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NASA 2004 SBIR Phase 2 Solicitation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II A1.01-9516
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNL05AB02P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Systems Technologies for Improved Aviation Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Three-Dimensional Cockpit Display System for Improved Situational Awareness

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Optics Corporation, EP Division
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance,CA 90501-1821

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ranjit Pradhan
sutama@poc.com
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance,CA 90501-1821

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a 3D cockpit display (3D-COD) system for improved pilot situational awareness and safety in 3D airspace by overcoming the inherent limitations of 2D information presentation. The proposed display will be automultiscopic and will be based on a projector, a stationary holographic optical element screen integrated with a high-speed electro-optical scanner and high-speed electronics with a software interface to NASA systems. This minimum 8-in. diagonal drop-down head-up display with no moving parts will present six or more perspective views to air crew members, forming integrated virtual volumetric 3D images viewable over a 60 degree horizontal field of view. In Phase I POC designed a laboratory prototype and successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed system by assembling a single-user monochrome 3D-COD prototype. In Phase II POC will further develop the true 3D display technology and construct a fully functional system that will project distortion-free, 400-600 lumen, full-color, virtual volumetric 3D images at a 30-60 Hz video rate for real-time user interaction with the images, each from his or her own perspective.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The crew-centered 3D-COD system will find applications in NASA Synthetic Vision Systems to significantly enhance air safety through improved pilot situational awareness by information presentation in 3D. This system will benefit air traffic control, simulation, training, 3D design, and multicraft airspace image displays.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The 3D-COD technology has huge commercial potential, and will find applications in engineering development and entertainment, and particularly in theme parks, museums, and educational institutions. Niche applications include visual tools for medicine, and for design and development of complex machinery and systems.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II A1.01-9734
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNL05AB05P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Systems Technologies for Improved Aviation Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Distributed Command/Control Impacts on NAS Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Metron Aviation, Inc.
131 Elden Street, Suite 200
Herndon,VA 20170-4758

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Terry Thompson
thompson@metronaviation.com
131 Elden Street, Suite 200
Herndon,VA 20170-5422

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In an effort to cope with air traffic demand growths and changing demand patterns, FAA, NASA, and industry have developed a number of simulation tools to model future concepts of air traffic management. Among these is the Systems Analysis Branch (SAB) simulation environment of NASA Langley. The current tools would greatly benefit from the portrayal of the daily preemptive Command and Control (C&C) activities performed by FAA and air carrier traffic managers. These actions significantly influence daily operations and overall NAS efficiency. Development of new operational concepts and evaluation of proposed changes requires simulation and modeling capabilities that include C&C effects. This understanding is crucial for the evaluation of current or proposed operations. Metron Aviation uses its extensive experience with and research of C&C to implement a model of NAS-wide ATM (C&C) actions and to integrate the resulting module into NASA Langley's SAB simulation environment. The final product adds realism to future aircraft movement simulations performed by NASA Langley and admits exploration of new concepts that involve air traffic flow management.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Understanding of the system-wide impacts of NAS C&C is lacking in both operational practice and current research. This understanding is crucial for the evaluation of current or proposed operations. Currently, NASA programs such as Next-Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS/JPDO), Small Aircraft Transportation Systems (SATS), Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts, Virtual Airspace Modeling and Simulation (VAMS), and All-weather Capacity Enhancement NASA Research Announcement (NRA) are developing system concepts to meet increasing air traffic demand, reduce delays, and improve safety/security. Realistic NAS-wide simulations, including C&C, are required to assess emerging operational concepts and technologies, since they all assume some component of human-mediated C&C. Omitting this from the simulations risks missing important system behaviors that must be included in the development of the operational concepts and technologies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Estimates of ATM costs due to delays range from hundreds of millions to billions of dollars per year. Several research activities being pursued to meet the increasing demands in air travel promise to be costly and laborious to implement, and the difficulty of adequately assessing the anticipated impacts creates significant risk for operators and users of the NAS. Development of simulation capabilities and benefit assessment methods that include the effects of C&C creates significant commercial demand for accurate and robust C&C modeling capabilities.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II A1.01-9778
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNL05AB07P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Systems Technologies for Improved Aviation Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: An IntegratedTurbulence Hazard Decision Aid for the Cockpit

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerotech Research
11836 Fishing Point Drive, Suite 200
Newport News,VA 23606-4507

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Robinson
paulrobinson@atr-usa.com
11836 Fishing Point Drive, Suite 200
Newport News,VA 23606-4507

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aircraft encounters with turbulence are the leading cause of injuries in the airline industry and result in significant human, operational, and maintenance costs to the airline community each year. A large contributor to the above injuries and costs is that flight crews do not have sufficient situational awareness of the location and severity of potential turbulence hazards to their aircraft. AeroTech will improve pilots' situational awareness of turbulence hazards by developing a cockpit Turbulence Hazard Decision Aid that provides them with integrated, graphical turbulence hazard information scaled to their specific aircraft. This display will remove the need for inference that is required to interpret current turbulence information. With better knowledge of turbulence hazards' severity and location, pilots will be able to avoid turbulence encounters or prepare for them by having all occupants seated with seatbelts on, thereby avoiding injuries. Phase II work will develop a prototype decision aid, based on the Phase I CONOPS and results, and then evaluate the prototype in both a PC simulation and a flight simulator. By the end of Phase II a meaningful, Integrated Turbulence Hazard Decision Aid will be developed and tested, paving the way for flight evaluations and commercialization in Phase III.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
When the goals of the proposed R/R&D are met, this cockpit, Integrated Turbulence Hazard Decision Aid will contribute to NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program's (AvSSP) current national goals of a 25-50% reduction in weather-related accident causal factors and a 25 to 50% reduction in turbulence-related injuries. This work and the developed decision aid will be completely aligned with NASA's Turbulence Prediction and Warning System efforts, and NASA's Aviation Weather Information goal of enabling pilots to avoid atmospheric hazards by providing them timely, accurate, and intuitive weather information. It is also very consistent with the stated goals of the Integrated Flight deck Information Systems element of the Phase II AvSSP. Increased awareness of atmospheric turbulence provided by the decision aid may also add value to the NASA Airspace Systems program's goals of enabling "through technology development and transfer, major increases in the capacity and mobility of the air transportation system."

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
When the goals of the proposed R/R&D are met, this cockpit Turbulence Hazard Decision Aid will provide pilots with improved turbulence hazard information allowing them to operate more efficiently and safely. Significant reductions in costs associated with injuries due to turbulence and in fuel waste due to inefficient operations in and around turbulence are expected to be major commercial drivers for this system. The market for this decision aid is all Part 121 carriers (both domestic and international), cargo aircraft, corporate jets, and some high-end general aviation aircraft (an estimated 55,000+ Part 121 and corporate aircraft alone by 2023). Delta Air Lines was instrumental in the Phase I work and is supporting the Phase II work with evaluation pilots and flight simulators. Delta is "very interested in seeing the Integrated Turbulence Hazard Decision Aid developed to fruition" and could be a very strong advocate for the technology in Phase III.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II A1.02-7647
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNC05CA31C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation Safety and Security: Fire, Icing and Propulsion-Safe and Secure CNS Aircraft Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Alternative Ice Protection System for Turbine Engine Inlets

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cox and Company, Inc.
200 Varick Street
New York,NY 10014-4875

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kamel Al-Khalil
kkhalil@coxandco.com
200 Varick Street
New York,NY 10014-4875

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovation combines a new generation low power ice protection system with a novel path to certification that is based upon requirements that turbine engines be capable of operation in a hail environment. Eliminated are requirements for high voltages and currents characteristic of all previous impulsive or expulsive deicing systems. It is postulated that if the engine can operate safely in the hail environment as defined by the FARs, then it can be expected to operate safely and economically in the presence of particles shed by the deicer which are demonstrably smaller and less hazardous than hail. Such a system presents a viable alternative to the use of hot air ice protection systems, and will require a two magnitude lower power.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The system proposed is a viable alternative to bleed air ice protection for engine inlets. The number of NASA applications is not so large as the number of commercial applications. However, NASA has a national objective an overall improvement in the safety of aircraft operation. Protection of aircraft from exposure to icing environment is included in that charter. One of the most important trades involved in the development of icing conditions is between energy and icing performance. This trade has been shown that it can be addressed by the use of low power ice protection systems on lifting surfaces. It remains to apply these principles to engine inlets. This is the commercial promise of this system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The market for electric powered ice protection is confirmed as a result of recent decisions by major aircraft manufacturers. Clearly, the movement to replace conventional bleed air ice protection for lifting surfaces is well underway. Even though the new electro-thermal de-icing systems present improvements in efficiencies of operation, the requirement still exists for use of anti-icing systems on the engine inlets. The substitution of de-icing systems for anti-icing on engine inlets offers an opportunity for another order of magnitude improvement in the power required to protect engine inlets. This is possible by the use of a mechanical de-icing system that repeatedly sheds ice particles that are small in comparison to the FAR hail and rain environments to which the engine is qualified. The use of a de-icing system as a means of protecting not only lifting and stabilizing surfaces but engine inlets as well will result in overall operating efficiencies beyond any improvement offered to date.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II A1.02-8077
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNC05CA54C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation Safety and Security: Fire, Icing and Propulsion-Safe and Secure CNS Aircraft Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Radiometer For Cloud Liquid Water and Aircraft Icing Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Radiometrics Corporation
2840 Wilderness Place, Unit G
Boulder,CO 80301-5414

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
f solheim
solheim@radiometrics.com
2840 Wilderness Place, Unit G
Boulder,CO 80301-5414

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aircraft icing continues to be one of the major safety and operational concerns of the FAA, elements of the military, and the foreign military and civilian counterparts. Attempts to develop methods to directly detect aircraft icing meteorological conditions have met with mixed success. Combining ground-based microwave radiometers with radars has shown great promise, but deficiencies of the radiometers have limited their value. In our Phase I effort we have determined solutions to several technical challenges in the design of a narrow beam multi-waveband radiometer that is to operate in concert with weather radars. We have also calculated optimum eigenfrequencies for detection of aircraft icing conditions. In Phase II we will construct a turnkey fast sampling multifrequency profiling and dual polarization narrow beam radiometer system. In this radiometer system, all beams are collinear and match the antenna gain pattern of weather research radars. The radiometer will have the capability of profiling (ranging) water vapor along the beam as well as discriminate ice and water phase hydrometeors. We will also develop a fast beam steering system to operate in concert with the radar. The turnkey radiometer system and documentation are deliverables.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is actively researching methods of detecting aircraft icing conditions, and has performed and participated in a number of aircraft icing studies with their Twin Otter, radiometers, radar, and other sensing systems. The technology proposed herein greatly enhances the value of the important radiometric observations by enabling measurements that match the sample volume of research radars at a number of radiometric frequencies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ground-based radiometric system developed herein, as well as being a valuable research tool, is to be operated with radars such as NEXRAD and Terminal Doppler Weather Radars (TDWRs) to detect and quantify cloud liquid water and ice in single- and mixed-phase conditions aloft. In addition to detecting icing conditions enroute and in approach regions, the system can forewarn and nowcast the need (or lack of need) to apply deicing solutions in advance of departure, creating savings and reducing delays. This quantification will also enhance weather nowcasting and predictive capabilities. This large aperture narrow beam radiometer design is also applicable to characterizing and quantifying satellite link loss due to atmospheric absorption, and Radiometrics has had several inquiries for such a design in wavebands from 8 to 32 GHz, demonstrating a commercial market for this application.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II A1.03-8285
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNL05AA81P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Improved Aviation Security
PROPOSAL TITLE: Real Time Monitoring and Test Vector Generation for Improved Flight Safety

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Barron Associates, Inc.
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville,VA 22901-2496

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alec Bateman
barron@bainet.com
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville,VA 22901-2559

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As the complexity of flight controllers grows so does the cost associated with verification and validation (V&V). Current-generation controllers are reaching levels of complexity that push the envelopes of existing V&V approaches, and further increases in controller complexity are required to provide the operational capabilities desired for next generation systems. Without improved approaches, there is little hope for affordable V&V of next-generation intelligent systems and, unfortunately, controller validation is required to ensure the safety of these systems. Barron Associates proposes an aggressive plan of research to develop monitoring algorithms that estimate, in real time, safety margins of complex feedback systems based on observed differences between the model used for controller development and actual flight data. The Phase II research will focus on the flight test environment where these algorithms will allow the flight test engineer to monitor and revise the test plan in real time - accelerating the test-matrix buildup when safety is assured and avoiding test points where safety is questionable. The tool will also recommend test points that could help refine safety margin estimates for as yet unexecuted maneuvers. The result will be reduced flight test costs and improved safety.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed software tool will be a key enabling technology for safe and efficient flight testing of any advanced air vehicle, manned or unmanned. The key area of application will be aviation safety and security, where the Phase II product will facilitate the safety of flight testing advanced fault-tolerant and damage-adaptive controllers for which design-time V&V assurances may be less complete than for traditional controllers (e.g., Lockheed's AIMSAFE as part of AvSP and Dryden's PCA system). In particular, the intended initial application of the tool will be for the AirSTAR sub-scale flying test-bed. The AirSTAR is intended to allow testing that is too high risk for manned aircraft, and effective safety monitoring is especially important in this high-risk environment. Flight tests involving NASA's full-scale 757 will also benefit from the technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA aerospace applications include flight testing of advanced military systems such as JSF, J-UCAS, retrofit reconfigurable controllers for F-18 and other aircraft, the Helicopter Advanced Control Technologies (HACT) system, and next-generation rotorcraft fuel and engine control systems. Barron Associates is currently providing advanced control and V&V technology to all of these programs. Significant commercial potential for the technology exists as well. Initial demonstration on AirSTAR will provide a foundation for using the tool in tests of commercial transport aircraft. An even larger potential market is in unmanned aerial vehicles. There are a large number of unmanned vehicles currently being developed for both military and civilian applications, and these vehicles frequently utilize advanced control systems that represent relatively high risk. Flight test programs of such vehicles could thus benefit substantially from the proposed software tool.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II A1.04-8553
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNA05BE07C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automated On-Line Health Management and Data Analysis
PROPOSAL TITLE: Data Analysis Algorithm Suitable for Structural Health Monitoring Based on Dust Network

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brilliant Technology, Inc.
1500 Woodward Court
Brentwood,TN 37027-8641

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kevin Tseng
Kevin.Tseng@tBrilliant.com
1500 Woodward Court
Brentwood,TN 37027-8641

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposed project will attempt to develop a data analysis system for structural health monitoring on space structures. The data analysis software will be a key component in space vehicle health management system and can be used to in vehicle life prediction. The sensor data analysis algorithm is aimed at providing a modeling and simulation tool for data collected from a network of distributed sensors. The sensor network can be implemented via the state-of-the-art technology of distributed wireless dust network. A novel algorithm combining measurement data from the sensors and the analytical model based on the concept of finite element analysis is proposed and the feasibility of the algorithm to detect structural damage will be tested in this project. The project focuses on integrating the new mesh sensor network technology into structural health monitoring. The data analysis system can monitor the performance of defective structural component in a space vehicle and issue proper warning for maintenance and repair. The concept has been tested feasible in Phase I. During Phase II, the algorithm will be further developed into a commercial software to be used for the structural integrity monitoring of many engineering applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed system can be used to monitor the integrity of a wide range of space structures. This system can be used to monitor the performance of metallic and non-metallic structural components and the space structural system. The structural health monitoring system will be a key component in space vehicle health management system and the data collected can be used to predict the remaining service life of the space structures. The system will be a valuable technology for the safety of future space exploration including manned and unmanned missions to the Moon, the Mars, and other long-rang space missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Since the proposed data analysis system is non-parametric meaning that the technology is not dependent on the geometry and material properties of the structures being monitored, the system can be used to monitor the structural integrity of one structural component, a sub-structural system, and the entire structural system. This technology can be applied to a very wide range of engineering applications. Examples of potential applications include automobiles, nuclear power-plant structures, and civil infrastructures such as the pipeline systems, bridges, and high-rise buildings. The system can be integrated into the vehicle health management system and life prediction system.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II A2.03-9221
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNC05CA29C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Revolutionary Technologies and Components for Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Temperature Smart Structures for Engine Noise Reduction and Performance Enhancement

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing,NJ 08618-2302

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Todd Quackenbush
todd@continuum-dynamics.com
34 Lexington Ave.
Ewing,NJ 08618-2302

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Noise mitigation for subsonic transports is a continuing high priority, and recent work has identified successful exhaust mixing enhancement devices (chevrons) that have demonstrated substantial capability for reducing aircraft engine noise in critical takeoff and landing conditions. Existing fixed-geometry chevrons, however, are inherently limited to optimal noise mitigation in a single operating condition and also can impose significant performance penalties in cruise flight. An adaptive geometry chevron using embedded smart structures technology offers the possibility of maximizing engine performance while retaining and possibly enhancing the favorable noise characteristics of current designs. Phase I identified a promising candidate for a variable geometry chevron using high force Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuators. Building on coupled CFD/finite element modeling predicting successful performance, subscale demonstration-level actuated chevrons were constructed that yielded the required deflections in both benchtop and low speed wind tunnel tests. Phase I also identified and tested new high temperature SMA (HTSMA) materials technology to enable the devices to operate in both low temperature (fan) and high temperature (core) exhaust flows. The proposed Phase II effort will continue development of this technology and demonstrate extension of this concept to operation at full-scale stiffness levels and at realistic dynamic pressure and temperature conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
By providing highly innovative concepts for propulsion system components for subsonic jet transports, the proposed effort will directly support a range of NASA goals, including flight demonstration of noise alleviation technologies. The chief technical output of the effort will be enabling technology, design data, and prototypes for a variable geometry devices to replace the promising but limited current generation of fixed-geometry chevrons. Extensions of this HTSMA device technology could also permit powerplant performance optimization for prospective high altitude long endurance aircraft, as well as broadly applicable methods for analysis and design of smart-materials-based propulsion flow control systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A successful Phase I/Phase II effort will open the door to prototype testing and eventual implementation of flight-qualified SMA adaptive chevron hardware. The most direct beneficiary would be next generation subsonic transports that could incorporate high-force, all-electric exhaust mixing control systems into power plants with an optimal balance of reduced noise and improved performance. Successful implementation in this application would also lead to spinoff developments in a number of actuation tasks, including aerodynamic controls and thrust vectoring for both civil and military applications such as high speed aircraft and missile systems.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II A2.04-8649
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNL05AA88P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Airframe Systems Noise Prediction and Reduction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid Prediction Method for Aircraft Interior Noise

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ESI US R&D
202 North Curry Street, Suite 100
Carson City,NV 89703-4121

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bryce Gardner
Bryce.Gardner@esi-group-na.com
202 North Curry Street, Suite 100
Carson City,NV 89703-4121

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of the project is research and development of methods for application of the Hybrid FE-SEA method to aircraft vibro-acoustic problems. This proposal discusses the development and application of new methods of structural-acoustic analysis in order to address existing problems in aircraft interior noise prediction. The proposed methods are based on a hybrid modeling strategy that combines Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA). Over the past five years, Vibro-Acoustic Sciences has devoted a considerable research effort towards the development of a framework for combining these two analysis methods. Recent research carried out by over the past two years has resulted in the development of a rigorous solution to this problem. The resulting Hybrid approach has been derived in general terms and validated for a number of simple structural-acoustic problems. However, the method has not yet been applied to aircraft interior noise prediction. A number of candidate aircraft interior noise problems have been identified which would benefit greatly from the use of the Hybrid method. The aims of the research described in this proposal are therefore: (i) to demonstrate the application of the Hybrid method to a number of existing aircraft interior noise problems, (ii) to develop the method to ensure it contains sufficient functionality to address practical aircraft interior noise problems and (iii) to demonstrate the value of the method in the prediction and reduction of noise in airframe systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
? Aircraft interior noise research ? Rotorcraft interior noise research ? Manned spacecraft and on-orbit habitability research (e.g. International Space Station) ? Spacecraft random vibration environment prediction ? Launch vehicle acoustic and vibration environment prediction ? On-orbit spacecraft vibration environment ? Random vibration analysis of large optical space science platforms

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
? Commercial aircraft acoustic design ? flight deck, crew workstations and passenger cabin(s) ? Commercial aircraft insulation, isolation and damping package weight management and optimization ? Commercial rotorcraft - flight deck safety and passenger comfort ? Automobile interior noise ? sound package treatments, structure-borne noise, boom noise, etc. ? Heavy equipment acoustic design ? Noise and vibration analysis of other transport vehicles ? railcars, ships, submarines, etc. ? Sonar detectability of submarines ? underwater noise radiation ? Consumer appliances in the home or office environment ? Architectural/construction acoustics and noise control applications ? Acoustic materials design and research ? Recreational vehicles ? noise prediction/reduction ? HVAC


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II A2.04-9386
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNL05AA99P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Airframe Systems Noise Prediction and Reduction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Acoustic Blankets for Improved Aircraft Interior Noise Reduction

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SMD Corporation
4821 Shippen Court
Virginia Beach,VA 23455-4734

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Curtis Mitchell
cmitchell@smdva.com
4821 Shippen Court
Virginia Beach,VA 23455-4734

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
The objective of the proposed Phase II research effort is to develop advanced composite blankets for improved sound reduction in aircraft structures. Phase I successfully demonstrated the use of advanced blankets for sound transmission suppression and the applicability of the technology to aircraft interior noise control perpetuating a license agreement with a major U.S. Fortune 100 company to aggressively and expeditiously pursue product commercialization. The highest performing advanced blanket resulted in ~5 dB reduction in radiated power from an aircraft test panel. Reductions are broadband with an effective frequency range from approximately 100 to 1000 Hz resulting in decreased vibration and radiated acoustic levels across this range. The small 6-10% weight has acoustic benefits far greater than standard mass law effects. In Phase II attachment, temperature, and installation effects will be studied. Additionally, analytical design tools will be developed to automate the design process for practicing engineers making it possible to work from basic concepts and application requirements/specifications to achieve a final product which can be readily manufactured. Together the proven design concepts of Phase I and those proposed in Phase II represent the future in aircraft insulation in terms of acoustic performance, cost, weight, airframe integration, and passenger safety.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
NASA applications for advanced aircraft blankets with improved low frequency sound transmission attenuation compliment all aircraft and aviation agenda. The commercial potential is extensive throughout the US commercial and military markets resulting in an immediate economic competitive advantage of the US aircraft industry worldwide. They are cost effective, compact, lightweight, configurations not only satisfying the latest toxicity and flammability requirements, but benefiting from minimal integration issues due to similarities in shape and form of current blanket systems. We will work closely with our team members of NEVA Associates, Boeing Aircraft Company and the relevant blanket product supplier to determine the application requirements and limitations and product manufacturing parameters respectively.


Potential applications include NASA's Airspace Systems Program and Vehicle Systems Program. Both would benefit from overall reduction in cabin noise levels in aircraft transport vehicles. Additional applications include space vehicles and structures such as the Space Station and the Space Shuttle.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
Successful execution of this project will result in an immediate and widespread application throughout the US commercial and general military industries. During Phase II, professional relationships will be built with material and blanket product suppliers to determine application requirements, limitations, and manufacturing parameters. SMD has discussed the details of the advanced concept with a major material manufacturer who currently supplies a variety of products to the US military for use in personnel protection and they have agreed to provide viability assessments and probable route to market for the most promising SMD candidate materials.

Market segments which will benefit from advanced blanket concepts are divided into military, architectural, industrial, commercial, and original equipment manufacturers (O.E.M.s). Some potential Non-NASA Applications include: (1) Military: Fabric Shelters, Naval Engine Noise, HVAC, Hummer Noise Control, Mobile Medical Units and Hospitals (2) Industrial: Manufacturing Fans, Blowers, Compressors, CNC's, HVAC (3) OEM: Trucks/Tractor Trailers, Commercial Floor Cleaners, Bank Equipment, Compressors.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II A2.05-8222
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNC05CA33C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Revolutionary Materials and Structures Technology for Propulsion and Power Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel High Temperature Magnetic Bearings for Space Vehicle Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Electron Energy Corporation
924 Links Avenue
Landisville,PA 17538-1615

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jinfang Liu
jfl@electronenergy.com
924 Links Avenue
Landisville,PA 17538-1615

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Previous high temperature magnetic bearings employed electromagnets only. The work proposed in this SBIR program seeks to utilize High Temperature Permanent Magnets (HTPM) developed by EEC. This will improve efficiency since the majority of the static load on any bearing can be suspended by the magnetic field of the HTPM. The end product will be a high speed/high temperature/high load test platform for the future development of bearing, motor, generator, and seal components. This capability will be of special benefit to the aerospace and process machinery industries. In addition the component demonstrations from this SBIR will provide designers with the confidence needed to integrate similar components in their high performance machinery.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Following are potential NASA commercial applications for high temperature magnetic bearings: (1) Enable lighter weight, higher temperature gas turbine engines and other machinery to operate effectively in hostile, high temperature environments such as the surface of Venus, and for propulsion and energy storage. (2) Power generation systems for space needs in Brayton cycle and other systems. (3) High temperature motor-generators (4) Deep space exploration that requires nuclear power utilizing Brayton and Sterling engines.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High temperature magnetic bearings operate at high temperature under vacuum with low bearing drag, and would benefit use in aerospace applications for energy storage/attitude control flywheels. High temperature magnetic bearings can operate continuously at high temperatures and therefore could be used in turbines for advanced Army tanks engine designs as well as in turbines and expansion engines used in the chemical processing industries. High temperature magnetic bearings operating at and above 1000<SUP>o</SUP>F could be used in aircraft generators directly integral to high-pressure regions of aircraft engines in advanced designs. Additionally, high temperature magnetic bearings can be used in turbomachinery in conventional power generation applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II A2.05-8813
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNC05CA23C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Revolutionary Materials and Structures Technology for Propulsion and Power Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Surface Modification of Exfoliated Graphite Nano-Reinforcements

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Adherent Technologies, Inc.
9621 Camino del Sol NE
Albuquerque,NM 87111-1522

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ronald Allred
adherenttech@earthlink.net
9621 Camino del Sol NE
Albuquerque,NM 87111-1522

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Phase I results showed that two surface treatments, oxidative plasma and reactive finishes, are effective means of modifying the surface chemistry of exfoliated graphite nanoflakes. The surface modifications provide a more compatible surface energy for dispersion in polymers and create well-bonded interfaces with the polymer matrix. In order to be cost effective for NASA and commercial applications, the surface treatment processes need to be applied on a large scale. In the Phase II program, both treatment methods will be scaled-up to semi-continuous processes. Custom equipment will be fabricated to process large quantities of treated nanoflakes. The resulting treated nanoflakes will be characterized for surface chemistry and morphology and processed into polymer composites and continuous carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites. The composites will be characterized for conductivity, thermal and mechanical, and diffusion barrier properties. It is expected that these composites will find applications as fuel cell bipolar plates, composite cryogenic storage tanks, and in light weight structures for aerospace, military, and transportation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Nanomaterials are emerging as the next materials revolution. They have proven to greatly modify conventional materials properties at low loadings. As such, they will find many applications within NASA's mission such as fuel cells, cryogenic storage tanks, and structural composites for vehicles like the reusable launch vehicle.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The advantages of nanomaterials that make them attractive for NASA use also make them attractive for use in commercial specialty composite materials. Nanomaterials are already being applied in automotive applications. Additional uses in aerospace, military, medical, and sporting goods will follow like they have with continuous fiber composites. The low cost of the treated graphite nanoflakes will ensure that they attain a large market share.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II A2.05-9466
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNC05CA48C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Revolutionary Materials and Structures Technology for Propulsion and Power Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Physics-Based Probabilistic Design Tool with System-Level Reliability Constraint

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
N&R Engineering
6659 Pearl Road, #400
Parma Heights,OH 44130-3821

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vinod Nagpal
vnagpal@nrengineering.com
6659 Pearl Road. #400
Parma Heights,OH 44130-3821

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The work proposed herein would develop a set of analytic methodologies and a computer tool suite enabling aerospace hardware designers to rapidly determine optimum risk-constrained designs subject to multiple physics-based uncertainties in applied loads, material properties, and manufacturing processes. This means that the design process no longer would consist of a sequence of separate code invocations to: (1) obtain the geometry model, (2) determine the various loads, (3) determine performance, (4) perform a structural analysis, (5) perform design optimization, and (6) perform a probabilistic risk assessment. Instead, all of these functions would be automatically incorporated into a single framework using existing physics-based deterministic modeling codes and a set of computer-generated data transfer interfaces. Thus, a design engineer would be able to rapidly explore the design space to identify the minimum weight design that meets a given reliability constraint ? thereby avoiding both an overly conservative design and an excessively risky design. Moreover, the methodology would also rollup component-level uncertainties to the system level for multiple components -- thereby enabling a system level reliability constraint to be imposed at the component level. Advanced techniques will be developed including methods to: (a) determine confidence bounds on reliability predictions, (b) efficiently determine response surfaces, and (c) use physics-based progressive failure modeling. The software tool could be used, for example, to determine the wall thickness of a launch vehicle's external cryogenic propellant tanks exposed to high but uncertain thermal and aerodynamic loads with a reliability of 0.99999.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A broad spectrum of design problems involving parts/subsystems/systems required to attain mission-critical reliability levels at minimum weight, yet subject to major technical uncertainties. These problems typically involve high temperature/high stress propulsion systems and range from single part designs such as novel CMC turbine blades used in advanced rocket engine turbopumps and jet engines to complete systems such as the unconventional propulsion concepts proposed for future space vehicles (e.g., nuclear thermal rockets, nuclear-electric, and solar-electric systems). These applications include conceptual designs where future technology status is uncertain as well as operational systems that experience variances in operating conditions and manufacturing fidelity. The final product will be a suite of software tools that accelerate the design/analysis process, take the grunt work out of the typical engineering tasks of transferring/converting data streams from one application code to another, and capture the intrinsically probabilistic nature of design problems. This will enable engineers and managers to spend more of their time interpreting results and making wise decisions as well as yield a physics-based design-to-reliability solution.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A fundamental architectural change in the design process is proposed that could revolutionize the way many commercial designs are conducted that involve advanced technology and important uncertainties. For example, high-tech applications such as nuclear-powered central powerplants, artificial hearts, flight-qualified control system actuators, home heat pumps/air conditioners, automotive engines, and avionic circuit boards all require ultra-reliable, minimal-maintenance operation. Some of these operate in uncertain hostile environments and all involve a continuous stream of technical improvements with inherent uncertainties. The software tool developed in this effort would accelerate these design processes while simultaneously yielding more reliable, cost-effective products.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II A2.06-8361
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNL05AA86P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Smart, Adaptive Aerospace Vehicles With Intelligence
PROPOSAL TITLE: Power for Vehicle Embedded MEMS Sensors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TPL, Inc.
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque,NM 87109-4416

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Charles Lakeman
jelopez@tplinc.com
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque,NM 87109-4416

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Embedded wireless sensors of the future will enable flight vehicle systems to be "highly aware" of onboard health and performance parameters, as well as the external flow field and potential threat environments. Because there will be no opportunity to replace batteries on a regular basis, these systems will have to rely on energy harvesting strategies to convert ambient energy into electrical energy to provide long-lived power. TPL proposes to develop a micropower system that will combine TPL's patented microbatteries and microsupercapacitors with vibrational energy harvesting for use with wireless structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. The solution proposed will include all components required for a complete power supply for wireless SHM sensors, including proprietary power regulation and conditioning circuitry that draws very low power. TPL is a leader in designing and manufacturing power for light weight, minimum volume, minimum footprint, wireless systems. TPL's effort has been supported by Goodrich Fuel and Utility Systems whose expertise with Structural Health Monitoring will provide guidance on sensor requirements, integration and packaging. These relationships will facilitate realizing devices that will meet end-user requirements, and provide a commercialization pathway for Phase III.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are numerous applications for wireless sensors in aerospace to reduce the weight and cost of future flight vehicles. NASA's interest in structural health monitoring, in particular, extends to air and space vehicles, fixed wing and rotorcraft, satellites, inter-planetary mission vehicles, and high altitude, long endurance (HALE) vehicles. For wireless sensors in general, NASA applications will extend from remote sensing on earth, climate and meteorological monitoring, and geolocation in planetary exploration.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is a myriad of non-NASA applications that have been discussed throughout this proposal; but for structural health monitoring, they include bridges, buildings (particularly high value, or sensitive buildings such as nuclear power or chemical plants), seismic detection, and ships (e.g. oil tankers or other vessels carrying cargoes that may be harmful if spilled). Other applications of wireless sensors extend into medical, industrial manufacturing (inventory management, process control), agricultural, domestic (smart house), and automotive (some estimate up to 1trillion automotive sensors in 2010 including tire pressure monitors and stability control).


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II A2.06-9177
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNL05AA97P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Smart, Adaptive Aerospace Vehicles With Intelligence
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reflexive Aero Structures for Enhanced Survivability

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cornerstone Research Group, Inc.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton,OH 45440-3325

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Benjamin Dietsch
dietschba@crgrp.net
2750 Indian Ripple Rd.
Dayton,OH 45440-3638

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) will develop an advanced reflexive structure technology system to increase the survivability of future systems constructed of lightweight composite structures. Application of this innovation will apply to a broad selection of high performance systems ranging from aircraft and spacecraft to habitats for space stations and interplanetary exploration. The control system for the reflexive structures will mimic the pain withdrawal-reflex on which the human body relies. This is important because rapid response is critical to survivability. The proposed reflexive system will incorporate a continuous health and performance monitoring system via embedded piezoelectric sensors, an adaptive composite structure based on CRG's shape memory composite material (Veritex<SUP>TM</SUP>), and an intelligence system which will be interfaced with both the health/performance sensors and the adaptive structure. When activated, the adaptive composite will recover its structural integrity via shape recovery and a novel healing process. The development of a reflexive structural system will enable increased safety and security and demonstrate a better understanding of integrated performance systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project's technologies directly address requirements for smart, adaptive structures with intelligence for enhanced survivability of air and space platforms. These technologies offer an effective solution to improving structural survivability through integration of multi-functional materials into a single structural system. Benefits of this technology could be widespread throughout NASA platforms including interplanetary habitats, the International Space Station, unmanned air vehicles, and personal air vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Government systems that would derive the same benefits would include but not be limited to military and commercial aircraft operated by the Department of Defense (DoD), commercial airlines, and the general aviation community. This technology's attributes for active sense and respond structural recovery should yield a high potential for private sector commercialization for active structural health monitoring and management in several types of space-based and terrestrial structural systems. Lockheed Martin, Boeing, and Vought Aircraft Industries have documented their interest in this commercialization opportunity.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II A2.07-8111
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NND05AA41C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Revolutionary Flight Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Revolutionary Performance For Ultra Low Reynolds Number Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rolling Hills Research Corporation
420 N. Nash Street
El Segundo,CA 90245-2822

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Kerho
mike@RollingHillsResearch.com
420 N. Nash Street
El Segundo,CA 90245-2822

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A novel technique for controlling transition from laminar to turbulent flow in very low Reynolds number conditions has been developed. Normally flows with Reynolds numbers in the range of 20,000 to 120,000 are dominated by laminar separation bubbles and are difficult to transition without using very large traditional trip devices, such as distributed roughness. Additionally, these traditional trips are sized for one flow condition and are either not effective at off-design conditions or create a large device drag penalty. RHRC's innovative transition control technology is capable of transitioning flow across a wide range of low Reynolds number conditions without resizing or incurring an off-design performance penalty. The system also produces minimal device drag. The novel transition control technology was shown to reduce trip drag penalties by as much as 35% to 60% when compared to correctly sized traditional trips, and increasing to as much as 190% at off-design conditions. In addition, the system can be implemented without external power. The commercialization potential for the technology is extremely promising, with applications such as micro unmanned air vehicles, high-altitude long-endurance aircraft, Mars exploratory flyers, and propeller systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed transition control technology (TCT) has significant potential application in several NASA programs. The TCT system could be fielded in several NASA aircraft unmanned systems, including micro-UAVs, high-altitude long-endurance remotely operated aircraft (HALE-ROA) for reconnaissance, and Mars exploratory aircraft. NASA designers will be eager to exploit the advantages of the current TCT technology in both airfoil designs and propeller systems. The transition control technology will deliver revolutionary performance as compared to traditional designs in a low risk package. The system will be applicable throughout NASA's high altitude unmanned and micro-UAV aviation community.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercialization potential is excellent for a robust and reliable low Reynolds number transition control system. Potential customers include the U.S. Military and radio control aircraft hobbyists. The U.S. military has begun to dramatically increase its use of unmanned aircraft. With electronic payloads becoming increasingly smaller, the opportunity for the application of micro-UAVs to military missions will increase. The revolutionary performance offered by the TCT technology for this class of vehicles will make the technology extremely appealing. The hobbyist market, particularly in the area of propellers and airfoils for radio-controlled aircraft, is a prime candidate for use of this technology. Airfoils and propellers designed using RHRC's transition control technology will provide radically enhanced performance. Both commercial suppliers of hobby aircraft and the military micro-UAV community will find the technology extremely appealing, allowing significant commercialization potential.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II A2.07-8829
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NND05AA42C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Revolutionary Flight Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Distributed Flight Controls for UAVs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing,NJ 08618-2302

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert McKillip, Jr.
bob@continuum-dynamics.com
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing,NJ 08618-2302

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Two novel flight control actuation concepts for UAV applications are proposed for prototype development, both of which incorporate shape memory alloy (SMA) wires as prime movers. These actuators promise considerable savings in weight, power, and volume over existing electomechanical and hydraulic systems. Incorporation of these actuators within lifting surface structure, or as trailing edge control devices, would greatly simplify the actuation systems of these aircraft, thereby permitting greater payload fraction, increased range, enhanced robustness, and/or smaller vehicle size, and thus reduce both operational and fixed system costs. Choice between the two actuation concepts for a particular installation represents a tradeoff in actuation system bandwidth and power availability, and thus the same vehicle may include both systems depending upon the particular functional requirements. These actuators represent a derivative technology from a previous Army SBIR Phase I/II effort directed at providing in-flight helicopter blade tracking using actively controlled trailing edge tabs, and thus have been designed to have low mass and low power requirements from their inception. Since they lack any physical hinge joints, they may be embedded directly within aircraft lifting surfaces, eliminating interference drag associated with control deflection.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has a need for advanced control actuation and systems to support long endurance high-altitude UAV applications. This technology would help mitigate known issues with reduced aeroelastic stability of such high altitude platforms, as well as provide vehicle robustness (load alleviation) to atmospheric gusts. Its all-electric actuation and lack of moving parts (i.e., no discrete hinges) enhances the actuator's capability to support longer duration UAV missions planned by NASA for the future.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The actuators developed here could support DoD applications and commercial aircraft uses for UAV flight control and ancillary functions such as deploying flaps, landing gear and doors that house optics or weapons. They have a minimum number of moving parts, are extremely lightweight for the actuation stroke and force they provide, and utilize modest electrical power. In one configuration, electric power is only required to switch the actuator between discrete positions, making this actuator ideally suited for flap deployment and/or trim tab applications. These devices may also be used as auxiliary trim systems and flight control units for manned aircraft.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II A2.08-8819
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NND05AA44C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Modeling, Identification, and Simulation for Control of Aerospace Vehicles in Flight Test
PROPOSAL TITLE: Model Updating Nonlinear System Identification Toolbox

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zona Technology, Inc.
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive, Suite 100
Scottsdale,AZ 85258-4578

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dario Baldelli
dario@zonatech.com
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive, Ste 100
Scottsdale,AZ 85258-4578

