enough for easy use as a home gym. For the home gym design, future force packs can be designed such that they may be purchased individually by a consumer, and used as portable exercise devices when not in use with the full CFREU. Thus, the force packs replace the need for expensive, heavy, and bulky traditional weight plates, and allow portability.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X12.03-8958
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Exploration Medical Capability
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reusable Handheld Electrolytes and Lab Technology for Humans (rHEALTH Sensor)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The DNA Medicine Institute
116 Charles Street, Suite 6
Boston, MA 02114-3217

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eugene Chan
echan@dnamedinstitute.com
116 Charles Street, Suite 6
Boston,  MA 02114-3217

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of rHEALTH sensor is a universal handheld sensor that can provide rapid, low-cost complete blood count (CBC) with differential, electrolyte analysis, and potential for advanced lab tests such as biomarker analysis all in one single microfluidic sensor. The first innovation is that the device can perform multiple lab measurements in a single microfluidic device. Most sensors can only perform one test at a time, such as CBC analysis. Adequate health monitoring requires at the minimum measurement of CBC and electrolytes. Second, our microfluidic chip is reusable because of its flow-through design. This minimizes cost and obviates the need for bulky consumables. Third, our sensor uses fluorescent analyte sensing dyes and fluorescence technology, which allows the sensor to measure a broad range of analytes. In Phase I, we plan to fabricate a prototype microfluidic sensor and test it for its ability to perform both CBC and electrolyte measurements. Upon proof-of-principle, in Phase II, our goal is to complete and deliver a prototype rHEALTH sensor for NASA to monitor astronaut health on a routine and cost-effective basis.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
(1) Real-time health monitoring. The proposed rHEALTH sensor is designed to monitor daily astronaut status so that adverse health events can be managed. (2) Real-time intervention. The ability to measure routine health status allows clinical intervention at appropriate times. (3) Electrolyte measurement on a daily basis for long space flight. (4) CBC measurements on a daily basis. (5) Measurement of cardiac biomarkers for chest pain to rule out myocardial infarction. (6) Measurement of CBC and electrolytes in response to astronaut illness. (7) Monitoring of astronaut renal function to assess volume status. (8) Tracking of bone biomarkers and calcium levels throughout duration of missions to assess intangible bone loss and remodeling.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
(1) Real-time health monitoring. Development of the rHEALTH allows monitoring of health status in real-time at the bedside or doctor's office. (2) Real-time intervention. Clinical intervention can be accomplished rapidly in acute situations with a handheld monitor. (3) Measurement of daily hematocrit for patients on coumadin or other anti-coagulation to diagnose early blood loss. (4) Detection of acute myocardial damage rapidly and outside the hospital so that life-saving therapy can be administered for heart attack patients. (5) Monitoring resolution of a patient's infection by tracking white blood cell counts throughout a prolonged antibiotic course. (6) Monitoring daily renal function of patients with kidney transplants or those with end-stage renal disease. (7) Measurement of athletes volume status during prolonged training for early diagnosis and dehydration. (8) Daily monitoring of electrolyte status for those individuals taking diuretics. Frequently, diuretics such as furosemide may cause hypokalemia and need to have their daily electrolyte status assessed.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Biomolecular Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X13.01-8449
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Human Factors Assessment Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: CogGauge

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Design Interactive, Inc.
1221 E. Broadway, Suite 110
Oviedo, FL 32765-7829

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ali Ph.D.
ali@designinteractive.net
1221 East Broadway, Ste. 110
Oviedo,  FL 32765-7829

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Cog-Gauge is a portable hand-held game that can be used by astronauts and crew members during space exploration missions to assess their cognitive workload decrements that possibly result from fatigue, stress, or neurocognitive deficits. Cog-Gauge combines behavioral workload assessment using a dual-task approach with predictive workload models to counter the effects of game learning. The game will be built using an iterative usability driven approach where emphasis will be placed on building an engaging relevant game that builds from contextual task analysis and user profiling. The specific technical challenges foreseen are integrating two approaches of cognitive workload modeling, and using learning curves to model game learning, then using algorithms to determine a user's workload as soon as they complete a timed interaction with the game. Specific questions to address pertain to feasibility of proposed solution and hardware/software requirements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
CogGauge, once developed, forms foundations for several tools that can be integrated within shuttle (or its future replacements) controls to assess astronaut cognitive workload during a mission. Another possible expansion is to assess ground operations centers workload while monitoring a mission progress. In essence, the concepts/approach implemented in CogGauge can potentially expand to several applications within NASA that involve intense human-system integration.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
CogGauge can be potentially tailored for use by aircraft pilots to assess their cognitive workload after long flying hours. In many situations, the approach/algorithms implemented in CogGauge can be used to model an operator interacting with a complex system, these include: Command and Control, Power Plant Control Units, Nursing Stations, and so on. It is more and more required from single operators to monitors several stations, which is resulting in ever increasing overload, and currently, there is a lack of tools to monitor that increase in workload in real-time, this can be addressed using a real-time variant of CogGauge in systems such as airport security checkpoints, customs, police stations, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Human-Computer Interfaces
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X13.01-9164
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Human Factors Assessment Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Handheld CAT Video Game

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tietronix Software, Inc.
1331 Gemini Avenue, Suite 300
Houston, TX 77058-2794

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Victor Tang
vtang@tietronix.com
1331 Gemini Avenue, Suite 300
Houston,  TX 77058-2794

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed project is to design, develop and fabricate a handheld video game console for astronauts during long space flight. This portable hardware runs entertaining games that detect neurocognitive deficits and give an objective feedback to the astronaut about this decrement. This facilitates the crewmembers and flight surgeons to prescribe recommended countermeasures to the cognitive decrement.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project has a number of innovative aspects, which will provide the crewmembers an entertaining and portable tool for cognitive monitoring. Benefits include early detection of cognitive decrement and identification of cognitive decrement catalysts. It also provides a handheld gaming platform for the crewmembers to play multi-player interactive games to promote teamwork and to reduce stress during long space flight.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Handheld portable game console with an open architecture will attract a lot of game developers to build games on this platform. With the CAT game engine built-in the handheld game console, other non-violent games will be developed for all ages. This opens up a new type of game for the gamers. In addition, the DoD personnel can use CAT based video game to train their personnel as well as a recruiting tool.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Data Input/Output Devices
Human-Computer Interfaces


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X13.01-9560
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Human Factors Assessment Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Cognitive Assessment: Combining Measurement, System, and Mission

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NTI, Inc.
1 1/2 S. Central Avenue
Fairborn, OH 45324-4716

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert O'Donnell, Ph.D.
ODNova@aol.com
1 1/2 S. Central Avenue
Fairborn,  OH 45324-4716

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Existing cognitive performance test batteries consist of synthetic tasks that, while they may probe isolated cognitive functions, provide an incomplete and unconvincing picture of an individual's true cognitive capacity within the total context of space missions. In essence, they are 'laboratory' measures that appear unrelated to the real-world environment. This leads to user non-compliance or rejection. The present proposal describes a technique for integrating traditional cognitive performance measures with assessment of the system and mission in which the individual must operate. This yields quantified measures of the person's cognitive ability to perform specific jobs in space. Specifically, an entertaining and scientifically rigorous assessment tool is integrated with a sleep/fatigue model and a quantified workload estimate for each task. This is accomplished by selecting tests based on task analyses of what the astronaut actually has to do, using the Fatigue Avoidance Scheduling Tool (FAST) to predict performance capacity as a function of sleep/rest, and integrating a mathematical vector to quantify the workload of specific tasks. The resulting "Person-System-Mission (PSM) index" provides a totally new and unique way not only to assess present cognitive capability, but to diagnose specific causes of decrement, and to suggest remedial actions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As noted in the SBIR solicitation "Due to high intensity workload, disturbed sleep conditions, and other stresses of spaceflight, some astronauts have reported experiences of disturbed cognitive processes and fatigue." In any complex system, such disturbances can be catastrophic, and cannot be tolerated. Predicting the effects of such disturbances on specific tasks required of the astronaut, however, is essential since not all tasks require the same degree of cognitive capacity. The existence of a valid metric that is expressed in terms of the individual's ability to carry out specific tasks, rather than in terms of esoteric cognitive skills, will dramatically increase the value of the assessment tool to the individual, the commander, and the flight surgeon. This will lead to incorporation of such a metric on all spaceflights, especially those of long duration.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The principal non-NASA Government applications for the technology developed here will be in the Department of Defense and the Homeland Security Department. This is true for exactly the same reasons that the technology is of interest to NASA. Mission- and safety-critical jobs frequently involve stressful conditions such as fatigue and high workload in both of these agencies. In DoD, for instance, the need to assess the combat readiness of the dismounted warrior has led to the establishment of the "Cog-Fit" program, which is attempting to model the effects of combat stresses on the person's ability to perform their job. The Air Force has similar programs. Non-NASA commercial applications will involve marketing the technology to educational, industrial, and self-help organizations that will recognize the value of a scientifically well-grounded, entertaining system. For these reasons, it is expected that the present technology will receive immediate application in these and other Government agencies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Pilot Support Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X13.02-8489
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Food Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Biodegradable Food Packaging Material

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Modification, Inc.
2721-D Merrilee Drive
Fairfax, VA 22031-4429

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ramachandran Radhakrishnan
radha@matmod.com
2721-D Merrilee Drive
Fairfax,  VI 22031-4428

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As manned-space exploration missions are pursued further beyond low-Earth orbit, such as to the Moon or Mars, crewmembers must be supplied with good quality food to provide a complete diet over a period of three years or more. Current food-packaging materials result in major solid-waste management issues. Novel food packaging materials that will eliminate or reduce solid waste while preserving the quality of the food are required for long-term space travel and stay. Materials Modification, Inc. (MMI) proposes to develop a biodegradable packaging material that can be used to transport and store foodstuff during extended space travel and stay. A nanocomposite will be developed that will be mechanically strong, resistant to microbes and possess good barrier properties during period of use, biodegradable beyond the useful period, and microwave-safe.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Food packaging for long-duration space travel and stay

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Biodegradable food packaging material that can reduce or eliminate the use of polluting non-degradable plastics.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Sterilization/Pathogen and Microbial Control
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X13.02-9217
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Food Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Dual Use Packaging

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
PROVE IT, LLC
14514 Creek Crossing Drive
Orland Park, IL 60467-6046

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
George Sadler
george@proveitpdq.com
14514Creek Crossing Drive
Orland Park,  IL 60467-6046

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA seeks down-weighted packaging compatible with microwave preparation and perhaps high hydrostatic pressure processing. New packaging must satisfy NASA's 3-year storage mandate. Foil laminate containers meet NASA's oxygen, moisture and general shelf life demands; however, their weight, processing and disposal characteristic are not ideal. A previous NASA SBIR examined nanobarrier-containing packages; but these did not perform to NASA's needs. The current SBIR proposes to remove oxygen electrochemically, control moisture independent of the packaging, and also carefully selecting packaging materials to perform some second generation function. Using non-packaging-related control of oxygen and moisture allows versatile selection of primary packaging to permit packaging concepts unacceptable under NASA's existing packaging paradigm. These include edible packaging, soluble pre-weighed reconstitutable cartridges for beverages, and packages designed for compatibility with mission-grown foods. Primary food packs would be bundled in an overpack designed to remove oxygen and to manage moisture. The overpack would itself serve a secondary mission function. Overpack materials might include photovoltaic polymer sheets, light emitting plastics, or might simply serve a a waste or food storage function. Shifting oxygen and moisture control away from packaging allows package construction from much lighter material with reduced weight, processing and disposal limitations. A dialog on extravehicular food storage is proposed

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Only imagination limits the advantages of the overpack concept to NASA. At the most apparent level, the concept addresses NASA's desire for lightweight, waste-reduced, long shelf life, processing-compatible and food-preparation friendly packaging materials. At the secondary level, the concept provides reuses for obvious needs for foods grown shipboard, such as disposal, storage, repacking and perhaps waste processing. However, the strategy can also play a role at a level not as yet fully envisioned by providing innovative secondary polymer/plastic uses including: Fresnel lens to increase photovoltaic power, an illumination source from light emitting polymers, electricity from photovoltaic polymer overwraps, polymers which can be dissolved with or without heat to be recast, extruded, or spun into a veritable department store of novel items. Activation of packages with antimicrobials, antioxidants, enzymes, cell free extracts, bacteriophages, or other chemical, biological or biochemical surfaces would provide protection, production and other useful innovations to packaging. Whatever has value on earth will have incomprehensible value in space. Packaging will be designed for infinite reuse and not disposal.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The concept of non-packaging control of oxygen and moisture has value in any bulk packaging or storage application. The principles have relevance to Army rations which have shelf life demands similar to space rations. Electrochemical removal of oxygen could prolong the quality of bulk aseptic foods. The activation of packaging with chemical, biochemical or biological attributes provide novel approaches to enhance shelf life, to increase desirable attributes of foods, to identify and destroy pathogens, to announce the status of a food. Theoretically organelles and cell-free extracts could be attached to package surfaces to produce nutrients directly from carbon dioxide in the air. A package could be virtually converted into a single cell organism which carriers out many useful functions. Secondary uses for packaging could reduce disposal, add value to the container, and produce interest in the product. The processes of surface activation could have applications in the pharmaceutical industry for applying antimicrobial properties to bandages, shunts, catheters or other tissue-contact surfaces.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Inflatable
Tankage
Biomass Production and Storage
Waste Processing and Reclamation
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
In-situ Resource Utilization
Organics/Bio-Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X14.01-9532
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Small Personal Dosimetry
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Medipix-Based Small Personal Space Radiation Dosimeter

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nano EnerTex
4131 Grennoch Lane
Houston, TX 77025-2303

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ali Zomorrodian
lignatiev@netscape.net
4131 Grennoch
Houston,  TX 77025-2303

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR effort will take the first step in improving the existing Medipix dosimeter technology in terms of advancing the technique now used to couple the actual sensitive detector material to the underlying readout electronics. Prototypes of current Medipix2-based devices have been developed using "bump-bonding" techniques, and we will improve this design by employing direct epitaxial deposition of the detector layers onto the Medipix2 wafers. This will allow us to deploy very specialized detector structures within the detector layers that can enhance the efficiency and resolution of the device for neutron detection, as well as improving both the charge and energy resolution for charged particles. This includes the application of high hydrogen content polymer coatings to enhance neutron sensitivity. The epitaxial technique will also produce more mechanically robust detectors and potentially avoid one of the significant failure modes for such hardware, namely loss of contact at the bump-bonding sites. Versions of the current bump-bonded prototypes exist that are essentially the size of a typical USB Flash-Memory plug-in device, and like those "USB-Smart-Drives," these prototypes can be fully powered and read-out electronically via standard USB interfaces such as found on most current laptop computers

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA needs for monitoring radiation exposure and hence crew health in the space and lunar environments requires an efficient, low mass, low volume, low power dosimeter. The ability to deploy the proposed dosimeter technology within a crew member's extravehicular space suit as well as to provide active real-time monitoring within spacecraft and on the lunar surface, including the provision for giving alarms directly to the crew members themselves as well as to download archival data to the associated ground-support personnel, will be invaluable in satisfying NASA's needs for portable active personal dosimeter.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential commercial applications for the compact radiation sensor are multi-fold with medical, radiation security, homeland security, DoD and high energy physics arenas that can be addressed by the detectors. Of immediate interest and the largest market is the radiation security market which includes the medical market. Monitoring of exposure to radiation in the private sector is an important segment, and when linked with the ability of the Radiation Dosimeter to read out in real time through USB connections the radiation environment, this promises to be a very profitable business area. Further, DoD and homeland security areas also will benefit from the development of the compact and versatile dosimeter additionally enhancing the business proposition.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Particle and Fields
Human-Computer Interfaces
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
High-Energy
Suits


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X14.03-8416
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Neutron Spectroscopy
PROPOSAL TITLE: Spectroscopic Dosimeter

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Merril Corporation of Utah, dba MSI Photogenics
P.O. Box 511283
Salt Lake City, UT 84151-1283

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Czirr
bart.czirr@missionsupport.us
515 East 1860 South
Provo,  UT 84606-7312

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
MSI Photogenics has combined two new technologies for neutron detection into a system that has the potential to offer enhanced neutron spectroscopy for several NASA programs. The detector utilizes lithium gadolinium borate, a new scintillator offering a number of performance improvements over existing materials, and capture-gated signal analysis a technique that identifies neutrons by a unique dual signal produced in the detector. Only neutrons produce this signal, giving the detector excellent discrimination against background and the ability to measure the energy of the neutrons. The program will determine the detection efficiency of this system for 12 neutron energies; thermal, epithermal and energies from 1-10 MeV. The detection efficiency for neutron energies between 10-150 MeV will also be investigated. An estimate of neutron dose will be developed using the ICRP factors for neutron energies and the accuracy of the dose estimate provided by the Photogenics system will be evaluated.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is seeking improved neutron spectroscopy to enhance its characterization of the space environment and has also identified a need for improved accuracy in the estimate of neutron dose experienced by astronauts on long space missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This spectrometer/dosimeter will have numerous commercial applications, including as a survey instrument, area monitoring device, and for personal radiation protection. The existing technology for neutron dosimetry is cumbersome, difficult to use, and does not provide accurate spectroscopic or dose data.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Particle and Fields
Biophysical Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I X14.03-9491
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Neutron Spectroscopy
PROPOSAL TITLE: CMOS-Based Neutron Spectroscopic Dosimeter (CNSD)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Christian
JChristian@rmdinc.com
44 Hunt Street
Watertown,  MA 02472-4699

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Monitoring space radiation and the dose received by astronauts is important, especially for future long-duration missions. Neutrons contribute a significant component to the total radiation dose during solar events. We propose to develop a rugged, compact, lightweight, non-hazardous CMOS-based detector technology for an existing neutron spectroscopic dosimeter system. The existing system utilizes a unique gelled scintillation material, which enables the discrimination of neutron signals from gamma background using time profile of the scintillation signal. We will demonstrate that the ultra-compact CMOS-SSPM integrated with its readout electronics can replace photomultiplier tubes and its discrete readout components used in the existing neutron spectroscopic dosimeter system. When coupled to the existing system, the proposed technology will demonstrate a technology readiness level of 4. This provides the necessary basis for a flight-ready neutron spectrometer system able to efficiently detect neutrons with energies up to 150MeV, and capable of rejecting gamma-ray and charged particle backgrounds using, respectively, the pulse shape discrimination characteristic of the gel scintillation detector and the of anti-coincidence scintillation detectors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
During space flight, both the immediate rate and neutron exposure information can be recorded simultaneously by the proposed high-efficiency spectroscopic dosimeter. The lightweight, compact size and inexpensive nature of the CMOS SSPM sensors also opens the possibility of creating a radiation monitoring network for comparison of radiation exposure, including individual monitors for each crewmember with online data for the whole mission and ground-based research for comparison. The CMOS environment used to fabricate the SSPM with its integrated electronics enables low-cost and lightweight space-radiation dosimeters and solar particle monitors for NASA satellites, whose size and weight is limited only by the active neutron-sensitive scintillation material.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of a compact fast neutron dosimeter will be very useful for non-NASA applications such as: 1. Measuring the neutron dose for the radiological workers in National Labs such as the LANSCE\WNR facility at LANL where 70% of the neutron dose equivalent is due to neutrons with energies > 10 MeV. 2. Fast neutron spectrometry in spallation sources, where the neutron energy range covers a large region up to few hundred MeV. It can be also used for neutron monitoring of the ADS (accelerator driven system) for transmutation purposes. 3. For the employees of the Department of Homeland Security at the U.S. points of entry. 4. For environmental monitoring (such as during the management of nuclear waste). 5. In medical applications such as fast neutron therapy. 6. Protecting satellites and ground-based equipment from solar flares. 7. As high altitude commercial flights become more prevalent, active dosimeters can provide the redundant safeguards and information required to protect companies from unnecessary litigation and passengers from hazardous radiation conditions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Particle and Fields
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.01-8427
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wavelength Stabilized High Brightness Direct Diode Pumps for Solid State LIDAR Systems at Eye-Safe Wavelengths

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
nLight Photonics
5408 NE 88th Street, Building E
Vancouver, WA 98665-0990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kirk Price
kirk.price@nlight.net
5408 NE 88th St. Bldg E
Vancouver,  WA 98665-0990

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Proposed is a high power, high efficiency, high reliability compact eye-safe LIDAR source. The diode pump source is an electrically series-connected array of single emitters coupled into an optical fiber known commercially as Pearl. During the course of the program nLight will transfer and improve its present record 1470-nm diode technology to a AuSn solder bond line, while also elongating the cavity for better performance. During the second phase of the program, internal gratings will be added to the diodes to narrow the emission line width providing better absorption in the Er:YAG system and a Er:YAG laser meeting the requirements set forth in the solicitation, pumped by the source developed over the course of the program's two phases, will be demonstrated.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Any LIDAR application may be addressed by the deliverable of this program. While the design is targeted toward an eye-safe fiber coupled 1470-nm high-power source pumping an Er:YAG solid state laser, the system is, by design, wavelength agnostic. Hence, the fiber coupled source laser may be populated with any wavelength diode laser in nLight's inventory (from 635-nm to >2 microns) with only suitable changes to the optical coatings. Further, the process development of the AuSn bond line necessary to achieve the high power from the source is also applicable across nLight's diode wavelength range. The development under this program is therefore applicable to the pumping of all solid-state lasers or in direct-diode applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology developed under this program has broad application to non-NASA markets. Particularly in the defense and security community, the need for ever more powerful, compact, efficient end reliable LIDAR sources appears to be growing without bound, with eye-safe sources being of considerable emphasis. Using the example of intelligence gathering by unmanned vehicles, compactness, lightweight, high efficiency and reliability dramatically reduce payload overhead for the LIDAR. The module to be developed under this program also has application in direct-diode medical applications (such as dentistry and surgery) and sensing applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.01-9084
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: 355nm Photon-Recycled Fringe Imager for HSRL

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michigan Aerospace Corporation
1777 Highland Drive, Suite B
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-2285

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scott Lindemann
slindemann@michiganaerospace.com
1777 Highland Drive, Suite B
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-2285

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed work is to develop a high-efficiency aircraft-qualified Fabry-Perot-based interferometer for the High Spectral Resolution LIDAR (HSRL). Through this Phase I effort, Michigan Aerospace Corporation (MAC) will perform instrument simulations to optimize a photon-recycled fringe imaging receiver to meet the HSRL measurement requirements. Photon-recycled fringe imaging technology incorporates the use of high-efficiency Charge Couple Devices (CCDs) to enable range-gated measurements with high spectral resolution of the atmospheric backscatter from molecules and aerosols. During this Phase I effort, MAC will also perform a thorough investigation of the current state of commercial and customizable CCD technology in order to ensure the highest level of efficiency and range resolution available is achieved. The optimized 355nm receiver will be capable of spectrally separating the aerosol and molecular backscatter components in order to deduce the aerosol to total scattering ratio and aerosol extinction. End-to-end simulations will enable a thorough characterization of the measurement biases introduced from instrument instabilities and enable driving requirements to be formed for a Phase II build. Also during Phase I, solid model receiver concepts and trade studies will be performed to enable a smooth transition to Phase II so that the HSRL receiver can be ready for flight in 2008.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The principal application are future NASA LIDAR satellite missions seeking to measure global aerosols. A complimentary application of this technology is for remote sensing of global tropospheric winds, however the receiver requires a different optimization for this measurement. The HSRL instrument technology is intended to transfer to Unmanned Aeronautical Vehicles (UAVs) in the future so the technology developed here could be used for these applications as well. Beyond the HSRL development and NASA satellite missions, the receiver technology could be used in small ground stations for aerosol and cloud observations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology has significant implications in the military arena. The ability to detect the presence of aerosol pathogens in the atmosphere is critical to protect military personnel and civilian population. The HSRL instrument will be capable of identifying areas containing unusually high concentrations of aerosols, recognizable by higher backscatter signal associated with micrometer-size particulates. Mounted on a UAV, the instrument will provide a quick assessment of the atmospheric conditions. The aerosols include biological material, chemical clouds and radionuclide releases.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.01-9270
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Single Frequency Lasers for Space-Based Wind and Aerosol Lidar

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fibertek, Inc.
510 Herndon Parkway
Herndon, VA 20170-5225

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Floyd Hovis
fhovis@fibertek.con
510 Herndon Parkway
Herndon,  VA 20170-5225

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR will develop single frequency cw laser technology for 2um lidar and UV interferometer locking control critical to NASA missions that will measure atmospheric winds and aerosols. NASA recently completed the Earth Science Decadal Study that identified atmospheric global wind and aerosol measurement as high priority missions with recommended satellite deployments within the next decade. Our general approach to this SBIR is to perform proof of concept research that results in optical designs that can be readily integrated into existing flight ready hardware. After Phase 2 we anticipate the technology will readily transfer to NASA mission use. We expect successful completion of the proposed work to increase the TRL from 4 to 5. The innovation of this SBIR is the development of space-qualifiable CW single-frequency lasers at 2 µm and 355 nm, products that are not commercially available. Numerous pulsed 355 nm sources are available for commercial applications but they are not space-qualifiable. There are several scientific investigations of 355 nm CW lasers described in the literature but no effort has been made to create high vibration aircraft nor space qualified products available to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The lasers that would be developed in the proposed SBIR would meet the following NASA needs. 1. We have supplied the GSFC researchers with the pulsed single frequency 355 nm transmitters for both their GLOW and TWiLiTE systems. They have also expressed an interest in a stable CW 355 nm laser for locking the etalon filters in those systems 2. We have supplied NASA LaRC researchers with the pulsed laser transmitters that they are using on their original High Spectral Resolution Lidar aerosol lidar system as well as their next generation High Spectral Resolution Lidar/Ozone DIAL lidar systems. They have expressed an interest in a stable CW source at 1064 nm for seeding the primary pulsed oscillator, 532 nm for locking to an iodine absorption line, and 355 nm for locking a receiver etalon. 3. Both NOAA and NASA LaRC have expressed an interest in procuring stable CW 2 µm lasers for use in their coherent wind lidar systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The non-NASA commercial potential for the lasers we would develop in the proposed SBIR include the following. 1. For use in a direct detection wind lidar system that would to fly on NOAA's Gulfstream IV-SP aircraft. 2. As the seed laser for a water vapor DIAL laser transmitter we recently proposed in response RFQ from the University Center for Atmospheric Research. 3. We have recently delivered field hardened single frequency lasers to Michigan Aerospace Corporation, Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems, and the Air Force Research Labs for wind lidar and space-based demonstrator applications. Being able to supply the field hardened/space-qualifiable seed lasers needed for future versions of these systems would be a new product line for Fibertek. 4. NOAA researchers have expressed an interest in procuring stable CW 2 µm lasers for use in their coherent wind lidar systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.01-9308
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Efficient Tm-Fiber-Pumped Ho:YLF Laser System for Coherent LIDAR Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Q-Peak, Inc.
135 South Road
Bedford, MA 01730-2307

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alex Dergachev
dergachev@qpeak.com
135 South Road
Bedford,  MA 01730-2307

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to employ a recently developed, efficient, high-power, heavily-doped Tm:silica-fiber technology as a high-gain fiber pre-amplifier and as a fiber-laser-pump for the laser crystal Ho:YLF to provide a 2050-nm source for remote-sensing applications, including coherent DIAL systems. The resultant source has the potential for much higher electrical efficiency than current technology. One of our innovations is the use of a directly diode-pumped, heavily-doped Tm:silica fiber laser as the pump, to provide efficient conversion of electrical power to optical pump power. The second innovation is the use of heavily-doped Tm:silica fiber as a high-gain pre-amplifier for a low-power 2050-nm master oscillator. The third innovation is made possible by the high gain available from our fiber-laser-pumped Ho:YLF amplifiers. In contrast to seeded oscillators, our laser system has enough gain to amplify a cw, externally-modulated, single-frequency laser, allowing control of the pulsewidth and wavelength while preserving the frequency stability of the source. The use of a Tm-fiber preamplifier simplifies the system architecture and increases the system efficiency. In the Phase I effort, we plan on demonstrating the amplification of a cw, single-frequency laser, as well as developing designs for complete compact, efficient mJ-level lidar sources.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed work has direct application to NASA coherent lidar programs based on the use of eyesafe, 2000-nm region lasers. The system concept we propose provides improved performance, by the nature of the direct amplification of cw, single-frequency lasers, the potential for improvement in overall system efficiency and the reduction in the required number of diode pump lasers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many commercial applications of coherent lidar that will become viable once their cost and complexity is reduced significantly. That the system be eyesafe is definitely a requirement since concerns for public safety will outweigh any potential benefits of non-eyesafe sources.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.01-9711
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: All-Fiber Components for Micro-Structured Fibers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aculight Corporation
22121 - 20th Avenue SE
Bothell, WA 98021-4408

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Minelly
john.minelly@aculight.com
22121 - 20th Avenue SE
Bothell,  WA 98021-4408

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose new concepts for developing components for high performance space based Lidar systems. While it is generally recognized that photonic crystal fiber technology can extend the performance range of fiber laser based sources these fibers are considered by many to be incompatible with complementary component technology such as fused couplers and pump combiners. Integration of these fibers into real systems for deployment either in space or terrestrial systems is hindered by the very structure which brings the advantage in effective area and nonlinearity mitigation. The problem is related to the air holes which provide guidance for both pump and signal. Our proposal centers not on developing sophisticated new component manufacturing techniques but rather on modifying the micro-structured gain fiber itself to retain the desirable advantages while eliminating the problems associated with component development. This can be achieved by use of only refractive index micro-structuring to create an all-solid structure with index control an order of magnitude better than direct deposition techniques. In the phase I program we will demonstrate an all solid micro-structured gain fiber with effective area >500µm2, as well as showing the feasibility of fabricating compatible tap couplers and pump combiners.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A number of planned NASA Remote Sensing Missions will include Active Sensors utilizing lasers. These missions include advanced Altimetry of the Earth Surface for Ice Sheets, Vegetation Biosphere, and other measurements. Atmospheric phenomena such as CO2, Methane and Water Vapor can also be measured using laser based lidars. These applications typically use pulsed, high-peak-power lasers to enable long range measurements from orbit. Despite the great availability of commercial components, there are some key components that need to be developed or optimized to be particularly suited for NASA's applications. These include advanced gain fibers to support high pulse-energy and peak-power pulses and associated coupler components to enable mechanically robust architectures. These innovations will help expand measurement capabilities to space borne or Unmanned Ariel Vehicles (UAV's. Our program will help enable these missions through the continual advancement of laser technology to improve laser efficiency while maintaining brightness, spectral purity and reliability.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The work proposed in this program is considered as a stepping stone to scaling by at least an order of magnitude the performance of deployable fiber laser systems at high TRL level. While the targeted applications in this proposal are for space and high atmosphere Lidar systems the outcome is expected to feed into other areas requiring high peak power, or energy combined with excellent beam quality. Possible application areas include directed energy, frequency conversion, materials processing and active imaging. Aculight and many other organizations are actively pursuing laser development in these areas and will all benefit from the component development which reduces the differences in fiber handling, termination, splicing and tapering of microstructured fibers when compared to fibers made by direct chemical vapor deposition and conventional preform draw.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.01-9794
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Energy Single Frequency Fiber Laser at Low Repetition Rate

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Polaronyx, Inc.
470 Lakeside Drive, Suite F
Sunnyvale, CA 94085-4720

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jian Liu
jianliu@polaronyx.com
470 Lakeside Drive, Suite F
Sunnyvale,  CA 94085-4720

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR phase I project proposes a tunable single frequency high energy fiber laser system for coherent Lidar systems for remote sensing. Current state-of-art technologies can not provide all features of high energy and efficiency, compactness, narrow linewidth, super frequency and power stability, low noise, and high extinction ratio at the same time. PolarOnyx proposes, for the first time, a high energy (100 mJ) single frequency (< 1 KHz) PCF fiber laser transmitter to meet with the requirement of solicitation. This proposal is based on the spectral shaping sub-mJ fiber laser we have achieved in our labs. In the high power amplifier stage, PolarOnyx proposes an innovative fiber based regenerative amplifier approach by employing our patent pending proprietary technologies in fiber lasers, that will be able to operate at low repetition rate (10 Hz to 1 kHz) and reach high energy level of 100 mJ. These will make the fiber laser transmitter system superior in terms of wall plug efficiency (over 30%), energy(100 mJ), noise, size, and cost. A tabletop experiment will be demonstrated in Phase I time frame for proof of concept. A compact prototype will be delivered in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Immediate NASA applications include LISA, coherent communications and lidars. By frequency doubling to 532 nm and quadrupling to 266 nm, it will be able to find other applications for optical sensing systems. Other military applications include coherent systems for airborne lidars and laser transmitter for satellite communications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
• Medical equipment and biomedical instrumentation. The high power laser can be applied to ophthalmology, refractive surgery, photocoagulation, general surgery, therapeutic, imaging, and cosmetic applications. Biomedical instruments include those involved in cells or proteins, cytometry, and DNA sequencing; laser Raman spectroscopy, spectrofluorimetry, and ablation; and laser based microscopes. • Military / aerospace. The proposed fiber laser can be directly used in military applications, and space, aircraft, and satellite applications such as LIDAR systems, remote sensing system, illuminator system, and phase array antenna system.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomolecular Sensors
Laser
Optical
High-Energy


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.01-9894
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Space-Qualified Single Frequency Fiber Laser for LISA

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Polaronyx, Inc.
470 Lakeside Drive, Suite F
Sunnyvale, CA 94085-4720

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jian Liu
jianliu@polaronyx.com
470 Lakeside Drive, Suite F
Sunnyvale,  CA 94085-4720

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Single frequency high power lasers have been considered to be an enabling technology for NASA's Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). PolarOnyx proposes, for the first time, an ultra low noise high power (> 1W, scalable to 10W) single frequency (< 1 KHz) fiber laser source to meet with the requirement of solicitation. It is a specialty fiber based MOPA. The mode selection in seed laser is achieved by using a fiber based ultra narrow bandpass filter. The side mode suppression ratio can thus be suppressed over 80 dB. In the amplifier stage, our unique spectral shaping technology enables us to reduce the SBS and ASE noise significantly by using a commercially available YDF and reuse the residual pump to further increase the efficiency. Radiation hardness will be intensively studied in selection of space qualified fibers and components. A tabletop experiment will be demonstrated in Phase I time frame for proof of concept. A compact prototype will be delivered in Phase II meeting major space qualification such as radiation hardness.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Immediate NASA applications include LISA, coherent communications and lidars. By frequency doubling to 532 nm and quadrupling to 266 nm, it will be able to find other applications for optical sensing systems. Other military applications include coherent systems for airborne lidars and laser transmitter for satellite communications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed fiber laser can be directly used in space, aircraft, and satellite applications such as LIDAR systems, remote sensing system, optical fiber sensors, illuminator system, and phase array antenna system. Single frequency lasers represent the next generation of critical optical components. The market is growing and will be of great potential for the next a few years. There are a number of commercial applications for the proposed fiber laser. These include material processing (several billions market), medical instruments (several hundreds of millions market), and fiber telecommunications (tens of billions market).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Laser
Gravitational
Optical
High-Energy


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.02-8288
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid Ocean Wind Sensor (HOWS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Remote Sensing Solutions, Inc.
P.O. Box 1092
Barnstable, MA 02631-1105

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Carswell
carswell@remotesensingsolutions.com
3179 Main Street, Unit 3
Barnstable,  MA 02630-1105

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposed Phase I effort will investigate and develop the necessary innovations to realize the Hybrid Ocean Wind Sensor system that will provide critical measurements to support the XOVWM planned for 2014 and serve as a true testbed for this mission by providing active and passive, C and Ku-band measurements of the ocean surface from high altitude platforms. The Phase I effort will focus on developing the HOWS system design and determining the design and feasibility to realize a low loss electronic steering, dual beam antenna and a low power, compact transceiver module that supports active and passive remote sensing of the ocean vector wind. The proposed HOWS system will acquire measurements critical to assessing the design of the next generation scatterometer missions planned for 2014 (XOVWM). The HOWS system also fulfill a critical need of TPC/NHC for continuous, accurate, wide area coverage of the oceans surface vector wind field and provide hurricane researchers at HRD and other institution with critical measurements to improving the understanding of tropical cyclone intensification. The NASA Global Hawk UAV and the NOAA G-IV aircraft are just two potential platforms for this instrument. With its lower power, stealthy active and passive design, it is perfectly suited for military theatre operations and search and rescue operations over the ocean.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed HOWS system will acquire measurements critical to assessing the design of the next generation scatterometer missions planned for 2014 (XOVWM). Currently there are systems that acquire a subset of the measurements that XOVWM will collect, but none that collect the full suite. HOWS measurements will help verify the XOVWM concept from its ability to collect active and passive C and Ku-band measurements to SAR processing. Further, the measurements obtained with this system can be used to advance the retrieval algorithms for XOVWM prior to its launch. This will aid in calibration / validation efforts and in providing high quality products to the science and engineering communities at an earlier stage.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The HOWS also could fulfill a critical need of TPC/NHC for continuous, accurate, wide area coverage of the oceans surface vector wind field and provide hurricane researchers at HRD and other institution with critical measurements to improving the understanding of tropical cyclone intensification. The NASA Global Hawk UAV and the NOAA G-IV aircraft are just two potential platforms for this instrument. RSS will aggressively seek follow-on funding from the DOD for deployment of a HOWS-like sensor for their Global Hawks. Its lower power, stealthy active and passive design suites their theatre requirements and its ability to map the precipitation and ocean surface vector wind field at high resolution and over wide areas can provide critical information to near coastal operations. Civilian and military marine search and rescue operations are also prime applications for HOWS. RSS will seek partnership with larger companies already involved with DOD.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Microwave/Submillimeter


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.02-8869
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reconfigurable L-band Radar Transceiver using Digital Signal Synthesis

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2737

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arvind Bhat
abhat@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville,  MD 20855-2737