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ZONA Technology (ZONA) proposes to develop an enhanced model updating nonlinear system identification (MUNSID) methodology that utilizes flight data with state-of-the-art control oriented techniques. The MUNSID toolbox augments the current match-point solution approach using the mu-analysis method with identified nonlinear operators. The procedure calls for a high-fidelity linear aeroelastic model to be tuned quickly with available aeroelastic/aeroservoelastic flight data sets, while block-oriented models are used to highlight the underlying nonlinear structure of the dynamic system. This framework is capable of accounting for several nonlinearities including those due to aerodynamics, structures, control/actuator, and/or geometry. Specifically, this on-line Flutter/LCO predictor can be used to accurately estimate a supercritical LCO case if the global nonlinear dynamic behavior is described throughout a hardening nonlinearity, as well as a more dangerous dynamic behavior, denoted as subcritical LCO, could be developed if a global softening nonlinearity is identified. The devised MUNSID Toolbox will become the flight control engineer's "every day tool" to predict on-line Flutter/LCO phenomena. In Phase II, MUNSID will be updated with fast and computationally efficient routines for system modeling, LFT representation, identification of nonlinearity, estimation of uncertainty, and stability analysis. Deliverables include the MUNSID production software including a GUI, a library of S-functions, and the related user manuals.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Nonlinear identification, modeling and analysis software for aeroservoelastic instability clearance is still non-existent, leading to cautious and expensive flight test procedures. The proposed toolbox will become a standard analysis package for aeroservoelasticity. NASA/DFRC has been working for many years towards achieving a software package that would predict the onset of AE/ASE instabilities with a high factor of safety for efficient envelope expansion. The proposed MUNSID toolbox is aimed at providing an expedient on-line prediction capability that integrates with current NASA procedures in the control room. The methodology for a nonlinear Flutter/LCO predictor tool will complement and enhance the current capability for predicting instabilities during envelope expansion. The MUNSID Toolbox will be applicable to flutter envelope expansion programs of military, civil transport as well as general aviation aircraft where the design is aeroelastically dominated or the potential exists for aeroelastically induced instabilities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ZONA's business plan for this toolbox will follow the existing ZAERO product/service strategy. The toolbox will be marketed towards the flight test applications on a wide class of aerospace vehicles: (a) USAF's UAV/UCAV, joint-wing sensor craft, (b) Next generation Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) with enhanced control/maneuver capability, (c) DARPA Morphing aircraft program, and (d) Boeing's 787 and executive jet designs of Cessna, Raytheon, etc. Potential customers for the MUNSID Toolbox include engineers in the automotive industry, developing suspension and powertrain systems, aerodynamic developments for race cars, as well as for nautical engineers doing ship design and analysis, particularly mitigating vibrations and high acoustic noise due to large motors. Other areas of application include aircraft carrier vibration issues, analysis of power blackout, and in flight dynamics for complex flying control systems for manned and UAV. It will be a powerful tool for the aerospace industry performing health management within the health monitoring of flexible extraterrestrial vehicles and in vibration analysis for large solar panels and/or antennas in satellites. In addition, the MUNSID toolbox is envisioned as a diagnostic measure technology for the neural control of the cardiovascular system in humans.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II A2.08-9752
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NND05AA46C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Modeling, Identification, and Simulation for Control of Aerospace Vehicles in Flight Test
PROPOSAL TITLE: Unstructured Mesh Movement and Viscous Mesh Generation for CFD-Based Design Optimization

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Research South, Inc.
555 Sparkman Dr, Suite 1612
Huntsville,AL 35816-0000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Lawrence Spradley
lws@hiwaay.net
555 Sparkman Dr. Suite 1612
Huntsville,AL 35816-0000

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovations proposed are twofold: 1) a robust unstructured mesh movement method able to handle isotropic (Euler), anisotropic (viscous), mixed element (hybrid) and generalized polyhedral unstructured grids for CFD applications, particularly, CFD-based design optimization, and 2) a robust method to automatically insert high quality anisotropic prismatic (viscous boundary layer) cells into any existing CFD mesh. All objectives in Phase I were met and all tasks were completed as proposed. The methods worked very well for both 2D and 3D geometries, for tetrahedral, hexahedral, and general polyhedral element types, and for the simple viscous meshes. In Phase II, we will extend the software into a general purpose package for use by NASA, other Government agencies, and commercial customers. We will implement our 3D viscous mesh generation method including a general solution-adaptive meshing capability. We will develop the software necessary to compute sensitivity derivatives of the mesh operations. Two important software design goals for our final Phase II software are ease-of-use and convenient access to its functionality. We will develop two types of user interfaces: graphical access (for the end-user) and programming access (for integration with flow solvers). We will assemble all of the methods developed in Phase II into a single, coherent, design-oriented, product-version code with extensive focus on incorporating a parallel processing capability into the software. The verification & validation plan will follow the industry-standard approach now used by commercial software houses and will include an extensive set of NASA-relevant test cases. The software will be documented and delivered to NASA. The Phase II software has significant potential for commercialization and sales in the non-Government sector.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This software package is a major improvement in the power and quality of software design tools available and represents an enormous benefit to NASA. The resulting software product is a major advance in the state-of-the-art and will represent the first breakthrough in this technology area in many years. This will provide NASA with a powerful software tool to perform very efficient and rapid design assessment of evolving next generation space vehicles. Our software adds critical functionality to unstructured grid CFD software already in use at several NASA Centers including: NASA Dryden's unstructured adaptive-mesh, design optimization code SAMdesign; NASA Langley's design optimization code FUN3D and aeroelasticity code USM3D; and NASA Marshall's generalized mesh CHEM code and combustion code FDNS. Since our new mesh methods are also applicable to structural finite element analyses, the various multidisciplinary analysis and optimization efforts at NASA can benefit from our software. Given the ability to quickly modify and analyze trial geometry configurations, development of revolutionary design concepts will be facilitated.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The following are some of the many Non-NASA commercial applications for the generalized meshing software. (1) pollution dispersion from stacks of industrial processing plants, (2) design of viscous mixing processes for chemical manufacturing companies, (3) computation of exhaust flow from automobile and bus exhaust systems, (4) design of more efficient internal combustion engines, (5) commercial airplane design for improved fuel economy (6) analysis and design of waste disposal systems, (7) design of air conditioning systems for large buildings, (8) air quality modeling for large-city streets.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II A3.01-8498
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNA05BE09C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Next Generation Air-Traffic Management Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation Tool

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
1190 Hawling Pl
Leesburg,VA 20175-5084

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris Brinton
brinton@mosaicatm.com
1190 Hawling Pl
Leesburg,VA 20175-5084

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This effort undertook the creation of a Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation (SODAA) tool to store data relevant to airport surface research and facilitate searching, visualizing, and analyzing that data, with the goal of improving understanding of airport surface operations. Data mining capabilities will, for example, support research of taxi routing and departure sequencing strategies used by air traffic controllers. The SODAA tool will reduce the time and cost required to build and maintain Surface Management System (SMS) adaptations. Finally, the SODAA tool will facilitate benefits and other studies by readily providing large sets of data without each researcher needing to separately collect appropriate data. In Phase 1, we designed and built a portion of the envisioned SODAA database as well as a limited visualization tool that, after Phase 2, will allow users to query the database and view the results in a variety of different formats. In addition, users will be able to add new analysis capabilities by creating plug-in modules. In addition, we conducted a variety of analyses of SMS data, providing insight into surface operations. Finally, we identified which SMS adaptation files could be developed using the SODAA tool.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The significant costs of aviation delays and the opportunity to reduce such delays through this effort result in a strong market for the SODAA technology. The application of this work at NASA can be grouped into two categories: supporting the development of airport adaptations for surface automation systems and supporting fundamental understanding of surface operations and traffic management. In addition, SODAA provides a repository for data that may be used in other NASA projects.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications include use of SODAA by the FAA, air carriers and airport authorities, and other (e.g., university) researchers. The FAA will use the SODAA tool in the same ways as NASA, both to support developing and maintaining airport adaptations for automation systems that include an airport surface component and to gain fundamental insight into current operations. Air carriers will use SODAA or Mosaic ATM's services leveraging SODAA to improve efficiencies in their operations or planning decisions at hub airports. Finally, airport authorities have expressed interest in SODAA's data recording capabilities for improving the accuracy of their billing for landing/takeoff operations and noise abatement functions.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II A3.01-8856
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NND05AA48C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Next Generation Air-Traffic Management Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Network Centric Transponders for Airspace Integration of UAVs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
KALSCOTT Enginering, Inc.
3226 S.W. Timberlake Ln.
Topeka,KS 66614-4515

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tom Sherwood
tom.sherwood@kalscott.com
3266 S.W. Timberlake Ln.
Topeka,KS 66614-0000

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A method and device for situational awareness for unmanned air vehicles is presented. This enables integration of UAVs into the national airspace in a safe manner, equivalent to the level of safety of manned aircraft. Phase I results are presented and discussed. Phase II plans are discussed in detail. The Phase II will culminate in flight tests of the proposed gear. Alignment with national initiatives such as Access5 is discussed.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA, and several other agencies are evaluating UAVs for science, homeland security and military missions. The FAA requires that UAVs be allowed to fly in the National Airspace only if they have a level of security equivalent to manned aircraft. The proposed hardware addresses this issue. NASA has a strong civilian UAV effort currently to support Suborbital Earth Science missions. This device can be used on such NASA UAVs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The transponder can be used for airspace integration of UAVs. Such vehicles are now increasingly used for homeland security, science, civilian, and homeland security missions. Specific military end users have been identified.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II B1.01-8892
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNC05CA35C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Exploiting Gravitational Effects for Combustion, Fluids, Synthesis, and Vibration Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: CMOS-MEMS Microgravity Accelerometer with High-Precision DC Response

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Evigia Systems, Inc.
2805 Windwood Dr., #10
Ann Arbor,MI 48105-1487

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Navid Yazdi
nyazdi@evigia.com
2805 Windwood Dr. #10
Ann Arbor,MI 48105-1487

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this Phase II SBIR project a high-sensitivity low-noise all-silicon CMOS-MEMS accelerometer for quasi-steady measurements of accelerations at sub 1 micro-g levels will be developed. The outcome of the project is a capacitive microaccelerometer with a resolution of 90ng/sqrt-Hz over +/-0.1g range for Type A sensor and 0.8ug/sqrt-Hz over +/-1g for Type B sensor with programmable bandwidth from DC to programmable 0.1Hz-100Hz. The accelerometer module includes integrated low-noise CMOS circuitry with active offset and low-frequency noise cancellation to enable high-precision DC measurements. The high-performance of the sensor is enabled by innovation in both MEMS accelerometer and readout circuit technologies: i) Single-crystalline silicon capacitive accelerometer structure. The device has high sensitivity and low thermo-mechanical noise; ii) Innovative high-yield fabrication process that enables formation of high-sensitivity devices on top of CMOS wafers; iii) New and improved low-noise capacitive sensor readout CMOS circuit. This novel microaccelerometer has several NASA applications including measurement of residual accelerations on spacecraft and ground-based low-gravity facilities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed CMOS-MEMS accelerometer will reduce the size, mass, power requirements and cost of the instruments for measuring the residual accelerations on spacecraft or in ground-based low-gravity facilities. By using innovative device and circuit technologies the proposed MEMS sensor can resolve sub micro-g quasi-static accelerations as solicited by GRC and MSFC under topic B1.01 (Exploiting Gravitational Effects for Combustion, Fluids, Synthesis, and Vibration Technology). Also this device can be employed for space drag measurements, space platform stabilization, and miniature self-contained or GPS-augmented navigation systems for micro-satellites, spacecrafts, aircrafts, and ground vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High precision accelerometers with micro-g sensitivity have several other applications including self-contained and GPS-augmented navigation and guidance systems, seismometry for oil-exploration and earthquake prediction, aerial mapping of gravitational forces for mining and natural resources exploration, tilt measurements and platform stabilization, and underwater acoustic measurements. The impact of low cost, small, high-performance micromachined accelerometers in these applications is not just limited to reducing overall size, cost and weight. It opens up new market opportunities such as personal miniature navigators.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II B1.01-9908
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNC05CA64C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Exploiting Gravitational Effects for Combustion, Fluids, Synthesis, and Vibration Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Performance Contaminant Monitor for Spacecraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vista Photonics, Inc.
67 Condesa Road
Santa Fe,NM 87508-8136

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffrey Pilgrim
jpilgrim@vistaphotonics.com
67 Condesa Road
Santa Fe,NM 87508-8136

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Vision for Space Exploration demands increasing reliance on real-time trace gas monitors onboard spacecraft. Present grab samples and badges will be inadequate beyond low-Earth-orbit. New better monitors will be critical components for early detection of fire, release event monitoring, crew habitability, and air revitalization processes. The danger from fire and toxic releases aboard spacecraft is constant with only moments for detection and contravention. Spacecraft are unique high-value systems where failure is measured in lives, dollars, time, and public perception. Space crews have little chance of escaping vessels that cannot continue to support life. It is imperative to detect danger in these closed-cycle environments at the earliest possible moment. Present fire detectors onboard spacecraft are inadequate due to fatigue, sensitivity or time response. Smoke detectors are insufficient for detecting the earliest stages of combustion. Further, smoke detectors will become increasingly unreliable due to false alarms upon exposure to dust particulates from the Moon and Mars. Sensors are needed to directly detect the molecular products of combustion. Vista Photonics proposes to develop rugged, compact prototype optical fire detection and contaminant monitoring instrumentation capable of selectively measuring a critical suite of contaminants at parts-per-million (ppm) or better sensitivities in a few seconds.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The immediate targeted application for NASA is fire detection and contaminant monitoring on spacecraft. Phase II prototypes will be capable of selectively detecting HCN-HCL-HF-CO-acetylene and methane. The emerging technology will be suitable as an event monitor for specific release events on the ISS, particularly ammonia and HF. ISS is the test-bed for developing CEV sensor technology. Other applications include fire detection on aircraft and high-value installations, trace atmospheric species detection on manned and unmanned aircraft, gas sensing in air revitalization and water recovery processes, and a macroscopic atmospheric composition monitor.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Phase III commercial applications abound for sensors whose performance and physical characteristics are suitable for spaceflight. Vista Photonics will focus initial commercialization efforts on two of these, moisture contamination in semiconductor process gases and acetylene contamination of chemical manufacturing feedstock gases. Both contaminants were detected at relevant low-ppb levels during the Phase I project. The fully-developed Phase II instruments shall offer a compelling and desirable blend of performance, affordability, compactness, simplicity and ease-of-use relative to present commercial product offerings in both industries. Other applications include environmental monitoring, occupational safety, biomedical breath diagnostics and homeland security monitoring of high-value buildings, rail, and mass-transit.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II B1.03-8694
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNM05AA25C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials Science for In-Space Fabrication and Radiation Protection
PROPOSAL TITLE: Improved Lunar and Martian Regolith Simulant Production

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Orbital Technologies Corporation
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison,WI 53717-1961

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Gustafson
gustafsonr@orbitec.com
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison,WI 53717-1961

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The technical objective of the Phase II project is to provide a more complete investigation of the long-term needs of the simulant community based on the updated NASA outline for exploration, including potential landing site designations, the types of technologies currently funded for research, and timelines for future development. Using this information, a number of prototype simulants will be created and analyzed for their ability to meet individual application requirements. If successful, each prototype simulant could then be produced on a larger scale through a Phase III contract or by a privately funded commercial effort. The current simulants to be addressed by the Phase II include a spherical glass inclusion JSC-1a derivative for improved physical lunar mare characteristics, a terrestrially produced lunar agglutinate inclusion JSC-1a derivative for true chemical and mechanical property simulation, a lunar highlands simulant for simulation of over 80% of the lunar surface, and improved JSC Mars-1a simulant to meet the immediate needs for Martian experimentation and testing. We anticipate that through these four prototypes, the majority of the needs of the scientific and engineering communities can be met with a high degree of fidelity, improving NASA's ability to successfully explore the Moon and Mars.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Significant research and testing is crucial for successful robotic and human long duration lunar or Martian missions. Over the next decade, NASA will develop techniques for in-space fabrication of critical path components, transportation and habitation equipment, health and reliability of advanced life support systems, and processes for in situ resource utilization. These projects, including currently funded programs, require lunar and Martian regolith simulants of the highest fidelity possible. To meet this immediate demand, NASA approved a Phase III contract for ORBITEC to produce the lunar simulant JSC-1a in late 2005. Unfortunately, NASA's future needs demand next generation simulants that better support key technical requirements. Well characterized simulants that match landing site requirements (such as highlands or Martian prototypes) or better match physical properties (such as agglutinate simulant or spherical glass inclusion simulant) will improve NASA's ability to successful explore the moon and Mars.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial production and distribution of improved lunar and Martian simulants is a goal of both the scientific and NASA community. This approach provides improved access and tracking of simulant users, both scientific and educational. ORBITEC is currently funding the commercial production of fifteen tons of the lunar simulant JSC-1a, which we anticipate to quickly sell due to its tremendous appeal for schools and outreach programs. The simulant will be added to PLANET's (ORBITEC's sister company) line of plant growth kits, along with a new line of chemistry and geology experiments. Other educational supply companies have already placed orders for material as well, and several leading distribution companies have expressed interest in carrying simulant products as soon as they are available. In addition to education, programs such as Centennial Prize and commercial space ventures have energized interest in space exploration, space tourism, and marketing of space souvenirs and displays.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II B1.03-9315
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNM05AA26C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials Science for In-Space Fabrication and Radiation Protection
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Structural Nanomaterials for Astronaut Radiation Protection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ZYVEX Corporation
1321 N. Plano Road
Richardson,TX 75081-2426

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gobinath Balasubramaniyam
gbala@zyvex.com
1321 N. Plano Road
Richardson ,TX 75081-2426

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Zyvex in cooperation with Prairie View A&M (CARR) and Boeing will develop a space radiation shielding multi-functional material that will provide high energy radiation shielding required to protect astronauts on extended missions, strong enough to be used as an integral structural material and tough enough to survive micro-meteor impacts, provide EMI shielding, and enhanced thermal conductivity. The team will also develop an improved protocol for testing radiation shielding material. This effort will entail developing a composite material which uses proven radiation shielding material Polyethylene(PE), as its primary constituent in the form of very strong/tough Spectra fibers woven into a 3D fabric. In Phase 1 we demonstrated that, compared to bulk PE, this composite approach has significantly improved mechanical properties, excellent electrical conductivity, good Electro Magnetic Interference (EMI) shielding properties, and maintains excellent space radiation shielding properties of PE. We also demonstrated exposure to large doses of high energy actually improved the mechanical properties. In Phase II, the epoxy matrix used in Phase I will be considered along with Cyanate Esters, and Polyimides, As in Phase I, coating the PE fabric and reinforcing the matrix material will be ultra-high strength, highly conductive carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Zyvex's unique and commercially successful CNT processing technology will be adapted to maximize the transfer of the extraordinary mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties of CNTs to the composite structures. The work plan includes approaches to overcome CNT processing and delamination issues discovered in Phase I. CARR will carryout more extensive radiation testing with several ions at different energies. Boeing which has significant interest in developing long term space exploration will guide the development of the material to meet specifications for planned applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's needs for radiation shielding for extended space missions is unquestioned. Polyethylene is the best known material for shielding high energy particles but is parasitic weight if it does not serve any other function. A material with good radiation shielding capabilities that can also have the strength to be an integral structural component, have the toughness to deal with micro-meteor impacts, and provide additional EM shielding clearly has value to NASA. In addition to the Phase I SBIR we are just completing with Marshall, we also are working on a Phase II SBIR with NASA JSC to develop CNT composites with ultra-high specific strength for demanding space vehicle applications. We have had successful commercial spin-offs from this program listed below. This work has been so successful that we are entering into a Space Act Agreement with JSC to collaborate with them in the pursuit of this technology. The collaborative work on this Space Act Agreement is expected to include but go beyond structural applications; we also expect that other advanced material applications such as space suit fabrics and high surface area support for CO2 scrubbing will be explored.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA funded work on CNT/Polymer composites have already produced two commercial successes. Epoxy concentrates with dispersed CNTs are being sold to Easton Sports who are using this CNT material to make bicycle parts (being used in the 2005 Tour de France), baseball bats (which were used in the College World Series), and hockey sticks. Aldela, the largest manufacturer of composite golf club shafts is also using this technology in their product. We have had eight different industrial research contracts, many of which are ongoing, to develop CNT composites for a variety of applications. Applications include structural materials, thermal interface materials, ballistic protection materials, and others. We are also working with a number of other companies either in a collaborative development mode, or selling them materials for testing and development. We also have a DARPA program in their Defense Sciences Office to develop ultra-high strength CNT fibers. This work has led to a follow on program where Zyvex will be a subcontractor to Hexcel in developing a new generation of high strength fibers. This program has been awarded and is currently being negotiated.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II B2.01-8002
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNA05CQ88C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Understanding and Utilizing Gravitational Effects on Plants and Animals
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact, High Accuracy CO2 Monitor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Novawave Technologies
230A Twin Dolphin Drive
Redwood City,CA 94065-1411

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joshua Paul
jbpaul@novawavetech.com
230A Twin Dolphin Drive
Redwood City,CA 94065-1411

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Small Business Innovative Research Phase II proposal seeks to develop a low cost, robust, highly precise and accurate CO2 monitoring system. This system will employ a novel mid-infrared laser source, which was successfully demonstrated during Phase I along with a bench-scale laboratory sensor. Quantitative analysis of the Phase I results showed that the goal of determining the mole fraction of CO2 in atmospherically relevant gas mixtures with a precision of 0.05% min-1 was achieved. The Phase II project will significantly refine approach and improve the long term stability such that an onboard gas calibration system needs to operate at most once-per-hour. The resulting compact, fully integrated Phase II prototype will enable completely automated CO2 concentration measurements to be routinely performed with unprecedented accuracy. Commercial systems based on the Phase II prototype will be refined and marketed during Phase III. Additionally, the core technology can be applied for the detection of other target species such as CO2 isotopes, methane, and CO.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's Fundamental Biology Program seeks to improve our understanding of gravitational effects on plants and animals. The success of this proposal will directly impact this effort by providing compact fieldable CO2 analyzers with the requisite precision and accuracy to aid this effort. Additionally, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise has taken a lead role in understanding Earth's atmospheric dynamics. In particular, to better understand climate change and global warming, a more detailed knowledge of carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is required. The success of this effort will directly impact this area as well.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The worldwide market for low cost, high precision CO2 monitors is quite large due to the need to monitor greenhouse gas emissions and enforce world-wide emissions standards. Additionally, the core technology is promising for the detection of other target species such as CO2 isotopes, methane, and CO. Commercial arenas for the technology therefore include trace gas monitoring, pollution monitoring, and industrial process monitoring.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II B2.03-8663
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNJ05JD48C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Understanding and Utilizing Gravitational Effects on Molecular Biology and for Medical Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Single Electron Transistor Platform for Microgravity Proteomics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Quantum Logic Devices
7801 North Lamar, Suite B-161
Austin,TX 78752-1017

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Louis Brousseau
lou@quantumlogicdevices.com
7801 North Lamar, Suite B-161
Austin,TX 78752-1017

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase II program builds from the successful Phase I efforts to demonstrate that Quantum Logic Devices' nanoelectronic platform for biological detection could detect binding of Epo, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IGF-1 in saline and serum without labels. The creation of an electronic "direct detection" platform for proteomics, enables rapid point of care monitoring of metabolic analytes in microgravity. This Phase II proposal will build working prototypes based on PDA-style electronic data capture with disposable assay cartridges for the analytes demonstrated in Phase I.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The product of this program is a handheld bioassay system that would be ideally suited for all biomedical research and diagnostic needs of current and future space missions. Real-time, quantitative monitoring of proteomic analytes will answer real questions about the metabolic and physiological changes induced by microgravity and space flight.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology will be a key part of the rapidly emerging paradigm of telemedicine, and provide point of care diagnostics capabilities, which are the most rapidly growing segment of the medical testing market.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II B2.03-9148
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNJ05JB73C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Understanding and Utilizing Gravitational Effects on Molecular Biology and for Medical Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Nanodroplet Processor for Advanced Microencapsulated Drug Formulations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanotrope, Inc.
2033 Cambridge Ave
Cardiff,CA 92007-1707

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Donald Ackley
donackley@cox.net
2033 Cambridge Ave
Cardiff,CA 92007-1707

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
During this Phase II program we propose to build on the key aspects of the nanodroplet encapsulation technology to demonstrate optimized formulation and encapsulation of protein drugs. The ability of the nanodroplet generator to produce nanoscale drug "containers" with designer characteristics provides us with a distinct advantage in targeting protein containing vesicles to diseased cells and organs. We plan to target cancerous cells and tumors using our engineered drug vesicles, with specifically designed lipid outer layers as well as targeted surface functionalization to improve drug uptake by the cells, reduce toxicity, and otherwise improve safety and efficacy. The optimized vesicles will result in improved stability and enhanced control of pharmacokinetics in both cell lines and animal models.The nanodroplet platform will be scaled up to produce gram quantities of engineered vesicles with a monodisperse size distribution and a target size of 200nm.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The immiscible nanodroplet processor provides NASA with a platform that will impact space driven goals for biotechnology research as well as manned exploration activities. The nanodroplet technology lends itself to several important applications in drug formulation, diagnostics and sample preservation. For drug formulation applications, it is envisioned the astronauts on long-term missions may be provided the capability to program specific drug formulations for personalized space medicine care. Formulations may be tailored to meet the pharmacokinetics of drugs administered in space, for specific applications that include countermeasures for space borne afflictions such as bone loss due to microgravity and radiation exposure. Other applications may include the mixing and dosing of nutriceuticals to ensure astronaut health and peak performance and psychotherapeutics to treat long-term isolation experienced on extended missions. Finally, drugs for the treatment of diseases such as a cancer that may develop on a long-term mission to Mars may be of interest. The nanodroplet technology may also have applications in space medicine diagnostics and continuous water sampling and monitoring. For astronaut personal diagnostics, the nanodroplet approach may be utilized to analyze blood, urine or saliva by sampling, targeting and/or concentrating specific analytes. Similarly, the nanodroplet approach may be applied for monitoring the safety of drinking water used by the crew

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Nanotrope nanodroplet encapsulation technology tremendous potential for commercialization in such diverse areas as targeted drug therapy, personalized medicine, and point of care testing, especially for patients where samples are sub-optimal and the need for treatment may be frequently adjusted. Clearly, the ability to produce functionalized particles has tremendous potential for cancer therapy. With the nanodroplet technology, we can customize drug formulations for small, at-risk populations, or even for individuals on a rapid turn-around basis. The technology provides a compact device that is capable of titrating particle compositions on demand, which will allows care givers the new ability to adjust dosage levels to meet the need of the individual according to the patient's response to initial treatments. In addition, our technology is operated by inexpensive microfluidic devices that are readily adapted to conventional drug delivery instruments such as syringes or inhalers. Thus, we anticipate the facilitated integration of our on-demand, monodisperse drug formulation technology with a reduced time to market.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II B3.01-8041
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNJ05JB74C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Control of Spacecraft Cabin Atmosphere
PROPOSAL TITLE: Heat Pipe Heat Exchangers with Double Isolation Layers for Prevention of Interpath Leakage

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc.
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster,PA 17601-5688

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Sarraf
dave.sarraf@1-ACT.com
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster,PA 17601-5688

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT), supported by Hamilton Sundstrand, proposes to develop a heat pipe heat exchanger that is low mass and provides two levels of isolation between fluid streams. It has potential applications in thermal control of manned spacecraft and a number of military and commercial equipment and processes. Phase I has successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the heat exchanger technology in effectively exchanging heat between two fluid streams while providing reliable separation of the fluids. Components and subscale heat exchangers were tested and the results compared with the heat exchanger design model. The model demonstrated an accuracy of within 8% in its predictions. The principal Phase II objective is to fully demonstrate the proposed technology by refining and further developing the prototype heat exchanger into a qualified full scale design. The project will demonstrate the heat exchanger's long-term compatibility through life test of heat exchanger components and qualification test of engineering units at representative thermal, acceleration, shock and vibration conditions. The Phase II results will elevate the technology to a TRL 6: Prototype demonstration in a relevant environment. The follow-on Phase III will conduct flight qualification test of the technology to address micro gravity operation issues.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications of the heat pipe heat exchanger technology include thermal control of manned spacecraft including the Shuttle, Space Station, and the planned CEV for Moon and Mars exploration missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Since manned spacecraft are not built in large quantities, Non NASA applications of the heat pipe heat exchanger technology include: ? Naval Turbine Bleed Air Coolers. ? Ammonia Refrigeration Plants. ? Food or Pharmaceutical Processing. ? Industrial Chemical Processing. ? Telecommunication outdoor cabinet cooling.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II B3.01-8208
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNM05AA28C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Control of Spacecraft Cabin Atmosphere
PROPOSAL TITLE: Methane Pyrolysis for Hydrogen & Carbon Nanotube Recovery from Sabatier Products

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
UMPQUA Research Company
P.O. Box 609
Myrtle Creek,OR 97457-0102

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Atwater
jatwater@urcmail.net
PO Box 609
Myrtle Creek,OR 97457-0102

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Development of a microgravity and hypogravity compatible catalytic methane pyrolysis reactor is proposed to recover hydrogen which is lost as methane in the conversion of carbon dioxide to water via the Sabatier process. This will close the hydrogen loop which currently requires 50% resupply and also produce carbon nanotubes, a high value product which may be employed as an adsorbent or catalyst for removal of atmospheric trace contaminants, thus further lowering the resupply burden for manned spacecraft. Microgravity compatibility of Gradient Magnetically Assisted Fluidized Beds (GMAFB) has been demonstrated through a series of KC135 flight experiments. Metallic cobalt, which has been fluidized in microgravity using the GMAFB method, is an excellent catalyst for promotion of methane pyrolysis. Recently, fluidized bed catalytic methods have been shown to efficiently recover hydrogen, and produce single walled carbon nanotubes. Using the GMAFB method, this process can be rendered totally compatible with operation in the microgravity of spaceflight or the reduced gravity of planetary environments. By recovering all of the hydrogen which is lost as methane in the Sabatier reactor, the requirement for production or resupply of hydrogen is reduced to the absolute minimum.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA application of this technology will be as Flight Hardware for deployment in support of future long duration exploration objectives such as a lunar mission, lunar base, Mars transit or Mars base. The primary application will be for the recovery of hydrogen lost in the Sabatier process for CO2 reduction to produce water in Advanced Life Support systems. Secondarily, this process may also be used in conjunction with a Sabatier reactor employed for propellant and fuel production from Martian atmospheric CO2.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A commercial application with extremely high economic potential is the production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). CNTs are nanomaterials with unusually high strength, low density, excellent electrical conductivity, and other properties with numerous potential applications including: as nanometer sized semiconductor components and devices, field emission displays, hydrogen storage, sensors, energy storage and energy conversion devices, catalysts, conductive and high strength composites. Currently prices for CNT range from $30/gram to $2,000/gram, owing to the lack of methods for large-scale synthesis. The proposed technology will help to overcome this limitation.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II B3.03-9533
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNJ05JB78C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human Adaptation and Countermeasures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact Transcranial Doppler (TCD) for Bioastronautics Research

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Genexpress Informatics, Inc.
13091 Ponds Springs Road, Suite 150
Austin,TX 78729-6442

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Chin
rchin@genexpressinfo.com
13091 Ponds Springs Road, Suite 150
Austin,TX 78729-6442

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Returning men to the Moon and manned Mars missions will require advanced bioastronanutics research. One possible risk is Decompression Sickness (DCS) resulting from extravehicular activity (EVA), after exposure to habitat conditions that would be generated using available Moon or Martian resources. A key research tool to measure the onset of DCS is a Transcranial Doppler (TCD) instrument. The present research tool is bulky and does not allow for measurement of the TDC signal under astronaut stress conditions including exercise, EVA, pre-breathing prior to EVA, and work. GeneXpress Informatics, Ten X Technology and UTHSC-SA proposes to develop a fully functional TCD research device for hypobaric experiments for determining DCS risk assessment and management. GXI has develop a unique auto-focusing and steering TDC system which allows for the real time monitoring of DCS parameters during hypobaric stress activity experiments. In this Phase II program, the team proposes to (1) Define and Determine test bed requirements, (2) Identify and procure TCD components, (3) Design & Assemble the Piezoelectric Transducer, (3) Design & assemble Transducer attachment method, (4) Design, Assemble & Test Portable Instrument Electronics, (5) Develop Software for the Instrument and Development Platform, (5) Evaluate Laboratory Test Bed, and (6) Construct System Deliverable.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Advanced spaceflights will possess a number of risk. One risk area is Decompression Sickness (DCS) resulting from extravehicular activity (EVA) after exposure to habitat conditions. The proposed auto-focusing and steering ultrasonic TCD research tool will provide measurable DCS metrics and parameters to establish and model the level of risk due to these habitats & environments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Total mortality rates in severe trauma occurrences show that 90 percent die within the first hour. This non-invasive auto-focusing and steering TCD technology developed in this program will provide an aid to paramedics in evaluating a trauma patient on site and in real-time.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II B3.04-7609
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNJ05JB79C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Food and Galley
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development of a Multipurpose Extruder/Press Food Processing System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Triple F, Inc.
10104 Douglas Avenue
Des Moines,IA 50322-3600

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
wilmot wijeratne
wilmot@insta-pro.com
10104 Douglas Avenue
Des Moines,IA 50322-3600

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project is to develop versatile, low mass, energy efficient, and easily maintained multipurpose seed processing (MSP) equipment for food processing in space environments. Phase-1 of the project yielded a conceptual drawing for a MSP. Phase-II consists of six main tasks. The first model MSP will be manufactured, programmed and tested for ESM, function, and quality of processed product. The data will be used to refine the model and design multipurpose screws for the extrusion and press components of the MSP to simplify the equipment. Several models of MSP's will be fabricated and tested for versatility. The ESM crietia and functional parameters will be used to evaluate the optimum MSP for NASA applications and non-NASA applications. The final deliverables will be the test database, design drawings and the optimized MSP's for NASA and non-NASA applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA aplication will be to perfrom a variety of food processing operations including size reduction, cooking, oil extraction, dehydration, stabilization, texturization, and expansion. This capability will lead to dry and shelf stable food products such as soy flour, textured soy protein, soy oil, breakfast cereals, expanded snacks, and pasta products. The proposed MSP will be unique in that the heat of processing will be generated internally by friction without dependence on an external heat source such as steam. The heat process will reduce microbial hazards in the space environment and also improve the stability of products by enzyme inactivation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology developed in this project will enable the design and fabrication of MSP's of capacities between the NASA MSP and the commercial extruders currently marketed by the contractor. Such small capacity equipment has application in two sectors: The research and development community will have the capability to process small quantities of seed material coming out of specialized varieties being developed. Also, high value raw materials available only in small quantities can be processed with the miniature MSP's. Secondly, the smallest commercial extruder/press combination marketed by the contractor has a rated capacity of 300 kg/hr. This is still too large for small agribusiness in many developing nations. This project will enable development of customized processing systems that enhance the business of the contractor in the developing nations.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II B3.05-8305
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNC05CA65C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Biomedical R&D of Noninvasive, Unobtrusive Medical Devices for Future Flight Crews
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact Wireless BioMetric Monitoring and Real Time Processing System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ZIN Technologies, Inc.
2001 Aerospace Parkway
Brook Park,OH 44142-1001

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alan Chmiel
alan.chmiel@zin-tech.com
3000 Aerospace Parkway
Brook Park,OH 44142-1001

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
BioWATCH is a modular ambulatory compact wireless biomedical data acquisition system. More specifically, it is a data acquisition unit for acquiring signals from biomedical sensors using modular acquisition modules attached to a common data and power bus. Several module slots allow the user to configure the unit by inserting sensor specific modules. The data is then sent real time from the unit over any commercially implemented wireless network including 802.11b/g, WCDMA, GSM, or EDGE. BioWATCH is of a distributed computing hierarchy and has a common data controller on each sensor module. This innovation allows for the modularity of the device along with the tailored ability to control the cards using a relatively small master processor. The distributed nature of this system affords the modularity, size, and power consumption that betters the current state-of-the-art in medical ambulatory data acquisition. The current state-of-the-art in biomedical data monitoring is limited in its modularity and relies on centralized computing models.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Numerous NASA applications exist in both human health monitoring and human life science experimentation. The most obvious application is support of health monitoring on human space flight and exploration missions. Additionally, numerous opportunities exist in support of ground based investigations that may or may not be directly related to human space flight. These include baseline monitoring of astronaut health, health monitoring during strenuous training procedures, on-ground evaluation of physical training techniques and muscle/bone loss countermeasures. Many experiments that have already flown on Shuttle and Station have required long duration monitoring and BioWATCH will be capable of extending the capability of such science activity.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This innovative design has obvious commercial applications for extending health monitoring outside clinical facilities and this has the potential to improve the patient's quality of life. It will provide health research institutions a flexible modular system that can be tailored to their experimentation. The modular nature of the system, use of standard communications protocols, and software will allow for economical growth of the system with the development of new technologies, e.g. greater memory storage. The proposed device and associated software could find many applications in ground based medicine and biomedical research. The tradition of long term monitoring was pioneered in the field of heart electrophysiology by Halter monitors and this has now expanded to a more generalized approach to ambulatory monitoring (e.g. Wilhelm FH, Roth WT, Sackner MA. The lifeShirt. An advanced system for ambulatory measurement of respiratory and cardiac function. The availability of an economical, user-friendly device such as the one proposed here could open new directions for the study of many biological processes and offer clinicians the opportunity to monitor aspects of their patients' health that are not currently accessible. BioWATCH is capable of improving home health monitoring by providing clinicians the ability to allow round-the-clock monitoring of patients at work, home, play, and sleep with more mobility and modularity than conventional home health monitoring equipment.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II B3.06-8032
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNA05CQ89C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Waste and Water Processing for Spacecraft Advanced Life Support
PROPOSAL TITLE: Control of Solid Waste Using Low Temperature Oxidation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 West 52nd Ave
Wheat Ridge,CO 80033-1916

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Wickham
wickham@tda.com
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge,CO 80033-1916

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In February 2004 NASA released "The Vision for Space Exploration". The important goals include extending human presence in the solar system culminating in the exploration of Mars and other remote destinations. One of the most critical problems facing such space missions is identification of effective methods to control solid waste. With current waste models, 1300 kg of waste occupying a volume 20 m3 will be generated in a 180-day mission to Mars. Unprocessed waste poses a biological hazard to the crew and exposure to odors from untreated waste is a threat to crew health and morale. In Phase I TDA identified a low temperature process that effectively oxidized five model waste compounds to carbon dioxide and water at temperatures up to 220<SUP>o</SUP>C. In addition the reaction rates we measured are much greater than biological oxidation process currently under development. In addition, we found that the quantity of NOX formed was very low. In the Phase II portion of the project, TDA will optimize the reactor configuration, identify the most effective oxidation conditions, and finally design and construct a fully automated pilot scale system for waste treatment that will be delivered to NASA Ames Research Center at the conclusion of the project.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most immediate NASA application for a low-temperature oxidation process would be to control solid waste on a long-term space mission. In addition, the process would find use removing carbon deposits that accumulate in hard to reach places in diesel and turbine engines. Disassembling these parts for cleaning can be time consuming and costly. In addition, the parts typically cannot be heated to 500-600<SUP>o</SUP>C where the carbon could be burned out with air. However the identification of a low temperature cleaning process could provide an inexpensive process to clean these components.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to the use our process would find in controlling waste, there are several commercial applications. The process can be applied to any situation where oxidation at low temperatures is necessary. For example the process can be used to clean hydrocarbons from semiconductors, magnetic disks, medical devices, flight hardware, etc. High temperature processes would damage these components, however at the moderate temperatures required with this process, these components would not be harmed.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II B3.06-9299
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNA05CQ90C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Waste and Water Processing for Spacecraft Advanced Life Support
PROPOSAL TITLE: Catalytic Decomposition of Gaseous Byproducts from Heat Melt Waste Compaction

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
UMPQUA Research Company
P.O. Box 609
Myrtle Creek,OR 97457-0102

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Akse
akse@urcmail.net
PO Box 609
Myrtle Creek,OR 97457-0102

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Several solid waste management systems currently under development result in the production of gas-phase organic contaminants which, due to the periodic and unpredictable nature of solid wastes and contaminants produced by these systems, cannot be treated by the Trace Contaminant Control System. Two examples of these are the Heat Melt Compaction System under development at NASA - Ames Research Center and the Microwave Powered Solid Waste Stabilization and Water Recovery System under development at UMPQUA Research Company (URC). During the Phase I effort, we demonstrated the gas-phase catalytic oxidation of a variety of toxic organic compounds and carbon monoxide, with very high rates of conversion to innocuous gases, primarily CO2 and H2O, at relatively low temperatures. In the proposed Phase II effort both process and materials will be further refined to optimize the utility of the catalytic technology with respect to solid waste management goals. The Phase II research and development will result in the design, assembly, rigorous testing, and delivery to NASA of a prototype system, sized to operate in conjunction with both the NASA developed heat melt compaction system and the URC developed microwave waste stabilization and water recovery system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Flight Hardware for long duration missions such as a Mars transit, Mars base, or permanently manned Lunar outpost. The gas-phase catalytic oxidation reactor technology may be employed to destroy toxic gases originating from solid waste processing technologies. This will preclude the venting of these gases into the cabin atmosphere and will reduce risk to crewmembers from airborne exposure and also prevent the passage of an excessive contaminant load to the Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS). . This technology may also find other applications, where high concentrations of toxic gases must be treated to meet the requirements of specific mission scenarios.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) Manufacture and sale of catalyst; 2) design and fabrication of small, medium and industrial scale reactors. Low temperature catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide and volatile organics has the potential for widespread application in pollution control and environmental remediation. Small-scale systems may be employed at home or in automobiles to destroy cigarette smoke, cooking odors, etc. Medium scale systems may be used in large buildings to combat 'sick building syndrome'. Larger scale systems may be incorporated into specific industrial manufacturing and chemical operations to destroy harmful emissions. Larger scale systems may also be employed to destroy toxic materials contained within hazardous wastes.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II B3.07-9224
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNK05OA20C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Biomass Production for Planetary Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Orbital Technologies Corporation
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison,WI 53717-1961

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
C. Michael Bourget
bourgetm@orbitec.com
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison,WI 53717-1961

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed project is the continued development of the High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) system. Solar radiation is not a viable option for growing plants on the Moon or on Mars for multiple reasons. On the other hand, lighting plants with electric lamps and rejecting the associated waste heat has associated energy costs that have driven NASA toward other options to provide food and fresh air to future Mars crews The HELIAC lighting system consists of small individual LED "light engines" that provide a level of control precision far in excess of standard lamps. This precision enables lamp configuration to be adapted to species specific growth habits so that photons can be absorbed efficiently by all available photosynthetic tissues. HELIAC will also provide the capability to adapt spectral balance automatically to plant development stage. Finally, it will have the capability to automatically detect the proximity of plant tissue and power only adjacent light engines, thereby greatly decreasing power requirements, particularly in the early stage of plant development.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The production of edible biomass in closed or nearly-closed environments is essential for the future of long-term planetary exploration and human settlement on the moon or Mars. The proposed lighting system is well suited for use in large space-based applications. In addition to the potential for significant power savings over existing lighting systems, the use of solid-state lighting eliminates problems associated with traditional lighting in closed systems such as short operational life (requiring resupply), high mass and volume, limited control options, and safety concerns including high temperatures, glass envelopes, and toxic materials.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Controlled-environment agriculture profitability often is most limited by energy costs. Dense crop stands block overhead light from reaching the majority of lower leaves in closed foliar canopies, thereby compromising yield and requiring high light levels that are not absorbed efficiently. Light-distribution systems that are low power, relatively cool, that uniformly irradiate all leaves within a stand only with wavelengths most efficiently absorbed by photosynthetic tissue, and that automatically adjust emissions to target new tissues as plants grow in height or spread without wasting photons by lighting empty space will substantially lower energy costs of controlled-environment production and will improve profitability.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II B3.09-8760
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNL05AA91P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Shielding to Protect Humans
PROPOSAL TITLE: Modeling, Testing and Deploying a Multifunctional Radiation Shielding / Hydrogen Storage Unit

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Fuel Research, Inc.
87 Church Street
East Hartford,CT 06108-3728

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eric Rubenstein
ericr@AFRinc.com
87 Church Street
East Hartford,CT 06108-3728

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project addresses two vital problems for long-term space travel activities: radiation shielding and hydrogen storage for power and propulsion. While both problems have been studied for many years, there is currently no satisfactory technology for providing adequate non-parasitic shielding. Even in low-Earth orbit, astronauts must be closely monitored for radiation exposure, and some missions simply cannot be performed due to the current inability to adequately shield astronauts (e.g. Mars or surface Lunar bases). The overall objective of the proposed project is to construct, test, and deliver a prototype for hydrogen storage and radiation shielding. In Phase I we experimentally verified the radiation shielding capability of these systems and its ability to operate after being bombarded by ionizing radiation at a nuclear accelerator. In this Phase II proposal, AFR will join with Boeing to design two multi-layer configurations that could be of use for operational missions. We will then work with Prairie View A&M Univ. to perform an empirical study of radiation shielding using NSRL and Loma Linda particle accelerators. In collaboration with Prof. Larry Townsend, we will perform a complementary computational study to broaden shielding characterization and to validate shielding code performance with respect to this non-parasitic shielding concept. During the process and product assessment, we will coordinate possible commercial ventures with Boeing. The successful operation of the prototype would raise the system's TRL to 5 or 6 (system operated in a relevant environment).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The main NASA applications for the proposed technology is dual-use hydrogen storage and radiation shielding systems on board spacecraft, space station, and also smaller versions used for innovations in spacesuit design, possibly a specially modified Hard Upper Torso (HUT). The primary purpose of this effort is to develop a piece of hardware for NASA that can ultimately be an important component of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), providing at the same time energy-storage functionality. The systems developed as a results of the proposed study will be useful to NASA in at least two respects: 1) radiation shielding for people and electronics, and 2) fuel storage for propulsion or electrical power generation. The multi- functional material in the current study significantly boosts the hydrogen storage ability of compressed gas cylinders and provides excellent radiation shielding characteristics, and results in a mass reduction for spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial areas that are under exploration are primarily related to fuel cell systems, with automobiles and other transportation vehicles of particular interest. The main application of the developed carbons would be in gas-storage systems (automobiles, trucks, buses, locomotives, spacecraft, submarines, UAV's, etc.), with additional applications including radiation shielding in other aerospace environments (satellites, military/astronomical detectors sensitive to obscuring background radiation, high-altitude, long-duration aircraft, etc.). AFR has also been approached by a firm specializing in hazardous gas packaging for their interest in storing gases at less than atmospheric pressure. In such an application, our sorbent has the potential to double or triple the amount of gas in a cylinder, with concomitant gains in savings and efficiency. Other uses of carbons with well-controlled pore structure include carbon molecular sieve membranes for gas separations, ultracapacitor electrodes, and catalysts. AFR is actively working with Maxwell Technologies, our industrial partner, to bring our ultracapacitor electrode technology to market.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II B3.10-9123
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNJ05JB83C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensors for Advanced Human Support Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Regenerative Carbon Analyzer for Water Quality Monitoring

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
7607 Eastmark Drive, Suite 102
College Station,TX 77840-4027

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jinseong Kim
jinseong.kim@lynntech.com
7607 Eastmark Drive, Suite 102
College Station,TX 77840-4027

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
One of the highest priorities of a regenerative life support system for manned space missions (to the Moon, Mars, and other remote locations) is to recover and process wastewater to provide clean water. Among detectors used to monitor recycled water quality, a total organic carbon (TOC) instrument must be used to assess the organic contaminant level. Available TOC instruments have major limitations for space missions: they need periodic resupply of reagents and water; thus, storage of toxic chemicals and crew time for maintenance are required. The aim of this project is to develop a novel Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) for real-time monitoring of water quality. It will be designed with an operational lifetime of 5 years with no maintenance required and no need to supply reagents or water. During the Phase I, Lynntech designed, fabricated, and successfully tested both critical components of TOCA and a breadboard TOCA. Testing included ersatz reverse osmosis permeate water. Requirements for TOC range (0.25 to 50 ppm) and accuracy (? 25% above 1 ppm and ?0.25 ppm below 1 ppm) were met. During Phase II, an optimized, precise, reliable, flight qualifiable, microgravity compatible TOCA prototype will be designed, fabricated, tested, and delivered to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed instrument will find application in NASA's regenerative life support systems on-board spacecrafts, space station, and future lunar and planetary habitats. One of the highest priorities of a regenerative life support system is to recover and process spacecraft wastewater to provide clean water, which is essential for the crew well being and the success of manned space missions. The proposed technology will provide real time monitoring of water quality by indicating the level of organic contaminants in the recycled water. It will solve key issues needed for manned space missions: no need to supply chemicals or water; need for chemical storage, dilution and dosage are eliminated; no crew maintenance time is required; low equivalent system mass; and use of small water volumes.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology has immediate commercial applications in many areas where the water quality control is essential, e.g., environmental monitoring, pharmaceutical industries, semiconductor industries, medical diagnostics, laboratory instrumentation, food and drink industries, hospitals, etc.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II B4.01-8696
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNM05AA30C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Market Driven Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nanostructured Fiber Optic Cantilever Arrays and Hybrid MEMS Sensors for Chemical and Biological Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luna Innovations Incorporated
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg,VA 24060-6657

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Matthew Hull
submissions@lunainnovations.com
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg,VA 24060-6657

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advancements in nano-/micro-scale sensor fabrication and molecular recognition surfaces offer promising opportunities to develop miniaturized hybrid fiber optic and MEMS-based sensors for in situ analysis of chemicals and microbial pathogens in spacecraft air and water. Such sensors have extraordinary dual-use benefits in medical screening for early indication of certain cancers and rapid detection of weaponized chemical and biological agents for homeland defense. Returning humans to the moon and "worlds beyond" as directed in the 'Vision for Space Exploration' requires manned missions of increasing duration. Increased mission duration invariably increases chemical and microbial contamination of spacecraft. Ensuring crew health and optimal systems performance thus requires sensors to continuously monitor spacecraft advanced life support systems. Presently, adequate sensors do not exist and crews must rely on labor-intensive techniques to ensure safety of drinking water and breathing air. In Phase I we demonstrated feasibility of miniaturized polymer-coated fiber-optic cantilever arrays for monitoring toxic vapors. In Phase II we will develop next-generation hybrid cantilever and MEMS sensors for detection of various aerosolized chemical and biological contaminants at SMAC-relevant levels. To facilitate implementation by NASA end-users, sensors will be integrated and demonstrated with existing NASA air sampling devices. Phase III commercialization efforts are well underway.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Chemical and microbial contamination of spacecraft is likely to become of increasing concern as the duration of manned space missions increases to return humans to the moon and "worlds beyond" as directed in the 'Vision for Space Exploration'. The proposed sensor technology can be applied to continuously monitor spacecraft advanced life support systems to alert the crew of impending dangers. As spacecraft microbial burden increases, or dangerous chemical leakages occur, early detection is critical to rapid implementation of contingencies. Presently, such sensors do not exist and crews rely on labor-intensive techniques to ensure safety of drinking water and breathing air.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Nano- and micro-scale sensor technologies that meet the air and water quality monitoring needs of NASA also have extraordinary dual-use commercial benefits in medical screening for early indication of certain cancers, environmental monitoring of toxic chemicals, and rapid detection of weaponized chemical and biological agents for homeland defense and military applications. In addition, fiber-optic and MEMS-based sensors are finding increasing applications in common devices such as cell-phones and laptops, thus penetrating multi-billion dollar markets. Phase III commercialization efforts have been initiated for development of advanced medical screening devices for panel testing of biological fluids.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II B5.02-8260
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNM05AA33C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Payload Logistics, Integration, Processing, and Crew Activities
PROPOSAL TITLE: Intelligence-Based Multi-Resolution 3D Visual Modeling, Registration And Obstacle Avoidance Capabilities For Unmanned Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Utopiacompression, Corporation
11150 W. Olympic Blvd., Suite 1020
Los Angeles,CA 90064-1825

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joseph Yadegar
joseph@utopiacompression.com
11150 W. Olympic Blvd, Suite 1020
Los Angeles,CA 90064-1825

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As one of NASA's key motivation, the use of truly autonomous unmanned vehicles (UV) has been hampered by lack of sophisticated and resource efficient obstacle avoidance systems. Solving the obstacle avoidance problem to permit truly autonomous operations in a cluttered and occluded environment has been the subject of considerable research. In Phase I, UtopiaCompression (UC) has developed a layered, intelligent and adaptive system concept that will facilitate UV operations by solving the collision avoidance and path planning problems using inexpensive imaging sensors and modest computational resources. In Phase II, UC shall fully implement this concept. UC's focus is to push the limits of automation in the 3D arena by providing a real-time, end-to-end solution that includes: (i) deriving 3D structures (computing depth) from overlapping (stereo pair) images or video sequence acquired from sensors aboard autonomous agents; (ii) using the derived 3D structure to compute and model a spatio-temporal vector field; and (iii) based on the distance to the moving/stationary objects, plan a navigation strategy that commands the agent to cruise along a safe path from a source to a destination, avoiding the stationary/moving obstacles in the frontal hemisphere. UC's proposed technology provides immediate benefits to NASA and Non-NASA commercial applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
UC's proposed technology will provide immediate benefits to NASA. The increasing use of airspace by (semi-) autonomous vehicles for(scientific, civil or military)applications and the proliferation of orbital clutter composed of objects such as satellites, crafts, stations and more, is increasing the likelihood of accidental collisions between objects ? a possibility which carries a high toll in terms of financial cost and loss of life. UC's technology, if integrated into the payload delivery and control mechanisms of orbiting and exploration machinery, would enable automated collision avoidance. This capability would measurably increase the safety of space exploration, both manned and unmanned, and decrease costs associated with equipment damage resultant from collisions. The proposed technology will minimize the crew time required for spacecraft operations through automation, enabling the most productive use of minimal personnel. In addition, the object avoidance capabilities can be integrated into unmanned space vehicles and exploration machinery such as Mars Rovers, enhancing their mission capabilities and facilitating a greater degree of remote exploration.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
UC adaptive obstacle avoidance technology has extensive utility for military and commercial applications. Intelligent collision avoidance will greatly enhance the combat effectiveness of autonomous vehicles in heterogeneous 3D environments. The technology provides the solution to the "see-and-avoid" requirements allowing UAVs unrestricted access to all military and civil regions such as low/high altitude airspace. UC anticipates that object avoidance USV/UUV packages could be developed for the interim and long-term U.S. port security needs. The technology could be extended to include detection and tracking capabilities to detect anomalies, identify unusual or risk-associated patterns as well as appearances of certain targeted objects. In addition to military use, UC believes its object avoidance software also has immediate application for the collision avoidance systems in both automotive electronics & telematics and recreational boating.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X1.01-8023
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNJ05JB85C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Finite Element Models for Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication Process

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Modern Computational Technologies, Inc.
8723 Tiburon Drive
Cincinnati,OH 45249-3529

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Umesh Chandra
Mctuc@aol.com
8723 Tiburon Drive
Cincinnati,OH 45249-3529

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Small Business Innovation Research Phase II proposal offers to develop a comprehensive computer simulation methodology based on the finite element method for the simulation of the electron beam freeform fabrication process. It will utilize the successful accomplishments of Phase I project. The following major tasks are proposed for Phase II; (1) a user subroutine to model Gaussian distribution of the heat input, (3) a new highly sophisticated thermal model of material deposition, (4) a user subroutine for the prediction of microstructure with graphical representation of the output, (5) study of convection in the melt pool to determine its shape, (6) fabrication of three different types of samples and measurements of microstructure, residual stresses and distortions, and (7) computer simulation of the samples using all models developed under the program for their verification. A thermo-mechanical code ABAQUS will be the primary simulation tool. A computational fluid dynamics code, FLUENT, will be used for the study of the melt pool shape. These models will be applicable to ground-based as well as space-based EB systems. They will also be applicable to laser, TIG and other deposition processes. A strategy for the commercialization of the methodology and products is discussed.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed computer simulation methodology is applicable to all material deposition processes including EBF3, laser, TIG and traditional welding. NASA has identified several in-space applications of the EBF3 process ranging from near to far term; e.g., (1) on-orbit construction of space structures on the order of tens of meters to a kilometer in size, (2) the development of a small, multifunctional system that could be used to manufacture spare parts on long-duration human exploration missions, and (3) the development of a miniaturized automated system for structural health monitoring and repair. There could be other applications not yet disclosed in open literature.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed simulation methodology is applicable to all situations where EBF3, laser or TIG process is used. This includes fabrication of new parts, repair of localized defects in the newly manufactured parts, adding features to existing parts, refurbishment of used parts, and fabrication of functionally-graded-materials or FGM. It is applicable to a variety of materials such as aluminum, titanium, nickel-based and other high strength alloys. The list of potential non-NASA customers includes the U.S. Air Force, Navy, and the Army; Boeing, Lockheed Martin, GE Aircraft Engines, Pratt & Whitney, Sciaky, Acceleron; power generation and automotive industries. Boeing and Sciaky have recently acquired new EBF3 systems. Pratt & Whitney has targeted the application of the EBF3 technology for two of its most advanced engines; namely, the F-119 engines for the F-22 aircraft and the F-135 engines for the JSF. The U.S. Navy is exploring its application aboard ships and the Army in field units or on-site repairs.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X1.01-8632
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNM05AA40C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: In Situ Manufacturing of Plastics and Composites to Support H&R Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Makel Engineering, Inc.
1585 Marauder Street
Chico,CA 95973-9064

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Darby Makel
dmakel@makelengineering.com
1585 Marauder Street
Chico,CA 95973-8833

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Makel Engineering and BAE Systems propose to develop processes to manufacture plastics and composites for radiation shielding based on In Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU). The production of plastics and composites will also serve as feedstock for In Situ Manufacturing of a variety of useful components, such as inflatable structures, replacement parts, etc. The direction set to NASA by the President on January 2004 placed high emphasis on a robust space exploration program. Affordable planning and execution of prolonged manned space missions depend upon the utilization of local resources (e.g., soil, atmosphere, etc.) and the waste products which are formed in manned spacecraft and surface bases. The purpose of the investigation is to develop materials and associated processing technologies for habitat structure on planetary surfaces to effectively shield humans and sensitive electronics such as solar arrays and integrated circuits from the harmful effect of deep space radiation environment. Unlike Earth, on the Lunar or Martian surface, there is practically no protection from primary deep space radiation sources such as Solar Particle Events (SPEs) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs). SPEs produce intermittent and extremely high fluxes of charged energetic particles associated with major solar flares.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development envisioned in our program will synthesize ethylene, and, subsequently polyethylene. Polyethylene can be used in the construction of habitats, tools, and replacement parts. Assuming a successful Phase II program, our preliminary design will serve as a basis for an ISRU system that can be used Mars Exploration and settlement. We expect that the NASA/government market to be driven by NASA's Astrobiology and space exploration programs. We envision ISRU demonstration experiment and pilot scale payloads as part of future Mars landers. The in situ production of polyethylene and perhaps nutrients provide enormous cost savings for early Mars missions and therefore we are confident of early precursor flight experiment opportunities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
While it is often difficult to identify near term commercial applications of technology directed to ISRU projects, there are significant near term commercial applications of this technology. Point of source processing is an emerging industrial market which is driving lower transportation costs and the economic conversion of waste products to valuable products. Fischer-Tropsch based chemical reactors are currently being used for applications such as syngas and clean diesel fuel production. An example is the production of syngas (a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) from hydrocarbon fuels. This application provides an alternative source to petrochemical refining for fine chemical production. Small scale Fischer-Tropsch reactors can be used to produce hazardous chemical at the point of use. This would eliminate the need to store and transport toxic chemicals. Distributed reactors would allow on-demand production of the quantity needed.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X1.02-8480
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNK05OA23C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Excavation and Separation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-energy Planetary Excavator (LPE)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Orbital Technologies Corporation
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison,WI 53717-1961

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Gustafson
gustafsonr@orbitec.com
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison,WI 53717-1961

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ORBITEC is developing an innovative Low-energy Planetary Excavator (LPE) to excavate in situ regolith, ice-regolith mixes, and a variety of other geologic materials to support future activities on the Moon and Mars. The LPE utilizes an innovative cutterhead to efficiently excavate a wide range of different planetary surface materials. Current mechanical excavators mount a fixed array of rock cutting tools on a cutterhead that operates efficiently only in a narrow range of material conditions. The LPE would be able to accommodate the different materials that are encountered on planetary surfaces. The LPE will sense geologic changes and respond with changes to achieve the lowest cutting energy possible. The result is a flexible machine with reduced power requirements. A large LPE would be used to mine ice deposits and regolith for processing, and to excavate openings for habitats and shielding. A small LPE would be used for exploration. One LPE would be simpler and easier to maintain than a stable of excavators, each for a specific geology or application. Phase II will further define the properties of the ice-regolith mixtures and then design, develop, test, and deliver a functional prototype LPE unit to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Excavations for ISRU are included in many NASA scenarios to reduce mission operations costs. The LPE would be a general-purpose machine with the ability to excavate regolith and ice-regolith mixtures; it would also support surface construction activities. The LPE is easily scaled from very small to large. It is applicable to future manned/unmanned exploration missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. It could also be adapted for use in ultra-low gravity environments, such as asteroids. Efficient and reliable excavation of a wide variety of planetary surface materials will greatly enhance/enable exploration and bases from start-up outposts to advanced self-sustaining complexes.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The same qualities of the LPE that apply to space would also attract terrestrial users. Development of the LPE will improve terrestrial excavators. The terrestrial market is expanding rapidly as demand for urban infrastructure (foundation openings, transportation tunnels, utility passages, etc.) skyrockets. Urban construction settings restrict the use of explosives, to minimize damaging vibrations, making mechanical methods attractive. In addition, shallow tunnel construction is rapidly changing from cut-and-cover to wholly underground, because excavations disrupt city traffic. Coupled with increasing population, these factors enhance the market for innovatively flexible systems such as the LPE.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X1.03-8561
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNJ05JB88C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Processing and Refining
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Microchannel Reformer/Hydrogen Purifier for Fuel Cell Power Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Makel Engineering, Inc.
1585 Marauder Street
Chico,CA 95973-9064

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Darby Makel
dmakel@makelengineering.com
1585 Marauder Street
Chico,CA 95973-8833

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) supported by Lockheed Martin and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) propose to develop an integrated hydrogen generator and purifier system for conversion of in-situ produced hydrocarbons to fuel-cell-grade hydrogen. With increased space exploration activities, mobility on planetary surfaces becomes a vital resource: without mobility on the surface, exploration activities are limited to landing sites. There are many needs and many solutions to the mobility challenge, depending on the distance and nature of the transportation required. Rovers provide a range of transportation possibilities, from the very small rovers for site recognition to the large rovers for crew transportation during extra vehicular activities (EVA). While very small rovers may be powered by photovoltaic cells, fuel-cell based power systems may be the alternative to power mid-size to large rovers. Due to the various penalties of storing gaseous hydrogen on-board the rover, it is advantageous to carry methane instead of hydrogen and to have an on-board reformer to produce hydrogen on-demand for the fuel cell. Proton exchange membranes (PEM) are currently the choice on many fuel-cell based power systems. While other fuel cell technologies are being developed, proton exchange membranes (PEM) are currently the choice on many fuel-cell based power systems. The proposed system combines microchannel microreformer technology for hydrogen production with palladium membrane technology for hydrogen purification and separation in an integrated hydrogen production system, resulting in optimized size and energy efficiency.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology developed for the proposed Reformer System will serve in multiple future exploration missions. The application is of direct use for any applications where mobile power is required, such as rovers and crew transport vehicles. For instance, in the earlier precursor robotic missions, robotic rovers may be needed for automated ISRU plants, to transport materials being processed, etc. In the later manned missions, the crew transportation vehicles may be use to aid extra-vehicular activities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Advanced high-density hydrogen storage and generation systems have far reaching commercial importance. Integration of such systems with fuel cells offer the promise of generating electricity and heat while offering several benefits relative to conventional generators including reduced noise, reduced emissions, high energy efficiency, and reduced maintenance. As a widespread hydrogen fuel distribution infrastructure does not meaningfully exist, the challenges posed by high-density hydrogen storage create commercial opportunities for innovative product solutions. Thus, a fuel processor with the capability to reliably generate high-purity hydrogen remains a necessary enabling component to realize practical commercial fuel cell systems.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04-II X1.03-9547
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NNJ05JB90C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Processing and Refining
PROPOSAL TITLE: Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Pioneer Astronautics
11111 W. 8th Ave., Unit A
Lakewood ,CO 80215 - 5516
(303) 980 - 0890

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Mark   Berggren
mberggren@pioneerastro.com
11111 W. 8th Ave., Unit A
Lakewood, CO  80215 -5516
(303) 980 - 0231

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is a novel technology for producing large quantities of oxygen on the Moon. Oxygen yields of 15 kilograms per 100 kilograms of feed soil were demonstrated during Phase I using both lunar and Mars soil simulants. This is about five times the oxygen yield achievable by hydrogen reduction. Up to 30 kilograms of oxygen per 100 kilograms of feed soil are recoverable by adjustment of the carbon-silicon ratio.

Soils are sequentially subjected to iron oxide reduction by carbon monoxide, in-situ deposition of carbon throughout the soil by carbon monoxide disproportionation, and finally high-temperature carbothermal reduction of silicates by the deposited carbon.

COSRS operates in a closed system. An inventory of carbon is maintained in the form of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and solid carbon. Most of the oxygen recovered from soil is in the form of carbon monoxide, which is converted to carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is then reacted with hydrogen in a reverse water gas shift reactor. The RWGS system regenerates carbon monoxide for use in the COSRS process and produces water, which is electrolyzed. Hydrogen from electrolysis is recycled within the RWGS system. Oxygen from electrolysis is the COSRS product.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
COSRS is a potentially enabling technology for human Lunar exploration because it can produce the majority of the oxygen available in undifferentiated Lunar soil, or roughly five to ten times the yield of hydrogen reduction technologies. This increased productivity eliminates the need to beneficiate the soil, thereby enabling automated lunar oxygen facilities that could produce return propellant prior to the arrival of the crew. This will greatly decrease the launch costs required to support a lunar base, and also enable long range exploration using ballistic hoppers employing Lunar oxygen. The COSRS will also work on asteroids, Mars, and Jupiter's moons.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
The integrated COSRS/RWGS/Electrolysis system has an application in production of pure silicon metal for terrestrial manufacturing of photovoltaics and electronics components. The integrated COSRS/RWGS/Electrolysis system also has future applications to the production of large quantities of oxygen, iron metal, and silicon metal from random lunar and Martian regolith for lunar and Martian bases, and could be used in the same way to allow useful metal production from very low grade ores on Earth. Furthermore, the closed COSRS/RWGS system would enable the terrestrial production of iron and other metals without generating carbon dioxide greenhouse gas.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X1.03-9548
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNK05OA25C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Processing and Refining
PROPOSAL TITLE: Mars Integrated Propellant Production System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pioneer Astronautics
11111 W. 8th Ave., Unit A
Lakewood,CO 80215-5516

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anthony Muscatello
tony.muscatello@pioneerastro.com
11111 W. 8th Ave., Unit A
Lakewood,CO 80215-5516

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Integrated Mars In-Situ Propellant Production System (IMISPPS) is an end-to-end system that will produce rocket propellant on Mars from CO2 in the Martian atmosphere. The IMISPPS conducts both the Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) and Sabatier (S/RWGS) reactions in a single reactor to produce a useful high-specific impulse fuel (methane plus carbon monoxide) and water, which is condensed and electrolyzed to produce oxygen and hydrogen. The hydrogen is recycled back to the S/RWGS reactor to react with fresh Martian CO2 to produce more fuel, while the oxygen is stored to provide oxidizer. Some of the carbon monoxide is removed by cryogenic separation to increase propellant specific impulse. The IMISPPS system produces the correct amount of oxygen to burn the methane produced, almost doubling the leverage of a Sabatier/Electrolysis system alone.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The IMISPPS would provide NASA with a technology capable of producing methane/oxygen rocket propellant on Mars with the correct oxidizer to fuel ratio of two moles to one in a single reactor while using the CO2 atmosphere of Mars as the raw material for the production of the vast majority of the propellant. The leverage of the hydrogen imported from Earth would be about 20, greatly reducing the cost and difficulty of Mars Sample Return missions and human missions to Mars by reducing the mass of propellant to be launched to Mars. Operation of a single reactor would reduce the propellant production system weight and complexity compared to other systems based on the Sabatier process and an oxygen production process.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
On Earth, the IMISPPS has applications in the area of carbon dioxide sequestration and processing to reduce the greenhouse effect. For example, cement kilns emit CO2 in high concentrations amenable to separation and processing. In conjunction with a renewable or nuclear power supply that generates hydrogen, the IMISPPS system could be used to combine the hydrogen and CO2 to convert the hydrogen into a readily transportable form (methane) that easily fits into the existing energy infrastructure. The carbon monoxide produced by the IMISPPS system can also be utilized to make various commodity chemicals. Carbon monoxide is the key to Fischer-Tropschs higher hydrocarbon synthesis to produce valuable hydrocarbon products, such as alcohols, olefins and waxes. An additional use for the carbon monoxide and methane produced by the IMISPPS system is as a strong reductant gas. The product gas produced in this system could be used in carbothermal reduction process to produce pure metals and pure silicon.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X2.02-7802
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNC05CA51C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nuclear Power Generation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wide Range Neutron Detector

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Payload Systems, Inc.
247 Third Street
Cambridge,MA 02142-0000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Merk
merk@payload.com
247 Third Street
Cambridge,MA 02142-1129

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Current design concepts for space nuclear reactors are well advanced in core configurations and architectural design. There is need however to determine how such systems will be monitored and instrumented. In the past, detection systems have been forced to employ different types of detectors for different flux levels. We propose here an adaptation of a Wide Range Neutron Detector (WRND) system, currently in use at ground-based nuclear research facilities, for its operation in the space environment. This new system, capable of measuring neutron flux and flux rate in the entire operating range of the reactor (from a neutron flux of 100 n/cm2/sec to more than 1010 n/cm2/sec), could be utilized to monitor and control a space-based nuclear power reactor. In this way, a single instrument chain can be used instead of different instrumentation for each of the reactor's operation ranges (start-up, ramping-up, and nominal power). This is a clear advantage for space applications where simplicity, reliability, and size constraints are of premium importance. A WRND would allow for a significant reduction in the complexity of space-based nuclear instrumentation and control systems. This SBIR Phase II will result in a complete detailed design for a space-based WRND, and will include fabrication and testing of a prototype system at a ground-based research reactor.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Control and monitoring of nuclear power generators and nuclear propulsion systems for robotic or manned missions, from kilowatt to multi-megawatt applications. Planetary-based applications include nuclear reactor systems for surface vehicles or habitats. Autonomous operation for satellites or deep space probes requiring nuclear propulsion or power systems such as Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). Nuclear-thermal rockets (NTR) and nuclear-electric propulsion systems for future missions targeting the Nation's Vision for Space Exploration.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
DoD applications for future space-based surveillance or missile defense systems. Future digitally-based replacement technology for terrestrial nuclear reactor installations.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X2.03-7576
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNM05AA42C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Wireless Power Transmission
PROPOSAL TITLE: Silicon Germanium Alloy Photovoltaics for 1.06 Micron Wireless Power Transmission

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Structured Materials Industries, Inc.
201 Circle Drive North, Suite 102/103
Piscataway,NJ 08854-3723

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brent Hoerman
bhoerman@structuredmaterials.com
201 Circle Drive North, Suite 102/103
Piscataway,NJ 08854-3723

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Structured Materials Industries, Inc. proposes to develop SiGe photovoltaic technology that matches the Nd:YAG wavelength of 1.06 micron for insertion in future Wireless Power Transmission systems. Full development of the proposed technology will provide NASA with a low-cost, SiGe-based alternative to compound semiconductors. In Phase I of the program we have designed, fabricated and tested a SiGe photocell and demonstrated a 45% external quantum efficiency and a 6% power efficiency at the Nd:YAG wavelength of 1.06 micron. In Phase II we will further optimize the SiGe materials properties and the photocell device structure. In Phase III we will make the SiGe photocells commercially available to NASA's contractors and also market the deposition hardware.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful development of the proposed SiGe photovoltaic technology matched to a high-power Nd:YAG laser at 1.06 micron will provide NASA with a means of delivering power wirelessly between spacecraft, space platforms and surface sites. Specific applications include: * Wireless Power Transmission from solar panels down to earth, * Wireless Power Transmission to landing vehicles in locations that do not receive sufficient sunlight, such as craters, * Wireless Power Transmission between spacecrafts * Laser propulsion of spacecrafts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary military application for WPT is the remote powering of the High-Altitude Airship that is currently under development at Northrop Grumman. In another embodiment, a vehicle-based high-powered laser could be used to supply troops with power in remote locations. The ultimate application of the technology lies in wireless power delivery to homes and offices. Laser power is potentially much more efficient than conventional land line power delivery. For the intermediate term, WPT could be employed to beam power to remote areas.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X2.03-7987
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNM05AA43C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Wireless Power Transmission
PROPOSAL TITLE: Thin Film Flat Panel Off-Axis Solar Concentrator with Flux Distribution

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
United Applied Technologies, Inc.
11506 Gilleland Road
Huntsville,AL 35803-4327

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Larry Bradford
l.bradford@unitedappliedtech.com
11506 Gilleland Road
Huntsville,AL 35803-4327

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Long duration space missions and extended manned missions on the surface of the moon and Mars are key elements of NASA's new Vision. These missions will require utilization of in situ resources and materials to reduce up-mass and up-volume and for fabricating habitable structures from in situ materials. The overall objective of this Phase II is to design and fabricate an in situ materials processing solar furnace system using the flat panel thin film MPRS concentrator technology successfully developed during Phase I. The capability of this system will be demonstrated by realistically processing lunar regolith simulant into useful product specimens such as fiberglass rods for structural reinforcement and bricks for habitat construction. The technology foundation established in Phase I, which demonstrated unprecedented solar concentrator design and performance versatility, combined with UAT's extensive experience in designing and fabricating thin film concentrators and lightweight deployable structures, provides a sound basis to project that this objective can be achieved.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
MMPRS solar concentrators are applicable to solar furnaces for lunar surface in situ materials processing, space solar thermal propulsion systems, Wireless Power Transfer, thermionic propulsion, and concentrating solar photovoltaic systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This concentrator concept may be used by commercial satellite operators to substantially enhance their design versatility. Terrestrial applications include both photovoltaic and solar thermal commercial and residential heating and cooling systems.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X2.04-7847
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNM05AA45C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Propellant Depots
PROPOSAL TITLE: To Ensure the Integrity of the Cryogenic Propellant Depot Tank Within the Expected Radiation and Space Debris Environment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
HyPerComp Engineering, Inc.
P.O. Box 505
Brigham City,UT 84302-0505

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Patterson
jamesp@hypercompeng.com
P.O. Box 505
Brigham City,UT 84302-1470

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
HyPerComp Engineering, Inc. (HEI) proposes to develop well characterized, structurally reliable filament wound composite pressure vessels for use in both cryogenic and radiation environment applications. The intent of the proposed effort is to develop the detailed pressure vessel performance characteristics that will result in "off the shelf' technology for high performance cryogenic/ radiation environment composite pressure vessels. This intent will be achieved via empirical characterization of composite raw materials subsequent to exposure to the aforementioned environments. Phase I of this effort (NASA contract #NNM05AA45C) demonstrated a significant reduction in structural performance subsequent to exposure to cryogenic/radiation environments. This reduction in structural performance would seriously compromise the structural performance of any composite structure. The aerospace and the commercial communities have shown significant interest in using filament wound composite pressure vessels for cryogenic applications. In addition there is serious consideration for using composite vessels in deep space exploration which would sustain significant radiation exposure. The Phase I investigation has shown that these environments significantly degrade the structural capability of these vessels. Constituent raw materials and existing pressure vessel designs have not been characterized for these applications and as such the safety margins for these applications are undefined. Therefore, the reliability of such usage is unknown. HEI has recently completed a Phase I SBIR through NASA/MSFC. This successful effort demonstrated a significant degradation in composite pressure vessel cryogenic/radiation performance. The effort proposed herein builds upon that knowledge, significantly expands it, and will result in statistically meaningful and, therefore, reliable "off the shelf" technology for composite pressure vessels in cryogenic/radiation applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Joe Lewis and Lorie Grimes-Ledesma of Jet Propulsion Laboratory have expressed serious interest in our Phase I SBIR cryogenic/radiation work and subsequent Phase II follow on work. While they have general interest in lightweight cryogenic pressure vessels for propulsion systems they also have a very specific application of interest that would require significant radiation resistant capability. That application would be a spacecraft currently on the drawing board and referred to as the "Jupiter Icy Moons" mission. It is planned to use cryogenically stored xenon gas as a power source on that spacecraft and will require a high performance cryogenic/radiation capable pressure vessel. Other NASA applications could include any low-earth or beyond earth orbit long-term pressure vessel requirements, such as 'orbiting fuel depots' for LOX storage, Mars mission fuel storage, extended mission light weight space habitat structures (i.e dual use fuel/habitat). All such structures will require significant radiation capabilities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The growth of the commercial space industry (i.e. Spacehab, Inc.) will present an opportunity for sales of space related hardware with demonstrated cryogenic/radiation capabilities outside of the traditional government owned space industry. The development of a commercial customer base for space hardware with new and innovative technologies with expanding capabilities (i.e. cryogenic/radiation) will complement the traditionally government dominated space market. Terrestrial applications for cryogenic/radiation capable composite structures outside of NASA will be found in the nuclear energy power generation industry. With the current interest in development of alternative energy sources being raised to a level of strategic national importance by the President of the United States, the issue of nuclear generated power will be seriously studied. This industry will place a premium on radiation capable structures for tubing and pressure vessels to satisfy safety concerns which are certain to be raised.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X2.04-9897
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNJ05JB91C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Propellant Depots
PROPOSAL TITLE: In-Space Cryogenic VOST Connect/Disconnect

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Big Horn Valve, Inc
248 W Works Street
Sheridan,WY 82801-4213

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zachary Gray
zg@WyomingSilicon.com
248 W Works Street
Sheridan,WY 82801-4213

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Two novel cryogenic couplings will be designed, fabricated and tested. Intended for in-space use at cryogenic propellant depots, the couplings are based on patented Venturi-Offset Technology (VOST) and will provide small fluid and heat leakage at high flows with a low pressure drop. Entirely mechanical, insertion opens the passage, removal closes the passage. Mating force and alignment requirements are small. With only eight major parts, reliability is high and mass is low. Redundant seals, integrated health measurements, and robotic control are possible.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In-space cryogenic connect/disconnect. Safety disconnects. Earth-based gantry quick-disconnects.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In-flight refueling of military aircraft. High-volume gas delivery systems such as LNG.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X2.05-8011
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNC05CA24C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Management for Space Utilities
PROPOSAL TITLE: Silicon-Carbide (SIC) Multichip Power Modules (MCPMS) For Power Building Block Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arkansas Power Electronics International, Inc.
700 W Research Blvd
Fayetteville,AR 72701-7174

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alexander Lostetter
alostet@apei.net
700 W Research Blvd
Fayetteville,AR 72701-7174

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Phase I, APEI, Inc. proved the feasibility of developing a modular, expandable and fault tolerant SiC-based power system through the successful demonstration of a four-module SiC-based power system capable of dynamic reconfiguration allowing the system to continue delivering power to the load without interruption in the event of a module failure. These results show the feasibility of developing miniaturized SiC multichip power modules (MCPMs) to form a core power building block component. The MCPM building blocks utilize a distributed control and communications structure, with a communications network established between the core silicon-on-insulator (SOI) controllers of the MCPMs, but with no single controller in command of the system. The decentralized control and modular approach allow for the construction of highly flexible, auto-configurable, stackable power systems to be connected in series and/or parallel to increase overall system power handling capabilities. Moreover, the identical core MCPM building blocks could be used in many power electronics applications, while various specific functions such as source regulation, energy storage regulation, and motor drives could be achieved by the use of external components. In addition, the development of high-temperature MCPMs allows high levels of miniaturization, power density, and efficiency resulting in highly reliable, compact, modular, and inexpensive power systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a wide range of applications within NASA on which SiC modular power converters could make a significant impact, including: satellite & spacecraft power management systems, satellite & spacecraft motors and actuators, and extreme environment exploratory vehicles. SiC converter technology that is more efficient than silicon and offers reduced weight and volume would find application in nearly every power management system in space. Through the utilization of a high power density SiC based fault tolerant power system (3? the power density of a silicon based system), the weight of the overall power system would be reduced, thus reducing launch costs and increasing the payload capacity of the vehicle. While one advantage of SiC technology is to achieve higher power densities through high temperature operation, the other utilization of the technology is to operate in high temperature environments. The power electronics applications listed above would also be applicable to extreme environment operation where standard silicon electronics fail.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The first commercial application of APEI, Inc.'s technology is towards the geological exploration market, namely down hole orbital vibrator instrumentation. By integrating the instrument drive and control electronics within the housing of the instrument itself, and sending the entire package down hole, finer control can be achieved, response time can be improved, power delivery can be increased, and frequency of operation can be boosted. In the longer term, industrial motor drive systems could see serious performance improvement through the integration of SiC technology. The large majority of manufacturing machinery in the world incorporates a multitude of industrial motors and drives, the electronics of which often times take up entire walls and significant floor space. Significant cost savings can be found by reducing manufacturing floor space, which could be achieved by utilizing high power density SiC based drive systems. The automotive market is of course a highly competitive market in which SiC systems not only would have to be viable options from a technological/reliability stand point, but they would also have to be cost competitive to traditional alternatives. The hybrid-electric vehicle market offers an intermediary transition step into which SiC systems could first be placed, proving the feasibility of the cost competitiveness of the technology.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X2.05-9703
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNJ05JB92C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Management for Space Utilities
PROPOSAL TITLE: Modular Power System Configured with Standard Product Hybrid DC-DC Converters

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
VPT, Inc.
P.O. Box 253
Blacksburg,VA 24063-0253

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dan Sable
sable@vpt-inc.com
P.O. Box 253
Blacksburg,VA 24063-0253