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
IAI proposes to develop a reconfigurable L-band radar transceiver module. The emphasis will be to implement most of critical radar functionalities like: • Baseband modulation signals • Orthogonal high frequency pseudo random codes for pulse compression • Direct Digital synthesis (DDS) or numerically controlled oscillators (NCO) for generating RF carrier reference signal • DDS driven Frequency sweep for FMCW (Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave) radar functionality • Sigma-Delta technique to direct carrier synthesis • Received signal processing to generate I/ Q components on a single embedded platform. Such a platform will be a combination of high speed DSP and FPGA on one board. This will considerably reduce the component count and form factor for a radar transceiver design. By simply programming an FPGA with a different "bitstream" file, we can control the radar functionality as pulse modulated or frequency modulated. This work will be synergistic with ongoing efforts at IAI, which involves L-band radar design. Advantages of such a system are: &#9679; Reconfigurable radar transceiver, not just in operational bandwidth/ carrier, but also in modulation (pulsed/ frequency swept) &#9679; Low form factor &#9679; Low power consumption

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology is built upon the radar design and communications expertise of IAI, developed over several SBIR and non-SBIR contracts. Our innovation is the digital synthesis of critical radar blocks and reconfigurable design to support most commonly used radar modes. Our proposed technique can be used for a wide range of remote sensing applications for NASA including: • High bandwidth channel sounders • Weather surveillance radar for aircrafts • Earth science measurements like surface deformation, topography and soil moisture measurements • Non-cooperative target tracking radar in air space IAI has a long history of successfully designing custom radars for DoD and NASA, and most NASA applications could be supported by our reconfigurable radar design.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most promising Non- NASA commercial applications are: • Reconfigurable radar for commercial applications • Digital waveform generation • High speed digital waveform reader • UAV based applications (due to the small form factor and plow power). This would include UAV based weather surveillance, target tracking and other commonly sought after UAV radar applications IAI has tremendous experience of designing customized radar assembly and packaging them as field-ready units. Again, if technically the project is successful, we will approach large, established companies in this market segment with the goal of licensing our technology and possible collaboration for Phase II efforts.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
RF
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Microwave/Submillimeter
Highly-Reconfigurable


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.02-8910
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Space Compatible Radar Absorbing Materials

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Energy Science Laboratories, Inc.
6888 Nancy Ridge Drive
San Diego, CA 92121-2232

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Yamaki
ryamaki@esli.com
6888 Nancy Ridge Drive
San Diego,  CA 92121-2232

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase 1 project shall investigate novel radar absorbing materials (RAM) for use in space or simulated space environments. These materials are lightweight composites having novel fiber architecture, enabling a combination of performance characteristics not available with conventional RAM: high broadband absorption, lightweight, low outgassing, low contamination, and high power capability. The fiber materials potentially serve a functional role in composite radar absorbing structures. Phase 1 will gather performance requirements and assess the potential benefits compared with current baseline materials. Selected fiber configurations will be prepared and characterized.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed RAM materials are intended to serve in NASA thermal-vacuum testing of MW and RF hardware such as transmitters, radar altimeters, and remote sensing. Upcoming Mars missions rely on radar altimeters that require associated vacuum-compatible RAM.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
RAM is used for testing and evaluation of radio frequency hardware. MW and RF technologies are important in Defense, where RAM serves in low observables, and in Wireless Communications, where RAM is used for shielding.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Facilities
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
RF
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.02-9359
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Dual Polarization Multi-Frequency Antenna Array

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Spectra Research, Inc.
2790 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440-3639

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Reuster, Ph.D.
dreuster@spectra-research.com
2790 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton,  OH 45440-3639

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Innovative approaches for broadband multi-function antennas that conserve vehicle weight and reduce drag are welcome solutions for all airborne platforms including suborbital vehicles, where less total weight translates to longer mission times, less expensive payloads, and more acrobatic flight control. The Spectra Research team proposes an innovative approach to accomplishing the program objectives by employing advances in fragmented aperture antenna designs, and Meta-Materials research, in concert with the extensive Spectra Research capability in designing broadband antennas, to develop a low weight, low profile antenna system capable of operation over the electromagnetic region from 10 to 40 GHz. Designs will be addressed for antenna elements that can accommodate either broadband or multiband operation with polarization diversity. The primary technical objectives of the proposed program are to apply the advances in fragmented aperture arrays toward the goal of achieving an innovative broadband reconfigurable array. Extensive research conducted by Spectra Research in the area of fragmented aperture topologies have shown that this technology is ideally suited for applications requiring extremely broad bandwidths (in a reduced footprint) coupled with the capability for rapid reconfigurability of the antenna aperture. Such reconfiguration can accommodate efficient beam scanning, beam forming, and rapid polarization diversity (switching between various polarization modes). A key area of investigation will be into the application of fragmented aperture arrays, meta-materials, and continuously-variable distributed-circuit phase shifters using thin-film ferroelectric technologies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of compact highly efficient antennas capable of dual polarization transmit/receive in the C- to Ka-Band will significantly enhance NASA capabilities for highly directive communications between astronauts on Lunar or Mars exploration missions. Polarization diversity is a vital element in maintaining optimum antenna-to-antenna linkage under adverse orientation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed program is an important step towards continued commercialization of thin conformal antenna arrays coupled to thin-film devices and phase shifters and low cost receive and transmit/receive modules for electronically scanned antennas for military and civilian use. There is a significant civilian market for low cost phased array antennas, particularly for mobile satellite communications applications. There is a clear market pull for versatile arrays for both military electronics and the commercial broadband wireless and satellite communications arena. In addition, there are numerous opportunities for other tunable devices in the commercial wireless sector. The key features offered by fragmented aperture arrays and thin-film BST are extremely low cost and enhanced versatility over a wide range of frequencies by virtue of the wide "tunability" of the devices. We are confident that this broadband/multi-band array project can help achieve an instant market for commercial phased array antennas for applications targeted at mobile users and also have applicability in the commercial satellite market as well since these sub-arrays will scale to other bands relatively easily.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
RF


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.02-9629
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Pulsed Power Amplifier for Enhanced Transmitter Power Output in L- and P-band T/R Modules (2007045)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hittite Microwave Corporation
20 Alpha Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824-3596

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Helms
helms@hittite.com
20 Alpha Road
Chelmsford,  MA 01824-4123

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
For active microwave surveillance of earth surface and atmosphere, radar transceivers perform functions of probing the atmosphere and the surface conditions of the earth. The primary objective of Phase 1 is to establish a design baseline for a high-efficiency pulsed power amplifier MMIC/module operating at L-band frequency. Hittite has been working on development of L-band MMICs for all those functions and integration of the entire T/R module using an E/D PHEMT process. The transmitter power output of the current program is limited to about 2 watts. In Phase 2, the program objective should be expanded to include integration of the complete T/R module using the process compatible with the GaN amplifier design. The amplifier technology developed so far will be expanded to provide a design of a pulsed amplifier operating at the higher output level first. The second crucial part of this proposal is to establish a design baseline for pulsed power switches with power output capabilities at 300 watts at a max of 20% duty cycle.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Power amplifiers are critical components in all communications and radar transmitters. Improved power output and power-added efficiency will aid performance of transmitters and reduce the size of the payload. Such power amplifiers will be found useful in all space-borne platforms with limited allocation for size and weight for component parts. The end product of the proposed program, therefore will have applications in space-borne transponders, earth and space exploration radars, radio-frequency spectrometers, radiometers, and others.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
WBG devices offer higher power output, higher efficiency, and tolerance to higher temperature. Amplifiers made of WBG devices will ultimately replace amplifiers made of GaAs devices used in many commercial communication systems. Those systems include: wireless infrastructure, satellite ground terminals, point-to-point radios, etc. Hittite markets its MMIC products via two routes: by custom design of chips and modules to specific customer needs and by the sale of catalog items of those parts with generic applications potential. The products emerging from the proposed program will ultimately belong to the latter category, and Hittite will underwrite the cost of productization and product introduction. The current family of GaAs VCOs, and prescalers are examples of successful commercial products. Hittite derives over 80% of its revenue from commercial sales of its standard products.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
RF


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.02-9952
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Digital Conically Scanned L-Band Radar

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dynamic Sensing Technologies
125 I Brittany Manor Dr
Amherst, MA 01002-3147

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luko Krnan
luko@dynamicst.com
125 I Brittany Manor Dr
Amherst,  MA 01002-3147

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed effort seeks to develop a digitally steered polarimetric phased array L-Band radar utilizing a novel, high performance architecture leveraging recent advances in radio frequency and digital signal processing components. The driving methodologies will be the minimization of costly and inflexible analog circuitry, adoption of standardized manufacturing processes, and inclusion of reconfigurable software/firmware architectures to facilitate fulfillment of varied sensing requirements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The conical scanning beamforming scatterometer leverages recently developed processing technology in order to enable collocated measurements of emission and backscatter in a compact aircraft instrument with no moving parts. These measurements are not currently available in NASA's L-Band radar systems. The measurements support Earth science applications and are an important step in the path to space for L-band scatterometer/radiometer systems. This short term goal of this work would be to enable collocated measurements with the 2-D Electronically Steerable Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR) instrument. In addition this work serves as validation for the Soil Moisture Active/Passive Mission (SMAP) mission which will carry a mechanically conical scanning radiometer/radar system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is a generalized interest in transitioning from current mechanically scanned radar systems. In many applications, current systems have been designed to serve a narrowly defined purpose. Lower cost, agile phased array systems capable of supporting multiple operating modes targeted at different problems will be well-poised to fit emerging sensing needs. This transition process has already started in the fields of atmospheric remote sensing and aviation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Microwave/Submillimeter
Highly-Reconfigurable


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.03-8994
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Passive Microwave Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Schottky Heterodyne Receivers with Full Waveguide Bandwidth

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Virginia Diodes, Inc.
979 Second Street SE
Charlottesville, VA 22902-6172

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffrey Hesler
Hesler@VADiodes.com
979 Second Street SE, Suite 309
Charlottesville,  VA 22902-6172

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal is responsive to NASA SBIR Subtopic S1.03: Passive Microwave Technology, specifically the fourth bullet item; "Low noise (<2000 K DSB), compactly designed (< 8 cm3), heterodyne mixers requiring low local oscillator drive power (<2 mW) with RF input frequency between 100 GHz to 1 THz." The proposed research is significant not only for the development of Schottky mixers that meet these requirements, but also for the creation of a receiver system, including the LO chain, that achieves the goals of high sensitivity, compact size, low total power requirement and operation across complete waveguide bands. The proposed receivers will meet all of the requirements for high resolution spectroscopic studies of planetary atmosphere's (including the Earth's) from spacecraft, as well as airborne and balloon platforms. Perhaps more importantly, their exceptionally broadband performance, compactness and reliability will make them ideal for the broader range of scientific and commercial applications, which includes the extension of sophisticated test and measurement equipment to 1 THz and the development of low cost imaging systems for security applications and industrial process monitoring.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology that will be developed in this research will enable the development of more power efficient and frequency agile heterodyne receivers to be used in NASA's submillimeter-wave missions that will not utilize cryogenically cooled receivers. These include long term missions to planets that cannot afford the expense or are of too long duration for cryogenic systems and studies of planetary atmospheres that do not require the absolute lowest sensitivity but rather benefit from the frequency agility, robustness and stability of Schottky receivers. Primary examples of NASA missions are those to study planetary atmospheres, such as VESPER, MACO and MARVEL, and Earth observing satellites such as SIRICE and possibly Cameo. In addition, there are a host of balloon and aircraft projects that routinely use room temperature heterodyne receivers to study atmospheric chemistry.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Compact, reliable and manufacturable terahertz receivers with improved power efficiency, bandwidth, reliability and cost efficiency are useful as basic laboratory test and measurement equipment. For example, it takes only five full band receivers to span the entire frequency range from 140 GHz through 900 GHz. A set of such receivers, configured to interface with commercially available frequency sweepers, would comprise a powerful suite of laboratory instruments, especially as frequency extenders for spectrum and network analyzers. This is a huge potential market that can be tapped only through the successful development of low-cost receivers that operate across complete waveguide bands. Other scientific applications of this technology include chemical spectroscopy, radio astronomy, plasma diagnostics, biomaterial analysis, electron spin resonance, and diagnostic instruments for particle accelerators. Defense applications include compact range radars, covert communications systems, imaging systems, and chemical, explosive and bioagent scanners. Biomedical researchers envision the use of terahertz imaging and spectroscopy for the real time analysis of skin diseases such as skin cancer. Potential large-scale commercial applications of the proposed terahertz technology include portal security imagers and scanners, medical diagnostics for clinical use, last-mile data links, and industrial process control.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Microwave/Submillimeter


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.03-9150
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Passive Microwave Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Noise Millimeter Wave LNA

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
JJW Consulting, Inc.
1500 New Horizons Blvd.
North Amityvile, NY 11701-1130

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Whelehan
pingship@yahoo.com
1500 New Horizons Blvd
North Amityvile, NY,  NY 11701-1130

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Phase I effort will result in a low noise MMIC G-Band amplifier the covers the entire 165 to 193GHz frequency range. The amplifier will be designed using a 50nm MHEMT that has already been developed by BAE Systems that enables the state-of-the-art performance to be achieved. The innovative amplifier design will have a gain of 20dB, a noise figure of less than 6dB(~4dB, an input output VSWR of less than 2:1. In addition, the MHEMT has the added advantage of having lower noise power stability and 1/f noise than InP devices. A balanced amplifier is the primary approach while a single ended unit will be investigated for missions that require reduced bandwidths. The MMIC amplifier will be designed to be inserted into a waveguide housing for additional and environmental testing in a Phase II program. At completion of the Phase II program, the amplifier will be capable of being space qualified for NASA missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The low noise G-Band amplfier that uses the 50nm MHEMT has numerous applications.It can provide the key element to enhance system sensitivity for remote satellite applications in the millimeter wave region. Due to its capability, the amplifier design can be extended to 340GHz for remote sensing. The design can be extended into the microwave region that has the potential to enhance the sensitivity and allow more flexibility in the designs of existing and new systems being developed by NASA.The enhanced noise power stability and 1/f noise improvement will enable radiometers with greater stability to be desgined. Overall, the amplifier design with the 50nm MHEMT has the potential to enhance most of NASA's remote sensing and communication systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The enhanced sensitivity that will be provided by this amplifier design with the 50nm MHEMT has numerous applications in non-NASA commercial applications. One of the main areas is the development of imaging systems up to and including the terahertz region. The 50nm device has the potential to provide low noise amplification up to 340GHz, The Department of Homeland Security as well as other commercial companies has shown great interest in these imaging system for security as well as preventing terroist activities.Another area of interest is the development of all weather landing systems for the commercial avaition industry. The potential use of this technology in the commercial applications are many.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Pilot Support Systems
RF
Microwave/Submillimeter
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.04-8475
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ge Quantum Dot Infrared Imaging Camera

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luna Innovations Incorporated
1703 South Jefferson Street SW, Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016-4909

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Roman Ostroumov
submissions301@lunainnovations.com
3157 State Street
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-6604

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Luna Innovations Incorporated proposes to develop a high performance Ge quantum dots-based infrared (IR) imaging camera on Si substrate. The high sensitivity, large format imaging camera with a spectral response in the 1-4um region is extremely important for many NASA space and Earth programs. Luna's approach will allow significant reduction in price of the infrared imaging camera, increase pixel count and radiation hardness, reduction of dark current, increase of operation temperature while keeping all other performance metrics competitive with current state of the art technologies. Furthermore, Si substrates is very attractive in IR FPA technology, not only because it is less expensive and available in large area wafers but also because the coupling of the Si substrates with Si readout circuitry in an FPA structure allows fabrication of very large arrays exhibiting long-term thermal cycle reliability.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Development of large format, high sensitivity IR sensors for ground-based astronomy is the goal of many observatories around the world (large arrays dramatically multiply the data output of a telescope system). Surface measurements in the spectral range from approximately 1 to 4um can do to help resolve remaining ambiguities of surface mineralogy in Planetary Explorations. Another example is celestial observations in the 1-4um band. Several components contribute to this band: stars, galaxies and zodiacal light. Currently observations are controversial to the theoretical predictions and large format, high detectivity imager operating in the 1-4um window is needed.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Over the past 25 years, the availability of high performance infrared detectors has spurred commercial applications in spectrometry, protein analysis, fire detection systems, preventative maintenance, process control, and astrophysical studies. Much of the recent growth is centered on environmental applications, such as pollution detection and medical applications, such as blood analysis. Also, portable low power infrared imaging cameras will be an integral part of the future soldier's equipment in near future. The development of the low cost infrared detector will allow immediate increase of the fighting capacity for the US DOD ground forces.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.04-9545
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: GaAs JFETs for Extremely Low-Noise, Deep Cryogenic Sensor Readout

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
GPD Optoelectronics Corporation
7 Manor Parkway
Salem, NH 03079-2842

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rufus Ward
rrward@gpd-ir.com
7 Manor Parkway
Salem,  NH 03079-2842

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Ultrasensitive sensors used in NASAs scientific missions (for example infrared sensors) typically require operation at deep cryogenic temperatures for optimum performance. However, to make full use of their performance requires an ultralow-noise preamplifier co-located in the same, or a nearby, cryogenic environment at liquid-helium (~1-4 K) or sub-Kelvin temperatures. A severe impediment to making such preamplifiers is the lack of a semiconductor device with satisfactorily performance in the liquid-helium range (or even below ~40 K). Past use of Si JFETs (operating at ~80 K or higher) has required awkward work-arounds. More serious is that upcoming missions will employ ever more sophisticated and complex sensor systems. What served in the past will be inadequate. Specifically, Si-based technology will not be adequate for preamplifiers needed for advanced sensor systems in upcoming missions and could become the bottleneck in performance and scientific return. Consequently, we propose to develop GaAs JFETs that can exhibit extremely low noise to the lowest cryogenic temperatures (4 K and lower). Our approach is to fabricate the JFETs specifically for low-noise, deep cryogenic operation and to use a novel, proprietary design for the JFET that avoids factors that contribute to noise generation in standard GaAs JFETs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's scientific space missions need cryogenic electronics for use with high-performance mission-critical sensors that must operate at "deep" cryogenic temperatures (liquid-helium and sub-Kelvin temperature ranges). These sensors include 1) Infrared sensors (photoconductive, long-wavelength bolometers, Si BIBs, and InAs staring arrays, for example), 2) Visible-range photodetectors (in cryogenic environments), 3) X-ray detectors. Categories 1) and 3) are essential for astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology missions; 2) is used for precision spacecraft pointing in conjunction with cryogenic instruments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Infrared and X-ray ground-based observatories; gravitational-wave detection; fundamental particle physics; high-energy physics; research on superconductive devices, magnetic spin transistors, single-electron transistors and other quantum devices; measurement of mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of materials, including superconductors and semiconductors; magnetic resonance imaging; scanning tunneling microscopy and acoustic microscopy; and X-ray spectrometry systems for materials analysis.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Instrumentation
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.05-8972
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detector Technologies for UV, X-Ray, Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Blocking Filters with Enhanced Throughput for X-Ray Microcalorimetry

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luxel Corporation
515 Tucker Avenue
Friday Harbor, WA 98250-1879

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Hagen
mark.hagen@luxel.com
515 Tucker Ave.
Friday Harbor,  WA 98250-1879

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
X-ray microcalorimeters have developed to provide unprecedented energy resolution and signal sensitivity. To take maximum advantage of the microcalorimeter's performance, a new and improved blocking filter stack is needed to further enhance low level sensitivity and mission throughput. The innovation proposed, high transmission polyimide support mesh fabricated using photolithography, will replace the nickel mesh used in previous blocking filter designs. The proposed mesh will be thinner than known comparable supports and will be produced freestanding such that it can be readily combined with filter foils of all types. The polyimide mesh will demonstrate at least 10% higher transmission than nickel at all energies, and will become essentially transparent above 3 keV. Mesh structures will be fabricated using three different photolithographic processes and compared both freestanding and in combination with filter foils to determine feasibility. The proposed innovation along with thinner materials will improve mission throughput and effective area significantly for microcalorimeter payloads on proposed Small Explorer missions, NeXT, and Spectrum-X-Gamma in the near term as well as Constellation –X.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Enhanced filter throughput is needed technology to meet NASA's Universe and Sun-Earth Connection program goals. The availability of x-ray filters incorporating new high-transmission polyimide mesh would dramatically enhance stacked filter specifications, such as the blocking filters for x-ray microcalorimeter spectrometers proposed for Spectrum X Gamma, NeXT, new Small Explorers, and Constellation-X, particularly for observations at higher energies. Lower energy x-ray filters and EUV filters would benefit from the increase in overall transmittance from the proposed geometry of the mesh. Extremely thin carbon or polyimide foils used in ENA MCP detectors and time of flight spectrometers would be improved with a strong support that minimizes shadowing. .

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Extreme ultraviolet and x-ray filters for the GOES satellite series. Thermal barrier windows for laboratory-based astrophysics using x-ray microcalorimeters. Windows for energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) systems used with scanning electron microscopy as well as calorimeter-based EDS systems. New support mesh for zirconium pellicles used in extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical
High-Energy
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.05-9011
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detector Technologies for UV, X-Ray, Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: SiC Avalanche Photodiodes and Arrays

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aymont Technology, Inc.
27 Kent Street, Suite 105A
Ballston Spa, NY 12020-1543

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Larry Rowland
rowland@aymont.com
27 Kent Street, Suite 105A
Ballston Spa,  NY 12020-1543

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aymont Technology, Inc. (Aymont) will demonstrate the feasibility of SiC p-i-n avalanche photodiodes (APD) arrays. Aymont will demonstrate 4 x 4 arrays of 2 mm2 APDs for visible-blind high-sensitivity UV detection. These arrays will exhibit high gain (10^6), high quantum efficiency (peak < 50%), and high speed (). They will demonstrate scalability, allowing for larger arrays (20 x 20) in Phase 2. They will give nearly 2x the quantum efficiency of other solid state solutions such as Si at UV wavelengths.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High-sensitivity, large-area ultraviolet light detection is essential for detection of species that may indicate presence of organic processes such as sulfur oxides, hydrocarbons, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, ozone, and nitrogen oxides. Better, higher resolution ultraviolet detection than currently available is necessary for future missions. Arrays of SiC APDs will meet the imaging and analysis needs of TPF and subsequent possible missions such as Life Finder and the Large UV/Optical Telescope over the next two decades. Specific NASA missions using near ultraviolet detectors include Terrestrial Planet Finder, and NASA's Astronomical Search for Origins program. These missions require exceptional sensitivity for species detectable in the UV that may indicate organic processes, the presence of water, or perhaps life. These species include sulfur oxides, hydrocarbons, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, ozone, and nitrogen oxides.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SiC APD arrays can be used for flame sensing, environmental monitoring, biodetection, gamma detection in combination with appropriate scintillator crystals for oil-well drilling and radiation detection applications, and other applications currently covered by photomultiplier tubes (PMT). Achievement of performance comparable to or better than PMTs without need for high supply voltages (1000V), at smaller size and weight, at faster speeds, and at lower component cost will allow these APDs to replace PMTs in many commercial applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.05-9286
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detector Technologies for UV, X-Ray, Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Coating Technology for Enhanced Performance of Microchannel Plates for UV Detectors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SVT Associates
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344-3677

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Feng Niu
niu@svta.com
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie,  MN 55344-3677

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this NASA SBIR Phase I proposal we propose to apply a highly conformal coating of ZnO and AlN or a double layer of GaN to the surface and internal pore walls of conventional microchannel plates (MCP). This will lead to enhanced secondary electron emission (SEE) and, thus, improve MCP gain for UV /X-ray detectors. The ZnO/ALN(GaN) hetrostructure using nano ZnO needles as templates has been demonstrated to exhibit significantly higher SEE yield for electrons, ions and X-ray beams. The coatings will be carrid out by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The key advantages of ALD include 1)super conformity of coatings and nearly 100% step coverage on very high aspect ratio substrates, which is well suited for coating highly porous MCP wafers with a aspect ration ~100; 2)super thickness and composition control; 3)continuous and pin hole free quality films; and 4) easy to scale up for large area deposition at low cost. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time the advanced ALD process has been proposed as a way of improving UV detector performance of MCPS. If successful, this technology will provide an effective method of modifing the MCP surfaces by coating them with high SEE yield films that will dramatically improve the gain of conventional MCPs. This will enhance the performance of UV detectors required for various NASA missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future experiments and NASA astrophysics missions can benefit from the development of the proposed technology by using these modified MCPs to improve UV detector performance. In addition to astrophysics applications, in situ planetary instruments (fluorescence and Raman) can benefit greatly from a stable, high efficiency solar blind UV detector for detecting minerals and organics. Longer-term missions will continue to benefit from the combination of high efficiency, solar blindness, and photon-counting capability of novel and upcoming silicon MCP designs that could incorporate this technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This advanced process has potential not only for many NASA missions requiring improved detector performance in the UV, X-ray to gamma ray ranges, but also for military and civil industry applications where MCPs are already broadly used for things such as imaging, mass spectrometry and night vision detectors. Particle analyzers may be produced by using a MCP detector at the output of an electrostatic and/or magnetic dispersion system. Very highly sensitivity optical, UV and EUV and X-ray spectrometers can also be produced with appropriate filtering and dispersive elements. Microchannel plate technology is also used to make visible light image intensifiers for night vision goggles and binoculars.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Beamed Energy
Teleoperation
Control Instrumentation
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Biomolecular Sensors
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Instrumentation
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Optical
Tools
Mission Training
Photonics
In-situ Resource Utilization
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Biophysical Utilization
Thermodynamic Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.05-9289
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detector Technologies for UV, X-Ray, Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Power X-Ray Photon Resolving Imaging Array

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Black Forest Engineering, LLC
PO Box 8059
Colorado Springs, CO 80933-8059

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stephen Gaalema
sgaalema@bfe.com
12930 Morris Trail
Colorado Springs,  CO 80908-3231

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Instruments employing X-ray detection are countless, in different sectors from medicine to industry and from basic to applied science. Given this importance, and despite existing technologies, there is still need for X-ray detection with increased system performance. The solid-state detector array is the primary technology to implement the current generation of space borne high-energy astronomy missions that are managed by NASA in partnership with the international community. Readout integrated circuitry (ROIC) specifically designed for photon resolving X-ray detection with solid-state detectors will create a new generation of high-performance X-ray imaging sensors. AC coupled detector input circuitry, similar to that used by Black Forest Engineering (BFE) for laser detection and ranging (LADAR), is ideally suited to NASA X-ray astronomy imaging system requirements. BFE proposes on Phase I to design, process and test detector input circuitry to meet a wide range of NASA X-ray imaging applications. The input circuit, when implemented into an ASIC X-ray imaging ROIC, manufactured and integrated with a solid-state detector array on Phase II, will provide single photon sensitivity, accurate X-ray energy determination, X-ray event time stamping, low power dissipation and ambient temperature operation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The X-ray imaging technology developed on this SBIR will meet NASA's soft-to-hard energy requirements. One specific application is the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST); however, the design approach is applicable to a wide range of X-ray imaging systems and future systems such as Constellation-X. The readout approach is compatible with a wide variety of X-ray detectors for maximum utility. Power requirements are low to support space-based applications. The X-ray imager design and packaging approach is compact to allow 4-side abuttable imager assemblies to create large focal plane arrays.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This imaging technology, with single photon sensitivity, reduces dose requirements for medical and commercial X-ray imaging applications. Elimination of many other background and noise sources provides the ability to resolve X-ray energy. There is a great potential to be explored with more elaborate methods of processing single photon signals. The image sensor can use two thresholds to select an energy band out of a continuous spectrum or perform image subtraction with one X-ray illumination. While single photon imaging with X-ray sensors will not displace conventional film and continuous integration imager approaches (such as charge coupled devices), the ability to work over a wide X-ray energy range and to process those images using signal energy level discrimination methods, will improve image quality of many existing X-ray systems and create new imaging applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.05-9739
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detector Technologies for UV, X-Ray, Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Silicon Microchannel Plate Large Area UV Detector

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Gertsenshteyn
sutama@poc.com
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance,  CA 90501-1821

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To address the NASA GSFC need for efficient UV photodetectors for NASA missions, such as the follow-on to FUV detectors of the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Silicon Microchannel-Plate-Based Large-Area UV detector (UV-Si-MCP). It is based on a solar-blind, highly efficient GaN photocathode and POC's silicon microchannel plates (Si-MCPs). The high-quantum-efficiency, negative electron affinity GaN photocathodes will be fabricated directly on the entrance surface of the Si-MCP. This is possible because of the substrate's ability to withstand high temperatures and its compatibility with GaN application. This enables us to meet NASA requirements for a UV detector with high sensitivity, resolution, and reliability. The UV-Si-MCP offers high quantum efficiency (50%) and >10^9 channels, for better detection of faint objects with improved spatial and spectral resolution. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the UV-Si-MCP by fabricating and testing a preliminary prototype, exhibiting TRL-4. In Phase II POC will develop a fully functional (TRL-6) prototype with up to 10^9 readout channels and quantum efficiency up to 50%. The demonstrated results will offer NASA capabilities to improve our understanding of the origin of the universe and its evolution to modern form.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed highly efficient, large-area UV photodetector will directly contribute to the success of future NASA missions planned within several research programs, such as the Explorers, Discovery, Origins, Beyond Einstein, and Vision Missions. Current and future missions that will rely upon this technology include HST-STIS, GALEX, COS, EUVE, XMM-OM, CHIPS, and FAUST.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The testing and characterization of POC's large-size, highly sensitive UV photodetectors in government and independent research organizations will promote their utilization in a variety of non-NASA applications. We expect that besides missile plume detection, our UV-Si-MCPs will be used in scientific instrumentation for the investigation of fluorescence in organic and unorganic substances. We also expect that with other types of photocathodes deposited directly on the front surface of POC's MCP, the photodetectors developed will be successfully used in a very broad spectrum of applications, such as night vision, underwater vision and communications, and atmospheric research.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Optical
High-Energy
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.06-8463
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Particles and Field Sensors and Instrument Enabling Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Self-Calibrating Vector Helium Magnetometer (SVHM)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Polatomic, Inc.
1124 Commerce Drive
Richardson, TX 75081-1954

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Slocum
bob_slocum@polatomic.com
1124 Commerce Drive
Richardson,  TX 75081-1954

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase I SBIR proposal describes proposed development of a conceptual design for a Self-Calibrating Vector Helium Magnetometer (SVHM) for design and fabrication of a SVHM brass-board model in Phase II. The SVHM instrument is capable of making both scalar and vector component measurements of Earth and planetary magnetic fields. The SVHM innovation is use of the scalar field value to self-calibrate the vector measurements thereby eliminating the three fluxgate vector magnetometers and an independent scalar magnetometer usually required to correct for fluxgate drifts and offsets. The SVM concept was demonstrated under an ESTO IIP contract. The SVHM concept can achieve a dynamic range of +/-100,000 nT, vector and scalar accuracy with self-calibration of 1 nT, and sensitivity of 5 pT /„©Hz. Miniaturization of the SVHM instrument to meet volume, power and mass goals will be achieved using fiber-coupled laser pump source and resonance drive, which permits miniaturization of the SVM sensor by reducing helium cell volume, by a factor of 10. The feasibility of designing and fabricating a brass-board SVHM model using advanced laser and digital components will be established in Phase I. A self-calibration and test protocol will be developed for demonstration in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SVHM will have a variety of commercial and military applications including measurements of the magnetic fields around the Earth in support of monitoring the solar magnetic field activities for telecommunication applications and climate change predictions. The SVHM will be used at the Earth's surface for geophysical airborne and surface magnetic prospecting as well as the new standard for geomagnetic observatories. The laser-pumped scalar helium magnetometer technology is currently being developed in high sensitivity (0.3pT„©Hz) magnetometers for use by the US Navy for submarine detection and mine countermeasures applications. The SVHM capabilities of outstanding accuracy, scalar and vector measurements, omni-directionality without dead zones, and high-frequency detection will open up a variety of applications in commercial security and surveillance applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Laser magnetometers can become the new state-of-the-art instrument for magnetic observatories and scientific instrumentation for geomagnetic investigations. A combination of absolute accuracy, greatly improved sensitivity, omni-directionality, and high frequency detection could also open up new applications for portable magnetometers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Particle and Fields


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.06-8715
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Particles and Field Sensors and Instrument Enabling Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Range Scalar Helium Magnetometer (HSHM)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Polatomic, Inc.
1124 Commerce Drive
Richardson, TX 75081-1954

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Slocum
bob_slocum@polatomic.com
1124 Commerce Drive
Richardson,  TX 75081-1954

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase I proposal describes development of a conceptual design for a High-range Scalar Helium Magnetometer (HSHM) for the field range +/-16 Gauss. The HSHM conceptual design will establish the feasibility of a model brass-board HSHM in Phase II. The HSHM instrument is capable of making scalar measurements of Earth and planetary magnetic fields over a range of +/-16 G using a digital resonance loop design already demonstrated in the Juno SHM instrument. The major HSHM design innovation is use of a new fiber-coupled laser pump-source and resonance drive. The laser pump-source permits miniaturization of the sensor unit by eliminating three helium lamps and a helium cell, as well as the resonance RF drive cables and RF resonance coils at the sensor. This innovation permits reduction of the sensor volume by a factor of 10 while decreasing sensor power and mass. The HSHM can achieve a scalar accuracy of 1 nT, and sensitivity of 5 pT/„©Hz. The Phase I conceptual design will guide the design and fabrication of a brass-board HSHM model using advanced laser and digital components in Phase II. A test and calibration protocol will be developed for the HSHM calibration in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
- The HSHM will have a variety of commercial and military applications including measurement of the magnetic fields around the Earth in support of monitoring the solar magnetic field activities for telecommunication applications and climate change predictions. The HSHM will be used at the Earth's surface for geophysical airborne and surface magnetic prospecting as well as the new standard for geomagnetic observatories. The laser-pumped scalar helium magnetometer technology is currently being developed for high sensitivity magnetometers to be used by the US Navy for submarine detection and mine counter-measures applications. The HSHM characteristics of outstanding scalar accuracy, omni-directionality (no dead zones), and high-frequency signal response will open up a variety of applications in commercial security and surveillance applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Laser magnetometers can become the new state-of-the-art instrument for magnetic observatories and scientific instrumentation for geomagnetic investigations. A combination of absolute accuracy, greatly improved sensitivity, omni-directionality, and high frequency detection could also open up new applications for portable magnetometers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Particle and Fields


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.06-8996
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Particles and Field Sensors and Instrument Enabling Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Magnetometer for Calibrating Jovian Fields

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Southwest Sciences, Inc.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505-3993

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Hovde
dchovde@swsciences.com
6837 Main Street
Cincinnati,  OH 45244-3470

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase I SBIR project will investigate a method to accurately measure total magnetic fields in the range 0 to 1.6 mT in support of missions to Jupiter. The measurement approach is based on fundamental physical quantities. High sensitivity will be demonstrated, and an upper bound on systematic errors will be determined. The intrinsic heading error will be directly measured. Successful completion of Phase I and Phase II will lead to a compact, fiber-coupled instrument for measuring magnetic fields with high accuracy and precision.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Accurate and stable calibration of the magnetometers on the Juno mission is essential for comparing fields over the duration of the mission and from mission to mission. The Phase II instrument can serve as a pre-launch tool to calibrate the fields generated to test the science instruments and to check for drift of the science instruments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Precise magnetic field measurements are used in geophysical research, mineral exploration, and magnetic anomaly detection. Broader opportunities based on this technology include low field magnetic resonance imaging.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Particle and Fields
Laser
Optical
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.07-8635
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Systems for Sensors and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Thermal Pyrolytic Graphite Enhanced Components

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Peregrine Falcon Corporation
1072 A Serpentine Lane
Pleasanton, CA 94566-4731

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Hardesty
rhardesty@peregrinecorp.com
1072 A Serpentine Lane
Pleasanton,  CA 94566-4731

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Peregrine's innovation will reduce the required input power, increase a coolers systems margin for a giving cooling load and reduce vibration accordingly for Reverse-Brayton Cycle Cryocoolers. Our innovation will enhance the thermal conductivities of structures associated with the cryocooler, enable much more efficient heat removal and thereby produce a much more efficient system. Effectively we will be increasing the thermal conductivities of the structures associated with the cryocoolers by embedding Thermal Pyrolytic Graphite within a matrix of material to produce a thermal conductivity 3 times higher than current available materials. At the end of Phase I Peregrine will have demonstrated the feasibility of our innovation and laid out a detailed design and test plan for Phase II. At the end of Phase II Peregrine will have produced a flight like product tested for future satellite applications. Phase II will also incorporate characterization of the material and engineering guidelines. As cryocooler technologies attempt to cool components down around the 4<SUP>o</SUP>K level waste heat and the management thereof becomes critical to the performance of the cryocooler. Thermal conductivity structures that can eliminate thermal loads more effectively will lead to a more efficient and better performing cryocooler.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applications for NASA will include but not be limited to Conduction Bars, Radiators, Cryocooler structural components, housings, conduction planes, heat sinks, optical structures, power system housings and others.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applications for other markets will include the same items listed above for commercial and military space. In addition, laptop computers, handheld devices, laser diodes and power systems will benefit from this innovation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.07-8729
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Systems for Sensors and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Superconducting Current Leads for Cryogenic Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Neocera, LLC
10000 Virginia Manor Road
Beltsville, MD 20705-4215

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Solomon Kolagani
harsh@neocera.com
10000 Virginia Manor Road
Beltsville,  MD 20705-4215

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Space flight cryocoolers will be able to handle limited heat loads at their expected operating temperatures and the current leads may be the dominant contributor to the heat load. In the present SBIR, we propose an innovative approach that could significantly reduce heat loads introduced by current carrying leads in a variety of space flight cryocoolers. Our approach uses high-temperature superconducting (HTS) current leads with zero dissipation for DC currents, developed on flexible low-thermal conductivity substrates (ceramic yttria stabilized zirconia). The unique film/substrate combination when implemented for developing low-thermal budget DC current leads is expected to allow thermal loads less than 1 mW when operated between 80K and 10K. Successful accomplishment of program objectives will lead to a unique, low thermal load, superconducting current lead platform, significantly enhancing the over all performance of the cryogenic subsystems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High-temperature superconducting current leads capable of carrying several amps of DC current in the temperature regime of 80-10K with minimum thermal loads (< 1 mW) can greatly minimize the thermal budget on the cryocoolers, leading to significant thermal savings to the overall cryogenic systems. In space related detector programs, these thermal savings translate to life extension of the mission itself, besides enhancing the efficiency of the cooled subsystem. Several of NASA's detector programs can therefore be benefited from success in the present effort.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Sensors and detectors are ubiquitous in a variety of civilian commercial applications ranging from those used in UV to Gamma rays. In cooled detectors and sensors used for imaging, surveillance, security and process monitoring, significant enhancements in system performance can be expected by using HTS current leads. The cooled CMOS technology implemented in several high–end computers can be benefited from the use of HTS current leads.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Instrumentation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.07-9378
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Systems for Sensors and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Lightweight Magnets for Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tai-Yang Research Company
2031 E. Paul Dirac Drive
Tallahassee, FL 32310-3711