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
VPT proposes an innovative concept whereby complex NASA space power electronic systems can be configured using a small number of qualified hybrid DC-DC converter and EMI filter modules. This significantly reduces nonrecurring engineering in the design of space power converters. In the SBIR Phase I, VPT configured a space station power converter using a VPT standard product hybrid DC-DC converter and EMI filter. The system met all Space Station power quality requirements including the very challenging input impedance requirement. Two engineering units were developed and went through a full battery of space station power quality tests NASA-JSC. The approach also demonstrated a significant size and weight savings. The phase II workplan includes: (a) selection of three NASA power system applications across different branches for development of detailed power requirements, (b) design and build engineering units of each of these systems using a modular approach of VPT hybrid converters and subject each to engineering tests, (c) make necessary changes to selected VPT standard product hybrid converters in order to meet NASA requirements for design, parts selection, element evaluation, screening, radiation hardness, and qualification, (d) build a qualification unit for one system and subject it to formal qualification tests.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA-JSC Space Station applications include power converters for the IBM A31 Notebook Computer PC used buy the astronauts. Potential NASA-GSFC applications include the power system for the JWST. Potential NASA-GRC applications include the power system for the CEV and lunar orbiter. Potential NASA-JPL applications include a space-borne GPS receiver for attitude and orbit determination. Potential NASA-GSFC applications include the power system for the JWST.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA applications include many commercial satellite systems and the power system for the GPS III satellite system.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X2.06-7680
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNM05AA91C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Materials and Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Si-O-C Aerogels for TPS of Reentry Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aspen Aerogels, Inc.
30 Forbes Road, Building B
Northborough,MA 01532-2501

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Wendell Rhine
wrhine@aerogel.com
30 Forbes Road, Building B
Northborough,MA 01532-2501

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has expressed a need to identify and develop breakthrough technologies that have potential to provide increased scientific return at lower cost, and to enable missions and capabilities beyond current horizons. To make these missions feasible, advanced thermal materials are needed as thermal protection system (TPS) materials for reentry. For this Phase II SBIR project, Aspen Aerogels Inc. proposes to develop particularly innovative, lightweight silicon oxycarbide aerogels (SiCxO2-2x) that will advance the state-of-the-art for thermal protection systems (TPS) for reentry vehicles. Aerogels are lightweight materials with exceptional insulating capabilities. Because of their low thermal conductivities and lightweight, the inclusion of aerogel based insulation materials in TPS will result in significant weight savings over the current baseline construction. During the proposed effort we will optimize the aerogel composites developed during the Phase I effort for use as high temperature insulation for reusable launce vehicles. The Phase II program will focus on complete characterization and testing so that aerogels can be qualified for use as insulation materials on reentry vehicles. The mechanical, and thermal properties of the silicon oxycarbide aerogels will be fully characterized, and a low-cost, environmentally benign manufacturing process will be used.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aerogels are the most efficient thermal insulation known, and NASA has several applications that would benefit from the low density and low thermal conductivity of aerogels. Among these are replacements for the present blankets and tiles used on the space shuttle. Aerogels could also be used as insulation materials for spacesuits, cryogenic fuel tanks, and internal insulation on re-usable spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aerogel insulation materials developed in this project could offer a replacement to the expensive insulating tile array used in the exhaust washed regions of advanced military aircraft. The potential also exists for insulating weapons, fuel tanks, electronics, and landing gear bays of military aircraft. Finally, the product will have a commercial impact in areas such as: airliner fuselages, thermal insulation for ovens, insulation for hot exhaust ducts, automotive firewall insulation, appliance insulation, and boilers and incinerators.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X2.06-7753
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNJ05JB93C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Materials and Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight Ultrahigh Temperature CMC-Encased C/C Structure for Reentry and Hypersonic Applications, Phase II

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ultramet
12173 Montague St
Pacoima,CA 91331-2210

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gautham Ramachandran
gautham.ramachandran@ultramet.com
Ultramet
Pacoima,CA 91331-2210

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future reentry and hypersonic vehicles require advanced lightweight leading edge thermal protection systems that can provide the dual functionality of thermal/oxidation protection and structural capability. In Phase I, Ultramet demonstrated the feasibility of combining the light weight of carbon/carbon (C/C) with the long-duration oxidation resistance of ceramic matrix composites (CMC) in a unique laminate composite structure. This structure, composed of a C/C body with an integral CMC casing, effectively bridges the gap in weight and performance between coated C/C and bulk CMCs. Fabrication and initial performance of this laminate composite structure was demonstrated through an innovative variant of Ultramet's melt infiltration refractory composite processing technology. In its bulk form, this same CMC has survived >4300<SUP>o</SUP>F liquid propellant rocket engine testing at NASA GRC and >5200<SUP>o</SUP>F hot-gas testing at the Air Force LHMEL facility. Application of this reinforced ceramic material to a predominantly C/C structure would create a highly innovative material with the potential to achieve the long-sought goal of long-term, cyclic, high-temperature use of C/C in an oxidizing environment. In Phase II, Ultramet will team with Lockheed Martin and Pratt & Whitney for process optimization and comprehensive testing of this lightweight, high strength, ultrahigh temperature oxidation-resistant material system. The fully developed system will have strength that is comparable to that of C/C, low density comparable to that of C/SiC, and ultrahigh temperature (>4000<SUP>o</SUP>F) oxidation stability. It will not only be able to withstand the aggressive environments that are encountered by reentry and hypersonic vehicles, but also will have the structural capability required for advanced airframe and engine components.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed project directly targets the Falcon program as an end-use application. More generally, the applications of such a material system to future reentry and hypersonic vehicles would be limitless. The versatility of this concept makes it relevant to leading edge components as well as other hot structures exposed to oxidizing environments. Uncooled combustion chambers are one of the many examples of this applicability.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed refractory composite material would be directly applicable to a wide rage of aerospace and defense applications that require low-cost material possessing, ultrahigh temperature oxidation stability, high strength, and low mass. These applications include propulsion components such as combustion chambers, rocket nozzles, hot gas generators, and valves, using both liquid and solid propellants. Defense applications could include the high temperature combustion environment of advanced gun barrels, where the use of C/C is desirable if survivability issues can be solved. Non-defense related uses may include components related to energy generation in which use temperature, environmental reactivity, and economy are increasingly demanding.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X2.06-8261
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNJ05JB94C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Materials and Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Non-Toxic, Low Freezing, Drop-in Replacement Heat Transfer Fluids

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mainstream Engineering Corporation
200 Yellow Pl
Rockledge,FL 32955-5327

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Rizzo
mar@mainstream-engr.com
200 Yellow Place
Rockledge,FL 32955-5327

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Drop-in heat transfer fluids replacements for ITCS and EVA suits were down-selected and characterized in Phase I for various metrics including density, heat capacity, viscosity, freezing point, freezing expansion, toxicity, NFPA rating, flash point, materials compatibility, heat transfer coefficients, and several Figures of Merit related to heat transfer, pressure drop, and pump work. Optimized solutions had freezing points of about -30 C and freezing volume expansions 50%-75% less than water. The toxicity of the fluids is predicted to be "low" and also compatible with SS, BNi-2, PTFE and pEVA. The heat transfer Figures of Merit were 75-100 relative to water ("100"), and better than propylene glycol and organic heat transfer fluids. The pump work metric was only about 60% higher than water. We also identified a superior pH buffering agent to compensate for CO2 absorption and demonstrated a biocide "package" to prevent any microbial growth. The Phase II effort will optimize and comprehensively characterize these fluids (including toxicity), perform life testing, and deliver fluids to NASA at the end of the project.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications include heat transfer fluids for ITCS and EVA suits.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications include automotive coolants (antifreeze), Stationary Industrial and Process Refrigeration secondary cooling loops, electronics cooling, fuel cells, and industrial process coolants for chemical production.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X2.06-9476
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNA05AC11C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Materials and Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Thermal Protection Systems (ATPS), Aerospace Grade Carbon Bonded Carbon Fiber Material

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fiber Materials, Inc.
5 Morin St
Biddeford,ME 04005-4497

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Roberts
droberts@fibermaterialsinc.com
5 Morin St
Biddeford,ME 04005-4497

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Carbon bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulating material is the basis for several highly successful NASA developed thermal protection systems (TPS). Included among these innovative TPS are: PICA, (phenolic impregnated carbonaceous ablator), TUFROC (Toughened Uni-piece Fibrous Reinforced Oxidation-resistant Composite) and Genesis. PICA is currently employed on the Stardust Discovery Mission and also under consideration for CEV. NASA-Ames has a patent pending concerning TUFROC and the technology is planned for transfer to Boeing for fabrication of the X-37 leading edge. CBCF utilized in the above mentioned TPS systems is an attractive substrate material because of its low density and high porosity, superior thermal performance, and compatibility with other components. In addition, it is low cost because of the commercial market it also serves. However, the current CBCF manufacturing process does not produce materials engineered to the specifications NASA desires to put in place. These emerging and highly innovative TPS designs require material manufactured to specification. This Phase II program will demonstrate advanced processes and manufacturing approaches to consistently fabricate CBCF that meets desired technical specifications. The benefits derived include significantly improved flexibility for the TPS design engineer, as well as, more cost efficient CBCF derived TPS fabrication.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Carbon bonded carbon fiber material (CBCF) is an effective preform material utilized in the manufacture of several advanced TPS systems. The Stardust (PICA) and Genesis (LMMS Genesis Concept) discovery missions have utilized FiberForm<SUP>REG</SUP> CBCF for their respective earth entry fore body TPS systems. TUFROC, in addition to supporting the Boeing X-37 leading edge design, has been down-selected in the preliminary concept design for the aero capture mission Titan. The immediate benefit of this Phase II SBIR Program will be the availability of an aerospace grade of CBCF for use as TPS preform material. It will develop CBCF material meeting processing methods and quality assurance procedures to support current and emerging NASA TPS programs over their lifetime. NASA is investing in advanced technologies to empower the Vision for Space Exploration. TUFROC TPS development is a promising step in that direction.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications are critical to sustaining FiberForm<SUP>REG</SUP> production as the demand for aerospace grade product is projected to be a small component of annual production. However, experience gained during the course of this program will result in a better CBCF commercial product, increasing the material's competitiveness in the marketplace and long term viability. The primary commercial application of CBCF is furnace insulation for high temperature (5000<SUP>o</SUP>F capability) inert or vacuum furnaces. In addition to being cast as boards, monolithic cylinders up to 34 inches finished outside diameter by 20 inches high are currently fabricated. Yearly production is greater than 1000 combined total pieces. A sales and marketing force for both commercial and aerospace sales is in place.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X2.07-8646
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNK05OA27C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Environmental Effects
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Transparent Metal Oxide / Polyimide Antistatic Coatings

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AGILTRON Corporation
15 Cabot Road
Woburn,MA 01801-1050

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jack Salerno
jsalerno@agiltron.com
15 Cabot Road
Woburn,MA 01801-1050

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Through this Phase I program, Agiltron has successfully produced an innovative transparent conductive nanocomposite paint that holds the promise of meeting space application requirements. The paint can be easily applied to many surfaces and forms a clear conductive coating at temperatures as low as 130 <SUP>o</SUP>C. These coatings exhibit high visible transparency of ~ 85 % (> 95% with additional AR coating) and good conductive sheet resistance in the range of 106 to 108 ohm/sq. Agiltron has also performed harsh environmental testing in which the coatings show no degradation after undergoing UV radiation up to 32 J/cm2 irradiation, low temperature cycling down to 77 oK, high vacuum pumping, and collision with fragmented debris. The proposed robust clear conductive coating is therefore well suited for NASA space environment resistant polymer coating related applications. The high performance paint will also find wide commercial applications, such as in flexible displays. In Phase II, we will continue these efforts through a concentration on optimization and scale-up of stable ITO/polymer suspensions and the development of low-cost, large-scale deposition and patterning processes for the practical applications of this new class of transparent conductive coatings.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Dissipating and controlling friction-charged electrostatic potential and reducing mechanical and electrical hazards. Applications include electrostatic dissipation (ESD), electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding, antistatic packaging, electrostatic spray painting, as a UV protective coating and for transparent electrodes for EO devices.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Static dissipation in Oil/gas, explosive environments, electronic devices; uniform apparel, petrochemical targeting, pharmaceutical, precision machinery, household appliances, food industries for controlling dust generation. Extensive applications exist in flexible displays, EMI shields, robust circuitry components, weapons systems, engine components and smart windows.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X3.01-7964
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNJ05JB95C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extravehicular Activity Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: DWNT/Hydrogenated Fullerene Reinforced Polyethylene for Radiation Shielding Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MER Corporation
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson,AZ 85706-9237

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Raouf Loutfy
rloutfy@mercorp.com
7960 S. Kolb Road
Tucson,AZ 85706-9237

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Phase I has demonstrated the feasibility of the overall objective to develop strong and lightweight polyethylene composites with double-walled nanotubes for radiation shielding applications. Multi-gram quantities of pure DWNTs, hydrogen-containing functional derivatives of DWNTs, highly hydrogenated fullerenes have been synthesized and incorporated in polyethylene matrix to form composite materials of exceptional mechanical strength, thermal stability and enhanced proton radiation shielding efficiency. The tensile strength of the low-density polyethylene composites with DWNTs was evaluated to be in excess of 200 MPa, and the Young's modulus exceeds 3500 MPa, while the composite toughness is retained at a very high level of ca. 10 J/cm3. These values compare favorably to the strongest polymer films, including those of aramide polymers. The thermal oxidation degradation point of polyethylene is up-shifted by more than 100 <SUP>o</SUP>C at 1 wt. % loading of the DWNT filler. A prominent increase in proton radiation shielding efficiency, reaching 35 % in terms of water equivalence thickness was obtained for composites containing DWNTs and fullerene hydrides. Virtually no degradation in properties was observed upon proton irradiation. In Phase II, the central technological achievement of Phase I effort, the effective lamination of the unique as-produced DWNT films with polyethylene will be further developed for manufacturing practical composite articles for aerospace applications, including advanced components for EVA suits. The DWNTs, fullerene hydrides and appropriate thermoplastic polymers will be explored for composite components.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
? Advanced materials for space suits and garments ? Strong, stable and light-weight radiation protectors ? Multifunctional structural components for space constructions, telescopes, antennas, balloons, aerospace transportation vehicles, fuel tanks ? Components and coatings for space nuclear reactors and solar power systems ? Materials for in-space manufacturing and repairing, coatings and bonding agents ? Materials for satellite armor ? Containment vessels for radioactive , chemical, biological and nuclear wastes

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
? Advanced tapes for magnetic recording ? Materials for soldier armor vests and helmets ? Materials for EMI shielding ? Advanced sails for yachts ? Materials for sports equipment, tennis rackets, race cars ? Materials for bio-medical applications, bone scaffolds.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X3.01-8100
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNJ05JB96C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extravehicular Activity Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Advanced Rapid Cycling CO2 and H2O Control System for PLSS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 West 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge,CO 80033-1916

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gokhan Alptekin
galptekin@tda.com
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge,CO 80033-1916

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's planned future missions set stringent demands on the design of the Portable Life Support Systems (PLSS), requiring dramatic reductions in weight, decreased reliance on supplies and greater flexibility on the types of missions. The CO2 and humidity control unit in the existing PLSS design is relatively large, since it has to remove 8 hours worth of CO2. If the sorbent regeneration can be carried out during the extravehicular activity (EVA) with a relatively high regeneration frequency, the size of the sorbent canister and weight can be significantly reduced. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) proposes to develop a compact, regenerable sorbent-based system to control CO2 and humidity in the space suit ventilation loop. The sorbent can be regenerated using space vacuum during the EVA, eliminating all duration-limiting elements in the life support system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The main attraction of our research to NASA is its ability to provide a lightweight, compact, and simple CO2 and H2O removal system for the PLSS. Use of regenerable systems that reduce weight and volume in the EMU is of critical importance to NASA both for low orbit operations and for long duration manned missions. The sorbent developed for this project can also find use in the spacecraft air revitalization. For the shuttle application, in which CO2 recovery is not as critical. the same pressure swing system can be used in combination with the space purge. In other spacecraft systems, this system can be coupled with a CO2 pump/compressor, storage tank and a Sabatier reactor for an Advanced Air Revitalization System to carry our combined CO2 and humidity control.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The sorbents developed in this project can be used in the purification of natural gas, using these sorbents for CO2/CH4 separation. Various CO2 removal technologies are being used currently to carry out CO2 removal from the natural gas, including liquid amines and molecular sieves. Both of these systems has very high power requirement due the energy intensive regeneration process. Since our sorbent can be regenerated by simple pressure swing, the energy consumption in these separation systems will be greatly reduced. CO2/CH4 separation systems will be even more important in the future as the use of lower grade natural gas that contains higher CO2 levels will increase as the U.S. demand for energy grows. These sorbents can be applied to the Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) systems used in commercial hydrogen manufacturing, providing a lower cost alternative to the PSA.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X4.01-9020
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNJ05JC02C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Assembly and Construction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Smart Skins and Tactile-Feedback Motion Control for Robotic Manipulators

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation
650 Vaqueros Ave.
Sunnyvale,CA 94085-1260

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Behzad Moslehi
bm@ifos.com
650 Vaqueros Ave.
Sunnyvale,CA 94085-1260

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future high-dexterity robots promise enormous benefits to many areas of human endeavor performing operations difficult or hazardous for humans such as extra vehicular repairs. However, operating complicated tools and performing intricate repairs requires manipulators of great precision and excellent coordination. Human hands are very complex instruments with capacity for reception of and reaction to tactile stimuli for guidance in their functions. Integration of tactile sensing suites into robotic platforms (presently sensor impoverished) poses major technological challenges. The IFOS team, including well-known robotic experts from Stanford and JPL, proposes smart robotic skin including embedded Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors, custom-engineered composite skin materials, data interpretation and on-board decision-making. Phase I demonstrated feasibility. Phase II will deliver an FBG sensor-assisted manipulator prototype (hand and arm) based on high-resolution loading and artificial taction. Immune to electromagnetic interference, FBG sensors are easily integrated into robotic structures, highly sensitive and multiplexable allowing many sensors on a single fiber. This will enable robotic manipulators with high-fidelity force control for precise object grasping, positioning and safe operation with astronauts. They will facilitate maximum functionality, minimum weight and size of extra-vehicular robots to extend the life and reduce costs of new generations of space systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Space exploration, including future missions to Mars, will greatly benefit from robotic sensing technologies. High-dexterity robots will save humans operating in high risk areas, such as long space voyages, hazardous exploration, and research in human-unfriendly areas. In other applications, human-safe manipulators will collaborate with astronauts to reduce human fatigue and enhance human performance. Collaborating with a JPL robotics expert, this project will assist NASA in its goal to achieve safe and responsive robotic manipulators designed to have the dexterity of a space-suited astronaut capable of operating tools and performing extra-vehicular activities (EVAs), particularly repairs, on spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Multiple commercial applications exist for the robots assisted by this project. Particular interests include robots for performing (a) tasks in environments dangerous or inaccessible for humans such as handling nuclear or bio-hazardous materials, (b) highly skilled operations for which human operators may be unavailable or may require assistance, e.g., robotic tele-surgery. Major Phase-I accomplishments included partnership establishment with medical robotics pioneer, Intuitive Surgical, Inc. (www.intusurg.com), and significant progress towards demonstration of commercial viability of the IFOS technology in medical robots. IFOS is developing a business plan and intends to approach selected investors after further R&D goal advancement in Phase II.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X4.03-8276
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNL05AA82P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Inspection and Diagnostics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Distributed Impact Detection System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Invocon, Inc.
19221 I-45 South, Suite 530
Conroe,TX 77385-8746

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Walcer
walcer@invocon.com
19221 I-45 South, Suite 530
Conroe,TX 77385-8746

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Automated impact detection and characterization on manned spacecraft has been an elusive goal due to the transitory nature of the detectable high-frequency signals. The proposed approach for this effort is to use large numbers of self-powered, miniaturized, "stick on" piezoelectric sensory nodes that are synchronized within a radio frequency network. Each node will continuously monitor an accelerometer, acoustic emission sensor, or PZT element for an impact event, such as the foam impact that caused the Columbia tragedy or a micro-meteor impact. When a programmable threshold is exceeded, a low-latency signal acquisition circuit will capture the event as a digital waveform for post-processing and impact characterization. In addition, autonomous collaboration and synchronization between nodes of the network will provide for accurate location determination through amplitude and time-of-arrival analysis. The innovative signal conditioning circuit design is capable of operation in the micro-watt range on average while constantly maintaining the capability to process and acquire ultrasonic acoustic signals. Additionally, the system will provide a general purpose hardware platform on which integrated structural health monitoring algorithms and sensing techniques can be implemented. Such performance can provide operating lifetimes of 10+ years on a single AA battery, or unlimited operation from scavenged power sources.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This system could benefit many current and future NASA space flight and exploration programs, including the Shuttle, ISS, and Project Constellation programs, or a Moon or Mars habitat, where the risk of MMOD impacts causing critical damage to vehicles or life support systems exists. In addition to MMOD impacts, the basic design of the proposed system could be used for detection of leaks from pressurized vehicles and habitats through the produced airborne and surface-borne ultrasonic energy. The system would also enable the detection of crack propagation in structures through Acoustic Emission techniques while requiring minimal vehicle resources.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential Non-NASA applications include asset monitoring during shipment or transportation through the continuous monitoring and recording of shock events for both commercial and military equipment. Such a device could be placed in a shipping container and provide a history of any shock or high-g accelerations experienced including a timestamp and potentially location via GPS. Currently available commercial systems have very limited battery life and only provide an indication that an acceleration threshold has been exceeded with no way to characterize the event through signal analysis techniques.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X4.03-9959
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNL05AB08P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Inspection and Diagnostics
PROPOSAL TITLE: On-Orbit Health Monitoring and Repair Assessment of Thermal Protection Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Extreme Diagnostics, Inc.
2525 Arapahoe Avenue / Bldg. E4 #262
Boulder,CO 80302-6746

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Robert Owen
rowen@extremediagnostics.com
2525 Arapahoe Avenue / Bldg. E4 #262
Boulder,CO 80302-6746

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR project delivers On-orbit health MoNItoring and repair assessment of THERMal protection systems (OMNI_THERM). OMNI_THERM features impedance-based structural health monitoring (SHM) and uses miniaturized autonomous sensor/actuators to diagnose damage and verify repair efficacy. Implications of the innovation Thermal protection systems (TPS) are crucial for crew safety. New techniques of on-orbit assessment of TPS are needed to accelerate Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) development. An autonomous impedance-based SHM system is one of the few viable solutions; Phase I established that this technique can be configured for on-orbit TPS health monitoring. Technical objectives We will configure OMNI_THERM for on-orbit SHM through iterative hardware refinements combined with environmental testing and demonstrations at CEV contractors. OMNI_THERM deploys autonomous, wireless, self-powered sensor/actuators. Each sensor/actuator is a self-contained SHM system; this computationally distributed framework minimizes single points-of-failure. Research description Phase I produced an advanced prototype and demonstrated SHM on TPS. Phase II includes miniaturization and expands to higher temperature ranges, hybrid structures, and advanced composites. Anticipated results Phase II delivers an OMNI_THERM system configured for on-orbit SHM and repair assessment of TPS and other crucial structures. System development includes ruggedization, scaling to multiple sensors, self-diagnostics, high temperature (>500<SUP>o</SUP>F) and system validation, and autonomous operation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Sustainable and flexible space exploration demands reliable structural assessment on-orbit and in-flight to verify hardware integrity, guide maintenance, and verify repair efficacy. Thermal protection systems directly support crew safety and are among the most crucial CEV elements. TPS composite structures are vulnerable to launch impact damage, and micrometeor and orbital debris impacts during flight; they must be continuously monitored and reassessed. Safe, simple, and real-world SHM is needed to inspect and diagnosis advanced TPS and accelerate CEV development. Other applications include wiring inspection, and health monitoring and diagnostics for inflatable/deployable habitats and space structures, aeroshell TPS, and nuclear power systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications include Homeland Security structural analysis to mitigate threats (preparedness) and assess damage (response), smart structures, and SHM of nuclear plants, aircraft, dams, and bridges. SHM is an emerging industry driven by an aging infrastructure, malicious humans, and the introduction of advanced materials. Government customers include the Federal Highway Administration and the Departments of Defense, Transportation, and Energy. Non-government customers include oil and gas companies, and other crucial-structure custodians. Westinghouse Electric Company (Nuclear Services Division) is our commercialization partner. WEC sees OMNI_THERM SHM applications in nuclear power plants, and provides engineering and marketing support at no cost. Benefits include switching from time-based maintenance to condition-based maintenance. Maintenance is performed when structures actually degrade, rather than when scheduled; this produces major cost savings and increases safety.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X4.04-8132
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNK05OA28C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Servicing, Maintenance, and Repair
PROPOSAL TITLE: Non-Pyrotechnic Latch and Release System for Aerospace and Other Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
American Remote Vision Company
3561 Alan Drive
Titusville,FL 32780-0000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stuart Gleman
arvcsg@earthlink.net
3561 Alan Drive
Titusville,FL 32780-0000

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
American remote Vision Company (ARVC) will continue to research and develop a new non-pryotechnic latch and release sytem for use in servicing and flight release applications, among others. We have built and demostrated prototypes from the 20 pound range to the 2000 pound range. The devices are force multipliers, where the force increases linearly with initial grip force, and exponentially with overall grip length. The prototypes are of two basic varieties (a) linear basket "fingercuff" grippers with actuation mechanisms, and (b) rotational grippers with actuation mechanisms. We have invented a method to precisely control both versions, for controlled release applications. The devices are simple, reliable, inherently reusable, nonfouling, and fault tolerant.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This non-pyrotechnic latch and release mechanism has an almost universal applicaqtion in all of aerospace. It can certainly replace explosive fasteners in many applications. It can be used for workholding and tool holding in manufacturing applications. It can be used for robootic grippers and grapplers. It will certainly be an important component in future umbilical and umbilical carrier design, for its reusability and reconnection capability.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This cyclable, reliable, reusable latch and release device has almost universal application in ordinary industry and in weapons. In manufacturing, it can replace workholders, tool holders, and collets. In defense it can be used for boomb and missile release systems. It can be made an integral part of many quick-disconnect systems.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X4.04-9708
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNK05OA30C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Servicing, Maintenance, and Repair
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nano-Phase Powder Based Exothermic Braze Repair Technology For RCC Materials

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Resources International
811 West 5th Street, Unit 2
Lansdale,PA 19446-2283

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ronald Smith
rsmith@materialsresources.com
811 West 5th Street, Unit 2
Lansdale,PA 19446-2283

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Phase II project will advance innovative, cost effective and reliable nano-phase exothermic RCC joining processes (ExoBraze<SUP>TM</SUP>) in order to be able to reinforce or repair of space shuttle or other reentry vehicle TPS structures. MRi, Boeing and NASA-Glen Research Center will be partnering to improve exothermic joining process control, to develop preforms that can bond RCC panels in a variety of configurations, to increase the joint strength and demonstrate process robustness, to test joints to validate expected service performance and to scale the joining process in order to fabricate demonstrator components for test and validation. The Phase II effort will look at improved WO3-Al exothermic precursors and develop preform based on polymer bound mats that control the amount of exothermics delivered to the RCC joints. MRi and its partners will develop methods to improve bond strengths through the use of joint prelayers, such as NASA-GRC's GRABER materials or other glass formers. After process improvements are made, MRi and Boeing will, using subcomponents, develop and demonstrate RCC panel repairs, stengthener ribs and panel doublers for as part of its robust RCC efforts. Mechanical and thermal tests will then be designed and conducted to develop more realistic test data on ExoBraze RCC joint performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ExoBraze technology is fabrication technology for joining ore repairing many of the thermal protection systems (TPS) that exist or are being developed. For example, as a means to repair and add reinforcements to the LE panels to the Space Shuttle and/or on NASA's future Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV0. Additionally., ExoBraze joining may find wide use as a tool for TPS construction in every type of NASA spacecraft and as a tool for remote assembly in space where welding could not be accomplished. Finally, nano-phase exothermic materials, the core ingredient of the ExoBraze process, have additional potential for NASA in improved systems for remotely separating spacecraft or as energetics for propulsion.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High performance exothermics bring a range of uses. Many of the immediate uses are military focused from joining ceramic armor tiles to their backing plates to the use of the nano-phase particulates in self-destructing penetrators that upon missing their target would explode into dust before causing unwanted collateral damage. An ordinance related nano-phase exothermics application is for IR decoy flares. In this application, a range of nano-phase particulate would be selected for their capability to emit in the IR range and burn and radiate with the appropriate intensity. Additional DoD joining applications include joining Si3N4 tubes to one another that would enable the fabrication on 1-meter long gun barrel linings and in applications where ceramics, ceramic composites or refractory metals need to be joined such as hypersonic vehicles, aircraft and ordinance. Commercial examples of applications include joining of wear plates for industrial components, linings for reactors and furnaces, extrusion and materials forming tools. ExoBraze can also join thermally sensitive component of dissimilar materials joining with applications emerging in electronic packaging and assembly. Examples include electronic thermal management heat sinks where ceramic or metal matrix composites are being joined or in packages that are mounted to pre-soldered boards or components where heating the entire component would damage the assembly .


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X5.01-8176
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNC05CA70C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mobile Surface Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight Gearbox Technology

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Starsys Research Corporation
4909 Nautilus Court North
Boulder,CO 80301-3691

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jim Sprunck
jsprunck@starsys.com
4909 Nautilus Court North
Boulder,CO 80301-3691

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Starsys Research has developed a revolutionary new concept for a planetary gearbox that significantly improves the load capacity for any given volume. This concept is based on optimizing both the physical configuration and material selection. While yet to be proven, engineering estimates show load capacity improvements are between five and ten times other standard designs. This improvement in load capacity allow smaller gearboxes to be used for any particular application and thus reduce the system mass.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The evolution of the Mars rovers has highlighted the need for reducing the weight of the standard planetary gearboxes that are used throughout the system. Because of the pervasive use of these gearboxes they compose a significant portion of the overall mass of the rover. As next generation rovers are becoming larger the importance of reducing gearbox mass is becoming critical. To date, the majority of the gearboxes used on the rovers have been based on very conventional materials, process and designs. This has primarily been a result of the fast paced schedules associated with rover development. With little time for recovery, these programs are extremely risk adverse and the idea of developing new technology on the program is absolutely impractical. This is the underlying motivation for performing this proposed research effort at this time. As there is no rover planned for the 2007 there is a longer than normal dwell between rover programs. The hope is to capitalize on this time to advance the technology used on the common gearboxes employed on the rover. This will allow new technology to be introduced into the gearbox designs. As the current Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover design is potentially mass critical, lightweight gearboxes may be enabling technology for the mission.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This investigation will have far reaching effects on basic mechanism designs that employ planetary gearboxes. Planetary gearboxes are commonly used on deployable structures, covers and doors, hinges and instruments. Reducing the weight of these common gearboxes will provide significant mass reduction for these subsystems. While this particular effort is focused at the requirements for the MSL rover the results will be applicable to the majority of spacecraft mechanism applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X5.01-8195
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNC05CA77C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mobile Surface Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rapid Robot Design Validation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Energid Technologies
124 Mount Auburn St, Ste. 200 North
Cambridge,MA 02138-5787

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James English
jde@energid.com
124 Mount Auburn St, Ste. 200 North
Cambridge,MA 02138-5787

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robot designs. The software will support push-button validation through existing commercial design software, such as SolidWorks. After validation is invoked through the design-tool GUI, the robot design data will transfer to separate networked or integrated software for analysis. An interface will be provided for communicating with commercial third-party analysis software, and Energid will also provide its own analysis software through the common interface. Energid's own analysis software will allow interactive placement of any number of end effectors on any number of mobile mechanisms, each with any number of kinematic links and branches. The articulated-motion control system and joint-controllers will be automatically generated from the robot description. For both control and simulation, generic multi-degree-of-freedom joints will be supported. Energid's software will provide dynamic simulation, including articulated-body, actuator, control system, impact, and terrain dynamics. The automatic control system generation and dynamic simulation will support parametric, Monte Carlo, and parameter-optimization analysis. The software will allow physical descriptions, end-effector descriptions, control algorithms, and the environment to be arbitrarily exchangeable as modules through the Extensible Markup Language (XML) and Dynamic Link Library (DLL) plugins. A new XML-based language, ROAMEL, will support configuration, data transfer, and exchange.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Because of its general nature, the design validation tool will have application to all of NASA's robotic missions, including orbital missions, lunar missions, Mars missions, asteroid reconnaissance, and Galilean satellite landers. For future robotic missions, robotic devices and vehicles will progress through a design cycle, and the proposed validation tool will broadly reduce cost and improve schedule. Upon completion of the project, the validation software will be ready for use, and Energid will partner with larger NASA contractors to commercialize it through contracts that both apply the software directly to the design cycle and leverage the toolkit for manipulator control and human-robot interface development.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Energid will offer the software to industries needing sophisticated design and validation tools. As the market grows for home, industrial, agricultural, military, entertainment, and exploratory robots, the demand for turn-key design-analysis tools will continually increase. Energid will support all of these robotic market segments. In addition to the turn-key analysis package, Energid will extend the software components developed under this effort into a commercial C++ software toolkit that can be licensed. Customers will purchase the toolkit as software libraries and header files. By linking these libraries into their code, developers will have full access to all the simulation, control, and analysis capability provided by the toolkit.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X5.01-8382
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNC05CA79C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mobile Surface Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flexible and Safe Control of Mobile Surface Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
IA Tech, Inc.
10501 Kinnard Avenue
Los Angeles,CA 90024-6017

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kam Tso
tso@ia-tech.com
10501 Kinnard Avenue
Los Angeles,CA 90024-6017

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The primary innovation of this work is a novel approach for flexible and safe control of highly capable mobile surface systems, such as long-duration science rovers, crew surface systems, multi-robot and human-robot teams. The traditional approach of time-based sequence of commands will not be adequate for commanding and coordinating future mobile surface systems because it does not support concurrent tasks and team coordination. Those future systems will need more expressive executable plans, either uplinked from the ground or generated automatically onboard the spacecraft. The executive must ensure that the execution of commands and the response to the fault protection system conform to the pre-planned behavior. A new execution language, called PLEXIL, has been designed specifically for flexible and safe command execution. The language is portable, lightweight, predictable, and expressive. The Phase II effort will focus on the development of the PLEXIL Executive System and Plan Editor. While the role of the Executive is to interpret and execute task plans according to the syntax and semantics of the PLEXIL language and ensures reliable and safe plan execution, the Editor facilitates the creation and editing of PLEXIL task plans.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This research will result in an end-to-end system for visualizing, editing, analyzing, and executing robot task plans based on the PLEXIL language. As PLEXIL has a good potential to become the plan execution language for future Mars missions, the PLEXIL-based Executive and Editor will directly benefit future NASA lunar and planetary robotic missions. They will especially benefit the future Mars Scout missions as they are low-cost, innovative science missions that use new and creative concepts and a wide variety of mission types. The flexible and safe planning and control technologies can be easily adapted by those missions to meet their needs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The resulting technologies are highly applicable to the area of industrial automation. In particular, the Editor and Executive together can provide an integrated solution for programming and control of industrial automation systems, from simple programmable logic controllers (PLCs) to large supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. The compact and expressive PLEXIL execution language that supports concurrent tasks, coordinated tasks, error monitoring and handling, can become a desirable high-level language for programming these PLCs and SCADA systems. Specifically, the PLEXIL Plan Editor will facilitate the programming of complex control tasks, and the PLEXIL Executive System will ensure reliable and safe task execution.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X5.02-9853
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNA05AC13C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Virtual Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Simulation-Based Lunar Telerobotics Design, Acquisition and Training Platform for Virtual Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
DigitalSpace Corporation
343 Soquel Avenue, Suite 70
Santa Cruz,CA 95062-2305

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bruce Damer
bdamer@digitalspace.com
343 Soquel Avenue, Suite 70
Santa Cruz,CA 95062-2305

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Meeting the objectives of returning to the moon by 2020 will require NASA to fly a series of telerobotic lunar orbital and surface vehicles to prove the viability of In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) and assist in precursor human base preparation. A real-time 3D tool that creates plausible simulations of space environments and vehicles can bring an urgently needed rapid prototyping capability to this large vehicle & mission design task. Digital Spaces Prototyper (DSS-Prototyper) will allow teams to rapidly prototype vehicle and mission designs week-to-week and tie real-time 3D simulations to teams meetings, teleconferences, web documents, CAD databases and other decision support tools. In Phase I, DigitalSpace modeled Colorado School of Mines' prototype lunar bucket wheel excavator (BWE) to create a plausible design simulation of a lunar surface vehicle. The BWE was chosen as it is one of the only lunar ISRU-oriented prototypes in the world. Phase I features implemented in DSS-Prototyper include: - Dynamics of a rover operating within a hypothetical lunar base. - Force feedback joystick interface creating fine operator controls. - Integrated physics engine creating vehicle/terrain contact models and an approximation of regolith properties. - Auto-stereo display supporting 3D immersion. Phase II features: - Fully synchronized multi-use interface supporting team simulation viewing, recording and playback of simulation sequences. - A component wrapper and open framework to connect with Windchill, ICE, Nexiom, NASA and contractor design tools. - Annotation features associating CAD and simulation to text, documents and an asynchronous web site blog for team commentary. - A half dozen lunar vehicle and mission scenario designs for sharing and iteration by a team of world-class advisors and evaluators. - Delivery of DSS-Prototyper to NASA in an open source package for use by any team implementing new exploration vision.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications enabled by DSS-Prototyper, a collaborative real-time 3D rapid prototype platform, include: 1. Design simulation of teleoperated surface robotic vehicles for missions to the moon and Mars for exploration, site preparation and In-Situ Resource Utilization. 2. Concept development for teleoperated robotics for servicing for ISS, orbiting scientific observatories (Hubble) and long duration Crew Exploration Vehicle IVA and EVA tasks. 3. Simulation of astronauts and robotic agents within spacecraft or in surface facilities. 4. Telerobotics training for all classes of remote manipulator systems. 5. Training and daily mission operations using virtual environments as a tool. 6. General purpose applications in integrated modeling & simulation. 7. Education and public outreach to communicate the next exploration vision though multi player online games.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Any remotely controlled vehicle in mining, construction, security, hazardous waste handling, military operations and other commercial applications requires high fidelity virtual environments for development of viable vehicle designs, interaction scenarios, and eventually for the training of operators and day to day operations. The needs for teleoperations in the terrestrial mining, construction and manufacturing industries alone could create a multi-billion dollar annual business. We have identified the following applications in design simulation that could be served by the platform: 1. Collaborative engineering of automated excavating, drilling and hauling equipment for deep mining where heat and hazards make ore extraction costly or prohibitive. 2. The design of automated construction systems including cranes and assemblers. 3. Defense and security applications in the design, training and operations for teleoperated vehicles in the battlefield or for facilities surveillance. 4. Planning and training for emergency first responder hazardous area robotics. 5. Industrial design, training and operations applications for robotically-equipped factories. 6. Software games in the "robot wars" genre and for education/outreach in space and engineering education.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04-II X6.01-7813
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NNM05AA50C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Orbital Technologies Corporation
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison ,WI 53717 - 1961
(608) 827 - 5000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Ronald R. Teeter
koffarnusl@orbitec.com
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI  53717 -1961
(608) 827 - 5000

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
ORBITEC proposes to develop a unique Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) to achieve a safe, highly-reliable, low-cost and uniquely versatile propulsion system. The benefits of AVHRE result from the combination of four innovations: (1) the patented vortex injection technique which generates a coaxial vortex pair, driving high solid-fuel regression rates and improved combustion efficiency; (2) high-regression rate paraffin solid fuels; (3) patented regression sensor technology, and (4) a new fuel formulation innovation to control the solid fuel regression characteristics and provide improved structural integrity of the grain. These innovations simplify hybrid rocket design, development, and manufacture both inherently and by providing many practical design degrees of freedom that can be harnessed for a given application. Specific benefits of the AVHRE technology include: (1) increased propellant mass fractions; (2) the ability to tailor and optimize a hybrid propulsion system for a given application; (3) increased ISP efficiency; (4) a reduction or elimination of residual fuel; (5) improved grain structural integrity and increased thermal properties; and (6) reduced need for thermal insulation. The Phase II effort will design, develop, and test a 10,000 lbf AVHRE-I chamber and a suite of practical AVHRE engineering design tools that will be delivered to NASA upon completion of the project.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
The AVHRE addresses key design, performance, and operational challenges of traditional hybrid rocket engine systems. If successful, this would catapult hybrid rocket systems into a highly competitive position for many Earth-to-orbit propulsion applications, where their inherent safety, simplicity, and low-cost could be competitively harnessed. The AVHRE hardware, analysis, and engineering design approaches developed during the Phase II program will be useful tools that NASA will benefit from. AVHRE addresses the need for high performance, low cost, reliable/safe, and flexible propulsion technology required for Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) applications and planetary missions. The fuel formulation technology demonstrated during the Phase I AVHRE project can also likely be adapted for producing ISRU fuel grains to meet Martian and Lunar propulsion needs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
AVHRE is expected to have a competitive position in reusable and expendable launch vehicles, sounding rockets, and upper stage propulsion systems. A new market is also emerging to provide suborbital launch vehicles for space tourists. The AVHRE could play a vital role due to its inherent safety and lower development cost. ORBITEC is also closely investigating the entertainment markets, including rocket car demonstrations at air shows, amusement rides, and model rocketry packages that would use the cartridge loaded AVHRE propulsion system. In addition to these applications, this new type of vortex combustion may have significant industrial benefits. For example, many classes of air-fired combustors can use the vortex combustion technology for improved combustion efficiency, potentially reduced emissions, and to reduce the required pre-processing.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X6.01-8118
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNM05AA51C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Triaxial Swirler Liquid Injector Development