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Marshall
wsmarshall@tai-yang.com
2031 E. Paul Dirac Drive
Tallahassee,  FL 32310-3711

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
TYRC of Tallahassee, Florida will design, fabricate and test a novel magnet for space applications. This lightweight magnet will be designed to operate at higher temperatures reducing the refrigeration requirements for space based magnet applications. When built, the proposed magnet system will enable more efficient, reliable, cost-effective space based operations than alternatives presently available.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Detectors, energy storage, motors, generators, fault current limiters, flywheels

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Detectors, energy storage, motors, generators, fault current limiters, flywheels

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Micro Thrusters
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Instrumentation
Superconductors and Magnetic
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.07-9924
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Systems for Sensors and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Thermal Switch for Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Atlas Scientific
1367 Camino Robles Way
San Jose, CA 95120-4925

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Maddocks
maddocks@cae.wisc.edu
1415 Engineering Drive, Rm 1339A
Madison,  WI 53706-1607

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Various planned NASA missions require thermal switches for active thermal control. As an example cryocoolers, including redundant coolers are incorporated on select missions. The redundant coolers operate when deteriorating or defunct coolers are deactivated. However, integration of redundant coolers may cause substantial parasitic heat loads unless the cold regions are thermally connected to the active cryocooler only. The overall system efficiency will depend in part on the efficacy of the intervening thermal switches. We propose to develop a highly effective, innovative prototype thermal switch that combines two recently developed technologies. First, it employs a highly conductive thermal contact at a low applied force. Secondly, the heat switch employs an innovative bi-stable actuator. The actuator requires little energy to switch between states and can achieve motion on the order of millimeters. This available motion exceeds the tens to hundreds of microns needed to engage the contact, enabling complete separation, and thus, excellent thermal isolation in the off state. Combining the inherently high on- and low off-conductance of the contacts with the bi-stable actuator positioning provides for a highly effective, innovative thermal switch, potentially enabling significant performance enhancement of NASA missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed thermal switch development is directed in particular at enabling cryocooler redundancy in space. NASA missions that require cryogenic propulsion or astronomical missions that require cooling of detectors and optics to cryogenic temperatures will benefit from this technology. Lunar missions that will require active thermal control can also benefit from the application of this thermal switch.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The thermal switch, as well as the underlying novel contact technology, is believed to be applicable to many uses in cryogenics and beyond as well. Thermal switches are routinely used in magnetic refrigerators, an application area where the proposed switch would be highly suitable. For each use in which components serve only a temporary function the thermal switch could be used to disconnect unnecessary heat loads once the need for their operation has vanished. For instance, the thermal efficiency of many applications that use heavy thermal bus bars could be greatly improved by thermally disconnecting these items once they no longer serve a purpose, thereby, ending the otherwise persisting heat leak. Being thermally conductive the novel therrmal interface material may be used to attach thermometry, heaters etc. Being electrically conductive, it could also be used to form electrical connections. Thus, the switch could very well be reconfigured as a thermally conductive electrical switch. Further, the thermal interface material could be used to quickly attach items without the use of adhesives and to attach items in locations that might otherwise be difficult or impossible to achieve. Avoiding adhesives also eliminates the outgassing of various vapors over time.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Control Instrumentation
Cooling
Fluid Storage and Handling
Instrumentation
Production


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.08-8517
SUBTOPIC TITLE: in situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact, Ultrasensitive Formaldehyde Monitor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Novawave Technologies
900 Island Drive, Suite 101
Redwood City, CA 94065-5176

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joshua Paul
jbpaul@novawavetech.com
900 Island Drive ,Suite 101
Redwood City,  CA 94065-5176

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I proposal seeks to develop an ultrasensitive, laser-based formaldehyde gas sensor system for airborne and ground-based atmospheric monitoring. The proposed instrument will be capable of accurately determining sub-parts-per-billion formaldehyde concentrations in seconds. This compact, lightweight instrument will be capable of long-term autonomous operation, and require minimal power. The Phase I research will demonstrate the feasibility of the technology by performing measurements on formaldehyde samples using a bench-scale laboratory instrument that employs a novel, frequency agile laser source. The results of these tests will be used to quantify detection limits for a Phase II instrument. Commercial systems based on the Phase II prototype will be developed and marketed during Phase III.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications for the technology include monitoring air quality during manned space missions, characterizing extraterrestrial atmospheres, and monitoring atmospherically relevant species in the Earth's atmosphere.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications based on the sensor technology described in this proposal include industrial monitoring, environmental monitoring, and general chemical analysis. The ability to determine absolute concentrations of gaseous species can also be used for semiconductor gas purity analysis, medical diagnostics, and potentially homeland security applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Biomedical and Life Support
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.08-8682
SUBTOPIC TITLE: in situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: New Class of Multi-Channel Spectrometers Based on Diffraction Grating Array

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
LightSmyth Technologies
1720 Willow Creek Circle, #520
Eugene, OR 97402-3061

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Thomas Mossberg
twmoss@lightsmyth.com
1720 Willow Creek Circle #520
Eugene,  OR 97402-3061

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Remote chemical analysis via spectroscopy is an important tool in the arsenal or Earth and Planetary Science. Grating technology, which is the centerpiece of most modern spectroscopy systems, has not change significantly in the last 60 years since introduction of holographic gratings. Recently LightSmyth introduced new technology for design and fabrication of diffraction grating elements based on projection photolithography using state-of-the-art semiconductor industry tools. This opened a pathway for very powerful grating elements enabling new class of spectroscopy instruments. LightSmyth Technologies proposes to utilize its recently introduced innovative Diffraction Grating Array to demonstrate robust ultra-compact multi-channel spectrometer with athermal stress-proof self-calibration suitable for deployment at the orbit as well as UAV, USV and UUV platforms. The main advantages of the instrument is up to 100 times improvement in diffraction efficiency, low mass, small footprint, absence of moving parts, robustness, wide spectral range coverage with high resolution and athermal self-calibration for accurate determination of absolute spectrum wavelengths.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Measurements of chemical composition of atmosphere, planetary surface and oceans using solar irradiance measurements, Earthshine measurements, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. Improvement in remote sensors involved with TC4, ARCTAS, OCO-2008, GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI, Mars Science Laboratory, Phoenix Mars Polar Lander, Moon Mineralogy Mappers and others.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Wide range of high efficiency imaging and non-imaging spectrometers requiring high resolution in multiple, possibly non-consecutive spectral bands may be introduced based on the proposed prototype. Many medical, industrial and military applications using spectroscopy may benefit from increase in sensitivity, spectral range and resolution offered by the proposed spectrometer platform. Fluorescent spectrometers used in food industry and medical research, atomic emission spectrometers used in industrial metal alloy analysis, hand-held absorption spectrometer units used to measure air pollution are few examples. Other areas are detection of explosives, biohazardous materials, toxic matters in soils and waters and lead in paint.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Perception/Sensing
Biochemical
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.08-9119
SUBTOPIC TITLE: in situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Airborne Wide Area Imager for Wildfire Mapping and Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Xiomas Technologies
1317 Skyway Drive
Ypsilanti, MI 48197-8952

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Green
johngreen@xiomas.com
1317 Skyway Drive
Ypsilanti,  MI 48197-8952

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An advanced airborne imaging system for fire detection/mapping is proposed. The goal of the project is to improve control and management of wildfires in order to reduce loss of life and property. The system will offer approximately a 3X increase in operating efficiency compared to current systems and will be designed for autonomous or remote operation in an unmanned airborne system (UAS) but will also be suitable for operation in manned aircraft. The system includes a multi-band imaging sensor, position and attitude sensor, an interface to an air-to-ground or satellite data communication link, and a data processing system with software for; fire detection, image geo-coding, and image compression. The sensor head is an innovative design combining high resolution framing devices (cameras) with a step-stare scanning mirror. This configuration results in high spatial resolution imagery and wide area coverage. The design of the sensor head is flexible allowing for a variety of cameras including; RGB, CIR, SWIR, MWIR, and LWIR. The system can be operated at various altitudes allowing it to serve a variety of missions. We envision several versions of the instrument, one weighing less than 75 pounds and a smaller version weighing less than 20 pounds.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary application is fire mapping and detection.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The principle investigator works with other government agencies including the defense intelligence and central intelligence agencies and the US Department of Energy. Each of these groups has expressed a need for high resolution wide area thermal imagery for a variety of applications including persistent surveillance, mapping and detection of unexploded ordinance, and recovery of satellite nuclear power sources in the event of launch abort.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Optical
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.08-9267
SUBTOPIC TITLE: in situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fast Temperature Sensor for use in Atmospheric Sciences

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Southwest Sciences, Inc.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505-3993

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Zondlo
mzondlo@swsciences.com
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe,  NM 87505-3993

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Southwest Sciences proposes a novel sensor to measure atmospheric temperature at high frequency (10 Hz) and with high precision and accuracy (0.1 degrees C). Existing temperature sensors are negatively impacted by high airflows on platforms such as aircraft or by the presence of cloud particles. Such inaccuracies prevent detailed understanding of cloud microphysics and energy fluxes that are critical for understanding global climate change. The proposed sensor uses a low power vertical cavity surface emitting laser with a novel optical cell to measure temperature in a minimally intrusive method that is unaffected by cloud particles or aircraft speed. The sensor will be sufficiently lightweight and compact for use on balloons, kites, and UAVs as well as more conventional research aircraft.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A sensitive and fast temperature sensor can be used on balloons, unmanned aerial vehicles, tethered kites, and conventional suborbital platforms for Earth science field campaigns. Measurements of temperature within clouds and fine temperature fluctuations will yield a better understanding of cloud particle nucleation, formation, growth and dissipation. Information gained from such process studies will enable more accurate parameterizations of cloud processes that can be used in atmospheric models. In turn, more accurate predictions of how the Earth's climate is changing can be made.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A fast temperature sensor is important for industrial process control of gases and other fluids, particularly in turbulent flow regimes. Research on internal combustion engines requires fast and sensitive sensors that do not impede the flow. The atmospheric science community also needs fast temperature measurements for understanding cloud formation and transport of energy between different layers of the atmosphere.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Control Instrumentation
Testing Facilities
Pilot Support Systems
Optical
Optical & Photonic Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Combustion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.08-9341
SUBTOPIC TITLE: in situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Flight Landata, Inc.
One Parker Street
Lawrence, MA 01843-1548

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Xiuhong Sun
xhsun1@aol.com
One Parker Street
Lawrence,  MA 01843-1548

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance-computer-based electronic backend that integrates a complete set of power and signal interfaces to serve a suite of advanced LWIR, MWIR, EO, and hyperspectral imaging sensors and an inertial measurement unit for atmospheric and surface remote sensing. MAICSS records continuous precision geo-referenced and time-tagged multi-sensor throughputs to mass storage devices at a high aggregate rate, typically 60 Megabytes/sec. MAICSS compatible sensor packages include 1) NASA's 1024 x 1024 pixel MWIR/LWIR dual band QWIP imager, 2) a 39 Megapixel BuckEye EO camera, and 3) a fast (e.g. 200+ scanlines/sec) and wide swathwidth (e.g. 1920+ pixels) CCD/InGaAs imager based VNIR and SWIR imaging spectrometer. MAICSS consists of a suite of interchangeable and interconnected modules in precision-machined boxes for flexible system deployment. It has a total solid state compact design with a typical volume of 0.02 m3 and a mass of 16kg. Without hard drives and other moving parts, it is operational at high altitudes and survivable in high vibration environments. MAICSS is a complete standalone imaging server instrument with an easy-to-use software package for either autonomous data collection or interactive airborne operation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
MAICSS is a cost-efficient multi-sensor imaging instrument server for high performance reflective and emissive spectral imaging and stereovision data collection. These multi-sensor data are valuable to retrieve the Earth surface, atmospheric, and oceanic geo-physical and geo-spatial parameters. Its near term NASA commercial applications include: 1) Location and mapping of water-harboring subsurface caves and new sources of spring waters in the southwestern United States (Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico and Utah); 2) NASA-aided international Earth remote sensing program in Thailand for airborne atmospheric aerosol optical property retrieval and agricultural environment studies; 3) Deployment in a UAV/Airship for either field-expedient or persistent launch range surveillance/intrusion data collection; 4) Mapping of river, river delta, and coastal water thermal gradients, color gradients, and pollution. Its long term NASA applications include: 1) Exploration of Martian water-harboring subsurface caves; 2) Mapping the extent of certain Moon/Mars surface resources and identifying promising outpost/science sites and traversable terrains.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
MAICSS can be fit into light aircraft, UAVs, and airship for low-cost commercial geophysical and geospatial remote sensing. Its competitive advantages include its simultaneous geo-referenced foot resolution hyperspectral, inch resolution stereovision, and 0.02 K thermal images. It is capable of performing challenging remote sensing missions, including and pertaining to: • High-resolution aerial thermal mapping over a wide variety of industrial, commercial, and residential areas to detect thermal anomalies, including insulation deterioration of a powerline and rooftop thermal leakage; • Thermal and pollution effluents from mining and other industrial operations such as paper mills and power plants; • Mapping of homeland and national and international border security; • Disaster and emergency response; • Forest fires and residual warm spots and other forest/park services; • Law enforcement; • Aerial IED detection; • Aerial deer and seabird counts; • Precision agriculture, crop growing status monitoring, and vegetation specie mapping; • Coastal and river environment monitoring.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Human-Computer Interfaces
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Optical
Highly-Reconfigurable
Photonics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.08-9582
SUBTOPIC TITLE: in situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: 3-D Wind and Turbulence Measurement System for UAV

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerotech Research
11836 Fishing Point Drive, Suite 200
Newport News, VA 23606-4507

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Wheeler
bobwheeler@atr-usa.com
11836 Fishing Point Drive, Ste 200`
Newport News,  VA 23606-4507

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In situ wind and turbulence measurements play a key role in the support and validation of Earth science missions using spaced-based technology. NASA has been using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in support of these Earth science missions, but the current UAVs do not have sensor packages to make science quality measurements of parameters including three-dimensional wind, turbulence, temperature, humidity, and pressure. AeroTech will develop 3-Dimensional Wind and Turbulence Measurement System for UAVs that is based on thermal anemometer technology and that will measure and resolve science quality wind vector and turbulence information throughout the flight envelope. The System will provide high quality data that will improve NASA's ability to validate, verify, and supplement spaced-based measurements taken during missions. Phase I will assess the capability of the thermal anemometer sensor portion of the system and finalize the system design. By the end of Phase II, the prototype system will have been developed, integrated into a UAV, and flight-tested.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
When the goals of the proposed R/R&D are met, the proposed 3-Dimensional Wind and Turbulence Measurement System will provide accurate wind and turbulence measurement capabilities to U.S. Government Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (NASA and its Earth Science partners). These systems can be used to support a myriad of atmospheric and meteorological studies both related to Earth science and operational applications for aviation usage. The Suborbital Science Program portion of the Earth Science Directorate is the primary program for the system due to their mission to conduct in-situ atmospheric measurements in support of other Earth Science missions. The application can also be adapted for planetary study applications for Mars or other planetary vehicles. Additionally, the system could be useful to research aircraft as an additional instrument or a replacement for the Pitot-Static tube system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The 3D Wind and Turbulence Measurement system will enhance the data collection capabilities of all UAVs and could be particularly useful as research platforms for NOAA (meteorological studies and forecast verification), the US Forest Service for fire fighting applications, and the FAA for airfield wind measurements. The system could also be adapted for use as an airspeed and angle of attack/side slip sensor with exceptional low speed capability. This modification could be extremely useful to commercial UAV, general aviation aircraft, business jets, commercial aircraft, helicopters, and military aircraft manufacturers as a replacement for the Pitot-Static tube airspeed sensor, which does not perform well at slow speeds, has measurement limitations in terms of airstream angle relative to the tube, does not provide information on flow angles, and is susceptible to tube blockages resulting in no airspeed measurement.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Particle and Fields
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.08-9736
SUBTOPIC TITLE: in situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multispectral Particle Absorption Monitor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerodyne Research, Inc.
45 Manning Road
Billerica, MA 01821-3976

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrew Freedman
af@aerodyne.com
45 Manning Rd
Billerica,  MA 01821-3976

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project concerns the development of a multi-wavelength monitor that will provide rapid, real-time measurement of the average aerosol absorption coefficient in the parcel of sample air. This monitor will employ Aerodyne's proprietary Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift spectroscopy technology in order to produce a far simpler, smaller, lower cost alternative to more traditional instruments with no loss in sensitivity or accuracy. A unique property of the proposed instrument is that it requires little or no calibration. The Phase I work plan will focus on a proof-of-principle demonstration of the proposed technique tht compares its performance with a conventional particle absorbance monitor. The Phase II project will entail constructing a field-ready prototype using the information gained in the Phase I studies and deploying the sensor on various field missions undertaken by Aerodyne's particle measurement research group. Aerosol particles affect the radiative balance of the earth directly, by scattering and absorbing solar and terrestrial radiation, and indirectly, by acting as cloud condensation nuclei. The atmospheric loading of aerosols generated through human activities can exert an influence on the earth's radiation budget comparable in magnitude with greenhouse gases. The uncertainties in the current understanding of aerosol direct and indirect forcing limit the ability to quantify human influences on climate change.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful development of a low cost multispectral sensor would allow almost routine measurement of the scattering properties of atmospheric aerosols, something precluded by the cost and complexity of current instrumentation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Quantification of the light absorbing properties of so-called "black carbon" could be readily achieved and could conceivably lead to the development of a monitor for combustor particulate emissions. Such an instrument would be of immediate benefit in at least two regulatory markets, that of stationary combustors (incinerators, power plants, etc.) and emissions certification for commercial aircraft engines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.08-9912
SUBTOPIC TITLE: in situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Performance Airborne Optical Carbon Dioxide Analyzer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vista Photonics, Inc.
67 Condesa Road
Santa Fe, NM 87508-8136

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffrey Pilgrim
jpilgrim@vistaphotonics.com
67 Condesa Road
Santa Fe,  NM 87508-8136

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Environmental species measurement on airborne atmospheric research craft is a demanding application for optical sensing techniques. Yet optical techniques offer many advantages including high-precision, fast response, and high species selectivity. Balloonsonde, kite, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), or glider deployment demands that sensors meet stringent size, weight and power requirements. Few measurements are as important, and none have entered into the public consciousness, like the need to quantify global carbon dioxide loading. Vista Photonics proposes to develop rugged, compact, power efficient optical sensor technology capable of selectively measuring atmospheric carbon dioxide with precision that rivals ground based instruments. The enabling technology for meeting stringent NASA mission requirements is a newly emergent infrared laser source that delivers the high-sensitivity of established optical absorption detection techniques with extreme compactness and low power draw.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The immediate targeted application for NASA is trace atmospheric species monitoring on unmanned terrestrial atmospheric research craft. Phase II prototypes will be capable of selectively detecting carbon dioxide and water vapor. The integrated sensors will be suitable for dynamic airborne environments on Earth and in planetary measurements as diverse as the Moon, Mars and Titan. Other applications include fire detection on aircraft and high-value installations, gas sensing in air revitalization and water recovery processes on spacecraft, and leak detection during spacecraft launch operations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Phase III commercial applications abound for sensors whose performance and physical characteristics are suitable for unmanned airborne measurements. Examples include contaminant monitoring in process gas streams in the chemical and microelectronics industries, medical diagnosis through detection of biogenic gases in human breath that correlate to specific pathologies, and environmental monitoring and regulatory compliance in agriculture, power production, and occupational safety. The fully-developed Phase II instruments shall offer a compelling and desirable blend of performance, affordability, compactness, simplicity and ease-of-use relative to present commercial product offerings in these applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical
Photonics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.09-8541
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid Powder - Single Crystal X-Ray Diffraction Instrument for Planetary Mineralogical Analysis of Unprepared Samples

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
inXitu, Inc.
2551 Casey Avenue, Suite A
Mountain View, CA 94043-1135

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Philippe Sarrazin
psarrazin@inxitu.com
2551 Casey Ave Suite A
Mountain View,  CA 94043-1135

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a planetary exploration XRD/XRF instrument based on a hybrid diffraction approach that complements powder XRD analysis, similar to that of the CheMin instrument of MSL, with single crystal diffraction analysis. Powder XRD will be used when fine grained samples are available, either as received or prepared by a sample grinding facility onboard the lander. Single crystal XRD using polychromatic radiation (Laue diffraction) will be applied when samples are too coarse to use pXRD. Laue analysis will allow identification of minerals in unprepared samples and enable ab-initio determination of crystalline phases unknown to current crystallographic databases. The concept can be applied as a contact instrument fitted to the robotic arm, or to an onboard instrument. Both transmission and reflection geometries are possible. We will develop the system for Venus surface deployment. We will emphasize the diffractometer development on high throughput and power efficiency without compromising resolution. The need for high throughput is motivated by the limited life span of a Venus lander. The Phase 1 research will focus on demonstrating the use of Laue diffraction for mineral identification and investigating the technical options for X-ray source, X-ray optics and detectors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed instrument would be included in the science payload of landed planetary mission. It would provide mineralogical analysis of rocks, soils and ices, either by contact measurement, or after sample processing. The instrument will be developed for Venus but any planetary mission requiring XRD/XRF capabilities could use this technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A benchtop or portable hybrid powder XRD- single crystal XRD instrument could find a number of uses for analysis of crystalline materials without sample preparation. Possible applications are in-situ analysis of rocks in the mining industry, authentication of gem stone, identification of drugs, analysis of art and archeological materials, in-situ forensics, analysis of potential nuclear material by inspectors, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Microwave/Submillimeter


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.09-9028
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Micro-Capillary Electrochromatography for Mars Organic Detector

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Los Gatos Research
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041-1518

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hong Jiao
h.jiao@lgrinc.com
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View,  CA 94041-1518

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Los Gatos Research proposes to develop a powerful new technology - next generation Micro-Capillary Electrochromatography – a high performance and low power consumption microfluidic sample separation device suited for separating organic molecules as signatures of past and present life on Mars. In particular, these micro-devices will be engineered for integration with NASA's Mars Organic Detector. For the Phase I effort, we will design, construct, and test the micro-CEC chips. The Phase I research will address issues related to performance as well as production methods that can be used for the technology, as well as designing and determining the integrated micro-device and the Phase II prototype. In the Phase II effort, we will integrate the micro-CEC prototypes with the existing micro-CE analyzers as a dual micro-CE/micro-CEC system capable of separating all neutral and charged organic molecules as targeted by Urey, thus provide new capabilities for NASA sample separation instrumentation development.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed micro-CEC technology can be readily adapted to NASA's miniature "Micro Laboratories" scientific instrumentations to find signature of life on Mars such as Urey's Mars Organic Detector for detection of organic molecules and chiral analysis of amino acids. The proposed technology has broad applications including on-chip biosensors, electrochemical sensors, wet-chemistry systems, as well as high pressure micropumps for fluid positioning, mixing, metering, storage, and filtering systems. In addition, our novel technology is naturally suited to such applications as planetary and small body surface chemistry studies, clinical diagnostics, spacecraft and biosphere environmental monitoring, and toxicology studies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The next generation micro-CEC technology described in this proposal possesses significant commercial potential for a wide range of technologies and applications in markets ranging from specialty medical and aerospace industries to consumer electronics. Commercial devices based on such CEC technology envisioned include components for DNA, protein and drug separation and analysis, chemical analysis systems, drug delivery systems, and embedded health monitoring systems. Our proprietary technology vastly improves robustness and reliability, thus clearing one of the last hurdles of a wider acceptance of CEC in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Biomolecular Sensors
Sterilization/Pathogen and Microbial Control
Biochemical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.09-9135
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Fiber Raman Spectrometer for Field Detecting Geological Materials

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Crystal Research, Inc.
48501 Warm Springs Blvd., Suite 103
Fremont, CA 94539-7750

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Suning Tang
suningtang@eocrystal.com
48501 Warm Springs Blvd., Suite 103
Fremont,  CA 94539-7750

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
High throughput, fast detection and characterization of geological materials have become important challenge for future lunar robotic rover exploration and planetary missions. To allow for sample characterization on the moon and Mars, rover missions need to decide what samples to acquire for further onboard analysis. An in situ non-destructive detection technique is highly desirable remote sensing tool for many future missions. We propose to develop a fiber Raman spectrometer for field detecting of geological materials. Recent advances in fiber lasers, fiber optic probes and Raman analysis techniques make the development of such a key component feasible. We expect our innovative design for fiber Raman spectrometer will significantly improve the flexibility of remote Raman collection, so that the field spectrometer's overall performance would be intact and extremely flexible for the field detection.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The instrument proposed here is relevant to the NASA Objectives: "Conduct robotic exploration of Mars to search for evidence of life, to understand the history of the Solar System, and to prepare for future human exploration." Samples from Ames Research Center will be used for laboratory testing and proof of concept demonstration.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Portable Raman spectrometers have wide applications to include homeland security, life sciencce,matter physics and chemistry. It offers a non-destructive, non-contact method of analysis suitable for both lab based and plant based applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Biomedical and Life Support
Laser
Portable Life Support
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.09-9757
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Very Low-Cost, Rugged, High-Vacuum System for Mass Spectrometers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-3116

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Kline-Schoder
rjk@creare.com
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA, DoD, DHS, and commercial industry have a pressing need for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost high-vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology at NASA and other government laboratories, in academia, and in industry have led to the development of very small mass spectrometer detectors as well as other analytical instruments such as scanning electronic microscopes. However, the vacuum systems to support these sensors remain large, heavy, and power hungry. To meet this need, Creare proposes to build a miniaturized vacuum system based on a very small, rugged, and inexpensive to manufacture, molecular drag pump. The vacuum pump has performance that is well matched to the needs of these new generation miniature analytical instruments. Such a pump represents an order-of-magnitude reduction in mass, volume, and cost over current, commercially available, state-of-the-art vacuum pumps. The new pump will form the heart of a complete vacuum system optimized to support analytical instruments in terrestrial applications and on spacecraft and planetary landers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A number of current NASA initiatives seek to reduce the size and power requirement of scientific instruments. Success in these efforts will lead to new generations of sensors that can be deployed on smaller, less expensive platforms, including Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), balloons, microspacecraft, and miniature interplanetary probes. Our proposed rugged vacuum system directly supports these goals by reducing the size, weight, and power consumption of vacuum systems required to run these instruments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Numerous commercial applications exist for the proposed rugged, low-cost vacuum system, primarily to support portable analytical instruments such as mass spectrometers and leak detectors. Current generation devices are limited by the size and mass of their high-vacuum and rough pumps, or else use less capable absorption pumps. Building a small, lightweight, rugged, low-cost, and low-power high-vacuum system whose performance is tuned to the needs of miniature detectors is expected to greatly expand the market for such devices.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biochemical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S1.09-9913
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Airborne Isotopic Hydrocarbon Analyzer for Titan

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vista Photonics, Inc.
67 Condesa Road
Santa Fe, NM 87508-8136

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffrey Pilgrim
jpilgrim@vistaphotonics.com
67 Condesa Road
Santa Fe,  NM 87508-8136

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Trace species measurement on unmanned atmospheric research craft suitable for interplanetary travel is a demanding application for optical sensing techniques. Yet optical techniques offer many advantages including high-precision, fast response, and strong species selectivity. Balloonsonde, kite, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), or glider deployment demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight and power requirements. Vista Photonics proposes to develop rugged, compact, battery-powered optical sensor technology capable of selectively determining hydrocarbons and selected isotopomers at Titan-relevant concentrations. The enabling technology for meeting stringent NASA mission requirements is a new rugged, compact, and lightweight optical path length enhancement cell that recovers the established sensitivity of high-performance optical absorption detection techniques on a platform with no moving parts. The proposed spectrometer will be capable of detecting multiple species with little additional weight or power penalties.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The immediate targeted application for NASA is trace atmospheric species monitoring on planetary exploration probes. Phase II prototypes will be capable of selectively detecting isotopic-resolved concentrations of acetylene, ethylene and methane. Other species can be included as required. The integrated sensors will be suitable for low pressure environments like the Moon and Mars and in substantial atmospheres like Titan's. The emerging technology will also be suitable for use on both manned and unmanned terrestrial atmospheric research craft. Other applications include fire detection on aircraft and high-value installations, gas sensing in air revitalization and water recovery processes on spacecraft, and leak detection during spacecraft launch operations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Phase III commercial applications abound for sensors whose performance and physical characteristics are suitable for spaceflight. Examples include contaminant monitoring in process gas streams in the chemical and microelectronics industries, medical diagnosis through detection of biogenic gases in human breath that correlate to specific pathologies, and environmental monitoring and regulatory compliance in agriculture, power production, and occupational safety. The fully-developed Phase II instruments shall offer a compelling and desirable blend of performance, affordability, compactness, simplicity and ease-of-use relative to present commercial product offerings in these applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical
Photonics
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S2.01-8706
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Precision Spacecraft Formations for Telescope Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Colloid Thruster for Attitude Control Systems (ACS) and Tip-off Control Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Busek Co., Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760-1023

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nathaniel Demmons
nate@busek.com
11 Tech Circle
Natick,  MA 01760-1023

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop and test key technologies needed for an integrated, high thrust colloid thruster system with no moving parts, for spacecraft attitude control and tip-off rotation cancellation. Busek has already successfully demonstrated the use of porous substrates as planar emitters for colloid thrusters. In this proposal we will pursue enabling technologies for such a thruster, such as a passive feedsystem and an isolation membrane for separating the propellant in the reservoir from the thruster head prior to launch. Advancements to date suggest viable approaches for the development of a cost-effective, reliable, and flexible thruster configuration.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The greatest potential use for ionic liquid-based colloid propulsion and is directly tied to the expected proliferation of clusters and constellations of micro/nano-satellites for communications, surveillance, and aggressive science missions. One application of the device proposed here is as auxiliary thrusters for tasks such as tip-off rotation cancellation or for low deltaV missions. The tip-off thruster has the benefit of eliminating the need for primary satellite thrusters to be designed to encompass mission and tip-off requirements. Also, this type of thruster would not be likely to disturb the satellite once shut down. There is no pressurized feedsystem to leak, as is a concern with cold gas thruster.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary use outside of NASA for such a thruster system would likely be for nanosats built by universities. Typically these satellites are secondary payloads and do not have propulsion at all. A miniature, low power thruster system would lengthen the operational times of such experimental missions, as well as give them some orbit shaping/raising capabilities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Electromagnetic Thrusters
Micro Thrusters
Feed System Components


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S2.01-8707
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Precision Spacecraft Formations for Telescope Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Approaches for Spacecraft Formation Robustness and Performance using Distributed Estimation, Control and Communication

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scientific Systems Company, Inc.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801-6503

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lingji Chen
Lingji.Chen@ssci.com
500 W. Cummings Park
Woburn,  MA 01801-6503

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Formation flight can provide the benefits of a large effective telescope using precision formation flying of smaller, lower cost, collaborating telescopes. A decentralized architecture for estimation and control provides several key advantages including reduced communication and processing overheads as well as increased tolerance to a single point of failure. Since a decentralized design relies on communicating information between individual spacecraft, it becomes critical to enumerate and quantify the effect of information sharing on estimation, control and guidance systems performance for the entire formation. The goal of this project is to analyze these interactions between information communication, estimation, control and guidance systems as well as to develop analysis tools to help the TPFI team evaluate various trade-offs involved in designing these systems. During the proposed effort, we will bring together new advances in the fields of Robust Control, Risk Sensitive Optimal (RSO) control, and Covariance Intersection (CI) to combine information shared across the formation. We will study the impact of communications topologies on estimation performance, develop methods to reduce disagreements between parallel estimators, design control and guidance laws that are robust to estimation disagreements and study scalability issues for formations with large number of spacecraft. Phase I effort will also deliver a software analysis tool to help the NASA TPFI team evaluate trade-offs for candidate TPFI architectures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Directly addresses issues and concerns of formation flying spacecraft missions. Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF), NASA's first space-based mission to directly observe planets outside our own solar system, will rely on formation flying to achieve the functionality and benefits of a large instrument using multiple lower cost smaller spacecraft. Aqua mission of the Goddard Space Flight Center will use formation flying concepts (``A-Train'') to collaborate with multiple Earth observing spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Formation flying is a major area of interest for both NASA as well as military applications. DoD and large prime contractors have invested resources in developing autonomous capabilities for collaboration between unmanned vehicle teams. Analysis tools to aid in trade-off studies become necessary as various distributed agent architectures are considered for increasingly complex mission capabilities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Guidance, Navigation, and Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S2.01-8714
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Precision Spacecraft Formations for Telescope Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Synthetic Imaging Maneuver Optimization (SIMO)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Payload Systems, Inc.
247 Third Street
Cambridge, MA 02142-1129

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joseph Parrish
parrish@payload.com
247 Third Street
Cambridge,  MA 02142-1129

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Space-based interferometry missions have the potential to revolutionize imaging and astrometry, providing observations of unprecedented accuracy. Realizing the full potential of these interferometers poses significant technological challenges, including the efficient maneuvering of multiple collectors to various baselines; regulating the path-length of science light from the collecting telescopes to the combining instrument with nanometer accuracy, despite the presence of vibration; and demonstrating through hardware-in-the-loop simulation that spacecraft sub-systems can be coordinated to perform such challenging observations in a precise, efficient, and robust manner. We propose the Synthetic Imaging Maneuver Optimization (SIMO) program to develop a methodology, calibrated through hardware-in-the-loop testing using the SPHERES testbed, to optimize spacecraft maneuvers to more efficiently synthesize images for missions such as Stellar Imager. Time and fuel-optimal maneuvers are only a part of the optimization problem. Selecting the maneuver waypoints (number and location) determines the quality of the synthesized image. The number of spacecraft, the size of the sub-apertures, and the type of propulsion system used also impacts imaging rate, propellant mass, and mission cost. Capturing all of these mission aspects in an integrated mission optimization framework helps mission designers to select the most appropriate architecture for meeting the needs and constraints of future missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The prime commercial application for the SPHERES-SIMO testbed is for space imaging mission development. Future NASA telescopes, especially those planned to be used away from LEO, will require assembly, inspection, as well as precision position control and vibration isolation. The technology that will need to be developed in order to conduct these missions will benefit significantly not just from the overall capabilities of the SIMO project, but also from the development of the component technologies, procedures, and operational experience that will be gained in developing SIMO both on the ground and, potentially, on-board ISS. NASA missions that could directly benefit from SIMO include SAFIR, Stellar Imager, TPF-Interferometer, Planet Imager, Jen-X, and SPECS.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Outside of NASA, DARPA and the DoD are interested in large telescopes in GEO where they have a continuous view of regions on the Earth and are much further away from potential hostile action than LEO satellites. However, maintaining the same ground resolution as LEO satellites requires very large apertures at GEO, which will lead to many of the same requirements as those faced by future NASA missions, including precision position control, vibration isolation, as well as formation and cluster flying. These are will be developed, tested, and matured using the SPHERES-SIMO hardware.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Facilities
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S2.02-8576
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Proximity Glare Suppression for Astronomical Coronagraphy
PROPOSAL TITLE: Single Crystal Bimorph Array Driven Deformable Mirrors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Microscale, Inc.
165-X New Boston Street
Woburn, MA 01801-6201

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Xingtao Wu
wu@microscaleinc.com
165-X New Boston Street
Woburn,  MA 01801-6201

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I project will research a novel deformable mirror design for NASA adaptive optics telescope applications . The innovation offers reliable mechanics for the strained architecture, facilitating dynamic modeling and the control of the overall mirror system. A system-level finite element analysis and design optimization, in combination with proof-of-concept experimental verification methods, will be adopted to identify the most promising design for the future adaptive optics telescope systems. Focus will be given to improve the long time reliability and stability of the system while reducing thermal distortions for the mirror system. In Phase I, the proposed deformable mirror system will be designed and extensively modeled using finite element analysis technique to examine its electro-mechanical response, thermal-mechanical responses, and the various radiation-induced thermal-mechanical responses, respectively. Based on the design, Phase I will see the prototyping and testing of a 5x5 array sub-scale model.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The current STTR research will use the proposed DM technology to address the high-end application requirements for astronomical telescope systems including (1) correction of aberrations in large-aperture, space-deployed optical interferometers and telescopes, (2) high-resolution imaging and communication through atmospheric turbulence, (3) laser beam steering, and (4) optical path alignment, (5) propagation of directed laser energy through atmospheric turbulence, will require deformable mirror (DM) wavefront correctors with several hundred to millions of elements.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The actuator and deformable mirror technology, if successfully verified, will realistically enable high performance adaptive optics systems for other adaptive optics applications including medical imaging, aberration correction, optical communication, and air- and space-borne higher energy lasers. In particular, the knowledge obtained will be directly applicable to developing commercial instruments for retinal imaging and laser surgery applications. With the reliability and cost goals both met without sacrificing one another, the commercialization of the deformable mirrors for adaptive optics ophthalmic instruments will become a practical task in near future.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Structural Modeling and Tools
Laser
Optical
Substrate Transfer Technology
Optical & Photonic Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S2.02-8981
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Proximity Glare Suppression for Astronomical Coronagraphy
PROPOSAL TITLE: Micromachined Piezoelectric Actuators for Cryogenic Adaptive Optics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRS Ceramics, Inc.
2820 East College Avenue
State College, PA 16801-7548

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Xiaoning Jiang
xiaoning@trstechnologies.com
2820 East College Avenue
State College,  PA 16801-7548

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
TRS Technologies proposes micromachined single crystal piezoelectric actuator arrays to enable ultra-large stroke, high precision shape control for large aperture, lightweight and cryogenic adaptive optics structures for future NASA Science and communications applications. The proposed concept will advance the state-of-art actuators for deformable mirrors considering the excellent cryogenic properties (with d33 and d31 at 30K similar or higher than that of PZT at room temperature) of single crystal piezoelectrics, large stroke and high actuator density. In this Phase I project, TRS will investigate the feasibility of using micromachined single crystal piezo actuator array for deformable mirrors. Single crystal piezoelectric microactuator arrays will be fabricated and characterized at temperature from 20 K to 300 K. Driving electronics for piezo actuator array, and DM modeling incorporating piezo microactuators will be investigated in Phase I as well. In Phase II, optimized single crystal piezoelectric actuators will be designed, fabricated, characterized and integrated into a deformable mirror structure for full evaluations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Cryogenic actuator arrays with low profile, large stroke and high precision are desired for NASA adaptive optics applications. In particular, the proposed actuator arrays could be used for mirror shape and position control in airborne and space-based interferometers such as geoscience satellites, SIM PlanetQuest, and TPF. Deformable mirror figure control for large space telescopes such as JWST and SAFIR (CALISTO).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Large stroke, high precision actuator arrays based deformable mirrors are also attractive to DOD adaptive optics programs such as directed energy applications and medical adaptive optics such as retina imaging applications. Apart from adaptive optics applications, large stroke, high precision piezo actuators are also good candidates for active vibration control and structure morphing, RF communication tuning, bio-medical manipulators, photonic tooling, cryogenic microscopy tools, micro/nanofabrication and nanoassembly.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Manipulation
Instrumentation
Optical
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S2.04-9624
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optical Devices for Starlight Detection and Wavefront Analysis
PROPOSAL TITLE: Radiation Hard Multi-Layer Optical Coatings

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanohmics, Inc.
6201 East Oltorf Street, Suite 400
Austin, TX 78741-1222

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Keith Jamison
kjamison@nanohmics.com
6201 East Oltorf St, Suite 400
Austin,  TX 78741-1222

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Next generation space telescopes require advanced optical coatings to provide low loss transmission of light in a variety of spectral ranges and protect optical components from damage in a space environment. In this SBIR program Nanohmics proposes to examine uses of amorphous nitrides and oxides as a high quality, long lived coating for production of wide-acceptance angle IR anti-reflection and band-pass coatings on optical components. Amorphous nitrides are hard, flexible wide-bandgap semiconductor materials that can be used as an optical coating. Alternating layers of high index nitrides such as AlN combined with low index oxides such as SiO2 can be used to make good wide acceptance angle anti-reflective coatings for a variety of optical components.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The main benefit to NASA will be a robust wide-band anti-reflective or band-pass coating for optical components in space that can be applied at low substrate temperatures. This coating system can be applied to other optical components to provide radiation hard, flexible, scratch resistant coatings.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High quality radiation and scratch resistant coating are useful in a wide variety of applications. The amorphous nitride / oxide coating system can be applied to standard optical components to produce hard scratch resistant coating for harsh environmental applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Optical
Optical & Photonic Materials
Radiation Shielding Materials
Tribology


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S2.05-8391
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optics Manufacturing and Metrology for Telescope Optical Surfaces
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reactive Atom Plasma Processing of Slumped Glass Wedges

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
RAPT Industries, Inc.
46535 Fremont Blvd.
Fremont, CA 94538-6409

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Phil Sommer
psommer@raptindustries.com
46535 Fremont Blvd.
Fremont,  CA 94538-6409

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP<SUP>TM</SUP>) process will be evaluated as a rapid and practical method for fabricating precision wedges in glass sheets. The glass sheets are to be slumped using the same process as developed by NASA for the next generation of X-ray telescopes. The wedged sheets are to serve as alignment spacers for the multi-segmented grazing-incidence mirror design. RAP is possibly the only method capable of fabricating the wedge glass sheets within a viable process period and at a reasonable cost to validate the current alignment and assembly concept for the Constellation-X SXT telescopes. Conventional abrasive-based processes for fabricating the thousands of glass wedges required would consume enormous processing time which virtually invalidates the entire "Fabricate and Assemble" concept for the final telescope integration and assembly.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Constellation-X Spectroscopy X-ray Telescope (SXT) is a large, segmented, modified Wolter-1 style mirror assembly, using thin slumped glass mirror segments as the reflecting elements. X-ray telescopes designed and built with mirror segments will provide much higher angular resolutions and much larger effective areas compared to typical X-ray telescopes using complete shells.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-invasive imaging plays a crucial role in medical appliactions. Grazing incidence optics can play an important role in improving spatial resolution for many medical imaging systems. RAPT intends to maintain a time and cost advantage over conventional technologies through the integrated use of Reactive Atom Plasma processing throughout the optics manufacturing process – as a shaping tool, a damage mitigation tool, and as a figuring tool.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Kinematic-Deployable
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Laser
Instrumentation
Optical
Substrate Transfer Technology
Ceramics
Optical & Photonic Materials
Radiation Shielding Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S2.05-9744
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optics Manufacturing and Metrology for Telescope Optical Surfaces
PROPOSAL TITLE: The Affordable Pre-Finishing of Silicon Carbide for Optical Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-3116

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jay Rozzi
jcr@creare.com
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Creare proposes to develop a novel, laser-assisted, pre-finishing process for chemical vapor deposition (CVD) coated silicon-carbide ceramics. Our innovation will enable the affordable single-point turning of CVD silicon carbide from a near-net shape blank to a pre-finished aspheric optic. We will use our extensive experience and expertise in the advanced machining of ceramics to establish the parameter space for the production of high-quality, pre-finished aspheric optics from near-net shape blanks. Our innovation has a material removal rate (MRR) that is two orders of magnitude higher than current pre-finishing options including diamond grinding, ductile-regime machining, reactive atom plasma processing, or standard laser micromachining. In addition, our approach has demonstrated that these high MRRs can be achieved with no surface or sub-surface damage, which is key to minimizing the cost of the subsequent finishing operation. Our novel solution is readily integrated with existing or new ultra-precision machine tools. Thus, our innovation is effective, affordable, and flexible.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Large aperture, lightweight, optical mirror technologies are critical for the future of telescopes to explore the solar system and beyond. CVD silicon carbide has been shown to be a viable alternative for lightweight mirrors; however, cost-effective manufacturing techniques to pre-finish this material have not been developed in parallel. The pre-finishing process prepares the net-shape blank for final optical finishing. The use of our innovation can substantially reduce the cost of these optics and enable the increased functionality of new and existing platforms. The results of our work will have far-reaching benefits for government aircraft and military systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Cost-effectively manufacturing super-hard ceramics has always been the primary barrier to commercial acceptance of this advanced material technology. For many applications, ceramic materials offer significant advantages over other options, but their cost precludes their consideration in design. Effective and affordable manufacturing processes are required to render ceramics as a viable design option. For silicon carbide, our innovation will enable the machining of this material to a high quality and with an intricate shape. Thus, we will enable a paradigm shift in the machining of super-hard optical ceramics, along with the concomitant decrease in processing costs. This will increase the market for such materials in commercial aircraft, automobiles, cutting tools, artificial joints, and various other applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ceramics
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S2.05-9745
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optics Manufacturing and Metrology for Telescope Optical Surfaces
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Materials for Mirror Substrate in Space Telescopes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Materials Technology, Inc.
9324 Mandrake Court
Tampa, FL 33647-3289

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Akbar Fard
AdvancedMaterialsTech@gmail.com
9324 Mandrake Ct
Tampa,  FL 33647-3289

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced Materials Technology, Inc (AMTI) responds to the NASA solicitation S2 "Advanced Telescope Systems" under subtopic S2.05, "Optics Manufacturing and Metrology for Telescope Optical Surfaces". The proposed program is aimed at developing large, ultra-lightweight mirror substrate, including membrane optics for very large aperture space telescopes. The novel materials offer considerable weight and cost savings. In order to prevent significant figure error, mirror substrate materials should have very low (ideally zero) coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), low coefficient of moisture expansion (CME), low cure shrinkage, low internal stresses, low outgassing, and high thermal and environmental stability. The ultimate goal of the proposed Phase I program is to develop thin mirror substrate materials that will meet the desired requirements. Once the feasibility of the proposed technology is demonstrated in Phase I, we shall scale-up the thin mirror substrate technology in a Phase II program to meet the NASA requirements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology developed under this program will benefit NASA to develop large, ultra-light weight deployable space based optical telescopes. This project will enable the significant advantages of large monolithic membrane primaries. The implementation of innovative materials, developed under this program, into NASA platforms will enable novel optical technologies that extend the state-of-the-art across wavelength bands from far-IR to Gamma-ray.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology developed under this program can benefit aerospace, marine, aircraft, electronic, and automotive industries, as it offers unique combination of thermal, mechanical and optical properties. Private-sector application of polymer –based mirrors includes space applications such as commercial imaging and high data rate laser telecommunication as well as terrestrial uses in laser manufacturing, image projection, and precision polymer structures and optics. The proposed technology can also be used in electronics packaging applications as a low CTE material.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Inflatable
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Optical
Composites
Organics/Bio-Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S3.01-8738
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Avionics and Electronics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reliable High Performance Processing System (RHPPS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Coherent Logix, Inc.
1120 S. Capital of Texas Hwy, Bldg. 3, Suite 310
Austin, TX 78746-6460

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Gibson
gibson@coherentlogix.com
1120 S. capital of TX Hwy, Bldg. 3, Ste. 310
Austin,  TX 78746-6446

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's exploration, science, and space operations systems are critically dependent on the hardware technologies used in their implementation. Specifically, the performance and deployment of autonomous and computationally-intensive capabilities for space based observatories, orbiters, autonomous landing and hazard avoidance, autonomous rendezvous and capture, robotic, relative navigation, command, control and communications systems are directly dependent on the availability of radiation-tolerant, high-performance, reconfigurable and adaptable, energy-efficient processor technology. Coherent Logix, Incorporated proposes to develop a radiation tolerant HyperX technology based processor to address these critical needs. This program will leverage more than $18M investment by the Department of Defense to bring this technology to the Warfighter. The Phase 1 program will outline radiation hardened by design (RHBD) and/or radiation hardened by process (RHBP) approach. This will be followed in Phase 2 and Phase 3 by the design, development, and productization to a TRL 8/9 of a Radiation Tolerant HyperX Processor.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications include processing for exploration, science, and space operations systems. Specific examples include space based observatories, orbiters, autonomous landing and hazard avoidance, autonomous rendezvous and capture, robotic, relative navigation, command, control and communications systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential Non-NASA applications include high-reliability processing for automotive, aviation, and medical markets, among others.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Intelligence
Mobility
Manipulation
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Architectures and Networks
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Computer System Architectures
Expert Systems
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Highly-Reconfigurable
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S3.02-9170
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Variable Emissivity Electrochromics Using Ionic Electrolytes and Low Solar Absorptance Coatings

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ashwin-Ushas Corp, Inc.
206 Ticonderoga Blvd.
Freehold, NJ 07728-3028

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Prasanna Chandrasekhar
chandra.p2@ashwin-ushas.com
206 Ticonderoga Blvd
Freehold,  NJ 07728-3028

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In recent work, this firm developed a highly promising, patented variable emittance technology based on electrochromic Conducting Polymers, with: (1) Thin (< 0.2 mm), flexible, lightweight (0.176 kg/m2), variable area (0.5 cm2 - 0.5 m2. (2) Impervious to flexing, micrometeoroids.(3) High Delta Emittance (0.5, range 0.13 - 0.89).(4) > 105 cycles, < 5 s switching, indefinite optical memory. (5) Low power, 0.30 W/m2 (6) Space durability: (10-6 Torr) 100,000 electrochromic cycles, 90 thermal cycles;. no UV degradation > 500 h. Durability against atomic-O. (7) Operating temperature (-) 45 oC to (+) 100 oC, durability (-) 196 oC to (+) 100 oC. (8) Easily applicable with space-qualified adhesive to any surface. (9) Cost ca. < $5K/m2. A key technical barrier of the earlier generation of this technology was the need for a hermetic seal for space durability. This was resolved through use of unique ionic electrolytes. An additional drawback remained: High solar absorptance of the dark-state. In very recent, unrelated work, this firm has developed coatings that are IR transparent from 2 to 25 microns while having very low solar absorptance (data herein). In the proposed work, these will be used to arrive at unique, variable emissivity materials with very low solar absorptance. Proposed work includes extensive space durability testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Once full space durability testing is completed, this technology may take over niche markets such as microsatellites and lunar bases. It also has the potential to displace mechanical louvers and heat pipes in larger spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Military space uses include space-based radars. Other military uses which this firm is already pursuing at an advanced stage include battlefield IR camouflage countermeasures. Commercial uses include sunglasses for older patients and displays/billboards. Availability of such a technology will also allow much greater freedom in design of future spacecraft and satellites.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Cooling
Reuseable
Thermal Insulating Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S3.02-9398
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight and Energy Efficient Heat Pump

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rini Technologies, Inc.
582 South Econ Circle
Orlando, FL 32765-4303

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dan Rini
dan@rinitech.com
582 South Econ Circle
Orlando,  FL 32765-4303

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future Spacecraft and instruments for NASA's Science Mission Directorate will require increasingly sophisticated thermal control technology. A need exists for efficient, lightweight Vapor Compression Cycle (VCC) systems, for medium-to-low cooling loads (i.e. less than 2 kW). While conventional VCC technology is relatively compact and efficient for multi-kW loads, it is difficult to find a system that strikes a balance between coefficient of performance, weight and size within the sub-kW range. The particular system proposed will be a highly efficient Mini-VCC featuring custom compressor and heat-exchanger technology. The compressor is a highly efficient, high power density rotary compressor designed for 500 W of heat removal with a Coefficient of Performance (COP) of 3. In the Phase I effort Rini Technologies Inc. (RTI) proposes to develop a compressor capable of handling variable heat loads up to 500 W, with variable temperature lift capability to suit NASA's specific needs. Detailed component testing will be performed, and the results coupled with NASA's specific needs will result in a complete system recommendation for a Phase II effort. The following Phase II effort will result in delivery of an efficient, lightweight, reliable and compact prototype VCC for NASA missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project is anticipated to provide a compact cooling unit through the utilization of a unique high power density rotary compressor. Such a unit will be useful to NASA for future incorporation into future Spacecraft and instruments for space missions, small compartment or micro-climate cooling, and possibly portable applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Meso-scale heat pumping devices may be used in an array portable or confined space applications such as avionics cooling, electronics cooling, and portable personal cooling units. Potential medical applications also exist in enabling active, controlled cooling or heating for patients with body temperature control disabilities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling
Portable Life Support
Liquid-Liquid Interfaces
Power Management and Distribution
Thermodynamic Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S3.02-9921
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Thermally Conductive Tape Based on Carbon Nanotube Array

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Atlas Scientific
1367 Camino Robles Way
San Jose, CA 95120-4925

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Maddocks
maddocks@cae.wisc.edu
1415 Engineering Drive, Rm 1339A
Madison,  WI 53706-1607

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future NASA missions require thermal control systems that can accommodate large changes in ambient temperature. The two essential aspects of an effective thermal interface material (TIM) are high compliance and high thermal conductivity. Thermal interface materials (TIM) are often used to fill the cavities between mating surfaces to increase the thermal conductance across the interface. Traditional TIMs are polymer based composites such as thermal grease or paste. The nature of polymer matrices makes them inapplicable under vacuum and in a cryogenic environment. The goal of the proposed research is to develop a flexible thermally-conductive tape. The proposed innovation forms a versatile, vacuum-proof, thermally conductive tape. The tape is pliable and should conform to the contours of the interface. Carbo nanotubes bridge the two mating surfaces, thereby effectively conducting heat across the interface.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Thermal management is a critical aspect of various high power devices for future NASA missions. The energy generated by electronic devices dissipates into the ambient environment through heat sinks or heat spreaders. Effective heat conduction requires good thermal contact between heat sinks and electronic packages. Thermal contact resistance arises from the microscopic lack of planarity and micro-roughness of the mating surfaces. When two surfaces are brought into contact, the actual contact area is usually much smaller than the apparent contact area, resulting in a thermal barrier at the interface. The problem becomes even more severe in vacuum and low temperature environments. Therefore, high thermal conductivity and vacuum compatible thermal interface materials are crucial to thermal control of electronic devices in space applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed thermal interface technology is believed to be applicable to many uses in thermal management. It may be used at the interface between electronic devices and heat spreaders, to attach thermometry, heaters, etc. Being electrically conductive to some extent, it could also be used to form electrical connections. Further, it could be used to quickly attach items without the use of adhesives and to attach items in locations that might otherwise be difficult or impossible to achieve. Avoiding adhesives also eliminates the outgassing of various vapors over time.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling
Laser
Instrumentation
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S3.03-8357
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Generation and Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Quantum Dot Based Photovoltaics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Modification, Inc.
2721-D Merrilee Drive
Fairfax, VA 22031-4429

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tirumalai Sudarshan
sudarshan@matmod.com
2721-D Merrilee Drive
Fairfax,  VA 22031-4429

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Hybrid photovoltaic cells that combine nanostructured inorganic semiconductors with organic conductors such as the cell proposed, show promise for energy generation in technical applications due to the higher efficiencies and significantly lower costs resulting from cheaper materials and easier manufacturing processes. These hybrid solar cells can be tailored to have efficiencies comparable to inorganic solar cells hitherto studied. Quantum Dot (QD) semiconductor based photovoltaics exhibit promise for fabrication of lightweight and efficient sources of power, especially in conjugation with organic semiconductors. In this Phase I effort, Materials Modification Inc. will develop a novel CIGS quantum dot enhanced hybrid photovoltaic cell that exhibits promise of a conversion efficiency of 15-30% or even higher and good radiation resistance. MMI's proprietary plasma process will be used to produce the CIGS quantum dots, which will be incorporated in a suitable organic semiconductor to fabricate simple, cheap and efficient photovoltaics.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed material will find use in fabrication of radiation resistant photovoltaic modules and cells used in space based systems and extended duration missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The coating will be used in the fabrication of weather-resistant, long-lasting photovoltaic systems used to power civilian and defense applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical & Photonic Materials
Photovoltaic Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S3.03-8411
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Generation and Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight InP Solar Cells for Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MicroLink Devices
6457 Howard Street
Niles, IL 60714-3301

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Noren Pan
npan@mldevices.com
6457 Howard Street
Niles,  IL 60714-3301

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovation in this Phase I SBIR is the development of a technology which will enable the manufacture of a lightweight, low cost, InP based compound semiconductor material containing high efficiency multijunction solar cells suitable for deployment in very high altitude, very long endurance solar aircraft. The key technological step is the application of a production-worthy epitaxial liftoff (ELO) process to a multijunction solar cell structure fabricated on a large area InP substrate. Our focus will be on InP-based solar cells, in particular lattice-matched dual junction solar cell of InP and InGaAsP materials, because of the demonstrated radiation hardness of these materials. We will develop a road map towards InP solar cells capable of >30% conversion efficiency under AM0 illumination. We will also design a process by which thin epitaxial InP solar cell layers will be transferred onto very flexible conductive or non-conductive substrates. The resulting solar cell structures are expected to have a specific power >600 W/kg, to be capable of operating over temperatures in the range -80 ºC to 120 ºC and to have excellent reliability while exposed to space radiation levels

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology will be potentially applicable on many NASA space missions on which solar power is needed, particularly those utilizing solar electric propulsion (SEP). These missions include Comet Surface Sample Return (CSSR), Comet Nucleus Sample Return (CNSR), Mars Sample Return (MASR) and others.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A major potential government application for lightweight, efficient solar cells is in for high altitude, long endurance (HALE) aircraft. These aircraft are proposed for remote surveillance applications in which the aircraft could remain on station for months or years. DARPA and the Air Force are currently working on HALE programs. Major potential non-government applications include solar panels for commercial spacecraft. The market for these systems is estimated to be ~1 MW per year. Another major market for solar cells will be for terrestrial energy production. The solar cells described in this proposal are particularly suitable for concentrator applications, in which a high efficiency cell is essential for economic viability. It is estimated that the market for solar cells will be ~350 MW at 500x concentration in 2012 (equivalent to 700 kW at 1x operation). The size of this market is estimated to be $173 million.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Photovoltaic Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S3.03-8862
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Generation and Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flexible, Lightweight, Low-Cost Organic Photovoltaics with Improved Efficiency

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 W. 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033-1916

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shawn Sapp
sasapp@tda.com
12345 W. 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge,  CO 80033-1916

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Both manned and unmanned off-Earth missions of the future will require very lightweight, high efficiency, flexible and durable photovoltaic (PV) arrays to generate electric power. Current PV technology horizons do not meet the requirements for expanded mission capability. Although inorganic PVs hold the record for solar power conversion efficiency, they are inflexible, heavy, and expensive to produce. There is increasing interest in a new type of PV technology that is based on organic semiconducting materials. Much of this research has been limited by the availability of stable n-type organic semiconductors. TDA Research, Inc. proposes to use a new class of n-type conjugated polymers to produce more efficient organic PV devices. Two of our new n-type materials are available through Sigma-Aldrich, and the current technology readiness level (TRL) stands at 3 with proof-of-concept results and commercial sales. At the end of this Phase I project we will have produced prototype organic PVs in the laboratory (TRL 4) and a successful Phase II project would lead to several commercial n-type organic semiconductor products being used in the full scale production of lightweight flexible PVs (TRL 6).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A successful project will produce a new class of n-type conjugated polymers for high efficiency, thin film organic solar cells. This technology will revolutionize PV power generation where weight, flexibility, and form-factor are major concerns. Spaced-based platforms such as manned and unmanned vehicles, probes, and rovers all require lightweight, high efficiency power generation and will benefit greatly from the realization of this new technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
New semiconducting polymers with good electron accepting and transport properties are needed for the fabrication of highly efficient organic solar cells. Potential immediate applications of organic PV devices include disposable flexible power sources, foldable and deployable arrays, charging systems for smart magnetic cards and for smart packaging materials, photovoltaics on fabric and textiles, and various military applications. Other future applications may include solar panels for private homes and foldable charging pads for cellular phones, GPS units, laptop computers and other portable devices.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Organics/Bio-Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Photovoltaic Conversion
Renewable Energy


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S3.03-9293
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Generation and Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Efficiency, High Mass Specific Power Two-Terminal Solar Cells

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
EPIR Technologies, Inc.
590 Territorial Drive, Suite B
Bolingbrook, IL 60440-4634

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Boieriu
pboieriu@epir.com
590 Territorial Drive, Suite B
Bolingbrook,  IL 60440-4634

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future NASA missions will require significant improvements in photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency (>30%) and mass specific power (>600 W/kg), and improved radiation tolerance. We propose to develop a high efficiency monolithic three-junction, two-terminal solar cell using lattice matched HgCdZnTe and/or HgCdMgTe alloys, which will offer great advantages in terms of weight and interconnect simplicity as well as improvements in efficiency. The use of frequency down conversion by divalent Sm/Eu and trivalent Yb/Tb halides embedded in the protective coatings of the solar cells to increase the efficiency of photovoltaic conversion will be investigated. The predicted ideal efficiencies are greater than 50%. During Phase I we will determine the optimal layer thicknesses, doping profiles and current density matching requirements for two-terminal multiple-heterojunction solar cell designs. We will grow HgCdZnTe layers with Zn composition &#8776; 0.5 on a Si substrate using a thin CdTe/ZnTe strained-layer superlattice to eliminate cracking and minimize strain, will optimize the growth of HgCdMgTe, and will measure mobilities and minority carrier lifetimes in the layers. We will fabricate and test a two-junction solar cell. Frequency down conversion will be demonstrated, progress toward its optimization will be made, and optical fusion of the solar cell and protective layers will be investigated.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed solar cells are expected to have ~40% efficiencies and <150 g/m2 densities without protective layers if the Si substrates are removed. This would give mass specific powers of ~3600 W/kg without a protective coating, far in excess of NASA requirements, or would allow one to meet the NASA mass specific power requirement with a protective coating having a density of ~0.07 g/cm2 (a thickness of ~175 ìm for typical protective coating materials). The proposed solar cells also would function across a very broad range of temperatures. Thus, the proposed solar cells would be potentially appropriate for powering all off-Earth NASA observation platforms: Earth orbiting spacecraft, planetary spacecraft, balloons, aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). They also would be appropriate for powering ground and marine based observation platforms because of their ultra-high efficiencies, but they would face competition from other high-efficiency solar cell technologies not appropriate for off-Earth use.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed solar cells have obvious potential applications for powering both military and intelligence-gathering satellites and commercial communication satellites because of their expected high efficiencies and mass specific power. They also have a broad potential application for powering off-Earth sensors and focal plane arrays for the MDA and for various Air Force applications, including unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), as well as on-Earth applications requiring ultra-high efficiency solar cells. The proposed down-conversion technology using divalent Sm and trivalent Yb and Tb halides embedded in the protective coatings of the solar cells will have even a much larger potential application. It could be applied with fluorozirconate glass coverings or other coverings for improving the efficiency of any on-Earth solar cell.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Photovoltaic Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S3.03-9444
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Generation and Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nanostructured InGaP Solar Cells

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kopin Corporation
200 John Hancock Road
Taunton, MA 02780-7320

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Roger Welser
rwelser@kopin.com
200 John Hancock Road
Taunton,  MA 02780-7320

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The operating conditions of conventional multijunction solar cells are severely limited by the current matching requirements of serially connected devices. The goal of this SBIR program is to enhance the operating tolerance of high efficiency III-V solar cells by employing nanostructured materials in an advanced device design. By using quantum wells and quantum dots embedded in a higher band gap barrier material, solar cell devices that avoid the limitations of current matching can be constructed. This Phase I effort will focus on quantifying the trade-offs between short circuit current and open circuit voltage in InGaP / InGaAs nanostructures. Ultimately, the technical approach employed in this program has the potential of achieving conversion efficiencies exceeding 50% with a single p-n junction device, enabling improved overall performance and lower manufacturing costs than existing technologies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future space exploration missions will require photovoltaic power systems capable of operating over a wide range of conditions, including extreme environments with high temperature and tremendous radiation exposures. Conventional multijunction solar cells can provide high conversion efficiencies, but only under limited environmental conditions. The near term objective of this SBIR program is to build a solar cell using nanostructured wide band gap materials that matches the conversion efficiency of conventional multijunction technologies while performing over a much wider range of operating conditions. The technology developed during this program is expected to have immediate market opportunities as power systems for NASA science missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SBIR project described here is part of a larger effort to realize the ultimate objective of third generation photovoltaics, namely ultra-high conversion efficiency at low costs. The wider operating conditions enabled by nanostructured InGaP solar cells would substantially enhance the overall performance of terrestrial concentrator photovoltaic systems. This technology could thus accelerate the adoption of photovoltaics into the renewable energy market to address the world's growing energy needs without degrading the environment. In addition to its potential commercial value and social benefits, this SBIR program will enhance the technical understanding of quantum well and quantum dot devices.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Solar
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Photovoltaic Conversion
Renewable Energy


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S3.03-9617
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Generation and Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Expanded Operational Temperature Range for Space Rated Li-Ion Batteries

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Quallion, LLC
12744 San Fernando Road
Sylmar, CA 91342-3728

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hisashi Tsukamoto
hisashi@quallion.com
12744 San Fernando Rd.
Sylmar,  CA 91342-3728

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Quallion's response to this solicitation calls for expanding the nominal operation range of its space rated lithium ion cells, while maintaining their long life capabilities. To expand this temperature range, Quallion will conduct analysis on a variety of materials. At the end of the program, Quallion will choose the two most promising formulations and deliver test cells for analysis by NASA. In Phase II, Quallion will further optimize the formulations from Phase I and fabricate our large format satellite cells for cell and battery level qualification. Quallion is also proposing a "right sizing" of this production facility to allow for cost effective, low volume production with enhanced reliability, long-term supply guarantee and design flexibility that allows for future production for NASA missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
If Quallion is successful in Phase I, Quallion would introduce a aerospace satellite lithium-ion cell capable of enhanced operating temperature range, while maintaining long cycle life. Quallion will provide a right sized production line to offer NASA cell configurations specific to orbiting and surface operation needs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Expanding the operational temperature range of lithium ion cells are specifically relevant to key military applications. The ability to have a chemistry that demonstrates wide temperature long term performance is desired by the military. On the commercial side, the ability to have a lithium-ion cell chemistry capable of a wide operating temperature is ideal for the automotive HEV/EV industry. Current use of commercial cells, require an extensive cooling and heating components to maintain the cells in the ideal operating temperature range. This system reduces the overall energy density savings of the lithium ion pack over the traditional nickel based chemistries and adds costly electronics and complexity to the battery system.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S3.03-9727
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Generation and Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Materials that Enhance Efficiency and Radiation Resistance of Solar Cells

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sun Innovations, Inc.
44166 Old Warm Springs Blvd.
Fremont, CA 94538-6144

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Xiao-Dong Sun
ted@sun-innovations.com
44166 Old Warm Springs Blvd
Fremont,  CA 94538-6144

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Solar cell is the key device in generating electrical power for spacecrafts. It is an on-going challenge in maximizing electrical power available to spacecraft while reducing overall stowage volume and mass of solar array. While the "record" solar cells approach the theoretical limit after several decades of extensive R&D effort, it becomes ever-increasingly difficult and cost prohibitive to further increasing their efficiency, by continuingly playing with existing solar cell fabrication protocols. Sun Innovations proposes a highly innovative alternative approach in significantly increasing the solar cell efficiency (~10%), specific power density, the radiation resistance and lifetime, without adding much cost and weight to the existing solar cells. It is also a generic approach that shall enhance the efficiency and lifetime of most commercial solar cells for broad based commercial benefits. The key nano-crystalline materials will be developed in Phase I, to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach in record cells. The technology will be further developed in Phase II to be ready for commercialization in Phase III.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The objective of this project, if successful, would further push the limit on state-of-the-art solar cell efficiency and specific power density, in addition to enhancing the radiation tolerance. An advanced solar cell with efficiency over 30% and specific power density over 600 W/Kg would result in low launch and operation cost of spacecraft and greatly benefit various NASA spacecraft programs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology can also be applied to most types of commercial solar cells. By significantly enhancing the efficiency and lifetime of commercial solar cells (e.g. Silicon cells), without incurring much cost, it would reduce the "cost per watt" of solar cell in competing with other sources of energy, helping promote the market adoption of solar energy, which benefit the Nation's environment as well as energy independence from imported oil.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Photovoltaic Conversion
Renewable Energy


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S3.04-8649
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: A High Performance Cathode Heater for Hall Thrusters

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sienna Technologies, Inc.
19501 144th Avenue NE, Suite F-500
Woodinville, WA 98072-4423

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ender Savrun
ender.savrun@siennatech.com
19501 144th Avenue NE-Suite F-500
Woodinville,  WA 98072-4423

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
High current hollow cathodes are the baseline electron source for next generation high power Hall thrusters. Currently for electron sources providing current levels >50 A and cathodes utilizing LaB6 emitters, the only viable, long life heater technology is a low reliability, low producibility, multi-element heater constructed from MgO insulated coaxial heater cable. In the Phase I project we will develop novel insulator materials to replace MgO that can provide high temperature capability, with good thermal conductivity and electrical isolation. We will design, fabricate, and test prototype swaged coaxial heaters incorporating the novel insulators, in collaboration with a heater manufacturer and an end user aerospace company.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Swaged coaxial heaters for hollow cathodes have applications in space as components of ion propulsion systems and spacecraft charging/charge-control systems, including ATS-6, SERT-II, SCATHA, and SCSR-1 flight experiments. Hollow cathodes have also been used on spacecraft, including an Agena vehicle, on communication satellites, on the space shuttle, the electrodynamic tether, and space station structure and other space environments that include those of low-earth orbits, sun-synchronous high inclination orbits, and geosynchronous orbits.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The United States Air Force has many missions in the design stage that would benefit from small, low-cost satellites operating either autonomously or as an element in a cluster of such vehicles flying in formation with carefully controlled distances and orientations to each other. The ion and Hall thrusters provide an enabling technology for microsatellites, which are proposed for many military and commercial applications. The commercial applications include communications and imaging satellites, companions to large satellites to provide surveillance and close-up inspection capabilities, such as to monitor and assure proper deployment of solar panels, antennae and other appendages.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Electromagnetic Thrusters
Electrostatic Thrusters
Ceramics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S3.04-9053
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Silicone Adhesives for High Temperature Inflatable Fabrics and Polymer Films

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NEI Corporation
201 Circle Drive N., Suite 102/103
Piscataway, NJ 08854-3723

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Runqing Ou
rou@neicorporation.com
201 Circle Drive N., Suite 102/103
Piscataway,  NJ 08854-3723

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Thin films, elastomeric materials, high temperature fabrics and adhesives that are capable of withstanding thermal extremes (-130oC to 500oC) are highly desirable for use in inflatable decelerator applications. One solution is to substantially increase the thermal conductivity of the adhesive layer underneath the thin film layer so that heat generated during entry of the decelerator into the atmosphere can be quickly and effectively dissipated, thus avoiding the negative effect of high temperature. We propose an approach wherein a low volume fraction (<5%) of inorganic nanoparticle fillers will lead to substantial increase in thermal conductivity in the direction perpendicular to the thin film. The innovation is in the development and processing of a unique morphology of the nanocomposite adhesive material. In Phase I, we will demonstrate the feasibility of the concept by fabricating elastomeric adhesives containing nanoscale additives, and testing the thermal conductivity perpendicular to the thin film direction. The Phase I program is a collaboration with a leading manufacturer of inflatable structures for space applications. The focus of the Phase II program will be in implementing the technology in a prototype component, which will be tested and qualified, and made available to NASA. The proposed work builds upon NEI's prior experience with nanoparticle dispersed material systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Thermally conductive adhesives provide thermal management through dissipating heat away effectively from the surface of earth-orbiting spacecraft, the human lunar habitat, landers, rovers, and more. The inflatable decelerator is just one example.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Heat conducting polymers are used as interface bonding materials in 'ever-smaller and more power-hungry electronics'. They are also used as tubing for heat exchangers in appliances, lighting, telecommunication devices, business machines, and industrial equipment used in corrosive environments. Lighting applications also include reflectors, laser-diode encapsulation, and fluorescent ballasts. Thermally conductive compounds are also used to encapsulate small motors and motor bobbins. A diesel fuel pump uses a thermally conductive plastic to help keep fuel flowing in sub-freezing temperatures.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Inflatable
Composites
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Aerobrake


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S3.04-9790
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: UltraSail Solar Sail Flight Experiment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CU Aerospace, LLC
2100 South Oak Street, Suite 206
Champaign, IL 61820-0903

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Carroll
carroll@cuaerospace.com
2100 South Oak St.-Suite 206
Champaign,  IL 61820-0903

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CU Aerospace and its University of Illinois teammate propose the design, sub-component fabrication and preliminary test of an UltraSail "Cubesat" 20 m2 solar sail spacecraft leading to a flight test in low Earth orbit. The complete flight test program consists of: preliminary design and sub-component tests; fabrication and assembly of a University of Illinois Cubesat spacecraft bus adapted to solar sail deployment; spaceflight qualification testing; and the flight test. The proposed innovation will demonstrate a scalable flight test in a 3 kg package of a high performance 200 m long solar sail plus two Cubesats to achieve a solar sail areal density of 5 gm/m2, and a large cost reduction factor for flight test of advanced solar sails. Successful development of the UltraSail solar sail will enable very high energy inner heliosphere and interstellar scientific missions with large scientific payloads. In addition, near-earth missions, such as Heliostorm for early warning of solar storms, will provide more warning margin as the solar sail performance is increased with UltraSail technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful development of the UltraSail solar sail would enable very high energy inner heliosphere and interstellar scientific missions. In addition, near-earth missions such as Heliostorm for early warning of solar storms will provide more warning margin as the solar sail performance is increased with UltraSail technology. Spacecraft design studies show that for sail areal densities below 5 gm/m2, as proposed with UltraSail, spacecraft payloads can be significantly increased because of the elimination of the propellant, without sacrificing flight time. Furthermore, sail development promises to be lower cost than competing SEP or NEP systems, enabling more missions for the research dollar.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA applications are very long term, such as lunar or Mars commercial cargo missions. The flight test procedure proposed here, involving two identical Cubesats, might also be an economical approach to the testing of space tether systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Solar


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S3.05-8864
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Terrestrial Balloon Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Enhanced PBO Fiber Reinforced Balloon Envelope Materials for Titan Aerobots

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Infoscitex Corporation
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451-1016

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Kovar
bkovar@infoscitex.com
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham,  MA 02451-1016

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Lighter-than-atmosphere (LTA) systems provide significant advantages for planetary exploration due to their potential for extended mission duration, long traverse, and extensive surface coverage capabilities. However, LTA vehicles must withstand the atmosphere of these planets and moons. The atmosphere is often a challenging environment for the exterior balloon envelope materials primarily due to its extreme cold and complex chemistry. In this Phase I, Infoscitex (IST) will demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating a high specific strength fiber reinforced balloon material that can replace the currently marginally viable materials based on polyester film and fabric laminates. IST will develop an environmentally stable PBO fiber and use it to reinforce a new balloon envelope material that enables at least a 50% improvement in the strength to weight ratio while exceeding the flexibility to the current polyester materials in a Titan atmosphere. It is possible to achieve areal densities with this material that are in the range of 40 g/m2 that can support both super pressure and zero pressure balloon concepts. During the Phase I program, IST will demonstrate the feasibility of the enhancing the PBO fiber with UV and hydrolysis protection via significant balloon material sample fabrication and cryogenic testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applications Potential NASA commercial applications will include aerobot balloons for exploration of other planets and their moons in our solar system. The higher specific strength of our stabilized PBO fiber-reinforced balloon film will enable construction of lighter weight pressurized balloons for missions in the earth's atmosphere.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applications Stabilized PBO fiber-reinforced polymer films will find application as reinforced vacuum bag films. The high thermal stability of stabilized PBO fiber will enable its use as reinforcement in Kapton, Upilex and stabilized PBO films for high temperature composite applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Inflatable
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S4.01-8693
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NanoSat Launch Vehicle Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Minimum Cost Nanosatellite Launch System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Delta Velocity Corporation
932 Edwards Ferry Road, Suite 14
Leesburg, VA 20176-3324

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joseph Padavano
jpadavano@deltavelocity.com
932 Edwards Ferry Road, Suite 14
Leesburg,  VA 20176-3324