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sierra Engineering, Inc.
603 E. Robinson, Suite 7
Carson City,NV 89701-4046

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Greisen
dag@sierraengineering.com
3050 Fite Circle, Suite 212
Sacramento,CA 95827-1807

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Sierra Engineering Inc. (Sierra) believes that the subject triaxial liquid propellant swirl injector has the potential to meet many of NASA's Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) propulsion systems goals. The triaxial swirl injector is ideally suited to a wide range of liquid oxidizers and fuels, including hydrogen and a wide range of hydrocarbons. It holds the potential of excellent high-frequency combustion stability characteristics and low injector production cost, similar to a pintle injector. Additionally, the triaxial swirl injector offers the potential for excellent injector and combustion chamber thermal compatibility and outstanding propellant atomization characteristics, both at levels far superior to a pintle injector. The triaxial injector concept is well suited to both main injector and preburner applications. The Phase I SBIR effort focused on understanding the influence design variables have on injector performance. We developed the mechanical design concept for a prototype injector. The proposed Phase II effort will complete the detailed design and analysis of the prototype injector. The test hardware will be fabricated and tested with several propellants. A preliminary design will be developed for a large-scale combustor.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Current NASA applications for the swirl triaxial injector include CEV and a range of in-space applications. The goal is that the injector will be analytically scalable from as small as 50lbf-class to larger than 80,000 lbf-class for a variety of hydrocarbon fuels. The combination of analytical model results and test data will validate the design methodology. The design is amenable to a variety of liquid fuel combinations including LOX/CH4 and LOX/kerosene. The characteristics of the triaxial swirl injector also make it very attractive as a preburner injector for both fuel-rich and ox-rich staged combustion systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is a wide assortment of non-NASA customers for a demonstrated triaxial swirl injector. The marketplace currently appears to need a 40,000-lbf-class pressure-fed injector - Rocketplane XP, Virgin Galactic and Microcosm/Scorpius Falcon. Additionally, the USAF ARES program is interested in similar sized LOX/hydrocarbon engine systems. The practical market for these engines ranges from as few as a couple a year, plus spares, for novel demonstration flight systems, to hundreds per year in the case of a surge production for a fielded system similar to DARPA's FALCON system.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X6.01-9825
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNM05AA53C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Non-Intrusive Vibration Monitoring System for Turbopumps

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AI Signal Research, Inc.
3411 Triana Blvd.
Huntsville,AL 35805-4641

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Jen Jong
jjong@aisignal.com
3411 Triana Blvd
Huntsville,AL 35805-4641

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ASRI proposes to develop an advanced and commercially viable Non-Intrusive Vibration Monitoring System (NI-VMS) which can provide effective on-line/off-line engine vibration monitoring capabilities without relying on intrusive key-phasor speed measurements. Many powerful vibration signature analysis techniques for engine-health monitoring rely on key-phasor signals to extract/enhance critical fault signatures from noisy vibration measurements. In many situations (e.g. SSME HPOTP), such speed measurements are not available, usually due to the safety concerns of a key-phasor's intrusive installation (e.g.in a high-pressure liquid-oxygen environment for HPOTP). As a result, the ability/reliability for health monitoring and post-test diagnostic evaluation is severely limited. The proposed NI-VMS overcomes this problem by utilizing a novel signal analysis technique called Pseudo Key Phasor (PKP) to reconstruct a PKP signal directly from external vibration measurements. This procedure enables powerful signal analyses that require a key phasor to become applicable, greatly enhancing fault detection and diagnostic capabilities. NI-VMS can reduce the risks of catastrophic engine failure and improve the reliability of NASA's current/future propulsion systems. Phase I feasibility studies using SSME test data have successfully demonstrated the technical merits of NI-VMS. Phase II will complete design, development, and testing of the prototype NI-VMS hardware/software system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful development of NI-VMS can provide enhanced diagnostic evaluation capabilities for NASA's current SSME as demonstrated through several HOPTP anomaly investigation activities related to the Space Shuttle return to flight. For NASA's future propulsion systems development, when intrusive key-phasor instrumentation is not feasible, NI-VMS offers a valuable alternative to meet the health-monitoring requirement.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NI-VMS has significant applications in commercial/DoD transportation, power generation industries, and the manufacturing sector where many aircraft/plant engines/machinery are not instrumented with key phasor due to safety/cost concerns. NI-VMS's unique capability in performing non-intrusive monitoring will exert a strong appeal for these industries to use it to meet industrial and commercial health-monitoring requirements in reducing the risks of catastrophic hardware losses and plant downtime. Benefits to U.S. industry will be realized through contributions to safer aircraft/spacecraft propulsion, more efficient power generation, reduced downtime, and reduced operation and maintenance costs.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X6.01-9889
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNM05AA54C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: SMART Tape For Structural Health Monitoring of Rocket Engines

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Acellent Technologies, Inc.
155 C-3 Moffett Park Drive
Sunnyvale,CA 94089-1323

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Amrita Kumar
sjb@acellent.com
155C-3 Moffett Park Drive
Sunnyvale,CA 94089-1323

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Acellent Technologies, Inc. proposes to develop a SMART Tape system that can be used to perform rapid non-destructive evaluation in real time and provide long-term monitoring of pressure vessels in liquid rocket engines. Based on Acellent's existing SMART Layer technology, this innovative system combines a sensor network, dedicated signal processing and data analysis software to allow for real-time in-situ monitoring and long term tracking of structural integrity of pressure vessels (such as ducts, manifolds and combustion chambers) in rocket engines. Specifically, the proposed structural health monitoring system will have the following unique features: -Survive harsh environments and missions -Inspect inaccessible areas without disassembly -Ability to detect cracks and monitor crack growth in real-time -Prevent imminent and catastrophic failures in rocket engines The proposed innovation is important as it will address the need for safe as well as reliable advanced space exploration vehicle/propulsion systems. Acellent has been sub-contracted to develop the Structural Health Monitoring system as part of an Integrated System Health Management architecture development for Exploration Systems Research and Technology. The architecture will also support work that is currently on-going to define design solutions for NASA's proposed Crew Exploration Vehicle.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Acellent is developing the foundation of a revolutionary, breakthrough technology in the field of structural health monitoring. Acellent's integrated family of SMART<SUP>TM</SUP> Technology products - SMART Layers<SUP>TM</SUP>, Smart Suitcase<SUP>TM</SUP> and diagnostic Software ? will have the potential to provide a wide range of structural analysis, evaluation and maintenance requirements such as: - In-service structural analysis/evaluation - Real-time structural analysis/evaluation - Reduced/eliminated structure/vehicle downtime for inspection - Substantially reduced costs for analysis/evaluation - Improved public safety from failure avoidance - Reduced life-cycle costs from improved maintenance scheduling The structural monitoring and functionality evaluation can be performed while the structure remains in service. The system could potentially lead to significant savings related to the labor-intensive scheduled maintenance costs in the spacecraft propulsion industry and could enhance the reliability of the rocket structures and sub-structures and improve the efficiency and reusability of propulsion systems and launch vehicles. Once developed and installed, the system can be applied at any time to automatically monitor the condition of the any piping structure of reusable rocket engines. The system is cost-effective and more reliable because of minimal human involvement.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential users of the SMART<SUP>TM</SUP> technology include a wide range of companies and government bodies within the United States such as: - Commercial launch rockets and boosters - Chemical piping - Pressured vessels and pipes - Oil drilling platforms and drill risers - Nuclear power plant containment vessels - Civil infrastructures The key to achieving a wide range of applications is the development as discussed above. Once developed, the system will be available in a complete package including the SMART TAPE, the portable diagnostic unit, and diagnostic software. The turnkey feature of the system will make it easy and ready to apply for any end-user.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X6.03-7770
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNL05AA77P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Atmospheric Maneuver and Precision Landing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Color Depth Mapping Imaging Sensor System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanohmics, Inc.
6201 East Oltorf, Suite 400
Austin,TX 78741-7511

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Keith Jamison
kjamison@nanohmics.com
6201 East Oltorf St, Suite 100
Austin,TX 78741-7511

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Autonomous and semi-autonomous robotic systems require information about their surroundings in order to navigate properly. A video camera machine vision system can supply position information of external objects, but no range information. Ideally, a system that, in one package, provides 3-dimensional relative information about external objects is needed. To this end, Nanohmics will develop a lightweight, compact, low power, low cost, modular sensor system that produces a depth map of the surroundings. By combining a color optical camera, a multi-element range finding system, and digital processing electronics, a single low cost sensor system can be designed to provide relative position and anti-collision information i.e. a 3-Dimensional Vehicle Imaging Sensor for Incident Obstacle Navigation (3D VISION Mapper<SUP>TM</SUP>). The proposed system could, for example, be mounted on the long-neck mast near the PANCAMs and NAVCAMs on Martian robotic rovers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Robots deployed for planetary exploration missions, such as the Mars Rovers, must be able to autonomously avoid rocks, crevices, holes and cliffs. Technology developed during the Phase I SBIR program could be utilized to extend the mission life of robots deployed to planets where remote communication with the robot is not practical because of time delay and power limitations. Additionally, the robot systems to be used on Mars must be able to detect and recognize shadows in order to avoid losing sunlight to power solar panels while avoiding obstacles during terrain navigation. Autonomous exploratory vehicles require depth information in order to calculate the best course to avoid obstacles. The 3D VISION Mapper<SUP>TM</SUP> is designed to produce this information in a pre-processed manner, thereby offloading some of the heavy processing work from the main control processor. Due to the difficulty of control of fully autonomous vehicles, semi-autonomous control systems are currently more widely used. In this way, a human operator gives general directions to the robotic vehicle: a destination, a path to travel, or waypoints. The semi-autonomous vehicle then avoids local obstacles and moves to the desired location. The 3D VISION Mapper<SUP>TM</SUP> is ideally suited for such applications. The depth map data can be easily converter to a "top-down" map-like view and presented to the operator graphically.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applications outside of NASA include the following: Consumer Electronics (Gaming, role-playing environments,PDAs) Security & Surveillance applications ( Image processing and Identification) Automotive (Airbag Deployment, Occupant sensing, Obstacle avoidance, Autonomous Navigation) Robotics & Machine Vision (Assembly robots, Pick & Place, Part Inspection, Measurement & Gauging) Hazardous Area Mapping Robots in urban search and rescue missions could utilize the technology developed in this program. These robots need to be mobile and robust in harsh environments and at times have to be autonomous because the robot operator is either distracted or stressed. Robots used in search and rescue missions must be able to detect and recognize obstacles and plan a route to navigate around them to continue the mission.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X6.03-7903
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNJ05JC04C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Atmospheric Maneuver and Precision Landing
PROPOSAL TITLE: LandingNav: Terrain Guided Automated Precision Landing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
StarVision Technologies, Inc.
1700 Research Parkway, Suite 170
College Station,TX 77845-2304

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Ochoa
jochoa@starvisiontech.com
1700 Research Parkway Suite 170
College Station,TX 77845-2304

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Phase I effort successfully demonstrated the feasibility of a terrain guided automated precision landing sensor using an innovative multi-field-of-view stereo motion system with a novel real time terrain mapping algorithm. The objective of the Phase II proposal is to develop a complete prototype and characterize the performance of the LandingNav sensor system in all of the relative motion environments anticipated for the descent of the Lunar Surface Access Module. The result of the Phase II work will be a comprehensive flight characterization of the new landing navigation system and a closed loop demonstration of the multi-camera stereo vision unit working with the feature detection and terrain mapping to avoid hazards.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The innovations validated during the Phase I effort have potential applications for the NASA Lunar Surface Access Module as an autonomous precision landing navigation sensor system. In addition, the technology is applicable to lunar surface operations, autonomous rendezvous and docking, Mars landing and Mars flyers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a significant number of potential non-NASA applications that are both government and commercial. Potential government applications include DOD unmanned aerial vehicles, border patrol sensing systems and critical infrastructure monitoring. Commercial applications include industrial inspection and robotic navigation, security surveillance and surveying for agriculture and oil and gas enterprises.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X6.03-8421
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNL05AA85P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Atmospheric Maneuver and Precision Landing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Optical Landing Hazard Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Visidyne, Inc.
10 Corporate Pl, South Bedford St
Burlington,MA 01826-5168

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christian Trowbridge
chris@visidyne.com
10 Corporate Place, South Bedford Street
Burlington,MA 01803-5168

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Visidyne's Phase I effort has established through modeling and analysis that a unique concept for an active optical 3-D Imager (or Imaging LADAR) has high potential for successful application as a hazard avoidance sensor for use by NASA spacecraft during landing on planetary surfaces. The Landing Hazard Sensor promises to be highly cost-effective, utilizing efficient high-power laser diode technology and a gateable array of detectors to implement a sensor that provides range images to passive targets at relatively long range and over wide fields-of-regard. Further image processing determines terrain relief and gradients (identifying rocks and steep slopes) that may present impediments to landing. The spacecraft Guidance and Navigation Computer will guide the spacecraft to an obstacle free landing area by directing the engine thrust vector based upon Hazard Sensor data (as well as data from other sensors). During Phase II, a hardware and software prototype of the Landing Hazard Sensor will be designed, constructed and evaluated.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology addresses the requirements for a Landing Hazard Sensor applicable to NASA needs for planned lunar and Martian exploration missions. With basically no physical configuration changes, the LADAR sensor can serve as a Rendezvous/Docking system sensor, suitable for NASA earth orbital re-supply and repair missions and for planetary rendezvous and capture.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential commercial/industrial application areas include: face recognition for security screening; a tool for inspection of manufactured parts; an input to robotic manufacturing/ assembly/ repair; and an obstacle avoidance sensor for helicopters at low flight levels (primarily electrical wires which are difficult for pilots to detect visually).


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X6.04-8429
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNC05CA43C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vehicle Subsystems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Application of Advanced Electromagnetic Arrays to High Efficiency, High Bandwidth, Redundant Linear Actuators

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kinetic Art and Technology Corporation
9540 Hwy. 150, P.O. Box 250
Greenville,IN 47124-0250

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Roy Kessinger
roy@katech.com
9540 Hwy. 150/P.O. Box 250
Greenville,IN 47124-0250

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There is a need to develop electromechanical actuators to improve performance beyond that of hydraulic devices currently being used in numerous aerospace and industrial applications. Beginning with NASA-provided performance specifications, this Phase I SBIR effort has employed a systems approach to develop and optimize the design of an electromechanical linear actuator appropriate for demanding launch vehicle thrust vector and control surface applications. The actuator system design consists of a high-efficiency permanent magnet motor with redundant current channels for system fault tolerance, multiple high-bandwidth controllers that are matched to motor characteristics, and a compact roller-screw mechanism, along with housing and supporting elements. A system of innovations was necessary to overcome the inherent limitations of today's electromechanical actuators, which were developed based on the limitations of traditional motors, power electronics, and available actuator hardware. The projected weight of the actuator prototype to be built in Phase II is less than the existing hydraulic systems currently in use by NASA, and half of previous electric prototypes having the same performance specification. Working with a major aerospace company partner, the Phase II Team will deliver a tested prototype actuator system as a basis for future advanced commercial products.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed scalable technology will result in linear and rotary motor, generator and electromechanical actuators for a broad range of NASA applications, including: crew and cargo launch vehicles, Crew Exploration Vehicle, Upper Stages, Earth Departure Stage, Lunar Surface Access Module and lunar rovers. Specific subsystems include: Auxiliary Power Units, Air Conditioning Compressors, spacecraft door and hatch opening actuators, and high-bandwidth servo-motors for numerous control and robotic applications. A wide range of lunar base and space exploration applications would benefit, given that all such systems will need to minimize weight, be fault tolerant and maximize energy efficiency.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA military and civilian applications for the proposed technology include: civilian and military aircraft thrust vector linear actuators, actuators for Wing Leading and Trailing Edge (Flap and Slat actuators), Electric Brake Actuators, Landing Gear Retract & Door Actuators, aircraft carrier blast deflectors, tail hook actuators, Aircraft Power Generators / APU's, thrust reverser actuators, door and hatch opening linear actuators, earth moving equipment, motion simulation platforms, industrial presses, and high-bandwidth linear and rotary servo-motors (with linear elements removed)for numerous industrial and military control and robotic applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X6.04-9644
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNC05CA38C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vehicle Subsystems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Product Water Removal and Management (APWR) Fuel Cell System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Infinity Fuel Cell and Hydrogen, LLC
68 Bridge Street, Suite 115
Suffield,CT 06078-2126

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William, Smith
wsmith@infinityfuel.com
68 Bridge Street, Suite 115
Suffield,CT 06078-2126

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovation is a passive, self-regulating, gravity-independent Advanced Product Water Removal (APWR) system for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) primary fuel cell power plants that improves power plant efficiency and reliability, reduces reactant consumption, cost, weight and volume and simplifies the supporting system requirements in both near-term and advanced missions. Phase I program single cell test results demonstrated the function and feasibility of the innovation. The APWR power plant study demonstrated reliability, reactant saving, weight and volume saving and scalability improvements relative to both alkaline and conventional PEM power plants. Elimination of the pumps, rotating water separators and other components these conventional systems require saves weight, eliminates parasite power, saves the reactants to produce parasite power and improves reliability. APWR also simplifies the stack saving weight and volume and providing power plant scalability. APWR is based on PEM technology proven in automotive and commercial applications but not applied to space power plants: NASA need not carry the cost burden of developing this technology alone. The proposed Phase II program will demonstrate the viability of APWR technology at the stack level and establish an Engineering Data Base for power plant and full scale stack designs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
APWR is a sustainable fuel cell technology with application to a variety of future NASA missions including Advanced Launch System, Lunar Based fixed power, Crew Exploration Vehicle, as well as future Mars and planetary missions where a simple, rugged common power module is required.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
APWR has application to Non-NASA aerospace missions, such as the High Altitude Airship, and commercial applications for backup power, power grid quality and data security improvement. An additional near-term commercial application for APWR technology is in the renewables energy storage market.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X6.05-7729
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNM05AA56C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Propulsion (Chemical/Thermal)
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Energy, Low Temperature Gelled Bi-Propellant Formulation for Long-Duration In-Space Propulsion

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr.
Huntsville,AL 35805-1926

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert DiSalvo
jls@cfdrc.com
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville,AL 35805-1944

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The use of gelled propellants for deep space planetary missions may enable adoption of high performance (Isp-vac>360 sec) propellant combinations that do not require power-intensive heating and stirring cycles before firings, and whose handling and safety characteristics are close to stated goals of "green" propellants. Phase I focused on the ability to gel both halves of the propellant combination of liquid propane and MON-30 (GLP/GMON-30). This combination was selected to provide extended low-temperature capability. Both components were successfully gelled and preliminary rheological data was taken. To allow system-wide studies of the impact of gelled propellant adoption, non-Newtonian gel rheology models were added to NASA's flow network system analysis code, Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). These models were validated with experimental gel data. Preliminary two-fluid CFD simulations were performed to understand the flow of gelled propellants in microgravity environments. Phase II will culminate in a hot-fire demonstration of a GLP/GMON-30 rocket chamber, to be performed at AMRDEC facilities. To support this, hardware for gelling of the propellants will be fabricated and delivered to NASA. Suitable quantities of the gelled propellants will be prepared and fundamental data, including rheological and freezing point behavior will be determined. Expanded system-level assessments will be performed, using both GFSSP and CFD tools.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed low-storage temperature bipropellant combination provides NASA the capability to engage in planetary missions with reduced power budgets devoted to propellant warming and reduced risk of propellant freezing in case of malfunction. It offers significant improvement in safety operations with without sacrificing high performance. This will enable missions to the outer planets on the more reduced budgets available today and still allow NASA scientists to collect vast amounts of data. This propellant technology will also be applicable for upper stage orbital maneuvering and long-term on-orbit propellant storage depots.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
CFDRC's expertise in propulsion controls, controllable bi-propellant engines and working relationships with Northrop Grumman, Boeing, Aerojet, and Alliant TechSystems assures rapid Phase III transition of the Phase I and II results. Many of these companies are interested in high-performance, low temperature bi-propellants for various military applications and commercial application such as: airbag inflators for automobiles, emergency escape systems for aircraft, underwater propulsion, demolition of unwanted structures such as buildings, bridges, towers, etc., and high-performance upper stage and Divert and Attitude Control System (DACS) applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X6.05-8235
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNM05AA59C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Propulsion (Chemical/Thermal)
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Cryogenic Flow Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Technologies Group, Inc.
641 SE Central Parkway
Stuart,FL 34994-0000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Justak
jjustak@advancedtg.com
641 SE Central Parkway
Stuart,FL 34994-0000

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Based on the success of the phase I effort, Advanced Technologies Group, Inc. proposes the development of a Cryogenic Flow Sensor (CFS) for determining mass flow of cryogens in spacecraft propellant management. Current point sensor technology is incapable of determining high pressure, high flow rate cryogenic fluid quality and mass flow rate, and has proven to be inaccurate in attempting to rapidly measure cryogen depletion. If there is an abrupt change in fluid quality, turbo-machinery can over-speed causing catastrophic failure. The CFS will provide a means to avoid these failures as well as providing fluid quality data for a wide range of flow systems. Experimental hardware was able to detect the onset of two-phase flow and the presence of debris in the flow of water. The innovation clearly shows that it can discern between entrained gas bubbles and unwanted debris. The sensor has the potential to determine size and quantity of the contaminant. In addition, a non-intrusive method for determining the Mass-Flow?Rate of the fluid propellant has been designed, and is the focus of this phase II effort.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The more technically challenging application of producing a cryogenic fluid quality sensor, has been requested by both NASA SSC and NASA MSFC. SSC has requested the sensor for monitoring test stand propellant quality. MSFC is interested in the ability to monitor Turbopump supply and discharge for cavitation. In both of these applications there is not a current sensor available that can accomplish their individual objectives. The largest technical challenge is in the 6,000 psi cryogenic window. This obstacle will be overcome through several design iterations with existing manufacturers who currently make cryogenic windows that operate to 2,000 psi. One of these companies is 3E

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Such an instrument for measuring the intensity of reflected (scattered) light may be used for the qualitative determination of small amounts of diverse materials which have the ability to absorb or reflect light when in liquid suspension. Examples include the measurement of traces of silver wherein the chloride ion is added to solution of material containing silver to produce insoluble silver chloride in suspension form. This method of nephelometry also finds application in the measurement of bacterial growth rates, for the analysis of cholesterol, glycogen, and enzymes, for any measurement situation where an unknown composition may be transformed into or related to a form of suspension. This would also be useful in any commercial beverage application where clarity needs to be monitored.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X6.07-9561
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNC05CA36C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Propulsion (Nuclear)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Demonstration of Fission Product Retention in a Novel NTR Fuel

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hbar Technologies, LLC
1275 Roosevelt Road, Suite 103
West Chicago,IL 60185-4833

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gerald Jackson
gjackson@hbartech.com
1275 W. Roosevelt Rd. , Suite 103
West Chicago,IL 60185-4833

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Several studies over the past few decades have recognized the need for advanced propulsion to explore the solar system. As early as the 1960s, Werner Von Braun and others recognized the need for a nuclear rocket for sending humans to Mars. The great distances, the intense radiation levels, and the physiological response to zero-gravity all supported the concept of using a nuclear rocket to decrease mission time. These same needs have been recognized in later studies, especially in the Space Exploration Initiative in 1989. One of the key questions that has arisen in later studies, however, is the need to utilize a nuclear fuel form that does not emit fission products into the exhaust stream. Unlike the Rover/NERVA programs in the 1960s, the rocket exhaust in a current day nuclear rocket should contain no radioactivity. We will investigate a series of coated fuel forms that will inhibit fission products and actinides from diffusing out into the surrounding coolant. A demonstration experiment will be designed that will allow fuels containing uranium-238 to be fissioned, heated to very high temperatures, and assessed for emission of any products.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project will result in the ability of NASA to develop a nuclear thermal rocket. Such a rocket will revolutionize space flight in the solar system. The nuclear rocket is applicable to Moon base construction, missions to Mars, and fast missions to the outer planets. If a nuclear fuel can be developed that does not expel radioactivity, the nuclear rocket can be used from Low Earth Orbit outward with no need for any type of shuttle vehicle to high orbit. Development of a nuclear rocket with clean exhaust will enable the human race to expand into the solar system safely.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial potential of this project is extremely high. The ability to inhibit the diffusion of atoms at very high temperatures by coating the fuel with a series of appropriately chosen metals layers will be applicable to several markets where high temperature gases are contained by metallic structures. In addition, the migration of fission products through media at low temperatures may also be addressed. The results of this project could impact the fabrication of turbine blades, long term storage of nuclear waste, and high temperature energy conversion systems as examples.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X6.08-7817
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNK05OA31C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Launch Infrastructure & Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aerogel Insulation to Support Cryogenic Technologies

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aspen Aerogels, Inc.
30 Forbes Road, Building B
Northborough,MA 01532-2501

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Duan Ou
dou@aerogel.com
30 Forbes Road, Building B
Northborough,MA 01532-2501

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is seeking a high performance thermal insulation material for cryogenic applications in space launch development. Many of the components in cryogenic distribution systems at the launch site can be complex and require an insulation that can be formed to irregular shapes to minimize heat leak. Aerogel beads are configurable to virtually any shape and offer a lightweight insulation solution with substantial improvements over conventional insulations. Success in the commercialization of high performance insulating aerogel beads has relied on the effectiveness of converting loose beads into functional insulation components. This type of insulation component requires reasonable mechanical strength and should be able to withstand a certain degree of compression, tensile, and flexural loads. Aspen Aerogels' solution entails the use of mechanically resistant aerogel beads and a binder that does not penetrate the surface of the beads. Preliminary investigation into composite development in the Phase I effort has resulted in a net shape insulation component having excellent thermal and mechanical properties. This type of insulation component is able to fill areas that are currently inaccessible with existing insulation products. A high-performance thermal insulation composite, such as that described in this proposal, will have a significant impact in insulation technology advancement.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aerogel bead materials with superior mechanical resilience have numerous possibilities for use in advanced cryogenic space transportation technologies, as well as other high performance insulation needs. The material has been proposed for insulating cryogenic distribution systems for applications in space transportation and insulation of miles-long cryogen transfer lines. NASA can also use the resilient bead composite insulation in various applications, from space launch vehicle propellant tanks, Space Shuttle upgrades, interplanetary propulsion and life support equipment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applications for Aspen Aerogels' bead composites are not restricted to NASA's field of interest. Important industry applications include transfer and storage of liquefied natural gas or for transferring crude oil beneath the ocean. The novel insulation produced could also be used for high temperature superconducting (HTS) power transmission lines that require cooling with liquid nitrogen. Aspen's hybrid aerogel beads can offer thermal management solutions for handling or transportation of various cryogens (LOX, LH2, LN2, LHe, and LNG), supporting cryogenic equipment manufacturers and suppliers. Provided low enough costs, the aerogel beads could become a commodity used in refrigerators and household freezers.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X6.09-9119
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNS05AA36C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Transportation Test Requirements & Instrumentation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Simulations of Unsteady Effects and Dynamic Responses in Complex Valve Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Combustion Research and Flow Technology
6210 Kellers Church Road
Pipersville,PA 18947-1020

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vineet Ahuja
vineet@craft-tech.com
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville,PA 18947-1020

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Reliable diagnostic tools to support system health monitoring are critical both for liquid rocket experimental ground test facilities and flight systems. Here, flow induced instabilities can generate flow anomalies such as large scale pressure fluctuations that may couple with other system components and generate deleterious structural vibrations or lead to system malfunction as was evidenced in the RS-68 engine on the Delta IV system. Identifying the source of these flow instabilities is extremely difficult since they may arise from a variety of coupled phenomena such as hydrodynamics, valve timing and scheduling, and cavitation related events in cryogenic propellant and oxidizer feedlines. The proposed Phase II program addresses this deficiency; the product of this effort will be a reliable predictive tool that can characterize flow instabilities, identify dominant frequency modes, and elucidate structural response in valve and feed systems. Phase I activities demonstrated the simulation capability for instabilities in varied flow devices (e.g. venturis, orifices) used in the E-1 test facilities at NASA SSC. The Phase II work will extend this to include fluid-structure interaction for analysis of system vibration, structural damage and gauge valve response. Extensive validation will result in a predictive diagnostic tool for liquid rocket propulsion systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our product addresses a core need of NASA in testing and designing of feed systems and valve systems for a new class of liquid rocket engines for upcoming programs such as Project Constellation for a new Crew Exploration Vehicle, as well as the Mission to the Moon. This tool will significantly enhance NASA's analytical capabilities in predicting instabilities in high-pressure, cryogenic test stands as well as quantify risks in the operation of propellant delivery systems. It can also play a vital role in unsteady analyses of the external fuel tank pressurization for the space shuttle and can aid in the testing and design of engine health monitoring systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial applications for our product are directly related to reliable designs for valves functioning in cryogenic environments. Launch companies are also interested in our product to identify failure modes in control valves. The simulation tool can also play a vital role in identifying hazardous operating conditions and designing control systems for dynamic disturbance mitigation since flow instability and structural resonance can touch off relief valves and damage pipe hangers and supports.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X6.09-9927
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNS05AA37C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Transportation Test Requirements & Instrumentation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Distributed Wireless Sensor Data Acquisition and Control System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mobitrum Corporation
8070 Georgia Avenue, Suite 209
Silver Spring,MD 20910-1707

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ray Wang
rwang@mobitrum.com
8070 Georgia Avenue, Suite 213
Silver Spring,MD 20910-1707

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Combining smart sensor with wireless technology is a compelling addition to structure a large-scale smart sensor networks for real-time data acquisition, distributed detection and estimations. This requires a distributed data acquisition and control system containing edge-sensing devices to interact with different types of sensors, which poses significant challenges to the system architect. Mobitrum is proposing an innovative solution to fill the gap between sensing devices and data acquisition system by offering an end-to-end architecture and methods to interface with edge devices and to present data that they generated. The effort includes: (1) Object-oriented approach to interfaces with standard-based smart sensors and smart transducer interface modules (STIM), (2) Advanced intelligent data acquisition and control, (3) Sensor health assessment, (4) Data management and intelligent sensor fusion across local and mobile computational platforms. The significance of the innovation is that the new system can significantly lower the cost and increase the capabilities to improve remote testing and safety assurance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Mobitrum's wireless data acquisition and control system will enable the NASA Space Transportation Test facility to be more effective in data input, manipulation, and distribution activities as well as design and engineering collaboration. NASA will benefit from the following proposed technologies: (1) Field communications device for spatial data input, manipulation and distribution; (2) Sensor, measurement, and field verification applications; (3) Condition-aware applications; (4) Location-aware applications; (5) Biometric identification applications; (6) Data collaboration and distribution applications; and (7) Wireless instrumentation for robotic manipulation and positioning for audio and visual capture, and real-time multimedia representation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The opportunity for the wireless data acquisition and control technology is a key element for future wireless content service providers. The proposed technology can provide enhanced wireless data acquisition and control in a variety of applications such as the following: (1) Utility and remote meter reading; (2) RFID for tracking and personal public warning; (3) Building automation systems for real-time monitoring and control of security and surveillance systems, alarms, HVAC, etc., (4) Manufacturing and distribution for industrial automation using RFID;(5) Health care for wireless monitoring equipment; and (6) Distributed GIS and services.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X7.01-9687
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNG05CA80C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radio Frequency (RF) Telecommunications Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fault Tolerant, Radiation Hard DSP

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Space Micro, Inc.
12872 Glen Circle Road
Poway,CA 92064-2029

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Czajkowski
dcz@spacemicro.com
10401 Roselle Street, Ste 400
San Diego,CA 92121-1526

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a radiation tolerant/hardened signal processing node, which effectively utilizes state-of-the-art commercial semiconductors plus our innovative space radiation mitigation. Building on our Phase I success, a unique combination of DSP and FPGA hardware and software will be demonstrated, including in space radiation environments. The resulting product will enable dramatically improved on board signal processing capabilities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology and products evolving from this SBIR program can be used directly on a variety of future NASA space exploration missions. These may include Mars rovers and orbiters, JIMO, New Millenium, New Horizons-Pluto express/Kuiper belts, and manned lunar programs. In addition, applications include lunar reconnaisance orbiter, Phoenix, Dawn,Earth Science platforms and space science missions, including: the Space Shuttle, International Space Station, earth science mission platforms (CINDI, Hydros, CALIPSO, AIM, CloudSat,Aquarius,TWINS), and next-generation TDRSS spacecraft. Products evolving from this SBIR will enable affordable, survivable, high performance communications on future programs such as LDCM, Ocean Vector Winds, and space interferometry.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology and products developed under this SBIR program have the same benefits for applications in the DoD and private sectors that it has for NASA. There are a wide range of DoD programs with requirements for very high on board data and signal processing. These include new LEO and GEO space platforms such as AEHF, GPS follow ons, RADARSATs, the transformational satellite (TSAT) and advanced polar system (APS) satellite. Other applications include both DoD and NRO intelligence/reconnaisance satellites and the DoD weather satellites (DMSP). Other non-DoD US Government applications include the fleet of LEO and GEO weather satellites operated by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Private sector applications include telecommunication satellites and foreign government and commercial space systems (ESA, CNES, JAXA).


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X7.02-7723
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNA05AC15C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Intelligent Onboard Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Onboard Space Autonomy Through Integration of Health Management and Control Reconfiguration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scientific Systems Company, Inc.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn,MA 01801-6580

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eliot Li
eliot@ssci.com
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn,MA 01801-6580

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The main objective of this Phase II effort is to develop integrated health management and control reconfiguration algorithms that allow future space systems to respond autonomously and optimally to subsystem failure or degradation. This will involve developing new techniques for health monitoring and data fusion, as well as those for identifying, characterizing, and exploiting analytic redundancy. To achieve our goal of demonstrating the features of the proposed technology, Phase II will focus on developing an integrated health management system prototype for a combined system of Electrical Power Distribution and Control subsystem and Attitude Control Subsystem that is present in all space vehicles, including the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). The prototype will be developed based on an open architecture, and will be tested on hardware facilities maintained by Boeing Phantom Works to ensure the proposed technologies will reach the required maturity level for transitioning to NASA by the end of the Phase II period. Our subcontractor Boeing is part of a team selected by NASA to develop preliminary designs for the CEV. The partnership will allow us to transition the Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) and control reconfiguration technology developed under this project to the CEV program aggressively during Phase III.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed integrated health management and control reconfiguration technologies will be directly applicable to the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) design. Specifically, the proposed techniques for fault detection and diagnosis, information fusion, and degradation management, as well as tools for health management design, will contribute to the integrated health management capability for the CEV significantly. The fault tolerant control reconfiguration algorithms developed in this project is also applicable to many current and future space missions, including Triana, MAXIM, LISA, etc. The capability to continue the mission under failure, as well as the cost saving and increased reliability, will be very attractive from the mission level perspective.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technologies have wide application in fault tolerant control of both manned and unmanned aircraft. For human operated aircraft, there has been significant effort during the past decade in developing flight control reconfiguration methods for vehicles subject to a limited amount of control surface damages. The control reconfiguration design has been developed based on the idea of analytic redundancy control concept by leveraging off the remaining control surfaces to produce equivalent force and torque in the direction of the lost ones. However, control methodology that allows the aircraft to "limp" home under the underactuated control situation has not been closely addressed. The autonomous underactuated control concept developed in this project can potentially be applied to aircraft flight control systems as the backup mode that would significantly increase its safety and reliability beyond its current level. Similarly, for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle/Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UAV/UCAV) systems, the ability to maintain/continue the mission subject to severe damage of multiple control surfaces due to enemy fires or actuators outages via autonomous underactuated control design algorithms would offer a tremendous power to military operations' success.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X7.02-8598
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNJ05JC07C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Intelligent Onboard Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Procedure Verification and Validation Toolset

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tietronix Software, Inc.
1331 Gemini Ave, Suite 300
Houston,TX 77058-2794

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michel Izygon
mizygon@tietronix.com
1331 Gemini Avenue, Suite 300
Houston,TX 77058-2794

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed research is aimed at investigating a procedure verification and validation toolset, which will allow the engineers who are responsible for developing the on-board procedures to validate early, continuously, collaboratively and in real-time. Currently these engineers are limited to the use of big simulators such as the Space Station Training Facility (SSTF) for the ISS, which is costly to run and requires a scheduling of the facility a long time in advance. The targeted tool would fill the gap between the very limited validation done at their desktop (mainly peer review of the procedure) and the simulator run (where the procedures are tested in the very expensive training environment). This project has a number of innovative aspects, which will make the work of procedure developers easier and more consistent. Benefits realized from using a desktop based procedure validation toolset include the increase in safety, reduction of training costs, and improvement in procedure delivery time through early detection and resolution of errors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Use of procedures is pervasive to all NASA organizations, and programs, whether they support on-orbit or ground-based operations, for crew use or as automated procedures, for payloads, sub-systems or for entire spacecrafts. In the coming years, Space Shuttle, International Space Station, and the CEV will continue to depend heavily on complex procedures. Providing these programs with an advanced procedure V&V toolset on the desktop will provide a significant support for shortening the procedure development life cycle. A desktop validation tool has the potential to significantly reduce the number of SSTF runs and the number of procedure defects found during SSTF sessions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The envisioned toolset can be applied to any complex system requiring an operational procedure as it also needs ways to be validated. Desktop based tool support for such system is currently missing. A tool that can be customized to different systems will be useful within DoD organizations using heavy equipment operating procedures, such as airplanes, tanks, transport equipment, or logistics support equipment. In the commercial arena, operational procedures are also being used in a broad range of areas, such as airplane checklist, power plant, refineries, and chemical plants operations. This type of technology can be adapted to these different domains and provide benefits similar to those provided to NASA.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X7.03-9393
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNJ05JC09C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mission Training Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Adaptive Distributed Environment for Procedure Training

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., Suite 360
San Mateo,CA 94404-1560

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Eric Domeshek
domeshek@stottlerhenke.com
48 Grove Street, Suite 206
Somerville,MA 02144-2500

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The ADEPT project aims to improve the state-of-the-art with respect to capabilities and costs of scenario-based training in support of future space exploration missions at NASA. The key features of ADEPT will include: (1) a scenario-based intelligent tutoring system focused on the problem of training systems-operators on how to think through operational contingencies; (2) reliance on explicit representations of target mental models for the systems students are being trained to operate; (3) incorporation of an extensive authoring tool suite to lower costs of training development; and (4) use of multi-modal tutor-student dialog interaction to get at student decision rationale. Innovations include (a) a new instructional design methodology and supporting tools tuned to the demands of scenario-based contingency response training; (b) application of systems models to training in operations contingency reasoning as opposed to diagnosis or design; (c) development of tools that exploit systems models to support conceptual design of appropriate training scenarios, and development of interactive tutorial dialogs; and (d) attacking cost, quality, flexibility, and longevity issues through an overall training systems design (and project execution plan) emphasizing openness to integration of existing and future components such as simulators, user interfaces, and authoring tools.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Projected future missions will require controllers and astronauts to interact with more capable (semi) automated and robotic systems. Current training practices, tied as they are to scripted scenarios and human instructors, are too costly, inflexible, and inefficient in the face of escalating training needs: more systems, greater complexity, and evolving procedures. The next rounds of lunar exploration will likely involve robotic vehicles with greater potential for autonomy, and controllers will need to learn to supervise these systems in varied ways depending on factors such as immediate mission, environmental setting and expected hazards, latest operational procedures and system health limitations, etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Many organizations are looking at a future defined by ever more ambitious undertakings, supported by ever more complex and intelligent systems, and requiring increasing productivity and autonomy from highly skilled staff. It is necessary to train the workforce both to follow procedures and to cope effectively with contingencies. Training and retraining are a constant burden as workers move between jobs, and as procedures change to reflect changes in the system, mission, context, operating regimen, or regulations. Industries with heavy reliance on production, distribution, transportation, and information processing systems are all examples of potential consumers of ADEPT technology.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X8.01-8873
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNC05CA68C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technology-Systems Analysis and Infrastructure Modeling
PROPOSAL TITLE: Modeling Based Decision Support Environment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Phoenix Integration
1715 Pratt
Blacksburg,VA 24060-0000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scott Ragon
sragon@phoenix-int.com
1715 Pratt
Blacksburg,VA 24060-6472