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Delta Velocity Corporation proposes the development of a very low cost, highly responsive nanosat launch system. We propose to develop an integrated propulsion system and launch vehicle configuration that provides responsiveness approaching that of solid propellant systems using a non-toxic storable liquid bipropellant mix, an innovative single pressure vessel stage design, and an integrated engine/tankage system. The system combines these innovative propulsion technologies with proven sounding rocket operations concepts to minimize cost. Our two stage nanosat launch system uses rail launch and static stability in early flight phases and a deliberate non-optimum stage sizing to eliminate the requirement for an expensive flight termination system and associated ground infrastructure. Our focus on inherent system safety and maximum vehicle simplicity benefits the responsiveness, reliability, and cost of space launch. The propellants chosen are inexpensive, easy to handle, and inherently safe. These room temperature storable propellants allow use of common, low cost vehicle materials and construction techniques. The system is scalable, allowing it to be adapted to a wide range of space launch systems. The design simplicity of the configuration promises to reduce costs and improve responsiveness of space launch systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our proposed nanosat launch system directly satisfies many of the needs of subtopic S4.01. The integrated stage concept is a low-cost propulsion system using low-cost materials and low-cost manufacturing processes. This propulsion technology will help mature a low-cost propulsion system using storable non-toxic propellants. The upper stage provides an innovative propulsion system solution for small spacecraft as the bipropellant mix provides spacecraft primary propulsion and the oxidizer alone can be used as either a monopropellant or cold gas for attitude control. The innovative tank design addresses airframe and subsystem structures that increase performance and propellant mass fraction. Refinement of our propulsion optimization tool will mature a small launch vehicle design and analysis tool. The non-propulsion elements address other needs of the subtopic. Our innovative stage and fairing separation system that separates both the payload fairing and spent first stage with a single separation event is a novel, low-cost release mechanism design. Our spinning aerostable vehicle provides a low-weight avionics architecture to allow maximum payload capacity. Our novel system design and CONOPS address the conceptual design of system/architectures capable of reducing mission costs associated with small payload delivery to LEO. The non-optimum delta V split and rail-launched design provide a range safety solution and operational concept to lower costs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Delta Velocity is particularly interested in development of a responsive 10kg space. At $500K per mission this vehicle would revolutionize space technology development. Expensive and time consuming ground tests could be replaced with simple flight tests in the actual operating environment. Both DARPA and the Air Force Research Lab support the concept of a low-cost responsive nanosat launcher. The Operationally Responsive Space office at Kirtland AFB has a number of ongoing projects to develop low cost, responsive small satellites. A launch capability in this class will greatly benefit that activity. A low-cost student-class launcher will reinvigorate aerospace education in the US and help mitigate the approaching gap in the number of experienced aerospace industry professionals. We will continue our efforts to secure funding outside the SBIR program that would allow us to complete that development. Delta Velocity will also work with DoD organizations and educational organizations at the federal and state levels. Our goal is to provide kits of vehicle hardware and integration procedures that would allow students to safely integrate and operate these vehicles in a classroom environment.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Tankage
Feed System Components


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S4.01-8929
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NanoSat Launch Vehicle Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flight Testing of Wireless Networking for Nanosat Launch Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Garvey Spacecraft Corporation
389 Haines Avenue
Long Beach, CA 90814-1841

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Garvey
jmgarvey@garvspace.com
389 Haines Avenue
Long Beach,  CA 90814-1841

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovation proposed here addresses the testing and evaluation of wireless networking technologies for small launch vehicles by leveraging existing nanosat launch vehicle (NLV) development to create a dedicated wireless technologies testbed that can enter flight during Phase I. The Phase I research goal is to establish a technical readiness level (TRL) of 6 for internal vehicle wireless networking using ZIGBEE and/or its equivalent, particularly for sensor networks, stage-to-stage and vehicle-payload interfaces, as well as demonstrate vehicle-to-ground network communications using WIMAX. Subsequent Phase II research would focus on increasing the TRL to 7 by improving the performance of the test vehicle to expand the flight envelope while working with partners and suppliers to tailor their hardware to space applications. Such an aggressive Phase I work plan is possible due to our team's ongoing NLV R/R&D that is presently funded by the Air Force along with several civilian and commercial launch service customers. The long term goal of this initiative, which is characterized by extensive flight testing, is to provide a dedicated, domestic launch capability of 10 kg to low Earth orbit.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful validation of a TRL of 7 or greater for wireless networking technologies can be expected to lead to their immediate utilization in our next round of NLV test vehicles along with a variety of small satellite applications, which in turn will prepare for the next step to a TRL of 8 and 9. At that point, advanced wireless networking will then become a strong candidate for stage-to-stage interfaces in future multi-element launch systems, enhanced accommodations for manifesting multiple payloads and intelligent on-board communciations as well as satellite-to-satellite communication using machine-to-machine (M2M) solutions for free-flying constellations and Space Station proximity operations. In the longer term, they should be see extensive application in surface exploration operations on the Moon and Mars.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial launch vehicles with separable stages. DOD UAVs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Architectures and Networks
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Manned-Manuvering Units


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S4.01-9017
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NanoSat Launch Vehicle Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nytrox Oxidizers for NanoSat Launch Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Space Propulsion Group, Inc.
760 San Aleso Avenue
Sunnyvale, CA 94085-1445

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arif Karabeyoglu
arif@spg-corp.com
760 San Aleso Avenue
Sunnyvale,  CA 94085-1445

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Space Propulsion Group, Inc. proposes to conduct systems studies to quantify the performance and cost advantages of Nytrox oxidizers for small launch vehicles. This new class of oxidizers is composed of mixtures of nitrous oxide (N2O) and oxygen (O2) and has significant advantages over the pure oxidizers, some of which can be summarized as 1) higher density, Isp and safer operation compared to N2O, 2) non-cryogenic operation and ease of development of stable and efficient motors compared to LOX. Thus Nytrox is expected to be an important enabling technology for developing low cost, high performance NanoSat launch vehicles. The primary goal of the Phase I effort is to quantify the increase in the payload mass by changing the oxidizer from N2O to Nytrox for the upper stages of a small launch system. In the proposed effort the cost and operational issues associated with producing, transporting and storing the Nytrox oxidizers shall be also be quantified. The planning for the third stage motor development and ground testing that will be conducted in Phase II shall be started in Phase I. Technology Readiness Level ranges of 2-3 and 5-6 are expected at the end of the Phase I and II, respectively.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology aims to provide a high performance, safe, reliable and affordable propulsion alternative to the chemical systems that are currently in use. When it is fully matured, the Nytrox oxidizer technology would potentially have a wide variety of NASA applications which include: • Main propulsion for orbital launch vehicles (all stages, can be used in hybrid or liquid rockets) • Main propulsion for sounding rockets • Thrust augmenters with throttling and shut-down capability. • Main propulsion for Lunar and interplanetary missions • In space propulsion (low freezing point) • Orbit insertion modules that are throttleable.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
When it is fully matured, the Nytrox oxidizer technology would potentially have a wide variety of commercial and DoD applications which include: • Main propulsion for orbital launch vehicles (all stages, can be used in hybrid or liquid rockets) • Main propulsion for suborbital vehicles and sounding rockets • Thrust augmenters with throttling and shut-down capability. • Orbit insertion modules that are throttleable. • High speed and/or high altitude target drones.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S4.02-9538
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Secondary and Tertiary Launch Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: ESPA for Lunar and Science Missions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CSA Engineering, Inc.
2565 Leghorn Street
Mountain View, CA 94043-1613

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joseph Maly
jmaly@csaengineering.com
2565 Leghorn St
Mountain View,  CA 94043-1613

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA mission planning in the next decade includes small spacecraft and secondary flight opportunities on Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELVs), specifically Atlas V and Delta IV. NASA's use of EELVs is accelerated because of the impending termination of the Delta II launcher. Nearly all EELVs slated for launch have significant excess payload capacity. The EELV Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) Ring was developed by CSA Engineering under an Air Force SBIR to utilize excess lift capability by providing a secondary mission capability. ESPA, as built, can provide access to space for NASA lunar and science missions. However, to ensure that diverse NASA mission objectives can be achieved with the best possible mission configurations, structural tailoring of the ESPA will be required. The proposed effort will develop modular features of ESPA that are required for optimal NASA mission configurations targeting, but not necessarily limited to, the following: (1) Separable ESPA: Separation capability built into the ESPA Ring. (2) Hierarchical ESPA: Scaling of the ESPA design for larger EELV payloads and for small launch vehicles. (3) ESPA Mounts: Interior and exterior mounting for spacecraft and auxiliary structures. Phase 1 will establish feasibility for the modular ESPA designs. Plans will be presented for flight qualification of all designs. Phase 2 will produce flight qualified hardware to at least TRL 6 for a design determined to be the most desirable for near-term NASA implementation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Development of the proposed ESPA modularity will enable future NASA Missions targeting lunar exploration as well as science programs. A Separating ESPA Ring will enable free-flyer spacecraft and propulsion stages built on ESPA, for NASA objectives such as populating lunar orbit with communication satellites. Increased delta-V for propulsive ESPA Orbital Maneuvering Systems will be achievable with reduced weight Rings. The Hierarchical ESPA will extend secondary mission capability to spacecraft up to 500 kg, and will develop ESPA derived adapters for small launch vehicles such as Minotaur and Falcon. Alternate structure mounting, for spacecraft or auxiliary components or appendages, will expand the design space available to NASA mission planners. Modular features built into the ESPA Ring will be applicable for developments of secondary payload capability for the Ares and other future launch vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ESPA is expected to have a tremendous impact on future spacecraft programs by increasing the number of secondary payload launch opportunities available at a reasonable cost. Developments under this SBIR program will greatly enhance the capabilities of ESPA configured missions. It is anticipated that this effort will significantly contribute to a change in the launch paradigm by providing small satellite launch opportunities at a reasonable cost and on a regular schedule, thus allowing for the full utilization of small satellite technology within the US.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Testing Facilities


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S4.03-8382
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low-Cost, Rapid Spacecraft Design and Multi-Subsystem Functionality
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wireless Data and Power Transfer on Small Spacecraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AeroAstro Corporation
20145 Ashbrook Place
Ashburn, VA 20147-3373

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bill Seng
bill.seng@aeroastro.com
20145 Ashbrook Place
Ashburn,  VA 20147-3373

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Achieving low-cost space missions implies lowering all phases of mission development, including spacecraft design, assembly, integration and test. The concept of the wireless spacecraft bus is something most technical people are at least half familiar with - the half which includes wireless data transfer, something available on every computer laptop today. But wireless is not really wireless if the power is delivered through wires. Both power and data need to be delivered wirelessly for the true potential impact of wireless to be made on spacecraft design, build, integration, and test. Integrating today's commonplace wireless data systems into spacecraft would seem to be a logical step in spacecraft development, but to date has not been implemented widely if at all. AeroAstro proposes an innovative solution to design and build micro-spacecraft (and spacecraft components) harnessing the true promise of wireless systems. The overall objective of the proposal is to develop and demonstrate a truly wireless spacecraft bus - exhibiting not only wireless data, but also wireless power distribution. By definition, this wireless approach is inherently modular, and alleviates the need for wire harnesses of any type while simultaneously making staged built-in-test possible concurrently during spacecraft assembly.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ability to eliminate long wires - along with the failure mechanisms of chafing, sparking, ageing, and connector issues with which all spacecraft and payload manufacturers struggle - has the potential to revolutionize spacecraft and payload design. Removing the constraints of placement of components on a spacecraft due to the wiring routing frees the designer to concentrate on the best placement of the subsystem, and not limit the design simply to where power and data access points are located. Further, reliability is enhanced be removing failure mechanisms long understood but tolerated because previously there was no way to perform what wires could - efficient, directed flow of energy. The expectation is that NASA spacecraft, aircraft, and sensor networks in particular would benefit from this concept.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Wireless sensors based on energy harvesting are already making their first appearance in the marketplace, but actually beaming energy directly to sensors is in its infancy. The ability to emplace sensors in places best suited for the sensor - and not for either the power or data connections - will open new uses for low power, data hungry sensor networks. Wireless power transfer can be used for all kinds of small devices - cell phones, hand-held computers, laptops, flashlights, radios, etc. - anything that needs a charge and would benefit from the removal of the "power brick". Connector woes are not unique to spacecraft, as many cell phone and computer owners know from experience. The ability to remove another connector would again eliminate another failure mechanism.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Wireless Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S4.03-8760
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low-Cost, Rapid Spacecraft Design and Multi-Subsystem Functionality
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Sustainable Spacecraft Component Database Solution

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Microcosm, Inc.
4940 W. 147th Street
Hawthorne, CA 90250-6708

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Graven
pgraven@smad.com
4940 W. 147th St.
Hawthorne,  CA 90250-6708

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Numerous spacecraft component databases have been developed to support NASA, DoD, and contractor design centers and design tools. Despite the clear utility of component databases for improving and accelerating the spacecraft design process, they are observably uneconomic for individual organizations to build and maintain –otherwise there would be several that were actively maintained and growing. The problem is not the challenge of architecting the database or identifying the component types and data elements. In fact, many organizations have succeeded in developing excellent solutions that have languished due to the cost of populating and maintaining them. Microcosm is focused on developing an economically viable solution to creating a sustainable component database. The approach is four-fold: 1. Reduce the cost of gathering/maintaining data by leveraging web-based data with automated gathering and monitoring tools; 2. Drive sufficient value to component suppliers such that they are motivated to supply and maintain their own data; 3. Supply data to a broad range of users and organizations; and 4. Enable value-added contributions from users via venues like wikis, discussion rooms, links to relevant websites. This solution will stand on its own as a viable business, and provide increasing value to customers (suppliers and users) over time.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The spacecraft component database system promises to be used broadly within NASA, with enterprise versions supporting spacecraft/mission design tools and design teams at centers focused on space system development. In addition, a much broader group of NASA users will likely access the system via the web or internal networks on an occasional basis. This will bring tremendous value to NASA in terms of improved design processes, reduced design schedules, and reduced non-value-added design activities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications are essentially the same as those for NASA. DoD space organizations, support contractors and commercial space system developers will likely implement enterprise versions to support design and procurement systems as well as to enable addition and management of proprietary data as part of the system. Smaller space related businesses will in some cases use the enterprise version, but will often rely on web based access –as will a broad range of occasional users. Additionally, component suppliers will use web access or supplier focused applications to view and maintain their component data in the system. Foreign users and organizations will also access the system –particularly as it expands to include a broad range of non-US made components.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Database Development and Interfacing
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S4.03-9166
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low-Cost, Rapid Spacecraft Design and Multi-Subsystem Functionality
PROPOSAL TITLE: OpenSAT, An Open Source Based Satellite Design Data Architecture with API Design and Management Plugins

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
sci_zone
17133 Inavale
Holland, MI 49424-5656

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrew Santangelo
andrew_santangelo@mac.com
17133 Inavale
Holland,  MI 49424-5656

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Satellite design encompasses a multitude of steps from concept to flight. Mission specification to flight can take several years, depending on the scope, requirements and budget of the mission. The process also requires a wide range of design and management tools, with limited consistency data interchange capability, and a lack of coherency. Detailing the relationships between the satellite configuration, inventory control systems, life cycle management, design, analysis and test data is difficult at best. No tool exists that meets these needs for the general satellite design, system engineering and integration process. Sci_Zone is proposing our innovative Satellite Design Automation architecture SatBuilder Designer, in conjunction with the OpenSAT open database architecture to meet this need. OpenSAT seamlessly integrates existing detail design tools with SatBuilder Designer, as well as databases tracking requirements, components and inventory, with the final configuration of the satellite. SatBuilder Designer, an AI based toolset, provides for rapid design via design wizards and integration to existing design tools; it provides coherency between a range of applications and data sets. OpenSAT stores and distributes supporting satellite design, configuration, mission and test data from a centralized database server and can distribute the data across multiple platforms and via the internet.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
OpenSAT and SATBuilder Designer allows for the rapid development, configuration management, and deployment of systems and satellites. NASA commercial applications include any Satellite or Subsystem development program, manned or unmanned mission - and any project requiring seamless integration between costing, performance, program and project life cycle support, and design processes. Once developed the product should be widely adopted within NASA due in part to SATBuilder Designer, the open APIs, and OpenSAT's open architecture and platform independence, plus free cost.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
OpenSAT, SATBuilder Designer and the Mission to Spacecraft Design Tool (MSDT) allows for the rapid development, configuration management, and deployment of satellites while considering performance, risk and managing the process through out the program life cycle. Non-NASA applications include any aerospace related applications requiring seamless integration between costing, performance and design. Non-NASA commercial customers include our own customer, AFRL, interested in implementing the SATBuilder Designer, MSDT and supporting OpenSAT Environments and will provide us the opportunity to expand our offering and market to new customers due in part to the architecture's open environment and platform independence. It is planned this project will set a standard for data exchange and design management. A market will then exist of OpenSAT certified applications, guaranteeing increased software sales and support services. This process has begun with the acceptance by AFRL of OpenSAT as the standard data architecture for the Operationally Responsive Space Program.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Training Concepts and Architectures
Testing Facilities
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Architectures and Networks
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Computer System Architectures
Database Development and Interfacing
Expert Systems
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
K-12 Outreach


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S4.04-8941
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Project Management, Systems Engineering and Mission Assurance Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wiki-Based Data and Information Integration (WikiDI2) System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Odyssey Space Research
1120 NASA Parkway
Houston, TX 77058-3364

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ron Flanary
rflanary@odysseysr.com
1120 NASA Parkway
Houston,  TX 77058-3364

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovation is: A data and information integration (DI2) system built from the methods and tools used to create Wiki websites. Wiki (Hawaiian for "quick") is software that allows users to create and edit Web page content using any Web browser. The significance of the innovation is that a Wiki-based DI2 system will: (1) Produce a collaborative, interactive website designed for the unique needs of government and commercial spacecraft projects for capturing, disseminating, managing and linking data resources across multiple projects and among distributed teams, (2) Provide "out of the box" advanced DI2 capabilities needed by project management and technical personnel from day one, (3) Provide a low cost DI2 solution for small companies and teams needing alternatives to expensive, complicated and inflexible project management tools, (4) Be easy to install, use and maintain without requiring programming or webmaster skills. The proposed innovation merges the Wiki philosophy of fast, easy and rewarding online content creation with standard project management functions and capabilities for data and information integration within secure, user-authenticated environments. This facilitates critical elements of communication, interaction and data capture/synthesis that are often missing or underdeveloped in many traditional project management efforts. Phase 1 TRL will be 6.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Project Management. A WikiDI2 system will eliminate the business as usual approach of "juggling" applications to conduct project management functions. System engineering projects. Provides a low-cost alternative to expensive commercial tools (e.g. DOORS). Flight S/W design and simulation development projects. Facilitates action and issues tracking, build management, communication forums, content management, test and verification control. Engineering analysis and testing. Provides user-friendly and accessible mechanisms for data capture and sharing, technical issues forums, report generation, test planning and coordination. Lab administration. Allows lab administrators to manage user configurations, collect user feedback, facilitate anomaly resolution, disseminate news and information, and coordinate resources. Financial control and reporting. Provides capabilities for project timekeeping, statistics/metrics generation, budget control/visibility, standardized reporting, disciplined data input and capture, scheduling, etc. Multi-center projects. Geographic distribution of team members is eliminated as a barrier to effective collaboration.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
- Timekeeping. Odyssey implemented a Wiki-based timekeeping system that replaced paper timesheets. · Project Management. A commercial manager will find that the WikiDI2 system provides a solution that addresses the critical needs of project management in a single package. - Software development. Facilitates issues tracking, release management, communication forums, content management, test and verification. - Engineering analysis and testing. Provides user-friendly mechanisms for data capture and sharing, technical issues forums, report generation, test planning and coordination. - Computer systems administration. Facilitates user configuration management, user feedback, anomaly resolution, announcements, and resource coordination. - Financial control. Provides capabilities for timekeeping, statistics/metrics generation, budget control/visibility, standardized reporting, disciplined data input and capture, scheduling, etc. - Multi-office collaboration. Time and distance are eliminated as barriers to effective collaboration. - Sales. Allows sales personnel to upload orders quickly, change orders, check order status, check inventory, provide marketing information, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Database Development and Interfacing
Human-Computer Interfaces
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S4.05-8552
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Smart, Autonomous Command and Data Handling System, Algorithms and Data Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Modular Autonomous C&DH Software with Built-In Simulation/Test

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Solutions, Inc.
10822 W. Toller Drive, Suite 250
Littleton, CO 80127-6329

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Cuseo
jcuseo@go-asi.com
10822 W. Toller Dr, Suite 250
Littleton,  CO 80127-6329

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA, the Department of Defense (DoD), and Commercial spacecraft programs have the desire to minimize program costs while continuing to ensure mission robustness and flexibility. The spacecraft system that is a cost driver throughout the program life cycle is the Command and Data Handling System (C&DH), along with the associated algorithms and software. Advanced Solutions Inc (ASI) plans to develop C&DH software which can be targeted and adapted to a wide variety of C&DH hardware architectures and mission requirements. We also recognize the need to streamline the entire spacecraft development lifecycle and provide a product that not only provides highly autonomous core flight software that is adaptable to any mission, but also has the ability to replace traditional development, integration and test elements. This will be accomplished by expanding upon our revolutionary On-board Dynamic Simulation System (ODySSy) to allow the C&DH system to support all phases of the spacecraft lifecycle. Additionally, the traditional test control room is now unnecessary and is replaced by the mission control architecture to provide a true test-like-you-fly environment. The test team, mission control team, and data analyst's can be in remote locations through use of the Web-Based Data Distribution Network (WebDDN).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Modular Autonomous C&DH Software with Built-In Simulation/Test has application to a broad range of NASA spacecraft programs because: (1) the system is designed for re-use through modularity; (2) significant cost savings and risk reduction are realized through standardization of this critical spacecraft system; (3) increased levels of autonomy lead to more fault tolerant spacecraft and lower mission operations costs; and (4) reduced time to orbit is achieved via a streamlined Assembly, Integration and Test approach. Therefore the technology has the potential to become a standard for certain types of NASA missions including communication satellites, remote sensing platforms, planetary science spacecraft and GIS imagers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Modular Autonomous C&DH Software with Built-In Simulation/Test has significant application to the Department of Defense (DoD) spacecraft due to the Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) initiative. The ORS goals are to make space assets available to DoD users on-demand within very short time frames. The technology proposed in this SBIR supports those goals by providing a standardized approach to flight software that is also highly adaptable through modularity. In addition, the built-in simulation/test capabilities significantly reduce the Assembly, Integration and Test timeline. The commercial spacecraft market will likewise become a potential customer via the desire to reduce cost, risk and time to orbit. This is especially critical for telecommunication constellations (broadband commercial and personal communications) where savings are multiplied due to the number of satellites involved.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Architectures and Networks
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Computer System Architectures
Database Development and Interfacing
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S4.06-8307
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Avionics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Cost Suite of COTS GNC Sensors for Precision Lunar Lander

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stellar Exploration, Inc.
207 Suburban Road, Suite 3
San Luis Obispo, CA 93401-7518

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tomas Svitek
tomas@stellar-exploration.com
207 Suburban Road. Suite 3
San Luis Obispo,  CA 93401-7518

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We are proposing to exploit (in an innovative way) existing, readily available, GNC sensors for the purpose of precision lunar landing. Majority of previous lunar lander concepts with the precision/pinpoint landing capability required expensive and risky development of new GNC and landing sensors (scanning lidars, multi-beam mm-ww radar, etc.). Our proposed alternative consists solely of existing and low-cost sensors that synergistically leverage each capability and compensate for individual sensor weaknesses. For example, we can use a simple single-beam low-frequency radar altimeter (available at low-cost off-the-shelf, and proven on several Mars lander missions). The low-frequency radar can meet the maximum slant range requirements much easier than the mm-wave sensor but it does not have the adequate multiple narrow beam capability of the Apollo LM or Viking lander radar. However, the optical descent imaging measurement (using DSMAC-type sensor) can supplement the single beam radar measurement and obtain the same information about the complete state vector. There are several similar concepts implemented in this sensor suite of complementing strengths and weakness of individual sensors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful integration of low-cost GNC suite would open wide area for sales of that system for several other applications besides the lunar lander (Mars and asteroids mission, and proximity and rendezvous operations in LEO). The preliminary cost estimate for such integrated sensor suite is between $450K and $800K (depending on the software complexity and level of testing required). We anticipate that the first sale of the integrated sensor suite module would occur realistically within 24 months after the completion of Phase 2. Eventually, we estimate that flight rate of these integrated modules could approach 2-3 units per year (mostly in the US market, with minor potential in an international market). For the first ten years, the realistic (conservative) estimate of the total market potential is between 10-16 units, resulting in the total potential market of $5-7M.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful integration of low-cost GNC suite would open wide area for sales of that system for several other applications besides the lunar lander (Mars and asteroids mission, and proximity and rendezvous operations in LEO). The preliminary cost estimate for such integrated sensor suite is between $450K and $800K (depending on the software complexity and level of testing required). We anticipate that the first sale of the integrated sensor suite module would occur realistically within 24 months after the completion of Phase 2. Eventually, we estimate that flight rate of these integrated modules could approach 2-3 units per year (mostly in the US market, with minor potential in an international market). For the first ten years, the realistic (conservative) estimate of the total market potential is between 10-16 units, resulting in the total potential market of $5-7M.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Guidance, Navigation, and Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S4.06-9411
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Avionics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Plug-and-Play Star Sensor for Rapid Spacecraft Integration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Microcosm, Inc.
4940 W. 147th Street
Hawthorne, CA 90250-6708

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Wertz
jim@smad.com
4940 W. 147th St.
Hawthorne,  CA 90250-6708

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Microcosm, with Space Micro., and HRP Systems will design a plug-and-play (PnP) star sensor for small satellites. All three companies are well experienced in developing PnP systems for the U. S. Air Force during the past 6 years. On an existing Phase II Air Force SBIR program, Microcosm built a prototype star sensor called MicroMak. The sensor proposed here will focus on PnP compatibility for NASA missions of interest. The PnP star sensor recurring cost target is $150 K to $200 K, with a mass between 0.5 and 1 kg. Expected NASA mission applications necessitate a modified version of the baseline MicroMak sensor, including: 1) Interfaces compatible with a new PnP avionics architecture, 2) radiation-hardened focal plane arrays (FPAs) and processing electronics to enable longer mission life. The baseline MicroMak sensor was designed with inherent radiation-tolerant features: complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) FPAs with no direct space view, and all-reflective optical elements. The new PnP star sensor will build on MicroMak heritage and provide a modular, PnP-compatible, long-life star sensor for NASA missions, at low cost compared with traditional star sensors. A cost and mass reduction of a factor of 2 or more over traditional sensors is expected.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed star sensor will directly support NASA rapid spacecraft development efforts involving PnP architectures. Also, the proposed sensor can support various classes of NASA missions, including: longer-life missions, such as outer planets missions; long life libration point astronomy missions; and lunar and Mars exploration missions. This sensor can also support multiple applications, such as single-spacecraft attitude determination, formation flying, and rendezvous and docking. The expected PnP compatibility, low mass, low power, and low cost will fill the near term need for improved attitude sensing technology with lower cost, complexity, mass and power than with traditional solutions. When combined with other sensors, such as an inertial measurement unit (IMU), the new star sensor will have additional capabilities. Microcosm's precision navigation with integrated attitude determination effort is directly applicable, providing an opportunity to enhance the new star sensor by adding a low-cost microelectromechanical IMU and/or software GPS receiver. This device can provide higher attitude output rates, up to 100 Hz, supporting additional applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA applications, the sensor will also have applications in other government systems with similar accuracy, longer lifetime, and increased radiation tolerance requirements. Other programs seeking rapid spacecraft integration cycles, employing PnP architectures will also benefit from this new sensor. Microcosm is currently selling into the satellite attitude determination and control system market, and the basic low cost MicroMak star sensor should be ready for market in the next two to three years. The proposed new star sensor could also be ready for operational flight status in this same time frame, if its development is pursued aggressively in parallel with the baseline MicroMak sensor. Communications satellites for both geosynchronous and low Earth orbit systems could take advantage of such a low cost PnP star sensor as well. It would facilitate rapid integration, and possible new applications, such as mounting directly to a communications antenna to get significantly improved determination of antenna pointing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S4.07-8340
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mini-Micro Thrusters, LOX / Hydrocarbon Propulsion, and Attitude Control Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Innovative Applications of DOD Propulsion Technology for Low-Cost Satellite Missions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stellar Exploration, Inc.
207 Suburban Road, Suite 3
San Luis Obispo, CA 93401-7518

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tomas Svitek
tomas@stellar-exploration.com
207 Suburban Road. Suite 3
San Luis Obispo,  CA 93401-7518

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We are proposing to leverage the Missile Defense Agency investments in high-performance propulsion systems for low-cost space missions with large Dv requirements, for example, a soft lunar lander. This design concept exploits a core set of hardware developed under past and current Department of Defense (DoD) investments. The propulsion system concepts under consideration are from the DoD's Missile Defense Kinetic Kill Vehicle programs such as EKV, THAAD, ASAT and LEAP. These are bipropellant, storable and hypergolic system that use high-performance propellants (MMH/NTO). This subtopic is seeking technologies with the superior performance for orbital control, for on-orbit applications including storage capability and propulsion. This propulsion system should allow transfers from LEO or GTO to lunar orbit or similar destinations. These missions have in common the substantial Dv propulsion requirements that cannot be met with the existing flown propulsion systems on current small spacecraft missions (for example, SNAP-1, Cubesats, Orbcomm or similar missions). Our proposed solutions offers that capability at an affordable but credible cost.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful adaptation and qualification of the KKV-derived propulsion system would offer unprecedented capability to the small spacecraft community. This capability can be used for multiple applications but from NASA viewpoint, primarily lunar, planetary and other deep-space missions. We envision that Stellar would team with the propulsion component providers (Aerojet and P&W Rocketdyne) and also NASA Ames and offer an integrated propulsion solution suitable for this class of missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful adaptation and qualification of the KKV-derived propulsion system would offer unprecedented capability to the small spacecraft community. This capability can be used for multiple applications but from non-NASA viewpoint, primarily highly maneuverable LEO satellites, and deployments of large constellations in LEO and MEO. We envision that Stellar would team with the propulsion component providers (Aerojet and P&W Rocketdyne) and also NASA Ames and offer an integrated propulsion solution suitable for this class of missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S4.07-8526
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mini-Micro Thrusters, LOX / Hydrocarbon Propulsion, and Attitude Control Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Effectiveness of Nitrous Oxide as a Liquid Injection Thrust Vector Control Fluid

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Whittnghill Aerospace, LLC
265 Durley Avenue, Suite 208
Camarillo, CA 93010-8544

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
George Whittinghill
grw@whittinghillaerospace.com
265 Durley Ave, Suite 208
Camarillo,  CA 93010-8544

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Nitrous Oxide is proposed as an energetic liquid injection thrust vector control fluid for vehicle attitude control during dynamic vehicle maneuvers. Pulled from the main propulsion system oxidizer tank, it features system simplicity, no toxicity, room temperature storability, high system mass fraction and superior performance due to its exothermic decomposition characteristics, answering the need for innovative attitude control technologies. A series of 1,000 lb thrust hybrid rocket motor tests are proposed to characterize Nitrous Oxide's Side Specific Impulse as a function of thrust vectoring angle. At the conclusion of Phase 1, the technology will be ready for development for a small upper stage, and will be at a TRL of 5. At the end of Phase 2, its performance characteristics will be completely known, and its development for an integrated Main Propulsion/Thrust Vector Control /Attitude Control System for a small launch vehicle would be appropriate.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications include system integration into Small Expendable Launch Vehicle upper stages, Orbit Transfer Vehicles, Spacecraft Buses, On-Orbit Kick Motor Stages and Descent Stages.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential Non-NASA applications include system integration into commercial small satellite launchers and Common Aero Vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Monopropellants
Propellant Storage
Feed System Components
Aerobrake


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S4.07-9076
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mini-Micro Thrusters, LOX / Hydrocarbon Propulsion, and Attitude Control Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Pulsed Electrogasdynamic Thruster for Attitude Control and Orbit Maneuver

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Sciences, Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Takashi Nakamura
nakamura@psicorp.com
20 New England Business Center
Andover,  MA 01810-1077

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A new pulsed electric thruster, named "pulsed electrogasdynamic thruster," for attitude control and orbit maneuver is proposed. In this thruster, propellant gas is introduced into the thrust nozzle through a fast acting gas valve. When the propellant gas partially fills the thruster nozzle in 100~200 microsecond, a short, high voltage pulse is applied to break down and heat the propellant gas. The typical duration of the pulsed discharge is 10 microsecond. The heated propellant gas expands through the nozzle generating a high impulse (~mN-s per pulse) at a high specific thrust (120 micro N-s/joule). The specific impulse (Isp) will be in the range of 1000~1400 sec. This process can be repeated at a frequency which satisfies the spacecraft thrust requirement. The thrust generating mechanism of the proposed thruster is gasdynamic expansion, not magnetohydrodynamic interaction. The proposed thruster is different from the conventional pulsed electrothermal thruster in that the joule heating of the propellant takes place as the propellant gas expands through the divergent nozzle, thereby eliminating the heat and momentum losses at the nozzle throat. Our objectives are: (i) establish proof of concept; (ii) develop an engineering model; and (iii) develop a proto-flight model of the proposed thruster system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Pulsed Electrogasdynamic (PEG) thruster, when developed to technical maturity, will be used for satellite mobility, such as rapidly changing position for rendezvous, attitude control, orbital maneuver and control satellite constellation formation. These maneuvers require a relatively high thrust (mN ~ N) at a moderately high specific impulse (Isp almost equal to 1000 sec) and a high electric efficiency (~60%). The PEG thruster will meet this requirement in a broad thrust range. For example, when operated at 1 Hz, the PEG thruster will generate a thrust of 1 mN with 10 W of electric power input. At higher pulse rates, 100 Hz for example, 100 mN of thrust will be generated with 1 kW of electric power. Higher thrust can be obtained by scaling up the thruster size. The PEG thruster in a low power mode will also be used for station keeping applications. To this end, a PEG thruster suite can be added to any spacecraft equipped with a N2H4/NTO Monopropellant/Bipropellant propulsion system without incurring a mass penalty for high precision "digital" attitude corrections at a higher Isp than is obtained with the conventional monopropellant solution. Furthermore storable "Green" propellants such as N2O and NH3 are very suitable as PEG thruster propellants. The PEG thruster will serve NASA's Science Mission Directorate needs in earth orbit, near-earth and in deep space.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Pulsed Electrogasdynamic (PEG) thruster will be very useful for military applications that require: (i) wide dynamic range in thrust; (ii) high Isp; and (iii) high electrical efficiency. For purely commercial applications, the PEG thruster will be useful for satellite station keeping, orbit raising, and attitude control. For such applications the following advantages of the PEG thruster can be fully exploited: (i) various kinds of propellant gas can be used; (ii) thrust level can be adjusted by changing pulse frequency over 2~3 orders of magnitude; (iii) the life time of the thruster hardware will be much longer than the other thrusters; and (iv) construction of the thruster is simple and can be scaled easily.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Micro Thrusters


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S4.08-9172
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low-cost Assembly, Integration, and Testing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Automated Break-Out Box for use with Low Cost Spacecraft Integration and Test

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tiger Innovations, LLC
5207 32nd St North
Arlington, VA 22207-1548

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Atkin
ratkin@tigerinnovations.com
5207 32nd St North
Arlington,  VA 22207-1548

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Electrical checkout and testing is a critical part of the overall spacecraft integration and test flow. Verifying proper harness and connector signal interfaces is key to ensuring component health and overall system functionality. Break-Out Boxes (BOB) are used to give test personnel access to electrical signals for probing, voltage injection, isolation checks, safe-to-mate checks, and voltage/current measurements. Currently this involves manually attaching multimeters and oscilloscopes to banana jacks on the BOB, taking measurements and comparing to expected results. Tiger Innovations proposes designing an automated break-out box to make electrical integration activities more efficient, repeatable, and safe by introducing software controlled test sequences and reducing human errors. Additionally, significant schedule and cost reductions are realized by improving the speed and reliability of integration operations. Our software controlled BOB would allow isolation and safe-to-mate checks to be accomplished in a fraction of the time required for a human operator. Voltage and current measurements would be analyzed in the software for pass/fail criteria and reported to the user for inclusion in the test log. Automating test sequences through the use of an automated BOB has the potential to significantly streamline spacecraft, payload and launch site electrical integration and test activities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In the current spacecraft industry, break-out boxes are commonly made in-house and are often specific to each spacecraft mission. In addition to the performance and schedule benefits an Auto-BOB can provide, we believe a market exists for a company to provide automated test equipment to a wide range of customers across government agencies and in the private sector. The growing micro satellite market and the desire for responsive space applications is pushing more aggressive integration and test schedules and would benefit significantly by reducing electrical integration efforts through the use of the Auto-BOB. Initial primary customers for an automated break-out box include NASA and associated contractors involved in the integration and test of small satellites.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial extensions outside of NASA would focus on the micro satellite industry as the companies involved are often smaller, less resistant to change, and often face aggressive testing schedules with a limited integration team. Once the benefits and reliability of the Auto-BOB have been demonstrated on flight programs in the micro satellite industry, sales could expand into larger satellite programs and the aerospace industry as a whole. With a product successfully demonstrated in the aerospace industry, it should be feasible to market the Auto-BOB to a wide range of companies that perform electronics fabrication and testing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Testing Facilities
Testing Requirements and Architectures


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S4.08-9441
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low-cost Assembly, Integration, and Testing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Virtual Satellite Integration Environment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advatech Pacific, Inc.
1849 North Wabash Avenue
Redlands, CA 92374-4970

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Peter Rohl
peter.rohl@advatechpacific.com
1849 North Wabash Avenue
Redlands,  CA 92374-4970

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advatech Pacific proposes to develop a Virtual Satellite Integration Environment (VSIE) for the NASA Ames Mission Design Center. The VSIE introduces into NASA Mission Design Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) tools and processes, which haven proven themselves in the industrial manufacturing world. In addition to COTS PLM tools, the VSIE hinges on two key concepts: An enhanced Digital Mock-Up (termed DMU++) and the so-called Common Geometry Strategy. DMU typically addresses mechanical form, fit and function of a component or sub-assembly in the assembly context. We propose to go one step further and address electrical power, data, and other similar interfaces in the DMU to automatically detect compatibility issues beyond mere mechanical fit. This will be an enabling functionality for rapid mission design and integration of components from a database of existing off-the-shelf hardware such as the database currently under development at the NASA Ames Mission Design Center. The Common Geometry Strategy was introduced in the late 1990s in both the commercial aircraft engine and automotive industries, however, it has so far not found its way into satellite design or satellite mission design. The fundamental idea is that the same Master Model geometric information is readily available to all disciplines and individuals that need geometric information to perform their job. Since a particular disciplinary specialist may require only an abstraction of the detailed 3D-geometry, the idea of a "Context Model" is introduced. The Context Model is a simplified representation of the detailed 3D CAD model, which is simplified precisely to the level of detail required by the specialist, while maintaining full associativity to the Master Model geometry, so that it either automatically updates when the Master Model geometry changes, or at least notifies the specialist that it is out of date.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The results of this research directly benefit the NASA Ames Mission Design Center in their activity of assembling Small Satellite missions. Currently, the Missions Design Center does not employ an integrated, PLM-based approach in their design activities. The Mission Design Center receives geometric information from component suppliers in a variety of formats. The current in-house CAD package is Solidworks. Analysis tools such as STK and disciplines such as structural and thermal analysis need subsets of the detailed CAD geometry in particular formats that they can process. Currently, much time is spent converting geometry from one format to another, and critical information can be lost in the process. The proposed work will directly address these issues. In addition, there are a number of additional potential applications of this technology. For example, JPL could use our tools in the design of exploratory space probes. The tools could also play a role in the development of micro and nano satellites all the way to manned space missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed VSIE is directly applicable to the Plug&Play space vehicle design approach currently being investigated by the US Air Force at AFRL Kirtland AFB. The goal of the plug and play space vehicle design approach is to apply the proven capability of computer peripherals to integrate themselves with computers to space vehicle components. This will enable space vehicles to be assembled quickly enough to meet rapidly developing operational needs where time is the critical factor. Advatech Pacific is currently working with AFRL Kirtland AFB to develop the ISET tool which enables pre-conceptual/conceptual level design of space vehicles by both traditional approaches and utilizing standardized plug and play space vehicle components. The DMU++ concept suggested in the present proposal will be directly applicable to support this Plug&Play scenario. This type of technology will be a key enabler for the Responsive Space Launch program by the US Air Force. On the commercial side, any of the primes or first tier suppliers could benefit from the tools being developed, specifically on small satellite projects.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Modular Interconnects
Structural Modeling and Tools
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Power Management and Distribution
Wireless Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S4.09-8519
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomous Multi-Mission Virtual Ground and Spacecraft Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Software-Defined Ground Stations - Enhancing Multi-Mission Support

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Cutler
933 N California Avenue
Palo Alto, CA 94303-3407

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Cutler
jwcutler@gmail.com
933 N California Avenue
Palo Alto,  CA 94303-3407

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase 1 proposal to NASA requests $99,055.69 to enhance multiple mission support in ground stations through the use of software defined radios and virtual machines to create a software-defined ground station (SDGS). This proposal responds to NASA SBIR topic S4.09 "Autonomous Multi-Mission Virtual Ground and Spacecraft Operations". The significance of our SDGS work is that the monolithic, stovepipe, and hardware centric nature of ground stations will be reduced. Major system components will be moved to software, thereby promoting remote, network-based maintenance, upgrades, and new technology development. Off the shelf software modules will be available, but also mechanism for low-level ground station customization for mission specifics; all done remotely over the Internet. Costly hardware upgrades will be reduced or eliminated. Our innovation is in the intelligent combination of software-defined radio techniques and virtual machines. This enables a near complete software solution to primary ground station functions. It simplifies ground station hardware and enables flexible application support. In Phase 1 we propose to architect an SDGS system for support of expected small satellite missions. We will prototype basic elements with an on orbit or engineering model satellite system from our partners. Commercial applications include communication support for satellites and high altitude balloon systems. Our customers will include NASA, NSF, DoD, and private satellite builders such as universities and venture space. The PI, Dr. James Cutler, has extensive small satellite and ground station experience. He has prototype a global ground station network to operate satellites as if they were nodes on the Internet. Our facilities located in Northern California have tools for computer and radio development, and access to small satellite systems and ground station resources.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We have identified several initial NASA customers for our ground station technology. We are partnering with the small satellite office at NASA Ames Research Center. They have launched the Genesat nanosatellite and considering a program that launches one satellite per month. Current NASA ground networks will not be able to support communication requirements for these missions. We are also working with NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to support nanosatellite solar sail mission, CubeSail. They will require networked ground station support for their 2009 mission. Additionally, NASA's Living With A Star (LWS) Program is developing the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) space mission that will benefit from global, 24/7 reception of space weather beacons. NASA also intends to broadcast space weather parameters via a real-time beacon from both of the RBSP spacecraft. Space weather beacon data availability will be limited by availability of space weather ground stations and antenna coverage. The availability of an array of geographically-dispersed ground stations capable of providing autonomous 24/7 downlink of the RBSP space weather beacon data at low cost, such as that proposed here, will be critically important the space weather community. The RBSP mission will be an excellent customer for our ground station systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NSF is a potential near term costumer. They have recently announced at the Small Satellite Conference in 2007 that they will be sponsoring several CubeSat launches per year starting roughly in 2009. We anticipate 3 – 10 satellites launched per year in this program. Our multiple mission support technology combined with our FGN concepts will be a crucial enabler for a low-cost operations concept for these NSF missions. We are also just beginning to explore DoD related opportunities. Our ability to quickly reconfigure and upgrade ground stations through virtual machines updates is key element to responsive space. Not only will launchers and satellites be responsive, but also so must ground stations to respond to changing communication environments. FEMA may be a potential customer as well. In our high altitude balloon work, we are working with the AeroStar Aerospace Corporation on disaster recovery applications. The balloon will act as a high-speed communication relay for recovery teams. Our multiple mission technology will be useful for both the balloon relay and ground nodes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Architectures and Networks
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
RF


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S4.09-8602
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomous Multi-Mission Virtual Ground and Spacecraft Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Performance Programmable Transceiver

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innoflight, Inc.
5850 Oberlin Drive, Suite 340
San Diego, CA 92121-4712

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffrey Janicik
jjanicik@innoflight.com
5850 Oberlin Dr., Ste. 340
San Diego,  CA 92121-4712

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Space-to-ground communications have long been stuck in a prehistoric era of telemetry systems from the throughput and hardware availability perspective. From the throughput perspective, there has been an increased need in higher uplink and downlink rates for on-orbit operations. On the hardware side, long lead, single channel radios have been a programmatic nightmare to acquire and more and more problematic to operate given the frequency crowding. This study proposes a modern architecture based transceiver that comes to provide one integrated solution to all these issues. This proposal will design demonstrate a transceiver which can operate on both SGLS and USB uplinks and be fully frequency and mode programmable both during integration, and on the fly. In addition it will offer selectable channels for various mission profiles. Last but most important, it will use spectrally efficient modulation formats to enable high speed uplinks and support advanced communications protocols.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Many spacecraft applications will be able to take advantage of the high performance IP transceiver. The applications apply to NASA, DoD, and commercial sectors as one. Applications include responsive space missions that receive frequency assignment shortly before launch. Commercial missions will find this solution attractive when they need to provide service in different ITU regions (different frequencies). It will also support many research missions (and even more, tactical missions) that need to upload new code for processors and embedded devices. Any mission that suffers from unintentional harmful interference can take advantage of the frequency agility and mutual interference issues can be resolved without having to compromise services. This same functionality can be used in NASA research missions in which there are several distinct phases and switching between different services is needed.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
With the onset of net-centric communication systems in space especially with the DoD, the technology found in the high performance IP transceiver will be a must have to maintain efficient and reliable links. Innoflight's current research and network test results suggest that straight IP communication protocols and applications can work well beyond LEO.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Architectures and Networks
RF
Highly-Reconfigurable


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S5.01-8349
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme Environments Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Active Thermal Control System for Extreme Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mainstream Engineering Corporation
200 Yellow Place
Rockledge, FL 32955-5327

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Scaringe
rps@mainstream-engr.com
200 Yellow Place
Rockledge,  FL 32955-5327

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Venus retains many secrets pertaining to its formation and evolution. NASA is interested in expanding its ability to explore the deep atmosphere and surface of Venus through the use of long-lived balloons and landers. Survivability in extreme high temperatures and high pressures is also required for deep atmospheric probes to giant planets. This Phase I proposal discloses technology that will permit operation and survivability in high-temperature/high-pressure planetary environments such as Venus. The goal of this Phase I effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of a very high temperature thermal control system and to experimentally demonstrate a 1251 kJ/Kg thermal storage medium. The successful completion of such an effort requires dramatic advances in technology, areas in which Mainstream has tremendous experience and has excelled in the past. However, although no extremely high temperature heat rejection system has ever been fabricated anywhere in the world, this critical requirement is necessary to achieve long-life operation on Venus and other planets. This effort represents a major leap over the current state of the art, and Mainstream is uniquely suited to perform this task.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's own documents state that NASA is seeking technologies that enable long-lived (days or weeks) exploration of planets with very harsh high temperature. Future thermal control systems for long-lived exploration of Venus and for deep atmospheric probes to giant planets require the development of this technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Detailed commercialization information appears inside the proposal. This technology has terrestrial applications for the exploration of the deep earth crust including volcano research, deep fissure research, and deep oil exploration. However, the much larger market is in the industrial sector, where this technology allows for cooling of sensors in harsh environments, such as combustion stacks and blast furnaces, but also for efficient emissions-free industrial high-temperature heating. While this high-temperature heat pump technology can be used to raise the temperature of energy to be rejected for cooling (like the proposed Venus electronics cooling application), this technology can also be used to supply 500<SUP>o</SUP>C energy for more efficient electrical process heating without the exhaust and related environmental issues associated with combustion heaters and with energy efficiency advantages over straight electrical resistance heating. This commercial market is the most significant and represents a more than a one billion dollar potential market.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S5.01-8588
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme Environments Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Chemically and Thermally Stable High Energy Density Silicone Composites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
DMD Concepts
5315 Turnstone Court
Rockledge, FL 32955-6327

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dwight Back
dback@charter.net
5315 Turnstone Ct
Rockledge,  FL 32955-6327

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Thermal energy storage systems with 300 – 1000 kJ/kg energy density through either phase changes or chemical heat absorption are sought by NASA. This proposed effort will design, fabricate and demonstrate an energy storage system utilizing a composite of silicone polymers (organosiloxanes) and sorption materials. The proposed technology would provide cooling from a source at 100<SUP>o</SUP>C or higher. In proof-of-concept experiments, related composites have already been produced, and energy densities exceeding 400 kJ/kg have been demonstrated. The innovative encapsulation technology can provide a barrier that prohibits poisoning of the sorption material by planetary atmospheric gases, and ensuring long-duration storage and safe handling before and during mission. The composites can be produced in a form that facilitates conformal coverage of intricate parts and hard to reach surfaces.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications include electronics and surface cooling on short-lived probes , over-temperature protection on critical space hardware, and edge cooling.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications also include electronics cooling, aircraft and missile edge cooling, and thermal barriers and protection for high temperature reactors and other high temperature chemical processes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling
Thermal Insulating Materials
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S5.01-9806
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme Environments Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wide Temperature Range DC-DC Boost Converters for Command/Control/Drive Electronics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SJT Micropower
16411 N. Skyridge Lane
Fountain Hills, AZ 85268-1515

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joseph Ervin
jervin@sjtmicropower.com
16411 N. Skyridge Lane
Fountain Hills,  AZ 85268-1515

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We shall develop wide temperature range DC-DC boost converters that can be fabricated using commercial CMOS foundries. The boost converters will increase the low voltage supply (~ 0.7 to 3V) of an advanced CMOS integrated circuit to the higher values (3-10V) required for integrated command/control/drive electronics for sensors, actuators and instrumentation. The high voltage capability is a result of our patented, CMOS compatible transistor technology that is radiation tolerant (TID>1 MRad), SEL immune and capable of wide temperature range operation (-196C to +150C). This new transistor technology has been demonstrated at multiple foundries and advanced device models are available for circuit design and simulation. The DC-DC boost converters will be integrated directly with the CMOS components to provide a single chip solution, greatly reducing the number of active and passive components that would otherwise be required. By allowing enhanced voltage operation in future CMOS technology nodes we will be avoiding many of the obsolescence problems facing NASA missions that are dependent upon commercial electronics. The circuits will be designed to operate in low temperature environments that experience wide temperature swings such as those found on the moon, Mars, Titan, Europa and comets.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Wide temperature range DC-DC boost converters that are compatible with advanced CMOS technologies will be widely applicable to NASA science and exploration missions scheduled for the next decade and beyond. It is expected that sensors and actuators based on micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) will feature heavily in future NASA missions. Often these MEMS components use operating voltages that exceed the anticipated CMOS values. The current solution requires additional interface and control electronics and associated point-of-load power sources, with a corresponding increase in mass, volume and system complexity. By integrating a low-input-voltage/high-output-voltage capability directly on an advanced CMOS component we are providing an elegant solution to the potential obsolescence problem facing MEMS-based sensors, actuators and other instrumentation components. By developing components for wide temperature range applications (-180C to +150C) we are enabling missions that will benefit from components to be mounted directly in the Lunar and Martian environments i.e. outside of any thermally controlled warm box. These components will also be of use in missions to Venus that employ environmental chambers with temperatures controlled to < 150C.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The MESFET technology we are developing will have widespread applications in commercial electronics, wherever low-power, mixed-signal circuits are required. SOI MESFETs offer significant 'added-value' to existing SOI product lines because of their high voltage capability that greatly exceeds the maximum operating voltage of the SOI MOSFETs. This will allow new SOI products to be developed, without additional manufacturing costs. Examples include the DC-DC boost converters described in this proposal as well as multiplexers, voltage and current regulators, and precision voltage references. Circuits that are required to drive inductive loads such as certain types of power amplifiers (Class E and F) will also benefit from the high breakdown voltage of the SOI MESFETs We expect the non-NASA commercial applications of SOI MESFETs to be significant. NASA will benefit from the strong leverage that a cost-effective commercial SOI MESFET technology will provide to all extreme environment electronics applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Data Input/Output Devices
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S5.01-9846
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme Environments Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Temperature Energy Storage for In Situ Planetary Atmospheric Measurement Technologies

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mobile Energy Products, Inc.
3820 S Hancock Expressway
Colorado Springs, CO 80911-1231

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. David Pickett
dpickett@electroenergyinc.com
3820 S. Hancock Expressway
Colorado Springs,  CO 80911-1231

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Development of energy storage capable of operational temperatures of 380ºC and 486<SUP>o</SUP>C with a specific capacity 200 Wh/kg for use as a power source on the Venusian surface and for planetary probes in similar high temperature atmospheres and where ambient pressures of 90 atmospheres are to be expected. This proposal provides for further research and development of the Li(Al)CoS2 high temperature energy storage chemistry to develop high temperature space energy storage, which will enable the in situ exploration of the atmosphere of Venus and deep atmospheres of Jupiter or Saturn for future NASA missions. This energy storage will provide power for thermal control systems, high temperature electronics and sensors, and high temperature motors and actuators. The approach has a parallel path of evaluation of low melting point electrolyte for 380ºC operation and optimization of the 486ºC Venus energy storage chemistry. The final task is battery level characterization at various temperatures and discharge rates, with implementation of the previously completed design of a robust battery/cell container and ceramic to metal seals.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful completion of this development of high temperature batteries will enable in situ planetary exploration for NASA missions, where energy storage must be occur at high temperatures due to environmental conditions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The R&D conducted under this program will have the potential to make improvements to thermal batteries, low temperature thermal batteries, high temperature energy storage for bore-hole and terrestrial applications, and other specialty high temperature energy storage for space applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
High-Energy
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S5.02-8644
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Planetary Entry, Descent and Landing Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flash 3D Planetary Entry, Descent and Landing Sensor Hardening

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc.
305 E. Haley Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101-1723

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steve Silverman
ssilverman@asc3d.com
305 E. Haley Street
Santa Barbara,  CA 93101-1723

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) has developed a 128 x 128 frame, 3D Flash LADAR video camera which produces 3-D point clouds at 30 Hz. Flash Ladar Video Cameras are 3D vision systems that return range and intensity information for each pixel in real time. The ASC camera is the equivalent of 16000 range finders on a single chip. This allows the sensor to act as a 3D video camera with functionality well beyond just range finding. A previous Phase I EDL project used an ASC camera at the JPL mars yard to gather test data. Hazard Identification, and Entry Decent and Landing applications were investigated and the data demonstrated that a Flash LADAR system can resolve landing hazards and is suitable as an EDL sensor. In response to this solicitation ASC will further develop its technology for EDL. ASC is proposing radiation hardening, increased sensitivity and reliability improvements. These improvements will lead to a phase II development that will increase the TRL level of this sensor. The new FLVC sensor will have improved range and reliability over ASC's current camera and will provide the functionality to meet NASA's EDL requirements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The 3D Flash Ladar (3DFL) technology improvements developed on this project can support future Rendezvous, Proximity Operations, and Docking as well as EDL missions for lunar or planetary exploration. Not only will the sensor be able to generate 6 Degree-Of-Freedom data but it can also support hazard mapping and navigation as well as other terrain mapping requirements. The camera includes a fog, dust and liquid penetration mode, which will allow landing and navigation in hazardous conditions. This sensor will increase the success of NASA operations such as: 1. Rendezvous and Docking 2. Situational awareness 3. Mars Landed Exploration 4. Exploration of Moons (ALHAT, Jupiter Icy Moons) 5. Asteroid and comet rendezvous and sample return 6. Rock abundance and distribution maps 7. Topographical mapping 8. Rover mobility and navigation

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
3D Flash Ladar is a breakthrough technology for many emerging and existing 3D vision areas, and sensor improvements will have an impact on nearly all these fields. In addition ASC is partnering with many strategic large companies who have the experience and the history of commercialization. The compact, low power 3D Flash Ladar sensor developed on this project will have application in areas such as: 1. Collision avoidance 2. Pedestrian Safety 3. Surveillance 4. Terrain Mapping 5. Autonomous Navigation 6. Smart intersection 7. Radar brakes 8. Robotics 9. Machine Vision 10. Hazard Material Detection and Handling 11. Underwater 3D Imaging 12. Sub Nanosecond Dynamic Imaging.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Perception/Sensing
Photonics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S5.02-9410
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Planetary Entry, Descent and Landing Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Design and Simulation Tools for Planetary Atmospheric Entry Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerospacecomputing, Inc.
465 Fairchild Drive, Suite 224
Mountain View, CA 94043-2251

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Leslie Yates
lyates@aerospacecomputing.com
465 Fairchild Drive, Ste. 224
Mountain View,  CA 94043-2251

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Atmospheric entry is one of the most critical phases of flight during planetary exploration missions. During the design of an entry vehicle, experimental and analytical methods are used; however, the current integration level of experimental and analytical methods with planetary entry simulations is low. Comprehensive software, comprised of multiple design tool components for simulating planetary entry, analyzing experimental data, and evaluating configuration modifications and control designs, will be developed. The software will be configured so that it can accommodate vehicles ranging from blunt bodies to aircraft-like configurations. Furthermore, the software will be designed as an extension of current aircraft flight dynamics theory so that aerospace engineers with basic flight dynamics knowledge will have an easy transition to entry body flight dynamics. Merging of the aircraft and entry vehicle flight dynamics enables educational institutions to adopt entry vehicle flight dynamics as an extension to current aircraft flight dynamics educational programs. This will promote the education of the next generation of engineers with the basic knowledge of entry flight dynamics. The proposed software will run on a desktop / laptop computer so that proof-of-concept design work can be done easily, efficiently, and at low cost.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA can analyze existing and future designs of atmospheric entry vehicles easily and efficiently. New configurations and concepts, such as aerodynamic active trajectory control systems, can be designed and simulated using the software for risk reduction studies. The software tools will facilitate a better understanding and correlation of data from different experimental test methods, such as free-flight ballistic range tests, helicopter or balloon drop tests, and various wind tunnel tests.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A current problem for entry vehicle flight dynamics programs is a lack of personnel and successors. Due to a relatively low number of planetary exploration projects requiring entry, descent and landing expertise in the past few decades, many qualified engineers have retired before NASA and other organizations have had a chance to train new staff. Very few universities are currently teaching entry vehicle flight dynamics as a part of a regular curriculum. An educational outreach version of these software tools, with limited functionalities, can be released to universities and students at low cost. This release will encourage the training of a new generation of entry flight dynamics engineers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Database Development and Interfacing
Expert Systems
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S5.03-8648
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sample Collection, Processing, and Handling Devices
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniature Sample Collection and Delivery System using Gas-Entrained Powder Transport

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
inXitu, Inc.
2551 Casey Avenue, Suite A
Mountain View, CA 94043-1135

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Will Brunner
wbrunner@inxitu.com
2551 Casey Ave Suite A
Mountain View,  CA 94043-1135

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a miniature system for acquisition and delivery of solid samples to landed planetary instruments. This system would entrain powder produced by drilling in atmospheric gas. The powder / gas mixture would be transported to a sample chamber, where the powder would sedimented out. The key innovations of this system are: - The sample collector doubles as a sample holder for delivery to on-board instrumentation. This reduces the risk of cross-contamination. - The small size and power requirements of the complete system would make powdered sample collection available to smaller planetary missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed innovation would support the NASA goals related to Mars surface exploration by providing powder acquisition and delivery capability in a small, low power package. Potential applications include use in connection with analytical instruments which require fine to coarse grain samples. These include X-ray instrumentation using either X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction or both as is the case with CheMin type instruments. Other instruments which would benefit from this innovation include SAM, the sample analysis at Mars instrument, or other similar gas chromatograph / mass spectrometer instruments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed innovation will be a significant advance to automated powder sampling systems in batch analysis of pharmaceutical substances. The device will take the form of a robotic miniature pipetting system that would automate the collection of crystallized material for X-ray diffraction analysis. In drug discovery, this could both increase throughput and reduce cross-contamination issues. Any increase in throughput in the vast number of samples typically analyzed throughout the course of drug discovery would have a significant impact. Another application could be in industrial process monitoring of pharmaceuticals or other powdered materials.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Manipulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S5.03-8882
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sample Collection, Processing, and Handling Devices
PROPOSAL TITLE: One-Meter Class Drilling for Planetary Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics Ltd.
460 W 34th Street
New York, NY 10001-2320

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kiel Davis
davis@honeybeerobotics.com
460 W 34th Street
New York,  NY 10001-2320

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The purpose of the proposed effort is to understand and characterize the fundamental limitations of drilling one to three meters into challenging materials which may be encountered in robotic drilling in situ planetary missions. The one-to-three meter range has been identified as a critical regime for planetary exploration; e.g., for potentially identifying subsurface organic material on Mars or polar resource deposits on the Moon. While there has been some technology development in planetary subsurface access, there is currently no surefire flight-like approach to robotically getting to this depth through layers of material like rock (most challenging being basalt), regolith, and icy mixtures. In Phase 1, we will experimentally identify the relative utility of rotary vs. rotary percussive drilling in the most challenging target materials under a variety of operational parameters, and extrapolate these results to three meters. Thus far there has been no apples-to-apples comparison of rotary vs. rotary-percussive drilling in this depth regime, though it is believed that rotary-percussive drilling has many advantages over rotary drilling including better penetration in hard targets. This will be a very test-heavy program. We will minimize costs by using an already available test rig - our one-of-a-kind one-meter class lunar drilling platform with rotary and rotary-percussive capability. This is an instrumented rig so we can measure system health and reactions back into the platform and we have the ability to vary drilling operational parameters to test the limits of the system. We will perform tests in Mars and lunar simulant, also readily available in our extensive library of planetary analog materials. Using the lessons learned from Phase 1 and Honeybee Robotics' 13+ years experience in subsurface access and sampling, in Phase 2 we will build a 1-3 meter drill capable of penetrating a representative 3 meter test column of layered Mars and/or lunar simulant.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group has identified subsurface access as a major technology need for future Mars science missions. Subsurface access on Mars is key to the search for life and understanding conditions favorable to life including the presence and morphology of forms of water, as well as for geological investigations. Potentially relevant missions may include Astrobiology Field Laboratory, Mid-Size Rovers, Scout, and Mars Sample Return. A lunar subsurface access tool would not only be of scientific interest, but is also necessary for resource mapping and geotechnical properties assessment during a lunar robotic precursor mission. A drill, combined with sample acquisition and analysis, could identify regolith composition for determining the presence and quantities of lunar resources for future ISRU. Regolith geotechnical properties may also be inferred from drill telemetry as well. This information is important for understanding excavability, load-bearing capacity and trafficability of lunar regolith for ISRU and lunar infrastructure development. Future missions could be augmented with human operation or utilize human-robot interaction for long traverses reducing unnecessary Extra-Vehicular Activity risks to human safety. Once developed, a one-meter class drill could also be modified for research on Venus, comets, Europa and Near Earth Objects. Lessons learned from this effort may also be applied to shallow surface drilling and deep drilling missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Low cost, low mass drills could be used to quickly assess hazardous areas (oil spill sites around the refineries, toxic waste disposal sites, volcanoes, etc.) without endangering human life. In addition, the Department of Defense could deploy such rovers in conflict zones to assess the road trafficability potential prior to deployment of rescue teams as well as for identifying buried items such as mines. The petroleum and mining industries have also shown interest in robotic sampling.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Teleoperation
Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S5.03-9066
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sample Collection, Processing, and Handling Devices
PROPOSAL TITLE: SASSI: Subsystems for Automated Subsurface Sampling Instruments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics Ltd.
460 W 34th Street
New York, NY 10001-2320

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kiel Davis
davis@honeybeerobotics.com
460 West 34th Street
New York,  NY 10001-2320

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future robotic planetary exploration missions will benefit greatly from the ability to capture rock and/or regolith core samples that deliver the stratigraphy of the target formation intact to the in situ analysis suite. Obtaining and delivering consolidated/unconsolidated material is a much more complex engineering problem than drilling. This process requires additional mechanisms to capture as well as eject the core to the sample processing and analysis chain. To accommodate future missions, these core handling technologies must be developed to meet a broad range of potential requirements. Previous coring tool development philosophies have focused on integration and far-horizon proof of concept, resulting in complete systems designed around limited requirements. Lessons have been learned from these efforts, but these "point designs" do not span the space of potential coring tool requirements for future missions. The way forward in coring tool development, therefore, lies in maturing specific aspects of design quickly. As a leader in the development of planetary surface/subsurface access and sample acquisition/handling systems for NASA, Honeybee Robotics Spacecraft Mechanisms Corporation is uniquely suited to perform this task. Specifically, the purpose of this SBIR effort is to mature a set of core handling designs for consolidated and/or unconsolidated material and prove their relative utility under a variety of potential mission scenarios. In Phase I, this will include studying sample handling approaches developed to date and applying the lessons learned from previous design and test programs to the development of revised and/or novel new core handling approaches. In Phase II, the approaches from Phase I will be implemented and refined through multiple design-build-test iterations until the designs reach a high TRL. These designs will collectively be able to meet the requirements of future missions, whatever they may be.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The products of the proposed effort will be applicable to automated surface and subsurface sampling. More specifically, the products will be suitable for use on Mars missions such as Astrobiology Field Laboratory (AFL), Mars Sample Return, Lunar missions, and other extraterrestrial planetary sampling missions. A robust capability to obtain and deliver intact samples will be crucial for analysis instrumentation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The products of the proposed effort will be applicable to automated surface and subsurface sampling. Non-NASA commercial applications include remote sampling of potentially dangerous geological areas such as volcanoes. Other industries that have shown interest in automated sampling include the mining and petroleum industries.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Manipulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S5.04-8566
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface and Subsurface Robotic Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Enabling Tethered Exploration on Mars

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Manufactory, LLC
4047 Cabinet Street
Pittsburgh, PA 15224-1453

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Bartlett
paulbartlett@gmail.com
4047 Cabinet St
Pittsburgh,  PA 15224-1453

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Strong science motivations exist for exploring hard to reach terrain on Mars and the leading systems proposed to do so require tethers. While tethers are used extensively in terrestrial fields, much research and development must take place to better assess their use for landed Mars missions and to raise the Technology Readiness Level of the solution. Many different technologies will need to be developed and carefully integrated to meet the goal of producing a capable, fault resistant system. We intend to begin creating a body of work which will directly impact the development of a tether system usable for exploration of extreme terrain on Mars. The three R&D areas begin with the highest priority: (1) Tether design: Low volume & mass tether that transmits power, data & structural loads while sustaining environments. (2) Spool design: Reliable, flight relevant spooling mechanism. (3) Increased system intelligence & reliability: Controls approaches for tethered vehicle operations; Sensing tension & dynamic length; Maintaining 3d position knowledge of tether in terrain; Considerations for later work towards fault diagnosis & recovery.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA application is the exploration of gullies, steep crater walls and cliff faces on Mars with pairs or larger teams of robots. Science motivation for exploration of sites such as these is strong since in situ observations of preserved geologic strata would be enabled; including sedimentary rock and areas where water may have flowed in the recent past. Mission architectures are being pursued where robots are assisted or controlled completely by tethers. Tethers are or will be used in many areas within the Science Mission Directorate's domain, as well as within Exploration Systems. Missions may eventually penetrate ices & explore subsurface seas on Europa & Enceladus, using tethers throughout. Aerobots could employ tethers on Mars & Titan, as well as non-landed spacecraft observing Phobos, Deimos, asteroids and comets. Subsurface access missions for science and resource utilization on terrestrial planets could require wire-line drilling & borehole instrumentation. Mobile robots at the lunar poles would be in very similar steep terrain conditions to the primary design case. Finally, there are on-orbit applications for improved tether systems such as satellites in coordinated flight, power harnessing, and Shuttle & Space Station operations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Initial assessment of the tether and tether management designs proposed suggest that there is potential for spin-off in the deep sea applications. Tethers for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) and Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) are a clear area. From communications with colleagues at MBARI, the field would seem to benefit from developments in ruggedized tethers, increased power & communication capabilities with decreased weight, and increased state knowledge of the tether system, including tension and position. Much can be learned from this community as well. The primary design case for supporting tethered vehicles on Mars applies well to ground terrestrial vehicles in rough terrain. Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) in tethered configurations could apply both the intelligent sensing & management attributes and the transmission of power & data. Areas of application also include supporting inspection robots in mines, infrastructure as pipes, and Homeland Security scenarios such as rubble pile sites. As mentioned above, deep drilling and borehole sensing on land could also employ these technologies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Tethers
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Mobility


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S5.04-8749
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface and Subsurface Robotic Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robotic Tool Changer for Planetary Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics Ltd.
460 W 34th Street
New York, NY 10001-2320

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kiel Davis
davis@honeybeerobotics.com
460 West 34th Street
New York,  NY 10001-2320

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future planetary exploration missions will require compact, lightweight robotic manipulators for handling a variety of tools & instruments without increasing the weight of the robot arm. The current design philosophy of MER, Beagle 2, Phoenix & MSL, sees select tools and instruments permanently affixed to the arm end-effector. Future missions will be size & mass constrained and will need to be more capable than their predecessors. One technical solution that would enable deployment of multiple tools and instruments from a compact, lightweight manipulator is an electromechanical coupler or tool changing mechanism which can reliably take a tool or instrument out of a magazine and couple it, form-locking and force-locking, to the end-effector. The program's ultimate goal is to develop and demonstrate a highly reliable and scalable robotic tool-change system in a relevant environment from a relevant robotic platform. In Phase I, we will perform a detailed investigation of robotic tool-changer requirements, design strategies and tall poles for robotic systems exploring Mars and the Moon, including first order experiments to verify feasibility of specific enabling design features. Requirements such as cycles, stiffness, strength, repeatability, misalignment-tolerance and electrical characteristics will be derived by considering MER and Phoenix as models for instrument type and operational patterns, robotic arm capability and environment and by deriving future mission requirements. There are a few terrestrial applications (ROVs in the off-shore oil industry) and space applications (Shuttle and ISS RMS Latching End-Effector system) for which a subset of design strategies may be applicable. We will consider these and leverage lessons learned from our experience with (1) electromechanical systems for MER, Phoenix and MSL which perform reliably in dusty environments and (2) our high TRL designs for electrical and mechanical robotic connections both for Mars and on-orbit.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Proposed future missions to Mars and the Moon will require spacecraft equipped with compact and lightweight robotic manipulators that are flexible and universally usable. Such manipulators will need to be capable of handling different types of tools and instruments without increasing the weight of the robot arm. End-of-arm mass, cabling and packaging constraints inevitably limit the type and number of tools that may be carried by the arm. In addition to current tasks such as placement of sensing instruments, digging, grinding and drilling tools, some of the tasks potentially facing future smaller robotic arms include manipulation and transfer of sample storage containers, remote sensor emplacement and spacecraft inspection and repair. Dust tolerant Tool-Changer and Gripper systems will be key components to future exploration missions and would find extensive applications in systems designed to operate on Mars, the Moon and other dusty environments. Future mission scenarios featuring flexible, universal architectures for robotic end-of-arm sensing and sampling and other in-situ assembly or interconnection activities, will all call for such connections. These might include the Astrobiology Field Lab, Dual Mid-size Rovers, Mars Sample Return and next-decade landed lunar missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Coupling methods developed in this effort will have robotic, construction and device interconnection applications in terrestrial harsh environments, such as deserts and dry climates, down-hole geothermal and oil machines, and mining operations. Within the military and homeland security worlds, the current emphasis with respect to robotics is on IED detection and defeat, Explosive Ordnance Disposal and resolution of other situations that may be hazardous to humans (e.g., battlefield extraction). As operator adeptness and general familiarity with robotic systems grows, robotic platforms are increasingly being called into dangerous situations in the harsh desert environments of Iraq and Afghanistan. In addition, local municipal Bomb Squads use robotic platforms every day to interrogate and neutralize suspicious situations. Anything that makes these robots more flexible and robust is highly sought after. Even with the most widely used unmanned ground vehicles, operators must drive the robot back into a safe zone to change end-effectors. A Tool-Changer system developed by Honeybee to sell to American UGV platform providers would be a commercial success. There is also a strong demand for ultra-reliable and flexible robotic platforms with tool-exchange capability in the fields of Nuclear Facility Decommissioning, Hazard Emergency Response, as well as robotic mining systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Manipulation
Perception/Sensing
Modular Interconnects
Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S6.02-9196
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Large-Scale Numerical Simulation
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Interactivity Visualization Software for Large Computational Data Sets

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SciberQuest, Inc.
Pacific Executive Plaza, 777 South Highway 101, Suite 108
Solana Beach, CA 92075-2623

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Homa Karimabadi
homak@sciberquest.com
Pacific Executive Plaza, 777 South Highway 101, Suite 108
Solana Beach,  CA 92075-2623

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a collection of computer tools and libraries called SciViz that enable researchers to visualize large scale data sets on HPC resources remotely from their workstations at interactive rates. The proposed technology will interoperate with common existing scientific visualization software and provide equivalent core functionality optimized for very large data sets. Existing scientific visualization tools have specific limitations for large scale scientific data sets. Of these four limitations can be seen as paramount: (a) Memory Management, (b) Remote Visualization, (c) Interactivity, and (d) Specificity. SciViz overcomes these four issues and uses stack oriented approach in order to produce tools that can be more easily and widely adopted with minimal interruption within existing visualization environments. SciViz will be an open source implementation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our initial target markets are NASA supercomputing centers and heliophysics community where we already have an established contact base. The situation within the heliosciences is representative of many other fields where there is no dominant visualization software in use and there exists considerable duplication of effort as each group tries to develop similar customization on their favorite visualization platform. Often the limitation of the particular visualization software becomes evident after the individual or the group has spent a great deal of effort in building the particular customized features. As the attached letters of support attest, there remains a strong need for visualization software for analysis of large data sets. This select group of scientists who have agreed to serve as our beta testers are users of NASA's supercomputing systems. By addressing the specific needs of this group, we hope to demonstrate the effectiveness of our solution and enhancing user productivity and in so doing pave the way for infusion of SciViz into NASA's supercomputing system. Through our connection with San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC), we also plan to test and deploy our product at SDSC.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The amount of data collected and stored electronically is doubling every three years. In the face of this unprecedented growth in the amount of data from simulations and instruments/spacecraft, our capability to manipulate, explore, and understand large datasets is growing only slowly. Scientific visualization which transforms raw data into vivid 2D or 3D images has been recognized as an effective way to understand large-scale datasets. However, most existing visualization methods do not scale well with the growing data size and other parts of a data analysis pipeline. This is a problem affecting science, engineering, medicine and business. According to Microsoft Partner Capacity Research Group, data visualization represents a US$2 billion worldwide market. SciViz provides a solution that enables interactive visualization of large data sets. As such, we expect strong marketing opportunities for SciViz within the federal government, scientific organizations, and commercial sector. A critical business decision is open source vs. commercial approaches. We plan to have SciViz as open source software. Our stack oriented approach rather than a framework driven method should produce tools that can be more easily and widely adopted with minimal interruption within existing visualization environments. This enables us to immediately reach market segments where VTK is already been deployed.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Computer System Architectures
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S6.02-9676
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Large-Scale Numerical Simulation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Remote Data Exploration with the Interactive Data Language

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tech-X Corporation
5621 Arapahoe Avenue, Suite A
Boulder, CO 80303-1379

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Galloy
mgalloy@txcorp.com
5621 Arapahoe Ave Suite A
Boulder,  CO 80303-1379

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a tool for NASA researchers based on IDL and DAP for user-friendly remote data access. A popular data analysis tool in the NASA research community is IDL (Interactive Data Language). A main limitation presently on performing data analysis with IDL for NASA researchers is that often the data to analyze is located remotely from the scientist, and also, often the data is too large to transfer for local analysis. Researchers have developed a protocol for accessing remote data, the Data Access Protocol (DAP), and one can use DAP from within IDL, but presently using the DAP-IDL interface is both limited and cumbersome. We propose to develop a more powerful, user-friendly interface to DAP for IDL. At the completion of this work, users will be able to browse remote data sets from an IDL GUI, have an interactive IDL command line session simultaneous with the remote visualization and write custom IDL functions that will act on the remote data with results displayed locally. We will make all of these IDL-DAP tools usable seamlessly for any IDL user.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The problem of remote data that must be analyzed and visualized locally exists in all branches of NASA. Increasing the data access capabilities of the data analysis software is therefore of interest to all NASA branches. The widespread use of IDL throughout NASA makes the tools developed in this project applicable within the entire agency. In addition, the continued development of GDL, a low-cost alternative to the commercial IDL software, is a cost reduction factor beneficial to all NASA branches. Currently, DAP is used to serve remote data for GSFC, PODAAC, and OceanESIP.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
IDL is widely used at National Laboratories, universities and private industry. Research branches processing observational data, including medical imaging, chemistry, and earth science, face the same problem of accessing large amounts of remote data. The cost savings resulting from this project could make it even more attractive, especially to private industry.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S6.02-9708
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Large-Scale Numerical Simulation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Building Blocks for the Rapid Development of Parallel Simulations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tech-X Corporation
5621 Arapahoe Avenue, Suite A
Boulder, CO 80303-1379