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Phoenix Integration's vision is the creation of an intuitive human-in-the-loop engineering environment called Decision Navigator that leverages recent advances in multi-dimensional visualization technology, state-of-the art optimization algorithms, and parallel processing capability. The visualization displays help designers understand key trends and trade-offs, follow the progress of the optimization algorithm, and interact with and guide the algorithm so as to make decisions regarding promising designs. This tool is fundamentally different from traditional optimization tools because of its interactive nature. Phase I research proved the feasibility of the Decision Navigator concept by integrating an optimization engine with multi-dimensional visualization tools and then integrating the combination into the Phoenix Integration design environment known as ModelCenter. This Phase II proposal builds upon the Phase I proof of feasibility study and completes the concept as a practical commercial decision support tool. Key technical elements added in Phase II include the ability to collaborate with other users, the ability to manage risk and uncertainty, and interactive "wizards" that will help users accomplish common tasks. The Decision Navigator will be a critical link in exercising NASA mission models, trade studies, system and investment analysis, and program and technology planning.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA requires new capabilities to characterize and model technology involving performance, risk, and cost, and the means to exercise that knowledge in the context of system-wide trades and design. The Decision Navigator will be a valuable tool used to develop and deploy space mission systems and will complement the "use what we have" philosophy by helping engineers to choose the best combinations of existing and newly developed hardware. Typical applications include CEV design, system integration, mission analysis, shuttle support, robotics design, and aeronautical research. Managers will benefit through the increased capability to evaluate mission risk and perform dynamic mission re-planning.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications embrace a wide spectrum of defense, electronic, automotive, and heavy equipment industries. The Decision Navigator will foster an environment for innovation and will expand the level of product design to create innovative offerings in the market. It will also help to reduce the time and cost of the design process, make industrial products more optimized and robust, and use engineering resources more efficiently. The proposed decision support environment will be useful to anyone who uses models and simulations to design a product or make a decision as in the financial industry minimizing investment risk or maximizing returns.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II X8.02-9911
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNA05AC19C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Design Technologies for Entry Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multidisciplinary Design Under Uncertainty for Entry Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michigan Engineering Services, LLC
3916 Trade Center Drive
Ann Arbor,MI 48108-0000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nick Vlahopoulos
nv@miengsrv.com
3916 Trade Center Drive
Ann Arbor,MI 48108-0000

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The physical difficulty of designing entry vehicles originates from the large degree of coupling between the various disciplines involved in the design. Every subsystem design decision has far reaching consequences that must be evaluated in a multidisciplinary fashion in order to assess the impact on the weight and the performance of the entire vehicle. The disciplines which must be accounted and integrated during the design are: trajectory optimization, guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) technology, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal-structural analysis, and thermal protection system (TPS) development. Previous efforts in developing a collaborative or a multidisciplinary optimization process never considered how uncertainty in the atmospheric conditions, in the entry parameters of the vehicle, in the condition of the vehicle during entry, and in the performance of the TPS will influence the design and provide a risk assessment for a mission. The work completed during the Phase I effort demonstrated that it is feasible to develop a tool for multidisciplinary optimization under uncertainty (MDO-U) for entry vehicle design, and the new information which is gained is insightful and meaningful. The functionality and the value of the new MDO-U design tool were demonstrated through a case study where MDO-U was performed for the HL-20 vehicle under a LEO consideration. During Phase II a general purpose and user friendly MDO-U product which can be used in entry vehicle design, and in many other engineering areas will be developed.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Uncertainties due to manufacturing tolerances, material variability, the operating environment, and the state of the operating structure, are encountered in aircraft structures, launch vehicles, entry vehicles, and propulsion systems. The ability to account for such uncertainties in all these different areas and for the cross-coupling between disciplines, during the design stage will be valuable. Therefore, the MDO-U system will be useful to all NASA groups interested in designing space vehicles or aircraft. The case studies performed for the HL20 vehicle during Phase I and II, will demonstrate the value of the new development and will help promote its use within NASA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Uncertainties due to manufacturing tolerances, material variability, the operating environment, and the state of the operating product, are encountered in the automotive, the shipbuilding, the heavy construction equipment, the defense industries (missile development, ground combat vehicle design), and bioengineering. The MDO-U system will allow engineers to account for uncertainties during the design of their products while considering the cross-coupling among the multiple disciplines involved in each product design. Thus, there is a great market potential for the outcome of this SBIR. For the general purpose MDO-U product (without the entry vehicle specific capabilities), the proposing firm will have Noesis Solutions (an established internationally firm in optimization products) as a commercialization partner.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II E1.01-8221
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNL05AA83P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Passive Optics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Electroactive Single Crystal and Polymer Actuators for Passive Optics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRS Ceramics, Inc.
2820 East College Ave, Suite J
State College,PA 16801-7548

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Rehrig
paul@trstechnologies.com
2820 East College Avenue
State College,PA 16801-7548

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Large stroke and high precision electroactive single crystal and polymer actuators are desired for cryogenic passive optics such as Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) and Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) in NASA remote sensing missions. The results of the Phase I program have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of using electroactive single crystal and polymer actuator concepts for large stroke, high precision cryogenic actuations for passive optics. We believe this result justifies the Phase II continuation to develop electroactive single crystal and polymer actuators for cryogenic tunable FPI and FTS for remote sensing applications. In particular, single crystal stack actuators with stroke of 25 um at 77K, flextensional actuator with stroke of 100-200 um and hybrid single crystal /polymer HYBAS actuators with stroke 1-2 mm will be developed for both current cryogenic tunable FPI and future passive optics. Single crystal piezoelectrics are attractive because they exhibit 3 to 5 times the strain of conventional piezoelectric ceramics, have very low strain hysteresis, and retain excellent piezoelectric performance at cryogenic temperatures. HYBAS actuation concept exhibits significant strain improvement by combining single crystal piezoelectrics and EAP.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The results of the Phase I program have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of using electroactive single crystal and polymer actuator concepts for large stroke, high precision cryogenic actuations for cryogenic tunable FPI and FTS in passive optics applications. These actuators also hold promising for adaptive optics applications to many future NASA missions such as JWST, SIM, SAFIR,TPF and others.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The electroactive single crystal and polymer actuator technology is also well suited to satisfying several non-NASA requirements. In particular, there are several active DOD programs interested in developing high temperature superconductor based microwave devices requiring large stroke and precision actuators for tuning. Apart from the passive optics and adaptive structures applications, large stroke, high precision electroactive single crystal and polymer actuators are also good candidates for vibration control and smart structures, electromechanical optical switch, RF communications, and micropositioning for photonics and biomedical tooling for Non-NASA applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II E1.01-8745
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNL05AA87P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Passive Optics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Mesoporous Silicon Far Infrared Filters

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc.
575 McCorkle Blvd.
Westerville,OH 43082-8699

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Philip Swinehart
pswinehart@lakeshore.com
575 McCorkle Blvd.
Westerville,OH 43082-8699

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase I proposal describes a novel method to make optical filters based on mesoporous silicon multilayers, for use at cold temperatures in the far infrared spectral region. This type of filter consists of a lattice of different porosity layers formed in monocrystalline silicon by electrochemical means. Due to the nature of the material, mesoporous silicon filters do not suffer from thermal, mechanical, and environmental instabilities. More over, due to the high transparency of the mesoporous silicon throughout a large part of the far IR range, such filters can be made for wavelengths far longer than those that can be addressed with conventional interference filter technology. They will considerably outperform filters based on metal meshes. Such filters are expected to impact astronomical, commercial, military and scientific communities in many filter applications. In Phase I, the feasibility of the method was demonstrated by fabricating porous multilayers with ultrahigh thicknesses and good long wave pass and bandpass characteristics in the mid-to-far IR. In Phase II, optimized filters will be fabricated and their properties compared with design predictions. Phase III will involve product design, fabricating filter structures to meet customers' physical as well as optical needs, and marketing and sales investments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Far-infrared imaging is a powerful technique to study the center of our galaxy and beyond. However, this wavelength range is difficult to work in. At these wavelengths, room temperature objects emit strongly. The strong Earth background causes weak signal-to-noise ratios. Far IR filters are needed to separate extraterrestrial signals from this background to build a meaningful picture. Currently used filters suffer from problems stemming from the lack of materials that are transparent, stable and compatible with each other at these wavelengths. The proposed type of filter can solve these problems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Narrow band pass, band pass and band blocking mid and far IR filters are used in environmental monitoring, chemical and biological analysis, imaging and other areas. Customers include manufacturers of production equipment, as well as manufacturers and users of consumer optical components and equipment. Military applications include target identification, especially for cool targets in a similar background. Lake Shore proposes a new design for optical filters that has the potential to be an enabling technology. Hence, all these applications may be considered as potential markets for mesoporous filters.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II E1.02-8411
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNG05CA34C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Monolithic, High-Speed Fiber-Optic Switching Array for Lidar

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ADVR, Inc
2311 S. 7th Ave., Building #1
Bozeman,MT 59715-6500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tony Roberts
roberts@advr-inc.com
2311 S. 7th Ave., Building #1
Bozeman,MT 59715-6500

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This NASA SBIR Phase II effort will develop a 1 x 10 prototype non-mechanical fiber optic switch for use with high power lasers. The proposed optical device is a fiber-based multi-channel switch to rapidly switch a fiber-coupled laser among ten output channels as an integral part of a fiber-based fixed-array laser transmitter for next-generation NASA lidar systems. The key innovation is the use of an arrangement of electro-optic prisms in a nonlinear optical crystal created through domain reversal to direct the laser into one of many possible output fibers. This design will provide several important features that are required yet not currently available in a fiber switch in order to achieve a fiber-arrayed lidar source. These features include high optical power handling, reduced crosstalk, low optical loss, fast switching times, low power consumption, and robust construction in a monolithic package with no moving parts. A packaged device will undergo preliminary flight qualification testing and reliability analysis. The Phase II effort will deliver a compact, packaged 1x10 electro-optic fiber switch that meets specifications and is ready for testing in a NASA all-fiber lidar system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed switching array will enable the creation of a fiber-based fixed-array laser transmitter that, combined with a fiber-arrayed detector, can provide laser imaging with a shaped field of view for an enhanced lidar return signal and image resolution. The monolithic construction, low power consumption, and predicted high reliability will make the device suitable for airborne and space-based deployment. Furthermore, the core technology, EO beam deflection, is ideally suited for active Q-switching high power Nd:YAG lasers in NASA's lidar systems, and holds advantages over current Q-switching technology by eliminating necessary optics and requiring a lower operating voltage.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to its use as an electro-optic switching array for NASA lidar, the device will offer competitive advantages in the areas of optical remote sensing and environmental monitoring, military applications, and basic research. In addition to lidar applications, the proposed switching device will also be useful in applications requiring all-fiber switching and multiplexing using high power lasers. Outside of fiber switching, EO beam deflection offers opportunities in a host of areas including active Q-switching for high power pulsed lasers.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II E1.02-8978
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNL05AA94P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact 2 Micron Seed Laser

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NP Photonics, Inc.
9030 S. Rita Road
Tucson ,AZ 85747-9102

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shibin Jiang
jiang@npphotonics.com
9030 S. Rita Road
Tucson,AZ 85747-9102

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal is for the development of innovative compact, high power and extremely reliable 2 micron seed laser using newly developed Tm3+ doped germanate glass fibers, which exhibit high quantum efficiency. This type of fiber based seed laser is needed for constructing high energy pulsed 2 micron Ho-doped crystal lasers for LIDAR applications. The single frequency fiber laser, which will be developed as part of the seed laser, is needed for building coherent laser Radar for space exploration program. We propose to use highly Tm3+ doped germanate glass fibers with high gain per unit length to form a short linear cavity to generate single frequency fiber laser operation. Germanate glass exhibits lower phonon energy compared to silica glass, increasing the quantum efficiency of 3F4 level of Tm3+ ions. Importantly, Tm3+ can be highly doped into germanate glasses, which results in so called cross-relaxation, dramatically improving the gain per unit length and the quantum efficiency. The single frequency fiber laser will be used to construct seed lasers by integrating with controlling electronics.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This innovative fiber based seed laser can be used to generate high energy pulsed 2 micron Ho-doped crystal lasers, which are generally used for LIDAR applications in NASA. The single frequency 2-micron fiber laser with high-speed frequency modulation capability, which will be developed in this SBIR project as part of the seed laser, is needed for NASA's space exploration program. Single frequency fiber laser is needed to build coherent laser radar to perform instant measurement of velocity and concentration of CO2 and other gases, which can, for instance, support space vehicle's accurate landing on Mars. Such a fiber laser and seed laser are inherently much more reliable compared to currently existing free space solid-state laser. Almost all components in the fiber laser and the seed laser have been used for space applications, which means both the fiber laser and seed laser can be qualified for space application.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a number of potential non-NASA commercial applications. Seed laser is needed for high energy pulsed 2-micron solid state lasers for commercial applications. The single frequency fiber laser is needed for fiber optical sensing, commercial coherent LIDAR, and long distance ranging, especially for defense applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II E1.02-9711
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNG05CA86C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Holographic Wavefront Correction for ShADOE LIDAR Receivers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Wasatch Photonics, Inc.
1305 North 1000 West, Suite 120
Logan,UT 84321-6832

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Rallison
rdr@ralcon.com
1305 North 1000 West, Suite 120
Logan,UT 84321-6832

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Current shared aperture diffractive optical elements (ShADOE) have intrinsic residual wavefront errors on the order of 50 waves which limits the angular resolution of the LIDAR application to about 300 micro-radians. We have reduced these aberrations by constructing a secondary holographic correction plate using the aberrated wave from the ShADOE as one of the two construction waves. The other construction wave was collimated. All six overlapping apertures require individually constructed plates, we delivered only 2 thus far. This method of correction requires the use of the final playback wavelength for construction and so is useful for 532 and 355nm but not for 2054 nm. Computed diffractive optics can be used for 2054 nm using measured aberrations at the same wavelength. This proposal deals just with a continuation of fabrication and test of the 2 inch 355 nm holographic correction plates (HCP) to bring resolution well under 50 micro radians. Secondarily we propose to make and measure a small 2054 nm ShaDOE and demonstrate a digitally mastered HCP that will approach diffraction limited performance as required at that wavelength.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applications include improvement to LIDARs used in laser topographic applications such as terrain and vegetation mapping with possible uses in coherent Doppler and other wind detection LIDARs. The UV elements may also eventually be space qualified and paired in a hybrid combination with the 2054 nm recivers.There are no moving parts to get a 360-degree look at the sky in at least 6 discreet look angles, each of which share a common full aperture. These correction plates produce smaller spots, a narrower FOV and therefore better signal to noise in NASA LIDAR applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We have mainly addressed NASA needs to date. We are aware of several companies that make Lidar components and systems but we do not know who they make them for or how many they make. We have an interest in making HOE and DOE components primarily and we plan to partner with other companies in making markets for their systems with our components. One closely related spin off has already occured in laser free space communication at 1550 nm.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II E1.03-7672
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNG05CA40C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors
PROPOSAL TITLE: In Situ Microradiometers: Smaller, Faster, and Scalable to Hyperspectral

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Biospherical Instruments, Inc.
5340 Riley Street
San Diego,CA 92110-2621

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Charles Booth
rocky@biospherical.com
5340 Riley Street
San Diego,CA 92110-2621

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Radiometers are a crucial element in NASA's studies of Planet Earth. This proposal addresses the basic need for a miniature light sensor, flexibly configurable and optimized for above and in-water optical property measurements. The innovation we are proposing develops a 1 cm diameter photodetector module, called a "microradiometer." The microradiometer consists of a photodetector, preamplifier with controllable gain, high resolution analog to digital converter (ADC), microprocessor, and an addressable digital port, all on one small, thin circuit assembly. We anticipate that the design will result in significant improvements in dynamic range, sampling speed, reliability, and reduced power consumption over existing instruments. In a Phase II embodiment, a single microradiometer forms the basis of a very small (much less than 2.5 cm diameter) single-channel submersible light sensor that can be deployed in support of coastal research opportunities. In another application, clusters of microradiometers can be matched with front end optics (collector/window/filter stack) to form small, fast, less expensive multiwavelength radiometers for a variety of measurements ? even hyperspectral applications. We call this configuration the Modular Microradiometer System (MMS). These MMS systems can be packaged into small underwater housings suitable for deployment on drifters, moorings, towed vehicles, and vertical profilers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As the heart of a wide variety of new, flexibly deployed radiometers, this product directly supports current and future NASA satellite and aircraft missions and associated cal/val activities and Earth Science Roadmaps. The flexibility of the designs (standard profilers, multi-instrument free fall, CastAway) support both inland, coastal, and oceanic research. This includes quantification of carbon budgets at sub-regional to global scales, coastal carbon dynamics, or even terrestrial applications such as tropical deforestation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The microradiometer will become a cornerstone in the manufacturing of our products. We anticipate that within 5 years, the microradiometer will be used in our products wherever a standard photodetector is used today. The relevant example of how this can take place is the Modular Microradiometer System: smaller, faster, and scalable to hyperspectral. The CastAway represents a simple and novel solution to a thorny problem vexing researchers for decades: avoiding the influence of platform shadows. We anticipate that the CastAway buoyancy chamber can be adapted to larger instruments, giving the user ample time to reposition the boat or instrument package prior to the submergence of the package.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II E1.03-7930
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNG05CA37C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Power, Lightweight Cloud Water Content Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anasphere, Inc.
6597 Maltse Lane, Unit D
Bozeman,MT 59718-6954

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Bognar
jbognar@anasphere.com
6597 Maltse Lane, Unit D
Bozeman,MT 59718-6954

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The measurement of cloud water content is of great importance in understanding the formation of clouds, their structure, and their radiative properties which in turn affect the climate. While a variety of sensors exist for making these measurements, all of the existing sensors require far too much power or other energy input to be used on small platforms with limited payloads such as UAVs, balloons, and kites. Anasphere has, in Phase I work, clearly demonstrated the feasibility of an entirely new technique for the in-situ measurement of cloud water content. The new sensor is lightweight (under 40 g), consumes very little power (the sensor can run for days on one 9-volt battery), and is very inexpensive. Phase II work will focus on refining the sensor design from both mechanical and electronic perspectives, completing extensive laboratory and field tests of the improved sensors, and delivering several examples to NASA. Two sequential cycles of design improvement, laboratory testing, and flight testing are envisioned. Samples of the sensors will be sent to NASA as part of each flight testing cycle. The Phase II effort will culminate in the availability of a simple and inexpensive cloud water content sensor for cloud research. This sensor will be very useful to scientists studying cloud formation and structure. It will enable such scientists to inexpensively obtain in-situ data that previously was obtained only through the use of an expensive research aircraft flying through the cloud.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has many scientists engaged in cloud research and cloud-related remote sensing technology development. Both of these groups of scientists will greatly benefit from the new sensor, as they will now be able to inexpensively obtain in-situ data in support of their research. Flying numerous radiosondes with the cloud water content sensors will be far more inexpensive and responsive than preplanned flights by large research aircraft. Ultimately, the sensors will aid in developing a greater understanding of cloud formation, structure, and properties, as well as in the development of remote-sensing technologies for studying the same topics.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The same benefits and uses described above that apply to NASA scientists will apply to all scientists engaged in cloud research who may also be found in universities, private companies engaged in cloud research (likely as part of remote sensing technology development), and other Federal agencies such as NOAA.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II E1.04-7825
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNG05CA50C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Passive Microwave
PROPOSAL TITLE: An L-Band Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) Detection and Mitigation Testbed

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
EMAG Technologies, Inc.
1340 Eisenhower Place
Ann Arbor,MI 48108-3282

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kazem Sabet
ksabet@emagtech.com
1340 Eisenhower Place
Ann Arbor,MI 48108-3282

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) can render microwave radiometer measurements useless. We have proposed a method and an architecture that can be used to identify sources of RFI and identify an optimal scheme for the mitigation of RFI. The system consists of a fully functional digital radiometer that can collect data in the field and pipe the pre-detected signal into, for example, a spectrum analyzer for in-situ analysis or into removable flash memory for later analysis. The digital radiometer employs a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) for employing flexible mitigation strategies. It will also use a programmable noise source for generation of artificial RFI in the laboratory setting, allowing for efficient mitigation algorithm development in a laboratory setting, independent of actual RFI, which may be intermittent. Thus the proposed instrument can be used to identify RFI, develop mitigation approaches for RFI, and validate the mitigation strategy. The Phase II effort will fabricate and test an L-band version of the proposed system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is seeking techniques for the detection and removal of RFI in microwave radiometers. Techniques which are proven to mitigate RFI will be incorporated into future spaceborne and airborne microwave radiometer instruments. The device under consideration here could serve either as a product or service to NASA. Systems that could benefit from this technology include, but are not limited to, Lightweight Rainfall Radiometer, GeoSTAR, ACMR, HYDROS, and future AMSR instruments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aerospace corporations, Universities, government agencies other than NASA, and international groups also construct radiometers that could benefit from the results of this technology. Indeed, RFI mitigating radiometer technology developed by NASA will increasingly be exploited by other institutions, especially as enabling technologies like validated RFI mitigation techniques are developed. These institutions known to the authors to manufacture radiometers include, but are not limited to, Aerospace Corporation, ProSensing, Inc., Radiometrics, Inc., U. S. Navy, NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory, The University of Michigan and The University of Massachusetts.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II E1.05-8343
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNG05CA73C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Novel Low-Cost Dual-Wavelength Precipitation Radar Sensor Network

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Remote Sensing Solutions, Inc.
P.O. Box 1092
Barnstable,MA 02630-0001

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Carswell
carswell@rmss.us
P.O. Box 1092
Barnstable,MA 02630-0001

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Remote Sensing Solutions, Inc. (RSS) has developed a novel, practical design that will produce a low-cost precipitation radar / radiometer sensor. Operating in a stand-alone mode or in a network configuration, this system will provide the measurements critical to the NASA Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) calibration / validation efforts. With its unique ability to acquire simultaneous dual polarized, dual wavelength, active and passive measurements, this instrument will be capable of providing NASA and the research community with unique data that will significantly further research in the areas of precipitation rate and particle size retrievals. By utilizing solid-state technology and an innovative pulse compression scheme, the sensor can be built at a fraction of the cost of conventional precipitation radar while still maintaining the required sensitivity. The proposed Phase II effort will focus on developing and demonstrating the performance of two key innovations: the dual polarized, dual wavelength wideband antenna feed and transceiver.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed novel low-cost scanning DPR sensor network system will support GPM efforts by providing an essential and unprecedented data set to validate and improve GPM retrieval algorithms and aide in calibration/validation studies. Deployed at the GPM super sites and elsewhere, it will provide direct and statistical comparisons with horizontal scanning radars, such as S-Pol, Chill and other systems, such that the new data from the DPR radars, either stand-alone or in networked configuration, can augment that of the established lower frequency radars.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
RSS has identified the rapidly growing deployment of commercial Doppler radars for use by television station weather forecasters as a primary target market for use of this DPR system. Doppler systems solely provide reflectivity maps, whereas the DPR system will be capable of adding accurate precipitation rates, phase detection and wind speed information. With Doppler radar systems from companies such as Baron Services starting at $300k and approaching $1M, the DPR is an attractive option at approximately $200-250K. Additionally, the DPR will enable many research institutions, such as universities, government and private sector research labs, to advance their efforts in the areas of precipitation studies, weather forecasting and long-term climate forecasting while fitting within their budgets. With billions of dollars being spent on weather products and forecasting, this unique and low-cost sensor network will improve local QPE measurements and forecasts.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II E1.05-8490
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNG05CA54C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave
PROPOSAL TITLE: L and P Band MMIC T/R Module

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hittite Microwave Corporation
20 Alpha Road
Chelmsford,MA 01824-4147

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mitchell Shifrin
katzin@hittite.com
20 Alpha Road
Chelmsford,MA 01824-4147

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal is specifically written to address the need for improved L and P band T/R modules for use in active microwave surveillance of earth surface and atmosphere. The solicitation called for investigation and development of core technologies that will significantly improve T/R module performance. Improvements needed include reduced power consumption, mass, size and increased data rates. Hittite Microwave Corporation is a fabless semiconductor company that has been developing microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMIC) for over 19 years. The T/R module circuit functions are diverse imposing several different process requirements. For example the key process specification for the LNA is the minimum noise figure (Fmin) of the process, for the control functions the switch cutoff frequency, and for the PA the power added efficiency. Hittite has focused on developing E/D PHEMT processes and simulations presented in this Phase II proposal are based on models from a new Triquint E/D PHEMT process. The E/D process is promising as a work horse process offering overall superior performance for LNAs, PAs, and control components. Hittite will use the Phase II program to design and develop and fabricate an efficient single chip T/R solution for the array application.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed program will lead to development of highly integrated MMIC chips for phased array applications operating at 1.25 GHz. While the MMIC chips will be designed with the goal of applications in space, those designs will provide a design baseline for MMIC products that will find applications in phased array applications including low earth orbit (LEO) synthetic aperture radars (SAR) used for measurements of surface characteristics such as deformation and strain. The proposed program will support introduction of low-cost alternatives for phased array T/R modules. These products have a potential of generating amounts to $10-$30 million dollars of additional revenue for the company.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed program will lead to development of highly integrated MMIC chips for phased array applications operating at 1.25 GHz. While the MMIC chips will be designed with the goal of applications in space, those designs will provide a design baseline for MMIC products that will find applications in other phased array radar applications including high-capacity data communications equipment such as internet connection for commercial airplanes. The proposed program will support introduction of low-cost alternatives for highly integrated synthesizers. These products have a potential of generating amounts to $10-$30 million dollars of additional revenue for the company.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II E1.05-9679
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNC05CA81C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flexible T/R Modules for Large-Aperture, Space-Based SAR

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SI2 Technologies, Inc.
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford,MA 01824-4000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Erik Handy
ehandy@si2technologies.com
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford,MA 01824-4000

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There is a need for electronically-steerable, space-deployable SAR antenna arrays which impose minimal weight burden on the vehicles that place them into orbit. SAR arrays may be several tens to hundreds of meters long in at least one dimension, necessitating their assembly from many smaller subarrays. However, suitable technologies for manufacturing T/R modules directly on even these smaller (albeit still large-area), flexible subarrays have been lacking, hindering development of space-based arrays. SI2 Technologies' innovation is to apply its Direct Write techniques to fabricating flexible T/R modules that can be integrated with each array element. The novelty of SI2's Direct Write manufacturing approach is that no tooling, masks, or harsh etchants are required. SI2's "printing" technology lends itself to any number of applications that require flexible antenna systems (e.g., earth science, military asset tracking, civilian communications, etc.). For the proposed Phase II program, SI2 will design and fabricate chipless T/R modules for a membrane SAR antenna array using Direct Write manufacturing processes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications of the proposed technology include flexible T/R modules for lightweight, large-aperture, electronically-steerable, space-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems for Earth monitoring applications. Such a large aperture phased array will enable measurement and monitoring of a number of geophysical processes that is not possible today. For instance, an L-band SAR would be capable of measuring soil moisture, ocean circulation, and glacial flow under a number of conditions with fine resolution and minimal temporal effects.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications of this technology include the development of flexible and conformal T/R modules for military applications such as unmanned aerial vehicles. This technology could enable the integration of a number of RF systems into the structure of the aircraft itself, thereby decreasing the weight of the system and increasing the endurance and performance of the vehicle. SI2 Technologies has been very active and successful in pursuing these applications with funding from the Air Force and DARPA. Other applications include conformal/wearable electronics, flexible displays (e.g., for personal data assistants, cell phones, etc.), and radio frequency identification device (RFID) tags.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II E1.07-8287
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNG05CA64C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control for Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Pumps and Cold Plates for Two-Phase Cooling Loops

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mesoscopic Devices LLC
510 Compton Street, Suite 106
Broomfield,CO 80020-1651

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jerry Martin
jmartin@mesoscopic.com
510 Compton Street, Suite 106
Broomfield,CO 80020-1651

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced instruments used for earth science missions require improved cooling systems to remove heat from high power electronic components and maintain tight temperature control for sensitive instruments. Mesoscopic Devices proposes to develop a pumped two-phase cooling loop that will provide high heat flux, distributed load cooling (> 100 W/cm^2) in a lightweight system. In Phase I, an extremely compact pump optimized for two phase cooling was demonstrated, along with advanced lightweight cold plates. Pump and cold plate advances in Phase II will further reduce the mass and improve reliability. A complete thermal loop will be constructed and tested to demonstrate the improved pumps and cold plates.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed two-phase pumped loop will enable cooling of multiple distributed loads, decreasing the mass and increasing the sensitivity of advanced instruments for terrestrial, aircraft, balloon and satellite missions. It can be used for cooling instruments, high power electronics, radar, microwave and laser systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Two-phase pumped cooling loops are expected to be enabling technology for high-power motor drives, rack-mount computers, advanced workstations, and microwave systems for vacuum deposition. The proposed system could be adapted for cooling phased-array radars, communications and industrial lasers.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II E1.07-8911
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNG05CA70C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control for Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Modular Spray-Cooled Assemblies for High Heat Fluxes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Power Electronics Leveling Solutions LLC
700 W Research Center Boulevard
Fayetteville,AR 72701-7174

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Rowden
pels_llc@yahoo.com
700 W Research Center Boulevard
Fayetteville,AR 72701-7174

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This NASA SBIR Phase II project will produce a flight suitable test bench based on a modular spray-cooled assembly that considers NASA power and mass budgets and can be scaled to cool multiple heat sources producing high heat fluxes under gravity and microgravity conditions. Thermal management solutions for certain NASA applications like laser diodes are not all that suitable with a need for a better solution. PELS in a NASA SBIR Phase I project developed a modular assembly based on spray cooling under phase change achieving heat fluxes approaching 100 W/cm2 per evaporator using Fluorinert<SUP>TM</SUP>(FC-72) as the cooling liquid. This was possible because of PELS novel fluid removal approach. This Phase II project builds upon the improvements in spray cooling performance by bringing improvements in the packaging to achieve volume and weight gains at the system level so spray cooling can become the standard thermal management solution. The terminal objectives of this SBIR Phase II project are (a) To optimize the design of the modular spray-cooled assembly demonstrated in the SBIR Phase I project, and (b) To extend this design to cool multiple heat sources subjected to heat fluxes approaching 200 W/cm2 under microgravity conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology developed in this project has numerous potential applications for NASA, which can be broadly classified into the following two groups: (1) Laser diodes (2) Modular microwave integrated circuits (3) Power amplifiers for T/R modules and transmitters. (4) Power modules for energy storage, flywheels, battery chargers, peak power trackers, motor drives, and smart solid-state switches

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA applications are not limited to NASA since most of those applications are also found in many military and commercial applications. For example, the ambient temperature under the hood in an automobile could be in excess of 100 degrees C. Silicon-based electronics have a maximum junction temperature of 150 degrees C so traditional cooling systems like heat sinks and cold plate are not suitable because they do not satisfy automotive specifications. Even if they were suitable, the power densities of these systems are impractical for automotive applications. Therefore, systems relying on spray cooling under phase change providing higher thermal margins will find many military and commercial applications (e.g., radar systems, avionics systems, dc-dc converters, personal computers, micro-climate coolers, electric motors).


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II E1.07-9391
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNM05AA35C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control for Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
nanoComposix, Inc.
4336 Proctor Pl.
San Diego,CA 92116-1060

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steven Oldenburg
Steven.Oldenburg@nanocomposix.com
4336 Proctor Pl.
San Diego,CA 92116-1060

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future NASA instrumentation will require increasingly sophisticated thermal control technology. We propose a next-generation nanofluid that consists of precisely manufactured nanoparticles that are added to existing coolant liquids. Even at very low loading levels, the nanoparticles dramatically increase the thermal conductivity and the critical heat flux of the fluid. Due to their small size, settling, abrasion, and clogging issues are eliminated, enabling the nanofluid to be immediately incorporated into existing thermal cooling systems. Additionally, the antimicrobial activity of nanofluids will provide a safe, non-toxic solution for the elimination of biofouling and biocorrosion from coolant loops.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High thermal conductivity nanofluids will be utilized to increase the efficiency, lower the weight, and reduce the complexity of NASA thermal control systems. The low toxicity, long lifetime, and antimicrobial properties of the coolant make it suitable for use in spacecraft such as the International Space Station. The enhancement of the thermal conductivity of low freezing point coolants will also improve performance of thermal control systems that are exposed to low temperature environments (e.g., extravehicular activity spacesuits). For instrumentation that requires precise temperature control, a highly conductive fluid will allow for more efficient and even heat transfer from the fluid to the instrument.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Additives that can increase the thermal conductivity of a wide variety of coolants will have a large commercial market. One application is to increase performance of automobiles, trucks, and airplanes. The higher thermal conductivity of the nanofluids will allow for smaller and lighter engines, pumps, and radiators. Also, the increasing density of electronics and computer chips is requiring novel cooling solutions. Liquid cooling with high thermal conductivity fluids will address future heat dissipation problems. For example, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) generate large quantities of heat during operation and will require high performance coolants to mitigate the large heat flux.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II E2.02-8010
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNG05CA44C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Command and Data Handling
PROPOSAL TITLE: Universal Space IP Transparent Proxy

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Broadata Communications, Inc.
2545 W. 237th St., Suite K
Torrance,CA 90505-5229

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cristina Spence
cspence@broadatacom.com
2545 W. 237th St., Suite K
Torrance,CA 90505-5229

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Communications applications are strategically moving toward Internet Protocol-based architectures and technologies. Despite IP's huge potential, (e.g. cost effectiveness, reduced development and installation times), it has not proved to be appropriate for space communication applications. IP-based space networking links exhibit poor performance induced by narrow bandwidth, long propagation loops, large transmission errors, and/or intermittent connectivity. In Phase I, Broadata Communications, Inc. (BCI) successfully designed a preliminary network protocol technology to overcome these problems. BCI's innovative Universal Space IP Transparent Proxy (USIT) achieves accurate network measurements and reconfigurations, providing a 10 times, on average, improvement in network throughput, as compared to existing state-of-the-art IP solutions. In addition, the USIT solution is transparent (thus independent of any network functions such as compression) and is seamless (i.e., works with non-USIT network hosts/nodes). Its simplicity will enable it to be placed in a variety of Earth network nodes, ensuring its compatibility with, and ability to improve, network performance in space. In Phase II, BCI will optimize the system's design to develop a full-scale highly optimized system, including two tangible prototypes: a portable space-qualified USIT software package, compatible with existing NASA space network nodes, and, a rack-mountable stand-alone GSSL embedded system, with both hardware and software.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
BCI's system is applicable to Command and Data Handling for ES missions, and, can generically support IP use in many other NASA missions. Examples are IONET, direct line-of-sight near-earth satellite communications, TDRSS, DSN, beyond Earth multi-hop/relay communications. The USIT is particularly useful for networks that are characterized as "Long Fat Pipes" (LFNs).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA applications, USIT is applicable to many commercial networking scenarios, with similar problems. Examples are wireless Internet access networks, RF trunking links, commercial satellite networks, mobile enterprise networking, and packet-based cellular networks. BCI's modular USIT design also will enable it to enhance performance in different types of access networks, including 802.11 Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, WiMax, etc.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II E2.03-9154
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNC05CA30C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Communication Technologies for Near-Earth Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Self-Deploying Gossamer Support Structure

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cornerstone Research Group, Inc.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton,OH 45440-3325

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Schueler
schuelerrm@crgrp.net
2750 Indian Ripple Rd.
Dayton,OH 45440-3638

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Phase I results demonstrated the feasibility of using shape memory polymer composites to deploy, tension and support gossamer antennas. Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG) has completed the critical initial development steps for a deployable support structure meeting NASA's requirements for a structure to deploy, tension, and support gossamer antennas. CRG proposes to further develop this lightweight, self-deploying Veritex<SUP>TM</SUP> strut for use as a supporting structure for gossamer antennas. Veritex<SUP>TM</SUP> composites are similar to other high-performance composites, except that CRG's shape memory polymer (SMP) resin, Veriflex<SUP>TM</SUP>, is used as the matrix resin. This allows for easy manipulation of the composite above the activation temperature, making it a unique material for use in dynamic structures and other applications requiring both load strength and "shape-shifting" modulus flexibility. In this Phase I program, CRG has developed and evaluated materials and related fabrication technologies based on Veritex<SUP>TM</SUP>, and produced a sub-scale working proto-type. This technical approach fulfills NASA's requirement for a very large, lightweight, on-orbit deployable RF antenna aperture structure by offering a practical, deployable, structural support that will address the short comings of current rigidified inflatables and mechanically deployed structures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Supporting NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, this project's technologies directly address requirements for inexpensive, lightweight, highly compact launch configurations, and reliable precise deployment for large gossamer antenna support structure. Furthermore benefits of this technology could be widespread throughout NASA platforms including: interplanetary habitats, the International Space Station, unmanned air vehicles, and personal air vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project's technologies developed for NASA systems would directly apply to systems operated by other government and commercial enterprises. Government systems that would derive the same benefits would include but not be limited to space-based sensor and communication systems operated by Department of Defense. This technology's attributes for deployable antennas yield a high potential for private sector commercialization for RF applications by major spacecraft prime contractors. CRG's demonstrated experience in adaptive structures development and strong relationships with several prime aerospace contractors positions this technology for rapid integration into future air and space platforms. Opportunities for integration may involve: morphing wing structures, fuselages, control surfaces for aircraft, and deployable shelters/habitats for military, space, and civilian applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II E2.06-8384
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNC05CA41C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Energy Conversion for Space Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: CuInGaAlSe2 Solar Absorbers On Flexible High-Temperature Substrates

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ITN Energy Systems, Inc.
8130 Shaffer Parkway
Littleton,CO 80127-4107

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lawrence Woods
lwoods@itnes.com
8130 Shaffer Pkwy.
Littleton,CO 80127-4107

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ITN Energy Systems (ITN) proposes to take the next step in spacecraft solar array development, building upon previous development and new findings to make the definitive light-absorber layer for high-power, lightweight and flexible thin-film photovoltaics (TFPV). ITN's innovative approach is to alloy CuInSe2 (CIS) with both aluminum and gallium bandgap widening elements in the chalcopyrite matrix to form CuInGaAlSe2 (CIGAS) for simultaneous optimization of the bandgap and material properties. Both Ga and Al will be used to take advantage of the alloy enhancing properties that each offers when used in moderation, while avoiding the detrimental issues when using too much of any one element to achieve the optimum bandgap of about 1.45 eV for a single-junction in the space solar spectrum. Furthermore, a recently available novel lightweight, flexible and transparent substrate will be used that was specifically designed to enable high-temperature CIGAS depositions as needed for the highest efficiency TFPV. TFPV specific power of over 1500 W/kg at the blanket/module level would be achievable The novel transparent substrates would also enable additional power from bifacial visible light collection and lower temperature operation, from improved infra-red (IR) transmission, in addition to enabling TFPV fabrication by low-cost roll-to-roll processing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ITN's proposed technology, potentially decreasing the weight of spacecraft solar power by 75%, would have broad impact on NASA spacecraft weight and launch costs. NASA applications would also benefit from a wide-bandgap PV device, as proposed, for better thermal stability, better temperature coefficients, and higher-voltage solar arrays. Furthermore, the high specific power (W/kg) and ability of the proposed TFPV to be integrated into the balloon, high-altitude airship (HAA) or tent fabric, would enable balloon or HAA applications, in addition to modular and quick deploying tents for surface assets or lunar or Mars base power. The high specific power and power density would also enable Earth and Mars unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Two of the most important, near-term markets for high-efficiency flexible lightweight photovoltaics are spacecraft and aerostats/high-altitude airships (HAA). The target customers for this market are aerospace companies, defense, and communications industries. The largest market is in the evolving HAA industry, but there is also an opportunity in the well-established satellite community. Market projections indicate that approximately 16.5 MW of flexible thin film PV power will to be launched for HAA's, and 1.0 MW of space PV power will be launched between 2007 and 2011. In the long term, as the costs eventually come down with manufacturing process improvements and economies of scale, the PV space/HAA product technology can be leveraged for the implementation of the low-cost monolithic tandem PV terrestrial product. The terrestrial PV market is projected to be a $163 ? 302 M (min and max estimates) per year market by 2010 for thin-film technologies in North America alone, with a compound annual growth rate between 16.1% and 32.3%.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II E2.06-8702
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNC05CA56C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Energy Conversion for Space Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Milliwatt Radioisotope Stirling Convertor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sest, Inc.
18000 Jefferson Park, Suite 104
Middleburg Heights,OH 44130-3440

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
L. Barry Penswick
lbpenswick@ameritech.net
18000 Jefferson Park, Suit 104
Middleburg Heights,OH 44130-3440

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Studies of potential space missions have highlighted the need for very small electric power supplies for a variety of applications. The light weight radioisotope heat unit (RHU) offers a long-life, reliable energy source for such systems which is independent of the surrounding environmental conditions, but a device is needed to convert radioisotope heat into electrical power. In Phase 1, Sest, Inc. investigated and fully defined a complete energy conversion system utilizing a very small Stirling-based convertor powered by a single RHU. It has conversion efficiencies greater than twice that of proposed thermoelectric convertors. Sest, Inc. proposes to complete the detailed design, fabricate, extensively test, and deliver to NASA a functional prototype of a Milliwatt Radioisotope Stirling Convertor (MRSC) system which will clearly demonstrate the performance characteristics of a low power Stirling-based conversion system. The reference MRSC system is designed to produce a net 100 mW or more of useful electrical power from a single RHU over an operating life of 10 years. The overall size of the prototype MRSC package is approximately 80 mm in diameter by 115 mm in length and has an estimated total mass of 250 g, for a specific power of 0.4 We/kg.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed low power generating system, operating at power outputs in the range of 50 to 500 mW, has a number of potential NASA and US government agency applications. Various NASA missions have investigated the potential of RHU powered devices. Such RPS power supplies have the potential to extend the capability of small science payloads and instruments, and to enable applications such as: ? Long-lived meteorological/seismological stations broadly distributed across planetary surfaces ? Small landers at extreme latitudes or in regions of low solar flux ? Surface and atmosphere-based mobility systems ? Subsurface probes, including impactors and autonomous boring devices ? Deep space micro-spacecraft and sub-satellites Such units could also find application in future human exploration missions involving use of monitoring stations and autonomous devices, similar to the ALSEP [Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package] units deployed on the Moon during the Apollo program.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A number of applications exist in terrestrial environmental monitoring situations that require the use of multiple widely dispersed, small sensor packages somewhat akin to the NASA requirements for space exploration. In the case of the terrestrial applications the sensor packages in many cases are located remotely from local power supplies and must depend on replaceable batteries, solar arrays (if applicable) or natural gas (Propane) heated thermo electric generators. The proposed MRSC system would be directly applicable to many of these applications and have a number of significant advantages. The advent of MEMS level combustion devices may also provide a long life, combustion driven heat source that could supply the necessary thermal energy for the low power MRSC system described in the proposed work. These combustors could be based on "conventional" combustion techniques yielding source temperatures well above those provided by the RHU configuration or utilize less conventional techniques such as low temperature catalytic reactions providing source temperatures in line with those of the RHU system. Application for such devices could include environmental monitoring, metering of remote / dangerous facilities (for example gas / oil wells) where non-conventional combustion techniques may be required, and a wide range of self-powered industrial and consumer products.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II E2.06-8773
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNC05CA66C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Energy Conversion for Space Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Efficiency Quantum Dot III-V Thermophotovoltaic Cell for Space Power

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Essential Research, Inc.
6410 Eastland Rd., Suite D
Cleveland,OH 44142-1306

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Forbes
forbes@essential-research.com
6410 Eastland Road, Suite D
Cleveland,OH 44142-1306

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
For NASA deep space science missions, radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) fueled by plutonium-238 are used to provide on-board source of heat, which is then converted to electricity. At present, NASA uses 8% efficient thermoelectric conversion systems. Compound semiconductor thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells provide an attractive alternative. The highest efficiency TPV cell reported is a 23.6% (radiator at 1039?C, cell at 25?C) InGaAs monolithically interconnected module (MIM) on InP. We proposed an InGaAs TPV cell which incorporates InAs quantum dots to provide sub-gap absorption thus improving its short-circuit current. This cell could then be integrated into a MIM to achieve a TPV cell whose efficiency would significantly exceed (by about 15% to 20%) the state-of-the-art. In Phase I we demonstrated the feasibility of growing InAs quantum dots on 0.6 eV InGaAs on lattice-mismatched InP, and that these quantum dots, when inserted into the TPV cell, extend the bandedge, providing sub-bandgap absorption. In Phase II we propose to optimize the quantum dot structures to improve efficiency of the TPV cells, and integrate them into MIMs to achieve very high conversion efficiencies. Resulting higher specific power and power density of the overall power systems will be of great benefit to NASA in the form of lower launch costs and increased mission capability.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Quantum dots will allow NASA not only to improve device efficiency by expanding the spectral response of individual cells, but to improve the temperature coefficients and radiation tolerance as well. The inherently radiation tolerant quantum dots can be used to take advantage of a thermal assist in carrier generation which will actually benefit from higher temperature operation. This is extremely important as NASA attempts to increase array specific power with new concentrator designs and continues to expand the range of environments to be encountered in future missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful completion of the Phase II work will lead to the development of a very high efficiency TPV cell that will deliver power beyond the realm of any TPV cell that is commercially available, or under development by a commercial supplier. Upon achieving this goal, Essential Research Incorporated plans to enter into licensing arrangement with Emcore Photovoltaic, to manufacture and market this product, while working with them for a successful technology transfer and continuing R&D work. Such an arrangement will make this cell available not only to NASA, but also to commercial satellite manufacturers.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II E2.07-8058
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNC05CA82C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Platform Power Management and Distribution
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultra-Lightweight, High Efficiency Silicon-Carbide (SIC) Based Power Electronic Converters

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arkansas Power Electronics International, Inc.
700 W Research Blvd
Fayetteville,AR 72701-7174

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alexander Lostetter
alostet@apei.net
700 W Research Blvd
Fayetteville,AR 72701-7174

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Phase I of this project, APEI, Inc. proved the feasibility of creating ultra-lightweight power converters (utilizing now emerging silicon carbide [SiC] power switching technologies) through the successful demonstration of power switch operation up to 500 <SUP>o</SUP>C. The goal of Phase II will be to design, fabricate, and fully test SiC based DC/DC converters that can achieve high power density and ultra-lightweight by operating the power switches at high junction temperatures. Present state-of-the-art silicon based spacecraft power systems operate at a power density of approximately 1.5 W/cm?, while the high temperature SiC based power converters proposed by APEI, Inc. in this project will operate at a power density of approximately 4.5 W/cm?, or 3? the density of present high performance silicon based systems. Theoretically, if the full potential of silicon carbide switches could be realized (junction temperature operation in excess of 600 <SUP>o</SUP>C), an order of magnitude power density improvement could be achieved. APEI, Inc. is proposing to fabricate up to three prototype high density (4.5 W/cm?) DC/DC converter designs: (1) 28V in / 5V out @ 25 watts (2) 28 V in / 5V out @ 100 watts (3) 28 V in / 5V out @ 1 kW

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a wide range of applications within NASA on which SiC ultra-lightweight power converters could make a significant impact, including: satellite & spacecraft power management systems, satellite & spacecraft motors and actuators, and extreme environment exploratory vehicles. SiC converter technology that is more efficient than silicon and offers reduced weight and volume would find application in nearly every power management system in space. Through the utilization of a high power density SiC based power system (3? the power density of a silicon based system), the weight of the overall power system would be reduced, thus reducing launch costs and increasing the payload capacity of the vehicle. While one advantage of SiC technology is to achieve higher power densities through high temperature operation, the other utilization of the technology is to operate in high temperature environments. The power electronics applications listed above would also be applicable to extreme environment operation where standard silicon electronics fail.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The first commercial application of APEI, Inc.'s technology is towards the geological exploration market, namely down hole orbital vibrator instrumentation. By integrating the instrument drive and control electronics within the housing of the instrument itself, and sending the entire package down hole, finer control can be achieved, response time can be improved, power delivery can be increased, and frequency of operation can be boosted. In the longer term, industrial motor drive systems could see serious performance improvement through the integration of SiC technology. The large majority of manufacturing machinery in the world incorporates a multitude of industrial motors and drives, the electronics of which often times take up entire walls and significant floor space. Significant cost savings can be found by reducing manufacturing floor space, which could be achieved by utilizing high power density SiC based drive systems. The automotive market is of course a highly competitive market in which SiC systems not only would have to be viable options from a technological/reliability stand point, but they would also have to be cost competitive to traditional alternatives. The hybrid-electric vehicle market offers an intermediary transition step into which SiC systems could first be placed, proving the feasibility of the cost competitiveness of the technology.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II E3.01-8639
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNA05CQ92C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automation and Planning
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Constraint-Based Geospatial Data Integration System for Wildfire Management

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fetch Technologies
2041 Rosecrans Avenue, Suite 245
El Segundo,CA 90245-4789

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Greg Barish
gbarish@fetch.com
2041 Rosecrans Avenue Suite 245
El Segundo,CA 90245-6611

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to implement a constraint-based data integration system for wildfire intelligence, for use during both the pre-planning and event response phases of wildfire fighting. Our system will automatically integrate online, heterogeneous data sources and hyperspectral imagery. Current technology tends to focus mostly on the event response phases and supports only limited types of integration, usually between structured databases. With the emergence of the Internet, there now exists an enormous number of other online information sources that can be combined with local databases and satellite imagery, including NASA MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) products, in order to better assist human analysis. In this Phase II proposal, we will implement the constraint-based data integration system for wildfire intelligence that we designed in Phase I. The system will allow users to manage large amounts of data from heterogeneous sources using a single interface, to annotate and extend that data (to add a layer of "knowledge" on top of the data), as well as to quickly identify data updates. The resulting application will complement existing technologies, and serve as a rich, integrated interface that allows one to more easily and quickly plan for, analyze, and react to wildfires.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The research disseminates the work currently being done by scientists in the Ecological Forecasting Group at NASA Ames, complementing the past investment NASA has made in this work. Our proposed wildfire intelligence portal will leverage emerging NASA MODIS products and combine that data with data from other sources, so as to add a richer layer of knowledge to the existing products. Our proposed system, when implemented and deployed, will give NASA scientists the opportunity to gather feedback about the applicability of those products. Based on evaluations from domain experts, NASA will be able to better assess its practicality and may be able to gain detailed domain knowledge that can help refine and extend its current product set.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The research has a direct application to a series of industry-specific, vertical portals that we are designing, such as a portal for sporting goods intelligence ("Sports InSite"). The next-generation of our constraint-based integration technology will serve as the infrastructure for the front-ends to these vertical portals and allow us greater flexibility and automation during development and deployment. Other aspects of our Phase II work, such as implementation of support for user-defined extensions and automatic highlighting of new information, also have direct commerical relevance, as these needs are ubiquitous in portal systems.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II E3.03-8126
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNS05AA28C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Geospatial Data Analysis Processing and Visualization Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Algorithms and Software Architecture for the Production of Information Products From LIDAR

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Diamond Data Systems
5732 Salmen St., Suite C
New Orleans,LA 70123-3288

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Keith Alphonso
kalphonso@diamonddata.com
5732 Salmen St., Suite C
New Orleans,LA 70123-3288

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Diamond Data Systems (DDS) proposes the development of a new advanced architecture, algorithms and software to support the end-to-end processing of LIDAR data to derive useful information products such as Digital Elevation Models (DEM). The approach is innovative in three ways. First, it proposes a complete end-to-end system instead of a solution that addresses only a single step of the complex problem of accurately gathering, processing, and reporting of the data. Second, it proposes a system that is designed to minimize human interaction and manual data entry. Third (and possibly the most important) is that it proposes both the implementation of multiple algorithms to perform the data processing, as well as an extensible, open software architecture which allows algorithms to be incorporated into the system in the future. This approach allows for the development of a dynamic system which can be extended not only by DDS, but by third parties as well. Our proposal is relevant to topic E3.03 in that it provides for the efficient production of a DEM product from an active imaging system (LIDAR).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lunar and Martial Surface Mapping ? NASA leveraged LIDAR technology as part of the Clementine project for mapping the LUNAR surface and will continue this effort with the Lunar and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter projects. This high resolution data will be the key to determining optimal landing and environment exploitation sites. Weather Studies ? LIDAR is being used by NASA for discovering how high, thin clouds at many heights affect climate, understanding how dust and other particles move across the globe, and exploring aerosols and clouds on other planets by satellite. This capability is made possible with the use of Differential Absorption LIDAR (DIAL) and was tested in the LIDAR Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE). Spacecraft Fault Detection ? As part of the Orbiter Boom Sensor system Optech and MD Robotics are attaching a LIDAR scanner to the boom of the space shuttle remote manipulator system (SMRS), in order to scan the surface of the spacecraft for faults. This was developed in wake of the Space Shuttle Columbia incident. Earth Science ? All applications of Earth Science benefit from accurate Digital Elevation Models derived from LIDAR data. This includes floodplain mapping, precision agriculture, land use, forestry management and many other applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Disaster Management ? LIDAR data has been found useful for disaster management purposes, such as recovery of the World Trade Center, hurricane destruction analysis, and plume propagation modeling. Topographical Update ? LIDAR data is being utilized for topographical update projects. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has initiated a modernization of floodplain maps throughout the United States using LIDAR data in its Map Modernization Initiative. Coastal Erosion ? LIDAR data is currently being utilized to detect coastal changes in order to study coastal erosion. Nautical Charting ?LIDAR is being utilized for measuring seabed depths and topographic elevations for navigation, nautical chartering, rapid environmental assessment, and regional costal zone mapping. Forestry ? LIDAR data is utilized to detect forest canopy change for forest management. Aviation Safety ? LIDAR was utilized in the Airfield Initiative to identify vertical airfield obstructions to aviation Corridor Mapping ? LIDAR data is utilized for pipeline right way analysis for oil and gas companies as well as transmission line right of way analysis for power companies. Network Planning ? LIDAR data is utilized for Telecom propagation modeling for wireless and mobile network planning. Land Use Planning ? LIDAR data it used to determine optimal location sites for commercial facilities planning.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II E3.04-8588
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNG05CA69C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Data Management and Visualization
PROPOSAL TITLE: 3D Multi-Channel Networked Visualization System for National LambdaRail

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Optics Corporation, EP Division
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance,CA 90501-1821

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrew Kostrzewski
sutama@poc.com
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance,CA 90501-1821

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Multichannel virtual reality visualization is the future of complex simulation with a large number of visual channels rendered and transmitted over high-speed networks like National LambdaRail (NLR). POC proposed to develop a next generation "true" 3D visualization system that works without headwear and to link it through the NLR with a remote computing center. To accomplish this goal we have developed in Phase I a fully functional 3D Multichannel Networked (3DMCN) system based on stereoscopic principles and compatible with the NLR network. One of the enabling technologies that is being developed in this project is multicorrelated channel video compression, which takes advantage of spatial redundancy in multiscopic channels. The Phase I demonstration included stereoscopic 3DMCN system linked to live real-time high definition (1080i) dual-channel video. In Phase II we will continue the development of a new compression scheme that can offer 200-300% improvement in compression ratios for multiscopic channels versus independent channel compression used in other state-of-the-art compression approaches. We will also concentrate on the improvement of the existing true 3D visualization system in terms of higher resolution, lower channel-to-channel crosstalk, and wider field-of-view.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The initial candidate NASA applications with the greatest potential for benefiting from improved multichannel compression fall into three categories. The first is Multi-Channel Video Compression Scientific Visualization, which offers the potential for collaborative efforts with true 3D displays; one rendering supercluster will be able to serve multiple visualization locations separated by thousands of miles. The second is Scientific Data Visualization, which includes 3D visualization of scientific data for analysis, computer modeling, and simulation over the NLR. The third is Live Multichannel Video Transmission, which involves multichannel data being transmitted in real time for display of sensing data/imagery acquired by satellite or aircraft in high definition.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other potential government applications include: 3D visualization of forests and farmlands to monitor plant species, crop health, the impact of drought conditions, and the spread of plant diseases, etc., environmental monitoring of land use, vegetation coverage, water resources, pollution, etc.; visualization of natural disasters to assess damage and identify areas in critical need of assistance, and to identify endangered areas, as well as to forecast crop yields. Commercial applications include HD video communication, virtual reality, medicine, computer training and simulation, video games, air traffic control, environmental monitoring, and automatic satellite orbit control. The proposed system can enhance 3D modeling, simulation, and structural optimization.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II E3.05-8825
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNA05CQ95C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: On-Board Science for Decisions and Actions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Autonomous Collaborative Agents for Onboard Multi-Sensor Re-Targeting

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville,MD 20855-2785

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Goutam Satapathy
goutam@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville,MD 20855-2785

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In our Phase I effort we developed a prototype software-agent based framework to provide for autonomous re-targeting of sensors hosted on satellites in polar orbits, subject to standing requests and dynamic user requests. Our approach is a distributed and de-centralized, with each satellite maintaining knowledge of its sensor complement and physical capabilities as well as its schedule. Each satellite is capable of entering into negotiations for a viewing opportunity via a Contract Net type protocol; and is capable of optimizing its bid. As sensor deployment increases and autonomous vehicles become more robust, the need for a framework to support multi-sensor re-targeting in a dynamic environment involving multiple organizations becomes more acute. In our Phase 2 effort, we will extend the framework to include support for multiple types of sensor platforms as well as more sophisticated variants of the Contract Net Protocol. We will define various agent 'templates' specialized to the needs of the multi-sensor re-targeting environment. In Phase 2, the improved framework, AAMSRT, will support policy utilization to govern the sensor re-tasking. As part of the Phase 2 effort, we will engage the Open Geospatial Consortium for applicable standards, including use of SensorML, services, and OGC initiatives regarding sensor planning.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercialization potential of our proposed de-centralized and distributed AAMSRT framework extends to those cases involving a dynamic situation in which numerous sensor resources hosted on different types of platforms with different capabilities must be leveraged. This situation occurs in a number of application areas; hence, these areas hold the largest commercialization potential. The overarching application area area for NASA is that of 'Sensor Web', which involves specific applications such as earth observing and remote sensing projects for ecology applications and basic science.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other application areas for our proposed de-centralized and distributed AAMSRT framework involve homeland security, commercial industry security, and DoD applications. One homeland security need occurs at land borders, involving fixed sensor assets, mobile robots, and UAVs. Commercial industries also have the need for multi-sensor retargeting further with regard to sprawling critical infrastructure areas, such as in rail yards; this involves fixed sensor nets and sensors located on mobile robots. The US Coast Guard has a similar need for AAMSRT; this involves sensors that oversee harbor areas, including sensors that are hosted on surface vessels and sensors that are located in buoys and on wharfs. DoD military applications represents yet another area for AAMSRT framework usage.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II E4.01-9418
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNS05AA32C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Innovative Tools and Techniques Supporting the Practical Uses of Earth Science Observations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Prototyping a Rangeland Decision Support System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied Geosolutions, LLC
87 Packers Falls Road
Durham,NH 03824-2808

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Salas
wsalas@agsemail.com
10 Newmarket Road
Durham,NH 03824-2808

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal is submitted under the Innovative Tools and Techniques Supporting the Practical Uses of Earth Science Observations topic. We seek to create a prototype rangeland decision support system that links remote sensing based rangeland products, a soil biogeochemical model and web-based tools for data mining, data management and product visualization. The resulting decision support system will be unique and innovative by not only providing operational remote sensing observations of rangeland condition, but also web-based tools that utilize these observations to provide critical information on soil fertility/productivity, greenhouse gas emissions, and potential erosion and sedimentation. Our Rangeland Decision Support System (RDSS) will build off of existing RANGES and DNDC tools. Landsat and MODIS prototype processing algorithms for rangeland condition (height, forage production, fractional cover) have been developed under the previous RANGES project and Phase I. The result of this Phase II project will be a series of web data management tools and a prototype RDSS for Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed and Santa Rita Experimental Range regions in Arizona.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our Rangeland Decision Support System will be designed to facilitate easy use of NASA Earth Observations from existing (Landsat MODIS, TRMM and AMSR-E) and potential future (NPOESS) NASA resources and addresses current interests in the Earth Science Application agricultural efficiency, carbon management and watershed management priority areas. Through our web-portal, a wide array of users will have access to remote sensing and model products that are critical for improved and sustainable rangeland management. RDSS would be also useful as a gaming tool for educational applications, natural resource managers and policy applications for better understanding of rangeland management, carbon and nitrogen cycling and sustainability of rangeland forage systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We anticipate our routine mapping and monitoring of rangeland products will be a very useful service to support USDA Risk Management Program needs for Risk Management Products for Pasture /Rangeland and forage systems as part of the USDA Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC). The RDSS will also be useful tool for assessing the efficacy of carbon sequestration projects (a particular interest of NRCS). The RANGES products coupled with the information on C and N cycling and susceptibility to erosion and sedimentation will be extremely useful for the US EPA TMDL process. In addition, RDSS can be applied for USAID applications on rangeland rehabilitation worldwide.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II E4.03-9992
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNS05AA34C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Wireless Technologies for Spatial Data, Input, Manipulation and Distribution
PROPOSAL TITLE: Adaptive Wireless Transceiver

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mobitrum Corporation
8070 Georgia Avenue, Suite 209
Silver Spring,MD 20910-1707

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ray Wang
rwang@mobitrum.com
8070 Georgia Avenue, Suite 213
Silver Spring,MD 20910-1707

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Many wireless technologies are already available for sensor applications. It is inevitable that many non-interoperable wireless technologies between 400 MHz and 5.8 GHz will be deployed for wireless sensor applications. As a result, monitoring across different wireless interfaces will become a challenge for sensor data collection and management due to lack of interoperability between them. Mobitrum is proposing a dynamically adjust transceiver that uses a waveform-DNA approach similar to a process of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) coding structure used in medical world. This effort addresses important technology gap for interfacing with various wireless sensor networks and transmitting/receiving data over short and long distances. This effort will include: (1) Finding the waveforms of RF signals, (2) Reading/comparing the waveform, and (3) Controlling the waveform. The waveforms of the interested RF signals are pre-digitized and stored in the transceiver to compare with the one that is actually received through a wideband antenna. Once the type of a waveform is identified, the intelligent software in the transceiver will configure its RF characteristics to adapt wireless interface dynamically. The proposed enabling technology will provide NASA an effective wireless device for Earth science, data relay, and other situational awareness.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Adaptive transceiver for wireless networked sensors will enable NASA's Earth sciences for spatial data input, manipulation and distribution activities as well as design and engineering collaboration to be more effective. Mobitrum anticipates the following applications that NASA will benefit from the proposed adaptive wireless transceiver technology: 1) Disaster recovery; 2) Field communications device for spatial data input, manipulation and distribution; 3) Sensor, measurement, and field verification applications; 4) Biometric identification applications; 5) Data collaboration and distribution applications; 6) Condition-aware applications; 7) Location-aware applications; and 8) first responders.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The opportunity for adaptive wireless technology lays in future wireless networks and communications. There are tremendous business applications and deployments for cellular 4G networks based on adaptive radios beyond 2004. Mobitrum anticipates the increasing popularity of mobile handheld including PDA/Cell phones brings with it an exciting opportunities for the adaptive radio, which will serve a key factor to make handheld deployable throughout heterogeneous wireless networks whether for corporations or for individuals. As a result, "true mobility" is created through the programmable radio bands. Therefore, more value-added services are deployable and increase revenue to wireless service providers and handheld makers.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II S1.02-8854
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNC05CA27C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deep Space Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Shared Magnetics Hall Thruster

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Busek Co., Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick,MA 01760-2213

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rachel Tedrake
rachel@busek.com
11 Tech Circle
Natick,MA 01760-1023

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In the proposed Phase II program, Busek Co. will demonstrate an innovative methodology for clustering Hall thrusters into a high performance, very high power propulsion system. To fulfill the full range of Hall thruster power requirements (100 kW ? 1 MW) envisioned by NASA for orbit insertion, planetary transfers and manned exploration, rather than developing a >500kW system with one or two large thrusters there are clear advantages to reach the very high power by clustering multiple thrusters of lower power. In the Phase I program, Busek demonstrated a shared magnetics clustering concept that combined the benefits of simple clustering with additional advantages such as the mass savings and power loss reduction of a shared magnetic structure. In Phase II, Busek will demonstrate an alternative shared magnetics concept of clustering and design, fabricate and test a sub-scale nested thruster. The nested thruster consists of two concentric discharge cavities that share a portion of the magnetic structure. Busek will also continue to investigate the shared magnetics concept of the Phase I program and merge the nested concept into the shared magnetics cluster architecture. Busek is uniquely positioned to implement the proposed program having expertise in both the clustering of Hall thrusters and shared magnetics thruster development.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The cluster will enable cargo and propellant transport, pre-positioning missions for lunar and Mars exploration, and enable a reusable orbital tug. The cluster's redundancy is a benefit over a single, large thruster. Moreover, the cluster can be throttled to run at high Isp or high T/P and can grow or shrink to fit different missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As communication satellites evolve to use all electric propulsion, there is a need for larger power thrusters for orbit raising. The shared magnetic Hall thruster clusters, in principle, can be applied across the spectrum of thruster sizes. The Air Force anticipates a need for very high clusters of Hall thrusters in the 100kW to 150kW range for orbit transfer vehicles, space tugs, and re-supply vessels.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II S1.02-9168
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNM05AA37C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deep Space Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aeroelastic Simulation Tool for Inflatable Ballute Aerocapture

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr.
Huntsville,AL 35805-1926

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Peter Liever
jls@cfdrc.com
215 Wynn Dr.
Huntsville,AL 35805-1926

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project will develop a much-needed multidisciplinary analysis tool for predicting the impact of aeroelastic effects on the functionality of inflatable aeroassist vehicles in both the continuum and rarefied flow regimes. In this integrated multi-physics multi-disciplinary computing environment, high-fidelity modules for continuum and rarefied aerodynamics, stress, heat transfer, and computational grid deformation are coupled. This flexible and extensible approach allows the integration of state-of-the-art, stand-alone NASA and industry leading continuum and rarefied flow solvers and structural analysis codes into a computing environment in which the modules can run concurrently with synchronized data transfer. The Phase I study proved the feasibilty of this approach. Tightly coupled fluid-structure continuum flow demonstrations were conducted on a clamped ballute configuration. The feasibility of implementing a DSMC flow solver in the simulation framework was demonstrated, and loosely coupled rarefied flow aeroelastic demonstrations were performed. A NASA and industry technology survey identified several software tools for fluid and structural modeling to be integrated into the environment. Phase II efforts will focus on full implementation of these tools. They include NASA-selected CFD and DSMC codes, and commercial leading structural analysis codes capable of modeling non-linear shape and material response of thin-film inflated aeroshells. Extensive verification and validation studies will be performed, and the software will be applied in ballute technology development.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
): The simulation technology developed under this SBIR program will find direct and immediate applications with NASA and industry in ongoing aeroassist technology development programs. It provides significant capability advances in crucial areas of aeroassist vehicle development: 1) definition and screening of ballute configurations in the concept phase, and 2) verification of aeroassist system functionality across the flight envelope. Inflatable decelerator technology may find a multitude of applications under Project Constellation for providing deceleration and precision landing capability for cargo delivery to Mars outposts or in returning large amounts of down-mass from Earth orbit.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The flexibility provided by the multi-disciplinary computating environment in enabling the exchange of individual modules without breaking the functionality offer the opportunity to other government and industry organizations to implements their own trusted and proven tools into this simulation system. Non-NASA application areas include analysis of space-based inflatable structures such as telescopes and mirrors, satellite solar panels and military reentry vehicles (inflatable decoys, etc) exposed to the atmosphere. The aeroelastic analysis of parachutes and parafoils and the analysis of high-altitude, high-endurance surveillance aircraft with flexible wings will be improved. Further military applications include stabilization and deceleration of ordnance with attached inflatable decelerators. The full integration of the MSC.NASTRAN and ABAQUS structural analysis codes in the MDICE simulation environment opens a multitude of potential other applications that would benefit from coupled analysis with these codes. Applications include a wide range of coupled structural analysis opportunities from naval applications in submarine and ship hull fluid-structure analysis, civil engineering applications in wind-driven building aeroelastic predictions, to aeronautical applications for airships, balloons, aerobots, decelerators, and many other flexible air vehicles.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II S1.03-9701
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNL05AB06P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Multifunctional Autonomous Robust Sensor Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Active Pixel HgCdTe Detectors With Built-in Dark Current Reduction for Near-Room Temperature Operation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
EPIR Technologies
590 Territorial Dr.
Bolingbrook,IL 60440-4881

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Silviu Velicu
svelicu@epir.com
590 Territorial Dr.
Bolingbrook,IL 60440-4881

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
High sensitivity HgCdTe infrared arrays operating at 77K can now be tailored in a wide range of wavelengths from 1 to 14 microns. However, due to the cooling requirements, they consume large amounts of power and are bulky and unsuitable for many NASA applications. During Phase I, we demonstrated the feasibility of employing dark current skimming to increase the operating temperature of HgCdTe mid-wavelength infrared devices to temperature regimes attainable by thermoelectric (TE) cooling. This work will be applied to two-color detectors and 320 ? 256 focal plane arrays during the proposed Phase II effort, leading to the next generation of HgCdTe infrared focal plane arrays. Multicolor detection will involve only an incremental development of the current skimming employed in Phase I. The resistor used in Phase I for skimming will be replaced with a photovoltaic detector that will have two functions: first, it will allow skimming by collecting part of the current flowing through the main detectors, and second, it will act as an independent detector for a second color. By employing a non-equilibrium mode of operation for the same detector, the majority and minority carrier densities will be greatly reduced. This will suppress Auger recombination processes in the active layers, and lead to dramatic increases in recombination lifetimes, dynamic impedances and detectivities. The proposed effort will exploit the excellent optoelectronic properties of bandgap tunable HgCdTe, the recent advances in the heteroepitaxial growth of this material by the flexible MBE manufacturing technique and innovative concepts such as dynamic dark current skimming and Auger suppression.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The FPAs developed in this program could be incorporated in the Multifunctional Autonomous Robust Sensor System (MARSS) due to their increased autonomy. It will also be a strong asset to numerous NASA current and future programs (Sofia, Herschel, Planck, Fair, and Maxim). Space-based observations of atmospheric quality and crop monitoring would also benefit.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Manufacturers could utilize near room temperature IRFPAs in various industrial control applications. Temperature monitoring, especially over large areas, is an important component of many industrial processes. Preventive maintenance on manufacturing equipment could be performed after the infrared detection of "hot spots". IRFPAs are presently in use for such tasks, but more robust and lower cost arrays would be of great benefit. Law enforcement agencies would utilize the IRFPAs in security and surveillance systems. For example, police could detect suspects hidden in darkness or under foliage. In addition, fire fighters could see through obscuring smoke. Building security would also benefit from the low cost operation without the need for illumination. High cost has been a major drawback of present-day technology in these areas. Environmental applications include pipe leak detection, determining the status of high power electrical systems, assessing hazardous materials spills, and analyzing automobile exhaust emissions. The early detection of arterial blockage and skin cancer would be among many medical areas that would benefit from the proposed technology.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II S1.04-8064
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNG05CA36C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Technology for Micro- and Nanosats
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Power, Rad-hard Reconfigurable, Bi-directional Flexfet¿ Level Shifter ReBiLS for Multiple Generation Technology Integration for Space Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
American Semiconductor, Inc.
3100 S. Vista Ave., Suite 230
Boise,ID 83705-0230

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kelly DeGregorio
kellydegregorio@americansemi.com
3100 S. Vista Ave., Suite 230
Boise,ID 83705-0230

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The many different generations of integrated circuit (IC) technologies required for new space exploration systems demand designs operate at multiple and often incompatible voltages. Extended utilization of current and development of new space exploration systems require multiple voltage levels be successfully integrated to interface technologies. NASA's micro-satellites and space exploration missions, like the Space Technology 5 (ST5) Project, are current examples of systems that employ a variety of voltage levels. Spacecraft have limited supply voltages and power at their disposal and this encourages the use of a higher percentage of low voltage microelectronics. [4] To build complete systems there continues to be a common problem of mixing old and new equipment operating at different voltages. [3] ASI's Flexfet<SUP>TM</SUP> CMOS rad-hard reconfigurable bi-directional level shifters (ReBiLS) will allow NASA improved capability to design, develop and implement multi-level voltage systems. The ASI ReBiLS Phase II project will generate prototypes for stand-alone and embedded bidirectional level shifters. A stand-alone ReBiLS device will allow designers to provide efficient bi-directional communication between existing or COTS components operating at different voltages. An embedded ReBiLS cell will be demonstrated in a CULPRiT ULP circuit to demonstrate the on-chip integration of low-voltage, low-power core logic with high-voltage I/O.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Rad-hard reconfigurable bi-directional level shifter (ReBiLS) development will provide needed component integration improvement. Dr. Ashok Sharma, NASA, determined there are no off-the-shelf components available to meet NASA requirements for low voltage level shifting. The current need is handled by designing new ICs specific for each application. Desirable current and next generation standard IC's employ low voltage CMOS and often require an independent Level Shifter IC be designed specific to their utilization. This Phase II contract will generate prototypes of stand-alone and embedded rad-hard ReBiLS highly versatile level shifters. These will provide NASA with space environment capable level shifters to integrate IC's from a variety of different generations employing dissimilar operating voltages. Stand-alone applications include utilization of a ReBiLS Level Shifter IC standard product to integrate current NASA and COTS IC's. Embedded applications will utilize ReBiLS as a standard core cell available to NASA and designers for integration in new advanced IC's as part of the Flexfet<SUP>TM</SUP> foundry CMOS fabrication service. Discussions with Ashok Sharma, Pen-Shu Yeh, and Jody Gambles determined a great opportunity for immediate implementation of a current CAMBR generated NASA design with ReBiLS in Flexfet<SUP>TM</SUP> CMOS as a solution for the CULPRiT Reed-Soloman Encoder. A prototype of this IC as well as the stand-alone level shifter is included in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ReBiLS utilizing ASI Flexfet<SUP>TM</SUP> CMOS provides significant performance improvements and broader multifunctional use. Multiple marketing channels are open for non-NASA commercialization of this technology. ASI is a pure-play foundry currently supporting multiple customer requirements for advanced SOI CMOS wafer fabrication. ReBiLS provides a desirable core-cell for inclusion in the Flexfet<SUP>TM</SUP> CMOS cell library. This cell can be marketed for foundry customer use in new designs to meet a wide variety of system on chip requirements for high-altitude, space and commercial applications. The stand-alone ReBiLS IC components are valuable products. ASI is a foundry services company, but can commercialize this high-performance IC level shifter design by licensing the product to fabless or IDM component suppliers. Licensing to major ASI customer can integrate the product into an established supply channel for military/aerospace and commercial applications. The licensee will provide foundry loading for ASI and can utilize the standard IC for a variety of military/aerospace and commercial level shifting requirements demanding low power and high performance. The ReBiLS core-cell is an independent design solution with IP value. Licensing IP cell designs to ASI customers independent of wafer fabrication services can provide a revenue stream in addition to ASI foundry services.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II S1.04-8862
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNG05CA45C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Technology for Micro- and Nanosats
PROPOSAL TITLE: Micro Resistojet for Small Satellites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Busek Co., Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick,MA 01760-2213

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vlad Hruby
vhruby@busek.com
11 Tech Circle
Natick,MA 01760-1023

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Micro-resistojets offer an excellent combination of simplicity, performance and wet system mass for small satellites (<100 kg, <50 watts) requiring mN level propulsion and low to moderate delta V (<500 m/sec). In Phase I, the potential of a unique micro-resistojet concept suited for low power level was established , and "green" methanol, cracked thermally (without a catalyst) was identified as the propellant of choice. An Isp of 250 seconds is expected. The overall objective of the Phase II Program is to develop an Engineering Model (EM) of the "green" methanol/water fueled micro-resistojet system. The system will be as near as possible to a flight system without having specific mission requirements and will utilize off the shelf power processing components and Lab View software to simulate flight system components in order to minimize cost. Target design specifications for the system are: Thrust - 5.4*10-3 newtons; Specific Impulse - 250 seconds; Mass flow - 2.2*10-3 grams/second (0.167 ccm liquid); Input Power - Less than 20 watts including losses; and Operating Life ? 1000 hours. The EM will be delivered to NASA at the conclusion of Phase II following a 100 hour sustained test at Busek.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
All missions involving small spacecrafts (< 100 kg) that require propulsion with mission delta V up to several hundred meters/sec will benefit from the proposed micro resistojet. These can include missions in LEO that require drag make up or missions that require station keeping ot modest orbit changing In standby mode, the micro-resistojet can be utilized for applications requiring small impulse bit. A potentially attractive application de-orbiting satellites at the end of their life.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The same logic that identified the applications for the NASA missions applies in non-NASA missions. As is normal, however, commercial applications with a strict bottom line and strict underwriter influence will mature when NASA or DOD missions create sufficient commercial investor confidence to employ the device.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II S1.04-9249
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNG05CA68C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Technology for Micro- and Nanosats
PROPOSAL TITLE: Real Time Control Software for Electromagnetic Formation Flight

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Payload Systems, Inc.
247 Third Street
Cambridge,MA 02142-1129

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Francis
francis@payload.com
247 Third Street
Cambridge,MA 02142-1129

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose the development of a maintainable and evolvable real-time control software system for Electromagnetic Formation Flight (EMFF). EMFF systems use high-temperature, superconducting electromagnets to control the relative positions and orientations between two or more formation-flying satellites without using expendable, and possibly contaminating propellant. Eventual applications for EMFF range from X-ray astronomy missions, such as XEUS, MAXIM and Gen-X, to extra-solar planetary science, such as Terrestrial Planet Finder-Interferometer, to vehicle inspection systems for long duration exploration missions. The current EMFF control software was developed as a laboratory exercise, and is not scalable or appropriate for use in a flight environment. The proposed software effort will use a model-based development approach, using executable models to define the EMFF control algorithms, command and data handling behaviors and other system behaviors, and an elaboration of the software architecture defined during Phase I in the form of model translation tools, scripts and procedures, to produce flight-qualifiable EMFF avionics software. The developed software products will be extensible and adaptable for future EMFF applications. Initial testing will be on EMFF hardware developed for a related DARPA program and loaned to this effort at no cost to the SBIR program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
EMFF has applications in planned future space telescopes such as MAXIM, TPF-I, Life Finder, GEN-X, XEUS, UVOI (Stellar Imager), FISI (SPECS), as well as in telescope assembly where it provides a propellant-less method for assembling hexagonal facets of a large primary mirror by using two EMFF space tugs, eliminating propellant contamination concerns. EMFF applications for low-earth orbit solutions include mitigation of differential J2 geo-potential perturbations for close proximity formations, maintenance of non-Keplerian formations, control of sparse aperture Earth-observing radar systems, and control of single spacecraft slewing and pointing control against Earth's magnetic field. Applications also exist for future exploration systems, including propellant-less inspection vehicle for long duration missions to Mars, tending of orbital fuel depots, docking and jettison of modules in a geometrically reconfigurable spacecraft, and electromagnetic rail gun for de-orbiting cargo enroute to the lunar surface.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications for EMFF technology include: using the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) coils to create high authority torque coils for single spacecraft in low-earth-orbit; transferring power between spacecraft spinning up energy storage flywheels on one spacecraft and using HTS coils on another; using the coils in a passive offensive mode where charged particles from the thrusters of another vehicle can be redirected to impinge upon that vehicle; using the coils in a passive defensive mode where they are used to distort the Earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the spacecraft and thereby confuse magnetic sensors on other local spacecraft; holding occulters and sun shields in the proximity of a parent vehicle; stacking GEO assets in the direction normal to the orbital plane; provide slewing and attitude control for large cable-tensioned structures; and diversion of high energy charged particles to help protect sensitive avionics.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II S1.05-9216
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNG05CA85C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Information Technology for Sun-Earth Connection Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Performance Data Analysis Tools for Sun-Earth Connection Missions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tech-X Corporation
5621 Arapahoe Ave, Suite A
Boulder,CO 80303-1379

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Messmer Peter
messmer@txcorp.com
5621 Arapahoe Ave, Suite A
Boulder,CO 80303-1379

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Interactive Data Language (IDL) is a standard tool used by many researchers in observational fields. Present day Sun-Earth Connection missions like SOHO, or future missions, including the Solar Dynamics (SDO) almost exclusively analyze their data in IDL. However, the increasing amount of data produced by these missions, and the increasing complexity of image processing algorithms, requires higher computing power. Cluster computing is a cost-effective way to increase the speed of computation. Enhancing IDL to work on clusters gives scientists access to increased performance in a familiar programming environment. We propose to develop a tool suite that enables IDL to benefit from cluster systems. We demonstrated in Phase I the availability of all key technologies by developing prototype implementations. The main emphasis of the Phase II will be to enhance the interactivity of the tools and advance the suite to market-ready quality. Increased data analysis power enables e.g. near real-time data analysis for space-weather prediction or reduces the response time for analyzing data on demand, as desirable in virtual observatory environments. The wide spread of IDL allows scientists from other fields to benefit from the increased execution speed.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The problem of increasing amounts of data that needs to be analyzed exists in all branches of NASA. Increasing the computing capabilities of the data analysis software is therefore of interest to all NASA branches. The widespread use of IDL throughout NASA makes the tools developed in this project applicable, not only to the Sun-Earth Connection theme but within the entire agency. In addition, the development of a low-cost alternative to the commercial IDL software is a cost reduction factor beneficial all NASA branches.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
IDL is widely used at National Laboratories, universities and private industry. Research branches processing observational data, including medical imaging, chemistry, and earth science, face the same problem of increasing amounts of data to be processed. Their interest is also to reduce the time needed to perform the analysis, making them potential customers for the tools developed in this project. The cost savings resulting from this project could make it even more attractive,especially to private industry.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II S1.05-9852
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNG05CA75C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Information Technology for Sun-Earth Connection Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Computing Infrastructure and Remote, Parallel Data Mining Engine for Virtual Observatories

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SciberQuest, Inc.
Pacific Executive Plaza 777 South Highway 101, Suite 108
Solana Beach,CA 92075-2623

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Homa Karimabadi
homak@sciberquest.com
Pacific Executive Plaza 777 South Highway 101, Suite 108
Solana Beach,CA 92075-2623