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Granger
bgranger@txcorp.com
5621 Arapahoe Ave. Suite A
Boulder,  CO 80303-1379

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Scientists need to be able to quickly develop and run parallel simulations without paying the high price of writing low-level message passing codes using compiled languages such as C/C++/Fortran. This is especially true of students and researchers who are expert scientists in their field but don't have the time or resources to become experts in parallel computing. This proposal will enable scientists to rapidly create parallel simulations by providing parallel building blocks in the high-level programming language Python. The building blocks themselves, such as distributed arrays, parallel linear algebra, parallel Fourier transforms and parallel statistical algorithms, will be implemented by leveraging existing high-performance libraries and creating high-level Python objects that completely hide the details of the underlying libraries and parallelism from users. The building blocks will be developed as part of the open source IPython project, which will enable users to develop, debug and run parallel simulations in a completely interactive manner, similar to Matlab or IDL. The anticipated Phase I result will be the demonstration of an interactive parallel simulation utilizing prototype building blocks on a commodity Linux cluster. Phase II will result in a production quality demonstration on a NASA supercomputer.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The open source tools created in this project will be useful for any NASA scientist or engineer needing to harness the power of parallel hardware for simulation and data analysis. The tools will enable such users to quickly create parallel simulations and run them interactively on any parallel hardware including multi-core laptops, Linux clusters and supercomputers. NASA's parallel computing resources will be accessible to a larger number of users, who be able to develop parallel applications without becoming experts in the low-level details of parallel computing. Users of NASA's PyRAF astronomical data analysis package will benefit in a direct way as the tools will bring high-level parallel capabilities to PyRAF. Because the tools will be completely general, other Python based software within NASA will also be able to take advantage of the technologies with little effort.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Many areas of research in academia, non-NASA government labs and industry require parallel computing to perform large scale simulations and analyze data sets. Often, the need to utilize parallel hardware in these sectors outpaces users' abilities to develop parallel codes. This project will enable a much wider range of users to develop and perform parallel computations. Users of existing tools such as Matlab, IDL and Mathematica, will find the development environment and interfaces developed in this project familiar and easy to use. Particular industries that will benefit from these tools include quantitative finance, data-mining and oil and gas. Likewise computationally focused academic researchers in physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics and engineering will also immediately be able to take advantage of the innovations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S6.04-8590
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Data Analyzing and Processing Algorithms
PROPOSAL TITLE: A GIS Software Toolkit for Monitoring Areal Snow Cover and Producing Daily Hydrologic Forecasts using NASA Satellite Imagery

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aniuk Consulting, LLC
7015 61st Avenue
Kenosha, WI 53142-1429

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Harshburger
brian.harshburger@gmail.com
7015 61st Ave.
Kenosha,  WI 53142-1429

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aniuk Consulting, LLC, proposes to create a GIS software toolkit for monitoring areal snow cover extent and producing streamflow forecasts. This toolkit will be packaged as multiple extensions for ArcGIS 9.2 and provides users with a means for easily ingesting NASA EOS satellite images (for snow cover analysis), preparing hydrologic model inputs, and visualizing streamflow forecasts. Primary products include: a technique for predicting the presence of snow under clouds in satellite images; a software tool for producing gridded temperature and precipitation forecasts; and a suite of tools for visualizing hydrologic model inputs and results. The toolkit will be an expert system designed for operational users that need to generate numerous streamflow forecasts accurately and in a timely-fashion without having to hassle with the science and physics behind the hydrologic model. This proposal targets the "Data Analyzing and Processing" research initiative announced by the Goddard Space Flight Center by exploiting spatial tools in order to increase the utility of scientific research data, models, and visualizations. The beauty of the proposed toolkit is the ability to incorporate hydrologically relevant spatial datasets at the applied, operational level to produce high quality functional products.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The presence of cloud cover in satellite images can greatly hinder the number of useable, "good" images, especially when a near-daily time-series of images is needed. We are proposing to develop a methodology and suite of tools for ingesting NASA EOS imagery and predicting, with known accuracy, the presence of snow cover under clouds. This will increase the number of usable images and, because the tools will essentially be an expert-based system requiring little more than yes, no decisions to be made, even novice users will be able to prepare satellite images for input into hydrologic and environmental models. NASA benefits because images collected by their satellites will be used in real-world applications to complement water resources decisions, in particular water supply monitoring, streamflow forecasting, and flood warning. These are high profile natural resources fields that will become increasingly more important as conflicts over water usage continue to build throughout the Northwest, United States.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We will provide various entities from the national scale to the local scale with a set of tools to perform critical tasks for streamflow forecasting. Some of these entities include: Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Army Corp of Engineers, state water resources offices, etc. We will provide operational forecasters and other users, both in the business and academia sectors, with information and training on incorporating satellite images into hydrologic modeling. Our proposed innovations will assist water resource managers with the estimation of streamflow for reservoir operation, water rights dissemination, fisheries, agricultural needs, and recreation. The proposed visualization tools will make it easier for the general public to interpret streamflow forecasts and thus improve communication between agencies monitoring water usage and those people using the water.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S6.04-8631
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Data Analyzing and Processing Algorithms
PROPOSAL TITLE: Visual Data Mining Toolbox

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ambint
430 Woodcock Drive
Cranberry, PA 16066-7433

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yang Cai
cai@ambint.com
430 Woodcock Dr.
Cranberry,  PA 16066-7433

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Visual Data Mining (VDM) is an Internet-based software that supports spatial and temporal analyses of multimodal NASA science data including satellite images and in-situ sensory data. It combines computer vision, multi-physics simulation and interactive visualization. VDM tools can be integrated to NASA-related systems for detecting, tracking, modeling and predicting the movement of surface objects. The proposed system will use NASA products such as MODIS as a satellite imagery data source. The system will also incorporate the in-situ data from NOAA and JPL. The development tasks include designing object detection and tracking algorithms in Java for online distributed applications, designing compact cellular automata based simulation and prediction tools, designing data fusion and 3D navigation interface that links to Google Earth. It is expected that the VDM tools can increase the utility of scientific research data, models, simulations, and visualization in practical applications, for example, real-time detection and tracking of river plume discharged to the open water, or harmful algal blooms along the coastline. It will increase the speed of image analysis process in one order of magnitude.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1. NASA Sensor Web projects. Sensor webs will generate a large amount of data. VDM system can be seamlessly integrated into the new sensor web through online connectivity. Ambint company is working with Robotics Institute for possible collaboration with their robotic sampling boat project for NASA. 2. Upgrading Giovanni System. We have been talking to Dr. James Acker and Dr. Christopher Lynne at GSFC DAAC about the potential in Giovanni system. We could integrate our modules to Giovanni for dust storm tracking and HAB detection. 3. NASA Education Programs. Our data fusion and navigation interfaces enable less experienced users to access and seriously use the data for scientific projects. 4. New Technologies. Our VDM technology potentially enables NASA to move from data collection to data products. Also it may help NASA to develop more onboard data fusion systems so that it might save a lot of telecommunication bandwidth.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1. Public Health Care. VDM can be used at stations of NOAA Coastal Monitoring Center for detecting, tracking and predicting Harmful Algal Blooms, River Plumes and other pollutants. 2. Telecommunication. VDM can be used for mobile device system analysis and mobile user behavior analysis, such as mobility modeling and quality of service studies. 3. Transportation. GM managers have found VDM useful for analyzing large amount of GPS data. 4. Sensor Network for Smart Buildings. VDM can be used for energy saving building design and real-time optimization based on spatiotemporal patterns of occupants and weather. 5. Education. VDM can be used as an educational tool for high schools and colleges. It exports animated movies for their science projects. In the future releases, we will enhance the real-time data assimilation functions so that students can perform the real-time data stream mining on their own laptops.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Intelligence
Perception/Sensing
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Database Development and Interfacing
Expert Systems
Human-Computer Interfaces
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
General Public Outreach
Mission Training


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S6.04-8847
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Data Analyzing and Processing Algorithms
PROPOSAL TITLE: Octet

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Infoscitex Corporation
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451-1016

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrew DeCarlo
adecarlo@infoscitex.com
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham,  MA 02451-1016

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Analysis of NASA science data is analyzed to understand dynamic systems such as the sun, oceans, and Earth's climate as well as to look back in time to explore the origins of the universe. Complex algorithms and intensive data processing are needed to interpret data over time, at various energy ranges, and at different points in space. Of most interest are innovative interpolation, clustering and registration algorithms which radically increase algorithm efficiency and in turn drastically reduce computational time. Infoscitex (IST) proposes a novel, innovative spatial tool (Octet), which uses an octal tree structure (octree) for data representation, search, processing, and display, and shows dramatic improvements over traditional data analysis, processing and fusion software. Octet is designed specifically for feature isolation, volume and density calculation, collision detection, and data fusion and synthesis. At the end of Phase II, Octet will be a robust, fully-documented software package, using XML to promote interoperability and therefore collaborative research between NASA and other research centers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Some key NASA commercial applications include processing, analysis, registration and fusion of atmospheric, oceanographic, geological, biogeochemical, and population data, as well as analysis of planetary and solar data. Octet's time analysis capabilities allow accurate predictions of events such as weather patterns, human population density shifts, and glacier movement. Interoperability features such as fusion of news events with geographic features may also be possible.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
One principal military application in high demand is data registration and fusion for geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) and surveillance applications. GEOINT involves synthesizing geospatial imagery from a satellite or high-altitude aircraft with information such as battle objectives and descriptions of features of interest (e.g., buildings). An example GEOINT application would be analyzing the construction, size, materials and chemical signatures of a building to determine whether the building is a munitions plant or a hospital. Example surveillance applications include tracking personnel and vehicles near international border regions using visual imagery from surveillance aircraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Database Development and Interfacing
Human-Computer Interfaces
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S6.05-9732
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Data Management - Storage, Mining and Visualization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Remote Online Visualization Environment for Researchers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tech-X Corporation
5621 Arapahoe Avenue, Suite A
Boulder, CO 80303-1379

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Karipides
karipid@txcorp.com
5621 Arapahoe Ave Suite A
Boulder,  CO 80303-1379

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Many scientists have the common need of visualizing data in a collaborative and interactive manner. In a modern environment, these data are often stored across a widely distributed network and the researchers themselves are just as often separated by large geographical distances. Traditional visualization and collaboration approaches require the local installation of software specific to each end user as well as the downloading of data to each local machine. The proposed innovation would provide researchers with an environment that allows them to visualize remote data using the standard and familiar web browser as the application platform. No proprietary software need be installed and no data has to be downloaded to local machines. Furthermore, multiple researchers can interactively explore data via visualization in a joint session where changes by one researcher are seamlessly seen by the others. The architecture is based on technologies underlying state of the art web applications such as Google Maps. Employing a modular design using web services as means to connect the modules, the environment is easy to modify and improve as new data access, rendering, and client-side display technologies mature and become available.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The environment proposed here would be of use to NASA personnel interested in visualizing remote data stored in a distributed environment. It would allow for researchers to collaboratively interact when both the data and the researchers are widely geographically distributed. Specific potential users of the application include researchers involved with Sun-Earth Connection program, scientists and engineers analyzing accumulated data from actual missions, engineers using CFD codes to simulate flight conditions or propulsion devices, or anyone interested in visualizing data available from one of the many NASA data centers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A remote, online visualization environment has numerous applications outside of the scope of NASA. Doctors and other medical professionals often collaborate using imagery; in many cases, these consultations occur across large geographical distances making an online environment an ideal choice. Defense contractors such as Lockheed-Martin typically run complex aerospace codes on remote supercomputers, separating researchers from their data. Again, a collaborative, online environment proposed here would allow these researchers to quickly and easily visualize results from remote locations. Any industry where the work paradigm has widely distributed data and/or consumers of that data is a prime candidate for a potential application to the proposed innovation. An example of such an industry would be climate modeling.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Human-Computer Interfaces
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S6.05-9973
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Data Management - Storage, Mining and Visualization
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Novel Volumetric 3D Display System with Static Screen

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Xigen, LLC
11001 Sugarbush Terrace
Rockville, MD 20852-3240

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Geng
xigentech@gmail.com
11001 Sugarbush Terrace
Rockville,  MD 20852-3240

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet most existing display systems with flat screens can handle only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that lack the third dimension (depth) information. This fundamental restriction greatly limits the capability of human being in perceiving and visualizing the complexity of real world objects. The primary objective of this Phase 1 SBIR is to develop a novel high-resolution volumetric 3D display system that has a static solid crystal screen. In contrast to conventional 3D visualization based on 2D flat screen, the "volumetric 3D display" we proposed herein possesses a true 3D display volume, has a 360 degree look-around group viewing capability, and allows a group of viewers to simultaneously view and analyze 3D data without wearing any special viewing goggle. It provides both physiological and psychological depth cues to human visual system to perceive 3D objects and is considered as the Holy Grail solution to 3D visualization of many NASA datasets that inherently are extremely large, complicated, and multi-dimensional. Although we successfully developed various volumetric 3D display systems in the past, most these previously developed systems generate their 3D display volume by a large size moving screen that rotates constantly at a speed of 600~1800 RPM. The structure of a moving screen dramatically complicates the design, production, use, and maintenance of the display system, making it very delicate and fragile for daily uses for NASA visualization work on earth. Due to the existence of a large moving parts, such volumetric 3D display technology is certainly not suitable for on-board uses in space missions. This SBIR program will investigate the feasibility of a technology breakthrough recently made by Xigen LLC and developed a revolutionary new concept of volumetric 3D display, which totally eliminates any moving screen.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A true 3D volumetric display device would literally add a new dimension to the advanced human/computer interface, and provides visualizations of many NASA datasets that are extremely large, complicated, and multi-dimensional. Examples include multi-spectrum image dataset acquired by satellites, simulation results of man-rated space flight vehicle entry, visualizations of distant planet topography, and 3D visualizations of coupled ocean and weather systems. The proposed volumetric 3D display technique would provide 3D virtual reality environments for scientific data visualization that eliminate the need for special user devices like goggles or helmets. Due to the complexity of NASA data analysis and visualization requirements, the ability to provide sharable three-dimensional visualization and measurement would significantly enhance the efficiency and accuracy of decision making, validation, and collaborative development environment. The proposed volumetric 3D display system provide a novel tool for data viewing, real-time data browse, and general purpose rendering of multivariate geospatial scientific data sets that use geo-rectification, data overlays, data reduction, and data encoding across widely differing data types and formats.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The volumetric 3D display is a fundamental technological breakthrough that could change the way human being viewing complex information, thus has profound impact on the society advancement. The unique advantages of the proposed static screen volumetric 3D display technology include: * No moving screen; * Inherent parallel mechanism for 3D voxel addressing; * High spatial resolution; * Full color display is easy to implement * Fine voxel size (at a sub-millimeter level); * No blind spot on the display volume and the display volume can be of arbitrary shape. * Simple and elegant system structure design; * No special viewing glasses or any special eyewear is needed to view the 3D images; * No image jitter affect that is associated with moving screen; * Low-cost and low-maintenance. The market for volumetric 3D display systems is sizable, and applications are enormous, including both military (e.g. air traffic control, battle management, space vehicle and submarine navigation, telemedicine in battle field) and commercial (e.g., 3D TV, virtual reality, computer aided design, visualization of multidimensional data, medical imaging, surgery assistance, education, scientific computing, video games, stadium displays, etc.) The 3D display systems will provide a new level of realism and literally add a new dimension to the dynamic interaction between human and the world around us.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Human-Robotic Interfaces
Perception/Sensing
Teleoperation
Simulation Modeling Environment
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Structural Modeling and Tools
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Database Development and Interfacing
Human-Computer Interfaces
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
General Public Outreach
Mission Training
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I S6.06-9228
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spatial and Visual Methods for Search, Analysis and Display of Science Data
PROPOSAL TITLE: Attribute Image Map Fused 3D Web-Objects Technology and Software Toolsets

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
American GNC Corporation
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley, CA 93065-1812

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tasso Politopoulos
cflin@americangnc.com
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley,  CA 93065-1812

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is seeking innovative spatial and visual methods for search analysis and display of scientific data, to aid outreaching of this data to the interested mass-users. To address this need, AGNC proposes to develop innovative Attribute Image Map Fused 3D Web-Objects (AIMFO-3DWO) technology and software toolsets, based principally on new organization of geospatial datasets that integrates topographical maps, attributive information, remotely sensed imagery and DEM into one unified data aggregate and format. The AIMFO-3DWO will bring together a fully functional Web-GIS, relational database management system (RDBMS) and image processing tool with new means of data management and manipulation, based on singular software toolset including super-compact data format that will be very effective in fused datasets distribution over networks and will make it possible to deploy PDA and even mobile phone clients. The AIMFO-3DWO will be operated by XML/GML compatible non-schema non-SQL mass-user oriented man-machine interface. The AIMFO-3DWO for the first time provides rapid network access to geospatial datasets by means of unique Geospatial Image Language and interoperable system architecture. Phase I is devoted to the AIMFO-3DWO proof-of-concept. Phase II will result in development of a fully functional AIMFO-3DWO system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The IMFO-3DWO will be useful to NASA in its handling of remotely sensed datasets and advanced processing of those datasets. For example, the AIMFO-3DWO may help non-GIS experts to map National Weather Service modeled hurricane paths over a background of NASA MODIS sea surface temperatures, visualize in 3D deploying GoogleEarth and extract attributes of these datasets even on PDA or mobile phone for non-specialist field users. The AIMFO-3DWO will also enhance the following NASA programs: characterization and validation in the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) at Goddard and other centers; DEM quality assurance for the SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) for JPL; interdisciplinary geospatial data aggregation for the Population, Land Use and Climate Estimates (PLACE) project using NASA remotely sensed data, and adding of attribute information to the databases of NASA Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Advances in Internet and wireless communication technologies make the commercialization of AIMFO-3DWO for non-NASA users realistic. A great amount of data in the hands of the forestry, risk assessment, agricultural, land organization, transportation, military, and other communities may benefit from the interoperability of AIMFO-3DWO software toolsets for interpretation and its integration of remotely sensed data into various distributed Web-GIS and imaging environments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Computer System Architectures
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Database Development and Interfacing
Human-Computer Interfaces
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I O1.01-9340
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Coding, Modulation, and Compression
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Density Parity-Check Codes for High Data Rate Receivers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
RT Logic
12515 Academy Ridge View
Colorado Springs, CO 80921-3779

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Heskett
jheskett@rtlogic.com
12515 Academy Ridge View
Colorado Springs ,  CO 80921-3779

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) Forward Error Correction (FEC) schemes are excellent tools in optimizing telemetry data integrity within the limited space to ground RF spectrum available for today's and tomorrow's satellite systems. All ten of the LDPC codes called out in the CCSDS Orange Book CCSDS 131.1-O-1 are potentially powerful tools for space to ground communications link optimization for future near-Earth and deep-space science and exploration missions. With this Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR), RT Logic will endeavor to inventory and understand the 10 LDPC codes defined in CCSDS 131.1-O-1, to prototype a single Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based LDPC decoder that can potentially be the core of the 10 LDPC decoders, verify the FPGA prototype of the general purpose LDPC core using a comprehensive Very High-Speed Intgrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL) test suite and characterize the design for implementation into a Commerical-off-the-shelf (COTS) high data rate receiver. In Phase II, all of the 10 LDPC codes would be implemented into RT Logic's COTS high rate receiver in order to make the LDPC FEC schemes readily available to NASA, other Civil, the Department of Defense and commerical customers for use on their future space programs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Many NASA satellite and launch vehicle programs that support remote sensing, data relay, lunar exploration and deep-space communications are slated for the coming years and all have needs for high-rate space to ground communications. COTS high data-rate receivers are projected to be required to support these missions and having the 10 CCSDS defined LDPC codes as part of a COTS high data rate receiver product could save NASA significant expense. Cost savings would be recognized as NASA avoids costly custom implementations that potentially have little chance of reuse or re-configurability. Also, these LDPC capable receivers will allow for the optimum use of downlink/uplink communications bandwidth for NASA programs with minimal cost impact. This optimization can result in reduced power requirements on the satellite or launch vehicle, reduced weight in the satellite or launch vehicle and smaller aperture antennas on both the space platforms and ground stations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many commercial programs supporting remote sensing and data relay applications and high data-rate receivers with the CCSDS defined LDPC Codes could also be used by their users to improve satellite and launch vehicle space to ground communications links. The commercial customer would also avoid the cost of custom implementations and enjoy the advantages of higher data rates for telemetry with lower bit-error rates over all.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Architectures and Networks
RF
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I O1.01-9587
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Coding, Modulation, and Compression
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Rate Receiver Design

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Communications Engineering
55 Middlesex Street, Suite 227
N. Chelmsford, MA 01863-1570

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Greenberg
greenberg@ice-llc.com
55 Middlesex Street, Suite 227
North Chelmsford,  MA 01863-1570

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose an initial architectural and preliminary hardware design study for a high-rate receiver capable of decoding modulation suites specified by CCSDS 413.0-G-1 April 2003 (www.ccsds.org) and new advanced modulation suites. We propose to detail a design which can provide a throughput of greater than 300 Mbits/sec and 7 bits/sample output.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed receiver design would be applicable to both near-Earth and deep-space science and exploration applications both now and in the future.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The demodulation design is applicable to a variety of space applications including commercial and military satellites. Terrestrial applications include terminals for satellites and wireless telecommunications equipment.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Architectures and Networks
RF
Highly-Reconfigurable


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I O1.03-9070
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Communication for Space-Based Range
PROPOSAL TITLE: Stable Tactical-Grade MEMS IMU for Spin-Stabilized Rockets

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Milli Sensor Systems and Actuators, Inc.
93 Border Street
West Newton, MA 02465-2013

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Donato (Dan) Cardarelli
dcardarelli@mssainc.com
93 Border Street
West Newton,  MA 02465-2013

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An Integrated MEMS IMU is proposed that will operate effectively in a spinning rocket up to 7 revs/sec. The IMU contains three gyroscopes and nine accelerometers on the same chip. The instrument designs have the low cross-axis sensitivity that permit the orthogonal gyros to sense the relatively smaller pitch and yaw rates in the presence of the much larger rate about the spin axis. An algorithm is proposed to combine the signals from the instruments to co-operatively obtain spatial reference. A lab experiment is planned during Phase I that will use available equipment and MSSA IMUs to prove the concept.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed work addresses NASA's specific need for low-cost tactical grade IMUs which can function reliably on spin-stabilized rockets and that can be coupled with GPS receivers for use in GPS/IMU Metric Tracking and Autonomous Flight Safety Systems. MSSA's technology enables new approaches to processing and merging the independent outputs of GPS and Inertial Navigation Sensors and combining them with rule-based systems for autonomous navigation and termination decision making. MSSA's low-cost/high-performance single-chip MEMS IMU technology enables the integration of inertial instruments and IMUs with GPS and other sensors into innovative, very highly-integrated systems for Attitude Determination for Launch Vehicles, Integrated Avionics Systems for Small Scale Remotely Operated Vehicles, and Modular ("plug & play") Robust On-Board GN&C Avionics for Nano-Sat Launch Vehicles and for Low-Cost Small Spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
MSSA's single-chip Integrated MEMS IMU will be substantially smaller and less expensive, and will enable more highly-integrated applications than are possible with other MEMS IMUs. The principal military applications of MEMS IMUs for spin-stabilized rockets are for spinning munitions and small missiles. Other military and commercial applications for MEMS IMUs are for the stabilization of small UAVs and for stabilization of sensors, seekers and cameras; lower-cost IMUs for air, land and water vehicle navigation, with or without GPS-aiding; Personal Navigation for warfighters and "first responders"; robotic stabilization and GN&C; precision motion tracking for portable/wearable systems (helmets & headsets), and bore-hole measurement systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I O1.03-9524
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Communication for Space-Based Range
PROPOSAL TITLE: GPS Attitude Determination for Launch Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Toyon Research Corporation
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117-3021

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kenan Ezal
kezal@toyon.com
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta,  CA 93117-3021

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Toyon Research Corporation proposes to develop a family of compact, low-cost GPS-based attitude (GPS/A) sensors for launch vehicles. In order to obtain 3-D attitude measurements (roll, pitch, and yaw) conventional GPS/A systems require three or more antennas with relatively large baselines (~0.5 m). In sharp contrast, Toyon's GPS/A system can obtain 3-D attitude measurements with one or more single-aperture antennas. Toyon's GPS/A sensor is dubbed the Miniature Integrated Direction-finding Attitude-determining Anti-jam System (MIDAAS(TM)) and employs an innovative single-aperture antenna to compute full 3-D attitude using only two RF channels, leading to a smaller, simpler, lower-cost receiver system. A single (gyro-less) MIDAAS unit can be used to provide attitude information on very small launch platforms. In addition, multiple (gyro-less) MIDAAS units can be employed over larger baselines for increased attitude accuracy. A single (< 6.5-cm diameter) MIDAAS system also provides tactical-grade attitude performance when coupled with commercial-grade gyros at a significantly lower cost. Furthermore, MIDAAS provides active anti-jam protection and multipath mitigation thereby improving the integrity and robustness of the navigation system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
MIDAAS provides drift-free and temperature-insensitive GPS-based attitude (GPS/A) measurements for small expendable launch vehicles and micro-satellites in a small package and at a lower cost than array-based GPS attitude systems. Furthermore, a multi-antenna MIDAAS system will provide improved accuracy when compared to traditional GPS/A systems with equivalent baselines. In addition, integration of one or more MIDAAS systems with inertial measurement units (IMUs) will provide significant improvements in performance at a significantly lower cost when compared to conventional GPS-based attitude systems with equivalent grade IMUs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The MIDAAS GPS-based attitude (GPS/A) sensor technology is applicable to a wide range of military and civilian applications including unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), micro air vehicles (MAVs), unattended ground sensors (UGS), handheld positioning units, recreational/virtual reality orienting devices, radio-controlled (RC) vehicles, ground vehicles, and far-target locators. The technology appeals to customers who desire robust position and attitude measurements for platforms that have stringent cost and size, weight and power (SWAP) constraints.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I O1.04-8808
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Antenna Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Surface Optimization Techniques for Deployable Reflectors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Composite Technology Development, Inc.
2600 Campus Drive, Suite D
Lafayette, CO 80026-3359

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Taylor
robert.taylor@ctd-mateials.com
2600 Campus Drive, Suite D
Lafayette,  CO 80026-3359

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Existing communications systems for spacecraft provide a choice between either large aperture (>3m) or high frequency (>X-band), but not both. These systems use either deployable mesh reflectors, which are limited in their operating frequency by the facets and RF reflectivity of the mesh itself, or rigid surface reflectors, which are limited in their aperture by the size of the launch vehicle fairing. Deployable solid-surface reflectors have the potential to enable both a large aperture and high frequency operation but are compliant and inherently difficult to fabricate to a precise surface contour. The proposed innovation is to develop methods for optimizing the surface contour of solid-surface deployable reflector systems using built-in adjustors. This allows for antenna systems with high data rate and high gain for interplanetary communications and other missions. Technical feasibility of this approach will be demonstrated in Phase 1 with the design, structural analysis, assembly, and demonstration of a tunable solid surface reflector thereby advancing the innovation to a TRL 5. The Phase 1 demonstration unit will incorporate tuning adjustors, an existing reflector shell, and a simplified backing structure. This will provide the methodology for a flight-ready demonstration unit to be completed as part of the Phase 2 contract.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Achieving the vision of NASA's bold Exploration Initiative will require the development of communication system technologies that extend the Internet into space, enable anytime-anywhere intelligent-autonomous operations, and provide end-to-end information delivery from space directly to users. For interplanetary communications links, high-frequency, high-gain spacecraft antennas are required, and this combination creates a need for large aperture, precise reflector systems that exceed the capability of current reflector designs. The required surface accuracy of a reflector is directly proportional to the wavelength of the RF signal, therefore higher frequency communication require more accurate reflector shells. The ideal reflector is large in aperture, packages within existing launch vehicles, and deploys to a precise shape using a thermally stable solid membrane to provide high frequency reflectivity at Ka band or higher. CTD's solid surface reflector technology currently provides a low cost deployable antenna reflector for increasing the aperture of a small satellite antenna beyond the constraints of the payload fairing at lower microwave frequencies. The technology developed in this SBIR will extend the operating frequency range of CTD's solid-surface deployable reflectors to Ka band, enabling deployable reflector systems for high data-rate lunar communications and Mars communication links.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Current generation antenna systems for military satellites have typically used fixed-aperture, deep-parabolic reflectors with high accuracy reflective surfaces. Examples of these reflectors include the MCP, SSP, and MilSTAR reflectors manufactured by Boeing. These reflectors range in aperture from 2m to 3m. Deployable solid surface reflectors could improve the satellite system design by drastically reducing the volume required for the antenna reflector, provided the reflective surface can be adjusted to meet the surface accuracy requirement. The deployable solid surface reflector design could also be adapted to shaped reflector surfaces for commercial satellite applications. Most commercial applications are Ku band, requiring modest surface optimization for this type of reflector.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Kinematic-Deployable
Large Antennas and Telescopes
RF
Microwave/Submillimeter
Composites
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I O1.04-8886
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Antenna Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Printable Nano-Field Effect Transistors Combined with Carbon Nanotube Based Printable Interconnect Wires for Large-Area Deployable Active Phased-Array

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Omega Optics, Inc.
10435 Burnet Road, Suite 108
Austin, TX 78758-4450

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Maggie Chen
maggie.chen@omegaoptics.com
10435 Burnet Rd. Suite 108
Austin,  TX 78758-4450

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Flexible electronic circuits can be easily integrated with large area (>10m aperture), inflatable antennas to provide distributed control and processing functions. Flexible electronic circuits can also perform dynamic antenna sub-arraying and gain pattern reconfiguration for active phased-array antenna (PAA) and thus significantly enhance the reliability of NASA's space radar systems. However, existing flexible electronics are based on organic semiconductor materials that have carrier mobility four orders of magnitude lower than conventional single crystal silicon. Such low carrier mobility limits the operating speed of flexible electronics to a few kilohertz and thus makes it unsuitable for multi-GHz RF antenna applications. The proposed research aims to develop a printable silicon nano-FET with high carrier mobility of over 400 cm2/V•s. Such high carrier mobility provides an unprecedented opportunity to achieve flexible electronics with high operating frequency of over 40GHz. We will also develop procedures for printing of conducting interconnect wires using carbon nanotubes, which is critical for printing semiconductors. Based on our past experience on printable silicon nano-FET and printable carbon nanotube wires, the high-speed flexible electronics are expected to be integrated with large-area, inflatable radar antennas and achieve smart antenna systems for high performance and reliable space operations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed printable silicon FET combined with printable carbon nanotube interconnect wires provide a promising approach to achieve high-speed flexible electronics that can be monolithically integrated on NASA's large aperture, deployable antennas. The integrated high-speed (> 40GHz) electronics offer enhanced control, signal processing and reconfiguration functionalities for numerous radar bands, such as L- band, X- band, S- band, Ku- band and Ka-band. The technology will provide advanced navigation and communication, including basic mission support and high bandwidth demand, to implement the vision of go back to moon by 2020.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The printable silicon nano-FET offers an enabling technology for large-area flexible electronics with high operating speed and built-in control capability. It offers an attractive technology for many high-speed, low-cost electronics applications, particularly those that require or may benefit from flexible polymeric substrates such as RF identification tags, smart cards, electronic paper, and large area flat panel displays.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Architectures and Networks
RF
Highly-Reconfigurable


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I O1.04-9130
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Antenna Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Foamed Antenna Support for Very Large Apertures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Adherent Technologies, Inc.
9621 Camino del Sol NE
Albuquerque, NM 87111-1522

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jan-Michael Gosau
adherenttech@comcast.net
9621 Camino del Sol NE
Albuquerque,  NM 87111-1522

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed Phase I program will demonstrate the feasibility of the in-space production of large aperture antenna structures. The use of a novel open cell foam, previously developed for NASA space antennas, will allow the deployment of reflectors at low cost and very low transport volume compared to currently used technologies like solid metal or mesh reflector. The use of a foam substrate also dampens thermal expansion distortions of the reflector shape, assuring high surface accuracy. The shape accuracy of the antenna will be ensured by using Rigidization on Command<SUP>TM</SUP> technology to form a rigid mold from an inflatable. This approach allows to verify the correct antenna shape before the structure is stabilized using foam. The development effort will be supported by computer modeling of the necessary strength parameters for a very large antenna structure based on foam support.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
he foam supported antenna structures are directly applicable to NASA's need for very large aperture antennas for interplanetary mission date relays in the 10 – 20 m size range.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The eventual markets for inflatable and deployable spacecraft are extremely large, particularly for communications antennas and radars. In the commercial sector, over 200 satellites are expected to be launched in the next 10 years to meet consumer demand for cellular phones and other communication devices. A large number of military satellites are also expected to be launched in that timeframe. Current mesh antennas sell for $25-40 million each. Self-deploying antennas using related foam technology should be priced in the $3-4 million range each. As such, self-deploying and inflatable spacecraft should claim the majority of the market for antennas and radiometers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Architectures and Networks
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I O1.04-9232
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Antenna Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Conformal Space Suit Antenna Development for Enhanced EVA Communications and Wearable Computer Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied EM, Inc.
144 Research Drive
Hampton , VA 23666-1339

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Thomas Campbell
tom_campbell@appliedem.com
144 Research Drive
Hampton,  VA 23666-1339

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As NASA prepares for future space missions and the return to the moon by 2020, astronauts will be required to spend more time exposed to the hazards of performing Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Providing and maintaining reliable communications and overall information transfer is imperative during EVA operations not only to relay progress during the task but also to monitor the health and ability of the astronaut to perform in hazardous environments. Therefore, in order to improve astronaut mobility and primarily space to space communications, Applied EM, Inc. is proposing conformal, body-worn antennas that will be integrated into space suit designs to enhance EVA operations. In addition, antenna designs for wireless RF telemetry will be developed to enable the use of wearable computers for astronaut space operations. Recognizing the increased EVA operations anticipated for future missions, NASA has been studying and testing new space suit designs in efforts to improve the astronaut's ability to move his or her body while wearing the space suit and to carry out EVA tasks as efficiently and safely as possible. These new antenna designs will be developed to be compatible with the new suit designs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This multi-disciplinary research project will produce a wide range of products that include novel body-worn antenna designs, conformal helmet mounted antenna designs, antennas for wireless RF telemetry systems, fabric systems for accommodating body-worn antennas, and fabrication methods to produce flexible, integrated body-worn antenna systems. The body-worn UHF antenna designs and wireless antennas for wearable computer applications can be used in the new space suit designs, that are currently being considered, as well as potential EVA communication systems for Constellation Program and the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), ISS, and Lunar Surface Access Modules. The actual antenna designs as well as the electromagnetic simulations and test data obtained during this project can be used in a wide range of NASA research programs and applications. In addition to improving EVA communications capability, the potential for wireless antenna nodes for wearable computers is extensive.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This multi-disciplinary research project will produce a wide range of products that include novel body-worn antenna designs, conformal helmet mounted antenna designs, antennas for wireless RF telemetry systems, fabric systems for accommodating body-worn antennas, and fabrication methods to produce flexible, integrated body-worn antenna systems. These products will have much potential in a wide range of non-NASA applications commercially as well as government. Commercial applications would include body-worn antennas for health monitoring, communications, remote sensing, information transfer systems as well as in uniform designs using conductive coatings. Government applications would primarily be for DoD (military) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) as body-worn antennas can be used for Warfighter, Special Operations Forces, special uniforms requiring communications in severe environments such as chemical and biological threat situations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
RF
Suits


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I O1.05-8647
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Reconfigurable/Reprogrammable Communication Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Power Universal Direct Conversion Transmit and Receive (UTR) RF Module for Software Defined Radios

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Space Micro, Inc.
10401 Roselle Street, Suite 400
San Diego, CA 92121-1056

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Strobel
dstrobel@spacemicro.com
10401 Roselle Street, Ste 400
San Diego,  CA 92121-1526

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Conventional software defined radio (SDR) backend signal processors are limited by apriori system definitions and respectively chosen RF hardware. Ideally, the RF sections would be as flexible as the software backends, accommodating widely differing bands and modulation long after fabrication and mission launch; conventional RF tuners limit SDR space mission reconfigurability. The innovation provides a post-launch universal direct RF transmit and receive modulator/demodulator module (UTR) One UTR can replace band specific RF devices otherwise needed for future missions. UTR's modular open architecture is as "reconfigurable" as its complementary digital SDR baseband processing (ADC/DAC's, FPGA's, DSP's). The UTR facilitates communications, radar, narrow (bps) to ultrawideband (GHz) modulation, center frequencies scalable >100 GHz, herein UHF to Ka band. No DC power required for receive mode; novel wideband digital "DAC-less" direct to RF BPSK/QPSK modulation and power amplification is possible. Rugged, radiation hard, reliable due to low active component count and mainstream manufacturing techniques (GaAs MMIC based). Enhanced performance and size leveraged via left handed metamaterials, MEM's switches, GaN and tunable ferroelectrics. Phase 1 UTR simulations, analysis and manufacturing preparation is followed by phase 2 UTR module fabrication (deliverable) and subsystem performance demonstration. TRL 5 expected at phase 2 completion.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Space Micro innovative UTR for present and future "on-the-fly" reprogrammable SDR communications and radar systems is presented: 1 ~ 35+ GHz bidirectional direct to RF transmit or receive using the same hardware; scales >100 GHz Direct Downconversion to baseband I and Q with no DC power to RF converter required Direct to RF "DAC-less" BPSK/QPSK modulator Novel modulated high power RF amplifier (option) Metamaterial based left handed transmission lines enables smallest size Fully monolithic GaAs and SiGe implementations possible Tunable varactor or ferroelectric (BST) for select multiband optimizations High reliability and low recurring cost - very low active parts count MEM's filters and switches can further improve performance Space Applications: S, X, Ku band SDST, STDN,SGLS,TDRSS, SDR CEV and EVA's Narrowband, Wideband, Radar, Comms, UWB - every modulation format Compatible with existing baseband software defined radio (SDR) processors