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SciberQuest, Inc. proposes to develop a state-of-the-art data mining engine that extends the functionality of Virtual Observatories (VO) from data portal to science analysis resource. Our solution consists of two integrated products, IDDat and RemoteMiner: (1) IDDat is an advanced grid-based computing infrastructure which acts as an add-on to VOs and supports processing and remote data analysis of widely distributed data in space sciences. IDDat middleware design is such as to reduce undue network traffic on the VO. (2) RemoteMiner is a novel data mining engine that connects to the VO via the IDDat. It supports multi-users, has autonomous operation for automated systematic identification while enabling the advanced users to do their own mining and can be used by data centers for pre-mining. In addition, our data mining algorithms have reverse engineering capabilities which enable analytical derivation of models from time series data. These innovations will significantly enhance the science return from NASA missions by providing data centers and individual researchers alike an unprecedented capability to mine vast quantities of data. Phase II work will encompass the building of a full commercial product with associated production quality technical and user documentation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is a data centric organization and as such shares with many industries an urgent need for sophisticated data mining technologies to deal with the tsunami of data. Today, the vast majority of spacecraft data from past missions remain unexplored and this situation will worsen with the many planned multi-spacecraft missions (THEMIS, MMS, ST5, etc.). Our proposed solution provides the necessary data analysis infrastructure and tools for the existing and the planned missions. It leverages on-going efforts in the grid computing community. Our technology is also expected to be relevant to other divisions within NASA such as the Intelligent Systems Project which supports development of autonomous systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
All industries that deal with data are potential customers of our product. No commercial data mining engine offers all of these facilities and a few systems support only a small fraction of the solution. Given the customization of our solution to VO, NASA will clearly remain one of our main target areas beyond Phase II. However, we have already identified several other important markets for deployment of our product including NSF, and DOE within the Federal Government as well as pharmaceutical, bioinformatics, health care, fraud detection and network intrusion detection in the commercial sector.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II S2.01-9515
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNC05CA80C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensors and Detectors for Astrophysics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Metal Mesh Filters for Terahertz Receivers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Virginia Diodes, Inc.
979 Second Street SE, Suite 309
Charlottesville,VA 22902-6172

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffrey Hesler
Hesler@VADiodes.com
979 Second Street SE, Suite 309
Charlottesville ,VA 22902-6172

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The technical objective of this SBIR program is to develop and demonstrate metal mesh filters for use in NASA's low noise receivers for terahertz astronomy and atmospheric studies. Metal mesh filters, based on a free-standing sheet of metal with a periodic area of apertures, have been used for many years. However, they have proven to be extremely difficult and costly to fabricate and are not presently available over a large part of the terahertz frequency band (100 GHz through 10 THz). Also, the terahertz filters that are available from commercial suppliers tend to have unacceptable loss in the pass-band (20% or more) and often cost over one thousand dollars per filter. Through this program VDI is developing new fabrication processes and mesh designs that will improve performance and greatly reduce costs. Successful completion of this program will make the filters available for NASA's terahertz missions, facilitate the development of improved terahertz detectors (by facilitating bolometer calibration and testing) and also make the filters commercially available for the greater range of terahertz applications that are now emerging, such as imaging systems and spectrometers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The new filters will facilitate the development of extremely sensitive direct detector for terahertz applications. For example, JPL requires cooled bandpass filters to prevent saturation of new detectors by stray radiation and to reduce background noise. Astronomical researchers at JPL are developing a wide array of cryogenic detectors for the 1- 10 THz frequency band. Thus, the filters should be made available for each of the frequencies at which such detectors will be used for astronomical observations. A second important application for these filters is in calibrating receivers. For example heterodyne receivers based on hot electron bolometric (HEB) mixers have recently been found to be susceptible to a direct detection heating effect caused by background radiation. Even though astronomical receivers will not be affected by this problem once they are exposed only to the cold sky, this problem can prevent the accurate calibration of the mixers in the laboratory. Cooled bandpass filters are required to alleviate this problem.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Scientific applications of terahertz filters include chemical spectroscopy, plasma diagnostics, biomaterial analysis, electron spin resonance, and diagnostic instruments for particle accelerators. Military applications include compact range radars, covert communications systems, imaging systems, and chemical, explosive and bioagent scanners. Potential large-scale commercial applications of the proposed terahertz filters include portal security imagers and scanners, medical diagnostics for clinical use, last-mile data links, and industrial process control. As terahertz scientists at NASA and elsewhere strive to create more advanced and elaborate terahertz systems, they will benefit from a wider array of fundamental system components, such as those that are available at microwave frequencies. Examples include circulators, isolator, attenuators, rapid switches and frequency filters. The filters being developing in this program represent one further step in the development of a mature terahertz technology base.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II S2.02-9108
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNG05CA63C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Terrestrial and Extra-Terrestrial Balloons and Aerobots
PROPOSAL TITLE: In-Situ Production of Hydrogen for Buoyancy on Titan

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
7607 Eastmark Drive, Suite 102
College Station,TX 77840-4027

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alan Cisar
alan.cisar@lynntech.com
7607 Eastmark Drive, Suite 102
College Station,TX 77840-4027

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Resupply of materials in space applications is a significant logistical problem. Historically the replacement materials have been carried with the spacecraft. This problem increases dramatically as mission duration and distance from the earth increases, as in missions to Saturn or Titan. It is estimated that a buoyant vehicle operating on Titan may require 75 g of make-up hydrogen per week. This represents approximately 35 kg of additional mass at launch solely for the storage of make-up hydrogen to maintain buoyancy of the craft on Titan for a one-year mission. During the Phase I project Lynntech demonstrated that hydrogen can be generated in-situ directly from the Titan atmosphere from 100 K to 300 K with 10 watts using proprietary plasma reformation techniques, and that metal hydrides are viable hydrogen separation devices. Lynntech's low volume, low mass (~2 kg) system will save approximately 33 kg at launch ( >$72M) for a one year Titan mission. Based on a conservative estimate (using Mars mission equivalency factors), Lynntech's proposed system has an advantageous equivalent system mass (ESM) after only 47 mission days. The Phase II effort will focus on further improving hydrogen production efficiency and a long-term endurance test of the system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For Phase III, Lynntech will manufacture, flight qualify and deliver two mission-ready units to NASA. With a significant increase in power, an additional NASA application of the plasma technology is the production of oxygen from Martian or lunar regolith. Production of oxygen on the Mars or Lunar surface is an enabling technology for future manned and unmanned missions in space. The oxygen generated can be used for breathing, propulsion, or in portable power generation equipment (i.e., fuel cells etc.).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
U.S. commercial vehicles operate >215.8 billion miles annually as part of the more than 2 trillion miles traveled by all vehicles on U.S. roadways. Heavy trucks and busses contribute more than 25% of NOX emissions. By slightly modifying the device proposed here to operate using diesel fuel, the plasma reformer can be used to provide small amounts of hydrogen to be injected with the fuel in diesel engines. This hydrogen serves to reduce NOX emissions by a factor of ten. Because of its cost, simplicity and robustness, Lynntech's plasma reforming technology is an elegant solution to a longstanding emissions problem.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II S2.03-8975
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNG05CA56C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Magnesium Diboide Superconducting Coils for Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR's)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hyper Tech Research, Inc.
110 E. Canal St.
Troy,OH 45373-3581

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Matthew Rindfleisch
Matt Rindfleisch [mrindfleisch@hypertechresearch.c
1275 Kinnear Rd
Columubs,OH 43212-1155

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
For Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs) in space applications, it is desirable to have very light weight, small diameter, high current density superconducting wires that can operate at temperatures in the 10-30 K range, specifically with engineering current densities in the 50,000-100,000 A/cm2 range, at 15K in 3 tesla fields. Magnesium diboride, a light-weight superconductor wire, is the ideal candidate coil material for ADRs in the 10-30 K range. During the Phase I we demonstrated that drawing magnesium diboride wires to the needed diameter range could be achieved. However to meet the most desired application requirements we need slight improvement in superconductor current density, reduction of powder filament size, and higher percent superconductor fraction at the desired wire diameter range of 0.075 mm - 0.150 mm. In the Phase II effort we propose a development plan to make these improvements to small diameter magnesium diboride wire and to demonstrate conductor performance over long length on small coils.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to ADR coils, magnesium diboride superconductors can benefit NASA applications for superconducting large aircraft motors, transformers, inductors, magnetic bearings, actuators, MHD magnets, and other potential power conditioning applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercialization of magnesium diboride superconducting wires will allow less expensive and more open MRI systems for medical use, and lower cost and more efficient power utility applications such as transformers, motors, generators, fault current limiters, and SMES. Magnesium diboride will also be useful for superconducting Maglev Trains for the transportation industry, and for the High Energy Physics community the magnesium diboride wire will be useful for wiggler and undulator magnets.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II S2.04-8440
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNG05CA71C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optical Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Subaperture Stitching Interferometry for Large Convex Aspheric Surfaces

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
QED Technologies, Inc.
1040 University Avenue
Rochester,NY 14607-1239

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Murphy
murphy@qedmrf.com
1040 University Avenue
Rochester,NY 14607-1239

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The size and accuracy specifications of telescope mirrors are ever more demanding. This is particularly true for secondary mirrors, as they are convex and thus require large-aperture optics to test them. Recent NASA programs, such as the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), include monolithic secondary mirrors of significant size (larger than half a meter). Secondary mirrors of such large sizes are difficult and expensive to test due to the large-aperture converging and nulling optics required. Furthermore, calibration of these optics to the level required for next-generation programs is extremely challenging. Subaperture stitching has the potential to provide accurate high-resolution maps of large-aperture aspheric optics without the use of even larger aperture optics or dedicated nulls. QED's Subaperture Stitching Interferometer (SSI<SUP>REG</SUP>) has achieved nanometer-level accuracies on spherical optics with its novel compensation techniques. Non-null capability is enhanced since the individual subapertures have significantly less aspheric departure. However, the system is currently only capable of testing up to 280 mm optics of mild asphericity. Phase I work demonstrated that the technology is scalable to larger aperture sizes. This proposal focuses on innovations for leveraging the considerable benefits of stitching (high resolution, automatic calibration, and flexible aspheric testing) to aspheric optics. Activities will include uncertainty analyses of aspheric tests, subscale measurement demonstrations, and development of concepts for testing larger amounts of aspheric departure.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This work will significantly enhance the efficiency, capability, and flexibility of large-aperture aspheric testing, particularly for convex surfaces, but also including monolithic and segmented concave surfaces. Many NASA programs that depend on large-optics fabrication and testing would benefit. These include: ? The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) ? The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) ? Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEU) programs for space-based, large-aperture telescopes that look far into space ? Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) programs for airborne or space-based instruments that image the Earth ? Sun-Earth Connection (SEC) programs for UV & EUV imaging of the Sun and its interaction with the Solar System

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This work could benefit other industries that require large aperture, high precision, optical surfaces. These include: ? Projection lithography systems ? Commercial satellite and surveillance systems ? Large-aperture DoD applications ? Ground-based telescopes, such as: o Thirty-meter telescope (TMT) o Giant segmented mirror telescope (GSMT) o Very large optical telescope (VLOT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II S2.04-9566
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNG05CA72C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optical Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rapid Damage-Free Shaping of Lightweight SiC Using Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) Processing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
RAPT Industries, Inc.
6252 Preston Ave.
Livermore,CA 94551-0234

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
George Gardopee
ggardopee@raptindustries.com
6252 Preston Ave.
Livermore,CA 94551-0234

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed Phase II effort seeks to demonstrate a dramatic reduction of the manufacturing cost and cycle time of lightweight silicon carbide mirrors by substituting a novel reactive atom plasma (RAP) process for traditional hard tool grinding and lapping. We will use the RAP process (a plasma-based non-contact shaping tool) along with conventional steps to shape a series of lightweight optics, culminating in a 12" asphere. We will finish these optics to final specification using one of several candidate sub-aperture finishing tools. The avoidance of surface and subsurface damage by the use of this non-contact RAP process is expected to substantially reduce the time and cost of optical finishing of lightweight SiC optics. We will also demonstrate the scalability of the RAP process for SiC optics and optical segments up to 2 meters.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lightweight silicon carbide mirrors are needed for advanced space astronomy and earth imaging missions spanning the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Based upon its material properties, SiC has been identified as an attractive replacement for beryllium and glass mirrors in future large aperture telescopes and interferometers. However, the cost and schedule for producing such optics by conventional technology has been prohibitive.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
SiC is an attractive material for optical and opto-mechanical applications in semiconductor processing, dynamic imaging systems and lightweight guidence systems. It is also ideally suited for high stiffness, high agility wafer stages which must be optically tracked by laser based distance measuring interferometers. SiC is also attractive for high performance industrial scanners used in printing, cutting and welding.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II S2.05-9854
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNG05CA59C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Photon Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Superconducting Thin-Film Interconnects for Cryogenic Photon Detector Arrays

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luxel Corporation
P.O. Box 1879
Friday Harbor,WA 98250-8040

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Grove
david.grove@luxel.com
P.O. Box 3355
Friday Harbor,WA 98250-3355

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Next generation astrophysical observatories need improvements in readout electronics and associated high density interconnects. In particular, advanced imaging spectrometers for x-ray astronomy will require significant improvements in the high density interconnects between the detector arrays and the first stage electronics. These detectors operate at 50 to 100 mK, while the first stage is held between 1.3 and 1.5 K. Interconnects are needed that provide the required signal paths while imparting a total thermal heat load on the detector stage of less than 0.5 microwatts. The innovation proposed to meet this need is an ultra-thin polyimide membrane supporting a high-density array of vacuum-deposited superconducting traces. During Phase I, 100-trace Niobium arrays were deposited on ultra-thin polyimide films. The critical current density (Jc) averaged 2.1 x 106 A/cm2, exceeding Phase I goals and demonstrating the feasibility of the innovation. This result suggests that interconnects with 1000 traces are feasible within specified heat load limits and the goal of Phase II will be to produce such interconnects for both NASA and commercial applications. The proposed interconnects greatly broaden the thermal budget/signal capacity envelope for low-temperature detector applications by combining existing lithographic technology with Luxel's state-of-the-art thin film processes and mission tested polyimide.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For NASA, a successful Phase II will result in the availability of a new technology for the integration of cryogenic detectors with higher temperature electronics. Advanced detector technology has applications from sub-millimeter to gamma-ray energies, but the proposed technology is particularly suited to x-ray microcalorimetry

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Low temperature detectors and the systems in which they are used impact astrophysics, neutrino physics, dark-matter detection, materials science, condensed matter physics, and atomic and plasma physics and beamline instrumentation. Technologies for medical imaging, lithographic inspection, and the non-destructive evaluation of structural materials are increasingly adopting cryogenic detectors and microcalorimeters. The proposed interconnects will find use in quality assurance instrumentation for electronics packaging, medical imaging such as magnetoencephalography, non-destructive inspection of concealed structural lap joints, and in microcalorimeter spectrometers used with scanning electron microscopes for microanalysis of thin films and MEMs devices.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II S2.06-9070
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNC05CA69C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Gravity Wave Detection
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultra Low Noise 1.06 Micron Laser Oscillator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Orbits Lightwave, Inc.
101 Waverly Drive
Pasadena,CA 91105-2513

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
yaakov Shevy
yshevy@orbitslightwave.com
101 Waverly Drive
Pasadena,CA 91105-2513

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) demand state-of-the-art ultra-stable and low noise coherent lasers. This is a proposal to develop a space qualified high power, single mode, low noise and narrow linewidth fiber laser based on a"virtual ring" laser cavity at the 1.06 micron spectral band. This novel laser architecture enables traveling-wave oscillation in a compact, linear and all-fiber cavity. This leads to unprecedented low noise and stable laser oscillator. The all fiber device also offers a highly reliable, compact and power conserving solution. We have already demonstrated virtual ring oscillators at the 1.55 micron band that rival the state of the ring laser architecture. In this research we will develop a 1.06 micron laser that can meet or exceed the LISA experiment required laser specifications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Low noise space qualified coherent lasers can also find use in other NASA space missions among them: inter-satellite and deep space communications and high resolution coherent Lidar for the Mars Lander mission. In addition, this technology can also be used for ultra high-resolution air-borne LIDAR systems for terrestrial applications. These system may not require the ultra high stability of the LISA experiment but the development of the base-line technology for a common platform can lead to NASA cost savings.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Inter-satellite coherent communications systems are contemplated for DoD and commercial applications. These systems require high power coherent laser transmitter and a low power source for a local oscillator probably at the 1.06 micron band. These systems can use essentially the same base laser technology developed for the space qualified LISA experiment.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II S3.01-7863
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNC05CA83C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Precision Constellations for Interferometry
PROPOSAL TITLE: Radio Frequency Micro Ion Thruster for Precision Propulsion

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Busek Co., Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick,MA 01760-2213

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kurt Hohman
kurt@busek.com
11 Tech Circle
Natick,MA 01760-1023

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Busek proposes to continue development of an engineering model radio frequency discharge, gridded micro ion thruster that produces sub-mN to mN thrust precisely adjustable over a wide dynamic thrust range. Phase I testing proved the feasibility of the concept and estimated performance was exceptional. Measuring beam current and voltage, a thrust up to 1.6mN, thrust efficiencies up to 40% and propellant utilization up to 80% were estimated. Specific impulse ranged from 500-3000seconds. Beam power maximum was 38 watts and the rf power at this maximum was about 30watts total and approximately 20 watts rf deposited into the plasma. The rf discharge ionizer eliminated any need for an internal cathode. In Phase II, Busek will measure thrust directly, characterize the thruster over a wide range of operating conditions and predict lifetime. MIT will advance a numerical simulation of the rf thruster to be used for scaling and design purposes. For missions with cryogenic sensors, a thruster utilizing non-condensable propellant(s) will be evaluated. In addition, a beam neutralizer will be investigated. An rf cathode or carbon nanotube field emission cathode are the two most promising neutralizers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Missions such as LISA, TPF, MAXIM, SIM, etc., require extremely precision propulsion. Colloid thrusters have demonstrated that sub-micro Newton precision and thrust noise can be achieved. The ST7 DRS mission will document that this thrust precision yields s/c position accuracy within a few nanometers. Propulsion with higher but overlapping thrust and relaxed precision is required for the coarse constellation adjustments and for reorientation of the constellation to observe other locations in the universe. Many of these missions require cryogenic sensors and therefore, the propulsion effluent should not thermally radiate or condense on cryogenic surfaces.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Busek is a major participant in the field of micro propulsion and currently has the largest US commercial diversity in micro propulsion. In this niche, Busek has developed the only commercial 200W Hall thruster to be flown August 2005, near flight ready colloid thrusters (NASA ST& DRS) and soon to be flown micro-ppt developed in conjunction with the US Air Force. In addition, Busek is developing a micro resistojet in another NASA SBIR Phase I with Goddard as the technical monitor. The addition of a micro rf ion thruster will supplement the range of thrust and performance of our thrusters nicely and the heritage of the suite of subsystems developed or nearly developed, such as PPU and propellant feed systems, will lend to easier commercialization. Potential Department of Defense and commercial applications will become available as the continued miniaturization of spacecraft matures.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II S3.02-9660
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNG05CA41C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: High Contrast Astrophysical Imaging
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Resolution Silicon Deformable Mirrors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Boston Micromachines Corporation
108 Water Street
Watertown,MA 02472-4696

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Bierden
pab@bostonmicromachines.com
108 Water Street
Watertown,MA 02472-4696

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this proposal we describe a plan to build a deformable mirror suitable for space-based operation in systems for high-resolution imaging. The prototype DM will be fabricated through a combination of micromachining and wafer bonding steps that were all proven feasible in the Phase I project. The device will rely on single crystal silicon for all structural components, promising unprecedented thermal stability and optical quality. A principal goal of this Phase II SBIR project will be to fabricate a high precision microelectromechanical (MEMS) deformable mirror with a 60mm optical diameter, having surface roughness less than 5nm RMS. The mirror will be supported by 1600 independently controllable electrostatic actuators, each capable of up to 1mm of stroke with sub-nanometer repeatability. The device will become an enabling component for applications including space-based imaging, optical communication, and lithography.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed research activities would support all of NASA's planned large aperture missions. In these missions the inherent figure errors and compliance of lightweight primary mirrors will reduce the system's passive performance. It is expected that larger, lighter weight systems will require adaptive systems to achieve acceptable optical performance. Active and adaptive systems will be used to measure and correct wavefront errors for large aperture telescopes and control dynamic changes in the optical structure. Lightweight, low-power deformable mirror technology such as that described in this proposal will be required for several SSE and ESE roadmap missions requiring optical large apertures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The devices that are proposed in this program could be used for any application where dynamic wavefront correction would be required and the current technology (macro-scale DM or liquid crystal SLMs) is limited, either by cost, size, speed, or optical characteristics. Examples of such applications are inter-cavity laser correction, laser welding, long range laser communication and biomedical imaging. Each of these applications, if successfully demonstrated, would lead to a large commercial market for the proposed silicon deformable mirrors.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II S4.01-9068
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNA05CQ96C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Science Instruments for Conducting Solar System Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Powder Handling Device for X-ray Diffraction Analysis with Minimal Sample Preparation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
inXitu
PO Box 730
Mountain View,CA 94042-0730

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Philippe Sarrazin
psarrazin@inxitu.com
PO Box 730
Mountain View,CA 94042-0730

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project consists in developing a Vibrating Powder Handling System for planetary X-Ray Diffraction instruments. The principle of this novel sample handling technique relies on vibrations generated in a sample holder to create movements in the powdered sample. The major benefit over conventional sample handling techniques is the possibility to characterize materials with grain-sizes up to two orders of magnitude larger, with no degradation in the data quality. It allows existing planetary sample-preparation systems such as rock crushers and drills to be used in place of fine-grinding mills normally required for quality XRD analysis. A secondary benefit is that it offers a simple means of loading and removal of samples, with potentially no moving parts. This research will answer a critical need for sample handling devices for conducting definitive mineralogical analyses in the Solar System. The Phase 2 effort will focus on addressing key technical issues in the development of a miniature Vibrating Powder Handling System. This work will lead to a brassboard prototype that can be remotely operated and interfaced to a planetary XRD instrument.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed system will enable planetary X-ray diffraction instruments to produce high quality data without complex sample preparation. It will be imbedded in a host instrument and will provide means of sample loading and sample removal. The reduced constraints on sample preparation and compact size of the system will allow fitting XRD capabilities on a broader range of landed platforms. The technology could serve a variety of other types of in-situ planetary instruments requiring delivery of powdered material. It will also help in the implementation of remote XRD capabilities in terrestrial laboratories for the study of returned samples.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technique will find a range of applications in industrial and research laboratories as a means to automatically load powdered samples in XRD instruments for analysis or process control (cements, inks, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, etc.), or to characterize materials that cannot be ground to fine-grained size (explosives, pharmaceuticals). It will also be essential to XRD instruments for field or remote analyses of hazardous substances, geological materials, etc. The system could be produced as a stand-alone unit fitted to commercial instruments or as part of a complete system that takes full advantage of its unique capabilities.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II S4.01-9928
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNA05CQ97C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Science Instruments for Conducting Solar System Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fast GC for Space Applications Based on PIES Technology

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lenterra, Inc.
7 Tenney Road
West Orange,NJ 07052-1315

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Kozhevnikov
michael@lenterra.com
7 Tenney Road
West Orange,NJ 07052-1315

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase II project is aimed at the development of an analytical instrument which combines the advantages of fast gas chromatography (GC) and a detector that is capable of sample identification independently from GC retention time. Experiments in the limited-space environment require from a GC system maximum productivity and universality with minimal resource consumption. A combination of a miniature short-column chromatograph with a detector capable of identifying unknown species would be an ideal instrument for flight analysis. A low-resource and power consumption micro-sized GC detector that is proposed for development in Phase II of this project is based on a technology of Penning Ionization Electron Spectroscopy in plasma (PIES). Adding another analytical dimension to the amperometric method that has earlier been employed in the metastable ionization detector (MID), PIES technology relies on the measurement of the energy of electrons liberated by Penning ionization in collisions between analyte molecules and helium metastable atoms in the afterglow of a gas discharge. Since the energy of Penning electrons is specific to the species, the resultant data can be used to identify gas components. No optics or high vacuum is required, and the spectra in this technique are recorded by using a collector electrode placed into a glow discharge cell. In the Phase I of the project, the technology has been expanded to flowing plasmas with linear gas velocities of up to 9.3 m/s where PIES spectra were recorded in ~1.5 s. Phase II of the project is focused on further increasing the data acquisition rates, realization of PIES detector in a compact design, development of advanced measurement electronics, and testing the prototype detector with a commercial high-speed gas chromatograph.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A GC-PIES analytical device is intended for use in exobiology experiments onboard spacecraft or space probes where the detection and identification of a wide range of chemical species, over vast concentration ranges is often a primary requirement. Further advance of PIES technology to on-chip packaging would lead to the development of a MEMS GC-PIES micro-device capable of in sutu multi-species analysis with identification of unknown species. Such a micro-total-analysis-system (mu-TAS) would be is especially suited for carrying out gas analysis under severely limited conditions of planetary missions. Another potential NASA application of the instrument is monitoring environment onboard a spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Miniature and portable analytical devices which would provide real-time identification of various gases are required in the majority of the GC detection fields. Such technologies are needed in industrial, forensic, military, security, science, environmental, educational and other areas. Some specific applications include: air quality monitoring, manufacturing process control, emission control, hazardous waste treatment, airport security, weapons drug, alcohol, and other contraband detection; landmine detection; individual/consumer applications including but not limited to house and vehicle monitoring systems and many others.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II S4.02-8070
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNG05CA55C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme Environment & Aerial Mobility
PROPOSAL TITLE: Extreme Temperature Motor and Drill System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics Ltd.
460 W 34th Street
New York,NY 10001-4236

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jerri Ji
ji@honeybeerobotics.com
460 W 34th Street
New York,NY 10001-4236

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In response to the need for motors, actuators and drilling systems that can operate in the harsh venusian environment for extended periods of time, on the order of several hours to days, Honeybee Robotics proposes continued development of an extreme temperature motor and an extreme temperature drill system and demonstration of both in simulated Venus surface conditions. A first-generation prototype motor was designed, built and tested in Venus-like conditions (460<SUP>o</SUP>C temperature, mostly CO2 gas environment) during Phase I. The Phase I tests demonstrated the feasibility of the design through verification that the motor can operate at 460<SUP>o</SUP>C for an extended period of time. A further developed and optimized version of this motor could be used to actuate drills, robotic arms, and other devices outside of an environment-controlled landed platform on the surface of Venus. The motor's capability to survive for hours (and potentially longer) in that environment is a major benefit to future Venus science missions since it would allow time for communication ground loops to optimize drill target selection and allow for multiple samples to be acquired from the subsurface. An extreme temperature motor would therefore revolutionize the exploration of Venus. In Phase II, both an extreme environment motor and an extreme environment drill system will be developed to TRL 6. Aside from Venus exploration, other potential NASA and non-NASA applications for an extreme temperature motor include actuation of fluid pumps, gimbals, robotic joints and manipulation systems, as well as turbine, expendable launch vehicle and furnace tending system components.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
An extreme temperature motor a drill system developed to TRL would be a great asset to the Venus exploration program. Such a motor would allow actuation of robotic devices such as drilling and sampling systems, sample manipulation and comminution devices, robotic arms, and any other devices that require actuation outside of an environment-controlled landed pressure vessel. Operation of devices for extended durations outside of the landed vessel, particularly a 30 centimeter (or greater) depth drilling system, would revolutionize Venus surface exploration. Applicable missions include the Venus In Situ Explorer identified at a New Frontiers mission candidate and subsequent Venus Surface Sample Return missions. Also, technologies developed under the Prometheus program could employ extreme temperature motors, for example to actuate pumps and valves for liquid metal cooling systems. In addition to these applications, terrestrial robotic exploration of volcanoes and deep ocean hydrothermal vents could employ extreme temperature motors. These extreme environments are of scientific interest to both NASA and non-NASA agencies because insight into active earth processes and the origin and survivability of life would be gained. Also, the science gathered and technologies demonstrated could be applied to analog sites across the solar system. Other potential applications include motors for gimbal systems or other devices on spacecraft that orbit close to the sun or Mercury.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most promising non-NASA application is actuation of electrical submersible pumps used in oil and geothermal wells to lift material to the surface. The temperature limit of these pumps essentially limits the depth at which they can be used, since temperature generally increases with increase in well depth. Therefore a pump that can operate at temperatures beyond what is currently achievable (300<SUP>o</SUP>C) would allow material transport from deeper wells. Other potential applications identified include (1) gas turbine starter/generators for aircraft engines, (2) actuators for turbine fuel and steam control, inlet guide vane positioning, bleed heat valve control and remote sub-sea system actuation, (3) high temperature electromechanical actuation systems for expendable launch vehicle thrust vector control and gimbaling of engines and adaptable aerodynamic surfaces, and (4) furnace tending for glass/ceramic manufacturing (for example, loading and unloading of castings, glass furnaces and hot or heavy metal, glass or ceramic parts.)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II S4.02-8406
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNG05CA62C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme Environment & Aerial Mobility
PROPOSAL TITLE: Model-Based Design Tools for Extending COTS Components To Extreme Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynguent, Inc.
PO Box 19325
Portland,OR 97280-0325

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Martin Vlach
mvlach@lynguent.com
PO Box 19325
Portland,OR 97280-0325

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovation in this project is model-based design (MBD) tools for predicting the performance and useful life of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components and COTS-based systems beyond their rated temperature range. Phase I results have shown the feasibility of these tools, which consist of novel modeling tools and advanced system and data analysis capability. The modeling tools differ from all known technologies in that they facilitate the capture of experimental data on COTS devices that get automatically transformed through novel modeling methods into newly created behavioral models with performance degradation and lifetime effects. These tools are relevant and important in providing NASA the means to quantify the reliability and lifetime (i.e., capability and risk) of COTS components and COTS-based systems and provide a trade structure for the assessment of competing technologies. Furthermore, these modeling and design tools provide a means of integrating disparate models, allow agile evolution of models, and encourage MBD reporting mechanisms be used in reviews. Ultimately, these MBD tools will enable lower-cost system development and cost versus lifetime assessment, shorten development time, and extend flight-proven technology to broader applications. Lynguent plans to develop MBD tools based on its Phase I feasibility study and to utilize a high temperature testbed (DC-DC converter) as a case study to demonstrate a calibration methodology for the tools to insure accuracy with respect to accelerated testing results. This calibration methodology will be developed in consultation with leading experts in the field of reliability modeling and high temperature measurements of electronics and packaging.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential NASA applications include all manned and unmanned vehicles that involve electronics (COTS-based or not). The tools being developed at Lynguent will offer a consistent approach to modeling, simulation and data management, test bench development, archival of test and simulation data along with the models used for design, and specification management. The Lyngo collaborative design environment will be new capability for modeling and design debugging in multiple commercially available tool flows. Thus, as a third party add-on tool suite, these tools will apply to electronics and mixed-technology systems that go onboard all NASA vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lynguent's tools(ModLyng and Lyngo) are designed to be more mainstream than simply extreme environments. Since these tools are based on hardware description languages, they are applicable to any discipline (electrical, mechanical, hydraulic) where models can be expressed in terms of differential, algebraic equations. Event-driven phenomena can be modeled and simulated (i.e., digital or analog event-driven). The mix of these disciplines is also possible (i.e., mixed-technology). So, among the non-NASA applications are any electronics-based design involving analog, digital, mixed-signal electronics as well as mixed-technology systems such as MEMS. This is a very broad market spanning military and commercial applications, including transportation, medical electronics, semiconductor, and consumer product segments.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II S4.02-9279
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNG05CA78C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme Environment & Aerial Mobility
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Temperature Telemetry Transmitter for Venus Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Softronics Ltd.
6920 Bowman Lane, NE
Cedar Rapids,IA 52402-1576

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Sternowski
bobs@softronicsltd.com
6920 Bowman Lane NE
Cedar Rapids,IA 52402-1576

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed S-band telemetry transmitter will operate in the exterior Venusian high pressure, 465?aC ambient atmosphere without being contained in a thermally protective container. The sealed, radiation-hardened, high-reliability, silicon-carbide-based transmitter uses an ambient heatsink to cool its high temperature transistors without the power, volume, and weight of auxiliary cooling. An innovative circuit architecture requires only one SiC semiconductor device per module; other components are ceramic or temperature-compensated machined metal parts. Operating life on Venus is limited only by the external power source; several months is anticipated. The fault-tolerant modular transmitter!|s 150 watt RF output power will support a direct Venus-Earth 8 kbps communications link. This same design solution can also be applied to very cold Titan-like applications as well. The Phase II effort culminates with a 30 day Venus life test simulation of a full scale deliverable prototype.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The transmitter design is useful in a variety of spacecraft and planetary exploration craft where extreme temperatures (-200C to +500C) and pressures, light weight, small size, radiation-hardness, and low cost are required for S-band telemetry transmission.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The transmitter design technology is useful in diverse commercial applications where its unique thermal and RF power properties are valuable: oil well downhole telemetry (hot, corrosive, pressure); fire fighting communication systems (hot); high temperature military vehicle telemetry applications (hot, RF power); high power microwave generators (RF power).


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II S4.03-9587
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNG05CA38C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Flexible Electronics and Nanosensors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fabrication of Radar Array Antennas Using Large-Area, High-Resolution Lithography-on-Flex

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anvik Corporation
6 Skyline Drive
Hawthorne,NY 10532-2165

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Marc Klosner
mklosner@anvik..com
Anvik Corporation, 6 Skyline Drive
Hawthorne,NY 10532-2165

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As the important role of NASA "missions to earth" has been clearly demonstrated in recent years, the need for radar antenna systems that have large fields of coverage has gained increased emphasis. In order to achieve the desired performance from space, the antenna systems must have surface areas that are hundreds of square meters in size. However, to make it affordable to deploy such large-area antennas into space, it is necessary to fabricate these antennas on flexible substrates, which are lightweight, and can be rolled into small volumes. The fabrication of flexible antennas calls for new manufacturing techniques that are capable of addressing the challenges of patterning high-resolution features on very-large area flexible substrates, while achieving precise registration of the antenna features over the entire substrate area. In this Phase II proposal we will develop and demonstrate processes to fabricate large-area antennas on flexible substrates, focusing, in particular, on JPL's 2 x 3 m active membrane phased array radar; and we will fabricate the flexible panels required for JPL's antenna. The fabrication of the array antenna will be performed using Anvik's novel large-area roll-to-roll photolithography technology, which enables high-resolution and micron-level registration on large-area flexible substrates.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Large-area antennas offer the potential for highly sensitive and highly directional terrain mapping, and thus are essential for providing information for scientific use. For example, electronically steerable phased arrays provide the capability to detect surface and subsurface topology including ice or features hidden by surface dust, and are thus attractive for a variety of NASA earth sensing missions, as well as missions to other planets and moons within our solar system. The very-large area flexible substrate patterning technology developed for this program will also be highly attractive for many other NASA programs. For example, solar sails and gossamer spacecraft will use ultra-thin flexible substrates with integrated electronics, communications, and power systems. Additionally, sensor skins consisting of arrays of sensors will need to be applied conformally to very-large area structures, such as aircraft wings and buildings, requiring the fabrication of electronics and MEMS on flexible materials. The NASA balloon program, which uses large-area flexible substrates for exploration of earth's atmosphere would also benefit through the integration of electronics and sensors into the ultra-thin balloon material.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are numerous applications for Anvik's flexible antenna fabrication technology in both the commercial and military sectors. For example, soldiers in the field would greatly benefit from flexible antennas due to their light weight and convenient portability, thus reducing the burden they must carry. Additionally, Anvik's lithography-on-flex technology can be used to manufacture frequency selective surfaces (FSS), which consist of repeating arrays of features that selectively absorb or transmit electromagnetic energy, typically at microwave frequencies. Fabricated on large sheets of flexible material, FSS can be applied to ships, for example, to improve their stealth capability; or may be used in commercial or military aircraft, in conjunction with conformable antennas, to serve as radomes, while optimizing aerodynamic performance. As another example, large-area flexible displays have enormous military and commercial applications. For the military, they will provide a reduction in the load a soldier must carry, while reducing the power levels needed for operation. In commercial applications, they will find widespread use in home entertainment, as well as in cell phones and automobiles. Additionally, manufacturing technology for flexible electronics is essential for the enormous mobile electronics market, where lightweight and conformability are key factors that determine the success of a product.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II S4.05-9960
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNA05CR01C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Astrobiology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniature Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer for Space and Extraterrestrial Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Opti-MS Corporation
102 White Drive
Starkville,MS 39759-2635

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Ermer
dermer@opti-ms.com
102 White Drive
Starkville,MS 39759-2635

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The PI has developed a miniature time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS), which can be op-timized for space and extraterrestrial applications, by using a revolutionary ion-focusing scheme. The instrument is optimized for a matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization ion source. The design is compact and the device that will be built under a Phase II grant will have a mass of less than 1 kg, a volume of less than one liter and draw approximately 3.5 Watts, exclusive of vac-uum generation, laser and sample-handling equipment. The proposed device will include a sam-ple-handling component, which will slightly increase the mass, volume and power requirements. Although there are several miniature TOF-MS systems currently available (NASA has a design available for licensing) the proposed innovation will out-perform all of the miniature designs currently available by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude (resolution and sensitivity) and has mass resolution comparable to current full-size research instruments. For commercial applications where volume, mass and power requirements are not so stringent, a device that performs better than current full-sized instruments can be designed.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has identified a need for a miniature, high-resolution, high-sensitivity (femtomolar) tech-nique to identify biologically important molecules for astrobiology applications such as missions to Mars and Europa and for conducting molecular biology experiments on the international space station. Laser-based TOF-MS is a powerful technique for the detection and identification of a wide range of atoms and molecules. For biological molecules, MALDI TOF-MS can detect DNA/RNA fragments, whole proteins and peptides and digested protein fragments. In addition to biological applications, laser-based TOF-MS can analyze a variety of analytes from numerous matrices including isotopic and elemental analysis. Our design can meet the requirements for mass range and sensitivity as well as requirements for volume, mass and power. Having demon-strated that this technology works; solutions to the few technical/engineering problems identified during this work, as well and integrating a sample introduction/translation system etc. can be ad-dressed in a Phase II grant. A final device developed under a Phase III grant would include a complete stand alone TOF-MS system, including sample introduction, vacuum generation, data acquisition, and laser ionization systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The market for MALDI TOF-MS equipment for proteomics research has been estimated to be $258M in 2004. Our MS technology can also be adapted to trap-based time-of-flight mass spectrometers with either an electro-spray or MALDI ion source. The total market for trap-based TOF-MS instruments was estimated to be $189M in 2004. The miniature, high-performance and relatively low-cost TOF-MS described in this proposal has tremendous commercial opportunities. The main applications for miniature TOF-MS is for the screening of infectious disease and biological agents. We also believe that the superior performance of our design will allow penetration into the general TOF-MS market.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:04-II S5.03-7795
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER:NNC05CA67C
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mars and Deep Space Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Highly Sensitive Photon Counting Detectors for Deep Space Optical Communications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Amplification Technologies, Inc.
1404 Coney Island Avenue
Brooklyn,NY 11230-4120

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alexander Krutov
krutov@amplificationtechnologies.com
1404 Coney Island Avenue
Brooklyn,NY 11230-4123

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project will focus on fabricating and optimizing a photodetector that utilizes the emerging technology of internal discrete amplification to create photon-counting sensitivity detectors with very high gain, ultra low noise, high quantum efficiency and GHz bandwidth for optical communications in the spectral range of 1.06 ?m to 1.6 ?m. Extensive modeling during Phase I of this project has permitted to optimize the design and develop manufacturing steps to produce such a photodetector. The detectors will have performance parameters significantly superior to those of conventional avalanche photodiodes and photomultiplier tubes to and should meet and exceed NASA stated mission goals of boosting data transfer rates by a factor of 10-100 relative to the current state of the art. The expected performance parameters include a GHz bandwidth (with a 10 GHz long term goal), gain of 10,000 to 100,000, excess noise factor less than 1.07, saturation levels greater than 50Mcounts/s (higher expected), and flexibility in the choice of active area size and shape, including the ability to create detector arrays. These new capabilities could lead to important advances in deep space and other optical communication applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed detector has the potential to become the detector of choice for such NASA applications as optical communication technologies for deep space to ground communication links, intersatellite links, Earth orbiting to ground, networking formation flying spacecraft, and several others. All of these applications currently lack an adequate detector that would fully meet application requirements. The new capabilities enabled by the detector could significantly expand the use of optical communication solutions. In addition, with some modifications the proposed detector could be utilized for LIDAR remote sensing at telecommunications wavelengths.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to deep space optical communications, the detectors could be modified for use in traditional fiber optical communications at 1.5 um. Because of better performance parameters, they could, for example, replace such current solutions as InGaAs avalanche photodiodes used in fiber optical telecommunications. This represents a very significant commercial market. They could also find use in commercial LIDAR applications.