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A family of commercial products will evolve from this SBIR R&D technology: Reconfigurable UTR RF modules capable of reconfigurable software defined radios spanning UHF to 35 GHz. While the first focus of these products is for NASA and other agencies requiring satellite electronics, the unique wideband RF capabilities directly address the contemporary wireless infrastructure serving multiple bands (WCDMA, GSM/EDGE, CDMA2000, WiMax, WiFi, etc). Wideband operation and low power are ideal for cognitive and mobile adaptive ad hoc networked (MANET) communications and UWB (802.16) based communications systems. The proposed research will support many non-NASA commercial space applications. These range from commercial satellites (Space Systems Loral and Boeing platforms) to U.S. Department of Defense satellites (TSAT, next GPS block, Air Force ANGELS, etc.). In addition to satellites, DoD launch vehicles such as QuickReach (from AirLaunch LLC) will gain from the resulting product. Another existing and now growing market for this technology is the electronic warfare (EW) and electronic attack (EA) marketplace, C4ISR applications focused primarily on DOD software defined radios (eg JTRS, AMF, etc), Homeland Defense initiatives. UWB micropower channel sounding and solid object "xray vision" including sense through wall Army CERDEC activities; and medical noninvasive imaging are also possible applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Architectures and Networks
RF
Highly-Reconfigurable
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I O1.05-8732
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Reconfigurable/Reprogrammable Communication Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Coherent Logix, Inc.
1120 S. Capital of Texas Hwy, Bldg. 3, Suite 310
Austin, TX 78746-6460

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Doerr
doerr@coherentlogix.com
1120 S. Capital of TX Hwy, Bldg. 3 Ste. 310
Austin,  TX 78746-6446

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Coherent Logix, Incorporated proposes the Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) program to facilitate the development of a Software Defined Radio development kit based on HyperX Technology with an accompanying software development flow to support rapid development and fielding of this technology to NASA and high reliability system integrators. NASA's exploration, science, and space operations systems are critically dependent on the hardware technologies used in their implementation. Specifically, the performance and deployment of autonomous and computationally-intensive capabilities for space based observatories, orbiters, autonomous landing and hazard avoidance, autonomous rendezvous and capture, robotic, relative navigation, command, control and communications systems are directly dependent on the availability of radiation-tolerant, high-performance, reconfigurable and adaptable, modern communications and underlying energy-efficient processor technology. The HyperX Technology will simultaneously enable order of magnitude improvement in power savings while reducing chipset count, thus size and weight of the radio. The HyperX processor technology is fully programmable and reconfigurable on the fly and is supported by industry standards based [hardware agnostic software development flow and] programming model using ANSI-C and MPI (message passing interface) API. This provides reduced life-cycle costs and future proofing of hardware through fully portable software code.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications include processing for exploration, science, and space operations systems. Specific examples include space based observatories, orbiters, autonomous landing and hazard avoidance, autonomous rendezvous and capture, robotic, relative navigation, command, control and communications systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential Non-NASA applications include high-reliability processing for automotive, aviation, and medical markets, among others.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Intelligence
Mobility
Manipulation
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Architectures and Networks
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Computer System Architectures
Expert Systems
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Highly-Reconfigurable
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I O1.06-9935
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Miniaturized Digital EVA Radio
PROPOSAL TITLE: Software Defined Multiband EVA Radio

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lexycom Technologies, Inc.
1227 Reserve Drive
Longmont, CO 80501-2671

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aleksey Pozhidaev
aleksey@lexycominc.com
1227 Reserve Drive
Longmont,  CO 80501-2671

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of this research is to propose a reliable, lightweight, programmable, multi-band, multi-mode, miniaturized frequency-agile EVA software defined radio (SDR) that supports data telemetry, voice, and high-rate video. The proposed radios would be a part of an advanced, incrementally expandable ad hoc wireless network. For improved reliability and to assure stand-alone functionality, the network would support a real-time 3D location function using mobile-assisted navigation and utilizing TOA/TDOA methods. To achieve unparalleled power consumption efficiency, Lexycom proposes the use of energy-aware packet routing and cognitive selection of operating point of the transceivers. Along with the scheduling, we plan to use an innovative RF packetization technique aimed to virtually obsolete negotiations between the network nodes prior to change in transmitted signal parameter on a packet-by-packet basis. We anticipate that after completion of the Phase I, Lexycom will be more than capable of delivering an operational prototype EVA SDR for further evaluation and enhancements of the chosen concepts and approaches. Since Lexycom Technologies is the manufacturer of an FCC certified, reconfigurable, small form factor and low power consumption SDRs, we are in an ideal position to transfer and expand our knowledge base from our existing radio platform over to the EVA radio.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
With lunar and interplanetary exploration becoming more and more common, the need for a highly reliable, reconfigurable communication system is paramount. Once established, a multi-band software re-configurable radio system has the potential to perform a multitude of functions. Hence, the state-of-the-art radios designed under this proposal would provide the required building blocks for independent remote communication and navigation networks. Cognitive functionality and stand-alone accurate 3D location capabilities of such networks are a necessity for both manned and unmanned missions and outposts. The scalable, re-configurable, low power consumption concept used in the proposed EVA SDR design would enable the use of such devices for battery-powered handheld operation. The proposed incrementally expandable ad hoc wireless network architecture can be easily adapted for use in the exploring not only lunar, but the environments of other planets. A system such as this could provide the building blocks for future planetary communication and navigation demands.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Low power consumption radios with adaptive programmability and interoperability that are capable of providing communication and navigation functions would be in demand for defense training and field activities, first responder emergency activities as well as remote monitoring and control applications. On-the-fly programmability coupled with navigational functionality would allow defense operations to optimize their communications. An adaptive network would prevent jamming and eavesdropping; the stand-alone 3D navigational functionality would allow tracking and monitoring of all tagged assets even inside a mine. Interoperability capability between firemen, police and medical personnel would be extremely beneficial in emergency situations when first responder activities need to be highly coordinated between several different groups. Remote monitoring and control of well heads, pipelines, and tank levels would benefit a wide variety of industries by providing an interactive communications platform that could also track personnel and assets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Architectures and Networks
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
RF
Manned-Manuvering Units


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I O1.07-8424
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Transformational Communications Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electrochemical Capacitor Development for Pulsed Power Communications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eltron Research & Development, Inc.
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder, CO 80301-3241

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher Marotta
eltron@eltronresearch.com
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder,  CO 80301-3241

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase I addresses the development of electrochemical ultracapacitors (ECs) using graphitic nanosheets as the electrode material. The advantages Eltron's technology will be the reduction of device size due to superior power densities and relative powers. These materials also display reduced discharge response times compared to state of the art materials; this is advantageous for pulsed power applications such as burst communications and flash LIDAR. Eltron's carbon nanostructures are highly conductive and offer an ordered mesopore network. These attributes will provide more complete electrolyte wetting, and faster release of stored charge compared to activated carbon. Preliminary studies have shown that Eltron's materials meet or exceed the performance of major EC manufacturers. The Phase I objectives will be to further increase performance with regards to high power/short duration demands. The technology is currently at a TRL 3 and we expect to reach a TRL 4 by the end of Phase I. In Phase II studies we will optimize the materials' performance and scale up prototype cells and validate performance in critical test environments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is interested in electrochemical capacitors for transient power demands that are capable of rapid discharges, typically less than one second. Such demands shorten battery and fuel cell lifetime. ECs will be used to complement an energy storage system (load leveling), dramatically lengthening battery/fuel cell lifetimes while reducing the required sizes of the batteries/fuel cells. Specifically ECs can be used in burst communications systems that require high power transients on the order of millisecond durations with a short number of total pulses to avoid detection. Other NASA applications would be flash LIDAR for Object Detection and Avoidance (ODA) systems (for avoiding rocks when landing) and autonomous rover guidance on a planet surface. Finally, NASA is looking to replace hydraulic systems with electromechanical actuators that require high transient power delivery. These requirements can be fulfilled by ECs which store charge that can be quickly discharged without burdening batteries or fuel cells.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other applications include maintenance-free power sources for microcomputer memories, backup power for actuator and solenoid valves, and power supplements for consumer electronic devices. The biggest potential market of ECs will be the automotive sector for launch assist and regenerative braking in electric vehicles. EC's with improved performance (greater relative energy and power, improved charge/discharge capacities) would generate increased interest among producers of battery operated equipment. ECs may have a prominent impact on hybrid electric vehicles, where their implementation would mature the development of this technology. Successful development of this technology would potentially improve the fuel efficiency of these HEV's significantly since the need for large batteries could be reduced. The economic impacts would also promote a greater demand for carbon nanomaterials, and would lead to more competition among manufacturers, providing quality products at a lower price. This technology could also be adapted for battery and fuel cell electrodes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
RF
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I O1.08-8373
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Optical Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Very Large Solar Rejection Filter for Laser Communication

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Surface Optics Corporation
11555 Rancho Bernardo Road
San Diego, CA 92127-1441

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Sheikh
dsheikh@surfaceoptics.com
11555 Rancho Bernardo Road
San Diego,  CA 92127-1441

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Surface Optics Corporation (SOC) will develop a band pass filter comprised of a visible dielectric mirror and an induced transmission filter, applied to two sides of a cast polyimide membrane. The mirror/filter combination will block 95% of the incident solar radiation, while allowing a narrow pass-band for YAG laser communication. The combination of a visible dielectric mirror constructed on one side of a membrane and a band-pass filter on the second surface, offers a means of creating a very efficient solar reflector with relatively few coating layers. The exceptionally thin and flat optical substrate will minimize degradation of the laser signal. Meter-class membrane filters are sought by NASA to prevent over-heating of ground-based laser communication receivers operating during daylight hours. In Phase I, induced transmission filter designs based on both silver and germanium films will be evaluated for overall filter performance. Small filters will be constructed and measured for optical performance and agreement with predictions. In Phase II, the best designs will be applied to large membrane substrates approximately 2-m in diameter.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Long-range laser communication for future interplanetary science missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Solar reflectors with a laser pass band are currently sought by the US government for protecting receivers on space-based defense satellites utilizing laser communication.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Thermal Insulating Materials
Architectures and Networks
Laser
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I O1.09-8325
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Space RF Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development of Epitaxial GaN Films for RF Communications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Neocera, LLC
10000 Virginia Manor Road
Beltsville, MD 20705-4215

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeonggoo Kim
kim@neocera.com
10,000 Virginia Manor Road
Beltsville,  MD 20705-4215

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The primary objective of this SBIR is to develop epitaxial GaN films with threading dislocation density less than 10^6 cm^-2. We propose an innovative approach combining two Pulsed Energy technologies: plasma-energy-controlled Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) to deposit high quality epitaxial GaN films, and in situ Pulsed Energy Annealing to decrease the dislocation density ( to < 10^6 cm-2). Unlike low energetic techniques (such as MBE or CVD), PLD's energetic range of pulsed plasma can be controlled with process parameters, resulting in a wide range of plasma energetic for film deposition. Recently, Neocera fabricated high quality epitaxial GaN films using the plasma-energy-controlled PLD process, resulting in strong photoluminescent emission at room temperature. This approach is further extended in this Phase I, with an in-situ "Pulsed" Energy Annealing, to greatly improve the film crystallinity. The pulsed laser or pulsed electron beam, with 20-50 ns pulse width and high power density (~10^8W/cm^2), induces melting and a rapid epitaxial formation in ~100 nanoseconds, anneling out dislocations. This unique combination of two pulsed energy technologies is expected to provide the most advanced deposition process for epitaxial GaN films with low dislocation density.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High quality GaN films have been deposited on Al2O3 or Si substrates via chemical vapor deposition process. However, large lattice mismatch between GaN and these substrates causes significant structural imperfections in GaN layers, resulting in the dislocation density of about 10^10 cm-2 that limits the current GaN film technology from applications in RF communications. The proposed approach is expected to result in GaN films with low threading dislocation density, and with an appropriate choice of low microwave-loss substrate, several applications for RF communications are expected to become feasible.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High quality GaN films have significant application potential in optoelectronics, RF communications both in civilian and military markets. The deposition technology developed under this Phase I is generic and is expected to lead to significant market potential for Neocera developed GaN films.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
RF


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I O1.09-9383
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Space RF Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Production of Ultra-Low Defect GaN Films and Devices for High-Power Amplifiers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SVT Associates
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344-3677

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bentao Cui
bcui@svta.com
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie,  MN 55344-3677

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
High quality GaN epitaxial films are key to current efforts for development of both high-power/high-speed electronic devices and optoelectronic devices. In fact, solid state lighting, high-temperature and high-power electronics, microelectronic and mechanical sensors, and high-efficiency solar cells are all poised at a new level of development. This enormous market is waiting for low-cost, high quality substrates to achieve performance and fabrication economies of scale. This NASA SBIR phase I project addresses the development of a dislocation filter that can routinely prepare low-stress GaN thin films with threading dislocation densities below 1E7 cm-2. The method relies on using a low-angle ion beam to induce both nanofilter for defect reductions and to inhibit droplet formation at low growth temperatures. Dislocation densities have so far been determined by standard etch pit densities method. The goal the project to optimize the defect nanofilter to reduce the TD to less than 1E6 cm-2. To obtain a more practical evaluation of the effectiveness and commercial viability of the method, heterojunction field effect transistors with high electron mobility will be fabricated in these ultra-low defect density films. These high-quality material based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) will enable high linearity power amplifiers with excellent thermal stability and frequency response. A plus would be if these were compatible with the mature silicon technology that is already in place. The new method to fabricate GaN-based high-performance devices on low defect substrates would be scalable to large area wafers, allowing the technology to be economical. The proposed method to grow on low-stress, low-dislocation density films will lead to the production of electronic devices of unparalleled performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High speed and high power amplifiers, radiation-hard and ultra-low noise amplifiers, HEMT devices for radar and range finding, collision avoidance, and digital transmission, UV photo detectors for free-space optical communications, astrophysics, and biological agent detection, flame detection, and missile launch monitoring.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
HEMT device for RF and microwave mobile wireless communications. Blue lasers, high brightness visible LEDs, UV detectors for chemical and biological agent spectroscopy and threat detection, ozone detection and environmental monitoring.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Laser
RF
Microwave/Submillimeter
Optical
Photonics
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Optical & Photonic Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Photovoltaic Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I O1.09-9627
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Space RF Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: MMIC for High-Efficiency Ka-BAnd GaN Power Amplifiers (2007043)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hittite Microwave Corporation
20 Alpha Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824-3596

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Belinda Piernas
piernas@hittite.com
20 Alpha Road
Chelmsford ,  MA 01824-4123

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal addresses the need for high-efficiency, high-output power amplifiers operating in the Ka-band frequencies. For space communications, the power amplifier in the transmitter consumes the most prime power and impacts the size of the payload package as well as the size of the power source. The proposed program is aimed at increasing the available output power up to 5 watts with a power-added efficiency of the final stage greater than 50%. The primary device technology selected for these amplifier designs is the Gallium-Nitride (GaN) PHEMT (Pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor) technology. This technology offers high power density, potential high frequency of operation, and excellent thermal characteristic. The primary objective of this Phase 1 SBIR is to establish the feasibility and preliminary simulation of two Ka-band high-efficiency, high-power amplifiers (HPAs) operating in the frequency range of 26 – 32 GHz and 32 – 38 GHz respectively. Optimum topology and class of operation of the amplifiers will be investigated. Hittite's efforts also include assessment of the technology and the status of development of GaN processes offered by a number of GaN foundries. The HPA MMICs will be fabricated and fully characterized as part of the Phase 2 effort of this program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Power amplifiers are critical components in all communications and radar transmitters. Improved power output and power-added efficiency will aid performance of transmitters and reduce the size of the payload. Such power amplifiers will be found useful in all space-borne platforms with limited allocation for size and weight for component parts. The end product of the proposed program, therefore, will have applications in space-borne transponders, earth and space exploration radars, radio-frequency spectrometers, radiometers, and others.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Gallium Nitride (GaN) devices offer higher power output, higher efficiency, and tolerance to higher temperatures. Amplifiers made of GaN devices will ultimately replace amplifiers made of GaAs devices used in many commercial communication systems. Those systems include: wireless infrastructure, satellite ground terminals, point-to-point radios, etc. The projected number of terminals for those systems adds up to millions, representing a large market comparable to cellular and personal communication systems bands.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
RF
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I O1.10-8605
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface Networks and Orbit Access Links
PROPOSAL TITLE: V-Band Wireless Surface Networks

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Epsilon Lambda Electronics Corporation
396 Fenton Lane, Suite 601
West Chicago, IL 60185-2687

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Knox
bobk@epsilonlambda.com
396 Fenton Lane, Suite 601
West Chicago,  IL 60185-2687

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA GLENN RESEARCH CENTER in Topic O1.10 has identified the need to provide surface communications networks for human and robotic missions to explore the Moon and Mars. The network nodes will be located at fixed sites, as well as on robotic vehicles and on humans that are moving about on the surface. The purpose is for relatively short range, but highly reliable, support of bi-directional voice, video and data services. Such nodes will be attached to sensors, other devices, Rover robots, access network terminals and humans. The requirement for low cost means that the hardware should leverage available and emerging commercial off-the-shelf technology (COTS) to the extent possible. The work completed under topic O1.10 is intended to be compatible and integrated with results from other topics. Understanding that this topic includes requirements for the integration of a number of communication and networking technologies, proposed herein is a self-healing, ad hoc, disruption tolerant network, including protocols for intelligent, autonomous link management and reliability. For purposes of the Phase I demonstration, the wireless network will operate at 60 GHz, and utilize emerging commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technology for cost minimization.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Since the band around 60 GHz has already been authorized by the FCC and other international spectrum regulatory bodies for unlicensed operation, the potential market is huge, even beyond the application listed in this topic. All manner of short to medium range secure communications may be enhanced with this technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Many applications exist for such a network system in the commercial, industrial markets. An example of this use is in a large office where personal computers in various cubicles are networked via a wireless link to a hard-wired node in the ceiling of the room. Each computer would have a node with direct wireless link to the ceiling node. The computers can be moved about as needed with no need for hard wiring. A similar situation applies to a manufacturing factory room where various machines have a node connected via wireless link to a node in the ceiling. This allows control inputs or data outputs from theses machines to be connected in real time to a central operational control station for the company. Many possible outdoor applications for such a network also exist replacing other wireless systems that are bandwidth limited. Examples include networks of sensors, communication among teams of explorers, researchers, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
RF
Microwave/Submillimeter


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I O1.10-9476
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface Networks and Orbit Access Links
PROPOSAL TITLE: SELENE - Self-Forming Extensible Lunar EVA Network

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scientific Systems Company, Inc.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801-6503

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joao Cabrera
cabrera@ssci.com
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn,  MA 01801-6503

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The overall objective of this research effort (Phase I and Phase II) by Scientific Systems Company, Inc. and BBN Technologies is to develop the SELENE network -- SELf-forming Extensible luNar EVA network -- for specific usage in the Human Lunar Outpost. Phase I will investigate a hybrid scheme combining Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs) and Disruption Tolerant Networks (DTNs) for networking EVA radios in the Human Lunar Outpost, study the performance of SELENE under various levels of disruption and load, and develop a prototype convergence layer adapter plug-in for an EVA radio. The SELENE effort will leverage DARPA's Survivable Policy-Influenced Networking: Disruption Tolerance through Learning and Evolution (SPINDLE) program led by BBN Technologies (BBN), which addressed DTNs from the DoD viewpoint. As a part of our research team, BBN will provide expertise in DTNs and MANETs and support the usage of their software for performance evaluation of DTNs. The SELENE effort will investigate problems which are specific to the lunar environment, such as the existence of scheduled, on-demand and predictive adjacencies among nodes, and the need for hybrid schemes which work well under all levels of disruption, combining MANET and DTN technologies in a seamless fashion.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
SELENE represents a solution for the problem of providing continuous interoperable communications for the Human Lunar Outpost achieving the highest levels of reliability and robustness in extremely sparse network topologies and harsh environments of rough terrains, extreme temperatures (-155 to 100 degrees Celsius), radiation exposure, dust storms, and other interferences. Generally, DTN technology is also applicable to other NASA programs as well, such as those supporting robotic networked vehicles for planetary exploration, and deep space communications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
DTN technology is applicable in several other areas: (1) Defense: There are several networking operations within the sphere of DoD (challenged networks) which require DTN technologies. (2) Public safety (Fire, Police, Search and Rescue, Hazardous environments): Personnel can move into/out of range of network while still collecting data/reporting back, all of which will be transmitted to destination as they come into range. (3) Condition-based maintenance: Data can be collected and commands sent continuously and in automated fashion from sensors in remote/hazardous areas. (4) Wildlife tracking: Wildlife can be outfitted with sensors that report whenever they are in range. (5) Traffic congestion management: Fleet vehicles on fixed routes can report traffic congestion to other vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Architectures and Networks
Computer System Architectures
Manned-Manuvering Units
Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I O2.01-9551
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optical Tracking and Image Analysis
PROPOSAL TITLE: Spectral Imaging Visualization and Tracking System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yunlu Zou
sutama@poc.com
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance,  CA 90501-1821

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To address the NASA Earth Observation Mission need for innovative optical tracking systems, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Spectral Imaging Visualization And Tracking (SPIVAT) system, based on hyperspectral/multispectral imaging with enhanced image contrast for optimized target visualization and tracking in day and night under all weather conditions. This approach incorporates the first-time use of spectral image fusion for enhanced real-time target detection and a unique video tracking using a simple common-aperture imaging optics design to avoid the image registration problem of separate aperture systems. This innovative combination enables us to meet NASA requirements for reliability, safety, and affordability by using COTS components with real-time tracking algorithms. The system offers high-contrast visualization and real-time target tracking using ground UAV or balloon platforms for NASA vehicle launch and landing operations. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the SPIVAT system device by computer simulation and preliminary laboratory experiments, which will demonstrate TRL-level 4 by the end of Phase I. In Phase II POC plans to develop a fully functional prototype and demonstrate hyperspectral/multispectral imaging visualization and tracking capability for NASA vehicle launch and landing operations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
SPIVAT technology will provide new capabilities for NASA such as improved visualization and tracking of vehicles during launch and landing in day/night under all weather conditions, with greatly extended capability provided by digital image fusion and video tracking. It will set a new high standard of safety, reliability, and affordability for NASA space transportation in Space Operations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SPIVAT technology can be directly applied to air traffic control, law enforcement, security, search and rescue, fire fighting, hunting, and the automotive industry due to its superior visualization and tracking capability.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Teleoperation
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Pilot Support Systems
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I O2.01-9731
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optical Tracking and Image Analysis
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hyperspectral Imager - Tracker

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Light Prescriptions Innovators, LLC
2400 Lincoln Avenue
Altadena, CA 91001-5436

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ilya Agurok
iagurok@lpi-llc.us
2400 North Lincoln
Altadena,  CA 91001-5436

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To address the NASA need for innovative optical technique for visualization and tracking of space vehicles during launch and landing operations, Light Prescriptions Innovators, LLC proposes to develop a Hyperspectral Imager - Tracker. The Hyperspectral Imager - Tracker architecture is based on an innovative and only recently developed concept in imaging optics. This innovative architecture will give the LPI Hyperspectral Imager - Tracker the possibility of simultaneously collecting the spectral band images (hyperspectral cube) to operate with high light-gathering power and high magnification. The innovative Adaptive Spectral Filtering algorithms will efficiently increase the contrast of low contrast scenes. In phase I LPI will analyze the device design for its spectral filtering and imaging efficiency and assemble and test a proof-of-concept prototype to demonstrate feasibility. In Phase II a full scale engineering prototype will be developed and tested.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications include an innovative optical imager - tracker for space vehicle tracking and in flight inspection during the launch and landing operations, as well as an innovative hyperspectral imager for earth observation from space in a number of civilian and academic programs

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA applications include advanced hyperspectral imagers for detection and visualization of camouflaged targets for Department of Defense applications. Such hyperscopes can be used by the Coast Guard, Border Patrol, Law Enforcement and other departments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I O2.02-9942
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Transportation Propulsion System and Test Facility Requirements and Instrumentation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Intelligent Flamefinder Detection and Alert System (IFDAS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
International Electronic Machines Corporation (IEM)
60 Fourth Avenue
Albany, NY 12202-1924

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ryk Spoor
rspoor@iem.net
60 Fourth Avenue
Albany,  NY 12202-1924

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA test and launch facilities, such as those at Stennis, Marshall, and other locations, require large amounts of hydrogen as a primary rocket fuel; hydrogen is also of growing interest in the private sector. Unfortunately, hydrogen burns with an essentially invisible flame, making detection of hydrogen fires difficult. Current methods of detecting hydrogen leaks and fires are limited in a number of ways; video-based methods (IR and otherwise) are promising, but can be seriously misled by reflections and currently require human operators (increasing expense and leading to problems of attentiveness). To address these and other challenges, IEM proposes to create the Intelligent Flamefinder<SUP>TM</SUP> Detection and Alert System (IFDAS). Drawing on smart video analysis and other smart sensor work for NASA, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, the Department of Transportation, the U.S. Navy, and others, and building on an exclusive license of patented NASA technology, IEM will create a smart hydrogen fire detection system which will reliably detect even small (less than 3") flames, ignore false signals from reflections of flames, the sun, or other heat/light sources, accurately determine the location of the flames, and automatically alert the appropriate individuals or systems of the existence, extent, and location of the fire, without the need for human operators or intervention prior to the alert. IFDAS will also be able to interface with current sensing systems and integrate their data to provide a comprehensive overview of the situation using all available data. The individual units will be compact, low-power, and rugged, for use indoors or outdoors, and be applicable for uses in NASA, the military, and commercial enterprises involving hydrogen or other flammable materials which have difficult-to-detect flames.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The obvious major NASA application is for safety monitoring at the test/launch facilities such as Stennis, Marshall, Kennedy, and so on. IFDAS will provide full, reliable coverage of all potential trouble spots and give immediate accurate, localized alerts if action is needed. As the system will be integrated with current systems and be based on smart video technologies, IFDAS could also provide an additional layer of security monitoring and be expanded to monitor other safety-related events and actions as well. Any installation which uses other flammables which burn with colorless, difficult-to-detect flames (such as many alcohols, and natural gas in daylight) could also make use of IFDAS.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Interest in hydrogen as an energy carrier/fuel is increasing and expected to create a growing hydrogen infrastructure in the private/military sector. IFDAS would also be of considerable value to virtually any industrial or commercial concern that involves itself with large quantities of flammable materials, especially alcohols or natural gas which – like hydrogen – can burn with nearly invisible flames. Accordingly, IEM sees a considerable market for IFDAS in the industrial and commercial sector, which means many hundreds to thousands of sites with multiple unit installations, for tens or even hundreds of millions of dollars in potential sales. Spinoffs or derivatives from IFDAS – handheld systems or miniature systems integrated into helmets – would be extremely valuable to first responders, especially firefighters, who are required by their jobs to approach areas where fires are highly probable; in daylight conditions, this means that natural gas or alcohol fires may pose an invisible and lethal threat; standard infrared cameras can detect such flames, but are far too expensive for many department's budgets. These are large niche markets; in 2000, there were approximately 258,000 paid career firefighters in the USA, meaning that even a very small penetration in this market would be worth several million dollars.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Facilities
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Computer System Architectures
Expert Systems
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I O2.02-9994
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Transportation Propulsion System and Test Facility Requirements and Instrumentation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Sensor Area Network for Integrated Systems Health Management

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mobitrum Corporation
8070 Georgia Avenue, Suite 209
Silver Spring, MD 20910-4973

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ray Wang
ray_wang@mobitrum.com
8070 Georgia Avenue, Suite 209
Silver Spring,  MD 20910-4973

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The term Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is used to describe a capability that focuses on determining the condition of every element in a complex System (detect anomalies, diagnose causes, prognosis of future anomalies) to provide data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) to control systems for safe and effective operation. ISHM capability is achieved by integrating data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) that might be distributed throughout the system elements (which inherently implies capability to manage DIaK associated with distributed sub-systems). DIaK must be available to any element of a system at the right time and within the proper context. ISHM capability is measured by how well a system performs the following functions: Detect anomalies; Diagnose causes; Predict future anomalies/failures; and Provide the user with an integrated awareness about the condition of every element in the system and guide user decisions. Mobitrum proposes to develop a Sensor Area Network (SAN) for ISHM to bring the distributed intelligences together across all elements within ISHM system with effective communication mechanisms using distributed and/or hierarchical architectures to deliver intelligence across all elements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Ground testing of propulsion systems is a critical requirement to enable NASA's New Vision for space exploration. The proposed sensor area network technology will enable a cost effective remote testing and health monitoring through shared sensor networks. Mobitrum anticipates the following applications that NASA will benefit from the proposed technology: 1) Data analysis, processing, and visualization for Space Exploration and Earth Science observations, 2) Rocket engine test, 3) Remote test facility management, 4) Field communications device for spatial data input, manipulation and distribution, 5) Sensor, measurement, and field verification applications, 6) RFID for identification and tracking, 7) Condition-aware applications, 8) Location-aware applications, 9) Biometric identification applications, 10) Data collaboration and distribution applications, 11) Wireless instrumentation for robotic manipulation and positioning for audio and visual capture, and real-time multimedia representation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The sensor area network (SAN) will have tremendous potential for commercial market. Specifically, SAN has great applications in the automotive industry. It would be the dominating system for in-vehicle networks if it could be made compact in size and economical to deploy. The proposed Sensor Area Network may apply to one of the following applications: 1) In-vehicle network - SAN could be used to network drive train electronic control units (ECU) and communication systems for body electronics; 2) Aircraft and aerospace electronics – SAN could be a backbone network in aircrafts for flight state sensors, navigation systems and research PCs driving displays installed in the cockpit; 3) Home control – SAN could be a sensor network for Internet-based home utility control; 4) Energy management for cost saving – SAN is an idea platform to integrate various sensors for energy management; 5) Security; 6) Safety; 7) Utility; and 8) Building automation systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Human-Robotic Interfaces
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Intelligence
Mobility
Manipulation
Perception/Sensing
Teleoperation
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Training Concepts and Architectures
Testing Facilities
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
RF
Fluid Storage and Handling
Instrumentation
Production
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Computer System Architectures
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Database Development and Interfacing
Expert Systems
Human-Computer Interfaces
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Portable Life Support
Suits
Tools
General Public Outreach
K-12 Outreach
Mission Training
Highly-Reconfigurable


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I O2.03-8968
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automated Collection and Transfer of Launch Range Surveillance/Intrusion Data
PROPOSAL TITLE: Persistant Launch Range Surveillance

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
PERCEPTEK
12395 N. Mead Way
Littleton, CO 80125-9782

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chuck Carpenter
chuck.carpenter@perceptek-robotics.com
12395 North Mead Way
Littleton,  CO 80125-9782

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Launch site infrastructure and space vehicle assets represent multi-billion dollar investments that must be protected. Additionally, personnel and equipment must be protected against the hazards of launch operations. PercepTek's approach to the launch site surveillance and security problem will enable multiple platforms and sensing modalities to support detection, classification, tracking, and unmanned system response. Our comprehensive system approach to launch site surveillance and security provides support for heterogeneous assets involved in security functions with a focus on the Aerostat platform. An Aerostat platform will be outfitted with GMTI radar to provide wide area coverage and an EO/IR sensor pod for high resolution video detection and tracking. Phase I will result in a detailed set of design reference scenarios tailored to the surveillance and security problem, identification of system level elements necessary to address the needs of launch site security, a system architecture design based on the Autonomous Collaborative Operations autonomy architecture, and a feasibility demonstration of key technology components that would be installed on an Aerostat platform. Phase II will result in a fieldable prototype surveillance and security system utilizing an outfitted Aerostat platform. At the completion of the Phase I activities, component technologies with be at a TRL-4 level.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Almost all other NASA facilities contain sensitive areas requiring persistent surveillance and security response capabilities. The proposed system is readily tailored to adapt surveillance assets as a function of specific site needs. This is accomplished by conducting a brief site survey of the facility to identify specific configurations that may be applied. The plug and play nature of the architecture then makes any expansion of the system to include additional sensor types straightforward.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The military have long used surveillance devices in the form of optical, thermal, magnetic, acoustic, seismic, radio, and radar technology to obtain information and to provide security. However, to date a person is required to be in the surveillance loop since robust, automated detection, tracking, and activity recognition of humans with visual sensors has not yet been achieved. This is particularly unacceptable in military scenarios where the only people available to interact with the surveillance system are often occupied with other critical tasks. As a result, there is a clear need for the truly automated, robust surveillance system proposed by PercepTek. Our system can provide soldiers with more complete situational awareness and allow them to perform their other activities with increased safety.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Perception/Sensing


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I O3.01-9652
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Health and Safety Including Medical Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electronic Procedures for Medical Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
S&K Aerospace
63066 Old Hwy 93
St Ignatius, MT 59865-9008

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mary Hudson
mhudson@ska-corp.com
201 Flint Ridge Plaza, Ste 102
Webster,  TX 77598-4363

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose an alternative to using Microsoft Word for representing medical procedures that will make the procedures easier to construct and maintain, particularly when there are changes to the hardware or changes to the resulting format of the procedure. We call this alternative an "electronic procedure". Rather than a text-based document, this content-based document separates the text from the formatting standards and tags items contained in the procedure so that they can be recognized by other electronic systems. If a standard format changes, a reference to that format is updated. The electronic procedures can be re-converted in a single batch process, and the entire body of procedures will have the new format. Changes to hardware can be made in a similar manner, where changing a piece of hardware in a procedure will change all references to it in that procedure. Switching to this new representation offers many short and long-term benefits, which we describe herein. We have already demonstrated the use of electronic procedures for modeling ISS operational procedures (and in modeling one ISS medical procedure). We hope to extend this work into the medical operations field so we can demonstrate how medical procedures can benefit from this technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Electronic Procedure for Medical Operations will provide significant benefits to the Life Sciences division and space vehicle crews. The proposed technologies will provide significant new functionality to the medical operations at a reasonable cost in time and manpower. Electronic procedures will enable the programs to improve the comprehension and delivery of medical procedures to the flight medical officers and the crew, and will enable a greater degree of coordination with the flight surgeons and biomedical engineers on the ground. Finally, electronic procedures will open the door to potentially groundbreaking applications in the future, leading eventually to a complete automated medical decision support system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Electronic Procedures for Medical Operations provide a long-term potential that is enormous. Currently health care accounts for a significant fraction of the gross domestic product of the USA. In the short term, it is extremely difficult and costly to overcome the regulatory hurdles necessary to introduce a new product into the health care market. Furthermore, some of the technology that is being proposed here is very advanced and requires significant innovation and development before it will be ready for market. On the other hand, in the long term, it is very difficult to see the current US health care situation continuing without change for many more decades, and technology is proceeding. S&K Aerospace can clearly see that Electronic Procedures for Medical Operations has a potential to make an impact in a multi-billion dollar market.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Human-Computer Interfaces


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I O3.02-8769
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-helmet Speech Audio Systems and Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microphone Array Signal Processing and Active Noise Control for the In-Helmet Speech Communication

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
WEVOICE, Inc.
9 Sylvan Drive
Bridgewater, NJ 08807-2235

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Yiteng (Arden) Huang
ardenhuang@gmail.com
9 Sylvan Dr.
Bridgewater,  NJ 08807-2235

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Widely varying working conditions of a space shuttle and the special design of an astronaut's spacesuit form an extreme acoustic environment that imposes unique challenges for capturing and transmitting speech communications to and from a crewmember. NASA has a serious unmet need for innovative voice communication systems and technologies, which provide enhanced speech intelligibility and quality, comfort and ease of use, and adequate hearing protection. This project will build on knowledge and recent breakthroughs produced by painstaking research at Bell Labs and WeVoice, Inc., in acoustic and speech signal processing for hands-free communications. It brings together the state-of-the-art and patent-pending techniques in microphone arrays, speech enhancement, and active noise control, and proposes an integrated, more reliable solution for combating high-level noise and strong reverberation. This proof-of-feasibility research will focus primarily on whether the proposed techniques that were previously developed for applications in room acoustic environments can perform as well as or better than we expect in an in-helmet acoustic environment. In addition, this research will use informal listening tests to demonstrate performance improvement and will design a subjective program that can be readily executed in Phase II to rigorously evaluate the overall system performance. The Phase I effort will provide a foundation for prototype design to be conducted in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed novel, high performance voice communication technologies and system will be passed on to the astronauts for their use in every NASA flight mission. They will sure benefit from having a clear and reliable voice communication channel to talk to their partners and the mission control center.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The research will lead to the commercialization of two possible products/services: 1) voice communication devices working in adverse acoustic environments (e.g., those for pilots in a cockpit of an airplane, for soldiers in a combating vehicle, and for athletics in a race car.); and 2) more noise and reverberation resistant voice communication services for hearing-impaired and elderly people.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Human-Computer Interfaces


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I O3.03-9063
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vehicle Integration and Ground Processing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Self Healing Ultrahydrophobic Coatings for Corrosion Protection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luna Innovations Incorporated
1703 South Jefferson Street SW, Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016-4909

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shi-Hau Own
submissions302@lunainnovations.com
1703 South Jefferson Street SW Suite 400
Roanoke,  VA 24016-4909

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The total annual corrosion related costs in the US has been estimated at greater than $300 billion. Much of these costs are associated with scraping and repainting of metals such as steel structures in the NASA launch platform and related support equipment. Because of the staggering costs stemming from corrosion of steel infrastructure, there is a tremendous need to develop intelligent coatings that can perform numerous functions above those historically demanded of coatings. Luna is addressing the need to enhance the service life of NASA vehicles and equipment through a multifunctional coating system. This research program will develop robust, inexpensive coatings that are i) ultrahydrophobic as a first line of defense to repel water absorption and ii) self healing to replenish coating integrity after damage to yield long term corrosion resistance. The technology developed on this program will decrease life cycle costs, reduce maintenance, and increase readiness by limiting equipment down-time.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology developed on this program is relevant to any painted metal structures within the NASA program including buildings, vehicles, launch platform, etc. This novel paint system will reduce corrosion related costs, and increase the lifetime of NASA vehicles and support equipment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This proposed research is part of an overall larger effort and fits well into the strategic focus of Luna. The ability to form self healing ultrahydrophobic coatings on selected surfaces will have a huge effect on military and commercial applications such as anti-corrosion, chemical and biological warfare defense, marine vessels, and automotive applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Metallics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 07-I O3.04-8775
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mission Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ground Enterprise Management System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: